WorldWideScience

Sample records for returned lunar samples

  1. Lower-Cost, Relocatable Lunar Polar Lander and Lunar Surface Sample Return Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, G. Michael; Garvin, James B.; Burt, I. Joseph; Karpati, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    Key science and exploration objectives of lunar robotic precursor missions can be achieved with the Lunar Explorer (LEx) low-cost, robotic surface mission concept described herein. Selected elements of the LEx concept can also be used to create a lunar surface sample return mission that we have called Boomerang

  2. Enabling Global Lunar Sample Return and Life-Detection Studies Using a Deep-Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Eigenbrode, J. A.; Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Trainer, M. E.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway could uniquely enable a lunar robotic sampling campaign that would provide incredible science return as well as feed forward to Mars and Europa by testing instrument sterility and ability to distinguish biogenic signals.

  3. Robotic traverse and sample return strategies for a lunar farside mission to the Schrodinger basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potts, N.J.; Gullikson, A.L.; Curran, N.M.; Dhaliwal, J.K.; Leader, M.K.; Rege, R.N.; Klaus, K.K.; Kring, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the highest priority objectives for lunar science and exploration (e.g.; NRC, 2007) require sample return. Studies of the best places to conduct that work have identified Schrödinger basin as a geologically rich area, able to address a significant number of these scientific concepts. In this

  4. The Benefits of Sample Return: Connecting Apollo Soils and Diviner Lunar Radiometer Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Donaldson-Hanna, K. L.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Pieters, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer, onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, has produced the first global, high resolution, thermal infrared observations of an airless body. The Moon, which is the most accessible member of this most abundant class of solar system objects, is also the only body for which we have extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study to reproduce an accurate simulated lunar environment, evaluate the most appropriate sample and measurement conditions, collect thermal infrared spectra of a representative suite of Apollo soils, and correlate them with Diviner observations of the lunar surface. We find that analyses of Diviner observations of individual sampling stations and SLE measurements of returned Apollo soils show good agreement, while comparisons to thermal infrared reflectance under terrestrial conditions do not agree well, which underscores the need for SLE measurements and validates the Diviner compositional dataset. Future work includes measurement of additional soils in SLE and cross comparisons with measurements in JPL Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL).

  5. A Multi-Decadal Sample Return Campaign Will Advance Lunar and Solar System Science and Exploration by 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    There have been 11 missions to the Moon this century, 10 of which have been orbital, from 5 different space agencies. China became the third country to successfully soft-land on the Moon in 2013, and the second to successfully remotely operate a rover on the lunar surface. We now have significant global datasets that, coupled with the 1990s Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, show that the sample collection is not representative of the lithologies present on the Moon. The M3 data from the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission have identified lithologies that are not present/under-represented in the sample collection. LRO datasets show that volcanism could be as young as 100 Ma and that significant felsic complexes exist within the lunar crust. A multi-decadal sample return campaign is the next logical step in advancing our understanding of lunar origin and evolution and Solar System processes.

  6. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium will be to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon. This Compendium will be organized rock by rock in the manor of a catalog, but will not be as comprehensive, nor as complete, as the various lunar sample catalogs that are available. Likewise, this Compendium will not duplicate the various excellent books and reviews on the subject of lunar samples (Cadogen 1981, Heiken et al. 1991, Papike et al. 1998, Warren 2003, Eugster 2003). However, it is thought that an online Compendium, such as this, will prove useful to scientists proposing to study individual lunar samples and should help provide backup information for lunar sample displays. This Compendium will allow easy access to the scientific literature by briefly summarizing the significant findings of each rock along with the documentation of where the detailed scientific data are to be found. In general, discussion and interpretation of the results is left to the formal reviews found in the scientific literature. An advantage of this Compendium will be that it can be updated, expanded and corrected as need be.

  7. Radioactivity in returned lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The H-3, Ar-37, and Ar-39 radioactivities were measured at several depths in the large documented lunar rocks 14321 and 15555. The comparison of the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in rocks 12002, 14321, and 15555 gives direct measures of the amount of Ar-37 produced by the 2 November 1969 and 24 January 1971 solar flares. The tritium contents in the documented rocks decreased with increasing depths. The solar flare intensity averaged over 30 years obtained from the tritium depth dependence was approximately the same as the flare intensity averaged over 1000 years obtained from the Ar-37 measurements. Radioactivities in two Apollo 15 soil samples, H-3 in several Surveyor 3 samples, and tritium and radon weepage were also measured.

  8. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  9. Lunar sample studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Lunar samples discussed and the nature of their analyses are: (1) an Apollo 15 breccia which is thoroughly analyzed as to the nature of the mature regolith from which it derived and the time and nature of the lithification process, (2) two Apollo 11 and one Apollo 12 basalts analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography, (3) eight Apollo 17 mare basalts, also analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography. The first seven are shown to be chemically similar although of two main textural groups; the eighth is seen to be distinct in both chemistry and mineralogy, (4) a troctolitic clast from a Fra Mauro breccia, analyzed and contrasted with other high-temperature lunar mineral assemblages. Two basaltic clasts from the same breccia are shown to have affinities with rock 14053, and (5) the uranium-thorium-lead systematics of three Apollo 16 samples are determined; serious terrestrial-lead contamination of the first two samples is attributed to bandsaw cutting in the lunar curatorial facility

  10. Strength and compressibility of returned lunar soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, W. D., III; Bromwell, L. G.; Martin, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Two oedometer and three direct shear tests have been performed in vacuum on a 200 g sample of lunar soil from Apollo 12 (12001, 119). The compressibility data have been used to calculate bulk density and shear wave velocity versus depth on the lunar surface. The shear wave velocity was found to increase approximately with the one-fourth power of the depth, and the results suggest that the Apollo 14 Active Seismic Experiment may not have detected the Fra Mauro formation at a depth of 8.5 m, but only naturally consolidated lunar soil. The shear data indicate that the strength of the lunar soil sample is about 65% that of a ground basalt simulant at the same void ratio.

  11. Sample Curation at a Lunar Outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Lofgren, Gary E.; Treiman, A. H.; Lindstrom, Marilyn L.

    2007-01-01

    The six Apollo surface missions returned 2,196 individual rock and soil samples, with a total mass of 381.6 kg. Samples were collected based on visual examination by the astronauts and consultation with geologists in the science back room in Houston. The samples were photographed during collection, packaged in uniquely-identified containers, and transported to the Lunar Module. All samples collected on the Moon were returned to Earth. NASA's upcoming return to the Moon will be different. Astronauts will have extended stays at an out-post and will collect more samples than they will return. They will need curation and analysis facilities on the Moon in order to carefully select samples for return to Earth.

  12. Communications Relay and Human-Assisted Sample Return from the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichan, T.; Hopkins, J. B.; Bierhaus, B.; Murrow, D. W.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway can enable or enhance exploration of the lunar surface through two capabilities: 1. communications relay, opening up access to the lunar farside, and 2. sample return, enhancing the ability to return large sample masses.

  13. Sustainable Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Christie; Hancock, Sean; Laub, Joshua; Perry, Christopher; Ash, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Mars sample return mission will be completed using natural Martian resources for the majority of its operations. The system uses the following technologies: In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP), a methane-oxygen propelled Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a carbon dioxide powered hopper, and a hydrogen fueled balloon system (large balloons and small weather balloons). The ISPP system will produce the hydrogen, methane, and oxygen using a Sabatier reactor. a water electrolysis cell, water extracted from the Martian surface, and carbon dioxide extracted from the Martian atmosphere. Indigenous hydrogen will fuel the balloon systems and locally-derived methane and oxygen will fuel the MAV for the return of a 50 kg sample to Earth. The ISPP system will have a production cycle of 800 days and the estimated overall mission length is 1355 days from Earth departure to return to low Earth orbit. Combining these advanced technologies will enable the proposed sample return mission to be executed with reduced initial launch mass and thus be more cost efficient. The successful completion of this mission will serve as the next step in the advancement of Mars exploration technology.

  14. Phobos Sample Return: Next Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Martynov, Maxim; Zakharov, Alexander; Korablev, Oleg; Ivanov, Alexey; Karabadzak, George

    possible scenario of the Boomerang mission includes the approach to Deimos prior to the landing of Phobos. The needed excess ΔV w.r.t. simple scenario (elliptical orbit à near-Phobos orbit) amounts to 0.67 km s-1 (1.6 vs 0.93 km s-1). The Boomerang mission basically repeats the Phobos-SR (2011) architecture, where the transfer-orbiting spacecraft lands on the Phobos surface and a small return vehicle launches the return capsule to Earth. We consider the Boomerang mission as an important step in Mars exploration and a direct precursor of Mars Sample Return. The following elements of the Boomerang mission might be directly employed, or serve as the prototypes for the Mars Sample return in future: Return vehicle, Earth descent module, Transfer-orbital spacecraft. We urge the development of this project for its high science value and recognize its elements as potential national contribution to an international Mars Sample Return project. Galimov E.M., Phobos sample return mission: scientific substantiation, Solar System Res., v.44, No.1, pp5-14, 2010. Chappaz L., H.J. Melosh, M. Vaguero, and K.C. Howell, Material transfer from the surface of Mars to Phobos and Deimos, 43rd Lunar and planetary Science Conference, paper 1422, 2012.

  15. Mars Sample Return Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C. D.; Vijendran, S.

    2018-04-01

    NASA and ESA are exploring potential concepts for a Sample Retrieval Lander and Earth Return Orbiter that could return samples planned to be collected and cached by the Mars 2020 rover mission. We provide an overview of the Mars Sample Return architecture.

  16. NASA Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworth, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program is designed for K-12 classroom educators who work in K-12 schools, museums, libraries, or planetariums. Educators have to be certified to borrow the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks by attending a NASA Certification Workshop provided by a NASA Authorized Sample Disk Certifier.

  17. Scientific return of a lunar elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Radley, C. F.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing the capabilities of robotic and human explorers. These missions use planetary scale tethers, strings many thousands of kilometers long stabilized either by rotation or by gravitational gradients. These systems promise major reduction in transport costs versus chemical rockets, in a rapid timeframe, for a modest investment. Science will thus benefit as well as commercial activities.

  18. Sample Return Robot

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Challenge requires demonstration of an autonomous robotic system to locate and collect a set of specific sample types from a large planetary analog area and...

  19. Comet coma sample return instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  20. Building on the Cornerstone: Destinations for Nearside Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Draper, D.; Stopar, J. D.; Petro, N. E.; Cohen, B. A.; Speyerer, E. J.; Gruener, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Discoveries from LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) have transformed our knowledge of the Moon, but LRO's instruments were originally designed to collect the measurements required to enable future lunar surface exploration. Compelling science questions and critical resources make the Moon a key destination for future human and robotic exploration. Lunar surface exploration, including rovers and other landed missions, must be part of a balanced planetary science and exploration portfolio. Among the highest planetary exploration priorities is the collection of new samples and their return to Earth for more comprehensive analysis than can be done in-situ. The Moon is the closest and most accessible location to address key science questions through targeted sample return. The Moon is the only other planet from which we have contextualized samples, yet critical issues need to be addressed: we lack important details of the Moon's early and recent geologic history, the full compositional and age ranges of its crust, and its bulk composition.

  1. Lunar lander and return propulsion system trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Moreland, Robert; Sanders, Gerald B.; Robertson, Edward A.; Amidei, David; Mulholland, John

    1993-01-01

    This trade study was initiated at NASA/JSC in May 1992 to develop and evaluate main propulsion system alternatives to the reference First Lunar Outpost (FLO) lander and return-stage transportation system concept. Thirteen alternative configurations were developed to explore the impacts of various combinations of return stage propellants, using either pressure or pump-fed propulsion systems and various staging options. Besides two-stage vehicle concepts, the merits of single-stage and stage-and-a-half options were also assessed in combination with high-performance liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants. Configurations using an integrated modular cryogenic engine were developed to assess potential improvements in packaging efficiency, mass performance, and system reliability compared to non-modular cryogenic designs. The selection process to evaluate the various designs was the analytic hierarchy process. The trade study showed that a pressure-fed MMH/N2O4 return stage and RL10-based lander stage is the best option for a 1999 launch. While results of this study are tailored to FLO needs, the design date, criteria, and selection methodology are applicable to the design of other crewed lunar landing and return vehicles.

  2. Connecting Returned Apollo Soils and Remote Sensing: Application to the Diviner Lunar Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; DonaldsonHanna, K. L.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, Carlton C.; Pieters, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer, onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, has produced the first global, high resolution, thermal infrared observations of an airless body. The Moon, which is the most accessible member of this most abundant class of solar system objects, is also the only body for which we have extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context, returned Apollo samples. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study to reproduce an accurate simulated lunar environment, evaluate the most appropriate sample and measurement conditions, collect thermal infrared spectra of a representative suite of Apollo soils, and correlate them with Diviner observations of the lunar surface. It has been established previously that thermal infrared spectra measured in simulated lunar environment (SLE) are significantly altered from spectra measured under terrestrial or martian conditions. The data presented here were collected at the University of Oxford Simulated Lunar Environment Chamber (SLEC). In SLEC, we simulate the lunar environment by: (1) pumping the chamber to vacuum pressures (less than 10-4 mbar) sufficient to simulate lunar heat transport processes within the sample, (2) cooling the chamber with liquid nitrogen to simulate radiation to the cold space environment, and (3) heating the samples with heaters and lamp to set-up thermal gradients similar to those experienced in the upper hundreds of microns of the lunar surface. We then conducted a comprehensive suite of experiments using different sample preparation and heating conditions on Apollo soils 15071 (maria) and 67701 (highland) and compared the results to Diviner noontime data to select the optimal experimental conditions. This study includes thermal infrared SLE measurements of 10084 (A11 - LM), 12001 (A12 - LM), 14259 (A14 - LM), 15071 (A15 - S1), 15601 (A15 - S9a), 61141 (A16 - S1), 66031 (A16 - S6), 67701 (A16 - S11), and 70181 (A17 - LM). The Diviner dataset includes all six Apollo sites

  3. The Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5 ppb to 651.1 ppb in 6M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: -aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D-and L-amino-n-butyric acid (-ABA), DL-amino-n-butyric acid, -amino-n-butyric acid, -alanine, and -amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic -ABA were present in some samples.

  4. Sample Return Mission to the South Pole Aitken Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Clark, B. C.; Gamber, T.; Lucey, P. G.; Ryder, G.; Taylor, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    The South Pole Aitken Basin (SPA) is the largest and oldest observed feature on the Moon. Compositional and topographic data from Galileo, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector have demonstrated that SPA represents a distinctive major lunar terrane, which has not been sampled either by sample return missions (Apollo, Luna) or by lunar meteorites. The floor of SPA is characterized by mafic compositions enriched in Fe, Ti, and Th in comparison to its surroundings. This composition may represent melt rocks from the SPA event, which would be mixtures of the preexisting crust and mantle rocks. However, the Fe content is higher than expected, and the large Apollo basin, within SPA, exposes deeper material with lower iron content. Some of the Fe enrichment may represent mare and cryptomare deposits. No model adequately accounts for all of the characteristics of the SPA and disagreements are fundamental. Is mantle material exposed or contained as fragments in melt rock and breccias? If impact melt is present, did the vast sheet differentiate? Was the initial mantle and crust compositionally different from other regions of the Moon? Was the impact event somehow peculiar, (e.g., a low-velocity impact)? The precise time of formation of the SPA is unknown, being limited only by the initial differentiation of the Moon and the age of the Imbrium event, believed to be 3.9 b.y. The questions raised by the SPA can be addressed only with detailed sample analysis. Analysis of the melt rocks, fragments in breccias, and basalts of SPA can address several highly significant problems for the Moon and the history of the solar system. The time of formation of SPA, based on analysis of melt rocks formed in the event. would put limits on the period of intense bombardment of the Moon, which has been inferred by some to include a "terminal cataclysm." If close to 3.9 Ga, the presumed age of the Imbrium Basin, the SPA date would confirm the lunar cataclysm. This episode, if it occurred, would have

  5. Understanding the origin and evolution of water in the Moon through lunar sample studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mahesh; Tartèse, Romain; Barnes, Jessica J

    2014-09-13

    A paradigm shift has recently occurred in our knowledge and understanding of water in the lunar interior. This has transpired principally through continued analysis of returned lunar samples using modern analytical instrumentation. While these recent studies have undoubtedly measured indigenous water in lunar samples they have also highlighted our current limitations and some future challenges that need to be overcome in order to fully understand the origin, distribution and evolution of water in the lunar interior. Another exciting recent development in the field of lunar science has been the unambiguous detection of water or water ice on the surface of the Moon through instruments flown on a number of orbiting spacecraft missions. Considered together, sample-based studies and those from orbit strongly suggest that the Moon is not an anhydrous planetary body, as previously believed. New observations and measurements support the possibility of a wet lunar interior and the presence of distinct reservoirs of water on the lunar surface. Furthermore, an approach combining measurements of water abundance in lunar samples and its hydrogen isotopic composition has proved to be of vital importance to fingerprint and elucidate processes and source(s) involved in giving rise to the lunar water inventory. A number of sources are likely to have contributed to the water inventory of the Moon ranging from primordial water to meteorite-derived water ice through to the water formed during the reaction of solar wind hydrogen with the lunar soil. Perhaps two of the most striking findings from these recent studies are the revelation that at least some portions of the lunar interior are as water-rich as some Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt source regions on Earth and that the water in the Earth and the Moon probably share a common origin. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Technicians work with Apollo 14 lunar sample material in Lunar Receiving Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Glove handlers work with freshly opened Apollo 14 lunar sample material in modularized cabinets in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The glove operator on the right starts to pour fine lunar material which he has just taken from a tote bag. This powdery sample was among the last to be revealed of the 90-odd pounds of material brought back to Earth by the Apollo 14 crewmen.

  7. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  8. The apollo 15 lunar samples: A preliminary description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, P.W.; Phinney, W.C.; Duke, M.B.; Silver, L.T.; Hubbard, N.J.; Heiken, G.H.; Butler, P.; McKay, D.S.; Warner, J.L.; Morrison, D.A.; Horz, F.; Head, J.; Lofgren, G.E.; Ridley, W.I.; Reid, A.M.; Wilshire, H.; Lindsay, J.F.; Carrier, W.D.; Jakes, P.; Bass, M.N.; Brett, P.R.; Jackson, E.D.; Rhodes, J.M.; Bansal, B.M.; Wainwright, J.E.; Parker, K.A.; Rodgers, K.V.; Keith, J.E.; Clark, R.S.; Schonfeld, E.; Bennett, L.; Robbins, Martha M.; Portenier, W.; Bogard, D.D.; Hart, W.R.; Hirsch, W.C.; Wilkin, R.B.; Gibson, E.K.; Moore, C.B.; Lewis, C.F.

    1972-01-01

    Samples returned from the Apollo 15 site consist of mare basalts and breccias with a variety of premare igneous rocks. The mare basalts are from at least two different lava flows. The bulk chemical compositions and textures of these rocks confirm the previous conclusion that the lunar maria consist of a series of extrusive volcanic rocks that are rich in iron and poor in sodium. The breccias contain abundant clasts of anorthositic fragments along with clasts of basaltic rocks much richer in plagioclase than the mare basalts. These two rock types also occur as common components in soil samples from this site. The rocks and soils from both the front and mare region exhibit a variety of shock characteristics that can best be ascribed to ray material from the craters Aristillus or Autolycus.

  9. Paleomagnetic Studies of Returned Samples from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B. P.; Beaty, D. W.; McSween, H. Y.; Carrier, B. L.; Czaja, A. D.; Goreva, Y. S.; Hausrath, E.; Herd, C. D. K.; Humayun, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; McLennan, S. M.; Pratt, L. M.; Sephton, M. A.; Steele, A.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic measurements of returned samples could transform our understanding of the martian dynamo and its connection to climatic and planetary thermal evolution and provide powerful constraints on the preservation state of sample biosignatures.

  10. Distribution and Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; McLain, H. L.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of organic compounds on the lunar surface has been a question of interest from the Apollo era to the present. Investigations of amino acids immediately after collection of lunar samples yielded inconclusive identifications, in part due to analytical limitations including insensitivity to certain compounds, an inability to separate enantiomers, and lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements. It was not possible to determine if the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the result of terrestrial contamination. Recently, we presented initial data from the analysis of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples and discussed those results in the context of four potential amino acid sources [5]. Here, we expand on our previous work, focusing on amino acid abundances and distributions in seven regolith samples and presenting the first compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios measured for amino acids in a lunar sample.

  11. Adsorption of Hg on lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Understanding the presence, migration mechanisms and trapping of indigneous gases and volatiles on the moon is the objective of this study. The rare gases Ar and Xe and highly volatile Hg 0 and Br 0 (and/or their compounds) have been determined to be present in the lunar regolith. Evidence for these elements in the moon was recently reviewed. Studies of the sorption behavior of Xe on lunar material have been carried out. We report here preliminary results of a study designed to rationalize the behavior of Hg in lunar material

  12. Sample Return Systems for Extreme Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I we were able to demonstrate that sample return missions utilizing high velocity penetrators (0.1- 1 km/s) could provide substantial new capabilities for...

  13. Mars Sample Return Architecture Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centuori, S.; Hermosín, P.; Martín, J.; De Zaiacomo, G.; Colin, S.; Godfrey, A.; Myles, J.; Johnson, H.; Sachdev, T.; Ahmed, R.

    2018-04-01

    Current paper presents the results of ESA funded activity "Mars Sample Return Architecture Assessment Study" carried-out by DEIMOS Space, Lockheed Martin UK Ampthill, and MDA Corporation, where more than 500 mission design options have been studied.

  14. Sample Return Systems for Extreme Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work seeks to design, develop and test a hard impact penetrator/sampler that can withstand the hard impact and enable the sample to be returned to...

  15. A Virtual Petrological Microscope for All Apollo 11 Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillnger, C. T.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Quick, K.; Scott, P.; Gibson, E. K.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    A means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicaing many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described.

  16. Integration of Apollo Lunar Sample Data into Google Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is a continuation of the Apollo 15 Google Moon Add-On project, which provides a scientific and educational tool for the study of the Moon and its geologic features. The main goal of this project is to provide a user-friendly interface for an interactive and educational outreach and learning tool for the Apollo missions. Specifically, this project?s focus is the dissemination of information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions by providing any additional information needed to enhance the Apollo mission data on Google Moon. Apollo missions 15 and 16 were chosen to be completed first due to the availability of digitized lunar sample photographs and the amount of media associated with these missions. The user will be able to learn about the lunar samples collected in these Apollo missions, as well as see videos, pictures, and 360 degree panoramas of the lunar surface depicting the lunar samples in their natural state, following collection and during processing at NASA. Once completed, these interactive data layers will be submitted for inclusion into the Apollo 15 and 16 missions on Google Moon.

  17. Advances in Astromaterials Curation: Supporting Future Sample Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. A.; Zeigler, R. A.; Fries, M. D..; Righter, K.; Allton, J. H.; Zolensky, M. E.; Calaway, M. J.; Bell, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Astromaterials, curated at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, are the most extensive, best-documented, and leastcontaminated extraterrestrial samples that are provided to the worldwide research community. These samples include lunar samples from the Apollo missions, meteorites collected over nearly 40 years of expeditions to Antarctica (providing samples of dozens of asteroid bodies, the Moon, and Mars), Genesis solar wind samples, cosmic dust collected by NASA's high altitude airplanes, Comet Wild 2 and interstellar dust samples from the Stardust mission, and asteroid samples from JAXA's Hayabusa mission. A full account of NASA's curation efforts for these collections is provided by Allen, et al [1]. On average, we annually allocate about 1500 individual samples from NASA's astromaterials collections to hundreds of researchers from around the world, including graduate students and post-doctoral scientists; our allocation rate has roughly doubled over the past 10 years. The curation protocols developed for the lunar samples returned from the Apollo missions remain relevant and are adapted to new and future missions. Several lessons from the Apollo missions, including the need for early involvement of curation scientists in mission planning [1], have been applied to all subsequent sample return campaigns. From the 2013 National Academy of Sciences report [2]: "Curation is the critical interface between sample return missions and laboratory research. Proper curation has maintained the scientific integrity and utility of the Apollo, Antarctic meteorite, and cosmic dust collections for decades. Each of these collections continues to yield important new science. In the past decade, new state-of-the-art curatorial facilities for the Genesis and Stardust missions were key to the scientific breakthroughs provided by these missions." The results speak for themselves: research on NASA's astromaterials result in hundreds of papers annually, yield fundamental

  18. LUNAR OUTGASSING, TRANSIENT PHENOMENA, AND THE RETURN TO THE MOON. II. PREDICTIONS AND TESTS FOR OUTGASSING/REGOLITH INTERACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Hummels, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    We follow Paper I with predictions of how gas leaking through the lunar surface could influence the regolith, as might be observed via optical transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) and related effects. We touch on several processes, but concentrate on low and high flow rate extremes, which are perhaps the most likely. We model explosive outgassing for the smallest gas overpressure at the regolith base that releases the regolith plug above it. This disturbance's timescale and affected area are consistent with observed TLPs; we also discuss other effects. For slow flow, escape through the regolith is prolonged by low diffusivity. Water, found recently in deep magma samples, is unique among candidate volatiles, capable of freezing between the regolith base and surface, especially near the lunar poles. For major outgassing sites, we consider the possible accumulation of water ice. Over geological time, ice accumulation can evolve downward through the regolith. Depending on gases additional to water, regolith diffusivity might be suppressed chemically, blocking seepage and forcing the ice zone to expand to larger areas, up to km 2 scales, again, particularly at high latitudes. We propose an empirical path forward, wherein current and forthcoming technologies provide controlled, sensitive probes of outgassing. The optical transient/outgassing connection, addressed via Earth-based remote sensing, suggests imaging and/or spectroscopy, but aspects of lunar outgassing might be more covert, as indicated above. TLPs betray some outgassing, but does outgassing necessarily produce TLPs? We also suggest more intrusive techniques from radar to in situ probes. Understanding lunar volatiles seems promising in terms of resource exploitation for human exploration of the Moon and beyond, and offers interesting scientific goals in its own right. Many of these approaches should be practiced in a pristine lunar atmosphere, before significant confusing signals likely to be produced upon humans

  19. Poor Man's Asteroid Sample Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, R. R.; Graham, L. D.

    2018-02-01

    A cislunar platform at a Near-Rectilinear [Halo] Orbit in the vicinity of the Moon could provide an opportunity for a small NEA sample return mission at relatively low cost. There are a couple potential small ( 1m) object target dynamical groups.

  20. An Efficient Approach for Mars Sample Return Using Emerging Commercial Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Andrew A; Stoker, Carol R

    2016-06-01

    Vehicle performs a Trans Earth Injection burn. Once near Earth, the Earth Return Vehicle performs Earth and lunar swing-bys and is placed into a Lunar Trailing Orbit - an Earth orbit, at lunar distance. A retrieval mission then performs a rendezvous with the Earth Return Vehicle, retrieves the sample container, and breaks the chain of contact with Mars by transferring the sample into a sterile and secure container. With the sample contained, the retrieving spacecraft makes a controlled Earth re-entry preventing any unintended release of Martian materials into the Earth's biosphere. The mission can start in any one of three Earth to Mars launch opportunities, beginning in 2022.

  1. Hydrogen and fluorine in the surfaces of lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leich, D.A.; Goldberg, R.H.; Burnett, D.S.; Tombrello, T.A.

    1974-04-01

    The resonant nuclear reaction F-19 (p, alpha gamma)O-16 was used to perform depth sensitive analyses for both fluorine and hydrogen in lunar samples. The resonance at 0.83 MeV (center-of-mass) in this reaction was applied to the measurement of the distribution of trapped solar protons in lunar samples to depths of about 1 / 2 micrometer. These results are interpreted in terms of terrestrial H 2 O surface contamination and a redistribution of the implanted solar H which has been influenced by heavy radiation damage in the surface region. Results are also presented for an experiment to test the penetration of H 2 O into laboratory glass samples which have been irradiated with O-16 to simulate the radiation damaged surfaces of lunar glasses. Fluorine determinations were performed in a 1 pm surface layer on lunar samples using the same F-19(alpha gamma)O-16 resonance. The data are discussed from the standpoint of lunar fluorine and Teflon contamination. (U.S.)

  2. The Apollo lunar samples collection analysis and results

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the specific mission planning for lunar sample collection, the equipment used, and the analysis and findings concerning the samples at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Texas. Anthony Young documents the collection of Apollo samples for the first time for readers of all backgrounds, and includes interviews with many of those involved in planning and analyzing the samples. NASA contracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to perform classroom and field training of the Apollo astronauts. NASA’s Geology Group within the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, helped to establish the goals of sample collection, as well as the design of sample collection tools, bags, and storage containers. In this book, detailed descriptions are given on the design of the lunar sampling tools, the Modular Experiment Transporter used on Apollo 14, and the specific areas of the Lunar Rover vehicle used for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, which carried the sampling tools, bags, and other related equipment ...

  3. The Javanese Lunar Calendar’s Effect on Indonesian Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiyanto, Robiyanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is very possible for an investor to take a decision based on superstitions and common beliefs. Actually, Indonesia has a specific calendar system called the Javanese lunar calendar. The Javanese calendar contains several special days because of their sacred characteristics such as “Kamis Wage” (Thursday Wage and “Jum’at Kliwon” (Friday Kliwon. The day of Friday Kliwon is often considered to be the most frightening which is similar to Friday the Thirteenth in Western culture. This study tried to scrutinize the impact of those sacred days on Indonesian stock returns. By applying GARCH-M, the finding shows that the Javanese lunar calendar does not have any impact on the Indonesian stock returns, but does affect the investors’ risk aversion level. This study has proven that, in terms of risk aversion, investors’ behavior in Indonesia is influenced by superstition.

  4. Mars Sample Return Landed with Red Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Lemke, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    A Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission is the highest priority science mission for the next decade as recommended by the recent Decadal Survey of Planetary Science. However, an affordable program to carry this out has not been defined. This paper describes a study that examined use of emerging commercial capabilities to land the sample return elements, with the goal of reducing mission cost. A team at NASA Ames examined the feasibility of the following scenario for MSR: A Falcon Heavy launcher injects a SpaceX Dragon crew capsule and trunk onto a Trans Mars Injection trajectory. The capsule is modified to carry all the hardware needed to return samples collected on Mars including a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), an Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) and Sample Collection and Storage hardware. The Dragon descends to land on the surface of Mars using SuperSonic Retro Propulsion (SSRP) as described by Braun and Manning [IEEEAC paper 0076, 2005]. Samples are acquired and deliverd to the MAV by a prelanded asset, possibly the proposed 2020 rover. After samples are obtained and stored in the ERV, the MAV launches the sample-containing ERV from the surface of Mars. We examined cases where the ERV is delivered to either low Mars orbit (LMO), C3 = 0 (Mars escape), or an intermediate energy state. The ERV then provides the rest of the energy (delta V) required to perform trans-Earth injection (TEI), cruise, and insertion into a Moon-trailing Earth Orbit (MTEO). A later mission, possibly a crewed Dragon launched by a Falcon Heavy (not part of the current study) retrieves the sample container, packages the sample, and performs a controlled Earth re-entry to prevent Mars materials from accidentally contaminating Earth. The key analysis methods used in the study employed a set of parametric mass estimating relationships (MERs) and standard aerospace analysis software codes modified for the MAV class of launch vehicle to determine the range of performance parameters that produced converged

  5. Mars Sample Return Using Solar Sail Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Macdonald, Malcolm; Mcinnes, Colin; Percy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Many Mars Sample Return (MSR) architecture studies have been conducted over the years. A key element of them is the Earth Return Stage (ERS) whose objective is to obtain the sample from the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and return it safely to the surface of the Earth. ERS designs predominantly use chemical propulsion [1], incurring a significant launch mass penalty due to the low specific impulse of such systems coupled with the launch mass sensitivity to returned mass. It is proposed to use solar sail propulsion for the ERS, providing a high (effective) specific impulse propulsion system in the final stage of the multi-stage system. By doing so to the launch mass of the orbiter mission can be significantly reduced and hence potentially decreasing mission cost. Further, solar sailing offers a unique set of non-Keplerian low thrust trajectories that may enable modifications to the current approach to designing the Earth Entry Vehicle by potentially reducing the Earth arrival velocity. This modification will further decrease the mass of the orbiter system. Solar sail propulsion uses sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like surface made of a lightweight, reflective material. The continuous photonic pressure provides propellantless thrust to conduct orbital maneuvering and plane changes more efficiently than conventional chemical propulsion. Because the Sun supplies the necessary propulsive energy, solar sails require no onboard propellant, thus reducing system mass. This technology is currently at TRL 7/8 as demonstrated by the 2010 flight of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA, IKAROS mission. [2

  6. Mars Sample Return: Do Australians trust NASA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, S.; Tomkins, C. S.; Weinstein, P.

    2008-09-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) represents an important scientific goal in space exploration. Any sample return mission will be extremely challenging from a scientific, economic and technical standpoint. But equally testing, will be communicating with a public that may have a very different perception of the mission. A MSR mission will generate international publicity and it is vital that NASA acknowledge the nature and extent of public concern about the mission risks and, perhaps equally importantly, the public’s confidence in NASA’s ability to prepare for and manage these risks. This study investigated the level of trust in NASA in an Australian population sample, and whether this trust was dependent on demographic variables. Participants completed an online survey that explored their attitudes towards NASA and a MSR mission. The results suggested that people believe NASA will complete the mission successfully but have doubts as to whether NASA will be honest when communicating with the public. The most significant finding to emerge from this study was that confidence in NASA was significantly (p communication.

  7. A spinner magnetometer for large Apollo lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Quesnel, Y.; Lepaulard, C.; Lima, E. A.; Manfredi, M.; Rochette, P.

    2017-10-01

    We developed a spinner magnetometer to measure the natural remanent magnetization of large Apollo lunar rocks in the storage vault of the Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility (LSLF) of NASA. The magnetometer mainly consists of a commercially available three-axial fluxgate sensor and a hand-rotating sample table with an optical encoder recording the rotation angles. The distance between the sample and the sensor is adjustable according to the sample size and magnetization intensity. The sensor and the sample are placed in a two-layer mu-metal shield to measure the sample natural remanent magnetization. The magnetic signals are acquired together with the rotation angle to obtain stacking of the measured signals over multiple revolutions. The developed magnetometer has a sensitivity of 5 × 10-7 Am2 at the standard sensor-to-sample distance of 15 cm. This sensitivity is sufficient to measure the natural remanent magnetization of almost all the lunar basalt and breccia samples with mass above 10 g in the LSLF vault.

  8. A spinner magnetometer for large Apollo lunar samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, M; Gattacceca, J; Quesnel, Y; Lepaulard, C; Lima, E A; Manfredi, M; Rochette, P

    2017-10-01

    We developed a spinner magnetometer to measure the natural remanent magnetization of large Apollo lunar rocks in the storage vault of the Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility (LSLF) of NASA. The magnetometer mainly consists of a commercially available three-axial fluxgate sensor and a hand-rotating sample table with an optical encoder recording the rotation angles. The distance between the sample and the sensor is adjustable according to the sample size and magnetization intensity. The sensor and the sample are placed in a two-layer mu-metal shield to measure the sample natural remanent magnetization. The magnetic signals are acquired together with the rotation angle to obtain stacking of the measured signals over multiple revolutions. The developed magnetometer has a sensitivity of 5 × 10 -7 Am 2 at the standard sensor-to-sample distance of 15 cm. This sensitivity is sufficient to measure the natural remanent magnetization of almost all the lunar basalt and breccia samples with mass above 10 g in the LSLF vault.

  9. PlanetVac: Sample Return with a Puff of Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Mueller, R.; Betts, B. H.

    2014-12-01

    PlanetVac is a regolith sample acquisition mission concept that uses compressed gas to blow material from the surface up a pneumatic tube and directly into a sample return container. The PlanetVac sampling device is built into the lander legs to eliminate cost and complexity associated with robotic arms and scoops. The pneumatic system can effectively capture fine and coarse regolith, including small pebbles. It is well suited for landed missions to Mars, asteroids, or the Moon. Because of the low pressures on all those bodies, the technique is extremely efficient. If losses are kept to minimum, 1 gram of compressed gas could efficiently lift 6000 grams of soil. To demonstrate this approach, the PlanetVac lander with four legs and two sampling tubes has been designed, integrated, and tested. Vacuum chamber testing was performed using two well-known planetary regolith simulants: Mars Mojave Simulant (MMS) and lunar regolith simulant JSC-1A. One of the two sampling systems was connected to a mockup of an earth return rocket while the second sampling system was connected to a lander deck mounted instrument (clear box for easy viewing). The tests included a drop from a height of approximately 50 cm onto the bed of regolith, deployment of sampling tubes into the regolith, pneumatic acquisition of sample into an instrument (sample container) and the rocket, and the launch of the rocket. The demonstration has been successful and can be viewed here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DjJXvtQk6no. In most of the tests, 20 grams or more of sample was delivered to the 'instrument' and approximately 5 grams of regolith was delivered into a sampling chamber within the rocket. The gas lifting efficiency was calculated to be approximately 1000:1; that is 1 gram of gas lofted 1000 grams of regolith. Efficiencies in lower gravity environments are expected to be much higher. This successful, simple and lightweight sample capture demonstration paves the way to using such sampling system

  10. Lunar cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  11. Precautionary Principle and Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Jacques

    Many space missions have today as an aim the exploration and the knowledge of the planet Mars; consequently, the return of Martian samples seems one of the next possible stages, at the horizon of about fifteen years. Devoted in the search of traces of life, passed or presents, such a mission presents a true stake not only from the scientific point of view but also from the ethical. Right now, the COSPAR specified the precautions to be taken to avoid or, at the very least, to limit the risk of contamination of the terrestrial biosphere by pathogenic the hitherto unknown ones. Are these recommendations sufficient? Do they concern only the scientific prudence or take truly counts of the good of humanity and the life on Earth? In the final analysis, is the incurred risk, even weak, to endanger this life worth the sorrow of it? Hitherto confined with the scientific circles of astronomy and astrobiology, this questioning could move the public opinion and this one would undoubtedly call some with the principle of precaution. In what this recourse would be relevant? The precaution aims indeed the hypothetical risks, not yet confirmed scientifically, but of which the possibility can be identified starting from empirical and scientific knowledge; such is well the case. But is it for as much possible to apply this principle to the case of the Martian samples, insofar as the objective of such a mission remains for the strictly scientific moment? Is it possible to manage the risks in the same manner when it is a question of appropriation and exploitation of the natural resources and energy (GMO, nuclear energy, etc.) and when it acts, in the case of Mars, that only search of the knowledge? How to manage the fundamental difference between the risks voluntarily taken and arbitrarily imposed, clarified and keep silent? The case of the return of the samples leads to the borders of the contemporary interrogations on the stakes and the benefits of science, on the share of risk

  12. MoonDB — A Data System for Analytical Data of Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, K.; Ji, P.; Cai, M.; Evans, C.; Zeigler, R.

    2018-04-01

    MoonDB is a data system that makes analytical data from the Apollo lunar sample collection and lunar meteorites accessible by synthesizing published and unpublished datasets in a relational database with an online search interface.

  13. Characterization of Volatiles Loss from Soil Samples at Lunar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Smith, Jim; Roush, Ted; Colaprete, Anthony; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Wang, Alex; Paz, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Resource Prospector Integrated Thermal Vacuum Test Program A series of ground based dirty thermal vacuum tests are being conducted to better understand the subsurface sampling operations for RP Volatiles loss during sampling operations Hardware performance Sample removal and transfer Concept of operationsInstrumentation5 test campaigns over 5 years have been conducted with RP hardware with advancing hardware designs and additional RP subsystems Volatiles sampling 4 years Using flight-forward regolith sampling hardware, empirically determine volatile retention at lunar-relevant conditions Use data to improve theoretical predictions Determine driving variables for retention Bound water loss potential to define measurement uncertainties. The main goal of this talk is to introduce you to our approach to characterizing volatiles loss for RP. Introduce the facility and its capabilities Overview of the RP hardware used in integrated testing (most recent iteration) Summarize the test variables used thus farReview a sample of the results.

  14. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  15. Apollo Lunar Sample Integration into Google Moon: A New Approach to Digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is part of a larger, LASER-funded 4-year lunar rock photo restoration project by NASA s Acquisition and Curation Office [1]. The objective of this project is to enhance the Apollo mission data already available on Google Moon with information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions. To this end, we have combined rock sample data from various sources, including Curation databases, mission documentation and lunar sample catalogs, with newly available digital photography of rock samples to create a user-friendly, interactive tool for learning about the Apollo Moon samples

  16. Advanced Curation Protocols for Mars Returned Sample Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M.; Mickelson, E.; Lindstrom, D.; Allton, J.

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center has over 30 years experience handling precious samples which include Lunar rocks and Antarctic meteorites. However, we recognize that future curation of samples from such missions as Genesis, Stardust, and Mars S mple Return, will require a high degree of biosafety combined witha extremely low levels of inorganic, organic, and biological contamination. To satisfy these requirements, research in the JSC Advanced Curation Lab is currently focused toward two major areas: preliminary examination techniques and cleaning and verification techniques . Preliminary Examination Techniques : In order to minimize the number of paths for contamination we are exploring the synergy between human &robotic sample handling in a controlled environment to help determine the limits of clean curation. Within the Advanced Curation Laboratory is a prototype, next-generation glovebox, which contains a robotic micromanipulator. The remotely operated manipulator has six degrees-of- freedom and can be programmed to perform repetitive sample handling tasks. Protocols are being tested and developed to perform curation tasks such as rock splitting, weighing, imaging, and storing. Techniques for sample transfer enabling more detailed remote examination without compromising the integrity of sample science are also being developed . The glovebox is equipped with a rapid transfer port through which samples can be passed without exposure. The transfer is accomplished by using a unique seal and engagement system which allows passage between containers while maintaining a first seal to the outside environment and a second seal to prevent the outside of the container cover and port door from becoming contaminated by the material being transferred. Cleaning and Verification Techniques: As part of the contamination control effort, innovative cleaning techniques are being identified and evaluated in conjunction with sensitive cleanliness verification methods. Towards this

  17. Gardening process of lunar surface layer inferred from the galactic cosmic-ray exposure ages of lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriyama, Jun; Honda, Masatake.

    1979-01-01

    From the cosmic-ray exposure age data, (time scale 10 7 - 10 8 years), of the lunar surface materials, we discuss the gardening process of the lunar surface layer caused by the meteoroid impact cratering. At steady state, it is calculated that, in the region within 10 - 50 m of the surface, a mixing rate of 10 -4 to 10 -5 mm/yr is necessary to match the exposure ages. Observed exposure ages of the lunar samples could be explained by the gardening effect calculated using a crater formation rate which is slightly modified from the current crater population data. (author)

  18. Low Cost Mars Sample Return Utilizing Dragon Lander Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    We studied a Mars sample return (MSR) mission that lands a SpaceX Dragon Capsule on Mars carrying sample collection hardware (an arm, drill, or small rover) and a spacecraft stack consisting of a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) that collectively carry the sample container from Mars back to Earth orbit.

  19. Technology Development and Advanced Planning for Curation of Returned Mars Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, David J.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) curates extraterrestrial samples, providing the international science community with lunar rock and soil returned by the Apollo astronauts, meteorites collected in Antarctica, cosmic dust collected in the stratosphere, and hardware exposed to the space environment. Curation comprises initial characterization of new samples, preparation and allocation of samples for research, and clean, secure long-term storage. The foundations of this effort are the specialized cleanrooms (class 10 to 10,000) for each of the four types of materials, the supporting facilities, and the people, many of whom have been doing detailed work in clean environments for decades. JSC is also preparing to curate the next generation of extraterrestrial samples. These include samples collected from the solar wind, a comet, and an asteroid. Early planning and R\\&D are underway to support post-mission sample handling and curation of samples returned from Mars. One of the strong scientific reasons for returning samples from Mars is to search for evidence of current or past life in the samples. Because of the remote possibility that the samples may contain life forms that are hazardous to the terrestrial biosphere, the National Research Council has recommended that all samples returned from Mars be kept under strict biological containment until tests show that they can safely be released to other laboratories. It is possible that Mars samples may contain only scarce or subtle traces of life or prebiotic chemistry that could readily be overwhelmed by terrestrial contamination . Thus, the facilities used to contain, process, and analyze samples from Mars must have a combination of high-level biocontainment and organic / inorganic chemical cleanliness that is unprecedented. JSC has been conducting feasibility studies and developing designs for a sample receiving facility that would offer biocontainment at least the equivalent of current maximum containment BSL-4 (Bio

  20. Extending the Reach of IGSN Beyond Earth: Implementing IGSN Registration to Link NASA's Apollo Lunar Samples and their Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, N. S.

    2016-12-01

    The rock and soil samples returned from the Apollo missions from 1969-72 have supported 46 years of research leading to advances in our understanding of the formation and evolution of the inner Solar System. NASA has been engaged in several initiatives that aim to restore, digitize, and make available to the public existing published and unpublished research data for the Apollo samples. One of these initiatives is a collaboration with IEDA (Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance) to develop MoonDB, a lunar geochemical database modeled after PetDB. In support of this initiative, NASA has adopted the use of IGSN (International Geo Sample Number) to generate persistent, unique identifiers for lunar samples that scientists can use when publishing research data. To facilitate the IGSN registration of the original 2,200 samples and over 120,000 subdivided samples, NASA has developed an application that retrieves sample metadata from the Lunar Curation Database and uses the SESAR API to automate the generation of IGSNs and registration of samples into SESAR (System for Earth Sample Registration). This presentation will describe the work done by NASA to map existing sample metadata to the IGSN metadata and integrate the IGSN registration process into the sample curation workflow, the lessons learned from this effort, and how this work can be extended in the future to help deal with the registration of large numbers of samples.

  1. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program — Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-03-01

    NASA’s Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program has Lucite disks containing Apollo lunar samples and meteorite samples that are available for trained educators to borrow for use in classrooms, museums, science center, and libraries.

  2. The Importance of Meteorite Collections to Sample Return Missions: Past, Present, and Future Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzenbach, L. C.; McCoy, T. J.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Abell, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    While much of the scientific community s current attention is drawn to sample return missions, it is the existing meteorite and cosmic dust collections that both provide the paradigms to be tested by these missions and the context for interpreting the results. Recent sample returns from the Stardust and Hayabusa missions provided us with new materials and insights about our Solar System history and processes. As an example, Stardust sampled CAIs among the population of cometary grains, requiring extensive and unexpected radial mixing in the early solar nebula. This finding would not have been possible, however, without extensive studies of meteoritic CAIs that established their high-temperature, inner Solar System formation. Samples returned by Stardust also revealed the first evidence of a cometary amino acid, a discovery that would not have been possible with current in situ flight instrument technology. The Hayabusa mission provided the final evidence linking ordinary chondrites and S asteroids, a hypothesis that developed from centuries of collection and laboratory and ground-based telescopic studies. In addition to these scientific findings, studies of existing meteorite collections have defined and refined the analytical techniques essential to studying returned samples. As an example, the fortuitous fall of the Allende CV3 and Murchison CM2 chondrites within months before the return of Apollo samples allowed testing of new state-of-the-art analytical facilities. The results of those studies not only prepared us to better study lunar materials, but unanticipated discoveries changed many of our concepts about the earliest history and processes of the solar nebula. This synergy between existing collections and future space exploration is certainly not limited to sample return missions. Laboratory studies confirmed the existence of meteorites from Mars and raised the provocative possibility of preservation of ancient microbial life. The laboratory studies in

  3. Cleaning and Cleanliness Verification Techniques for Mars Returned Sample Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, E. T.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Allton, J. H.; Hittle, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Precision cleaning and cleanliness verification techniques are examined as a subset of a comprehensive contamination control strategy for a Mars sample return mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Potential High Priority Subaerial Environments for Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    iMOST Team; Bishop, J. L.; Horgan, B.; Benning, L. G.; Carrier, B. L.; Hausrath, E. M.; Altieri, F.; Amelin, Y.; Ammannito, E.; Anand, M.; Beaty, D. W.; Borg, L. E.; Boucher, D.; Brucato, J. R.; Busemann, H.; Campbell, K. A.; Czaja, A. D.; Debaille, V.; Des Marais, D. J.; Dixon, M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Farmer, J. D.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Fogarty, J.; Glavin, D. P.; Goreva, Y. S.; Grady, M. M.; Hallis, L. J.; Harrington, A. D.; Herd, C. D. K.; Humayun, M.; Kleine, T.; Kleinhenz, J.; Mangold, N.; Mackelprang, R.; Mayhew, L. E.; McCubbin, F. M.; Mccoy, J. T.; McLennan, S. M.; McSween, H. Y.; Moser, D. E.; Moynier, F.; Mustard, J. F.; Niles, P. B.; Ori, G. G.; Raulin, F.; Rettberg, P.; Rucker, M. A.; Schmitz, N.; Sefton-Nash, E.; Sephton, M. A.; Shaheen, R.; Shuster, D. L.; Siljestrom, S.; Smith, C. L.; Spry, J. A.; Steele, A.; Swindle, T. D.; ten Kate, I. L.; Tosca, N. J.; Usui, T.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Wadhwa, M.; Weiss, B. P.; Werner, S. C.; Westall, F.; Wheeler, R. M.; Zipfel, J.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2018-04-01

    The highest priority subaerial environments for Mars Sample Return include subaerial weathering (paleosols, periglacial/glacial, and rock coatings/rinds), wetlands (mineral precipitates, redox environments, and salt ponds), or cold spring settings.

  5. Mars Sample Return: Mars Ascent Vehicle Mission and Technology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Huynh, Loc C.; Hawke, Veronica M.; Jiang, Xun J.

    2013-01-01

    A Mars Sample Return mission is the highest priority science mission for the next decade recommended by the recent Decadal Survey of Planetary Science, the key community input process that guides NASAs science missions. A feasibility study was conducted of a potentially simple and low cost approach to Mars Sample Return mission enabled by the use of developing commercial capabilities. Previous studies of MSR have shown that landing an all up sample return mission with a high mass capacity lander is a cost effective approach. The approach proposed is the use of an emerging commercially available capsule to land the launch vehicle system that would return samples to Earth. This paper describes the mission and technology requirements impact on the launch vehicle system design, referred to as the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV).

  6. OHB's Exploration Capabilities Overview Relevant to Mars Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, A.; Gerth, I.; Rohrbeck, M.; Scheper, M.

    2018-04-01

    The presentation will give an overview to all the OHB past and current projects that are relevant to the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission, including some valuable lessons learned applicable to the upcoming MSR mission.

  7. Research-Grade 3D Virtual Astromaterials Samples: Novel Visualization of NASA's Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorite Samples to Benefit Curation, Research, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K. R.; Zeigler, R. A.; Righter, K.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's vast and growing collections of astromaterials are both scientifically and culturally significant, requiring unique preservation strategies that need to be recurrently updated to contemporary technological capabilities and increasing accessibility demands. New technologies have made it possible to advance documentation and visualization practices that can enhance conservation and curation protocols for NASA's Astromaterials Collections. Our interdisciplinary team has developed a method to create 3D Virtual Astromaterials Samples (VAS) of the existing collections of Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorites. Research-grade 3D VAS will virtually put these samples in the hands of researchers and educators worldwide, increasing accessibility and visibility of these significant collections. With new sample return missions on the horizon, it is of primary importance to develop advanced curation standards for documentation and visualization methodologies.

  8. Spatial Mapping of Organic Carbon in Returned Samples from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljeström, S.; Fornaro, T.; Greenwalt, D.; Steele, A.

    2018-04-01

    To map organic material spatially to minerals present in the sample will be essential for the understanding of the origin of any organics in returned samples from Mars. It will be shown how ToF-SIMS may be used to map organics in samples from Mars.

  9. Spinel-rich lithologies in the lunar highland crust: Linking lunar samples, crystallization experiments and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J.; Treiman, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    The discovery of areas rich in (Mg,Fe)-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of lunar impact basins (by the M3 mapping spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1) has revived the old puzzle of the origin of lunar spinel. (Mg,Fe)-Al spinel is rare but widespread in lunar highlands rocks, and thus might be an important component of the lunar crust [1-3]. However, the origin of this spinel is not clear. Lunar (Mg,Fe)-Al spinel could have formed (1) during 'normal' basalt petrogenesis at high pressure; (2) during low-pressure crystallization of melts rich in olivine and plagioclase components, e.g. impact-melted lunar troctolite; or (3) formed at low pressure during assimilation of anorthosite into picritic magma; thus, lunar spinel-rich areas represent old (pre-impact) intrusions of magma. In the absence of spinel-rich samples from the Moon, however, these ideas have been highly speculative. Here we describe a rock fragment from lunar meteorite ALHA 81005 that we recently reported [4] that not only contains spinel, but is the first spinel-rich lunar sample described. This fragment contains ~30% (Mg,Fe)Al spinel and is so fine grained that it reasonably could represent a larger rock body. However, the fragment is so rich in spinel that it could not have formed by melting a peridotitic mantle or a basaltic lunar crust. The clast's small grain size and its apparent disequilibrium between spinel and pyroxene suggest fairly rapid crystallization at low pressure. It could have formed as a spinel cumulate from an impact melt of troctolitic composition; or from a picritic magma that assimilated crustal anorthosite on its margins. The latter mechanism is preferred because it explains the petrographic and chemical features of our clast, and is consistent with the regional setting of the Moscoviense spinel deposit [4]. To better understand the origin and formation history(s) of spinel-rich rocks, we also performed liquidus/crystallization experiments at low-pressure as analogues for impact

  10. Virtual Microscope Views of the Apollo 11 and 12 Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Pillinger, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Apollo virtual microscope is a means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicating many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described. Images from the Apollo 11 and 12 missions may be viewed at: www.virtualmicroscope.org/content/apollo. Introduction: During the six NASA missions to the Moon from 1969-72 a total of 382 kilograms of rocks and soils, often referred to as "the legacy of Apollo", were collected and returned to Earth. A unique collection of polished thin sections (PTSs) was made from over 400 rocks by the Lunar Sample Curatorial Facility at the Johnson Spacecraft Center (JSC), Houston. These materials have been available for loan to approved PIs but of course they can't be simultaneously investigated by several researchers unless they are co-located or the sample is passed back and forward between them by mail/hand carrying which is inefficient and very risky for irreplaceable material. When The Open University (OU), the world's largest Distance Learning Higher Education Establishment found itself facing a comparable problem (how to supply thousands of undergraduate students with an interactive petrological microscope and a personal set of thin sections), it decided to develop a software tool called the Virtual Microscope (VM). As a result it is now able to make the unique and precious collection of Apollo specimens universally available as a resource for concurrent study by anybody in the world's Earth and Planetary Sciences community. Herein, we describe the first steps of a collaborative project between OU and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Curatorial Facility to record a PTS for every lunar rock, beginning with those collected by the Apollo 11 and 12 missions. Method: Production of a virtual microscope dedicated to a particular theme divides into four main parts - photography, image processing, building and assembly of virtual microscope

  11. Triple F - A Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Michael; Keller, Horst Uwe; Kuhrt, Ekkehard; A'Hearn, Michael; Altwegg, Kathrin; Betrand, Regis; Busemann, Henner; Capria, Maria Teresa; Colangeli, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    The Triple F (Fresh From the Fridge) mission, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, has been proposed to ESA s Cosmic Vision program. A sample return from a comet enables us to reach the ultimate goal of cometary research. Since comets are the least processed bodies in the solar system, the proposal goes far beyond cometary science topics (like the explanation of cometary activity) and delivers invaluable information about the formation of the solar system and the interstellar molecular cloud from which it formed. The proposed mission would extract three samples of the upper 50 cm from three locations on a cometary nucleus and return them cooled to Earth for analysis in the laboratory. The simple mission concept with a touch-and-go sampling by a single spacecraft was proposed as an M-class mission in collaboration with the Russian space agency ROSCOSMOS.

  12. 78 FR 49296 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-093] Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample... Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge. SUMMARY: This notice is issued in accordance with... compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a program of prize competitions to stimulate innovation in...

  13. Planetary protection considerations for sample-return missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, J.

    The analysis on Earth of materials returned from other solar system bodies, and beyond, is likely one of the most effective ways for us to learn about the origins, history, and present state of the universe outside of our home planet. In the past, the Apollo missions were able to return large quantities of material from the Moon, while missions currently flying (Genesis and Stardust) intend to return much smaller quantities of material. Planned and conceptualized future missions (cf., MUSES-C) intend to return a wide variety of samples such as those from a near-Earth asteroid, the surface and atmosphere of Mars , and perhaps once more from the Earth's Moon. In some cases, the bodies targeted for sample return missions may have the capability of harboring indigenous life, while in other cases there is scant possibility of that. Considerations in determining the potential for extraterrestrial contamination from sample return missions have been studied, and include such factors as the availability of liquid water in or on the target body, the availability of m tabolicallye useful energy sources, the likelihood that organic matter was available, and the overall temperature and radiation history of the sampled areas. Also of note is the potential that the natural influx to Earth of that materials in question (e.g., meteorites, etc.) might overwhelm the ability of a targeted sample-return mission to contribute something novel to the Earth's environment. Missions thought to pose a risk of extraterrestrial biological contamination are subject to a containment provision that may be very difficult to implement on a single, moderate-cost mission, but such steps are necessary to protect both our own planet and the health of solar-system exploration missions and the science they can do.

  14. Catching Stardust and Bringing it Home: The Astronomical Importance of Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, D.

    2002-12-01

    The return of lunar samples by the Apollo program provided the first opportunity to perform detailed laboratory studies of ancient solid materials from a known astronomical body. The highly detailed study of the samples, using the best available laboratory instruments and techniques, revolutionized our understanding of the Moon and provided fundamental insight into the remarkable and violent processes that occur early in the history of moons and terrestrial planets. This type of astronomical paleontology is only possible with samples and yet the last US sample return was made by Apollo 17- over thirty years ago! The NASA Stardust mission, began a new era of sample missions with its 1999 launch to retrieve samples from the short period comet Wild 2. Genesis (a solar wind collector) was launched in 2001, the Japanese MUSES-C asteroid sample return mission will launch in 2003 and Mars sample return missions are under study. All of these missions will use sophisticated ground-based instrumentation to provide types of information that cannot be obtained by astronomical and spacecraft remote sensing methods. In the case of Stardust, the goal is to determine the fundamental nature of the initial solid building blocks of solar systems at atomic-scale spatial resolution. The samples returned by the mission will be samples from the Kuiper Belt region and they are probably composed of submicron silicate and organic materials of both presolar and nebular origin. Unlocking the detailed records contained in the elemental, chemical, isotopic and mineralogical composition of these tiny components can only be appropriately explored with full power, precision and flexibility of laboratory instrumentation. Laboratory instrumentation has the advantage that is state-of-the-art and is not limited by serious considerations of power, mass, cost or even reliability. The comparison of the comet sample, accumulated beyond Neptune, with asteroidal meteorites that accumulated just beyond the

  15. Virtual Microscope Views of the Apollo 11, 12, and 15 Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Pillinger, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Apollo virtual microscope is a means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections. It uses software that duplicates many of the functions of a petrological microscope.

  16. Mars Sample Return - Launch and Detection Strategies for Orbital Rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Mattingly, Richard L.; Riedel, Joseph E.; Sturm, Erick J.

    2011-01-01

    This study sets forth conceptual mission design strategies for the ascent and rendezvous phase of the proposed NASA/ESA joint Mars Sample Return Campaign. The current notional mission architecture calls for the launch of an acquisition/cache rover in 2018, an orbiter with an Earth return vehicle in 2022, and a fetch rover and ascent vehicle in 2024. Strategies are presented to launch the sample into a coplanar orbit with the Orbiter which facilitate robust optical detection, orbit determination, and rendezvous. Repeating ground track orbits exist at 457 and 572 km which provide multiple launch opportunities with similar geometries for detection and rendezvous.

  17. Mars Sample Return: Launch and Detection Strategies for Orbital Rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Mattingly, Richard L.; Riedel, Joseph E.; Sturm, Erick J.

    2011-01-01

    This study sets forth conceptual mission design strategies for the ascent and rendezvous phase of the proposed NASA/ESA joint Mars Sample Return Campaign. The current notional mission architecture calls for the launch of an acquisition/ caching rover in 2018, an Earth return orbiter in 2022, and a fetch rover with ascent vehicle in 2024. Strategies are presented to launch the sample into a nearly coplanar orbit with the Orbiter which would facilitate robust optical detection, orbit determination, and rendezvous. Repeating ground track orbits existat 457 and 572 km which would provide multiple launch opportunities with similar geometries for detection and rendezvous.

  18. Magnetic Memory of two lunar samples, 15405 and 15445

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kletetschka, Günther; Kameníková, T.; Fuller, M.; Čížková, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, SI, Supplement 1 (2016), A375-A375 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /79./. 07.08.2016-12.08.2016, Berlin] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Lunar rocks * 15405 * 15445 * Apollo 15 * magnetic remanence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  19. Charged-particle track analysis, thermoluminescence and microcratering studies of lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies of lunar samples (from both Apollo and Luna missions) have been carried out, using track analysis and thermoluminescence (t.l.) techniques, with a view to shedding light on the radiation and temperature histories of the Moon. In addition, microcraters in lunar glasses have been studied in order to elucidate the cosmic-dust impact history of the lunar regolith. In tracks studies, the topics discussed include the stabilizing effect of the thermal annealing of fossil tracks due to the lunar temperature cycle; the 'radiation annealing' of fresh heavy-ion tracks by large doses of protons (to simulate the effect of lunar radiation-damage on track registration); and correction factors for the anisotropic etching of crystals which are required in reconstructing the exposure history of lunar grains. An abundance ratio of ca. (1.1 + 0.3) x 10 -3 has been obtained, by the differential annealing technique, for the nuclei beyond the iron group to those within that group in the cosmic rays incident on the Moon. The natural t.l. of lunar samples has been used to estimate their effective storage temperature and mean depth below the surface. The results of the study of natural and artificially produced microcraters have been studied. (author)

  20. Sample Handling Considerations for a Europa Sample Return Mission: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Calaway, M. L.; Evans, C. A.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this abstract is to provide a basic overview of mission requirements for a generic Europan plume sample return mission, based on NASA Curation experience in NASA sample return missions ranging from Apollo to OSIRIS-REx. This should be useful for mission conception and early stage planning. We will break the mission down into Outbound and Return legs and discuss them separately.

  1. 77 FR 70835 - Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot... Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a program of... Challenge, please visit: http://challenge.wpi.edu . For general information on the NASA Centennial...

  2. International cooperation for Mars exploration and sample return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Eugene H.; Boynton, William V.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Carr, Michael H.; Kitchell, Jennifer H.; Mazur, Peter; Pace, Norman R.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Solomon, Sean C.; Wasserburg, Gerald J.

    1990-01-01

    The National Research Council's Space Studies Board has previously recommended that the next major phase of Mars exploration for the United States involve detailed in situ investigations of the surface of Mars and the return to earth for laboratory analysis of selected Martian surface samples. More recently, the European space science community has expressed general interest in the concept of cooperative Mars exploration and sample return. The USSR has now announced plans for a program of Mars exploration incorporating international cooperation. If the opportunity becomes available to participate in Mars exploration, interest is likely to emerge on the part of a number of other countries, such as Japan and Canada. The Space Studies Board's Committee on Cooperative Mars Exploration and Sample Return was asked by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to examine and report on the question of how Mars sample return missions might best be structured for effective implementation by NASA along with international partners. The committee examined alternatives ranging from scientific missions in which the United States would take a substantial lead, with international participation playing only an ancillary role, to missions in which international cooperation would be a basic part of the approach, with the international partners taking on comparably large mission responsibilities. On the basis of scientific strategies developed earlier by the Space Studies Board, the committee considered the scientific and technical basis of such collaboration and the most mutually beneficial arrangements for constructing successful cooperative missions, particularly with the USSR.

  3. Planetary Protection for LIFE-Sample Return from Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Peter; Yano, Hajime; Takano, Yoshinori; McKay, David; Takai, Ken; Anbar, Ariel; Baross, J.

    Introduction: We are seeking a balanced approach to returning Enceladus plume samples to state-of-the-art terrestrial laboratories to search for signs of life. NASA, ESA, JAXA and other space agencies are seeking habitable worlds and life beyond Earth. Enceladus, an icy moon of Saturn, is the first known body in the Solar System besides Earth to emit liquid water from its interior. Enceladus is the most accessible body in our Solar System for a low cost flyby sample return mission to capture aqueous based samples, to determine its state of life development, and shed light on how life can originate on wet planets/moons. LIFE combines the unique capabilities of teams of international exploration expertise. These returned Enceladus plume samples will determine if this habitable body is in fact inhabited [McKay et al, 2014]. This paper describes an approach for the LIFE mission to capture and return samples from Enceladus while meeting NASA and COSPAR planetary protection requirements. Forward planetary protection requirements for spacecraft missions to icy solar system bodies have been defined, however planetary protection requirements specific to an Earth return of samples collected from Enceladus or other Outer Planet Icy Moons, have yet to be defined. Background: From the first half century of space exploration, we have returned samples only from the Moon, comet Wild 2, the Solar Wind and the asteroid Itokawa. The in-depth analyses of these samples in terrestrial laboratories have yielded detailed chemical information that could not have been obtained otherwise. While obtaining samples from Solar System bodies is trans-formative science, it is rarely performed due to cost and complexity. The discovery by Cassini of geysers on Enceladus and organic materials in the ejected plume indicates that there is an exceptional opportunity and strong scientific rationale for LIFE. The earliest low-cost possible flight opportunity is the next Discovery Mission [Tsou et al 2012

  4. Comprehensive Non-Destructive Conservation Documentation of Lunar Samples Using High-Resolution Image-Based 3D Reconstructions and X-Ray CT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Established contemporary conservation methods within the fields of Natural and Cultural Heritage encourage an interdisciplinary approach to preservation of heritage material (both tangible and intangible) that holds "Outstanding Universal Value" for our global community. NASA's lunar samples were acquired from the moon for the primary purpose of intensive scientific investigation. These samples, however, also invoke cultural significance, as evidenced by the millions of people per year that visit lunar displays in museums and heritage centers around the world. Being both scientifically and culturally significant, the lunar samples require a unique conservation approach. Government mandate dictates that NASA's Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office develop and maintain protocols for "documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach" for both current and future collections of astromaterials. Documentation, considered the first stage within the conservation methodology, has evolved many new techniques since curation protocols for the lunar samples were first implemented, and the development of new documentation strategies for current and future astromaterials is beneficial to keeping curation protocols up to date. We have developed and tested a comprehensive non-destructive documentation technique using high-resolution image-based 3D reconstruction and X-ray CT (XCT) data in order to create interactive 3D models of lunar samples that would ultimately be served to both researchers and the public. These data enhance preliminary scientific investigations including targeted sample requests, and also provide a new visual platform for the public to experience and interact with the lunar samples. We intend to serve these data as they are acquired on NASA's Astromaterials Acquisistion and Curation website at http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/. Providing 3D interior and exterior documentation of astromaterial

  5. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies of returned comet nucleus samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Fundow; Kim, S.S.; Liang, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The most important objective of the Comet Nucleus Sample Returm Mission is to return samples which could reflect formation conditions and evolutionary processes in the early solar nebula. It is expected that the returned samples will consist of fine-grained silicate materials mixed with ices composed of simple molecules such as H 2 O, NH 3 , CH 4 as well as organics and/or more complex compounds. Because of the exposure to ionizing radiation from cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, and solar wind protons at low temperature, free radicals are expected to be formed and trapped in the solid ice matrices. The kind of trapped radical species together with their concentration and thermal stability can be used as a dosimeter as well as a geothermometer to determine thermal and radiation histories as well as outgassing and other possible alternation effects since the nucleus material was formed. Since free radicals that are known to contain unpaired electrons are all paramagnetic in nature, they can be readily detected and characterized in their native form by the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) method. In fact, ESR has been shown to be a non-destructive, highly sensitive tool for the detection and characterization of paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and radiation damage centers in terrestrial and extraterrestrial geological samples. The potential use of ESR as an effective method in the study of returned comet nucleus samples, in particular, in the analysis of fine-grained solid state icy samples is discussed

  6. A core handling device for the Mars Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Owen

    1989-01-01

    A core handling device for use on Mars is being designed. To provide a context for the design study, it was assumed that a Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) Mission would have the following characteristics: a year or more in length; visits by the rover to 50 or more sites; 100 or more meter-long cores being drilled by the rover; and the capability of returning about 5 kg of Mars regolith to Earth. These characteristics lead to the belief that in order to bring back a variegated set of samples that can address the range of scientific objetives for a MRSR mission to Mars there needs to be considerable analysis done on board the rover. Furthermore, the discrepancy between the amount of sample gathered and the amount to be returned suggests that there needs to be some method of choosing the optimal set of samples. This type of analysis will require pristine material-unaltered by the drilling process. Since the core drill thermally and mechanically alters the outer diameter (about 10 pct) of the core sample, this outer area cannot be used. The primary function of the core handling device is to extract subsamples from the core and to position these subsamples, and the core itself if needed, with respect to the various analytical instruments that can be used to perform these analyses.

  7. Advanced Curation: Solving Current and Future Sample Return Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Calaway, M.; Evans, C.; McCubbin, F.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Curation is a wide-ranging and comprehensive research and development effort at NASA Johnson Space Center that identifies and remediates sample related issues. For current collections, Advanced Curation investigates new cleaning, verification, and analytical techniques to assess their suitability for improving curation processes. Specific needs are also assessed for future sample return missions. For each need, a written plan is drawn up to achieve the requirement. The plan draws while upon current Curation practices, input from Curators, the analytical expertise of the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) team, and suitable standards maintained by ISO, IEST, NIST and other institutions. Additionally, new technologies are adopted on the bases of need and availability. Implementation plans are tested using customized trial programs with statistically robust courses of measurement, and are iterated if necessary until an implementable protocol is established. Upcoming and potential NASA missions such as OSIRIS-REx, the Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM), sample return missions in the New Frontiers program, and Mars sample return (MSR) all feature new difficulties and specialized sample handling requirements. The Mars 2020 mission in particular poses a suite of challenges since the mission will cache martian samples for possible return to Earth. In anticipation of future MSR, the following problems are among those under investigation: What is the most efficient means to achieve the less than 1.0 ng/sq cm total organic carbon (TOC) cleanliness required for all sample handling hardware? How do we maintain and verify cleanliness at this level? The Mars 2020 Organic Contamination Panel (OCP) predicts that organic carbon, if present, will be present at the "one to tens" of ppb level in martian near-surface samples. The same samples will likely contain wt% perchlorate salts, or approximately 1,000,000x as much perchlorate oxidizer as organic carbon

  8. NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and

  9. Photomosaics of the cathodoluminescence of 60 sections of meteorites and lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akridge, D.G.; Akridge, J.M.C.; Batchelor, J.D.; Benoit, P.H.; Brewer, J.; DeHart, J.M.; Keck, B.D.; Jie, L.; Meier, A.; Penrose, M.; Schneider, D.M.; Sears, D.W.G.; Symes, S.J.K.; Yanhong, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) petrography provides a means of observing petrographic and compositional properties of geological samples not readily observable by other techniques. We report the low-magnification CL images of 60 sections of extraterrestrial materials. The images we report include ordinary chondrites (including type 3 ordinary chondrites and gas-rich regolith breccias), enstatite chondrites, CO chondrites and a CM chondrite, eucrites and a howardite, lunar highland regolith breccias, and lunar soils. The CL images show how primitive materials respond to parent body metamorphism, how the metamorphic history of EL chondrites differs from that of EH chondrites, how dark matrix and light clasts of regolith breccias relate to each other, how metamorphism affects eucrites, the texture of lunar regolith breccias and the distribution of crystallized lunar spherules ("lunar chondrules"), and how regolith working affects the mineral properties of lunar soils. More particularly, we argue that such images are a rich source of new information on the nature and history of these materials and that our efforts to date are a small fraction of what can be done. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. PDS Archive Release of Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 17 Lunar Rock Sample Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, P. A.; Stefanov, W. L.; Lofgren, G. E.; Todd, N. S.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Scientists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Lunar Sample Laboratory, Information Resources Directorate, and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory have been working to digitize (scan) the original film negatives of Apollo Lunar Rock Sample photographs [1, 2]. The rock samples, and associated regolith and lunar core samples, were obtained during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 missions. The images allow scientists to view the individual rock samples in their original or subdivided state prior to requesting physical samples for their research. In cases where access to the actual physical samples is not practical, the images provide an alternate mechanism for study of the subject samples. As the negatives are being scanned, they have been formatted and documented for permanent archive in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate (which includes the Lunar Sample Laboratory and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory) at JSC is working collaboratively with the Imaging Node of the PDS on the archiving of these valuable data. The PDS Imaging Node is now pleased to announce the release of the image archives for Apollo missions 11, 12, and 17.

  11. Overview of the Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Robert; Corliss, James

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Mars Sample Return (MSR) project will bring Mars surface and atmosphere samples back to Earth for detailed examination. Langley Research Center's MSR Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) is a core part of the mission, protecting the sample container during atmospheric entry, descent, and landing. Planetary protection requirements demand a higher reliability from the EEV than for any previous planetary entry vehicle. An overview of the EEV design and preliminary analysis is presented, with a follow-on discussion of recommended future design trade studies to be performed over the next several years in support of an MSR launch in 2018 or 2020. Planned topics include vehicle size for impact protection of a range of sample container sizes, outer mold line changes to achieve surface sterilization during re-entry, micrometeoroid protection, aerodynamic stability, thermal protection, and structural materials selection.

  12. OSIRIS-REx: Sample Return from Asteroid (101955) Bennu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Balram-Knutson, S. S.; Beshore, E.; Boynton, W. V.; Drouet d'Aubigny, C.; DellaGiustina, D. N.; Enos, H. L.; Golish, D. R.; Hergenrother, C. W.; Howell, E. S.; Bennett, C. A.; Morton, E. T.; Nolan, M. C.; Rizk, B.; Roper, H. L.; Bartels, A. E.; Bos, B. J.; Dworkin, J. P.; Highsmith, D. E.; Lorenz, D. A.; Lim, L. F.; Mink, R.; Moreau, M. C.; Nuth, J. A.; Reuter, D. C.; Simon, A. A.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Bryan, B. H.; Ballouz, R.; Barnouin, O. S.; Binzel, R. P.; Bottke, W. F.; Hamilton, V. E.; Walsh, K. J.; Chesley, S. R.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, B. E.; Connolly, H. C.; Crombie, M. K.; Daly, M. G.; Emery, J. P.; McCoy, T. J.; McMahon, J. W.; Scheeres, D. J.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Sandford, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    In May of 2011, NASA selected the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security- Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission as the third mission in the New Frontiers program. The other two New Frontiers missions are New Horizons, which explored Pluto during a flyby in July 2015 and is on its way for a flyby of Kuiper Belt object 2014 MU69 on January 1, 2019, and Juno, an orbiting mission that is studying the origin, evolution, and internal structure of Jupiter. The spacecraft departed for near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu aboard an United Launch Alliance Atlas V 411 evolved expendable launch vehicle at 7:05 p.m. EDT on September 8, 2016, on a seven-year journey to return samples from Bennu. The spacecraft is on an outbound-cruise trajectory that will result in a rendezvous with Bennu in November 2018. The science instruments on the spacecraft will survey Bennu to measure its physical, geological, and chemical properties, and the team will use these data to select a site on the surface to collect at least 60 g of asteroid regolith. The team will also analyze the remote-sensing data to perform a detailed study of the sample site for context, assess Bennu's resource potential, refine estimates of its impact probability with Earth, and provide ground-truth data for the extensive astronomical data set collected on this asteroid. The spacecraft will leave Bennu in 2021 and return the sample to the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) on September 24, 2023.

  13. System for Packaging Planetary Samples for Return to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, paul G.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James S.

    2010-01-01

    A system is proposed for packaging material samples on a remote planet (especially Mars) in sealed sample tubes in preparation for later return to Earth. The sample tubes (Figure 1) would comprise (1) tubes initially having open tops and closed bottoms; (2) small, bellows-like collapsible bodies inside the tubes at their bottoms; and (3) plugs to be eventually used to close the tops of the tubes. The top inner surface of each tube would be coated with solder. The side of each plug, which would fit snugly into a tube, would feature a solder-filled ring groove. The system would include equipment for storing, manipulating, filling, and sealing the tubes. The containerization system (see Figure 2) will be organized in stations and will include: the storage station, the loading station, and the heating station. These stations can be structured in circular or linear pattern to minimize the manipulator complexity, allowing for compact design and mass efficiency. The manipulation of the sample tube between stations is done by a simple manipulator arm. The storage station contains the unloaded sample tubes and the plugs before sealing as well as the sealed sample tubes with samples after loading and sealing. The chambers at the storage station also allow for plug insertion into the sample tube. At the loading station the sample is poured or inserted into the sample tube and then the tube is topped off. At the heating station the plug is heated so the solder ring melts and seals the plug to the sample tube. The process is performed as follows: Each tube is filled or slightly overfilled with sample material and the excess sample material is wiped off the top. Then, the plug is inserted into the top section of the tube packing the sample material against the collapsible bellowslike body allowing the accommodation of the sample volume. The plug and the top of the tube are heated momentarily to melt the solder in order to seal the tube.

  14. Lunar Exploration Island, NASA’s Return to the Moon in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, F. M.; Bleacher, L.; Day, B.; Hsu, B. C.; Mitchell, B. K.

    2009-12-01

    Second Life is a metaverse—a massively multi-user virtual world (MMVR) community. With over 9 million users worldwide, there are 40,000-50,000 users on line at any one time. Second Life hosts over 200 educational and institutional simulation locations termed “islands” or sims that are developed by users providing support for education and business endeavors. On-line tools are provided to construct structures and landforms simulating a real world in a virtual three-dimensional environment. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move in Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting and interact with other users via text or voice chat. This poster details the design and creation of the Second Life exhibit hall for NASA’s Lunar Precursor Robotics Program and the LRO/LCROSS missions. The hall has been placed on the Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) in Second Life. Avatars enter via teleportation to an orientation room with information about the project, a simulator map, and other information. A central hall of flight houses exhibits pertaining to the LRO/ LCROSS missions and includes full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the missions, both spacecraft instrument suites, and EPO directed to support the missions. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference amphitheater with a stage and screen for video links such as live broadcasts of conferences and speakers. A link is provided to NASATV for live viewing LRO/LCROSS launch and impact activities and other NASA events. Recently visitors have viewed the Hubble servicing mission and several shuttle launches as well as the LRO/LCROSS launch. Lunar Exploration Island in Second Life

  15. Quantitative Planetary Protection for Sample Return from Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Marc; Takano, Yoshinori; Porco, Carolyn; McKay, Christopher P.; Glavin, Daniel; Anbar, Ariel; Sherwood, Brent; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Volcanism on ocean worlds [1,2] facilitates ocean sample return missions, enabling uniquely flexible, sensitive, and specific laboratory analyses on Earth to study how far chemistry has evolved in presumably habitable oceans [3,4]. Such mission concepts have yet to quantitatively address planetary protection (PP) for ocean worlds [3,4]. These harbor liquid water [5,6], metabolically useful energy [7], and organic matter to support life [8]. Ocean temperatures may not exceed the limit for life as we know it [9,10], they are shielded from exogenic radiation by kilometers of ice, and their material has likely not been naturally exchanged with Earth [11]. The above factors would place sample return missions in Cat. V - Restricted Earth Return [12,13]. Forward PP requirements for Europa [13] and other ocean worlds [14] require that the probability of "introduction of a single viable terrestrial microorganism into a liquid-water environment" be lower than 10 ^{-4}. This probability should be estimated from (F1) "bioburden at launch," (F2) "cruise survival for contaminating organisms," (F3) "organism survival in the radiation environment adjacent to the target," (F4) "the probability of encountering […] the target," (F5) "the probability of surviving landing/impact on the target," (F6) "mechanisms and timescales of transport to the subsurface," and (F7) "survival […] after subsurface transfer" [13,14]. The compliance of specific designs of known cost could be evaluated from measurements of molecular contaminants as robust and universal proxies for microbial particulates [15] (F1); known microbial radiation tolerance [16] and planetary radiation budgets [17] (F2-F3); trajectory design (F4); projected impact velocities [18] (F5); ice transport timescales [19] (F6), and biomass growth rates in ice [20] (F7). In contrast, current backward PP requirements are only qualitative. Current policy [13,15] prohibits "destructive impact upon return," and requires that (B1) "unless

  16. 3D-Laser-Scanning Technique Applied to Bulk Density Measurements of Apollo Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, R. J.; Kent, J. J.; Kiefer, W. S.; Britt, D. T.

    2015-01-01

    In order to better interpret gravimetric data from orbiters such as GRAIL and LRO to understand the subsurface composition and structure of the lunar crust, it is import to have a reliable database of the density and porosity of lunar materials. To this end, we have been surveying these physical properties in both lunar meteorites and Apollo lunar samples. To measure porosity, both grain density and bulk density are required. For bulk density, our group has historically utilized sub-mm bead immersion techniques extensively, though several factors have made this technique problematic for our work with Apollo samples. Samples allocated for measurement are often smaller than optimal for the technique, leading to large error bars. Also, for some samples we were required to use pure alumina beads instead of our usual glass beads. The alumina beads were subject to undesirable static effects, producing unreliable results. Other investigators have tested the use of 3d laser scanners on meteorites for measuring bulk volumes. Early work, though promising, was plagued with difficulties including poor response on dark or reflective surfaces, difficulty reproducing sharp edges, and large processing time for producing shape models. Due to progress in technology, however, laser scanners have improved considerably in recent years. We tested this technique on 27 lunar samples in the Apollo collection using a scanner at NASA Johnson Space Center. We found it to be reliable and more precise than beads, with the added benefit that it involves no direct contact with the sample, enabling the study of particularly friable samples for which bead immersion is not possible

  17. OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevres Fernandez, Lee Roger; Bos, Brent

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission constitutes the “first-of-its-kind” project to thoroughly characterize a near-Earth asteroid. The selected asteroid is (101955) 1999 RQ36 (a.k.a. Bennu). The mission launched in September 2016, and the spacecraft will reach its asteroid target in 2018 and return a sample to Earth in 2023. The spacecraft that will travel to, and collect a sample from, Bennu has five integrated instruments from national and international partners. NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission spacecraft includes the Touch-And-Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) three camera-head instrument. The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, confirm acquisition of the asteroid sample and document asteroid sample stowage. Two of the TAGCAMS cameras, NavCam 1 and NavCam 2, serve as fully redundant navigation cameras to support optical navigation and natural feature tracking. The third TAGCAMS camera, StowCam, provides imagery to assist with and confirm proper stowage of the asteroid sample. Analysis of spacecraft imagery acquired by the TAGCAMS during cruise to the target asteroid Bennu was performed using custom codes developed in MATLAB. Assessment of the TAGCAMS in-flight performance using flight imagery was done to characterize camera performance. One specific area of investigation that was targeted was bad pixel mapping. A recent phase of the mission, known as the Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) maneuver, provided images that were used for the detection and confirmation of “questionable” pixels, possibly under responsive, using image segmentation analysis. Ongoing work on point spread function morphology and camera linearity and responsivity will also be used for calibration purposes and further analysis in preparation for proximity operations around Bennu. Said analyses will provide a broader understanding

  18. Phobos/Deimos sample return via solar sail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matloff, Gregory L; Taylor, Travis; Powell, Conley; Moton, Tryshanda

    2005-12-01

    A sample-return mission to the Martian satellites using a con-temporary solar sail for all post-Earth-escape propulsion is proposed. The 0.015 kg/m(2) areal mass-thickness sail unfurls after launch and injection onto a Mars-bound Hohmann-transfer ellipse. Structure and payload increase spacecraft areal mass thickness to 0.028 kg/m(2). During the Mars encounter, the sail functions as a parachute in the outer atmosphere of Mars to accomplish aerocapture. On-board thrusters or the sail maneuver the spacecraft into an orbit with periapsis near Mars and apoapsis near Phobos. The orbit is circularized for Phobos-rendezvous; surface samples are collected. The sail then raises the orbit for Deimos-rendezvous and sample collection. The sail next places the spacecraft on an Earth-bound Hohmann-transfer ellipse. During Earth encounter, the sail accomplishes Earth-aerocapture or partially decelerates the sample container for entry into the Earth's atmosphere. Mission mass budget is about 218 grams and mission duration is less than five years.

  19. Mars Rover Sample Return aerocapture configuration design and packaging constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Shelby J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the aerodynamics requirements, volume and mass constraints that lead to a biconic aeroshell vehicle design that protects the Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) mission elements from launch to Mars landing. The aerodynamic requirements for Mars aerocapture and entry and packaging constraints for the MRSR elements result in a symmetric biconic aeroshell that develops a L/D of 1.0 at 27.0 deg angle of attack. A significant problem in the study is obtaining a cg that provides adequate aerodynamic stability and performance within the mission imposed constraints. Packaging methods that relieve the cg problems include forward placement of aeroshell propellant tanks and incorporating aeroshell structure as lander structure. The MRSR missions developed during the pre-phase A study are discussed with dimensional and mass data included. Further study is needed for some missions to minimize MRSR element volume so that launch mass constraints can be met.

  20. Role of impact cratering for Mars sample return

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The preserved cratering record of Mars indicates that impacts play an important role in deciphering Martian geologic history, whether as a mechanism to modify the lithosphere and atmosphere or as a tool to sample the planet. The various roles of impact cratering in adding a broader understanding of Mars through returned samples are examined. Five broad roles include impact craters as: (1) a process in response to a different planetary localizer environment; (2) a probe for excavating crustal/mantle materials; (3) a possible localizer of magmatic and hydrothermal processes; (4) a chronicle of changes in the volcanic, sedimentary, atmospheric, and cosmic flux history; and (5) a chronometer for extending the geologic time scale to unsampled regions. The evidence for Earth-like processes and very nonlunar styles of volcanism and tectonism may shift the emphasis of a sampling strategy away from equally fundamental issues including crustal composition, unit ages, and climate history. Impact cratering not only played an important active role in the early Martian geologic history, it also provides an important tool for addressing such issues

  1. Rock sample brought to earth from the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A scientist's gloved hand holds one of the numerous rock samples brought back to Earth from the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission. This sample is a highly shattered basaltic rock with a thin black-glass coating on five of its six sides. Glass fills fractures and cements the rock together. The rock appears to have been shattered and thrown out by a meteorite impact explosion and coated with molten rock material before the rock fell to the surface.

  2. The genesis solar-wind sample return mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, Roger C.

    2009-01-01

    The compositions of the Earth's crust and mantle, and those of the Moon and Mars, are relatively well known both isotopically and elementally. The same is true of our knowledge of the asteroid belt composition, based on meteorite analyses. Remote measurements of Venus, the Jovian atmosphere, and the outer planet moons, have provided some estimates of their compositions. The Sun constitutes a large majority, > 99%, of all the matter in the solar system. The elemental composition of the photosphere, the visible 'surface' of the Sun, is constrained by absorption lines produced by particles above the surface. Abundances for many elements are reported to the ±10 or 20% accuracy level. However, the abundances of other important elements, such as neon, cannot be determined in this way due to a relative lack of atomic states at low excitation energies. Additionally and most importantly, the isotopic composition of the Sun cannot be determined astronomically except for a few species which form molecules above sunspots, and estimates derived from these sources lack the accuracy desired for comparison with meteoritic and planetary surface samples measured on the Earth. The solar wind spreads a sample of solar particles throughout the heliosphere, though the sample is very rarified: collecting a nanogram of oxygen, the third most abundant element, in a square centimeter cross section at the Earth's distance from the Sun takes five years. Nevertheless, foil collectors exposed to the solar wind for periods of hours on the surface of the Moon during the Apollo missions were used to determine the helium and neon solar-wind compositions sufficiently to show that the Earth's atmospheric neon was significantly evolved relative to the Sun. Spacecraft instruments developed subsequently have provided many insights into the composition of the solar wind, mostly in terms of elemental composition. These instruments have the advantage of observing a number of parameters simultaneously

  3. Strategic Map for Enceladus Plume Biosignature Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, B.

    2014-12-01

    The discovery of jets emitting salty water from the interior of Saturn's small moon Enceladus is one of the most astounding results of the Cassini mission to date. The measured presence of organic species in the resulting plume, the finding that the jet activity is valved by tidal stretching at apocrone, the modeled lifetime of E-ring particles, and gravitational inference of a long-lived, deep, large water reservoir all indicate that the textbook conditions for habitability are met at Enceladus today: liquid water, biologically available elements, source of energy, and longevity of conducive conditions. Enceladus may be the best place in our solar system to search for direct evidence of biomarkers, and the plume provides a way to sample, analyze, and even return them to Earth for detailed analysis. For example, it is straightforward to define a Stardust-like, fly-through, plume ice-particle, dust, and gas collection mission. Concept engineering and evaluation indicate that the associated technical, programmatic, regulatory, and cost issues are quite unlike the Stardust precedent however, not least because of such a mission's Category-V, Restricted Earth Return, classification. The poster presents a strategic framework for systematic integration of the enabling issues: cultivation of science advocacy, resolution of diverse stakeholder concerns, development of verifiable and affordable technical solutions, validation of cost estimation methods, alignment with other candidate astrobiology missions, complementarity of international agency goals, and finally the identification of appropriate research and flight-mission opportunities. A strategic approach is essential if we are to know the astrobiological state of Enceladus in our lifetime, and two international teams are already dedicated to implementing key steps on this roadmap.

  4. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo samples and meteorites first hand. Lunar rocks and soil, embedded in Lucite disks, are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks reveals the early history of our Earth-Moon system and meteorites reveal much of the history of the early solar system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet and solar system and the basic processes accretion, differentiation, impact and volcanism. With these samples, educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by many NASA planetary missions. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the

  5. The origin of water in the primitive Moon as revealed by the lunar highlands samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Tartèse, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; McCubbin, Francis M.; Franchi, Ian A.; Starkey, Natalie A.; Russell, Sara S.

    2014-03-01

    The recent discoveries of hydrogen (H) bearing species on the lunar surface and in samples derived from the lunar interior have necessitated a paradigm shift in our understanding of the water inventory of the Moon, which was previously considered to be a ‘bone-dry’ planetary body. Most sample-based studies have focused on assessing the water contents of the younger mare basalts and pyroclastic glasses, which are partial-melting products of the lunar mantle. In contrast, little attention has been paid to the inventory and source(s) of water in the lunar highlands rocks which are some of the oldest and most pristine materials available for laboratory investigations, and that have the potential to reveal the original history of water in the Earth-Moon system. Here, we report in-situ measurements of hydroxyl (OH) content and H isotopic composition of the mineral apatite from four lunar highlands samples (two norites, a troctolite, and a granite clast) collected during the Apollo missions. Apart from troctolite in which the measured OH contents in apatite are close to our analytical detection limit and its H isotopic composition appears to be severely compromised by secondary processes, we have measured up to ˜2200 ppm OH in the granite clast with a weighted average δD of ˜ -105±130‰, and up to ˜3400 ppm OH in the two norites (77215 and 78235) with weighted average δD values of -281±49‰ and -27±98‰, respectively. The apatites in the granite clast and the norites are characterised by higher OH contents than have been reported so far for highlands samples, and have H isotopic compositions similar to those of terrestrial materials and some carbonaceous chondrites, providing one of the strongest pieces of evidence yet for a common origin for water in the Earth-Moon system. In addition, the presence of water, of terrestrial affinity, in some samples of the earliest-formed lunar crust suggests that either primordial terrestrial water survived the aftermath

  6. Planning for the Collection and Analysis of Samples of Martian Granular Materials Potentially to be Returned by Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, B. L.; Beaty, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Mars 2020 rover is scheduled to land on Mars in 2021 and will be equipped with a sampling system capable of collecting rock cores, as well as a specialized drill bit for collecting unconsolidated granular material. A key mission objective is to collect a set of samples that have enough scientific merit to justify returning to Earth. In the case of granular materials, we would like to catalyze community discussion on what we would do with these samples if they arrived in our laboratories, as input to decision-making related to sampling the regolith. Numerous scientific objectives have been identified which could be achieved or significantly advanced via the analysis of martian rocks, "regolith," and gas samples. The term "regolith" has more than one definition, including one that is general and one that is much more specific. For the purpose of this analysis we use the term "granular materials" to encompass the most general meaning and restrict "regolith" to a subset of that. Our working taxonomy includes the following: 1) globally sourced airfall dust (dust); 2) saltation-sized particles (sand); 3) locally sourced decomposed rock (regolith); 4) crater ejecta (ejecta); and, 5) other. Analysis of martian granular materials could serve to advance our understanding areas including habitability and astrobiology, surface-atmosphere interactions, chemistry, mineralogy, geology and environmental processes. Results of these analyses would also provide input into planning for future human exploration of Mars, elucidating possible health and mechanical hazards caused by the martian surface material, as well as providing valuable information regarding available resources for ISRU and civil engineering purposes. Results would also be relevant to matters of planetary protection and ground-truthing orbital observations. We will present a preliminary analysis of the following, in order to generate community discussion and feedback on all issues relating to: What are the

  7. An integrated and accessible sample data library for Mars sample return science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, M. L., Jr.; Williford, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Over the course of the next decade or more, many thousands of geological samples will be collected and analyzed in a variety of ways by researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California Institute of Technology) in order to facilitate discovery and contextualize observations made of Mars rocks both in situ and here on Earth if samples are eventually returned. Integration of data from multiple analyses of samples including petrography, thin section and SEM imaging, isotope and organic geochemistry, XRF, XRD, and Raman spectrometry is a challenge and a potential obstacle to discoveries that require supporting lines of evidence. We report the development of a web-accessible repository, the Sample Data Library (SDL) for the sample-based data that are generated by the laboratories and instruments that comprise JPL's Center for Analysis of Returned Samples (CARS) in order to facilitate collaborative interpretation of potential biosignatures in Mars-analog geological samples. The SDL is constructed using low-cost, open-standards-based Amazon Web Services (AWS), including web-accessible storage, relational data base services, and a virtual web server. The data structure is sample-centered with a shared registry for assigning unique identifiers to all samples including International Geo-Sample Numbers. Both raw and derived data produced by instruments and post-processing workflows are automatically uploaded to online storage and linked via the unique identifiers. Through the web interface, users are able to find all the analyses associated with a single sample or search across features shared by multiple samples, sample localities, and analysis types. Planned features include more sophisticated search and analytical interfaces as well as data discoverability through NSF's EarthCube program.

  8. Lunar plant biology--a review of the Apollo era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert J; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2010-04-01

    Recent plans for human return to the Moon have significantly elevated scientific interest in the lunar environment with emphasis on the science to be done in preparation for the return and while on the lunar surface. Since the return to the Moon is envisioned as a dedicated and potentially longer-term commitment to lunar exploration, questions of the lunar environment and particularly its impact on biology and biological systems have become a significant part of the lunar science discussion. Plants are integral to the discussion of biology on the Moon. Plants are envisioned as important components of advanced habitats and fundamental components of advanced life-support systems. Moreover, plants are sophisticated multicellular eukaryotic life-forms with highly orchestrated developmental processes, well-characterized signal transduction pathways, and exceedingly fine-tuned responses to their environments. Therefore, plants represent key test organisms for understanding the biological impact of the lunar environment on terrestrial life-forms. Indeed, plants were among the initial and primary organisms that were exposed to returned lunar regolith from the Apollo lunar missions. This review discusses the original experiments involving plants in association with the Apollo samples, with the intent of understanding those studies within the context of the first lunar exploration program and drawing from those experiments the data to inform the studies critical within the next lunar exploration science agenda.

  9. A Method for Choosing the Best Samples for Mars Sample Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Peter R; Sephton, Mark A

    2018-05-01

    Success of a future Mars Sample Return mission will depend on the correct choice of samples. Pyrolysis-FTIR can be employed as a triage instrument for Mars Sample Return. The technique can thermally dissociate minerals and organic matter for detection. Identification of certain mineral types can determine the habitability of the depositional environment, past or present, while detection of organic matter may suggest past or present habitation. In Mars' history, the Theiikian era represents an attractive target for life search missions and the acquisition of samples. The acidic and increasingly dry Theiikian may have been habitable and followed a lengthy neutral and wet period in Mars' history during which life could have originated and proliferated to achieve relatively abundant levels of biomass with a wide distribution. Moreover, the sulfate minerals produced in the Theiikian are also known to be good preservers of organic matter. We have used pyrolysis-FTIR and samples from a Mars analog ferrous acid stream with a thriving ecosystem to test the triage concept. Pyrolysis-FTIR identified those samples with the greatest probability of habitability and habitation. A three-tier scoring system was developed based on the detection of (i) organic signals, (ii) carbon dioxide and water, and (iii) sulfur dioxide. The presence of each component was given a score of A, B, or C depending on whether the substance had been detected, tentatively detected, or not detected, respectively. Single-step (for greatest possible sensitivity) or multistep (for more diagnostic data) pyrolysis-FTIR methods informed the assignments. The system allowed the highest-priority samples to be categorized as AAA (or A*AA if the organic signal was complex), while the lowest-priority samples could be categorized as CCC. Our methods provide a mechanism with which to rank samples and identify those that should take the highest priority for return to Earth during a Mars Sample Return mission. Key Words

  10. Evolution of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory to the Astromaterial Sample Curation Facility: Technical Tensions Between Containment and Cleanliness, Between Particulate and Organic Cleanliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Zeigler, R. A.; Calaway, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) was planned and constructed in the 1960s to support the Apollo program in the context of landing on the Moon and safely returning humans. The enduring science return from that effort is a result of careful curation of planetary materials. Technical decisions for the first facility included sample handling environment (vacuum vs inert gas), and instruments for making basic sample assessment, but the most difficult decision, and most visible, was stringent biosafety vs ultra-clean sample handling. Biosafety required handling of samples in negative pressure gloveboxes and rooms for containment and use of sterilizing protocols and animal/plant models for hazard assessment. Ultra-clean sample handling worked best in positive pressure nitrogen environment gloveboxes in positive pressure rooms, using cleanable tools of tightly controlled composition. The requirements for these two objectives were so different, that the solution was to design and build a new facility for specific purpose of preserving the scientific integrity of the samples. The resulting Lunar Curatorial Facility was designed and constructed, from 1972-1979, with advice and oversight by a very active committee comprised of lunar sample scientists. The high precision analyses required for planetary science are enabled by stringent contamination control of trace elements in the materials and protocols of construction (e.g., trace element screening for paint and flooring materials) and the equipment used in sample handling and storage. As other astromaterials, especially small particles and atoms, were added to the collections curated, the technical tension between particulate cleanliness and organic cleanliness was addressed in more detail. Techniques for minimizing particulate contamination in sample handling environments use high efficiency air filtering techniques typically requiring organic sealants which offgas. Protocols for reducing adventitious carbon on sample

  11. A Draft Science Management Plan for Returned Samples from Mars: Recommendations from the International Mars Architecture for the Return of Samples (iMARS) Phase II Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigin, T.; Lange, C.; Mugnuolo, R.; Smith, C.

    2018-04-01

    This paper summarizes the findings and recommendations of the International Mars Architecture for the Return of Samples (iMARS) Phase II Working Group, an international team comprising 38 members from 16 countries and agencies.

  12. Sample Curation in Support of the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, Kevin; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko

    2017-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission launched to asteroid Bennu Sept. 8, 2016. The spacecraft will arrive at Bennu in late 2019, orbit and map the asteroid, and perform a touch and go (TAG) sampling maneuver in July 2020. After sample is stowed and confirmed the spacecraft will return to Earth, and the sample return capsule (SRC) will land in Utah in September 2023. Samples will be recovered from Utah [2] and then transported and stored in a new sample cleanroom at NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston [3]. The materials curated for the mission are described here. a) Materials Archive and Witness Plate Collection: The SRC and TAGSAM were built between March 2014 and Summer of 2015, and instruments (OTES,OVIRS, OLA, OCAMS, REXIS) were integrated from Summer 2015 until May 2016. A total of 395 items were received for the materials archive at NASA-JSC, with archiving finishing 30 days after launch (with the final archived items being related to launch operations)[4]. The materials fall into several general categories including metals (stainless steel, aluminum, titanium alloys, brass and BeCu alloy), epoxies, paints, polymers, lubricants, non-volatile-residue samples (NVR), sapphire, and various miscellaneous materials. All through the ATLO process (from March 2015 until late August 2016) contamination knowledge witness plates (Si wafer and Al foil) were deployed in the various cleanrooms in Denver and KSC to provide an additional record of particle counts and volatiles that is archived for current and future scientific studies. These plates were deployed in roughly monthly increments with each unit containing 4 Si wafers and 4 Al foils. We archived 128 individual witness plates (64 Si wafers and 64 Al foils); one of each witness plate (Si and Al) was analyzed immediately by the science team after archiving, while the remaining 3 of each are archived indefinitely. Information about each material archived is stored in an extensive database at NASA-JSC, and key

  13. Predicted versus observed cosmic-ray-produced noble gases in lunar samples: improved Kr production ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, S.; Hohenberg, C.M.; Marti, K.; Reedy, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    New sets of cross sections for the production of krypton isotopes from targets of Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr were constructed primarily on the bases of experimental excitation functions for Kr production from Y. These cross sections were used to calculate galactic-cosmic-ray and solar-proton production rates for Kr isotopes in the moon. Spallation Kr data obtained from ilmenite separates of rocks 10017 and 10047 are reported. Production rates and isotopic ratios for cosmogenic Kr observed in ten well-documented lunar samples and in ilmenite separates and bulk samples from several lunar rocks with long but unknown irradiation histories were compared with predicted rates and ratios. The agreements were generally quite good. Erosion of rock surfaces affected rates or ratios for only near-surface samples, where solar-proton production is important. There were considerable spreads in predicted-to-observed production rates of 83 Kr, due at least in part to uncertainties in chemical abundances. The 78 Kr/ 83 Kr ratios were predicted quite well for samples with a wide range of Zr/Sr abundance ratios. The calculated 80 Kr/ 83 Kr ratios were greater than the observed ratios when production by the 79 Br(n,γ) reaction was included, but were slightly undercalculated if the Br reaction was omitted; these results suggest that Br(n,γ)-produced Kr is not retained well by lunar rocks. The productions of 81 Kr and 82 Kr were overcalculated by approximately 10% relative to 83 Kr. Predicted-to-observed 84 Kr/ 83 ratios scattered considerably, possibly because of uncertainties in corrections for trapped and fission components and in cross sections for 84 Kr production. Most predicted 84 Kr and 86 Kr production rates were lower than observed. Shielding depths of several Apollo 11 rocks were determined from the measured 78 Kr/ 83 Kr ratios of ilmenite separates. 4 figures, 5 tables

  14. Ion microprobe mass analysis of plagioclase from 'non-mare' lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C., Jr.; Anderson, D. H.; Bradley, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    The ion microprobe was used to measure the composition and distribution of trace elements in lunar plagioclase, and these analyses are used as criteria in determining the possible origins of some nonmare lunar samples. The Apollo 16 samples with metaclastic texture and high-bulk trace-element contents contain plagioclase clasts with extremely low trace-element contents. These plagioclase inclusions represent unequilibrated relicts of anorthositic, noritic, or troctolitic rocks that have been intermixed as a rock flour into the KREEP-rich matrix of these samples. All of the plagioclase-rich inclusions which were analyzed in the KREEP-rich Apollo 14 breccias were found to be rich in trace elements. This does not seem to be consistent with the interpretation that the Apollo 14 samples represent a pre-Imbrium regolith, because such an ancient regolith should have contained many plagioclase clasts with low trace-element contents more typical of plagioclase from the pre-Imbrium crust. Ion-microprobe analyses for Ba and Sr in large plagioclase phenocrysts in 14310 and 68415 are consistent with the bulk compositions of these rocks and with the known distribution coefficients for these elements. The distribution coefficient for Li (basaltic liquid/plagioclase) was measured to be about 2.

  15. Analysis of the Touch-And-Go Surface Sampling Concept for Comet Sample Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Milan; Acikmese, Behcet; Bayard, David S.; Blackmore, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the Touch-and-Go (TAG) concept for enabling a spacecraft to take a sample from the surface of a small primitive body, such as an asteroid or comet. The idea behind the TAG concept is to let the spacecraft descend to the surface, make contact with the surface for several seconds, and then ascend to a safe location. Sampling would be accomplished by an end-effector that is active during the few seconds of surface contact. The TAG event is one of the most critical events in a primitive body sample-return mission. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dynamic behavior of a representative spacecraft during the TAG event, i.e., immediately prior, during, and after surface contact of the sampler. The study evaluates the sample-collection performance of the proposed sampling end-effector, in this case a brushwheel sampler, while acquiring material from the surface during the contact. A main result of the study is a guidance and control (G&C) validation of the overall TAG concept, in addition to specific contributions to demonstrating the effectiveness of using nonlinear clutch mechanisms in the sampling arm joints, and increasing the length of the sampling arms to improve robustness.

  16. Mars ascent propulsion options for small sample return vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    An unprecedented combination of high propellant fraction and small size is required for affordable-scale Mars return, regardless of the number of stages, or whether Mars orbit rendezvous or in-situ propellant options are used. Conventional space propulsion technology is too heavy, even without structure or other stage subsystems. The application of launch vehicle design principles to the development of new hardware on a tiny scale is therefore suggested. Miniature pump-fed rocket engines fed by low pressure tanks can help to meet this challenge. New concepts for engine cycles using piston pumps are described, and development issues are outlined

  17. A Review of New and Developing Technology to Significantly Improve Mars Sample-Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Brophy, J.; Gilmore, M.; Rodgers, D.; Wilcox, B.

    2000-07-01

    A JPL development activity was initiated in FY 1999 for the purpose of examining and evaluating technologies that could materially improve future (i.e., beyond the 2005 launch) Mars sample return missions. The scope of the technology review was comprehensive and end-to-end; the goal was to improve mass, cost, risk, and scientific return. A specific objective was to assess approaches to sample return with only one Earth launch. While the objective of the study was specifically for sample-return, in-situ missions can also benefit from using many of the technologies examined.

  18. The enigma of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and probable origin of lunar magnetism are surveyed. Results of examinations of returned lunar samples are discussed which reveal the main carrier of the observed natural remanent magnetization to be iron, occasionally alloyed with nickel and cobalt, but do not distinguish between thermoremanent and shock remanent origins, and surface magnetometer data is presented, which indicates small-scale magnetic fields with a wide range of field intensities implying localized, near-surface sources. A detailed examination is presented of orbital magnetometer and charged particle data concerning the geologic nature and origin of magnetic anomaly sources and the directional properties of the magnetization, which exhibit a random distribution except for a depletion in the north-south direction. A lunar magnetization survey with global coverage provided by a polar orbiting satellite is suggested as a means of placing stronger constraints on the origin of lunar crustal magnetization.

  19. CHOMIK -Sampling Device of Penetrating Type for Russian Phobos Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seweryn, Karol; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Rickmann, Hans; Morawski, Marek; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Drogosz, Michal; Gurgurewicz, Joanna; Kozlov, Oleg E.; Krolikowska-Soltan, Malgorzata; Sutugin, Sergiej E.; Wawrzaszek, Roman; Wisniewski, Lukasz; Zakharov, Alexander

    Measurements of physical properties of planetary bodies allow to determine many important parameters for scientists working in different fields of research. For example effective heat conductivity of the regolith can help with better understanding of processes occurring in the body interior. Chemical and mineralogical composition gives us a chance to better understand the origin and evolution of the moons. In principle such parameters of the planetary bodies can be determined based on three different measurement techniques: (i) in situ measurements (ii) measurements of the samples in laboratory conditions at the Earth and (iii) remote sensing measurements. Scientific missions which allow us to perform all type of measurements, give us a chance for not only parameters determination but also cross calibration of the instruments. Russian Phobos Sample Return (PhSR) mission is one of few which allows for all type of such measurements. The spacecraft will be equipped with remote sensing instruments like: spectrometers, long wave radar and dust counter, instruments for in-situ measurements -gas-chromatograph, seismometer, thermodetector and others and also robotic arm and sampling device. PhSR mission will be launched in November 2011 on board of a launch vehicle Zenit. About a year later (11 months) the vehicle will reach the Martian orbit. It is anticipated that it will land on Phobos in the beginning of 2013. A take off back will take place a month later and the re-entry module containing a capsule that will hold the soil sample enclosed in a container will be on its way back to Earth. The 11 kg re-entry capsule with the container will land in Kazakhstan in mid-2014. A unique geological penetrator CHOMIK dedicated for the Phobos Sample Return space mis-sion will be designed and manufactured at the Space Mechatronics and Robotics Laboratory, Space Research Centre Polish Academy of Sciences (SRC PAS) in Warsaw. Functionally CHOMIK is based on the well known MUPUS

  20. Constraining the Source Craters of the Martian Meteorites: Implications for Prioritiziation of Returned Samples from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, C. D. K.; Tornabene, L. L.; Bowling, T. J.; Walton, E. L.; Sharp, T. G.; Melosh, H. J.; Hamilton, J. S.; Viviano, C. E.; Ehlmann, B. L.

    2018-04-01

    We have made advances in constraining the potential source craters of the martian meteorites to a relatively small number. Our results have implications for Mars chronology and the prioritization of samples for Mars Sample Return.

  1. The relationship between orbital, earth-based, and sample data for lunar landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Hawke, B. R.; Basu, A.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported of a detailed examination of data available for the Apollo lunar landing sites, including the Apollo orbital measurements of six major elements derived from XRF and gamma-ray instruments and geochemical parameters derived from earth-based spectral reflectivity data. Wherever orbital coverage for Apollo landing sites exist, the remote data were correlated with geochemical data derived from the soil sample averages for major geological units and the major rock components associated with these units. Discrepancies were observed between the remote and the soil-anlysis elemental concentration data, which were apparently due to the differences in the extent of exposure of geological units, and, hence, major rock eomponents, in the area sampled. Differences were observed in signal depths between various orbital experiments, which may provide a mechanism for explaining differences between the XRF and other landing-site data.

  2. 76 FR 56819 - Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-079)] Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample... Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a program of... Challenge, please visit: http://wp.wpi.edu/challenge/ . For general information on the NASA Centennial...

  3. Lunar soil as shielding against space radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 83R0101, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: miller@lbl.gov; Taylor, L. [Planetary Geosciences Institute, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Zeitlin, C. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Heilbronn, L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Guetersloh, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DiGiuseppe, M. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714 (United States); Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    We have measured the radiation transport and dose reduction properties of lunar soil with respect to selected heavy ion beams with charges and energies comparable to some components of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), using soil samples returned by the Apollo missions and several types of synthetic soil glasses and lunar soil simulants. The suitability for shielding studies of synthetic soil and soil simulants as surrogates for lunar soil was established, and the energy deposition as a function of depth for a particular heavy ion beam passing through a new type of lunar highland simulant was measured. A fragmentation and energy loss model was used to extend the results over a range of heavy ion charges and energies, including protons at solar particle event (SPE) energies. The measurements and model calculations indicate that a modest amount of lunar soil affords substantial protection against primary GCR nuclei and SPE, with only modest residual dose from surviving charged fragments of the heavy beams.

  4. The Rosetta Stones of Mars — Should Meteorites be Considered as Samples of Opportunity for Mars Sample Return?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, A. W.; Schröder, C.; Ashley, J. W.; Velbel, M. A.; Boston, P. J.; Carrier, B. L.; Cohen, B. A.; Bland, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    We summarize insights about Mars gained from investigating meteorites found on Mars. Certain types of meteorites can be considered standard probes inserted into the martian environment. Should they be considered for Mars Sample Return?

  5. Sample Return - at hente en sten på Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Kjartan Münster

    2017-01-01

    Lige siden de første rumsonder landede på Mars i 1970'erne har planetforskere drømt om en såkaldt Sample Returnmission. Det vil sige en mission, som skal hente prøver af planetens sten, jord og atmosfære og flyve dem tilbage til Jorden. Med NASAs næste store rover-mission til Mars, som bliver sendt...

  6. Solar flare and galactic cosmic ray tracks in lunar samples and meteorites - What they tell us about the ancient sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crozaz, G.

    1980-01-01

    Evidence regarding the past activity of the sun in the form of nuclear particle tracks in lunar samples and meteorites produced by heavy ions in galactic cosmic rays and solar flares is reviewed. Observations of track-rich grains found in deep lunar cores and meteorite interiors are discussed which demonstrate the presence of solar flare activity for at least the past 4 billion years, and the similarity of track density profiles from various lunar and meteoritic samples with those in a glass filter from Surveyor 3 exposed at the lunar surface for almost three years is presented as evidence of the relative constancy of the solar flare energy spectrum over the same period. Indications of a heavy ion enrichment in solar flares are considered which are confirmed by recent satellite measurements, although difficult to quantify in lunar soil grains. Finally, it is argued that, despite previous claims, there exists as yet no conclusive evidence for either a higher solar activity during the early history of the moon or a change in galactic cosmic ray intensity, average composition or spectrum over the last 50 million years

  7. Advanced Ignition System for Hybrid Rockets for Sample Return Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To return a sample from the surface of Mars or any of the larger moons in the solar system will require a propulsion system with a comparatively large delta-V...

  8. O2/CO Ignition System for Mars Sample Return Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Returning a geological sample from the surface of Mars will require an ascent propulsion system with a comparatively large velocity change (delta-V) capability due...

  9. Planning Related to the Curation and Processing of Returned Martian Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Harrington, A. D.

    2018-04-01

    Many of the planning activities in the NASA Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC are centered around Mars Sample Return. The importance of contamination knowledge and the benefits of a mobile/modular receiving facility are discussed.

  10. Sample Return in Preparation for Human Mission on the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, P.

    2018-04-01

    Returned samples of martian regolith will help the science community make an informed decision in choosing the final human landing site and develop a better human mission plan to meet science criteria and IRSU and civil engineering criteria.

  11. Mars Sample Return: The Critical Need for Planning a Meaningful and Participatory Public Engagement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug Boonstra, S.

    2018-04-01

    The Mars Sample Return campaign offers the prospect of an historical leap forward in the understanding of the science of Mars, and an unprecedented opportunity to engage our citizenry in one of the enduring questions of humanity, "Are we alone?".

  12. A Rover Mobility Platform with Autonomous Capability to Enable Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, P.; Langley, C.; Shaw, A.

    2018-04-01

    The next step in understanding Mars is sample return. In Fall 2016, the CSA conducted an analogue deployment using the Mars Exploration Science Rover. An objective was to demonstrate the maturity of the rover's guidance, navigation, and control.

  13. The Use of Returned Martian Samples to Evaluate the Possibility of Extant Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    iMOST Team; ten Kate, I. L.; Mackelprang, R.; Rettberg, P.; Smith, C. L.; Altieri, F.; Amelin, Y.; Ammannito, E.; Anand, M.; Beaty, D. W.; Benning, L. G.; Bishop, J. L.; Borg, L. E.; Boucher, D.; Brucato, J. R.; Busemann, H.; Campbell, K. A.; Carrier, B. L.; Czaja, A. D.; Debaille, V.; Des Marais, D. J.; Dixon, M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Farmer, J. D.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Fogarty, J.; Glavin, D. P.; Goreva, Y. S.; Grady, M. M.; Hallis, L. J.; Harrington, A. D.; Hausrath, E. M.; Herd, C. D. K.; Horgan, B.; Humayun, M.; Kleine, T.; Kleinhenz, J.; Mangold, N.; Mayhew, L. E.; McCoy, J. T.; McCubbin, F. M.; McLennan, S. M.; McSween, H. Y.; Moser, D. E.; Moynier, F.; Mustard, J. F.; Niles, P. B.; Ori, G. G.; Raulin, F.; Rucker, M. A.; Schmitz, N.; Sefton-Nash, E.; Sephton, M. A.; Shaheen, R.; Shuster, D. L.; Siljestrom, S.; Spry, J. A.; Steele, A.; Swindle, T. D.; Tosca, N. J.; Usui, T.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Wadhwa, M.; Weiss, B. P.; Werner, S. C.; Westall, F.; Wheeler, R. M.; Zipfel, J.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2018-04-01

    The astrobiological community is highly interested in interrogating returned martian samples for evidence of extant life. A single observation with one method will not constitute evidence of extant life — it will require a suite of investigations.

  14. Detection of cometary amines in samples returned by Stardust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Sandford, S. A.

    2008-02-01

    The abundances of amino acids and amines, as well as their enantiomeric compositions, were measured in samples of Stardust comet-exposed aerogel and foil using liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection and time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS). A suite of amino acids and amines including glycine, L-alanine, β-alanine (BALA), γ-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), ɛ-amino-n-caproic acid (EACA), ethanolamine (MEA), methylamine (MA), and ethylamine (EA) were identified in acid-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts of these Stardust materials above background levels. With the exception of MA and EA, all other primary amines detected in cometexposed aerogel fragments C2054,4 and C2086,1 were also present in the flight aerogel witness tile that was not exposed to the comet, indicating that most amines are terrestrial in origin. The enhanced relative abundances of MA and EA in comet-exposed aerogel compared to controls, coupled with MA to EA ratios (C2054,4: 1.0 ± 0.2; C2086,1: 1.8 ± 0.2) that are distinct from preflight aerogels (E243-13C and E243-13F: 7 ± 3), suggest that these volatile amines were captured from comet Wild 2. MA and EA were present predominantly in an acid-hydrolyzable bound form in the aerogel, rather than as free primary amines, which is consistent with laboratory analyses of cometary ice analog materials. It is possible that Wild 2 MA and EA were formed on energetically processed icy grains containing ammonia and approximately equal abundances of methane and ethane. The presence of cometary amines in Stardust material supports the hypothesis that comets were an important source of prebiotic organic carbon and nitrogen on the early Earth.

  15. COMPASS Final Report: Near Earth Asteroids Rendezvous and Sample Earth Returns (NEARER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team completed a design for a multi-asteroid (Nereus and 1996 FG3) sample return capable spacecraft for the NASA In-Space Propulsion Office. The objective of the study was to support technology development and assess the relative benefits of different electric propulsion systems on asteroid sample return design. The design uses a single, heritage Orion solar array (SA) (approx.6.5 kW at 1 AU) to power a single NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster ((NEXT) a spare NEXT is carried) to propel a lander to two near Earth asteroids. After landing and gathering science samples, the Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle spirals back to Earth where it drops off the first sample s return capsule and performs an Earth flyby to assist the craft in rendezvousing with a second asteroid, which is then sampled. The second sample is returned in a similar fashion. The vehicle, dubbed Near Earth Asteroids Rendezvous and Sample Earth Returns (NEARER), easily fits in an Atlas 401 launcher and its cost estimates put the mission in the New Frontier s (NF's) class mission.

  16. Multiple Smaller Missions as a Direct Pathway to Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, P. B.; Draper, D. S.; Evans, C. A.; Gibson, E. K.; Graham, L. D.; Jones, J. H.; Lederer, S. M.; Ming, D.; Seaman, C. H.; Archer, P. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries by the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Express, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft include multiple, tantalizing astrobiological targets representing both past and present environments on Mars. The most desirable path to Mars Sample Return (MSR) would be to collect and return samples from that site which provides the clearest examples of the variety of rock types considered a high priority for sample return (pristine igneous, sedimentary, and hydrothermal). Here we propose an MSR architecture in which the next steps (potentially launched in 2018) would entail a series of smaller missions, including caching, to multiple landing sites to verify the presence of high priority sample return targets through in situ analyses. This alternative architecture to one flagship-class sample caching mission to a single site would preserve a direct path to MSR as stipulated by the Planetary Decadal Survey, while permitting investigation of diverse deposit types and providing comparison of the site of returned samples to other aqueous environments on early Mars

  17. An Internationally Coordinated Science Management Plan for Samples Returned from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigin, T.; Smith, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) remains a high priority of the planetary exploration community. Such an effort will undoubtedly be too large for any individual agency to conduct itself, and thus will require extensive global cooperation. To help prepare for an eventual MSR campaign, the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG) chartered the international Mars Architecture for the Return of Samples (iMARS) Phase II working group in 2014, consisting of representatives from 17 countries and agencies. The overarching task of the team was to provide recommendations for progressing towards campaign implementation, including a proposed science management plan. Building upon the iMARS Phase I (2008) outcomes, the Phase II team proposed the development of an International MSR Science Institute as part of the campaign governance, centering its deliberations around four themes: Organization: including an organizational structure for the Institute that outlines roles and responsibilities of key members and describes sample return facility requirements; Management: presenting issues surrounding scientific leadership, defining guidelines and assumptions for Institute membership, and proposing a possible funding model; Operations & Data: outlining a science implementation plan that details the preliminary sample examination flow, sample allocation process, and data policies; and Curation: introducing a sample curation plan that comprises sample tracking and routing procedures, sample sterilization considerations, and long-term archiving recommendations. This work presents a summary of the group's activities, findings, and recommendations, highlighting the role of international coordination in managing the returned samples.

  18. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  19. Dual Si and O Isotope Measurement of Lunar Samples Using IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, N.; Hill, P. J. A.; Osinski, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The use of isotopic systems and their associated theoretical models have become an increasingly sophisticated tool for investigating the origin of planetary bodies in the solar system. It was originally hypothesized that evidence for the impact origin of Moon would manifest itself as an isotopic heterogeneity between lunar and terrestrial samples; however, most isotope systems show no difference between the bulk Earth and Moon. The stable isotopes of both silicon (Si) and oxygen (O) have been essential in further understanding planetary processes including core formation. Historically the analysis of the Si and O isotope ratios in terrestrial and extraterrestrial material has primarily been measured independent of each other through three main techniques: isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). Each technique has its own strength and weakness in regards to resolution and precision; however, one of the main limiting factors in all three of these techniques rests on the requirement of multiple aliquots. As most literature focuses on the measurement of oxygen or silicon isotopes, this unique line allows for the precise analysis of Si and O isotopes from the same aliquot of bulk sample, which cannot be done with SIMS or ICP-MS analysis. To deal with this problem a unique laser line system has been developed in the Laboratory for Stable Isotope Science at Western University, Canada, that simultaneously extracts SiF4 and O2 from the same 1-2 mg aliquot. We present the application of analyzing both isotopic systems from the sample aliquot to Apollo, meteoritic, and terrestrial samples and its implication for the formation of the Moon. Preliminary results from this line suggest that although the O isotopes ratios are consistent with a homogenous Moon-Earth system, a difference is observed in Si isotopes between Apollo and terrestrial samples compared to

  20. The Importance of Contamination Knowledge in Curation - Insights into Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A. D.; Calaway, M. J.; Regberg, A. B.; Mitchell, J. L.; Fries, M. D.; Zeigler, R. A.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2018-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), in Houston, TX (henceforth Curation Office) manages the curation of extraterrestrial samples returned by NASA missions and shared collections from international partners, preserving their integrity for future scientific study while providing the samples to the international community in a fair and unbiased way. The Curation Office also curates flight and non-flight reference materials and other materials from spacecraft assembly (e.g., lubricants, paints and gases) of sample return missions that would have the potential to cross-contaminate a present or future NASA astromaterials collection.

  1. Backward Planetary Protection Issues and Possible Solutions for Icy Plume Sample Return Missions from Astrobiological Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Hajime; McKay, Christopher P.; Anbar, Ariel; Tsou, Peter

    The recent report of possible water vapor plumes at Europa and Ceres, together with the well-known Enceladus plume containing water vapor, salt, ammonia, and organic molecules, suggests that sample return missions could evolve into a generic approach for outer Solar System exploration in the near future, especially for the benefit of astrobiology research. Sampling such plumes can be accomplished via fly-through mission designs, modeled after the successful Stardust mission to capture and return material from Comet Wild-2 and multiple, precise trajectory controls of the Cassini mission to fly through Enceladus’ plume. The proposed LIFE (Life Investigation For Enceladus) mission to Enceladus, which would sample organic molecules from the plume of that apparently habitable world, provides one example of the appealing scientific return of such missions. Beyond plumes, the upper atmosphere of Titan could also be sampled in this manner. The SCIM mission to Mars, also inspired by Stardust, would sample and return aerosol dust in the upper atmosphere of Mars and thus extends this concept even to other planetary bodies. Such missions share common design needs. In particular, they require large exposed sampler areas (or sampler arrays) that can be contained to the standards called for by international planetary protection protocols that COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy (PPP) recommends. Containment is also needed because these missions are driven by astrobiologically relevant science - including interest in organic molecules - which argues against heat sterilization that could destroy scientific value of samples. Sample containment is a daunting engineering challenge. Containment systems must be carefully designed to appropriate levels to satisfy the two top requirements: planetary protection policy and the preserving the scientific value of samples. Planning for Mars sample return tends to center on a hermetic seal specification (i.e., gas-tight against helium escape

  2. Model Complexity and Out-of-Sample Performance: Evidence from S&P 500 Index Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaeck, Andreas; Rodrigues, Paulo; Seeger, Norman J.

    We apply a range of out-of-sample specification tests to more than forty competing stochastic volatility models to address how model complexity affects out-of-sample performance. Using daily S&P 500 index returns, model confidence set estimations provide strong evidence that the most important model

  3. EURO-CARES: European Roadmap for a Sample Return Curation Facility and Planetary Protection Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, John Robert

    2016-07-01

    A mature European planetary exploration program and evolving sample return mission plans gathers the interest of a wider scientific community. The interest is generated from studying extraterrestrial samples in the laborato-ry providing new opportunities to address fundamental issues on the origin and evolution of the Solar System, on the primordial cosmochemistry, and on the nature of the building blocks of terrestrial planets and on the origin of life. Major space agencies are currently planning for missions that will collect samples from a variety of Solar Sys-tem environments, from primitive (carbonaceous) small bodies, from the Moon, Mars and its moons and, final-ly, from icy moons of the outer planets. A dedicated sample return curation facility is seen as an essential re-quirement for the receiving, assessment, characterization and secure preservation of the collected extraterrestrial samples and potentially their safe distribution to the scientific community. EURO-CARES is a European Commission study funded under the Horizon-2020 program. The strategic objec-tive of EURO-CARES is to create a roadmap for the implementation of a European Extraterrestrial Sample Cu-ration Facility. The facility has to provide safe storage and handling of extraterrestrial samples and has to enable the preliminary characterization in order to achieve the required effectiveness and collaborative outcomes for the whole international scientific community. For example, samples returned from Mars could pose a threat on the Earth's biosphere if any living extraterrestrial organism are present in the samples. Thus planetary protection is an essential aspect of all Mars sample return missions that will affect the retrival and transport from the point of return, sample handling, infrastructure methodology and management of a future curation facility. Analysis of the state of the art of Planetary Protection technology shows there are considerable possibilities to define and develop

  4. {sup 53}Mn and {sup 60}Fe measurements in lunar samples by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fimiani, Leticia; Faestermann, Thomas; Gomez Guzman, Jose Manuel; Hain, Karin; Korschinek, Gunther; Ludwig, Peter [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Herzog, Gregory; Ligon, Bret; Park, Jisun [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Knie, Klaus [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Rugel, Georg [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Cook et al, 40th LPSC 1129 (2009) reported a concentration of 14{sup +9}{sub -6} dpm {sup 60}Fe/[kg Ni] (T{sub 1/2}=2.62.10{sup 6}a) in a surface sample of the Apollo 12 12025/8 drive tube. This value is higher than the one expected due to galactic or solar cosmic ray production and may suggest the deposition of supernova debris on the lunar surface about 2 Ma ago. In order to try to reproduce this result, new measurements were made in material from the same core and position. To widen the search for supernova debris, we also analyzed four near-surface samples of lunar drive tube 15008; and one each from the skim, scoop and under-boulder samples 69921/41/61 via AMS in the Maier Leibnitz Laboratorium in Garching, Germany. The measuring technique and the preliminary results are discussed.

  5. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  6. Investigating the Geological History of Asteroid 101955 Bennu Through Remote Sensing and Returned Sample Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lauretta, D. S.; Bottke, W. F.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA New Frontiers Mission OSRIS-REx will return surface regolith samples from near-Earth asteroid 101955 Bennu in September 2023. This target is classified as a B-type asteroid and is spectrally similar to CI and CM chondrite meteorites [1]. The returned samples are thus expected to contain primitive ancient Solar System materials that formed in planetary, nebular, interstellar, and circumstellar environments. Laboratory studies of primitive astromaterials have yielded detailed constraints on the origins, properties, and evolutionary histories of a wide range of Solar System bodies. Yet, the parent bodies of meteorites and cosmic dust are generally unknown, genetic and evolutionary relationships among asteroids and comets are unsettled, and links between laboratory and remote observations remain tenuous. The OSIRIS-REx mission will offer the opportunity to coordinate detailed laboratory analyses of asteroidal materials with known and well characterized geological context from which the samples originated. A primary goal of the OSIRIS-REx mission will be to provide detailed constraints on the origin and geological and dynamical history of Bennu through coordinated analytical studies of the returned samples. These microanalytical studies will be placed in geological context through an extensive orbital remote sensing campaign that will characterize the global geological features and chemical diversity of Bennu. The first views of the asteroid surface and of the returned samples will undoubtedly bring remarkable surprises. However, a wealth of laboratory studies of meteorites and spacecraft encounters with primitive bodies provides a useful framework to formulate priority scientific questions and effective analytical approaches well before the samples are returned. Here we summarize our approach to unraveling the geological history of Bennu through returned sample analyses.

  7. X-Ray Computed Tomography: The First Step in Mars Sample Return Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzenbach, L. C.; Fries, M. D.; Grady, M. M.; Greenwood, R. C.; McCubbin, F. M.; Zeigler, R. A.; Smith, C. L.; Steele, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars 2020 rover mission will collect and cache samples from the martian surface for possible retrieval and subsequent return to Earth. If the samples are returned, that mission would likely present an opportunity to analyze returned Mars samples within a geologic context on Mars. In addition, it may provide definitive information about the existence of past or present life on Mars. Mars sample return presents unique challenges for the collection, containment, transport, curation and processing of samples [1] Foremost in the processing of returned samples are the closely paired considerations of life detection and Planetary Protection. In order to achieve Mars Sample Return (MSR) science goals, reliable analyses will depend on overcoming some challenging signal/noise-related issues where sparse martian organic compounds must be reliably analyzed against the contamination background. While reliable analyses will depend on initial clean acquisition and robust documentation of all aspects of developing and managing the cache [2], there needs to be a reliable sample handling and analysis procedure that accounts for a variety of materials which may or may not contain evidence of past or present martian life. A recent report [3] suggests that a defined set of measurements should be made to effectively inform both science and Planetary Protection, when applied in the context of the two competing null hypotheses: 1) that there is no detectable life in the samples; or 2) that there is martian life in the samples. The defined measurements would include a phased approach that would be accepted by the community to preserve the bulk of the material, but provide unambiguous science data that can be used and interpreted by various disciplines. Fore-most is the concern that the initial steps would ensure the pristine nature of the samples. Preliminary, non-invasive techniques such as computed X-ray tomography (XCT) have been suggested as the first method to interrogate and

  8. Carbon Isotopic Ratios of Amino Acids in Stardust-Returned Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned to Earth samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 in January 2006. Preliminary examinations revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds could not be identified. Here. we present the carbon isotopic ratios of glycine and E-aminocaproic acid (EACH), the two most abundant amino acids observed, in Stardust-returned foil samples measured by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio crass spectrometry coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QMS/IRMS).

  9. An Interdisciplinary Method for the Visualization of Novel High-Resolution Precision Photography and Micro-XCT Data Sets of NASA's Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorite Samples to Create Combined Research-Grade 3D Virtual Samples for the Benefit of Astromaterials Collections Conservation, Curation, Scientific Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    New technologies make possible the advancement of documentation and visualization practices that can enhance conservation and curation protocols for NASA's Astromaterials Collections. With increasing demands for accessibility to updated comprehensive data, and with new sample return missions on the horizon, it is of primary importance to develop new standards for contemporary documentation and visualization methodologies. Our interdisciplinary team has expertise in the fields of heritage conservation practices, professional photography, photogrammetry, imaging science, application engineering, data curation, geoscience, and astromaterials curation. Our objective is to create virtual 3D reconstructions of Apollo Lunar and Antarctic Meteorite samples that are a fusion of two state-of-the-art data sets: the interior view of the sample by collecting Micro-XCT data and the exterior view of the sample by collecting high-resolution precision photography data. These new data provide researchers an information-rich visualization of both compositional and textural information prior to any physical sub-sampling. Since January 2013 we have developed a process that resulted in the successful creation of the first image-based 3D reconstruction of an Apollo Lunar Sample correlated to a 3D reconstruction of the same sample's Micro- XCT data, illustrating that this technique is both operationally possible and functionally beneficial. In May of 2016 we began a 3-year research period during which we aim to produce Virtual Astromaterials Samples for 60 high-priority Apollo Lunar and Antarctic Meteorite samples and serve them on NASA's Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation website. Our research demonstrates that research-grade Virtual Astromaterials Samples are beneficial in preserving for posterity a precise 3D reconstruction of the sample prior to sub-sampling, which greatly improves documentation practices, provides unique and novel visualization of the sample's interior and

  10. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  11. The CanMars Analogue Mission: Lessons Learned for Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Beaty, D.; Battler, M.; Caudill, C.; Francis, R.; Haltigin, T.; Hipkin, V.; Pilles, E.

    2018-04-01

    We present an overview and lessons learned for Mars Sample Return from CanMars — an analogue mission that simulated a Mars 2020-like cache mission. Data from 39 sols of operations conducted in the Utah desert in 2015 and 2016 are presented.

  12. Inhalation Toxicity of Ground Lunar Dust Prepared from Apollo-14 Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R.; Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Within the decade one or more space-faring nations intend to return humans to the moon for more in depth exploration of the lunar surface and subsurface than was conducted during the Apollo days. The lunar surface is blanketed with fine dust, much of it in the respirable size range (<10 micron). Eventually, there is likely to be a habitable base and rovers available to reach distant targets for sample acquisition. Despite designs that could minimize the entry of dust into habitats and rovers, it is reasonable to expect lunar dust to pollute both as operations progress. Apollo astronauts were exposed briefly to dust at nuisance levels, but stays of up to 6 months on the lunar surface are envisioned. Will repeated episodic exposures to lunar dust present a health hazard to those engaged in lunar exploration? Using rats exposed to lunar dust by nose-only inhalation, we set out to investigate that question.

  13. Determination of lunar ilmenite abundances from remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Stephen M.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    The mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3) was found in abundance in lunar mare soils returned during the Apollo project. Lunar ilmenite often contains greater than 50 weight-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), and is a primary potential resource for oxygen and other raw materials to supply future lunar bases. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of the returned lunar soils produced an empirical function that relates the spectral reflectance ratio at 400 and 560 nm to the weight percent abundance of TiO2. This allowed mapping of the lunar TiO2 distribution using telescopic vidicon multispectral imaging from the ground; however, the time variant photometric response of the vidicon detectors produced abundance uncertainties of at least 2 to 5 percent. Since that time, solid-state charge-coupled device (CCD) detector technology capable of much improved photometric response has become available. An investigation of the lunar TiO2 distribution was carried out utilizing groundbased telescopic CCD multispectral imagery and spectroscopy. The work was approached in phases to develop optimum technique based upon initial results. The goal is to achieve the best possible TiO2 abundance maps from the ground as a precursor to lunar orbiter and robotic sample return missions, and to produce a better idea of the peak abundances of TiO2 for benefaction studies. These phases and the results are summarized.

  14. Cosmogenic /sup 22/Na and /sup 26/Al in samples of lunar ground from a drill column of Moon-24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrukhina, A.K.; Povinets, P.; Ustinova, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    The method of low background (..beta..-..gamma..-..gamma..)-spectrometry without destruction of the sample has been used to measure /sup 22/Na and /sup 26/Al radioactivity in samples of lunar ground 24118.4-4, 24143.4-4 apd 24184.4-4 from the ''Luna-24'' drilling column. Equilibrium radioactivity of these cosmogenic isotopes is calculated by the analytic method. The analysis of theoretical and experimental data shows that at depths lower than approximately 40 cm from the lunar surface the drilling process did not bring about ground mixing in the drilling column. For the last million of years the regolite surface layer in the place of ''Luna-24'' landing remained pracically unchanged, i.e. has not been subjected to intensive effect of some mechanic processes on lunar surface. The average intensity of galactic cosmic rays with the rigidity > 0.5 GV for the last million years within the limits of approximtaely 20% remained stable and corresponded to their modern medium intensity 0.24 particlesxcm/sup -2/xc/sup -1/xsr/sup -1/. The average spectrum of galactic cosmic rays for a million years approximately corresponds to the average spectrum for 1962 or 1971.

  15. Cosmogenic 22Na and 26Al in samples of lunar ground from a drill column of Moon-24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrukhina, A.K.; Povinets, P.; Ustinova, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    The method of low background (β-γ-γ)-spectrometry without destruction of the sample has been used to measure 22 Na and 26 Al radioactivity in samples of lunar ground 24118.4-4, 24143.4-4 apd 24184.4-4 from the ''Luna-24'' drilling column. Equilibrium radioactivity of these cosmoqenic isotopes is calculated by the analytic method. The analysis of theoretical and experimental data shows that at depths lower than approximately 40 cm from the lunar surface the drilling process did not bring about ground mixing in the drilling column. For the last million of years the regolite surface layer in the place of ''Luna-24'' landing remained pracically unchanged, i. e. has not been subjected to intensive effect of some mechanic processes on lunar surface. The average intensity of galactic cosmic rays with the rigidity > 0.5 GV for the last million years within the limits of approximtaely 20% remained stable and corresponded to their modern medium intensity 0.24 particlesxcm -2 xc -1 xsr -1 . The average spectrum of galactic cosmic rays for a million years approximately corresponds to the average spectrum for 1962 or 1971

  16. The Opera Instrument: An Advanced Curation Development for Mars Sample Return Organic Contamination Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Fries, W. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) requires strict organic contamination control (CC) and contamination knowledge (CK) as outlined by the Mars 2020 Organic Contamination Panel (OCP). This includes a need to monitor surficial organic contamination to a ng/sq. cm sensitivity level. Archiving and maintaining this degree of surface cleanliness may be difficult but has been achieved. MSR's CK effort will be very important because all returned samples will be studied thoroughly and in minute detail. Consequently, accurate CK must be collected and characterized to best interpret scientific results from the returned samples. The CK data are not only required to make accurate measurements and interpretations for carbon-depleted martian samples, but also to strengthen the validity of science investigations performed on the samples. The Opera instrument prototype is intended to fulfill a CC/CK role in the assembly, cleaning, and overall contamination history of hardware used in the MSR effort, from initial hardware assembly through post-flight sample curation. Opera is intended to monitor particulate and organic contamination using quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs), in a self-contained portable package that is cleanroom-compliant. The Opera prototype is in initial development capable of approximately 100 ng/sq. cm organic contamination sensitivity, with additional development planned to achieve 1 ng/sq. cm. The Opera prototype was funded by the 2017 NASA Johnson Space Center Innovation Charge Account (ICA), which provides funding for small, short-term projects.

  17. Dynamic Acquisition and Retrieval Tool (DART) for Comet Sample Return : Session: 2.06.Robotic Mobility and Sample Acquisition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bonitz, Robert; Kulczycki, Erick; Aisen, Norman; Dandino, Charles M.; Cantrell, Brett S.; Gallagher, William; Shevin, Jesse; Ganino, Anthony; Haddad, Nicolas; hide

    2013-01-01

    The 2011 Decadal Survey for planetary science released by the National Research Council of the National Academies identified Comet Surface Sample Return (CSSR) as one of five high priority potential New Frontiers-class missions in the next decade. The main objectives of the research described in this publication are: develop a concept for an end-to-end system for collecting and storing a comet sample to be returned to Earth; design, fabricate and test a prototype Dynamic Acquisition and Retrieval Tool (DART) capable of collecting 500 cc sample in a canister and eject the canister with a predetermined speed; identify a set of simulants with physical properties at room temperature that suitably match the physical properties of the comet surface as it would be sampled. We propose the use of a dart that would be launched from the spacecraft to impact and penetrate the comet surface. After collecting the sample, the sample canister would be ejected at a speed greater than the comet's escape velocity and captured by the spacecraft, packaged into a return capsule and returned to Earth. The dart would be composed of an inner tube or sample canister, an outer tube, a decelerator, a means of capturing and retaining the sample, and a mechanism to eject the canister with the sample for later rendezvous with the spacecraft. One of the significant unknowns is the physical properties of the comet surface. Based on new findings from the recent Deep Impact comet encounter mission, we have limited our search of solutions for sampling materials to materials with 10 to 100 kPa shear strength in loose or consolidated form. As the possible range of values for the comet surface temperature is also significantly different than room temperature and testing at conditions other than the room temperature can become resource intensive, we sought sample simulants with physical properties at room temperature similar to the expected physical properties of the comet surface material. The chosen

  18. A Compact, Dual Excitation Raman Probe and Instrument for the Identification of Lunar Samples, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Vision for Space Exploration advocates a return to the moon and involves a pl an of using the moon as a base of for missions to other planets. Early return...

  19. Integrated science and engineering for the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretta, D.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission will survey near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu to understand its physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties, assess its resource potential, refine the impact hazard, and return a sample of this body to the Earth [1]. This mission is scheduled for launch in 2016 and will rendezvous with the asteroid in 2018. Sample return to the Earth follows in 2023. The OSIRIS-REx mission has the challenge of visiting asteroid Bennu, characterizing it at global and local scales, then selecting the best site on the asteroid surface to acquire a sample for return to the Earth. Minimizing the risk of exploring an unknown world requires a tight integration of science and engineering to inform flight system and mission design. Defining the Asteroid Environment: We have performed an extensive astronomical campaign in support of OSIRIS-REx. Lightcurve and phase function observations were obtained with UA Observatories telescopes located in southeastern Arizona during the 2005--2006 and 2011--2012 apparitions [2]. We observed Bennu using the 12.6-cm radar at the Arecibo Observatory in 1999, 2005, and 2011 and the 3.5-cm radar at the Goldstone tracking station in 1999 and 2005 [3]. We conducted near-infrared measurements using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii in September 2005 [4]. Additional spectral observations were obtained in July 2011 and May 2012 with the Magellan 6.5-m telescope [5]. We used the Spitzer space telescope to observe Bennu in May 2007 [6]. The extensive knowledge gained as a result of our telescopic characterization of Bennu was critical in the selection of this object as the OSIRIS-REx mission target. In addition, we use these data, combined with models of the asteroid, to constrain over 100 different asteroid parameters covering orbital, bulk, rotational, radar

  20. Structure from Motion Photogrammetry and Micro X-Ray Computed Tomography 3-D Reconstruction Data Fusion for Non-Destructive Conservation Documentation of Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, K. R.; Blumenfeld, E. H.; Liddle, D. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Evans, C. A.; Zeigler, R. A.; Righter, K.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    Our team is developing a modern, cross-disciplinary approach to documentation and preservation of astromaterials, specifically lunar and meteorite samples stored at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility. Apollo Lunar Sample 60639, collected as part of rake sample 60610 during the 3rd Extra-Vehicular Activity of the Apollo 16 mission in 1972, served as the first NASA-preserved lunar sample to be examined by our team in the development of a novel approach to internal and external sample visualization. Apollo Sample 60639 is classified as a breccia with a glass-coated side and pristine mare basalt and anorthosite clasts. The aim was to accurately register a 3-dimensional Micro X-Ray Computed Tomography (XCT)-derived internal composition data set and a Structure-From-Motion (SFM) Photogrammetry-derived high-fidelity, textured external polygonal model of Apollo Sample 60639. The developed process provided the means for accurate, comprehensive, non-destructive visualization of NASA's heritage lunar samples. The data products, to be ultimately served via an end-user web interface, will allow researchers and the public to interact with the unique heritage samples, providing a platform to "slice through" a photo-realistic rendering of a sample to analyze both its external visual and internal composition simultaneously.

  1. Cosmic-ray production of tungsten isotopes in lunar samples and meteorites and its implications for Hf-W cosmochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leya, Ingo; Wieler, Rainer; Halliday, Alex N.

    2000-01-01

    Excesses and deficiencies in 182W in meteorites and lunar samples relative to the terrestrial 182W atomic abundance have been assigned to the decay of 182Hf (t1/2=9 Ma) and have been used to date metal-silicate fractionation events in the early solar system. Because the effects are very small, production and burn-out of tungsten isotopes by cosmic ray interactions are a concern in such studies. Masarik [J. Masarik, Contribution of neutron-capture reactions to observed tungsten isotopic ratios, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 152 (1997) 181-185] showed that neutron-capture reactions on tungsten isotopes can account at best for a minor part of the observed deficit of 182W in Toluca and other iron meteorites. On the other hand, in lunar samples and stony meteorites the production of 182W from 181Ta may become crucial. Here, we calculate this contribution as well as production and consumption of 182-186W by other neutron-induced reactions. The neutron fluence of each sample is estimated by its nominal cosmic-ray exposure age deduced from noble gas data. This approach overestimates the true cosmogenic W isotopic shifts for samples that might have been irradiated very close to the regolith surface. A quantitative estimate is often also hampered by a lack of Ta data. Despite these reservations, it appears that in many lunar samples neutron-capture on Ta has caused a large part of the observed 182W excess. On the other hand, in some samples, especially those with very low exposure ages, clearly only a minor or even negligible fraction of the 182W excess can be cosmogenic. Therefore, the conclusion, based on Hf-W model ages, that the Moon formed 50 Myr after the start of the solar system remains valid. Martian meteorites have lower Ta/W ratios and cosmic ray exposure ages than most lunar samples. Therefore, cosmogenic production has not significantly altered the W isotopic composition in Martian meteorites. Observed 182W excesses in Martian meteorites as well as the very large

  2. Is Mars Sample Return Required Prior to Sending Humans to Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael; Abell, Paul; Allwood, Abigail; Baker, John; Barnes, Jeff; Bass, Deborah; Beaty, David; Boston, Penny; Brinkerhoff, Will; Budney, Charles; hide

    2012-01-01

    Prior to potentially sending humans to the surface of Mars, it is fundamentally important to return samples from Mars. Analysis in Earth's extensive scientific laboratories would significantly reduce the risk of human Mars exploration and would also support the science and engineering decisions relating to the Mars human flight architecture. The importance of measurements of any returned Mars samples range from critical to desirable, and in all cases these samples will would enhance our understanding of the Martian environment before potentially sending humans to that alien locale. For example, Mars sample return (MSR) could yield information that would enable human exploration related to 1) enabling forward and back planetary protection, 2) characterizing properties of Martian materials relevant for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), 3) assessing any toxicity of Martian materials with respect to human health and performance, and 4) identifying information related to engineering surface hazards such as the corrosive effect of the Martian environment. In addition, MSR would be engineering 'proof of concept' for a potential round trip human mission to the planet, and a potential model for international Mars exploration.

  3. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-08-01

    Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10 μ in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission.

  4. The Mars Sample Return Lab(s) - Lessons from the Past and Implications for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely understood for many years that an essential component of a Mars Sample Return mission is a Sample Receiving Facility (SRF). The purpose of such a facility would be to take delivery of the flight hardware that lands on Earth, open the spacecraft and extract the sample container and samples, and conduct an agreed upon test protocol, while ensuring strict containment and contamination control of the samples while in the SRF. Any samples that are found to be non-hazardous (or are rendered non-hazardous by sterilization) would then be transferred to long-term curation. Although the general concept of an SRF is relatively straightforward, there has been considerable discussion about implementation planning.

  5. Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions: Recommendations from a 2009 NRC Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret; Farmer, Jack

    A 2009 report by the National Research Council (NRC) reviewed a previous study on Mars Sample Return (1997) and provided updated recommendations for future sample return mis-sions based on our current understanding about Mars and its biological potential, as well as advances in technology and analytical capabilities. The committee* made 12 specific recommen-dations that fall into three general categories—one related to current scientific understanding, ten based on changes in the technical and/or policy environment, and one aimed at public com-munication. Substantive changes from the 1997 report relate mainly to protocols and methods, technology and infrastructure, and general oversight. This presentation provides an overview of the 2009 report and its recommendations and analyzes how they may impact mission designs and plans. The full report, Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions is available online at: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?recordi d = 12576 * Study participants: Jack D. Farmer, Arizona State University (chair) James F. Bell III, Cornell University Kathleen C. Benison, Central Michigan University William V. Boynton, University of Arizona Sherry L. Cady, Portland State University F. Grant Ferris, University of Toronto Duncan MacPherson, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Margaret S. Race, SETI Institute Mark H. Thiemens, University of California, San Diego Meenakshi Wadhwa, Arizona State University

  6. In Situ Pre-Selection of Return Samples with Bio-Signatures by Combined Laser Mass Spectrometry and Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesendanger, R.; Wurz, P.; Tulej, M.; Wacey, D.; Neubeck, A.; Grimaudo, V.; Riedo, A.; Moreno, P.; Cedeño-López, A.; Ivarsson, M.

    2018-04-01

    The University of Bern developed instrument prototypes that allow analysis of samples on Mars prior to bringing them back to Earth, allowing to maximize the scientific outcome of the returned samples. We will present the systems and first results.

  7. Seeking Signs of Life on Mars: The Importance of Sedimentary Suites as Part of Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    iMOST Team; Mangold, N.; McLennan, S. M.; Czaja, A. D.; Ori, G. G.; Tosca, N. J.; Altieri, F.; Amelin, Y.; Ammannito, E.; Anand, M.; Beaty, D. W.; Benning, L. G.; Bishop, J. L.; Borg, L. E.; Boucher, D.; Brucato, J. R.; Busemann, H.; Campbell, K. A.; Carrier, B. L.; Debaille, V.; Des Marais, D. J.; Dixon, M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Farmer, J. D.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Fogarty, J.; Glavin, D. P.; Goreva, Y. S.; Grady, M. M.; Hallis, L. J.; Harrington, A. D.; Hausrath, E. M.; Herd, C. D. K.; Horgan, B.; Humayun, M.; Kleine, T.; Kleinhenz, J.; Mackelprang, R.; Mayhew, L. E.; McCubbin, F. M.; McCoy, J. T.; McSween, H. Y.; Moser, D. E.; Moynier, F.; Mustard, J. F.; Niles, P. B.; Raulin, F.; Rettberg, P.; Rucker, M. A.; Schmitz, N.; Sefton-Nash, E.; Sephton, M. A.; Shaheen, R.; Shuster, D. L.; Siljestrom, S.; Smith, C. L.; Spry, J. A.; Steele, A.; Swindle, T. D.; ten Kate, I. L.; Usui, T.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Wadhwa, M.; Weiss, B. P.; Werner, S. C.; Westall, F.; Wheeler, R. M.; Zipfel, J.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2018-04-01

    Sedimentary, and especially lacustrine, depositional environments are high-priority geological/astrobiological settings for Mars Sample Return. We review the detailed investigations, measurements, and sample types required to evaluate such settings.

  8. I. T. - R. O. C. K. S. Comet Nuclei Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcher, N.

    2009-04-01

    Ices, organics and minerals recording the chemical evolution of the outer regions of the early solar nebula are the main constituents of comets. Because comets maintain the nearly pristine nature of the cloud where they formed, the analyses of their composition, structure, thermodynamics and isotope ratios will increase our understanding of the processes that occurred in the early phases of the solar system as well as the Interstellar Medium (ISM) Cloud that predated the formation of the solar nebula [1]. While the deep impact mission aimed at determining the internal structure of comet Temple1's nuclei [e.g. 3], the stardust mission sample return has dramatically increased our understanding of comets. Its first implications indicated that some of the comet material originated in the inner solar system and was later transported outward beyond the freezing line [4]. A wide range of organic compounds identified within different grains of the aerogel collectors has demonstrated the heterogeneity in their assemblages [5]. This suggests either many histories associated with these material or possibly analytical constraints imposed by capture heating of Wild2 material in silica aerogel. The current mission ROSETTA, will further expand our knowledge about comets considerably through rigorous in situ analyses of a Jupiter Family Comet (JFC). As the next generation of comet research post ROSETTA, we present the comet nuclei sample return mission IT - ROCKS (International Team - Return Of Comet's Key Samples) to return several minimally altered samples from various locations of comet 88P/Howell, a typical JFC. The mission scenario includes remote sensing of the comet's nucleus with onboard instruments similar to the ROSETTA instruments [6, 7, 8] (VIS, IR, Thermal IR, X-Ray, Radar) and gas/dust composition measurements including a plasma science package. Additionally two microprobes [9] will further investigate the physical properties of the comet's surface. Retrieving of the

  9. Strategies for Distinguishing Abiotic Chemistry from Martian Biochemistry in Samples Returned from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Callahan, M. P.; Elsila, J. E.; Stern, J. C.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    A key goal in the search for evidence of extinct or extant life on Mars will be the identification of chemical biosignatures including complex organic molecules common to all life on Earth. These include amino acids, the monomer building blocks of proteins and enzymes, and nucleobases, which serve as the structural basis of information storage in DNA and RNA. However, many of these organic compounds can also be formed abiotically as demonstrated by their prevalence in carbonaceous meteorites [1]. Therefore, an important challenge in the search for evidence of life on Mars will be distinguishing between abiotic chemistry of either meteoritic or martian origin from any chemical biosignatures from an extinct or extant martian biota. Although current robotic missions to Mars, including the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and the planned 2018 ExoMars rovers, will have the analytical capability needed to identify these key classes of organic molecules if present [2,3], return of a diverse suite of martian samples to Earth would allow for much more intensive laboratory studies using a broad array of extraction protocols and state-of-theart analytical techniques for bulk and spatially resolved characterization, molecular detection, and isotopic and enantiomeric compositions that may be required for unambiguous confirmation of martian life. Here we will describe current state-of-the-art laboratory analytical techniques that have been used to characterize the abundance and distribution of amino acids and nucleobases in meteorites, Apollo samples, and comet- exposed materials returned by the Stardust mission with an emphasis on their molecular characteristics that can be used to distinguish abiotic chemistry from biochemistry as we know it. The study of organic compounds in carbonaceous meteorites is highly relevant to Mars sample return analysis, since exogenous organic matter should have accumulated in the martian regolith over the last several billion years and the

  10. Human Lunar Destiny: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers conceptual strategy and rationale for returning astronauts to the moon. NASA's historic Apollo program enabled humans to make the first expeditionary voyages to the moon and to gather and return samples back to the earth for further study. To continue exploration of the moon within the next ten to fifteen years, one possible mission concept for returning astronauts using existing launch vehicle infrastructure is presented. During these early lunar missions, expeditionary trips are made to geographical destinations and permanent outposts are established at the lunar south pole. As these missions continue, mining operations begin in an effort to learn how to live off the land. Over time, a burgeoning economy based on mining and scientific activity emerges with the formation of more accommodating settlements and surface infrastructure assets. As lunar activity advances, surface infrastructure assets grow and become more complex, lunar settlements and outposts are established across the globe, travel to and from the moon becomes common place, and commerce between earth and the moon develops and flourishes. Colonization and development of the moon is completed with the construction of underground cities and the establishment of a full range of political, religious, educational, and recreational institutions with a diverse population from all nations of the world. Finally, rationale for diversifying concentrations of humanity throughout earth's neighborhood and the greater solar system is presented.

  11. A Dual Launch Robotic and Human Lunar Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David L.; Mulqueen, Jack; Percy, Tom; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive lunar exploration architecture developed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office that features a science-based surface exploration strategy and a transportation architecture that uses two launches of a heavy lift launch vehicle to deliver human and robotic mission systems to the moon. The principal advantage of the dual launch lunar mission strategy is the reduced cost and risk resulting from the development of just one launch vehicle system. The dual launch lunar mission architecture may also enhance opportunities for commercial and international partnerships by using expendable launch vehicle services for robotic missions or development of surface exploration elements. Furthermore, this architecture is particularly suited to the integration of robotic and human exploration to maximize science return. For surface operations, an innovative dual-mode rover is presented that is capable of performing robotic science exploration as well as transporting human crew conducting surface exploration. The dual-mode rover can be deployed to the lunar surface to perform precursor science activities, collect samples, scout potential crew landing sites, and meet the crew at a designated landing site. With this approach, the crew is able to evaluate the robotically collected samples to select the best samples for return to Earth to maximize the scientific value. The rovers can continue robotic exploration after the crew leaves the lunar surface. The transportation system for the dual launch mission architecture uses a lunar-orbit-rendezvous strategy. Two heavy lift launch vehicles depart from Earth within a six hour period to transport the lunar lander and crew elements separately to lunar orbit. In lunar orbit, the crew transfer vehicle docks with the lander and the crew boards the lander for descent to the surface. After the surface mission, the crew returns to the orbiting transfer vehicle for the return to the Earth. This

  12. Reduction of Martian Sample Return Mission Launch Mass with Solar Sail Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Tiffany E.; Heaton, Andrew; Thomas, Scott; Thomas, Dan; Young, Roy; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; hide

    2013-01-01

    Solar sails have the potential to provide mass and cost savings for spacecraft traveling within the inner solar system. Companies like L'Garde have demonstrated sail manufacturability and various in-space deployment methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a current Mars sample return architecture and to determine how cost and mass would be reduced by incorporating a solar sail propulsion system. The team validated the design proposed by L'Garde, and scaled the design based on a trajectory analysis. Using the solar sail design reduced the required mass, eliminating one of the three launches required in the original architecture.

  13. Mars Sample Return: The Next Step Required to Revolutionize Knowledge of Martian Geological and Climatological History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The capability of scientific instrumentation flown on planetary orbiters and landers has made great advances since the signature Viking mission of the seventies. At some point, however, the science return from orbital remote sensing, and even in situ measurements, becomes incremental, rather than revolutionary. This is primarily caused by the low spatial resolution of such measurements, even for landed instrumentation, the incomplete mineralogical record derived from such measurements, the inability to do the detailed textural, mineralogical and compositional characterization needed to demonstrate equilibrium or reaction paths, and the lack of chronological characterization. For the foreseeable future, flight instruments will suffer from this limitation. In order to make the next revolutionary breakthrough in understanding the early geological and climatological history of Mars, samples must be available for interrogation using the full panoply of laboratory-housed analytical instrumentation. Laboratory studies of samples allow for determination of parageneses of rocks through microscopic identification of mineral assemblages, evaluation of equilibrium through electron microbeam analyses of mineral compositions and structures, determination of formation temperatures through secondary ion or thermal ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS or TIMS) analyses of stable isotope compositions. Such details are poorly constrained by orbital data (e.g. phyllosilicate formation at Mawrth Vallis), and incompletely described by in situ measurements (e.g. genesis of Burns formation sediments at Meridiani Planum). Laboratory studies can determine formation, metamorphism and/or alteration ages of samples through SIMS or TIMS of radiogenic isotope systems; a capability well-beyond flight instrumentation. Ideally, sample return should be from a location first scouted by landers such that fairly mature hypotheses have been formulated that can be tested. However, samples from clastic

  14. Touch And Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) for the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, B. J.; Ravine, M. A.; Caplinger, M.; Schaffner, J. A.; Ladewig, J. V.; Olds, R. D.; Norman, C. D.; Huish, D.; Hughes, M.; Anderson, S. K.; Lorenz, D. A.; May, A.; Jackman, C. D.; Nelson, D.; Moreau, M.; Kubitschek, D.; Getzandanner, K.; Gordon, K. E.; Eberhardt, A.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission spacecraft includes the Touch And Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) three camera-head instrument. The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, confirm acquisition of the asteroid sample, and document asteroid sample stowage. The cameras were designed and constructed by Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) based on requirements developed by Lockheed Martin and NASA. All three of the cameras are mounted to the spacecraft nadir deck and provide images in the visible part of the spectrum, 400-700 nm. Two of the TAGCAMS cameras, NavCam 1 and NavCam 2, serve as fully redundant navigation cameras to support optical navigation and natural feature tracking. Their boresights are aligned in the nadir direction with small angular offsets for operational convenience. The third TAGCAMS camera, StowCam, provides imagery to assist with and confirm proper stowage of the asteroid sample. Its boresight is pointed at the OSIRIS-REx sample return capsule located on the spacecraft deck. All three cameras have at their heart a 2592 × 1944 pixel complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detector array that provides up to 12-bit pixel depth. All cameras also share the same lens design and a camera field of view of roughly 44° × 32° with a pixel scale of 0.28 mrad/pixel. The StowCam lens is focused to image features on the spacecraft deck, while both NavCam lens focus positions are optimized for imaging at infinity. A brief description of the TAGCAMS instrument and how it is used to support critical OSIRIS-REx operations is provided.

  15. Restricted by Whom? A Historical Review of Strategies and Organization for Restricted Earth Return of Samples from NASA Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugel, Betsy

    2017-01-01

    This presentation is a review of the timeline for Apollo's approach to Planetary Protection, then known as Planetary Quarantine. Return of samples from Apollo 11, 12 and 14 represented NASA's first attempts into conducting what is now known as Restricted Earth Return, where return of samples is undertaken by the Agency with the utmost care for the impact that the samples may have on Earth's environment due to the potential presence of microbial or other life forms that originate from the parent body (in this case, Earth's Moon).

  16. Temperature-dependent magnetic properties of individual glass spherules, Apollo 11, 12, and 14 lunar samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A. N.; Sullivan, S.; Alexander, C. C.; Senftle, F. E.; Dwornik, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of 11 glass spherules from the Apollo 14 lunar fines have been measured from room temperature to 4 K. Data taken at room temperature, 77 K, and 4.2 K, show that the soft saturation magnetization was temperature independent. In the temperature range 300 to 77 K the temperature-dependent component of the magnetic susceptibility obeys the Curie law. Susceptibility measurements on these same specimens and in addition 14 similar spherules from the Apollo 11 and 12 mission show a Curie-Weiss relation at temperatures less than 77 K with a Weiss temperature of 3-7 degrees in contrast to 2-3 degrees found for tektites and synthetic glasses of tektite composition. A proposed model and a theoretical expression closely predict the variation of the susceptibility of the glass spherules with temperature.

  17. Lunar CATALYST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (Lunar CATALYST) is a NASA initiative to encourage the development of U.S. private-sector robotic lunar...

  18. Heating and thermal control of brazing technique to break contamination path for potential Mars sample return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Campos, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    The potential return of Mars sample material is of great interest to the planetary science community, as it would enable extensive analysis of samples with highly sensitive laboratory instruments. It is important to make sure such a mission concept would not bring any living microbes, which may possibly exist on Mars, back to Earth's environment. In order to ensure the isolation of Mars microbes from Earth's Atmosphere, a brazing sealing and sterilizing technique was proposed to break the Mars-to-Earth contamination path. Effectively, heating the brazing zone in high vacuum space and controlling the sample temperature for integrity are key challenges to the implementation of this technique. The break-thechain procedures for container configurations, which are being considered, were simulated by multi-physics finite element models. Different heating methods including induction and resistive/radiation were evaluated. The temperature profiles of Martian samples in a proposed container structure were predicted. The results show that the sealing and sterilizing process can be controlled such that the samples temperature is maintained below the level that may cause damage, and that the brazing technique is a feasible approach to breaking the contamination path.

  19. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  20. Elemental Composition of Mars Return Samples Using X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, J.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Schoonen, M. A.; Fogelqvist, E.; Gregerson, J.; Farley, K. A.; Sherman, S.; Hill, J.

    2018-04-01

    NSLS-II at BNL provides a unique and critical capability to perform assessments of the elemental composition and the chemical state of Mars returned samples using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  1. Plans for Selection and In-Situ Investigation of Return Samples by the Supercam Instrument Onboard the Mars 2020 Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Mangold, N.; Anderson, R.; Beyssac, O.; Bonal, L.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; DeFlores, L.; Dromart, G.; Fisher, W.; Forni, O.; Fouchet, T.; Gasnault, O.; Grotzinger, J.; Johnson, J.; Martinez-Frias, J.; McLennan, S.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Montmessin, F.; Poulet, F.; Rull, F.; Sharma, S.

    2018-04-01

    The SuperCam instrument onboard Rover 2020 still provides a complementary set of analyses with IR reflectance and Raman spectroscopy for mineralogy, LIBS for chemistry, and a color imager in order to investigate in-situ samples to return.

  2. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) and Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) as Critical In Situ Investigation for Targeting Mars Returned Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; Goesmann, F.; Goetz, W.; Raulin, F.; SAM Science Team; MOMA Science Team

    2018-04-01

    SAM (Curiosity) and MOMA (ExoMars) Mars instruments, seeking for organics and biosignatures, are essential to establish taphonomic windows of preservation of molecules, in order to target the most interesting samples to return from Mars.

  3. Volatile and non-volatile elements in grain-size separated samples of Apollo 17 lunar soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanoli, R.; Gunten, H.R. von; Kraehenbuehl, U.; Meyer, G.; Wegmueller, F.; Gruetter, A.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1977-01-01

    Three samples of Apollo 17 lunar soils (75081, 72501 and 72461) were separated into 9 grain-size fractions between 540 and 1 μm mean diameter. In order to detect mineral fractionations caused during the separation procedures major elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analyses performed on small aliquots of the separated samples. Twenty elements were measured in each size fraction using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation techniques. The concentration of the main elements in sample 75081 does not change with the grain-size. Exceptions are Fe and Ti which decrease slightly and Al which increases slightly with the decrease in the grain-size. These changes in the composition in main elements suggest a decrease in Ilmenite and an increase in Anorthite with decreasing grain-size. However, it can be concluded that the mineral composition of the fractions changes less than a factor of 2. Samples 72501 and 72461 are not yet analyzed for the main elements. (Auth.)

  4. Clay catalyzed RNA synthesis under Martian conditions: Application for Mars return samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prakash C; Dubey, Krishna; Aldersley, Michael F; Sausville, Meaghen

    2015-06-26

    Catalysis by montmorillonites clay minerals is regarded as a feasible mechanism for the abiotic production and polymerization of key biomolecules on early Earth. We have investigated a montmorillonite-catalyzed reaction of the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of nucleosides as a model to probe prebiotic synthesis of RNA-type oligomers. Here we show that this model is specific for the generation of RNA oligomers despite deoxy-mononucleotides adsorbing equally well onto the montmorillonite catalytic surfaces. Optimum catalytic activity was observed over a range of pH (6-9) and salinity (1 ± 0.2 M NaCl). When the weathering steps of early Earth that generated catalytic montmorillonite were modified to meet Martian soil conditions, the catalytic activity remained intact without altering the surface layer charge. Additionally, the formation of oligomers up to tetramer was detected using as little as 0.1 mg of Na⁺-montmorillonite, suggesting that the catalytic activity of a Martian clay return sample can be investigated with sub-milligram scale samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  6. A LIBS Boroscope for Evaluation of Mars Sample Return Core Candidates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The leading recommendation of the Decadal Survey [National Research Council, 2011] is &taking the first critical steps toward returning carefully selected...

  7. A Comparison of Anorthositic Lunar Lithologies: Variation on the FAN Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Park, J.; Herzog, G. F.; Shirai, N.

    2014-01-01

    Certain anorthositic rocks that are rare in the returned lunar samples have been identified among lunar meteorites. The variety of anorthosites in the Apollo collection also is more varied than is widely recognized. James eta. identified three lithologies in a composite clast o ferroan anorthosite (FAN)-suite rocks in lunar breccia 64435. They further divided all FANs into four subgroups: anorthositic ferroan (AF), mafic magnesian (MM), mafic ferroan (MF), and anorthositic sodic (AS, absent in the 64435 clast). Here we report Sm-Nd isotopic studies of the lithologies present in the 64435 composite clast and compare the new data to our previous data for lunar anorthosites incuding lunar anorthositic meteorites. Mineralogy-petrography, in situ trace element studies, Sr-isotope studies, and Ar-Ar chronology are included, but only the Nd-isotopic studies are currently complete.

  8. Regolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) Aboard the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, R. A.; Chodas, M.; Bayley, L.; Allen, B.; Hong, J.; Biswas, P.; McMenamin, C.; Stout, K.; Bokhour, E.; Bralower, H.; Carte, D.; Chen, S.; Jones, M.; Kissel, S.; Schmidt, F.; Smith, M.; Sondecker, G.; Lim, L. F.; Lauretta, D. S.; Grindlay, J. E.; Binzel, R. P.

    2018-02-01

    The Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is the student collaboration experiment proposed and built by an MIT-Harvard team, launched aboard NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission. REXIS complements the scientific investigations of other OSIRIS-REx instruments by determining the relative abundances of key elements present on the asteroid's surface by measuring the X-ray fluorescence spectrum (stimulated by the natural solar X-ray flux) over the range of energies 0.5 to 7 keV. REXIS consists of two components: a main imaging spectrometer with a coded aperture mask and a separate solar X-ray monitor to account for the Sun's variability. In addition to element abundance ratios (relative to Si) pinpointing the asteroid's most likely meteorite association, REXIS also maps elemental abundance variability across the asteroid's surface using the asteroid's rotation as well as the spacecraft's orbital motion. Image reconstruction at the highest resolution is facilitated by the coded aperture mask. Through this operation, REXIS will be the first application of X-ray coded aperture imaging to planetary surface mapping, making this student-built instrument a pathfinder toward future planetary exploration. To date, 60 students at the undergraduate and graduate levels have been involved with the REXIS project, with the hands-on experience translating to a dozen Master's and Ph.D. theses and other student publications.

  9. Precise simultaneous determination of zirconium and hafnium in silicate rocks, meteorites and lunar samples. [Neutron reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P A; Garg, A N; Ehmann, W D [Kentucky Univ., Lexington (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-01-01

    A precise, sensitive and rapid analytical technique has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Zr and Hf in natural silicate matrices. The technique is based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis and employs a rapid fusion dissolution of the sample and simultaneous precipitation of the Zr-Hf pair with p-hydroxybenzene arsenic acid in an acidic medium. The indicator radionuclides, /sup 95/Zr and /sup 181/Hf, are counted and the /sup 95/Zr activity is corrected for the contribution from U fission. The chemical yields of the radiochemical separation are based on Hf carrier. The yield is determined by reactivation of the processed samples and standards with a /sup 252/Cf isotopic neutron source and by counting the 18.6 sec half-life sup(179m)Hf. The RNAA procedure for Zr and Hf has been shown to be precise and accurate for natural silicate samples, based on replicate analyses of samples containing Zr in the range of 1 ..mu..g/g to over 600 ..mu..g/g. The procedure is relatively rapid with a total chemical processing time of approximately 3 hours. At least 4 samples are processed simultaneously. Ten additional elements (Fe, Cr, Co, Sc, Eu, La, Lu, Ce, Th and Tb) can be determined by direct Ge(Li) spectrometry (INAA) on the samples prior to dissolution for the RNAA determination of Zr and Hf. Corrections for the U fission contribution can be made on the basis of the known U content or from the INAA Th content, based on the relatively constant natural Th/U ratio.

  10. When did the lunar core dynamo cease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoo, S. M.; Weiss, B. P.; Shuster, D. L.; Fuller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Remanent magnetization in the lunar crust and in returned Apollo samples has long suggested that the Moon formed a metallic core and an ancient dynamo magnetic field. Recent paleomagnetic investigations of lunar samples demonstrate that the Moon had a core dynamo which produced ~30-110 μT surface fields between at least 4.2 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). Tikoo et al. (1) recently found that the field declined to below several μT by 3.19 Ga. However, given that even values of a few μT are at the upper end of the intensities predicted by dynamo theory for this late in lunar history, it remains uncertain when the lunar dynamo actually ceased completely. Determining this requires a young lunar rock with extraordinarily high magnetic recording fidelity. With this goal, we are conducting a new analysis of young regolith breccia 15498. Although the breccia's age is currently uncertain, the presence of Apollo 15-type mare basalt clasts provides an upper limit constraint of ~3.3 Ga, while trapped Ar data suggest a lithification age of ~1.3 Ga. In stark contrast to the multidomain character of virtually all lunar crystalline rocks, the magnetic carriers in 15498 are on average pseudo-single domain to superparamagnetic, indicating that the sample should provide high-fidelity paleointensity records. A previous alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization study of 15498 by Gose et al. (2) observed that the sample carries stable remanent magnetization which persists to unblocking temperatures of at least 650°C. Using a modified Thellier technique, they reported a paleointensity of 2 μT. Although this value may have been influenced by spurious remanence acquired during pretreatment with AF demagnetization, our results confirm the presence of an extremely stable (blocked to coercivities >290 mT) magnetization in the glassy matrix. We also found that this magnetization is largely unidirectional across mutually oriented subsamples. The cooling timescale of this rock (~1

  11. Man-Made Debris In and From Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During 1966-1976, as part of the first phase of lunar exploration, 29 manned and robotic missions placed more than 40 objects into lunar orbit. Whereas several vehicles later successfully landed on the Moon and/or returned to Earth, others were either abandoned in orbit or intentionally sent to their destruction on the lunar surface. The former now constitute a small population of lunar orbital debris; the latter, including four Lunar Orbiters and four Lunar Module ascent stages, have contributed to nearly 50 lunar sites of man's refuse. Other lunar satellites are known or suspected of having fallen from orbit. Unlike Earth satellite orbital decays and deorbits, lunar satellites impact the lunar surface unscathed by atmospheric burning or melting. Fragmentations of lunar satellites, which would produce clouds of numerous orbital debris, have not yet been detected. The return to lunar orbit in the 1990's by the Hagoromo, Hiten, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector spacecraft and plans for increased lunar exploration early in the 21st century, raise questions of how best to minimize and to dispose of lunar orbital debris. Some of the lessons learned from more than 40 years of Earth orbit exploitation can be applied to the lunar orbital environment. For the near-term, perhaps the most important of these is postmission passivation. Unique solutions, e.g., lunar equatorial dumps, may also prove attractive. However, as with Earth satellites, debris mitigation measures are most effectively adopted early in the concept and design phase, and prevention is less costly than remediation.

  12. Out-of-sample Forecasting Performance of Won/Dollar Exchange Rate Return Volatility Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Lee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We compare the out-of-sample forecasting performance of volatility models using daily exchange rate for the KRW/USD during the period from 1992 to 2008. For various forecasting horizons, historical volatility models with a long memory tend to make more accurate forecasts. Especially, we carefully observe the difference between the EWMA and the GARCH(1,1 model. Our empirical finding that the GARCH model puts too much weight on recent observations relative to those in the past is consistent with prior evidence showing that asset market volatility has a long memory, such as Ding and Granger (1996. The forecasting model with the lowest MSFE and VaR forecast error among the models we consider is the EWMA model in which the forecast volatility for the coming period is a weighted average of recent squared return with exponentially declining weights. In terms of forecast accuracy, it clearly dominates the widely accepted GARCH and rolling window GARCH models. We also present a multiple comparison of the out-of-sample forecasting performance of volatility using the stationary bootstrap of Politis and Romano (1994. We find that the White's reality check for the GARCH(1,1 expanding window model and the FIGARCH(1,1 expanding window model clearly reject the null hypothesis and there exists a better model than the two benchmark models. On the other hand, when the EWMA model is the benchmark, the White's for all forecasting horizons are very high, which indicates the null hypothesis may not be rejected. The Hansen's report the same results. The GARCH(1,1 expanding window model and the FIGARCH(1,1 expanding window model are dominated by the best competing model in most of the forecasting horizons. In contrast, the RiskMetrics model seems to be the most preferred. We also consider combining the forecasts generated by averaging the six raw forecasts and a trimmed set of forecasts which calculate the mean of the four forecasts after disregarding the highest and

  13. Mars Sample Return as a Feed-Forward into Planetary Protection for Crewed Missions to the Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, J. A.; Siegel, B.

    2018-04-01

    PP implementation is a required part of crewed exploration of Mars. Determining how PP is achieved is contingent on improved knowledge of Mars, best obtained in part by analysis of martian material of known provenance, as part of a Mars Sample Return mission.

  14. Evaluating the biological potential in samples returned from planetary satellites and small solar system bodies: framework for decision making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Space Studies Board; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ... from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies Framework for Decision Making Task Group on Sample Return from Small Solar System Bodies Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998 i Copyrightthe true use are Please breaks...

  15. Petrology of lunar rocks and implication to lunar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, W. I.

    1976-01-01

    Recent advances in lunar petrology, based on studies of lunar rock samples available through the Apollo program, are reviewed. Samples of bedrock from both maria and terra have been collected where micrometeorite impact penetrated the regolith and brought bedrock to the surface, but no in situ cores have been taken. Lunar petrogenesis and lunar thermal history supported by studies of the rock sample are discussed and a tentative evolutionary scenario is constructed. Mare basalts, terra assemblages of breccias, soils, rocks, and regolith are subjected to elemental analysis, mineralogical analysis, trace content analysis, with studies of texture, ages and isotopic composition. Probable sources of mare basalts are indicated.

  16. Experimental reduction of simulated lunar glass by carbon and hydrogen and implications for lunar base oxygen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mckay, D.S.; Morris, R.V.; Jurewicz, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The most abundant element in lunar rocks and soils is oxygen which makes up approximately 45 percent by weight of the typical lunar samples returned during the Apollo missions. This oxygen is not present as a gas but is tightly bound to other elements in mineral or glass. When people return to the Moon to explore and live, the extraction of this oxygen at a lunar outpost may be a major goal during the early years of operation. Among the most studied processes for oxygen extraction is the reduction of ilmenite by hydrogen gas to form metallic iron, titanium oxide, and oxygen. A related process is proposed which overcomes some of the disadvantages of ilmenite reduction. It is proposed that oxygen can be extracted by direct reduction of native lunar pyroclactic glass using either carbon, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed process a series of experiments on synthetic lunar glass are presented. The results and a discussion of the experiments are presented

  17. Radar Observations of Asteroid 101955 Bennu and the OSIRIS-REx Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, M. C.; Benner, L.; Giorgini, J. D.; Howell, E. S.; Kerr, R.; Lauretta, D. S.; Magri, C.; Margot, J. L.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    On September 24, 2023, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will return a sample of asteroid (101955) Bennu to the Earth. We chose the target of this mission in part because of the work we did over more than a decade using the Arecibo and Goldstone planetary radars to observe this asteroid. We observed Bennu (then known as 1999 RQ36) at Arecibo and Goldstone in 1999 and 2005, and at Arecibo in 2011. Radar imaging from the first two observing epochs provided a shape and size for Bennu, which greatly simplified mission planning. We know that the spacecraft will encounter a roundish asteroid 500 m in diameter with a distinct equatorial ridge [Nolan et al., 2013]. Bennu does not have the dramatic concavities seen in Itokawa and comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Hayabusa and Rosetta mission targets, respectively, which would have been obvious in radar imaging. Further radar ranging in 2011 provided a detection of the Yarkovsky effect, allowing us to constrain Bennu's mass and bulk density from radar measurement of non-gravitational forces acting on its orbit [Chesley et al., 2014]. The 2011 observations were particularly challenging, occurring during a management transition at the Arecibo Observatory, and would not have been possible without significant extra cooperation between the old and new managing organizations. As a result, we can predict Bennu's position to within a few km over the next 100 years, until its close encounter with the Earth in 2135. We know its shape to within ± 10 m (1σ) on the long and intermediate axes and ± 52 m on the polar diameter, and its pole orientation to within 5 degrees. The bulk density is 1260 ± 70 kg/m3 and the rotation is retrograde with a 4.297 ± 0.002 h period The OSIRIS-REx team is using these constraints to preplan the initial stages of proximity operations and dramatically reduce risk. The Figure shows the model and Arecibo radar images from 1999 (left), 2005 (center), and 2011 (right). Bennu is the faint dot near the center of

  18. Lunar Meteorites: A Global Geochemical Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Joy, K. H.; Arai, T.; Gross, J.; Korotev, R. L.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world's meteorite collections contain over 260 lunar meteorite stones representing at least 120 different lunar meteorites. Additionally, there are 20-30 as yet unnamed stones currently in the process of being classified. Collectively these lunar meteorites likely represent 40-50 distinct sampling locations from random locations on the Moon. Although the exact provenance of each individual lunar meteorite is unknown, collectively the lunar meteorites represent the best global average of the lunar crust. The Apollo sites are all within or near the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), thus lithologies from the PKT are overrepresented in the Apollo sample suite. Nearly all of the lithologies present in the Apollo sample suite are found within the lunar meteorites (high-Ti basalts are a notable exception), and the lunar meteorites contain several lithologies not present in the Apollo sample suite (e.g., magnesian anorthosite). This chapter will not be a sample-by-sample summary of each individual lunar meteorite. Rather, the chapter will summarize the different types of lunar meteorites and their relative abundances, comparing and contrasting the lunar meteorite sample suite with the Apollo sample suite. This chapter will act as one of the introductory chapters to the volume, introducing lunar samples in general and setting the stage for more detailed discussions in later more specialized chapters. The chapter will begin with a description of how lunar meteorites are ejected from the Moon, how deep samples are being excavated from, what the likely pairing relationships are among the lunar meteorite samples, and how the lunar meteorites can help to constrain the impactor flux in the inner solar system. There will be a discussion of the biases inherent to the lunar meteorite sample suite in terms of underrepresented lithologies or regions of the Moon, and an examination of the contamination and limitations of lunar meteorites due to terrestrial weathering. The

  19. The Proposed Mars Astrobiology Explorer - Cacher [MAX-C] Rover: First Step in a Potential Sample Return Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Beaty, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Sample return from Mars has been advocated by numerous scientific advisory panels for over 30 years, most prominently beginning with the National Research Council s [1] strategy for the exploration of the inner solar system, and most recently by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG s) Next Decade Science Analysis Group [2]. Analysis of samples here on Earth would have enormous advantages over in situ analyses in producing the data quality needed to address many of the complex scientific questions the community has posed about Mars. Instead of a small, predetermined set of analytical techniques, state of the art preparative and instrumental resources of the entire scientific community could be applied to the samples. The analytical emphasis could shift as the meaning of each result becomes better appreciated. These arguments apply both to igneous rocks and to layered sedimentary materials, either of which could contain water and other volatile constituents. In 2009 MEPAG formed the Mid-Range Rover Science Analysis Group (MRR-SAG) to formulate a mission concept that would address two general objectives: (1) conduct high-priority in situ science and (2) make concrete steps towards the potential return of samples to Earth. This analysis resulted in a mission concept named the Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C), which was envisioned for launch in the 2018 opportunity. After extensive discussion, this group concluded that by far the most definitive contribution to sample return by this mission would be to collect and cache, in an accessible location, a suite of compelling samples that could potentially be recovered and returned by a subsequent mission. This would have the effect of separating two of the essential functions of MSR, the acquisition of the sample collection and its delivery to martian orbit, into two missions.

  20. Apollo Missions to the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige V.

    2018-01-01

    Six Apollo missions to the Moon, from 1969-1972, enabled astronauts to collect and bring lunar rocks and materials from the lunar surface to Earth. Apollo lunar samples are curated by NASA Astromaterials at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. Samples continue to be studied and provide clues about our early Solar System. Learn more and view collected samples at: https://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar.

  1. Simulation of the Chang'E-5 mission contribution in lunar long wavelength gravity field improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jianguo; Yang, Xuan; Ping, Jinsong; Ye, Mao; Liu, Shanhong; Jin, Weitong; Li, Fei; Barriot, Jean-Pierre

    2018-06-01

    The precision of lunar gravity field estimation has improved by means of three to five orders of magnitude since the successful GRAIL lunar mission. There are still discrepancies however, in the low degree coefficients and long wavelength components of the solutions developed by two space research centers (JPL and GSFC). These discrepancies hint at the possibilities for improving the accuracy in the long wavelength part of the lunar gravity field. In the near future, China will launch the Chang'E-5 lunar mission. In this sample-return mission, there will be a chance to do KBRR measurements between an ascending module and an orbiting module. These two modules will fly around lunar at an inclination of ˜49 degrees, with an orbital height of 100 km and an inter-satellite distance of 200 km. In our research, we simulated the contribution of the KBRR tracking mode for different GRAIL orbital geometries. This analysis indicated possible deficiencies in the low degree coefficient solutions for the polar satellite-to-satellite tracking mode at various orbital heights. We also investigated the potential contributions of the KBRR to the Chang'E-5 mission goal of lunar gravity field recovery, especially in the long wavelength component. Potential improvements were assessed using various power spectrums of the lunar gravity field models. In addition, we also investigated possible improvements in solving lunar tidal Love number K2. These results may assist the implementation of the Chang'E-5 mission.

  2. Hayabusa2 Sample Catcher and Container: Metal-Seal System for Vacuum Encapsulation of Returned Samples with Volatiles and Organic Compounds Recovered from C-Type Asteroid Ryugu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Sawada, Hirotaka; Yamanouchi, Shinji; Tachibana, Shogo; Miura, Yayoi N.; Sakamoto, Kanako; Takano, Yoshinori; Abe, Masanao; Itoh, Shoichi; Yamada, Keita; Yabuta, Hikaru; Okamoto, Chisato; Yano, Hajime; Noguchi, Takaaki; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nagao, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The spacecraft Hayabusa2 was launched on December 3, 2014, to collect and return samples from a C-type asteroid, 162173 Ryugu (provisional designation, 1999 JU3). It is expected that the samples collected contain organic matter and water-bearing minerals and have key information to elucidate the origin and history of the Solar System and the evolution of bio-related organics prior to delivery to the early Earth. In order to obtain samples with volatile species without terrestrial contamination, based on lessons learned from the Hayabusa mission, the sample catcher and container of Hayabusa2 were refined from those used in Hayabusa. The improvements include (1) a mirror finish of the inner wall surface of the sample catcher and the container, (2) adoption of an aluminum metal sealing system, and (3) addition of a gas-sampling interface for gas collection and evacuation. The former two improvements were made to limit contamination of the samples by terrestrial atmosphere below 1 Pa after the container is sealed. The gas-sampling interface will be used to promptly collect volatile species released from the samples in the sample container after sealing of the container. These improvements maintain the value of the returned samples.

  3. Building the Foundations for a Large-Scale, Cross-Sector Collaboration for a Sustainable and Permanent Return to the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoglou, A.

    2017-10-01

    This presentation will describe how to build the foundations needed for a large scale, cross-industry collaboration to enable a sustainable and permanent return to the Moon based on system leadership, cross-sector partnership, and inclusive business.

  4. A simulation of the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking mode for the Chang'E-5 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Ye, Mao; Yan, Jianguo; Hao, Weifeng; Barriot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-01

    The Chang'E-5 mission is the third phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program and will collect and return lunar samples. After sampling, the Orbiter and the ascent vehicle will rendezvous and dock, and both spacecraft will require high precision orbit navigation. In this paper, we present a novel tracking mode-Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking that possibly can be employed during the Chang'E-5 mission. The mathematical formulas for the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking mode are given and implemented in our newly-designed lunar spacecraft orbit determination and gravity field recovery software, the LUnar Gravity REcovery and Analysis Software/System (LUGREAS). The simulated observables permit analysis of the potential contribution Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking could make to precision orbit determination for the Orbiter. Our results show that the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter Range Rate has better geometric constraint on the orbit, and is more sensitive than the traditional two-way range rate that only tracks data between the Earth station and lunar Orbiter. After combining the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter Range Rate data with the traditional two-way range rate data and considering the Lander position error and lunar gravity field error, the accuracy of precision orbit determination for the Orbiter in the simulation was improved significantly, with the biggest improvement being one order of magnitude, and the Lander position could be constrained to sub-meter level. This new tracking mode could provide a reference for the Chang'E-5 mission and have enormous potential for the positioning of future lunar farside Lander due to its relay characteristic.

  5. Lunar horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  6. Are Samples Obtained after Return to Earth Reflective of Spaceflight or Increased Gravity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. R.; Holton, E.; Baer, L.; Moran, M.

    2001-01-01

    Upon return to Earth, following space flight, living systems are immediately exposed to an increase in gravity of 1G. It has been difficult to differentiate between changes that are residuals of the acclimation to space flight from those resulting from acute exposure to an increase in =gravity upon re-entry. We compared previously reported changes observed in male Sprague-Dawley rats upon return to Earth to those induced by centrifugation, because both paradigms result in an increase of 1G. With both treatments there was a reduction in body mass, due to reduced food intake and increased urine output. The decrease in food intake was initially greater with centrifugation. The magnitudes of the changes in food intake and urine output were similar in both treatments. However, the slightly greater initial loss in body mass with centrifugation was due to a decrease in water intake not seen after space flight. The absence of pronounced differences between these treatments suggest the responses observed after landing are not residuals of adaptation to the space flight environment, but the result of adaptation to an increase in the level of gravity.

  7. Robotic Subsurface Analyzer and Sample Handler for Resource Reconnaissance and Preliminary Site Assessment for ISRU Activities at the Lunar Cold Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorevan, S. P.; Wilson, J.; Bartlett, P.; Powderly, J.; Lawrence, D.; Elphic, R.; Mungas, G.; McCullough, E.; Stoker, C.; Cannon, H.

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1960s, claims have been made that water ice deposits should exist in permanently shadowed craters near both lunar poles. Recent interpretations of data from the Lunar Prospector-Neutron Spectrometer (LP- NS) confirm that significant concentrations of hydrogen exist, probably in the form of water ice, in the permanently shadowed polar cold traps. Yet, due to the large spatial resolution (45-60 Ian) of the LP-NS measurements relative to these shadowed craters (approx.5-25 km), these data offer little certainty regarding the precise location, form or distribution of these deposits. Even less is known about how such deposits of water ice might effect lunar regolith physical properties relevant to mining, excavation, water extraction and construction. These uncertainties will need to be addressed in order to validate fundamental lunar In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) precepts by 2011. Given the importance of the in situ utilization of water and other resources to the future of space exploration a need arises for the advanced deployment of a robotic and reconfigurable system for physical properties and resource reconnaissance. Based on a collection of high-TRL. designs, the Subsurface Analyzer and Sample Handler (SASH) addresses these needs, particularly determining the location and form of water ice and the physical properties of regolith. SASH would be capable of: (1) subsurface access via drilling, on the order of 3-10 meters into both competent targets (ice, rock) and regolith, (2) down-hole analysis through drill string embedded instrumentation and sensors (Neutron Spectrometer and Microscopic Imager), enabling water ice identification and physical properties measurements; (3) core and unconsolidated sample acquisition from rock and regolith; (4) sample handling and processing, with minimized contamination, sample containerization and delivery to a modular instrument payload. This system would be designed with three mission enabling goals, including: (1

  8. Cross Check of the Tax Base in Serbia – Informative Tax Return Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raonić Ivan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tax system of the Republic of Serbia is characterized by a very low level of income taxation. It is a particularly acute problem in cross-checking the tax base. The legislature tried to solve this problem by the introduction of the informative tax return (IPP. The problem is even greater because the situations encountered have not been analysed in science and tax theory, and very often have not been covered by applicable laws. A specific challenge for the tax authorities represent taxpayers whose incomes are primarily realized abroad (usually persons from the world of entertainment. This paper describes the basic forms of tax offences characteristic of income tax evasion and discusses how to solve them, with a particular focus on the implementation of cross-checking the tax base.

  9. Lunar Riometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.; Kasper, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent and its behavior over time, including modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the peak plasma density of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of nanometer- to micron-scale dust. The LUNAR consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  10. Hydrated Minerals and Evaporites as Key Targets for a Mars Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, S.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.

    2018-04-01

    Here we focus on hydrated minerals and evaporites as paleo-environment indicators with preservation capacity. Thus, samples from these materials would increase our knowledge about the past aqueous activities of Mars and its habitability potentials.

  11. Western Eos Chaos on Mars: A Potential Site for Future Landing and Returning Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif Iqbal Kakkassery; Rajesh, V. J.

    2018-04-01

    Introducing Eos Chaos as a potential area for collecting samples. Eos Chaos contains a number of aqueous minerals. We have detected zoisite — a least reported low-grade metamorphic mineral from this area.

  12. Thermodynamics of lunar ilmenite reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenberg, B. H.; Franklin, H. A.; Jones, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    With the prospect of returning to the moon, the development of a lunar occupation would fulfill one of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of the late 1980's. Processing lunar resources into useful products, such as liquid oxygen for fuel and life support, would be one of many aspects of an active lunar base. ilmenite (FeTiO3) is found on the lunar surface and can be used as a feed stock to produce oxygen. Understanding the various ilmenite-reduction reactions elucidates many processing options. Defining the thermodynamic chemical behavior at equilibrium under various conditions of temperature and pressures can be helpful in specifying optimal operating conditions. Differences between a previous theoretical analysis and experimentally determined results has sparked interest in trying to understand the effect of operating pressure on the hydrogen-reduction-of-ilmenite reaction. Various aspects of this reduction reaction are discussed.

  13. Lunar Impact Basins: Stratigraphy, Sequence and Ages from Superposed Impact Crater Populations Measured from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Impact basin formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of the Moon and records the history of impactors in the early solar system. In order to assess the stratigraphy, sequence, and ages of impact basins and the impactor population as a function of time, we have used topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to measure the superposed impact crater size-frequency distributions for 30 lunar basins (D = 300 km). These data generally support the widely used Wilhelms sequence of lunar basins, although we find significantly higher densities of superposed craters on many lunar basins than derived by Wilhelms (50% higher densities). Our data also provide new insight into the timing of the transition between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains. The transition from a lunar impact flux dominated by Population 1 to Population 2 occurred before the mid-Nectarian. This is before the end of the period of rapid cratering, and potentially before the end of the hypothesized Late Heavy Bombardment. LOLA-derived crater densities also suggest that many Pre-Nectarian basins, such as South Pole-Aitken, have been cratered to saturation equilibrium. Finally, both crater counts and stratigraphic observations based on LOLA data are applicable to specific basin stratigraphic problems of interest; for example, using these data, we suggest that Serenitatis is older than Nectaris, and Humboldtianum is younger than Crisium. Sample return missions to specific basins can anchor these measurements to a Pre-Imbrian absolute chronology.

  14. Lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  15. Priority Science Targets for Future Sample Return Missions within the Solar System Out to the Year 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Burton, A. S.; Draper, D. S.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Jones, J. H.; Keller, L. P.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. JSC presently curates 9 different astromaterials collections: (1) Apollo samples, (2) LUNA samples, (3) Antarctic meteorites, (4) Cosmic dust particles, (5) Microparticle Impact Collection [formerly called Space Exposed Hardware], (6) Genesis solar wind, (7) Star-dust comet Wild-2 particles, (8) Stardust interstellar particles, and (9) Hayabusa asteroid Itokawa particles. In addition, the next missions bringing carbonaceous asteroid samples to JSC are Hayabusa 2/ asteroid Ryugu and OSIRIS-Rex/ asteroid Bennu, in 2021 and 2023, respectively. The Hayabusa 2 samples are provided as part of an international agreement with JAXA. The NASA Curation Office plans for the requirements of future collections in an "Advanced Curation" program. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. Here we review the science value and sample curation needs of some potential targets for sample return missions over the next 35 years.

  16. Sampling returns for realized variance calculations: tick time or transaction time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffin, J.E.; Oomen, R.C.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a new model for transaction prices in the presence of market microstructure noise in order to study the properties of the price process on two different time scales, namely, transaction time where prices are sampled with every transaction and tick time where prices are

  17. Thermal Protection for Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle: A Grand Challenge for Design Methodology and Reliability Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Gage, Peter; Wright, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Mars Sample Return is our Grand Challenge for the coming decade. TPS (Thermal Protection System) nominal performance is not the key challenge. The main difficulty for designers is the need to verify unprecedented reliability for the entry system: current guidelines for prevention of backward contamination require that the probability of spores larger than 1 micron diameter escaping into the Earth environment be lower than 1 million for the entire system, and the allocation to TPS would be more stringent than that. For reference, the reliability allocation for Orion TPS is closer to 11000, and the demonstrated reliability for previous human Earth return systems was closer to 1100. Improving reliability by more than 3 orders of magnitude is a grand challenge indeed. The TPS community must embrace the possibility of new architectures that are focused on reliability above thermal performance and mass efficiency. MSR (Mars Sample Return) EEV (Earth Entry Vehicle) will be hit with MMOD (Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris) prior to reentry. A chute-less aero-shell design which allows for self-righting shape was baselined in prior MSR studies, with the assumption that a passive system will maximize EEV robustness. Hence the aero-shell along with the TPS has to take ground impact and not break apart. System verification will require testing to establish ablative performance and thermal failure but also testing of damage from MMOD, and structural performance at ground impact. Mission requirements will demand analysis, testing and verification that are focused on establishing reliability of the design. In this proposed talk, we will focus on the grand challenge of MSR EEV TPS and the need for innovative approaches to address challenges in modeling, testing, manufacturing and verification.

  18. Echo simulation of lunar penetrating radar: based on a model of inhomogeneous multilayer lunar regolith structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Shun; Su Yan; Xiao Yuan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Ding Chun-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) based on the time domain Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technique onboard China's Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover, has the goal of investigating the lunar subsurface structure and detecting the depth of lunar regolith. An inhomogeneous multi-layer microwave transfer inverse-model is established. The dielectric constant of the lunar regolith, the velocity of propagation, the reflection, refraction and transmission at interfaces, and the resolution are discussed. The model is further used to numerically simulate and analyze temporal variations in the echo obtained from the LPR attached on CE-3's rover, to reveal the location and structure of lunar regolith. The thickness of the lunar regolith is calculated by a comparison between the simulated radar B-scan images based on the model and the detected result taken from the CE-3 lunar mission. The potential scientific return from LPR echoes taken from the landing region is also discussed

  19. Echo simulation of lunar penetrating radar: based on a model of inhomogeneous multilayer lunar regolith structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shun; Su, Yan; Xiao, Yuan; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Ding, Chun-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) based on the time domain Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technique onboard China's Chang'e-3 (CE-3) rover, has the goal of investigating the lunar subsurface structure and detecting the depth of lunar regolith. An inhomogeneous multi-layer microwave transfer inverse-model is established. The dielectric constant of the lunar regolith, the velocity of propagation, the reflection, refraction and transmission at interfaces, and the resolution are discussed. The model is further used to numerically simulate and analyze temporal variations in the echo obtained from the LPR attached on CE-3's rover, to reveal the location and structure of lunar regolith. The thickness of the lunar regolith is calculated by a comparison between the simulated radar B-scan images based on the model and the detected result taken from the CE-3 lunar mission. The potential scientific return from LPR echoes taken from the landing region is also discussed.

  20. Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA): Technique of choice for nondestructive bulk analysis of returned comet samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, D.J.; Lindstrom, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) is a well-developed analytical technique. The technique involves irradiation of samples in an external neutron beam from a nuclear reactor, with simultaneous counting of gamma rays produced in the sample by neutron capture. Capture of neutrons leads to excited nuclei which decay immediately with the emission of energetic gamma rays to the ground state. PGAA has several advantages over other techniques for the analysis of cometary materials: (1) It is nondestructive; (2) It can be used to determine abundances of a wide variety of elements, including most major and minor elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), volatiles (H, C, N, F, Cl, S), and some trace elements (those with high neutron capture cross sections, including B, Cd, Nd, Sm, and Gd); and (3) It is a true bulk analysis technique. Recent developments should improve the technique's sensitivity and accuracy considerably

  1. Lunar Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present an open design for a first plant growth module on the Moon (LPX). The primary science goal of lunar habitat is to investigate germination and initial...

  2. Lunar Flashlight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Flashlight (LF) is an innovative cubesat mission sponsored by NASA’s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division to be launched on the Space Launch System...

  3. Trajectory Options for a Potential Mars Mission Combining Orbiting Science, Relay and a Sample Return Rendezvous Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Joseph R.; Kerridge, Stuart J.; Wilson, Roby S.

    2012-01-01

    Mars sample return is a major scientific goal of the 2011 US National Research Council Decadal Survey for Planetary Science. Toward achievement of this goal, recent architecture studies have focused on several mission concept options for the 2018/2020 Mars launch opportunities. Mars orbiters play multiple roles in these architectures such as: relay, landing site identification/selection/certification, collection of on-going or new measurements to fill knowledge gaps, and in-orbit collection and transportation of samples from Mars to Earth. This paper reviews orbiter concepts that combine these roles and describes a novel family of relay orbits optimized for surface operations support. Additionally, these roles provide an intersection of objectives for long term NASA science, human exploration, technology development and international collaboration.

  4. Processes to Open the Container and the Sample Catcher of the Hayabusa Returned Capsule in the Planetary Material Sample Curation Facility of JAXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, A.; Abe, M.; Yada, T.; Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Okazaki, R.; Ishibashi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Okada, T.; Yano, H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa, which returned from near-Earth-asteroid Itokawa, successfully returned its reentry capsule to the Earth, the Woomera Prohibited Area in Australia in Jun 13th, 2010, as detailed in another paper [1]. The capsule introduced into the Planetary Material Sample Curation Facility in the Sagamihara campus of JAXA in the early morning of June 18th. Hereafter, we describe a series of processes for the returned capsule and the container to recover gas and materials in there. A transportation box of the recovered capsule was cleaned up on its outer surface beforehand and introduced into the class 10,000 clean room of the facility. Then, the capsule was extracted from the box and its plastic bag was opened and checked and photographed the outer surface of the capsule. The capsule was composed of the container, a backside ablator, a side ablator, an electronic box and a supporting frame. The container consists of an outer lid, an inner lid, a frame for latches, a container and a sample catcher, which is composed of room A and B and a rotational cylinder. After the first check, the capsule was packed in a plastic bag with N2 again, and transferred to the Chofu campus in JAXA, where the X-ray CT instrument is situated. The first X-ray CT analysis was performed on the whole returned capsule for confirming the conditions of latches and O-ring seal of the container. The analysis showed that the latches of the container should have worked normally, and that the double Orings of the container seemed to be sealed its sample catcher with no problem. After the first X-ray CT, the capsule was sent back to Sagamihara and introduced in the clean room to exclude the electronic box and the side ablator from the container by hand tools. Then the container with the backside ablator was set firmly to special jigs to fix the lid of container tightly to the container and set to a milling machine. The backside ablator was drilled by the machine to expose heads of bolts

  5. International Lunar Decade Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ; Crisafulli, J.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2017-09-01

    The International Lunar Decade is a global decadal event designed to provide a framework for strategically directed international cooperation for permanent return to the Moon. To be launched July 20, 2019, the 50th anniversary of the giant leap for mankind marked by Neil Armstrong's first step on the Moon, the ILD launch will include events around the world to celebrate space exploration, science, and the expansion of humanity into the Solar System. The ILD framework links lunar exploration and space sciences with the development of enabling technologies, infrastructure, means of financing, laws and policies aimed at lowering the costs and risks of venturing into space. Dramatically reduced costs will broaden the range of opportunities available in space and widen access to space for more states, companies and people worldwide. The ILD is intended to bring about the efflorescence of commercial business based on space resources from the Moon, asteroids, comets and other bodies in the Solar System.

  6. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  7. The Importance of Sample Return in Establishing Chemical Evidence for Life on Mars or Other Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Conrad, P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Eigenbrode, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    The search for evidence of life on Mars and elsewhere will continue to be one of the primary goals of NASA s robotic exploration program over the next decade. NASA and ESA are currently planning a series of robotic missions to Mars with the goal of understanding its climate, resources, and potential for harboring past or present life. One key goal will be the search for chemical biomarkers including complex organic compounds important in life on Earth. These include amino acids, the monomer building blocks of proteins and enzymes, nucleobases and sugars which form the backbone of DNA and RNA, and lipids, the structural components of cell membranes. Many of these organic compounds can also be formed abiotically as demonstrated by their prevalence in carbonaceous meteorites [1], though, their molecular characteristics may distinguish a biological source [2]. It is possible that in situ instruments may reveal such characteristics, however, return of the right sample (i.e. one with biosignatures or having a high probability of biosignatures) to Earth would allow for more intensive laboratory studies using a broad array of powerful instrumentation for bulk characterization, molecular detection, isotopic and enantiomeric compositions, and spatially resolved chemistry that may be required for confirmation of extant or extinct Martian life. Here we will discuss the current analytical capabilities and strategies for the detection of organics on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) using the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite and how sample return missions from Mars and other targets of astrobiological interest will help advance our understanding of chemical biosignatures in the solar system.

  8. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  9. New Age for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Martel, L. M. V.

    2018-04-01

    Lunar-focused research and plans to return to the lunar surface for science and exploration have reemerged since the Space Policy Directive-1 of December 11, 2017 amended the National Space Policy to include the following, "Lead an innovative and sustainable program of exploration with commercial and international partners to enable human expansion across the solar system and to bring back to Earth new knowledge and opportunities. Beginning with missions beyond low-Earth orbit, the United States will lead the return of humans to the Moon for long-term exploration and utilization, followed by human missions to Mars and other destinations." In response to this revision, NASA proposes a Lunar Exploration and Discovery Program in the U.S. fiscal year 2019 Budget Request. It supports NASA's interests in commercial and international partnerships in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), long-term exploration in Cislunar space beyond LEO, and research and exploration conducted on the Moon to inform future crewed missions, even to destinations beyond the Moon. (Cislunar refers to the volume of space between LEO and the Moon's orbital distance.) The lunar campaign strengthens the integration of human and robotic activities on the lunar surface with NASA's science, technology, and exploration goals.

  10. Spearman's "law of diminishing returns" and the role of test reliability investigated in a large sample of Danish military draftees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, Thomas William; Hartmann, P.

    2005-01-01

    The present article investigates Spearman's "Law of Diminishing Returns" (SLODR), which hypothesizes that the g saturation for cognitive tests is lower for high ability subjects than for low ability subjects. This hypothesis was tested in a large sample of Danish military draftees (N = 6757) who...... were representative of the young adult male population, aged 18-19, and tested with a group-administered intelligence test comprised of four subtests. The aim of the study was twofold. The first was to reproduce previous SLODR findings by the present authors. This was done by replicating...... in reliability could account for the difference in g saturation across ability groups. The results showed that the reliability was larger for the High ability group, thereby not explaining the present findings....

  11. Spacecraft Actuator Diagnosis with Principal Component Analysis: Application to the Rendez-Vous Phase of the Mars Sample Return Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Nasri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fault detection and isolation (FDI approach in order to detect and isolate actuators (thrusters and reaction wheels faults of an autonomous spacecraft involved in the rendez-vous phase of the Mars Sample Return (MSR mission. The principal component analysis (PCA has been adopted to estimate the relationships between the various variables of the process. To ensure the feasibility of the proposed FDI approach, a set of data provided by the industrial “high-fidelity” simulator of the MSR and representing the opening (resp., the rotation rates of the spacecraft thrusters (resp., reaction wheels has been considered. The test results demonstrate that the fault detection and isolation are successfully accomplished.

  12. Deep Space Gateway Support of Lunar Surface Ops and Tele-Operational Transfer of Surface Assets to the Next Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, D. A.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway can support astronauts on the lunar surface, providing them a departure and returning rendezvous point, a communication relay from the lunar farside to Earth, and a transfer point to Orion for return to Earth.

  13. Academic aspects of lunar water resources and their relevance to lunar protolife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Water ice has been discovered on the moon by radar backscatter at the North Pole and by spectrometry at the South Pole in the Cabeus crater with an extrapolated volume for both poles of conservatively 10(9) metric tons. Various exogenic and endogenic sources of this water have been proposed. This paper focuses on endogenic water sources by fumaroles and hot springs in shadowed polar craters. A survey of theoretical and morphological details supports a volcanic model. Release of water and other constituents by defluidization over geological time was intensified in the Hadean Eon (c.a. 4600 to 4000 My). Intensification factors include higher heat flow by now-extinct radionuclides, tidal flexing and higher core temperatures. Lesser gravity would promote deeper bubble nucleation in lunar magmas, slower rise rates of gases and enhanced subsidence of lunar caldera floors. Hadean volcanism would likely have been more intense and regional in nature as opposed to suture-controlled location of calderas in Phanerozoic Benioff-style subduction environments. Seventy-seven morphological, remote sensing and return sample features were categorized into five categories ranging from a volcano-tectonic origin only to impact origin only. Scores for the most logical scenario were 69 to eight in favor of lunar volcanism. Ingredients in the Cabeus plume analysis showed many volcanic fluids and their derivatives plus a large amount of mercury. Mercury-rich fumaroles are well documented on Earth and are virtually absent in cometary gases and solids. There are no mercury anomalies in terrestrial impact craters. Volcanic fluids and their derivatives in lunar shadow can theoretically evolve into protolife. Energy for this evolution can be provided by vent flow charging intensified in the lunar Hadean and by charge separation on freezing fumarolic fluids in shadow. Fischer-Tropsch reactions on hydrothermal clays can yield lipids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and amino acids. Soluble

  14. Academic Aspects of Lunar Water Resources and Their Relevance to Lunar Protolife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Green

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water ice has been discovered on the moon by radar backscatter at the North Pole and by spectrometry at the South Pole in the Cabeus crater with an extrapolated volume for both poles of conservatively 109 metric tons. Various exogenic and endogenic sources of this water have been proposed. This paper focuses on endogenic water sources by fumaroles and hot springs in shadowed polar craters. A survey of theoretical and morphological details supports a volcanic model. Release of water and other constituents by defluidization over geological time was intensified in the Hadean Eon (c.a. 4600 to 4000 My. Intensification factors include higher heat flow by now-extinct radionuclides, tidal flexing and higher core temperatures. Lesser gravity would promote deeper bubble nucleation in lunar magmas, slower rise rates of gases and enhanced subsidence of lunar caldera floors. Hadean volcanism would likely have been more intense and regional in nature as opposed to suture-controlled location of calderas in Phanerozoic Benioff-style subduction environments. Seventy-seven morphological, remote sensing and return sample features were categorized into five categories ranging from a volcano-tectonic origin only to impact origin only. Scores for the most logical scenario were 69 to eight in favor of lunar volcanism. Ingredients in the Cabeus plume analysis showed many volcanic fluids and their derivatives plus a large amount of mercury. Mercury-rich fumaroles are well documented on Earth and are virtually absent in cometary gases and solids. There are no mercury anomalies in terrestrial impact craters. Volcanic fluids and their derivatives in lunar shadow can theoretically evolve into protolife. Energy for this evolution can be provided by vent flow charging intensified in the lunar Hadean and by charge separation on freezing fumarolic fluids in shadow. Fischer-Tropsch reactions on hydrothermal clays can yield lipids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and amino

  15. Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation, Monitoring, Solution and Cellular Toxicity Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Jeevarajan, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, many undesirable situations were encountered that must be mitigated prior to returning humans to the moon. Lunar dust (that part of the lunar regolith less than 20 microns in diameter) was found to produce several problems with mechanical equipment and could have conceivably produced harmful physiological effects for the astronauts. For instance, the abrasive nature of the dust was found to cause malfunctions of various joints and seals of the spacecraft and suits. Additionally, though efforts were made to exclude lunar dust from the cabin of the lunar module, a significant amount of material nonetheless found its way inside. With the loss of gravity correlated with ascent from the lunar surface, much of the finer fraction of this dust began to float and was inhaled by the astronauts. The short visits tothe Moon during Apollo lessened exposure to the dust, but the plan for future lunar stays of up to six months demands that methods be developed to minimize the risk of dust inhalation. The guidelines for what constitutes "safe" exposure will guide the development of engineering controls aimed at preventing the presence of dust in the lunar habitat. This work has shown the effects of grinding on the activation level of lunar dust, the changes in dissolution properties of lunar simulant, and the production of cytokines by cellular systems. Grinding of lunar dust leads to the production of radicals in solution and increased dissolution of lunar simulant in buffers of different pH. Additionally, ground lunar simulant has been shown to promote the production of IL-6 and IL-8, pro-inflammatory cytokines, by alveolar epithelial cells. These results provide evidence of the need for further studies on these materials prior to returning to the lunar surface.

  16. Lunar Science from and for Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III

    2008-09-01

    anniversary in 2007 over the launch of Sputnik (from the former Soviet Union). The ensuing Apollo (US) and Luna (USSR) programs initiated serious exploration of the Moon. The samples returned from those (now historic!) early missions changed our understanding of our place in the universe forever. They were the first well documented samples from an extraterrestrial body and attracted some of the top scientists in the world to extract the first remarkable pieces of information about Earth's nearest neighbour. And so they did - filling bookcases with profound new discoveries about this airless, waterless, and beautifully mysterious ancient world. The Moon was found to represent pure geology for a silicate planetary body - without all the complicating factors of plate tectonics, climate, and weather that recycle or transform Earth materials repeatedly. And then nothing happened. After the flush of reconnaissance, there was no further exploration of the Moon. For several decades scientists had nothing except the returned samples and a few telescopes with which to further study Earth's neighbour. Lack of new information breeds ignorance and can be stifling. Even though the space age was expanding its horizons to the furthest reaches of the solar system and the universe, lunar science moved slowly if at all and was kept in the doldrums. The drought ended with two small missions to the Moon in the 1990's, Clementine and Lunar Prospector. As summarized in the SSB/NRC report (and more completely in Jolliff et al. Eds. 2006, New Views of the Moon, Rev. Min. & Geochem.), the limited data returned from these small spacecraft set in motion several fundamental paradigm shifts in our understanding of the Moon and re-invigorated an aging science community. We learned that the largest basin in the solar system and oldest on the Moon dominates the southern half of the lunar farside (only seen by spacecraft). The age of this huge basin, if known, would constrain the period of heavy bombardment

  17. NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The MSFC lunar impact monitoring program began in 2006 in support of environment definition for the Constellation (return to Moon) program. Work continued by the Meteoroid Environment Office after Constellation cancellation. Over 330 impacts have been recorded. A paper published in Icarus reported on the first 5 years of observations and 126 calibrated flashes. Icarus: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103514002243; ArXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.6458 A NASA Technical Memorandum on flash locations is in press

  18. First oxygen from lunar basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, M. A.; Knudsen, C. W.; Brueneman, D. J.; Kanamori, H.; Ness, R. O.; Sharp, L. L.; Brekke, D. W.; Allen, C. C.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Carbotek/Shimizu process to produce oxygen from lunar soils has been successfully demonstrated on actual lunar samples in laboratory facilities at Carbotek with Shimizu funding and support. Apollo sample 70035 containing approximately 25 percent ilmenite (FeTiO3) was used in seven separate reactions with hydrogen varying temperature and pressure: FeTiO3 + H2 yields Fe + TiO2 + H2O. The experiments gave extremely encouraging results as all ilmenite was reduced in every experiment. The lunar ilmenite was found to be about twice as reactive as terrestrial ilmenite samples. Analytical techniques of the lunar and terrestrial ilmenite experiments performed by NASA Johnson Space Center include iron Mossbauer spectroscopy (FeMS), optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and XRD. The Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota performed three SEM techniques (point count method, morphology determination, elemental mapping), XRD, and optical microscopy.

  19. The Lunar Transit Telescope (LTT) - An early lunar-based science and engineering mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgraw, John T.

    1992-01-01

    The Sentinel, the soft-landed lunar telescope of the LTT project, is described. The Sentinel is a two-meter telescope with virtually no moving parts which accomplishes an imaging survey of the sky over almost five octaves of the electromagnetic spectrum from the ultraviolet into the infrared, with an angular resolution better than 0.1 arsec/pixel. The Sentinel will incorporate innovative techniques of interest for future lunar-based telescopes and will return significant engineering data which can be incorporated into future lunar missions. The discussion covers thermal mapping of the Sentinel, measurement of the cosmic ray flux, lunar dust, micrometeoroid flux, the lunar atmosphere, and lunar regolith stability and seismic activity.

  20. Respiratory health as a predictor of questionnaire return in a sample of United States underground coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, R B; Ames, R G

    1987-06-01

    A logistic model was used to analyse questionnaire return in a postal survey of 311 coalminers, who had left their place of employment between 1977 and 1982. Three measures of respiratory health, obstruction, restriction, and presence of chronic bronchitis symptoms, were included in the model as predictors together with the possibly confounding factors of age, education and marital and smoking status. Age was positively associated with questionnaire return (p<0.001). Speed of return, and whether the return was in response to a prompt, were not predicted by either the respiratory health measures or any of the other possibly confounding variables. 47 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Lunar Rocks: Available for Year of the Solar System Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    NASA is actively exploring the moon with our Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Grail Discovery Mission will launch next year, and each year there is an International Observe the Moon Night providing many events and lunar science focus opportunities to share rocks from the moon with students and the public. In our laboratories, we have Apollo rocks and soil from six different places on the moon, and their continued study provides incredibly valuable ground truth to complement space exploration missions. Extensive information and actual lunar samples are available for public display and education. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach. The lunar rocks and soils continue to be studied intensively by scientists around the world. Descriptions of the samples, research results, thousands of photographs, and information on how to request research samples are on the JSC Curation website: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ NASA is eager for scientists and the public to have access to these exciting Apollo samples through our various loan procedures. NASA provides a limited number of Moon rock samples for either short-term or long-term displays at museums, planetariums, expositions, and professional events that are open to the public. The JSC Public Affairs Office handles requests for such display samples. Requestors should apply in writing to Mr. Louis Parker, JSC Exhibits Manager. Mr. Parker will advise successful applicants regarding provisions for receipt, display, and return of the samples. All loans will be preceded by a signed loan agreement executed between NASA and the requestor's organization. Email address: louis.a.parker@nasa.gov Sets of twelve thin sections of Apollo lunar samples are available for short-term loan from JSC Curation. The thin

  2. First lunar outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Aureo F.; Silva, Daniel; Ortiz, Nelson; Alvarez, Omar; Colon, Julio A.; Colon, Myrelle; Diaz, Alicia; Escobar, Xochiquetzal Y.; Garcia, Alberto; Gonzalez, Isabel C.

    1992-01-01

    Design and research efforts at the University of Puerto Rico have focused on the evaluation and refinement of the Habitability Criteria for a prolonged human presence in space during the last four years. Living quarters for a Mars mission and a third generation lunar base concept were proposed. This academic year, 1991-92, work on further refinement of the habitability criteria and design of partial gravity furniture was carried on. During the first semester, design alternatives for furniture necessary in a habitat design optimized for lunar and Martian environments were developed. Designs are based on recent research data from lunar and Mars gravity simulations, and current NASA standards. Artifacts will be submitted to NASA architects to be tested in KC-135 flights. Test findings will be submitted for incorporation in future updates to NASA habitat design standards. Second semester work was aimed at integrating these findings into the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), a mission scenario currently being considered by NASA. The mission consists of a manned return to the moon by crews of four astronauts for periods of 45 days. The major hardware components of the mission are as follows: (1) a Crew Module for the delivery of the crew and their supplies, and (2) the Habitat Module, which will arrive on the Moon unmanned. Our design efforts concentrated on this Habitat Module and on application of habitability criteria. Different geometries for the pressure vessel and their impact on the interior architecture were studied. Upon the selection of a geometry, a more detailed analysis of the interior design was performed, taking into consideration the reduced gravity, and the protection against radiation, micrometeorites, and the extreme temperature variation. A proposal for a FLO was submitted by the students, consisting essentially of a 24-feet (7.3 m.) by 35-feet (10.67 m) high vertical cylinder with work areas, crew quarters, galley, wardroom, leisure facilities, health

  3. A Multispectral Micro-Imager for Lunar Field Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Jorge; Farmer, Jack; Sellar, Glenn; Allen, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Field geologists routinely assign rocks to one of three basic petrogenetic categories (igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic) based on microtextural and mineralogical information acquired with a simple magnifying lens. Indeed, such observations often comprise the core of interpretations of geological processes and history. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) uses multi-wavelength, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a substrate-removed InGaAs focal-plane array to create multispectral, microscale reflectance images of geological samples (FOV 32 X 40 mm). Each pixel (62.5 microns) of an image is comprised of 21 spectral bands that extend from 470 to 1750 nm, enabling the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases. MMI images provide crucial context information for in situ robotic analyses using other onboard analytical instruments (e.g. XRD), or for the selection of return samples for analysis in terrestrial labs. To further assess the value of the MMI as a tool for lunar exploration, we used a field-portable, tripod-mounted version of the MMI to image a variety of Apollo samples housed at the Lunar Experiment Laboratory, NASA s Johnson Space Center. MMI images faithfully resolved the microtextural features of samples, while the application of ENVI-based spectral end member mapping methods revealed the distribution of Fe-bearing mineral phases (olivine, pyroxene and magnetite), along with plagioclase feldspars within samples. Samples included a broad range of lithologies and grain sizes. Our MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compared favorably with thin section-based descriptions published in the Lunar Sample Compendium, revealing the value of MMI images for astronaut and rover-mediated lunar exploration.

  4. Dielectric properties of lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkova, O. V.; Kibardina, I. N.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of the dielectric characteristics of lunar soil samples are analyzed in the context of dielectric theory. It has been shown that the real component of the dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent of rocks greatly depend on the frequency of the interacting electromagnetic field and the soil temperature. It follows from the analysis that one should take into account diurnal variations in the lunar surface temperature when interpreting the radar-sounding results, especially for the gigahertz radio range.

  5. The Luna 16 and Luna 20 samples and their integrated studies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, D.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an integrated study of physical and chemical properties of lunar samples returned to earth by the automatic Soviet stations Luna 16 and 20 carried out with a view to dilineate the evolutionary history of moon, are reported. The nature of the Luna 16 and Luna 20 landing sites and lunar samples, and the manner in which the integrated analyses were planned and executed, are discussed. It is noted that the two lunar missions have provided a wealth of new information in unravelling the early history of planetary formation. (A.K.)

  6. Measurements of Photoelectric Yield and Physical Properties of Individual Lunar Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, F. A.; Taylor, L.; Hoover, R.

    2005-01-01

    Micron size dust grains levitated and transported on the lunar surface constitute a major problem for the robotic and human habitat missions for the Moon. It is well known since the Apollo missions that the lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of micron/sub-micron size dust grains. Transient dust clouds over the lunar horizon were observed by experiments during the Apollo 17 mission. Theoretical models suggest that the dust grains on the lunar surface are charged by the solar UV radiation as well as the solar wind. Even without any physical activity, the dust grains are levitated by electrostatic fields and transported away from the surface in the near vacuum environment of the Moon. The current dust charging and the levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena. Since the abundance of dust on the Moon's surface with its observed adhesive characteristics is believed to have a severe impact on the human habitat and the lifetime and operations of a variety of equipment, it is necessary to investigate the phenomena and the charging properties of the lunar dust in order to develop appropriate mitigating strategies. We will present results of some recent laboratory experiments on individual micro/sub-micron size dust grains levitated in electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The experiments involve photoelectric emission measurements of individual micron size lunar dust grains illuminated with UV radiation in the 120-160 nm wavelength range. The photoelectric yields are required to determine the charging properties of lunar dust illuminated by solar UV radiation. We will present some recent results of laboratory measurement of the photoelectric yields and the physical properties of individual micron size dust grains from the Apollo and Luna-24 sample returns as well as the JSC-1 lunar simulants.

  7. Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks’ Diminished Return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although higher socioeconomic status (SES indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. Aims: To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. Methods: This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2017 (n = 3217. HINTS is a national survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites (n = 1868; 82% or Blacks (n = 409; 18%. The independent variable was educational attainment, and the dependent variables were ever and current (past 30-day smoking. Demographic factors (age and gender were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. Results: In the pooled sample, higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of ever and current smoking. Race interacted with the effects of higher educational attainment on current smoking, suggesting a stronger protective effect of higher education against current smoking for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with the effect of educational attainment on odds of ever smoking. Conclusions: In line with previous research in the United States, education is more strongly associated with health and health behaviors in Whites than Blacks. Smaller protective effects of education on health behaviors may be due to the existing racism across institutions such as the education system and labor market.

  8. Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks' Diminished Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Mistry, Ritesh

    2018-04-16

    Although higher socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2017 ( n = 3217). HINTS is a national survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites ( n = 1868; 82%) or Blacks ( n = 409; 18%). The independent variable was educational attainment, and the dependent variables were ever and current (past 30-day) smoking. Demographic factors (age and gender) were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. In the pooled sample, higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of ever and current smoking. Race interacted with the effects of higher educational attainment on current smoking, suggesting a stronger protective effect of higher education against current smoking for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with the effect of educational attainment on odds of ever smoking. In line with previous research in the United States, education is more strongly associated with health and health behaviors in Whites than Blacks. Smaller protective effects of education on health behaviors may be due to the existing racism across institutions such as the education system and labor market.

  9. Lunar Industry & Research Base Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, J.; Kaliapin, M.; Osinovyy, G.

    2017-09-01

    Currently, all main space industry players, such as Europe, USA, Russia, China, etc., are looking back again at the idea of Moon exploration building there a manned lunar base. Alongside with other world spacefaring nations, Yuzhnoye State Design Office with its long-time development experience, technological and intellectual potential, organized its own conceptual work on development of the Lunar Industry & Research Base. In the frames of conceptual project "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" were formed its appearance, preliminary configuration and infrastructure at different stages of operation, trajectory and flight scheme to the Moon, as well as terms of the project's realization, and main technical characteristics of the systems under development, such as space transportation system for crew and cargo delivery to lunar surface and return to Earth, standardized designs of lunar modules, lunar surface vehicles, etc. The "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" project's preliminary risk assessment has shown a high value of its overall risk due to the lack of reliable information about the Moon, technical risks, long-term development of its elements, very high financial costs and dependence on state support. This points to the fact that it is reasonable to create such a global project in cooperation with other countries. International cooperation will expand the capabilities of any nation, reduce risks and increase the success probability of automated or manned space missions. It is necessary to create and bring into operation practical mechanisms for long-term space exploration on a global scale. One of the ways to do this is to create a multinational agency which would include both state enterprises and private companies.

  10. Exploration of the Moon to Enable Lunar and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon represents an enabling Solar System exploration asset because of its proximity, resources, and size. Its location has facilitated robotic missions from 5 different space agencies this century. The proximity of the Moon has stimulated commercial space activity, which is critical for sustainable space exploration. Since 2000, a new view of the Moon is coming into focus, which is very different from that of the 20th century. The documented presence of volatiles on the lunar surface, coupled with mature ilmenite-rich regolith locations, represent known resources that could be used for life support on the lunar surface for extended human stays, as well as fuel for robotic and human exploration deeper into the Solar System. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to explore the terrestrial planets and Solar System processes. For example, it is an end-member in terrestrial planetary body differentiation. Ever since the return of the first lunar samples by Apollo 11, the magma ocean concept was developed and has been applied to both Earth and Mars. Because of the small size of the Moon, planetary differentiation was halted at an early (primary?) stage. However, we still know very little about the lunar interior, despite the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments, and to understand the structure of the Moon will require establishing a global lunar geophysical network, something Apollo did not achieve. Also, constraining the impact chronology of the Moon allows the surfaces of other terrestrial planets to be dated and the cratering history of the inner Solar System to be constrained. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to study space weathering of airless bodies. It is apparent, then, that human and robotic missions to the Moon will enable both science and exploration. For example, the next step in resource exploration is prospecting on the surface those deposits identified from orbit to understand the yield that can be expected. Such prospecting will also

  11. Lunar exploration: opening a window into the history and evolution of the inner Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian A; Joy, Katherine H

    2014-09-13

    The lunar geological record contains a rich archive of the history of the inner Solar System, including information relevant to understanding the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the geological evolution of rocky planets, and our local cosmic environment. This paper provides a brief review of lunar exploration to-date and describes how future exploration initiatives will further advance our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon, the Earth-Moon system and of the Solar System more generally. It is concluded that further advances will require the placing of new scientific instruments on, and the return of additional samples from, the lunar surface. Some of these scientific objectives can be achieved robotically, for example by in situ geochemical and geophysical measurements and through carefully targeted sample return missions. However, in the longer term, we argue that lunar science would greatly benefit from renewed human operations on the surface of the Moon, such as would be facilitated by implementing the recently proposed Global Exploration Roadmap. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. A Comparison of Measures of Abnormal Performance on a Sample of Monthly Mutual Fund Returns, formerly titled; The Evaluation of Mutual Fund Performance: An Analysis of Monthly Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Grinblatt, Mark

    1989-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the Jensen Measure, the Positive Period Weighting Measure, developed in Grinblatt and Titman (1987a), measures developed from the Treynor-Mazuy (1966) quadratic regression on a sample 179 mutual funds, using a variety of benchmark portfolios. We find that the measures generally yield similar inferences when using the same benchmark and that inferences can vary, even from the same measure, when using different benchmarks. Several benchmarks, developed here, appe...

  13. Optical properties of (162173) 1999 JU3: in preparation for the JAXA Hayabusa 2 sample return mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Masateru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Hasegawa, Sunao; Abe, Masanao; Yoshikawa, Makoto [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Kim, Myung-Jin [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Jun [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Moskovitz, Nicholas [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Abe, Shinsuke [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Nihon University, 7-24-1 Narashinodai Funabashi, Chiba 274-8501 (Japan); Pan, Kang-Sian [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Takahashi, Jun; Takagi, Yuhei; Arai, Akira [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Tokimasa, Noritaka [Sayo Town Office, 2611-1 Sayo, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5380 (Japan); Hsieh, Henry H. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Thomas-Osip, Joanna E.; Osip, David J. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Urakawa, Seitaro [Bisei Spaceguard Center, Japan Spaceguard Association, 1716-3 Okura, Bisei-cho, Ibara, Okayama 714-1411 (Japan); Hanayama, Hidekazu [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 1024-1 Arakawa, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Tomohiko [Department of Teacher Training, Hokkaido University of Education, 9 Hokumon, Asahikawa 070-8621 (Japan); and others

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the magnitude-phase relation of (162173) 1999 JU3, a target asteroid for the JAXA Hayabusa 2 sample return mission. We initially employed the International Astronomical Union's H-G formalism but found that it fits less well using a single set of parameters. To improve the inadequate fit, we employed two photometric functions: the Shevchenko and Hapke functions. With the Shevchenko function, we found that the magnitude-phase relation exhibits linear behavior in a wide phase angle range (α = 5°-75°) and shows weak nonlinear opposition brightening at α < 5°, providing a more reliable absolute magnitude of H {sub V} = 19.25 ± 0.03. The phase slope (0.039 ± 0.001 mag deg{sup –1}) and opposition effect amplitude (parameterized by the ratio of intensity at α = 0.°3 to that at α = 5°, I(0.°3)/I(5°) = 1.31 ± 0.05) are consistent with those of typical C-type asteroids. We also attempted to determine the parameters for the Hapke model, which are applicable for constructing the surface reflectance map with the Hayabusa 2 onboard cameras. Although we could not constrain the full set of Hapke parameters, we obtained possible values, w = 0.041, g = –0.38, B {sub 0} = 1.43, and h = 0.050, assuming a surface roughness parameter θ-bar = 20°. By combining our photometric study with a thermal model of the asteroid, we obtained a geometric albedo of p {sub v} = 0.047 ± 0.003, phase integral q = 0.32 ± 0.03, and Bond albedo A {sub B} = 0.014 ± 0.002, which are commensurate with the values for common C-type asteroids.

  14. Optical properties of (162173) 1999 JU3: in preparation for the JAXA Hayabusa 2 sample return mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Masateru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Sunao; Abe, Masanao; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Kim, Myung-Jin; Choi, Young-Jun; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Abe, Shinsuke; Pan, Kang-Sian; Takahashi, Jun; Takagi, Yuhei; Arai, Akira; Tokimasa, Noritaka; Hsieh, Henry H.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna E.; Osip, David J.; Urakawa, Seitaro; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the magnitude-phase relation of (162173) 1999 JU3, a target asteroid for the JAXA Hayabusa 2 sample return mission. We initially employed the International Astronomical Union's H-G formalism but found that it fits less well using a single set of parameters. To improve the inadequate fit, we employed two photometric functions: the Shevchenko and Hapke functions. With the Shevchenko function, we found that the magnitude-phase relation exhibits linear behavior in a wide phase angle range (α = 5°-75°) and shows weak nonlinear opposition brightening at α < 5°, providing a more reliable absolute magnitude of H V = 19.25 ± 0.03. The phase slope (0.039 ± 0.001 mag deg –1 ) and opposition effect amplitude (parameterized by the ratio of intensity at α = 0.°3 to that at α = 5°, I(0.°3)/I(5°) = 1.31 ± 0.05) are consistent with those of typical C-type asteroids. We also attempted to determine the parameters for the Hapke model, which are applicable for constructing the surface reflectance map with the Hayabusa 2 onboard cameras. Although we could not constrain the full set of Hapke parameters, we obtained possible values, w = 0.041, g = –0.38, B 0 = 1.43, and h = 0.050, assuming a surface roughness parameter θ-bar = 20°. By combining our photometric study with a thermal model of the asteroid, we obtained a geometric albedo of p v = 0.047 ± 0.003, phase integral q = 0.32 ± 0.03, and Bond albedo A B = 0.014 ± 0.002, which are commensurate with the values for common C-type asteroids.

  15. Lunar feldspathic meteorites: Constraints on the geology of the lunar highlands, and the origin of the lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Juliane; Treiman, Allan H.; Mercer, Celestine N.

    2014-02-01

    The composition of the lunar crust provides clues about the processes that formed it and hence contains information on the origin and evolution of the Moon. Current understanding of lunar evolution is built on the Lunar Magma Ocean hypothesis that early in its history, the Moon was wholly or mostly molten. This hypothesis is based on analyses of Apollo samples of ferroan anorthosites (>90% plagioclase; molar Mg/(Mg+Fe)=Mg#Moon's surface, and remote sensing data, show that ferroan anorthosites are not globally distributed and that the Apollo highland samples, used as a basis for the model, are influenced by ejecta from the Imbrium basin. In this study we evaluate anorthosites from all currently available adequately described lunar highland meteorites, representing a more widespread sampling of the lunar highlands than Apollo samples alone, and find that ∼80% of them are significantly more magnesian than Apollo ferroan anorthosites. Interestingly, Luna mission anorthosites, collected outside the continuous Imbrium ejecta, are also highly magnesian. If the lunar highland crust consists dominantly of magnesian anorthosites, as suggested by their abundance in samples sourced outside Imbrium ejecta, a reevaluation of the Lunar Magma Ocean model is a sensible step forward in the endeavor to understand lunar evolution. Our results demonstrate that lunar anorthosites are more similar in their chemical trends and mineral abundance to terrestrial massif anorthosites than to anorthosites predicted in a Lunar Magma Ocean. This analysis does not invalidate the idea of a Lunar Magma Ocean, which seems a necessity under the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the moon. However, it does indicate that most rocks now seen at the Moon's surface are not primary products of a magma ocean alone, but are products of more complex crustal processes.

  16. Inert gases in a terra sample - Measurements in six grain-size fractions and two single particles from Lunar 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, D.; Lakatos, S.; Walton, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of inert gas measurements performed on six grain-size fractions and two single particles from four samples of Luna 20 material. Presented and discussed data include the inert gas contents, element and isotope systematics, radiation ages, and Ar-36/Ar-40 systematics.

  17. The influence of moonlight and lunar periodicity on the efficacy of CDC light trap in sampling Phlebotomus (Larroussius) orientalis Parrot, 1936 and other Phlebotomus sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Kirstein, Oscar David; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-02-15

    Phlebotomus orientalis is the main sandfly vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the north and northwest of Ethiopia. CDC light traps and sticky traps are commonly used for monitoring sandfly populations. However, their trapping efficiency is greatly influenced by various environmental factors including moonlight and lunar periodicity. In view of that, the current study assessed the effect of moonlight and lunar periodicity on the performance of light traps in collecting P. orientalis. Trapping of P. orientalis and other Phlebotomus spp. was conducted for 7 months between December 2012 and June 2013 using CDC light traps and sticky traps from peri-domestic and agricultural fields. Throughout the trapping periods, collections of sandfly specimens were carried out for 4 nights per month, totaling 28 trapping nights that coincided with the four lunar phases (viz., first quarter, third quarter, new and full moon) distributed in each month. In total, 13,533 sandflies of eight Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. bergeroti, P. rodhaini, P. duboscqi, P. papatasi, P. martini, P. lesleyae and P. heischi) were recorded. The predominant species was P. orientalis in both trapping sites and by both methods of collection in all lunar phases. A significant difference (P lunar phases. The highest mean number (231.13 ± 36.27 flies/trap/night) of P. orientalis was collected during the new moon phases, when the moonlight is absent. Fewer sandflies were attracted to light traps during a full moon. However, the number of P. orientalis and the other Phlebotomus spp. from sticky traps did not differ in their density among the four lunar phases (P = 0.122). Results of the current study demonstrated that the attraction and trapping efficiency of CDC light traps is largely influenced by the presence moonlight, especially during a full moon. Therefore, sampling of sandflies using light traps to estimate population density and other epidemiological studies in the field should take

  18. The use of automation and robotic systems to establish and maintain lunar base operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Lyman J.

    1992-01-01

    Robotic systems provide a means of performing many of the operations required to establish and maintain a lunar base. They form a synergistic system when properly used in concert with human activities. This paper discusses the various areas where robotics and automation may be used to enhance lunar base operations. Robots are particularly well suited for surface operations (exterior to the base habitat modules) because they can be designed to operate in the extreme temperatures and vacuum conditions of the Moon (or Mars). In this environment, the capabilities of semi-autonomous robots would surpass that of humans in all but the most complex tasks. Robotic surface operations include such activities as long range geological and mineralogical surveys with sample return, materials movement in and around the base, construction of radiation barriers around habitats, transfer of materials over large distances, and construction of outposts. Most of the above operations could be performed with minor modifications to a single basic robotic rover. Within the lunar base habitats there are a few areas where robotic operations would be preferable to human operations. Such areas include routine inspections for leakage in the habitat and its systems, underground transfer of materials between habitats, and replacement of consumables. In these and many other activities, robotic systems will greatly enhance lunar base operations. The robotic systems described in this paper are based on what is realistically achievable with relatively near term technology. A lunar base can be built and maintained if we are willing.

  19. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Suited Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969, in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he simulates scooping up a lunar surface sample.

  20. Low temperature thermophysical properties of lunar soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of lunar fines samples from the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions, determined at low temperatures as a function of temperature and various densities, are reviewed. It is shown that the thermal conductivity of lunar soil is nearly the same as that of terrestrial basaltic rock under the same temperature and pressure conditions.

  1. Krypton and xenon in lunar fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basford, J. R.; Dragon, J. C.; Pepin, R. O.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.; Murthy, V. R.

    1973-01-01

    Data from grain-size separates, stepwise-heated fractions, and bulk analyses of 20 samples of fines and breccias from five lunar sites are used to define three-isotope and ordinate intercept correlations in an attempt to resolve the lunar heavy rare gas system in a statistically valid approach. Tables of concentrations and isotope compositions are given.

  2. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  3. A spreadsheet template compatible with Microsoft Excel and iWork Numbers that returns the simultaneous confidence intervals for all pairwise differences between multiple sample means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angus M

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the method described in this paper is to develop a spreadsheet template for the purpose of comparing multiple sample means. An initial analysis of variance (ANOVA) test on the data returns F--the test statistic. If F is larger than the critical F value drawn from the F distribution at the appropriate degrees of freedom, convention dictates rejection of the null hypothesis and allows subsequent multiple comparison testing to determine where the inequalities between the sample means lie. A variety of multiple comparison methods are described that return the 95% confidence intervals for differences between means using an inclusive pairwise comparison of the sample means. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perspectives on Lunar Helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1999-01-01

    return on investment, access to capital markets for a lunar 3He and terrestrial fusion power business will require a near-term return on investment, based on early applications of IEC fusion technology (10).

  5. Lunar Dust Separation for Toxicology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; McKay, D. S.; Riofrio, L. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Gonzalex, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, crewmembers were briefly exposed to dust in the lunar module, brought in after extravehicular activity. When the lunar ascent module returned to micro-gravity, the dust that had settled on the floor now floated into the air, causing eye discomfort and occasional respiratory symptoms. Because our goal is to set an exposure standard for 6 months of episodic exposure to lunar dust for crew on the lunar surface, these brief exposures of a few days are not conclusive. Based on experience with industrial minerals such as sandblasting quartz, an exposure of several months may cause serious damage, while a short exposure may cause none. The detailed characteristics of sub-micrometer lunar dust are only poorly known, and this is the size range of particles that are of greatest concern. We have developed a method for extracting respirable dust (<2.5 micron) from Apollo lunar soils. This method meets stringent requirements that the soil must be kept dry, exposed only to pure nitrogen, and must conserve and recover the maximum amount of both respirable dust and coarser soil. In addition, we have developed a method for grinding coarser lunar soil to produce sufficient respirable soil for animal toxicity testing while preserving the freshly exposed grain surfaces in a pristine state.

  6. A celestial assisted INS initialization method for lunar explorers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xiaolin; Wang, Longhua; Wu, Weiren; Fang, Jiancheng

    2011-01-01

    The second and third phases of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) are planning to achieve Moon landing, surface exploration and automated sample return. In these missions, the inertial navigation system (INS) and celestial navigation system (CNS) are two indispensable autonomous navigation systems which can compensate for limitations in the ground based navigation system. The accurate initialization of the INS and the precise calibration of the CNS are needed in order to achieve high navigation accuracy. Neither the INS nor the CNS can solve the above problems using the ground controllers or by themselves on the lunar surface. However, since they are complementary to each other, these problems can be solved by combining them together. A new celestial assisted INS initialization method is presented, in which the initial position and attitude of the explorer as well as the inertial sensors' biases are estimated by aiding the INS with celestial measurements. Furthermore, the systematic error of the CNS is also corrected by the help of INS measurements. Simulations show that the maximum error in position is 300 m and in attitude 40″, which demonstrates this method is a promising and attractive scheme for explorers on the lunar surface.

  7. A Celestial Assisted INS Initialization Method for Lunar Explorers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Fang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The second and third phases of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP are planning to achieve Moon landing, surface exploration and automated sample return. In these missions, the inertial navigation system (INS and celestial navigation system (CNS are two indispensable autonomous navigation systems which can compensate for limitations in the ground based navigation system. The accurate initialization of the INS and the precise calibration of the CNS are needed in order to achieve high navigation accuracy. Neither the INS nor the CNS can solve the above problems using the ground controllers or by themselves on the lunar surface. However, since they are complementary to each other, these problems can be solved by combining them together. A new celestial assisted INS initialization method is presented, in which the initial position and attitude of the explorer as well as the inertial sensors’ biases are estimated by aiding the INS with celestial measurements. Furthermore, the systematic error of the CNS is also corrected by the help of INS measurements. Simulations show that the maximum error in position is 300 m and in attitude 40″, which demonstrates this method is a promising and attractive scheme for explorers on the lunar surface.

  8. Dust particles investigation for future Russian lunar missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnikov, Gennady; Horanyi, Mihaly; Esposito, Francesca; Zakharov, Alexander; Popel, Sergey; Afonin, Valeri; Borisov, Nikolay; Seran, Elena; Godefroy, Michel; Shashkova, Inna; Kuznetsov, Ilya; Lyash, Andrey; Vorobyova, Elena; Petrov, Oleg; Lisin, Evgeny

    emission. Dust analyzer instrument PmL for future Russian lender missons intends for investigation the dynamics of dusty plasma near lunar surface. PmL consist of three blocks: Impact Sensor and two Electric Field Sensors. Dust Experiment goals are: 1) Impact sensor to investigate the dynamics of dust particles near the lunar surface (speed, charge, mass, vectors of a fluxes) a) high speed micrometeorites b) secondary particles after micrometeorites soil bombardment c) levitating dust particles due to electrostatic fields PmL instrument will measure dust particle impulses. In laboratory tests we used - min impulse so as 7•10-11 N•c, by SiO2 dust particles, 20-40 µm with velocity about 0,5 -2,5 m/c, dispersion 0.3, and - max impulse was 10-6 N•c with possibility increased it by particles Pb-Sn 0,7 mm with velocity 1 m/c, dispersion ±0.3. Also Impact Sensor will measure the charge of dust particle as far as 10-15 C ( 1000 electrons). In case the charge and impulse of a dust particle are measured we can obtain velocity and mass of them. 2) Electric field Sensor will measure the value and dynamics of the electric fields the lunar surface. Two Electric Field Sensors both are measured the concentration and temperature of charged particles (electrons, ions, dust particles). Uncertainty of measurements is 10%. Electric Field Sensors contain of Lengmure probe. Using Lengmure probe to dark and light Moon surface we can obtain the energy spectra photoelectrons in different period of time. PmL instrument is developing, working out and manufacturing in IKI. Simultaneously with the PmL dust instrument to study lunar dust it would be very important to use an onboard TV system adjusted for imaging physical properties of dust on the lunar surface (adhesion, albedo, porosity, etc), and to collect dust particles samples from the lunar surface to return these samples to the Earth for measure a number of physic-chemical properties of the lunar dust, e.g. a quantum yield of

  9. Lunar Flashlight and Other Lunar Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Water is a human-exploitable resource. Lunar Flashlight is a Cubesat mission to detect and map lunar surface ice in permanently-shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. EM-1 will carry 13 Cubesat-class missions to further smallsat science and exploration capabilities; much room to infuse LEO cubesat methodology, models, and technology. Exploring the value of concurrent measurements to measure dynamical processes of water sources and sinks.

  10. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM publication contains the extended abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the 32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held at Houston, TX, March 12-16, 2001. The papers are presented in PDF format and are indexed by author, keyword, meteorite, program and samples for quick reference.

  12. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, H.; Cavanaugh, J.; Sun, X.; Liiva, P.; Rodriguez, M.; Neuman, G.

    2017-11-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument [1-3] on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, launched on June 18th, 2009, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, will provide a precise global lunar topographic map using laser altimetry. LOLA will assist in the selection of landing sites on the Moon for future robotic and human exploration missions and will attempt to detect the presence of water ice on or near the surface, which is one of the objectives of NASA's Exploration Program. Our present knowledge of the topography of the Moon is inadequate for determining safe landing areas for NASA's future lunar exploration missions. Only those locations, surveyed by the Apollo missions, are known with enough detail. Knowledge of the position and characteristics of the topographic features on the scale of a lunar lander are crucial for selecting safe landing sites. Our present knowledge of the rest of the lunar surface is at approximately 1 km kilometer level and in many areas, such as the lunar far side, is on the order of many kilometers. LOLA aims to rectify that and provide a precise map of the lunar surface on both the far and near side of the moon. LOLA uses short (6 ns) pulses from a single laser through a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) to produce a five-beam pattern that illuminates the lunar surface. For each beam, LOLA measures the time of flight (range), pulse spreading (surface roughness), and transmit/return energy (surface reflectance). LOLA will produce a high-resolution global topographic model and global geodetic framework that enables precise targeting, safe landing, and surface mobility to carry out exploratory activities. In addition, it will characterize the polar illumination environment, and image permanently shadowed regions of the lunar surface to identify possible locations of surface ice crystals in shadowed polar craters.

  13. Psychometric investigation of the abbreviated concussion symptom inventory in a sample of U.S. Marines returning from combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Justin S; Pulos, Steven; Haran, F Jay; Tsao, Jack W; Alphonso, Aimee L

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the psychometric investigation of an 11-item symptom checklist, the Abbreviated Concussion Symptom Inventory (ACSI). The ACSI is a dichotomously scored list of postconcussive symptoms associated with mild traumatic brain injury. The ACSI was administered to Marines (N = 1,435) within the 1st month of their return from combat deployments to Afghanistan. Psychometric analyses based upon nonparametric item response theory supported scoring the ACSI via simple summation of symptom endorsements; doing so produced a total score with good reliability (α = .802). Total scores were also found to significantly differentiate between different levels of head injury complexity during deployment, F(3, 1,431) = 100.75, p < .001. The findings support the use of the ASCI in research settings requiring a psychometrically reliable measure of postconcussion symptoms.

  14. LADEE LUNAR DUST EXPERIMENT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive bundle includes data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft....

  15. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  16. Critical Robotic Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.

    2018-04-01

    Perhaps the most critical missions to understanding lunar history are in situ dating and network missions. These would constrain the volcanic and thermal history and interior structure. These data would better constrain lunar evolution models.

  17. Lunar Science Conference, 4th, Houston, Tex., March 5-8, 1973, Proceedings. Volume 1 - Mineralogy and petrology. Volume 2 - Chemical and isotope analyses. Organic chemistry. Volume 3 - Physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    The mineralogy, petrology, chemistry, isotopic composition, and physical properties of lunar materials are described in papers detailing methods, results, and implications of research on samples returned from eight lunar landing sites: Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, and Luna 16 and 20. The results of experiments conducted or set up on the lunar surface by the astronauts are also described along with observations taken from Command Modules and subsatellites. Major topics include general geology, soil and breccia studies, petrologic studies, mineralogic analyses, elemental compositions, radiometric age determinations, rare gas chemistry, radionuclides, organogenic compounds, particle track records, thermal properties, seismic studies, resonance studies, orbital mapping, lunar atmosphere, magnetic studies, electrical studies, optical properties, and microcratering. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  18. Sealed Planetary Return Canister (SPRC), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sample return missions have primary importance in future planetary missions. A basic requirement is that samples be returned in pristine, uncontaminated condition,...

  19. Modeling Respiratory Toxicity of Authentic Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    The lunar expeditions of the Apollo operations from the 60 s and early 70 s have generated awareness about lunar dust exposures and their implication towards future lunar explorations. Critical analyses on the reports from the Apollo crew members suggest that lunar dust is a mild respiratory and ocular irritant. Currently, NASA s space toxicology group is functioning with the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to investigate and examine toxic effects to the respiratory system of rats in order to establish permissible exposure levels (PELs) for human exposure to lunar dust. In collaboration with the space toxicology group, LADTAG and NIOSH the goal of the present research is to analyze dose-response curves from rat exposures seven and twenty-eight days after intrapharyngeal instillations, and model the response using BenchMark Dose Software (BMDS) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Via this analysis, the relative toxicities of three types of Apollo 14 lunar dust samples and two control dust samples, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and quartz will be determined. This will be executed for several toxicity endpoints such as cell counts and biochemical markers in bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from the rats.

  20. Seeking Signs of Life on Mars: A Strategy for Selecting and Analyzing Returned Samples from Hydrothermal Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    iMOST Team; Campbell, K. A.; Farmer, J. D.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Czaja, A. D.; Altieri, F.; Amelin, Y.; Ammannito, E.; Anand, M.; Beaty, D. W.; Benning, L. G.; Bishop, J. L.; Borg, L. E.; Boucher, D.; Brucato, J. R.; Busemann, H.; Carrier, B. L.; Debaille, V.; Des Marais, D. J.; Dixon, M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Fogarty, J.; Glavin, D. P.; Goreva, Y. S.; Grady, M. M.; Hallis, L. J.; Harrington, A. D.; Hausrath, E. M.; Herd, C. D. K.; Horgan, B.; Humayun, M.; Kleine, T.; Kleinhenz, J.; Mangold, N.; Mackelprang, R.; Mayhew, L. E.; McCubbin, F. M.; McCoy, J. T.; McLennan, S. M.; McSween, H. Y.; Moser, D. E.; Moynier, F.; Mustard, J. F.; Niles, P. B.; Ori, G. G.; Raulin, F.; Rettberg, P.; Rucker, M. A.; Schmitz, N.; Sefton-Nash, E.; Sephton, M. A.; Shaheen, R.; Shuster, D. L.; Siljestrom, S.; Smith, C. L.; Spry, J. A.; Steele, A.; Swindle, T. D.; ten Kate, I. L.; Tosca, N. J.; Usui, T.; Wadhwa, M.; Weiss, B. P.; Werner, S. C.; Westall, F.; Wheeler, R. M.; Zipfel, J.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2018-04-01

    The iMOST hydrothermal deposits sub-team has identified key samples and investigations required to delineate the character and preservational state of potential biosignatures in ancient hydrothermal deposits.

  1. STS 131 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the Shuttle (STS-131) and International Space Station (19A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 1 grab sample canister (GSC) from the Shuttle are reported in Table 1. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. The recoveries of the 3 surrogates (C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene) from the Shuttle GSC were 100%, 93%, and 101%, respectively. Based on the historical experience using end-of-mission samples, the Shuttle atmosphere was acceptable for human respiration.

  2. Lunar dust transport and potential interactions with power system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzan, C.M.; Edwards, J.L.

    1991-11-01

    The lunar surface is covered by a thick blanket of fine dust. This dust may be readily suspended from the surface and transported by a variety of mechanisms. As a consequence, lunar dust can accumulate on sensitive power components, such as photovoltaic arrays and radiator surfaces, reducing their performance. In addition to natural mechanisms, human activities on the Moon will disturb significant amounts of lunar dust. Of all the mechanisms identified, the most serious is rocket launch and landing. The return of components from the Surveyor III provided a rare opportunity to observe the effects of the nearby landing of the Apollo 12 lunar module. The evidence proved that significant dust accumulation occurred on the Surveyor at a distance of 155 m. From available information on particle suspension and transport mechanisms, a series of models was developed to predict dust accumulation as a function of distance from the lunar module. The accumulation distribution was extrapolated to a future lunar lander scenario. These models indicate that accumulation is expected to be substantial even as far as 2 km from the landing site. Estimates of the performance penalties associated with lunar dust coverage on radiators and photovoltaic arrays are presented. Because of the lunar dust adhesive and cohesive properties, the most practical dust defensive strategy appears to be the protection of sensitive components from the arrival of lunar dust by location, orientation, or barriers

  3. Lunar dust transport and potential interactions with power system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzan, C.M.; Edwards, J.L.

    1991-11-01

    The lunar surface is covered by a thick blanket of fine dust. This dust may be readily suspended from the surface and transported by a variety of mechanisms. As a consequence, lunar dust can accumulate on sensitive power components, such as photovoltaic arrays and radiator surfaces, reducing their performance. In addition to natural mechanisms, human activities on the Moon will disturb significant amounts of lunar dust. Of all the mechanisms identified, the most serious is rocket launch and landing. The return of components from the Surveyor III provided a rare opportunity to observe the effects of the nearby landing of the Apollo 12 lunar module. The evidence proved that significant dust accumulation occurred on the Surveyor at a distance of 155 m. From available information on particle suspension and transport mechanisms, a series of models was developed to predict dust accumulation as a function of distance from the lunar module. The accumulation distribution was extrapolated to a future lunar lander scenario. These models indicate that accumulation is expected to be substantial even as far as 2 km from the landing site. Estimates of the performance penalties associated with lunar dust coverage on radiators and photovoltaic arrays are presented. Because of the lunar dust adhesive and cohesive properties, the most practical dust defensive strategy appears to be the protection of sensitive components from the arrival of lunar dust by location, orientation, or barriers.

  4. Erosive Wear Characterization of Materials for Lunar Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpagazehe, Jeremiah N.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Delgado, Irebert R.; Higgs, C. Fred, III

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Apollo missions revealed that exhaust from the retrorockets of landing spacecraft may act to significantly accelerate lunar dust on the surface of the Moon. A recent study by Immer et al. (C. Immer, P.T. Metzger, P.E. Hintze, A. Nick, and R. Horan, Apollo 12 Lunar Module exhaust plume impingement on Lunar Surveyor III, Icarus, Vol. 211, pp. 1089-1102, 2011) investigated coupons returned to Earth from the Surveyor III lunar probe which were subjected to lunar dust impingement by the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landing. Their study revealed that even with indirect impingement, the spacecraft sustained erosive damage from the fast-moving lunar dust particles. In this work, results are presented from a series of erosive wear experiments performed on 6061 Aluminum using the JSC-1AF lunar dust simulant. Optical profilometry was used to investigate the surface after the erosion process. It was found that even short durations of lunar dust simulant impacting at low velocities produced substantial changes in the surface.

  5. What We Might Know About Gusev Crater if the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Mission were Coupled with a Mars Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.

    2008-01-01

    The science instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit have provided an enormous amount of chemical and mineralogical data during more than 1450 sols of exploration at Gusev crater. The Moessbauer (MB) instrument identified 10 Fe-bearing phases at Gusev Crater: olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, chromite, and magnetite as primary igneous phases and nanophase ferric oxide (npOx), goethite, hematite, a ferric sulfate, and pyrite/marcusite as secondary phases. The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) identified some of these Fe-bearing phases (olivine and pyroxene), non- Fe-bearing phases (e.g., feldspar), and an amorphous high-SiO2 phase near Home Plate. Chemical data from the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) provided the framework for rock classification, chemical weathering/alteration, and mineralogical constraints. APXS-based mineralogical constraints include normative calculations (with Fe(3+)/FeT from MB), elemental associations, and stoichiometry (e.g., 90% SiO2 implicates opalline silica). If Spirit had cached a set of representative samples and if those samples were returned to the Earth for laboratory analysis, what value is added by Mars Sample return (MSR) over and above the mineralogical and chemical data provided by MER?

  6. Bullialdus - Strengthening the case for lunar plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Although many craters expose materials of a composition different from that of the local surroundings, Bullialdus has excavated material representing three distinct stratigraphic zones that occur in the upper 6 km of crust, the top two of which are gabbroic and the deepest of which is noritic. This three-component stratigraphy at Bullialdus provides strong evidence that the lunar crust includes pockets of compositionally layered material reminiscent of mafic layered plutons. When combined with previous information on the compositional diversity at other large craters, these remote analyses obtained in a geologic context substantially strengthen the hypothesis suggested from lunar samples that plutons play an integral role in lunar crustal evolution.

  7. Multi-state autonomous drilling for lunar exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chongbin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information of subsurface lunar regolith stratification which varies along depth, the drilling device may encounter lunar soil and lunar rock randomly in the drilling process. To meet the load safety requirements of unmanned sampling mission under limited orbital resources, the control strategy of autonomous drilling should adapt to the indeterminable lunar environments. Based on the analysis of two types of typical drilling media (i.e., lunar soil and lunar rock, this paper proposes a multi-state control strategy for autonomous lunar drilling. To represent the working circumstances in the lunar subsurface and reduce the complexity of the control algorithm, lunar drilling process was categorized into three drilling states: the interface detection, initiation of drilling parameters for recognition and drilling medium recognition. Support vector machine (SVM and continuous wavelet transform were employed for the online recognition of drilling media and interface, respectively. Finite state machine was utilized to control the transition among different drilling states. To verify the effectiveness of the multi-state control strategy, drilling experiments were implemented with multi-layered drilling media constructed by lunar soil simulant and lunar rock simulant. The results reveal that the multi-state control method is capable of detecting drilling state variation and adjusting drilling parameters timely under vibration interferences. The multi-state control method provides a feasible reference for the control of extraterrestrial autonomous drilling.

  8. Carbide-metal assemblages in a sample returned from asteroid 25143 Itokawa: Evidence for methane-rich fluids during metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Dennis; Langenhorst, Falko

    2018-02-01

    We found that the particle RA-QD02-0115 returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft from near-Earth asteroid 25143 Itokawa contains the iron carbide haxonite (Fe21.9-22.7Co0.2-0.3Ni0.2-0.8)C6 and several Fe,Ni alloys, including multi-domain tetrataenite and spinodally decomposed taenite. Ellipsoidal to nearly spherical voids occur throughout the particle and suggest the presence of a fluid phase during textural and chemical equilibration of the host rock within the parent asteroid of 25143 Itokawa. The calculated solubility of carbon in Fe,Ni metal indicates that the carbide formed at temperatures larger than 600 °C during thermal metamorphism of the LL-chondritic mineral assemblage. Haxonite formed metastably with respect to graphite and cohenite, probably due to its high degree of lattice match with neighboring taenite, a low cooling rate at peak metamorphic temperatures, and the hindered nucleation of graphite. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations indicate that the fluid present was dry (H2O-poor) and dominated by methane. The reactive fluid most plausibly had an atomic H/C ratio of 4-5 and was derived from the reduction of macromolecular, insoluble organic matter (IOM) that initially co-accreted with water ice. The initial presence of water is a necessary assumption to provide sufficient hydrogen for the formation of methane from hydrolyzed IOM. Metallic iron was in turn partially oxidized and incorporated into the ferromagnesian silicates during the high-temperature stage of metamorphism. An exemplary bulk reaction from unequilibrated material on the left to an equilibrated assemblage on the right may be written as: 330 CH0.8O0.2(IOM) + 500 H2O(ice/g) + 681 Fe(in alloy) + 566 FeSiO3(in Opx) → 300 CH4(g) + 32 H2(g) + 5 Fe23C6(in Hx) + 566 Fe2SiO4(in Ol) (Opx = orthopyroxene, Hx = haxonite, Ol = olivine, g = fluid species). The best estimate of the fluid/rock ratio in the region of the LL parent body where RA-QD02-0115 formed is about 3 × 10-3 and corresponds to

  9. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  10. Predictable return distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    trace out the entire distribution. A univariate quantile regression model is used to examine stock and bond return distributions individually, while a multivariate model is used to capture their joint distribution. An empirical analysis on US data shows that certain parts of the return distributions......-of-sample analyses show that the relative accuracy of the state variables in predicting future returns varies across the distribution. A portfolio study shows that an investor with power utility can obtain economic gains by applying the empirical return distribution in portfolio decisions instead of imposing...

  11. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong During Lunar Rock Collection Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong uses a geologist's hammer in selecting rock specimens during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas. Armstrong, alongside astronaut Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, practiced gathering rock specimens using special lunar geological tools in preparation for the first Lunar landing. Mission was accomplished in July of the same year. Aboard the Marshall Space Fight center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Armstrong, commander; Aldrin, Lunar Module pilot; and a third astronaut Michael Collins, Command Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin, while Collins remained in lunar orbit. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The lunar surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours.

  12. A novel lunar bed rest analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M

    2013-11-01

    Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.

  13. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    unintelligible and devoid of information even to the intelligent, educated non-expert. Classifications have functions. A major one must be communication; i.e., a name for a mare basalt provides a common understanding of what the basalt is. For the small number of suites currently available, the present labels (though inefficient and insufficient) may work; with continued recognition of more basalts, Antarctic meteorite samples, orbiter data, sample returns, and lunar base studies, labels will become increasingly inefficient. Clementine and Prospector data have made mapping of mare basalts a much more visible activity than it was, and increasingly common ground among sample petrologists and remote sensers has emerged. To establish a usable classification, there must be some criteria for relationships. Petrologists need to decide what the most significant characters are, and how these can be translated into a classification. The common distinction on the basis of Ti (the major element with the greatest variation) may or may not be appropriate. It remains to be established whether the use of Ti is of fundamental value both in relating basalts to each other and in communication, or merely an historical accident or response to its variance. Additional information contained in original

  14. Detection Capability Evaluation on Chang'e-5 Lunar Mineralogical Spectrometer (LMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Ren, Xin; Yan, Wei; Xu, Xuesen; Cai, Tingni; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Chunlai

    2016-04-01

    The Chang'e-5 (CE-5) lunar sample return mission is scheduled to launch in 2017 to bring back lunar regolith and drill samples. The Chang'e-5 Lunar Mineralogical Spectrometer (LMS), as one of the three sets of scientific payload installed on the lander, is used to collect in-situ spectrum and analyze the mineralogical composition of the sampling site. It can also help to select the sampling site , and to compare the measured laboratory spectrum of returned sample with in-situ data. LMS employs acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) and is composed of a VIS/NIR module (0.48μm-1.45μm) and an IR module (1.4μm -3.2μm). It has spectral resolution ranging from 3 to 25 nm, with a field of view (FOV) of 4.24°×4.24°. Unlike Chang'e-3 VIS/NIR Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS), the spectral coverage of LMS is extended from 2.4μm to 3.2μm, which has capability to identify H2O/OH absorption features around 2.7μm. An aluminum plate and an Infragold plate are fixed in the dust cover, being used as calibration targets in the VIS/NIR and IR spectral range respectively when the dust cover is open. Before launch, a ground verification test of LMS needs to be conducted in order to: 1) test and verify the detection capability of LMS through evaluation on the quality of image and spectral data collected for the simulated lunar samples; and 2) evaluate the accuracy of data processing methods by the simulation of instrument working on the moon. The ground verification test will be conducted both in the lab and field. The spectra of simulated lunar regolith/mineral samples will be collected simultaneously by the LMS and two calibrated spectrometers: a FTIR spectrometer (Model 102F) and an ASD FieldSpec 4 Hi-Res spectrometer. In this study, the results of the LMS ground verification test will be reported including the evaluation on the LMS spectral and image data quality, mineral identification and inversion ability, accuracy of calibration and geometric positioning .

  15. Rescue and Preservation of Sample Data from the Apollo Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nancy S.; Zeigler, Ryan A.; Evans, Cindy A.; Lehnert, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Six Apollo missions landed on the Moon from 1969-72, returning to Earth 382 kg of lunar rock, soil, and core samples. These samples are among the best documented and preserved samples on Earth that have supported a robust research program for 45 years. From mission planning through sample collection, preliminary examination, and subsequent research, strict protocols and procedures are followed for handling and allocating Apollo subsamples, resulting in the production of vast amounts of documentation. Even today, hundreds of samples are allocated for research each year, building on the science foundation laid down by the early Apollo sample studies and combining new data from today's instrumentation, lunar remote sensing missions and lunar meteorites. Much sample information is available to researchers at curator.jsc.nasa.gov. Decades of analyses on lunar samples are published in LPSC proceedings volumes and other peer-reviewed journals, and tabulated in lunar sample compendia entries. However, for much of the 1969-1995 period, the processing documentation, individual and consortia analyses, and unpublished results exist only in analog forms or primitive digital formats that are either inaccessible or at risk of being lost forever because critical data from early investigators remain unpublished.

  16. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

  17. Lunar resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, John; Wise, Todd K.; Roy, Claude; Richter, Phil

    A lunar base that exploits local resources to enhance the productivity of a total SEI scenario is discussed. The goals were to emphasize lunar science and to land men on Mars in 2016 using significant amounts of lunar resources. It was assumed that propulsion was chemical and the surface power was non-nuclear. Three phases of the base build-up are outlined, the robotic emplacement of the first elements is detailed and a discussion of future options is included.

  18. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  19. On the history of the early meteoritic bombardment of the Moon: Was there a terminal lunar cataclysm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Greg; Basilevsky, Alexander; Neukum, Gerhard

    2018-03-01

    the considered histograms and relative probability plots not only the 3.87 Ga peak (due to Imbrium basin), but also several secondary peaks caused by the formation of other basins distributed between 3.87 and 4.25 Ga. The lunar terminal cataclysm hypothesis is in disagreement with the distribution of K-Ar ages for the highland rocks of the lunar meteorites. The population of lunar meteorites representing localities randomly distributed over the lunar surface, and thus free from the mentioned sampling bias, shows no ∼3.9 Ga peak as it should, if the cataclysm did occur. We conclude that the statistics of sample ages contradict the terminal cataclysm scenario in the bombardment of the Moon. We also see evidence for the formation of several impact basins between 3.87 and 4.25 Ga which is likewise incompatible with the hypothesis of a short interval cataclysm. There remain other basins, including the largest South Pole - Aitken, the ages of which should be determined in future studies to further clarify the impact history. Sample-return missions targeted to date several key basins need to be planned, and the continued study of lunar meteorites may also bring new details to the general view of the impact bombardment of the Moon.

  20. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: High-Resolution Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) Using a Monochromated TEM/STEM. Dynamical Evolution of Planets in Open Clusters. Experimental Petrology of the Basaltic Shergottite Yamato 980459: Implications for the Thermal Structure of the Martian Mantle. Cryogenic Reflectance Spectroscopy of Highly Hydrated Sulfur-bearing Salts. Implications for Core Formation of the Earth from High Pressure-Temperature Au Partitioning Experiments. Uranium-Thorium Cosmochronology. Protracted Core Differentiation in Asteroids from 182Hf-182W Systematics in the Eagle Station Pallasite. Maximizing Mission Science Return Through Use of Spacecraft Autonomy: Active Volcanism and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment. Classification of Volcanic Eruptions on Io and Earth Using Low-Resolution Remote Sensing Data. Isotopic Mass Fractionation Laws and the Initial Solar System (sup26)Al/(sup27)Al Ratio. Catastrophic Disruption of Porous and Solid Ice Bodies (sup187)Re-(sup187)Os Isotope Disturbance in LaPaz Mare Basalt Meteorites. Comparative Petrology and Geochemistry of the LaPaz Mare Basalt Meteorites. A Comparison of the Structure and Bonding of Carbon in Apex Chert Kerogenous Material and Fischer-Tropsch-Type Carbons. Broad Spectrum Characterization of Returned Samples: Orientation Constraints of Small Samples on X-Ray and Other Spectroscopies. Apollo 14 High-Ti Picritic Glass: Oxidation/Reduction by Condensation of Alkali Metals. New Lunar Meteorites from Oman: Dhofar 925, 960 and 961. The First Six Months of Iapetus Observations by the Cassini ISS Camera. First Imaging Results from the Iapetus B/C Flyby of the Cassini Spacecraft. Radiative Transfer Calculations for the Atmosphere of Mars in the 200-900 nm Range. Geomorphologic Map of the Atlantis Basin, Terra Sirenum, Mars. The Meaning of Iron 60: A Nearby Supernova Injected Short-lived Radionuclides into Our Protoplanetary Disk.

  1. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.; Bleacher, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) are a series of weeklong professional development workshops, accompanied by quarterly follow-up sessions, designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers, sponsored by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Participants learn about lunar science and exploration, gain tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, find out about the latest research results from LRO scientists, work with data from LRO and other lunar missions, and learn how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks and through authentic research experiences. LWEs are held around the country, primarily in locations underserved with respect to NASA workshops. Where possible, workshops also include tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help participants better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. Scientist and engineer involvement is a central tenant of the LWEs. LRO scientists and engineers, as well as scientists working on other lunar missions, present their research or activities to the workshop participants and answer questions about lunar science and exploration. This interaction with the scientists and engineers is consistently ranked by the LWE participants as one of the most interesting and inspiring components of the workshops. Evaluation results from the 2010 and 2011 workshops, as well as preliminary analysis of survey responses from 2012 participants, demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts among LWE participants in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and effectively share LRO data with students. Teachers reported increased confidence in helping students conduct research using lunar data, and learned about programs that would allow their students to make authentic

  2. Lidar 2009 - All Returns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing classified points of all returns. We have 3 classifications Unclassified, Ground, Low points. The average Ground Sample...

  3. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Moon and Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session" Moon and Mercury" included the following reports:Helium Production of Prompt Neutrinos on the Moon; Vapor Deposition and Solar Wind Implantation on Lunar Soil-Grain Surfaces as Comparable Processes; A New Lunar Geologic Mapping Program; Physical Backgrounds to Measure Instantaneous Spin Components of Terrestrial Planets from Earth with Arcsecond Accuracy; Preliminary Findings of a Study of the Lunar Global Megaregolith; Maps Characterizing the Lunar Regolith Maturity; Probable Model of Anomalies in the Polar Regions of Mercury; Parameters of the Maximum of Positive Polarization of the Moon; Database Structure Development for Space Surveying Results by Moon -Zond Program; CM2-type Micrometeoritic Lunar Winds During the Late Heavy Bombardment; A Comparison of Textural and Chemical Features of Spinel Within Lunar Mare Basalts; The Reiner Gamma Formation as Characterized by Earth-based Photometry at Large Phase Angles; The Significance of the Geometries of Linear Graben for the Widths of Shallow Dike Intrusions on the Moon; Lunar Prospector Data, Surface Roughness and IR Thermal Emission of the Moon; The Influence of a Magma Ocean on the Lunar Global Stress Field Due to Tidal Interaction Between the Earth and Moon; Variations of the Mercurian Photometric Relief; A Model of Positive Polarization of Regolith; Ground Truth and Lunar Global Thorium Map Calibration: Are We There Yet?;and Space Weathering of Apollo 16 Sample 62255: Lunar Rocks as Witness Plates for Deciphering Regolith Formation Processes.

  4. Genesis of the Lunar Landing Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelzer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The author examines early research regarding return flight from a Moon landing made prior to President Kennedy's 1961 challenge to put men on the Moon before the end of the decade. Organizations involved in early research include NACA, the Flight Research Center (now Dryden) Bell Aircraft Corporation. The discussion focuses on development of a flight simulator to model the Moon's reduced gravity and development of the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle.

  5. Report from International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) to COSPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We refer to COSPAR and ILEWG ICEUM and lunar conferences and declarations [1-18]. We discuss how lunar missions SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'E1&2, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LRO, GRAIL, LADEE, Chang'E3 and upcoming missions contribute to lunar exploration objectives & roadmap. We present the GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration and give a report on ongoing relevant ILEWG community activities, with focus on: “1. Science and exploration - World-wide access to raw and derived (geophysical units) data products using consistent formats and coordinate systems will maximize return on investment. We call to develop and implement plans for generation, validation, and release of these data products. Data should be made available for scientific analysis and supporting the development and planning of future missions - There are still Outstanding Questions: Structure and composition of crust, mantle, and core and implications for the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system; Timing, origin, and consequences of late heavy bombardment; Impact processes and regolith evolution; Nature and origin of volatile emplacement; Implications for resource utilization. These questions require international cooperation and sharing of results in order to be answered in a cost-effective manner - Ground truth information on the lunar far side is missing and needed to address many important scientific questions, e.g. with a sample return from South Pole-Aitken Basin - Knowledge of the interior is poor relative to the surface, and is needed to address a number of key questions, e.g. with International Lunar Network for seismometry and other geophysical measurements - Lunar missions will be driven by exploration, resource utilization, and science; we should consider minimum science payload for every mission, e.g., landers and rovers should carry instruments to determine surface composition and mineralogy - It is felt important to have a shared database about previous missions available for free, so as to provide

  6. Laboratory simulations of prebiotic molecule stability in the jarosite mineral group; end member evaluation of detection and decomposition behavior related to Mars sample return

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Michelle Kotler; Nancy W. Hinman; C. Doc Richardson; Andrew G. Conly; Jill R. Scott

    2009-10-01

    Recently, the prebiotic amino acid glycine has been found associated with natural jarosite samples from various locations around the world. Since the discovery of jarosite on Mars, extensive research focuses on linking this mineral group with possible detection of biosignatures in the geologic record on Earth and Mars. Multiple analytical methods, including extraction and mass spectrometry techniques have identified glycine and other biomolecules in jarosite samples. The jarosite end members jarosite (sensu stricto-potassium jarosite), natrojarosite (sodium jarosite), and ammoniojarosite (ammonium jarosite) have different thermodynamic stabilities, decompose at different rates, and have potentially different susceptibilities to substitution. Planetary protection issues have led to the suggestion that samples returned from Mars would need to be heat-treated before they could be analyzed on Earth. Although heat treatment of the samples would in theory destroy any potential biosignatures, valuable information can be obtained during thermal treatment by employing gravimetric techniques. The relationship between the thermodynamic stability of the jarosite end members and the effect that glycine has on the thermal decomposition behavior of each end member was investigated using thermal gravimetric analysis. Thermal gravimetric analysis has been suggested as a method capable of providing the heat treatment necessary to provide planetary protection while still providing useful information about the original state and composition of the potentially returned materials. Introducing glycine into the synthesis procedure of the potassium, sodium and ammonium jarosite end-member has elucidated the effects that glycine has on the thermal stability of the mineral group. Potassium jarosite appears to be the least susceptible to the effects of glycine, with the sodium and ammonium end members showing marked changes in thermal decomposition behavior and decomposition rates. In

  7. Rare Earth Element Partitioning in Lunar Minerals: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, E. C.; Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The partitioning behavior of rare earth elements (REE) between minerals and melts is widely used to interpret the petrogenesis and geologic context of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples. REE are important tools for modelling the evolution of the lunar interior. The ubiquitous negative Eu anomaly in lunar basalts is one of the main lines of evidence to support the lunar magma ocean (LMO) hypothesis, by which the plagioclase-rich lunar highlands were formed as a flotation crust during differentiation of a global-scale magma ocean. The separation of plagioclase from the mafic cumulates is thought to be the source of the Eu depletion, as Eu is very compatible in plagioclase. Lunar basalts and volcanic glasses are commonly depleted in light REEs (LREE), and more enriched in heavy REEs (HREE). However, there is very little experimental data available on REE partitioning between lunar minerals and melts. In order to interpret the source of these distinctive REE patterns, and to model lunar petrogenetic processes, REE partition coefficients (D) between lunar minerals and melts are needed at conditions relevant to lunar processes. New data on D(sub REE) for plagioclase, and pyroxenes are now available, but there is limited available data for olivine/melt D(sub REE), particularly at pressures higher than 1 bar, and in Fe-rich and reduced compositions - all conditions relevant to the lunar mantle. Based on terrestrial data, REE are highly incompatible in olivine (i.e. D much less than 1), however olivine is the predominant mineral in the lunar interior, so it is important to understand whether it is capable of storing even small amounts of REE, and how the REEs might be fractionatied, in order to understand the trace element budget of the lunar interior. This abstract presents results from high-pressure and temperature experiments investigating REE partitioning between olivine and melt in a composition relevant to lunar magmatism.

  8. Luna-Glob project in the context of the past and present lunar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    seen before. In 1962–1965 America sent several spacecrafts of the Ranger series to the Moon. A significant achievement came when Luna 9 made the first soft landing and provided a TV-panorama of the lunar surface. In 1968, Zond 5 and Zond 6 were the first lunar flyby with biological objects and safely returned to Earth.

  9. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  10. Review on abort trajectory for manned lunar landing mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Abort trajectory is a passage that ensures the astronauts to return safely to the earth when an emergency occurs. Firstly,the essential elements of mission abort are analyzed entirely based on summarizing the existing studies. Then,abort trajectory requirement and rational selection for different flight phases of typical manned lunar mission are discussed specifically. Considering a trade-off between the two primary constrains of an abort,the return time of flight and energy requirement,a general optimizing method for mission abort is proposed. Finally,some suggestions are given for China’s future manned lunar landing mission.

  11. Commercial Mars Sample Return Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenard, R.-X.

    2018-04-01

    Zodiac Planetary Services is a newly-formed company whose three founders together have over 80 years of space and high technology development and legal experience. The company uses IP created by the author covered by patent # 62/523432.

  12. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  13. Lunar-A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    penetrators will be transmitted to the earth station via the Lunar-A mother spacecraft orbiting at an altitude of about .... to save the power consumption of the Lunar-A penetrator .... and an origin-time versus tidal-phases correlation. (Toksoz et al ...

  14. 2007 Lunar Regolith Simulant Workshop Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Carole A.; Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) vision has as a cornerstone, the establishment of an Outpost on the Moon. This Lunar Outpost will eventually provide the necessary planning, technology development, and training for a manned mission to Mars in the future. As part of the overall activity, NASA is conducting Earth-based research and advancing technologies to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6 maturity under the Exploration Technology Development Program that will be incorporated into the Constellation Project as well as other projects. All aspects of the Lunar environment, including the Lunar regolith and its properties, are important in understanding the long-term impacts to hardware, scientific instruments, and humans prior to returning to the Moon and living on the Moon. With the goal of reducing risk to humans and hardware and increasing mission success on the Lunar surface, it is vital that terrestrial investigations including both development and verification testing have access to Lunar-like environments. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is supporting this endeavor by developing, characterizing, and producing Lunar simulants in addition to analyzing existing simulants for appropriate applications. A Lunar Regolith Simulant Workshop was conducted by MSFC in Huntsville, Alabama, in October 2007. The purpose of the Workshop was to bring together simulant developers, simulant users, and program and project managers from ETDP and Constellation with the goals of understanding users' simulant needs and their applications. A status of current simulant developments such as the JSC-1A (Mare Type Simulant) and the NASA/U.S. Geological Survey Lunar Highlands-Type Pilot Simulant (NU-LHT-1 M) was provided. The method for evaluating simulants, performed via Figures of Merit (FoMs) algorithms, was presented and a demonstration was provided. The four FoM properties currently being assessed are: size, shape, density, and composition. Some of the

  15. RESOLVE: Bridge between early lunar ISRU and science objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Sanders, G.; Larson, W.; Johnson, K.

    2007-08-01

    THE NEED FOR RESOURCES: When mankind returns to the moon, there will be an aspect of the architecture that will totally change how we explore the solar system. We will take the first steps towards breaking our reliance on Earth supplied consumables by extracting resources from planetary bodies. Our first efforts in this area, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), will be to extract the abundant oxygen found in the lunar regolith. But the "holy grail" of lunar ISRU will be finding an exploitable source of lunar hydrogen. If we can find a source of extractable hydrogen, it would provide a foundation for true independence from Earth. With in-situ hydrogen (or water) and oxygen we can produce many of the major consumables needed to operate a lunar outpost. We would have water to drink, oxygen to breath, as well as rocket propellants and fuel cell reagents to enable extended access and operations on the moon. These items make up a huge percentage of the mass launched from the Earth. Producing them in-situ would significantly reduce the cost of operating a lunar outpost while increasing payload availability for science. PROSPECTING: The Lunar Prospector found evidence of elevated hydrogen at the lunar poles, and measurements made at these locations from the Clementine mission bistatic radar have been interpreted as correlating to water/ice concentrations. At the South Pole, there is reasonably strong correlation between the elevated areas of hydrogen and permanently shadowed craters. However, there is considerable debate on the form and concentration of this hydrogen since the orbiting satellites had limited resolution and their data can be interpreted in different ways. The varying interpretations are based on differing opinions and theories of lunar environment, evolution, and cometary bombardment within the lunar Science community. The only way to truly answer this question from both a Science and resource availability perspective is to go to the lunar poles

  16. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  17. Simulation-Based Lunar Telerobotics Design, Acquisition and Training Platform for Virtual Exploration, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Meeting the objectives of returning to the moon by 2020 will require NASA to fly a series of telerobotic lunar orbital and surface vehicles to prove the viability of...

  18. Production of continuous glass fiber using lunar simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Curreri, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    The processing parameters and mechanical properties of glass fibers pulled from simulated lunar basalt are tested. The simulant was prepared using a plasma technique. The composition is representative of a low titanium mare basalt (Apollo sample 10084). Lunar gravity experiments are to be performed utilizing parabolic aircraft free-fall maneuvers which yield 30 seconds of 1/6-g per maneuver.

  19. Laboratory Measurements of Optical and Physical Properties of Individual Lunar Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Hoover, R. B.

    2006-01-01

    The lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of sub-micron/micron size dust grains formed by meteoritic impact over billions of years. The fine dust grains are levitated and transported on the lunar surface, and transient dust clouds over the lunar horizon were observed by experiments during the Apollo 17 mission. Theoretical models suggest that the dust grains on the lunar surface are charged by the solar UV radiation as well as the solar wind. Even without any physical activity, the dust grains are levitated by electrostatic fields and transported away from the surface in the near vacuum environment of the Moon. The current dust charging and levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena. Since the abundance of dust on the Moon's surface with its observed adhesive characteristics has the potential of severe impact on human habitat and operations and lifetime of a variety of equipment, it is necessary to investigate the charging properties and the lunar dust phenomena in order to develop appropriate mitigating strategies. Photoelectric emission induced by the solar UV radiation with photon energies higher than the work function of the grain materials is recognized to be the dominant process for charging of the lunar dust, and requires measurements of the photoelectric yields to determine the charging and equilibrium potentials of individual dust grains. In this paper, we present the first laboratory measurements of the photoelectric yields of individual sub-micron/micron size dust grains selected from sample returns of Apollo 17, and Luna 24 missions, as well as similar size dust grains from the JSC-1 simulants. The experimental results were obtained on a laboratory facility based on an electrodynamic balance that permits a variety of experiments to be conducted on individual sub-micron/micron size dust grains in simulated space environments. The photoelectric emission measurements indicate grain size dependence with the yield

  20. Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) with Raman Imaging Applied to Lunar Meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph P; Smith, Frank C; Booksh, Karl S

    2018-03-01

    Lunar meteorites provide a more random sampling of the surface of the Moon than do the returned lunar samples, and they provide valuable information to help estimate the chemical composition of the lunar crust, the lunar mantle, and the bulk Moon. As of July 2014, ∼96 lunar meteorites had been documented and ten of these are unbrecciated mare basalts. Using Raman imaging with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS), we investigated portions of polished thin sections of paired, unbrecciated, mare-basalt lunar meteorites that had been collected from the LaPaz Icefield (LAP) of Antarctica-LAP 02205 and LAP 04841. Polarized light microscopy displays that both meteorites are heterogeneous and consist of polydispersed sized and shaped particles of varying chemical composition. For two distinct probed areas within each meteorite, the individual chemical species and associated chemical maps were elucidated using MCR-ALS applied to Raman hyperspectral images. For LAP 02205, spatially and spectrally resolved clinopyroxene, ilmenite, substrate-adhesive epoxy, and diamond polish were observed within the probed areas. Similarly, for LAP 04841, spatially resolved chemical images with corresponding resolved Raman spectra of clinopyroxene, troilite, a high-temperature polymorph of anorthite, substrate-adhesive epoxy, and diamond polish were generated. In both LAP 02205 and LAP 04841, substrate-adhesive epoxy and diamond polish were more readily observed within fractures/veinlet features. Spectrally diverse clinopyroxenes were resolved in LAP 04841. Factors that allow these resolved clinopyroxenes to be differentiated include crystal orientation, spatially distinct chemical zoning of pyroxene crystals, and/or chemical and molecular composition. The minerals identified using this analytical methodology-clinopyroxene, anorthite, ilmenite, and troilite-are consistent with the results of previous studies of the two meteorites using electron microprobe

  1. Lunar neutron source function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The search for a quantitative neutron source function for the lunar surface region is justified because it contributes to our understanding of the history of the lunar surface and of nuclear process occurring on the moon since its formation. A knowledge of the neutron source function and neutron flux distribution is important for the interpretation of many experimental measurements. This dissertation uses the available pertinent experimental measurements together with theoretical calculations to obtain an estimate of the lunar neutron source function below 15 MeV. Based upon reasonable assumptions a lunar neutron source function having adjustable parameters is assumed for neutrons below 15 MeV. The lunar neutron source function is composed of several components resulting from the action of cosmic rays with lunar material. A comparison with previous neutron calculations is made and significant differences are discussed. Application of the results to the problem of lunar soil histories is examined using the statistical model for soil development proposed by Fireman. The conclusion is drawn that the moon is losing mass

  2. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  3. Methane Lunar Surface Thermal Control Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, David W.; Sutherlin, Steven G.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffrey R.; Jurns, John M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is considering propulsion system concepts for future missions including human return to the lunar surface. Studies have identified cryogenic methane (LCH4) and oxygen (LO2) as a desirable propellant combination for the lunar surface ascent propulsion system, and they point to a surface stay requirement of 180 days. To meet this requirement, a test article was prepared with state-of-the-art insulation and tested in simulated lunar mission environments at NASA GRC. The primary goals were to validate design and models of the key thermal control technologies to store unvented methane for long durations, with a low-density high-performing Multi-layer Insulation (MLI) system to protect the propellant tanks from the environmental heat of low Earth orbit (LEO), Earth to Moon transit, lunar surface, and with the LCH4 initially densified. The data and accompanying analysis shows this storage design would have fallen well short of the unvented 180 day storage requirement, due to the MLI density being much higher than intended, its substructure collapse, and blanket separation during depressurization. Despite the performance issue, insight into analytical models and MLI construction was gained. Such modeling is important for the effective design of flight vehicle concepts, such as in-space cryogenic depots or in-space cryogenic propulsion stages.

  4. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  5. Heterogeneity in lunar anorthosite meteorites: implications for the lunar magma ocean model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sara S; Joy, Katherine H; Jeffries, Teresa E; Consolmagno, Guy J; Kearsley, Anton

    2014-09-13

    The lunar magma ocean model is a well-established theory of the early evolution of the Moon. By this model, the Moon was initially largely molten and the anorthositic crust that now covers much of the lunar surface directly crystallized from this enormous magma source. We are undertaking a study of the geochemical characteristics of anorthosites from lunar meteorites to test this model. Rare earth and other element abundances have been measured in situ in relict anorthosite clasts from two feldspathic lunar meteorites: Dhofar 908 and Dhofar 081. The rare earth elements were present in abundances of approximately 0.1 to approximately 10× chondritic (CI) abundance. Every plagioclase exhibited a positive Eu-anomaly, with Eu abundances of up to approximately 20×CI. Calculations of the melt in equilibrium with anorthite show that it apparently crystallized from a magma that was unfractionated with respect to rare earth elements and ranged in abundance from 8 to 80×CI. Comparisons of our data with other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples suggest that there is notable heterogeneity in the trace element abundances of lunar anorthosites, suggesting these samples did not all crystallize from a common magma source. Compositional and isotopic data from other authors also suggest that lunar anorthosites are chemically heterogeneous and have a wide range of ages. These observations may support other models of crust formation on the Moon or suggest that there are complexities in the lunar magma ocean scenario to allow for multiple generations of anorthosite formation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  7. Consolidated Lunar Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Consolidated Lunar Atlas is a collection of the best photographic images of the moon, including low-oblique photography, full-moon photography, and tabular and...

  8. Lunar mare TiO2 abundances estimated from UV/Vis reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Robinson, Mark S.; Lawrence, Samuel J.; Denevi, Brett W.; Hapke, Bruce; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Hiesinger, Harald

    2017-11-01

    The visible (400-700 nm) and near-infrared (700-2800 nm) reflectance of the lunar regolith is dominantly controlled by variations in the abundance of plagioclase, iron-bearing silicate minerals, opaque minerals (e.g., ilmenite), and maturation products (e.g., agglutinate glass, radiation-produced rims on soil grains, and Fe-metal). The same materials control reflectance into the near-UV (250-400 nm) with varying degrees of importance. A key difference is that while ilmenite is spectrally neutral in the visible to near-infrared, it exhibits a diagnostic upturn in reflectance in the near-UV, at wavelengths shorter than about 450 nm. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera (WAC) filters were specifically designed to take advantage of this spectral feature to enable more accurate mapping of ilmenite within mare soils than previously possible. Using the reflectance measured at 321 and 415 nm during 62 months of repeated near-global WAC observations, first we found a linear correlation between the TiO2 contents of the lunar soil samples and the 321/415 nm ratio of each sample return site. We then used the coefficients from the linear regression and the near-global WAC multispectral mosaic to derive a new TiO2 map. The average TiO2 content is 3.9 wt% for the 17 major maria. The highest TiO2 values were found in Mare Tranquillitatis (∼12.6 wt%) and Oceanus Procellarum (∼11.6 wt%). Regions contaminated by highland ejecta, lunar swirls, and the low-TiO2 maria (e.g., Mare Frigoris, the northeastern units of Mare Imbrium) exhibit very low TiO2 values (2.6 Ga), whereas only medium to high TiO2 values (average = 6.8 wt%, minimum = 4.5 wt%) are found for younger mare units (<2.6 Ga).

  9. The Lunar Dust Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Jamey Robert

    Planetary bodies throughout the solar system are continually bombarded by dust particles, largely originating from cometary activities and asteroidal collisions. Surfaces of bodies with thick atmospheres, such as Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan are mostly protected from incoming dust impacts as these particles ablate in their atmospheres as 'shooting stars'. However, the majority of bodies in the solar system have no appreciable atmosphere and their surfaces are directly exposed to the flux of high speed dust grains. Impacts onto solid surfaces in space generate charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as solid secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds forming dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and had not yet been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces before NASA's Lunar Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission. In this thesis, we first present the measurements taken by the Lunar Dust Explorer (LDEX), aboard LADEE, which discovered a permanently present, asymmetric dust cloud surrounding the Moon. The global characteristics of the lunar dust cloud are discussed as a function of a variety of variables such as altitude, solar longitude, local time, and lunar phase. These results are compared with models for lunar dust cloud generation. Second, we present an analysis of the groupings of impacts measured by LDEX, which represent detections of dense ejecta plumes above the lunar surface. These measurements are put in the context of understanding the response of the lunar surface to meteoroid bombardment and how to use other airless bodies in the solar system as detectors for their local meteoroid environment. Third, we present the first in-situ dust measurements taken over the lunar sunrise terminator. Having found no excess of small grains in this region, we discuss its implications for the putative population of electrostatically lofted dust.

  10. Beneficiation of lunar ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Joaquin

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important commodities lacking in the moon is free oxygen which is required for life and used extensively for propellent. Free oxygen, however, can be obtained by liberating it from the oxides and silicates that form the lunar rocks and regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is considered one of the leading candidates for production of oxygen because it can be reduced with a reasonable amount of energy and it is an abundant mineral in the lunar regolith and many mare basalts. In order to obtain oxygen from ilmenite, a method must be developed to beneficiate ilmenite from lunar material. Two possible techniques are electrostatic or magnetic methods. Both methods have complications because lunar ilmenite completely lacks Fe(3+). Magnetic methods were tested on eucrite meteorites, which are a good chemical simulant for low Ti mare basalts. The ilmenite yields in the experiments were always very low and the eucrite had to be crushed to xxxx. These data suggest that magnetic separation of ilmenite from fine grain lunar basalts would not be cost effective. Presently, experiments are being performed with electrostatic separators, and lunar regolith is being waited for so that simulants do not have to be employed.

  11. Feasibility of lunar Helium-3 mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschneider, Andreas; Van Overstraeten, Dmitry; Van der Reijnst, Roy; Van Hoorn, Niels; Lamers, Marvin; Hubert, Laurent; Dijk, Bert; Blangé, Joey; Hogeveen, Joel; De Boer, Lennaert; Noomen, Ron

    With fossil fuels running out and global energy demand increasing, the need for alternative energy sources is apparent. Nuclear fusion using Helium-3 may be a solution. Helium-3 is a rare isotope on Earth, but it is abundant on the Moon. Throughout the space community lunar Helium-3 is often cited as a major reason to return to the Moon. Despite the potential of lunar Helium-3 mining, little research has been conducted on a full end-to-end mission. This abstract presents the results of a feasibility study conducted by students from Delft University of Technology. The goal of the study was to assess whether a continuous end-to-end mission to mine Helium-3 on the Moon and return it to Earth is a viable option for the future energy market. The set requirements for the representative end-to-end mission were to provide 10% of the global energy demand in the year 2040. The mission elements have been selected with multiple trade-offs among both conservative and novel concepts. A mission architecture with multiple decoupled elements for each transportation segment (LEO, transfer, lunar surface) was found to be the best option. It was found that the most critical element is the lunar mining operation itself. To supply 10% of the global energy demand in 2040, 200 tons of Helium-3 would be required per year. The resulting regolith mining rate would be 630 tons per second, based on an optimistic concentration of 20 ppb Helium-3 in lunar regolith. Between 1,700 to 2,000 Helium-3 mining vehicles would be required, if using University of Wisconsin’s Mark III miner. The required heating power, if mining both day and night, would add up to 39 GW. The resulting power system mass for the lunar operations would be in the order of 60,000 to 200,000 tons. A fleet of three lunar ascent/descent vehicles and 22 continuous-thrust vehicles for orbit transfer would be required. The costs of the mission elements have been spread out over expected lifetimes. The resulting profits from Helium

  12. Kickstarting a New Era of Lunar Industrialization via Campaign of Lunar COTS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Daniel; Pittman, Robert B.; Zapata, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    commercial services, such as lunar transportation, lunar mining and lunar ISRU operations; 2) enable development of an affordable and economical exploration architecture for future missions to Mars and beyond; and 3) to incentivize the creation of new lunar markets through use of lunar resources for economic benefit to NASA, commercial industry and the international community. These cost-effective services would not only enable NASA to economically and sustainably achieve its human exploration missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond but it would also kickstart a new era of lunar industrialization. This paper will describe the goals, objectives and approach for implementing this new campaign of missions. It will also describe the potential benefits and progress that can be accomplished with these low-cost, Lunar COTS missions. Lastly, a preliminary economic analysis approach is proposed for understanding the cost and potential return on investment in the use of lunar resources to reach the goal of lunar industrialization and an expanded and sustainable human presence into cis-lunar space and beyond.

  13. Introduction to EGU session "Lunar Science and Exploration Towards Moon Village"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    The EGU PS2.2 session "Lunar Science and Exploration" Towards Moon Village" will address: - Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open planetary science and exploration - Synthesis of results from SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'e 1, 2 and 3, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LADEE, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and, Artemis and GRAIL - Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna-Glob, Google Lunar X Prize, Luna Resurs polar lander, SLIM, Chandrayaan2, Chang'E 4 & 5, Lunar Resource Prospector, Future landers, Lunar sample return missions - Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar surface sorties - Preparation for International Lunar Decade: databases, instruments, missions, terrestrial field campaigns, support studies - ILEWG and Global Exploration roadmaps towards a global robotic/human Moon village - Strategic Knowledge Gaps, and key science Goals relevant to Lunar Global Exploration Lunar science and exploration are developing further with new and exciting missions being developed by China, the US, Japan, India, Russia, Korea and Europe, and with new stakeholders. The Moon Village is an open concept proposed by ESA DG with the goal of a sustainable human and robotic presence on the lunar surface as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. Multiple goals of the Moon Village include planetary science, life sciences, astronomy, fundamental research, resources utilisation, human spaceflight, peaceful cooperation, economical development, inspiration, training and capacity building. ESA director general has revitalized and enhanced the original concept of MoonVillage discussed in the last decade. Space exploration builds on international collaboration. COSPAR and its ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group (created in 1994) have fostered collaboration between lunar missions [4-8]. A flotilla of lunar orbiters has

  14. Planned Environmental Microbiology Aspects of Future Lunar and Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark; Castro, Victoria A.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2006-01-01

    With the establishment of the Constellation Program, NASA has initiated efforts designed similar to the Apollo Program to return to the moon and subsequently travel to Mars. Early lunar sorties will take 4 crewmembers to the moon for 4 to 7 days. Later missions will increase in duration up to 6 months as a lunar habitat is constructed. These missions and vehicle designs are the forerunners of further missions destined for human exploration of Mars. Throughout the planning and design process, lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS) and past programs will be implemented toward future exploration goals. The standards and requirements for these missions will vary depending on life support systems, mission duration, crew activities, and payloads. From a microbiological perspective, preventative measures will remain the primary techniques to mitigate microbial risk. Thus, most of the effort will focus on stringent preflight monitoring requirements and engineering controls designed into the vehicle, such as HEPA air filters. Due to volume constraints in the CEV, in-flight monitoring will be limited for short-duration missions to the measurement of biocide concentration for water potability. Once long-duration habitation begins on the lunar surface, a more extensive environmental monitoring plan will be initiated. However, limited in-flight volume constraints and the inability to return samples to Earth will increase the need for crew capabilities in determining the nature of contamination problems and method of remediation. In addition, limited shelf life of current monitoring hardware consumables and limited capabilities to dispose of biohazardous trash will drive flight hardware toward non-culture based methodologies, such as hardware that rapidly distinguishes biotic versus abiotic surface contamination. As missions progress to Mars, environmental systems will depend heavily on regeneration of air and water and biological waste remediation and

  15. Can Fractional Crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean Produce the Lunar Crust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Jennifer F.; Draper, David S.

    2013-01-01

    New techniques enable the study of Apollo samples and lunar meteorites in unprecedented detail, and recent orbital spectral data reveal more about the lunar farside than ever before, raising new questions about the supposed simplicity of lunar geology. Nevertheless, crystallization of a global-scale magma ocean remains the best model to account for known lunar lithologies. Crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO) is modeled to proceed by two end-member processes - fractional crystallization from (mostly) the bottom up, or initial equilibrium crystallization as the magma is vigorously convecting and crystals remain entrained, followed by crystal settling and a final period of fractional crystallization [1]. Physical models of magma viscosity and convection at this scale suggest that both processes are possible. We have been carrying out high-fidelity experimental simulations of LMO crystallization using two bulk compositions that can be regarded as end-members in the likely relevant range: Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) [2] and Lunar Primitive Upper Mantle (LPUM) [3]. TWM is enriched in refractory elements by 1.5 times relative to Earth, whereas LPUM is similar to the terrestrial primitive upper mantle, with adjustments made for the depletion of volatile alkalis observed on the Moon. Here we extend our earlier equilibrium-crystallization experiments [4] with runs simulating full fractional crystallization

  16. Restoration of Apollo Data by the Lunar Data Project/PDS Lunar Data Node: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Taylor, Patrick T.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Guinness, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Apollo 11, 12, and 14 through 17 missions orbited and landed on the Moon, carrying scientific instruments that returned data from all phases of the missions, included long-lived Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs) deployed by the astronauts on the lunar surface. Much of these data were never archived, and some of the archived data were on media and in formats that are outmoded, or were deposited with little or no useful documentation to aid outside users. This is particularly true of the ALSEP data returned autonomously for many years after the Apollo missions ended. The purpose of the Lunar Data Project and the Planetary Data System (PDS) Lunar Data Node is to take data collections already archived at the NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive (NSSDCA) and prepare them for archiving through PDS, and to locate lunar data that were never archived, bring them into NSSDCA, and then archive them through PDS. Preparing these data for archiving involves reading the data from the original media, be it magnetic tape, microfilm, microfiche, or hard-copy document, converting the outmoded, often binary, formats when necessary, putting them into a standard digital form accepted by PDS, collecting the necessary ancillary data and documentation (metadata) to ensure that the data are usable and well-described, summarizing the metadata in documentation to be included in the data set, adding other information such as references, mission and instrument descriptions, contact information, and related documentation, and packaging the results in a PDS-compliant data set. The data set is then validated and reviewed by a group of external scientists as part of the PDS final archive process. We present a status report on some of the data sets that we are processing.

  17. OH/H2O Detection Capability Evaluation on Chang'e-5 Lunar Mineralogical Spectrometer (LMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Ren, Xin; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Chunlai; Mu, Lingli; Deng, Liyan

    2016-10-01

    The Chang'e-5 (CE-5) lunar sample return mission is scheduled to launch in 2017 to bring back lunar regolith and drill samples. The Chang'e-5 Lunar Mineralogical Spectrometer (LMS), as one of the three sets of scientific payload installed on the lander, is used to collect in-situ spectrum and analyze the mineralogical composition of the samplingsite. It can also help to select the sampling site, and to compare the measured laboratory spectrum of returned sample with in-situ data. LMS employs acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) and is composed of a VIS/NIR module (0.48μm-1.45μm) and an IR module (1.4μm -3.2μm). It has spectral resolution ranging from 3 to 25 nm, with a field of view (FOV) of 4.24°×4.24°. Unlike Chang'e-3 VIS/NIR Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS), the spectral coverage of LMS is extended from 2.4μm to 3.2μm, which has capability to identify H2O/OH absorption features around 2.7μm. An aluminum plate and an Infragold plate are fixed in the dust cover, being used as calibration targets in the VIS/NIR and IR spectral range respectively when the dust cover is open. Before launch, a ground verification test of LMS needs to be conducted in order to: 1) test and verify the detection capability of LMS through evaluation on the quality of image and spectral data collected for the simulated lunar samples; and 2) evaluate the accuracy of data processing methods by the simulation of instrument working on the moon. The ground verification test will be conducted both in the lab and field. The spectra of simulated lunar regolith/mineral samples will be collected simultaneously by the LMS and two calibrated spectrometers: a FTIR spectrometer (Model 102F) and an ASD FieldSpec 4 Hi-Res spectrometer. In this study, the results of the LMS ground verification test will be reported, and OH/H2O Detection Capability will be evaluated especially.

  18. Concentrations of radioactive elements in lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1998-01-01

    As an aid to interpreting data obtained remotely on the distribution of radioactive elements on the lunar surface, average concentrations of K, U, and Th as well as Al, Fe, and Ti in different types of lunar rocks and soils are tabulated. The U/Th ratio in representative samples of lunar rocks and regolith is constant at 0.27; K/Th ratios are more variable because K and Th are carried by different mineral phases. In nonmare regoliths at the Apollo sites, the main carriers of radioactive elements are mafic (i.e., 6-8 percent Fe) impact-melt breccias created at the time of basin formation and products derived therefrom.

  19. LOTT: A new small telescope to monitor lunar orientation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Li

    2015-08-01

    The lunar orientation (mostly libration) is so far mostly determined by lunar laser ranging (LLR), but due to the bad geometry among thelaser ray direction and the lunar reflector array, the lunar orientation parameters (LOP) are determined with precision worse than 0.1 arcsecond, especially of the components perpendicular to the direction pointing to geocenter. The LOP with such bad precision is almost nonsense for studying the lunar interior, and the error in the modeling of LOP becomes also a major error in the lunar ephemerides. Here, we propose a small optical telescope (LOTT: Lunar Orientation Trinity Telescope), with a brand-new design of tri-field of view and to be placed on the Moon, to monitor LOP and its variation. Its precision of LOP determination can be expected to be several milliarcsecond (mas) after two months observation. With this precision, LOP can then be used to derive meaningful information of the physics of the lunar interior. The concept and design of this LOTT will be introduced, and the test observation data of EOP by this principled sample machine on the earth, as well as the design of the second generation of LOTT, will be also presented.

  20. Lunar geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Dickey, J. O.

    2002-01-01

    Experience with the dynamics and data analyses for earth and moon reveals both similarities and differences. Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides information on the lunar orbit, rotation, solid-body tides, and retroreflector locations.

  1. The Future Lunar Flora Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, E. G.; Guven, U. G.

    2017-10-01

    A constructional design for the primary establishment for a lunar colony using the micrometeorite rich soil is proposed. It highlights the potential of lunar regolith combined with Earth technology for water and oxygen for human outposts on the Moon.

  2. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, a Planning Tool for Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. W.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission was conceived as a one year exploration mission to pave the way for a return to the lunar surface, both robotically and by humans. After a year in orbit LRO transitioned to a science mission but has operated in a duel role of science and exploration ever since. Over the years LRO has compiled a wealth of data that can and is being used for planning future missions to the Moon by NASA, other national agencies and by private enterprises. While collecting this unique and unprecedented data set, LRO's science investigations have uncovered new questions that motivate new missions and targets. Examples include: when did volcanism on the Moon cease, motivating a sample return mission from an irregular mare patch such as Ina-D; or, is there significant water ice sequestered near the poles outside of the permanently shaded regions? In this presentation we will review the data products, tools and maps that are available for mission planning, discuss how the operating LRO mission can further enhance future missions, and suggest new targets motivated by LRO's scientific investigations.

  3. Costs and benefits of lunar oxygen: Engineering, operations, and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent; Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is the most commonly discussed lunar resource. It will certainly not be the easiest to retrieve, but oxygen's fundamental place in propulsion and life support guarantees it continued attention as a prime candidate for early in situ resource utilization (ISRU). The findings are reviewed of recent investigation, sponsored by NASA-Ames, into the kinds of technologies, equipment, and scenarios (the engineering and operations costs) that will be required even to initiate lunar oxygen production. The infrastructure necessary to surround and support a viable oxygen-processing operation is explained. Selected details are used to illustrate the depth of technology challenges, extent of operations burdens, and complexity of decision linkages. Basic assumptions, and resulting timelines and mass manifests, are listed. These findings are combined with state-of-the-art knowledge of lunar and Mars propulsion options in simple economic input/output and internal-rate-of-return models, to compare production costs with performance benefits. Implications for three realistic scales of exploration architecture - expeditionary, aggressive science, and industrialization/settlement - are discussed. Conclusions are reached regarding the contextual conditions within which production of lunar oxygen (LLOX) is a reasonable activity. LLOX appears less useful for Mars missions than previously hoped. Its economical use in low Earth orbit hinges on production of lunar hydrogen as well. LLOX shows promise for lunar ascent/descent use, but that depends strongly on the plant mass required.

  4. Identification and characterization of science-rich landing sites for lunar lander missions using integrated remote sensing observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flahaut, J.; Blanchette-Guertin, J.F.; Jilly, C.; Sharma, P.; Souchon, A.; van Westrenen, W.; Kring, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 52 years of lunar exploration, a wide range of first-order scientific questions remain about the Moon's formation, temporal evolution, and current surface and interior properties. Addressing many of these questions requires obtaining new in situ analyses or return of lunar surface

  5. Lunar and Vesta Web Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; JPL Luna Mapping; Modeling Project Team

    2015-06-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project offers Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (http://lmmp.nasa.gov) and Vesta Trek Portal (http://vestatrek.jpl.nasa.gov) providing interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable users to access mapped Lunar and Vesta data products.

  6. Gold Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Barro; Sanjay P. Misra

    2013-01-01

    From 1836 to 2011, the average real rate of price change for gold in the United States is 1.1% per year and the standard deviation is 13.1%, implying a one-standard-deviation confidence band for the mean of (0.1%, 2.1%). The covariances of gold's real rate of price change with consumption and GDP growth rates are small and statistically insignificantly different from zero. These negligible covariances suggest that gold's expected real rate of return--which includes an unobserved dividend yiel...

  7. Returning home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jytte; Brøgger, Ditte

    2016-01-01

    flows. By focusing on these educational migrants, this paper explores how they connect to their rural homes. Guided by a critical reading of the migration-development scholarship, the paper examines how migrants and their relatives make sense of educational migrants’ remitting and returning practices......, and by comparing three groups of educational migrants, the migrants’ reasons for staying connected and sending remittances are scrutinized. The paper finds that although educational migrants do not generate extensive economic remittances for local development in Nepal, they stay connected to their rural homes...

  8. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  9. The Clock-in-the-Box, a brief cognitive screen, is associated with failure to return home in an elderly hospitalized sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson CE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colleen E Jackson,1–3 Laura J Grande,1–3 Kelly Doherty,1 Elizabeth Archambault,1 Brittany Kelly,1 Jane A Driver,1,4 William P Milberg,1,2,5 Regina McGlinchey,1,2,5 James L Rudolph6,7 1Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, 2Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, 3Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 4Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 5Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 6Center of Innovation in Long Term Services and Supports, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Providence Medical Center, Providence, RI, 7Department of Medicine, Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Purpose: Cognitive screening upon hospital admission can provide important information about the patient’s ability to process information during the inpatient stay. The Clock-in-the-Box (CIB is a rapidly administered cognitive screening measure which has been previously validated with cognitive screening and neuropsychological assessments. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the predictive validity of the CIB for discharge location among a sample of older medical inpatients. Patients and methods: Hospitalized Veterans (N=218, aged 55 years and older, were recruited on the day after admission after they gave their consent. These participants completed the CIB, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and self-report measures of daily functioning. Using logistic regression models, the bivariable and multivariable impact of the cognitive screening and functional assessments were examined for their ability to predict whether the participants did not return home after hospitalization (eg, admission to subacute rehabilitation facilities or nursing facilities. Results: The

  10. Community Report and Recommendations from International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    and Resource Utilisation; Infrastructure and Human aspects; Moon, Space and Society. The latest technical achievements and results of recent missions (SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'E1, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS and LRO) were discussed at a plenary panel and technical sessions, with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) still in operation. Chang'E1 has generated many useful results for the community. Four plenary panel sessions were conducted: 1. What are the plans? 2. New mission results; 3. From space stations and robotic precursors to lunar bases; 4. Moon, Space, Society The participants summarised their findings, discussions and recommend o continue efforts by agencies and the community on previous ICEUM recommendations, and the continuation of the ILEWG forum, technical groups activities and pilot projects. 1. Science and exploration - World-wide access to raw and derived (geophysical units) data products using consistent formats and coordinate systems will maximize return on investment. We call to develop and implement plans for generation, validation, and release of these data products. Data should be made available for scientific analysis and supporting the development and planning of future missions - There are still Outstanding Questions: Structure and composition of crust, mantle, and core and implications for the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system; Timing, origin, and consequences of late heavy bombardment; Impact processes and regolith evolution; Nature and origin of volatile emplacement; Implications for resource utilization. These questions require international cooperation and sharing of results in order to be answered in a cost-effective manner - Ground truth information on the lunar far side is missing and needed to address many important scientific questions, e.g. with a sample return from South Pole- Aitken Basin - Knowledge of the interior is poor relative to the surface, and is needed to address a number of key questions, e.g. with International

  11. Sex differences in the return-to-work process of cancer survivors 2 years after diagnosis: results from a large French population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Patricia; Teyssier, Luis Sagaon; Malavolti, Laetitia; Le Corroller-Soriano, Anne-Gaelle

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the effects of clinical, sociodemographic, and occupational factors on time to return to work (RTW) during the 2 years after cancer diagnosis and to analyze whether sex differences exist. This study was based on a French national cross-sectional survey involving 4,270 cancer survivors. Time to RTW was estimated through the duration of sick leave of 801 cancer survivors younger than 58 years who were employed during the 2-year survey. Multivariate analysis of the RTW after sick leave was performed using a Weibull accelerated failure time model. We found some sex differences in the RTW process. Older men returned to work more slowly than older women (P = .013), whereas married men returned to work much faster than married women (P = .019). Duration dependence was also sex-specific. In men, the time spent on sick leave was independent of the probability of returning to work, whereas in women, this duration dependence was positive (P work contract (P = .042). The factor found to accelerate RTW was a higher educational level (P = .014). The RTW process 2 years after cancer diagnosis differed between men and women. A better knowledge of this process should help the national implementation of more cost-effective strategies for managing the RTW of cancer survivors.

  12. Sims Analysis of Water Abundance and Hydrogen Isotope in Lunar Highland Plagioclase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Guan, Yunbin; Chen, Yang; Peslier, Anne H.; Zhang, Youxue; Liu, Yang; Rossman, George R.; Eiler, John M.; Neal, Clive R.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of indigenous water in mare basaltic glass beads has challenged the view established since the Apollo era of a "dry" Moon. Since this discovery, measurements of water in lunar apatite, olivine-hosted melt inclusions, agglutinates, and nominally anhydrous minerals have confirmed that lunar igneous materials contain water, implying that some parts of lunar mantle may have as much water as Earth's upper mantle. The interpretation of hydrogen (H) isotopes in lunar samples, however, is controversial. The large variation of H isotope ratios in lunar apatite (delta Deuterium = -202 to +1010 per mille) has been taken as evidence that water in the lunar interior comes from the lunar mantle, solar wind protons, and/or comets. The very low deuterium/H ratios in lunar agglutinates indicate that solar wind protons have contributed to their hydrogen content. Conversely, H isotopes in lunar volcanic glass beads and olivine-hosted melt inclusions being similar to those of common terrestrial igneous rocks, suggest a common origin for water in both Earth and Moon. Lunar water could be inherited from carbonaceous chondrites, consistent with the model of late accretion of chondrite-type materials to the Moon as proposed by. One complication about the sources of lunar water, is that geologic processes (e.g., late accretion and magmatic degassing) may have modified the H isotope signatures of lunar materials. Recent FTIR analyses have shown that plagioclases in lunar ferroan anorthosite contain approximately 6 ppm H2O. So far, ferroan anorthosite is the only available lithology that is believed to be a primary product of the lunar magma ocean (LMO). A possible consequence is that the LMO could have contained up to approximately 320 ppm H2O. Here we examine the possible sources of water in the LMO through measurements of water abundances and H isotopes in plagioclase of two ferroan anorthosites and one troctolite from lunar highlands.

  13. Lunar electrostatic effects and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongwei; Yuan, Qingyun; Xiong, Jiuliang

    2013-01-01

    The space environment and features on the moon surface are factors in strong electrostatic electrification. Static electricity will be produced in upon friction between lunar soil and detectors or astronauts on the lunar surface. Lunar electrostatic environment effects from lunar exploration equipment are very harmful. Lunar dust with electrostatic charge may enter the equipment or even cover the instruments. It can affect the normal performance of moon detectors. Owing to the huge environmental differences between the moon and the earth, the electrostatic protection technology on the earth can not be applied. In this paper, we review the electrostatic characteristics of lunar dust, its effects on aerospace equipment and moon static elimination technologies. It was concluded that the effect of charged lunar dust on detectors and astronauts should be completely researched as soon as possible.

  14. Detecting Volatiles Deep in the Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotts, A.; Heggy, E.; Ciarletti, V.; Colaprete, A.; Moghaddam, M.; Siegler, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing theoretical and empirical evidence, from the Apollo era and after, of volatiles deep in the lunar interior, in the crust and deeper, both hydrogen-rich and otherwise. This comes in the form of fire fountain samples from Apollo 15 and Apollo 17, of hydrated minerals excavated by impacts which reach the base of the lunar crust e.g., crater Bullialdus, of hydration of apatite and other minerals, as well as predictions of a water-concentrated layer along with the KREEP material at the base of the lunar crust. We discuss how the presence of these volatiles might be directly explored. In particular water vapor molecules percolating to the surface through lunar regolith might be expected to stick and freeze into the regolith, at depths of several meters depending on the regolith temperature profile, porosity and particle size distribution, quantities that are not well known beyond two meters depth. To explore these depths in the regolith we use and propose several modes of penetrating radar. We will present results using the SELENE/Kaguya's Lunar Sounding RADAR (LSR) to probe the bulk volatile dielectric and loss structure properties of the regolith in various locations, both within permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and without, and within neutron suppression regions (NSRs) as traced by epithermal neutrons and without. We also propose installation of ground penetrating RADAR (GPR) on a roving lunar platform that should be able to probe between 0.2 and 1.6 GHz, which will provide a probe of the entire depth of the lunar regolith as well as a high-resolution (about 4 cm FWHM) probe of the upper meter or two of the lunar soil, where other probes of volatiles such as epithermal neutron absorption or drilling might be employed. We discuss predictions for what kinds of volatile density profiles might be distinguished in this way, and whether these will be detected from orbit as NSRs, whether these must be restricted to PSRs, and how these might appear in

  15. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

    2003-06-01

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

  16. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnarsson, D.; Carpenter, J.; Fubini, B.; Gerde, P.; Loftus, D.; Prisk, K.; Staufer, U.; Tranfield, E.; van Westrenen, W.

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of

  17. Lunar Phases Planisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawl, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

  18. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  19. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  20. Geochemistry of Lunar Highland Meteorites Mil, 090034, 090036 AND 090070

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, N.aoki; Ebihara, M.; Sekimoto, S.; Yamaguchi, A.; Nyquist, L.; Shih, C.-Y.; Park, J.; Nagao, K.

    2012-01-01

    Apollo and Luna samples were collected from a restricted area on the near side of the Moon, while the source craters of the lunar meteorites are randomly distributed. For example, Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] found a variety of lithic clasts in Dho 489 and Y 86032 which were not represented by Apollo samples, and some of these clasts have lower rare earth elements (REE) and FeO abundances than Apollo anorthosites, respectively. Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] concluded that Dho 489 and Y 86032 originated from the lunar farside. Therefore, lunar meteorites provide an opportunity to study lunar surface rocks from areas not sampled by Apollo and Luna missions. Three lunar anorthitic breccias (MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070) were found on the Miller Range Ice Field in Antarctica during the 2009-2010 ANSMET season [3]. In this study, we determined elemental abudnances for MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070 by using INAA and aimed to characterize these meteorites in chemical compositions in comparison with those for other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples.

  1. Lunar Prospecting With Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Observations of the bright side of the Moon with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon over a large area of the lunar surface. The abundance and distribution of those elements will help to determine how the Moon was formed. "We see X-rays from these elements directly, independent of assumptions about the mineralogy and other complications," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., at a press conference at the "Four Years with Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Alabama. "We have Moon samples from the six widely-space Apollo landing sites, but remote sensing with Chandra can cover a much wider area," continued Drake. "It's the next best thing to being there, and it's very fast and cost-effective." The lunar X-rays are caused by fluorescence, a process similar to the way that light is produced in fluorescent lamps. Solar X-rays bombard the surface of the Moon, knock electrons out of the inner parts of the atoms, putting them in a highly unstable state. Almost immediately, other electrons rush to fill the gaps, and in the process convert their energy into the fluorescent X-rays seen by Chandra. According to the currently popular "giant impact" theory for the formation of the Moon, a body about the size of Mars collided with the Earth about 4.5 billion years ago. This impact flung molten debris from the mantle of both the Earth and the impactor into orbit around the Earth. Over the course of tens of millions of years, the debris stuck together to form the Moon. By measuring the amounts of aluminum and other elements over a wide area of the Moon and comparing them to the Earth's mantle, Drake and his colleagues plan to help test the giant impact hypothesis. "One early result," quipped Drake, "is that there is no evidence for large amounts of calcium, so cheese is not a major constituent of the Moon." Illustration of Earth's Geocorona Illustration of Earth's Geocorona The same

  2. Detection of the lunar body tide by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Barker, Michael K; Neumann, Gregory A; Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E

    2014-04-16

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft collected more than 5 billion measurements in the nominal 50 km orbit over ∼10,000 orbits. The data precision, geodetic accuracy, and spatial distribution enable two-dimensional crossovers to be used to infer relative radial position corrections between tracks to better than ∼1 m. We use nearly 500,000 altimetric crossovers to separate remaining high-frequency spacecraft trajectory errors from the periodic radial surface tidal deformation. The unusual sampling of the lunar body tide from polar lunar orbit limits the size of the typical differential signal expected at ground track intersections to ∼10 cm. Nevertheless, we reliably detect the topographic tidal signal and estimate the associated Love number h 2 to be 0.0371 ± 0.0033, which is consistent with but lower than recent results from lunar laser ranging. Altimetric data are used to create radial constraints on the tidal deformationThe body tide amplitude is estimated from the crossover dataThe estimated Love number is consistent with previous estimates but more precise.

  3. KOREAN LUNAR LANDER – CONCEPT STUDY FOR LANDING-SITE SELECTION FOR LUNAR RESOURCE EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea’s institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander – currently in pre-phase A – is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today’s accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon’s surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi- automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches – including methods and tools – for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of

  4. TRANSIENT LUNAR PHENOMENA: REGULARITY AND REALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled, and even their existence as a coherent phenomenon is controversial. Nonetheless, TLP data show regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by processes tied to the lunar surface, or by terrestrial atmospheric or human observer effects. I interrogate an extensive catalog of TLPs to gauge how human factors determine the distribution of TLP reports. The sample is grouped according to variables which should produce differing results if determining factors involve humans, and not reflecting phenomena tied to the lunar surface. Features dependent on human factors can then be excluded. Regardless of how the sample is split, the results are similar: ∼50% of reports originate from near Aristarchus, ∼16% from Plato, ∼6% from recent, major impacts (Copernicus, Kepler, Tycho, and Aristarchus), plus several at Grimaldi. Mare Crisium produces a robust signal in some cases (however, Crisium is too large for a 'feature' as defined). TLP count consistency for these features indicates that ∼80% of these may be real. Some commonly reported sites disappear from the robust averages, including Alphonsus, Ross D, and Gassendi. These reports begin almost exclusively after 1955, when TLPs became widely known and many more (and inexperienced) observers searched for TLPs. In a companion paper, we compare the spatial distribution of robust TLP sites to transient outgassing (seen by Apollo and Lunar Prospector instruments). To a high confidence, robust TLP sites and those of lunar outgassing correlate strongly, further arguing for the reality of TLPs.

  5. Feldspar basalts in lunar soil and the nature of the lunar continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Harmon, R. S.; Warner, J.; Brett, R.; Jakes, P.; Brown, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that 25% on the Apollo-14 glasses have the same composition as the glasses in two samples taken from the Luna-16 column. The compositions are equivalent to feldspar basalt and anorthosite gabbro, and are similar to the feldspar basalts identified from Surveyor-7 analysis for lunar continents.

  6. Hazard Detection Software for Lunar Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Johnson, Andrew E.; Werner, Robert A.; Montgomery, James F.

    2011-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing a system for safe and precise manned lunar landing that involves novel sensors, but also specific algorithms. ALHAT has selected imaging LIDAR (light detection and ranging) as the sensing modality for onboard hazard detection because imaging LIDARs can rapidly generate direct measurements of the lunar surface elevation from high altitude. Then, starting with the LIDAR-based Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) algorithm developed for Mars Landing, JPL has developed a mature set of HDA software for the manned lunar landing problem. Landing hazards exist everywhere on the Moon, and many of the more desirable landing sites are near the most hazardous terrain, so HDA is needed to autonomously and safely land payloads over much of the lunar surface. The HDA requirements used in the ALHAT project are to detect hazards that are 0.3 m tall or higher and slopes that are 5 or greater. Steep slopes, rocks, cliffs, and gullies are all hazards for landing and, by computing the local slope and roughness in an elevation map, all of these hazards can be detected. The algorithm in this innovation is used to measure slope and roughness hazards. In addition to detecting these hazards, the HDA capability also is able to find a safe landing site free of these hazards for a lunar lander with diameter .15 m over most of the lunar surface. This software includes an implementation of the HDA algorithm, software for generating simulated lunar terrain maps for testing, hazard detection performance analysis tools, and associated documentation. The HDA software has been deployed to Langley Research Center and integrated into the POST II Monte Carlo simulation environment. The high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations determine the required ground spacing between LIDAR samples (ground sample distances) and the noise on the LIDAR range measurement. This simulation has also been used to determine the effect of

  7. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the

  8. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Loucks, Michael; Carrico, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this extended abstract is to present results from a failed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver contingency analysis for the Lunar Atmosphere Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA. The LADEE spacecrafts nominal trajectory implemented multiple sub-lunar phasing orbits centered at Earth before eventually reaching the Moon (Fig. 1) where a critical LOI maneuver was to be performed [1,2,3]. If this LOI was missed, the LADEE spacecraft would be on an Earth-escape trajectory, bound for heliocentric space. Although a partial mission recovery is possible from a heliocentric orbit (to be discussed in the full paper), it was found that an escape-prevention maneuver could be performed several days after a hypothetical LOI-miss, allowing a return to the desired science orbit around the Moon without leaving the Earths sphere-of-influence (SOI).

  9. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  10. DIDO optimization of a lunar landing trajectory with respect to autonomous landing hazard avoidance technology

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited In this study, the current and expected state of lunar landing technology is assessed. Contrasts are drawn between the technologies used during the Apollo era versus that which will be used in the next decade in an attempt to return to the lunar surface. In particular, one new technology, Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) and one new method, DIDO optimization, are identified and examined. An approach to creating a DID...

  11. Battery and Fuel Cell Development Goals for the Lunar Surface and Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning a return to the moon and requires advances in energy storage technology for its planned lunar lander and lunar outpost. This presentation describes NASA s overall mission goals and technical goals for batteries and fuel cells to support the mission. Goals are given for secondary batteries for the lander s ascent stage and suits for extravehicular activity on the lunar surface, and for fuel cells for the lander s descent stage and regenerative fuel cells for outpost power. An overall approach to meeting these goals is also presented.

  12. Computing return times or return periods with rare event algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestang, Thibault; Ragone, Francesco; Bréhier, Charles-Edouard; Herbert, Corentin; Bouchet, Freddy

    2018-04-01

    The average time between two occurrences of the same event, referred to as its return time (or return period), is a useful statistical concept for practical applications. For instance insurances or public agencies may be interested by the return time of a 10 m flood of the Seine river in Paris. However, due to their scarcity, reliably estimating return times for rare events is very difficult using either observational data or direct numerical simulations. For rare events, an estimator for return times can be built from the extrema of the observable on trajectory blocks. Here, we show that this estimator can be improved to remain accurate for return times of the order of the block size. More importantly, we show that this approach can be generalised to estimate return times from numerical algorithms specifically designed to sample rare events. So far those algorithms often compute probabilities, rather than return times. The approach we propose provides a computationally extremely efficient way to estimate numerically the return times of rare events for a dynamical system, gaining several orders of magnitude of computational costs. We illustrate the method on two kinds of observables, instantaneous and time-averaged, using two different rare event algorithms, for a simple stochastic process, the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process. As an example of realistic applications to complex systems, we finally discuss extreme values of the drag on an object in a turbulent flow.

  13. Product return management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaharudin, Mohd Rizaimy; Govindan, Kannan; Zailani, Suhaiza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which product returns motivate manufacturing firms to adopt closed-loop supply chain activities that influence the effectiveness of reverse supply chains. The hypotheses have been tested using data from a sample of 150 environmental management...... system ISO 14001 certified manufacturing firms in Malaysia through the census sampling approach. The results of the empirical test using LISREL Version 8.70 for the structural equation modeling support the fundamental explanation of the influence of the institutional forces towards the adoption of closed...... eventually impacts the firm's effectiveness in the reverse supply chain. The findings also help managers to understand the factors that can improve the outcome of the adoption of closed-loop supply chain activities by intensifying the extent of involvement in product returns, which provides a valuable...

  14. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  15. Laser-powered lunar base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costen, R.; Humes, D.H.; Walker, G.H.; Williams, M.D.; Deyoung, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to compare a nuclear reactor-driven Sterling engine lunar base power source to a laser-to-electric converter with orbiting laser power station, each providing 1 MW of electricity to the lunar base. The comparison was made on the basis of total mass required in low-Earth-orbit for each system. This total mass includes transportation mass required to place systems in low-lunar orbit or on the lunar surface. The nuclear reactor with Sterling engines is considered the reference mission for lunar base power and is described first. The details of the laser-to-electric converter and mass are discussed. The next two solar-driven high-power laser concepts, the diode array laser or the iodine laser system, are discussed with associated masses in low-lunar-orbit. Finally, the payoff for laser-power beaming is summarized

  16. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  17. Lunar Core and Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  18. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  19. Lunar concrete for construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1988-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base.

  20. The Lunar Space Tug: A sustainable bridge between low Earth orbits and the Cislunar Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, M.; Paissoni, C. A.; Viola, N.; Denaro, A.; Gargioli, E.; Massobrio, F.

    2017-09-01

    Lunar Space Tug represents an alternative to the SLS scenario, especially for what concerns all unmanned or logistic missions (e.g. cargo transfer, on orbit assembly, samples return), from Low Earth Orbit to Cislunar space. The paper focuses on the mission analysis and conceptual design of the Lunar Space Tug to support the growth and sustainment of the Cislunar Station. Particular attention is dedicated to the analysis of the propulsion subsystem effects of the Lunar Space Tug design. Main results are presented and discussed, and main conclusions are drawn.

  1. The Dust Management Project: Characterizing Lunar Environments and Dust, Developing Regolith Mitigation Technology and Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    A return to the Moon to extend human presence, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth?s economic sphere, will require investment in developing new technologies and capabilities to achieve affordable and sustainable human exploration. From the operational experience gained and lessons learned during the Apollo missions, conducting long-term operations in the lunar environment will be a particular challenge, given the difficulties presented by the unique physical properties and other characteristics of lunar regolith, including dust. The Apollo missions and other lunar explorations have identified significant lunar dust-related problems that will challenge future mission success. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it?s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems and human explorers. The Dust Management Project (DMP) is tasked with the evaluation of lunar dust effects, assessment of the resulting risks, and development of mitigation and management strategies and technologies related to Exploration Systems architectures. To this end, the DMP supports the overall goal of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) of addressing the relevant high priority technology needs of multiple elements within the Constellation Program (CxP) and sister ETDP projects. Project scope, plans, and accomplishments will be presented.

  2. Researches on the Orbit Determination and Positioning of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P. J.

    2015-07-01

    (DEM) as constraints in the lander positioning is helpful. The positioning method for the traverse of lunar rover is also investigated. The integration of delay-rate method is able to achieve higher precise positioning results than the point positioning method. This method provides a wide application of the VLBI data. In the automated sample return mission, the lunar orbit rendezvous and docking are involved. Precise orbit determination using the same-beam VLBI (SBI) measurement for two spacecraft at the same time is analyzed. The simulation results showed that the SBI data is able to improve the absolute and relative orbit accuracy for two targets by 1-2 orders of magnitude. In order to verify the simulation results and test the two-target POD software developed by SHAO (Shanghai Astronomical Observatory), the real SBI data of the SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) are processed. The POD results for the Rstar and the Vstar showed that the combination of SBI data could significantly improve the accuracy for the two spacecraft, especially for the Vstar with less ranging data, and the POD accuracy is improved by approximate one order of magnitude to the POD accuracy of the Rstar.

  3. Pulmonary and Systemic Immune Response to Chronic Lunar Dust Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to millennia of meteorite impact with virtually no erosive effects, the surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of ultra-fine, reactive Lunar dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of Lunar dust on human physiology. Given the size and electrostatic characteristics of Lunar dust, countermeasures to ensure non-exposure of astronauts will be difficult. To ensure astronaut safety during any future prolonged Lunar missions, it is necessary to establish the effect of chronic pulmonary Lunar dust exposure on all physiological systems. Methods: This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and system immune system parameters. Rats were exposed to 0, 20.8, or 60.8 mg/m3 of lunar dust (6h/d; 5d/wk) for up to 13 weeks. Sacrifices occurred after exposure durations of 1day, 7 days, 4 weeks and 13 weeks post-exposure, when both blood and lung lavage fluid were collected for analysis. Lavage and blood assays included leukocyte distribution by flow cytometry, electron/fluorescent microscopy, and cytokine concentration. Cytokine production profiles following mitogenic stimulation were performed on whole blood only. Results: Untreated lavage fluid was comprised primarily of pulmonary macrophages. Lunar dust inhalation resulted in an influx of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Although the percentage of lymphocytes increased, the T cell CD4:CD8 ratio was unchanged. Cytokine analysis of the lavage fluid showed increased levels of IL-1b and TNFa. These alterations generally persisted through the 13 week sampling. Blood analysis showed few systemic effects from the lunar dust inhalation. By week 4, the peripheral granulocyte percentage was elevated in the treated rats. Plasma cytokine levels were unchanged in all treated rats compared to controls. Peripheral blood analysis showed an increased granulocyte percentage and altered cytokine production profiles consisting of increased in IL-1b and IL-6, and decreased IL-2

  4. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  5. Modeling lunar volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Simple physical arguments are used to show that basaltic volcanos on different planetary bodies would fountain to the same height if the mole fraction of gas in the magma scaled with the acceleration of gravity. It is suggested that the actual eruption velocities and fountain heights are controlled by the velocities of sound in the two phase gas/liquid flows. These velocities are in turn determined by the gas contents in the magma. Predicted characteristics of Hawaiian volcanos are in excellent accord with observations. Assuming that the only gas in lunar volcano is the CO which would be produced if the observed Fe metal in lunar basalts resulted from graphite reduction, lunar volcanos would fountain vigorously, but not as spectacularly as their terrestrial counterparts. The volatile trace metals, halogens, and sulfur released would be transported over the entire moon by the transient atmosphere. Orange and black glass type pyroclastic materials would be transported in sufficient amounts to produce the observed dark mantle deposits.

  6. Isotopes as tracers of the sources of the lunar material and processes of lunar origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Kaveh

    2014-09-13

    Ever since the Apollo programme, isotopic abundances have been used as tracers to study lunar formation, in particular to study the sources of the lunar material. In the past decade, increasingly precise isotopic data have been reported that give strong indications that the Moon and the Earth's mantle have a common heritage. To reconcile these observations with the origin of the Moon via the collision of two distinct planetary bodies, it has been proposed (i) that the Earth-Moon system underwent convective mixing into a single isotopic reservoir during the approximately 10(3) year molten disc epoch after the giant impact but before lunar accretion, or (ii) that a high angular momentum impact injected a silicate disc into orbit sourced directly from the mantle of the proto-Earth and the impacting planet in the right proportions to match the isotopic observations. Recently, it has also become recognized that liquid-vapour fractionation in the energetic aftermath of the giant impact is capable of generating measurable mass-dependent isotopic offsets between the silicate Earth and Moon, rendering isotopic measurements sensitive not only to the sources of the lunar material, but also to the processes accompanying lunar origin. Here, we review the isotopic evidence that the silicate-Earth-Moon system represents a single planetary reservoir. We then discuss the development of new isotopic tracers sensitive to processes in the melt-vapour lunar disc and how theoretical calculations of their behaviour and sample observations can constrain scenarios of post-impact evolution in the earliest history of the Earth-Moon system. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. A Proof of Concept for In-Situ Lunar Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F. S.; Whitaker, T.; Levine, J.; Draper, D. S.; Harris, W.; Olansen, J.; Devolites, J.

    2015-12-01

    We have obtained improved 87Rb-87Sr isochrons for the Duluth Gabbro, an analog for lunar KREEP rocks, using a prototype spaceflight laser ablation resonance ionization mass spectrometer (LARIMS). The near-side of the Moon comprises previously un-sampled, KREEP rich, young-lunar basalts critical for calibrating the dating to constrain lunar history. Using a novel normalization approach, and by correcting for matrix-dependent isotope effects, we have been able to obtain a date of 1100 ± 200 Ma (Figure 1), compared to the previously established thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurement of 1096 ± 14 Ma. The precision of LARIMS is sufficient to constrain the current 1 Ga uncertainty of the lunar flux curve, allowing us to reassess the timing of peak lunar volcanism, and constrain lunar thermal evolution. Furthermore, an updated lunar flux curve has implications throughout the solar system. For example, Mars could have undergone a longer epoch of voluminous, shield-forming volcanism and associated mantle evolution, as well as a longer era of abundant volatiles and hence potential habitability. These alternative chronologies could even affect our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth: under the classic chronology, life is thought to have originated after the dwindling of bombardment, but under the alternative chronology, it might have appeared during heavy bombardment. In order to resolve the science questions regarding the history of the Moon, and in light of the Duluth Gabbro results, we recently proposed a Discovery mission called MARE: The Moon Age and Regolith Explorer. MARE would accomplish these goals by landing on a young, nearside lunar basalt flow southwest of Aristarchus that has a crater density corresponding to a highly uncertain absolute age, collecting >10 rock samples, and assessing their radioisotopic age, geochemistry, and mineralogy.

  8. Lunar imaging and ionospheric calibration for the Lunar Cherenkov technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Mevius, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Cherenkov technique is a promising method for UHE neutrino and cosmic ray detection which aims to detect nanosecond radio pulses produced during particle interactions in the Lunar regolith. For low frequency experiments, such as NuMoon, the frequency dependent dispersive effect of the

  9. LADEE UVS Observations of Atoms and Dust in the Lunar Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Colaprete, Anthony; Cook, Amanda M.; Shirley, Mark H.; Vargo, Kara E.; Elphic, Richard C.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Glenar, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a lunar orbiter launched in September 2013 that investigated the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. A major goal of the mission was to characterize the dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. The Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) onboard LADEE addresses this goal, utilizing two sets of optics: a limbviewing telescope, and a solar-viewing telescope. We report on spectroscopic (approximately 280 - 820 nm) observations viewing down the lunar wake or along the 'lunar tail' from lunar orbit. Prior groundbased studies have observed the emission from neutral sodium atoms extended along the lunar tail, so often this region is referred to as the lunar sodium tail. UVS measurements were made on the dark side of the moon, with the UVS limb-viewing telescope pointed outward in the direction of the Moon's wake (almost anti-sun), during different lunar phases. These UVS observation activities sample a long column and allow the characterization of scattered light from dust and emission lines from atoms in the lunar tail. Observations in this UVS configuration show the largest excess of scattered blue light in our data set, indicative of the presence of small dust grains in the tail. Once lofted, nanoparticles may become charged and picked up by the solar wind, similar to the phenomena witnessed above Enceladus's northern hemisphere or by the STEREO/WAVES instrument while close to Earth's orbit. The UVS data show that small dust grains as well as atoms become entrained in the lunar tail.

  10. The search for Ar in the lunar atmosphere using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's LAMP instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J. C.; Stern, S. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Gladstone, R.; Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Grava, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Apollo 17 mass spectrometer, LACE, first measured mass 40 particles in the lunar atmosphere, and over a nine-month period, detected variations correlated with the lunar day (Hoffman et al., 1973, LPSC, 4, 2865). LACE detected a high particle density at dusk (0.6-1.0x104 cm-3), decreasing through the lunar night to a few hundred cm-3, then increasing rapidly before dawn to levels 2-4 times greater than at dusk. No daytime measurements were made due to instrument saturation. Given the LACE measurements' periodic nature, and the Ar abundance in lunar regolith samples (Kaiser, 1972, EPSL, 13, 387), it was concluded that mass 40 was likely due to Ar. Benna et al. (2014, LPSC, 45, 1535) recently reported that the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) aboard LADEE also detected Ar (mass 40) with similar diurnal profiles. We report on UV spectra of the lunar atmosphere as obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Aboard LRO is the UV-spectrograph, LAMP (Lyman Alpha Mapping Project), spanning the spectral range 575 to 1965 Å. LAMP is typically oriented toward the surface and has been mapping the Moon since September 2009. LAMP also observes the tenuous lunar atmosphere when the surface is in darkness, but the atmospheric column below LRO is illuminated. We have previously used nadir oriented twilight observations to examine the sparse lunar atmosphere (Feldman et al., 2012, Icarus, 221, 854; Cook et al., 2013, Icarus, 225, 681; Stern et al., 2013, Icarus, 226, 1210; Cook & Stern 2014, Icarus, 236, 48). In Cook et al., 2013, we reported an upper limit for Ar of 2.3x104 cm-3. Since then, we have collected additional data and refined our search method by focusing on the regions (near equator) and local times (dawn and dusk) where Ar has been reported previously. We have carefully considered effective area calibration and g-factor accuracies and find these to be unlikely explanations for the order of magnitude differences. We will report new results, which provide much

  11. Lunar mare volcanism - Stratigraphy, eruption conditions, and the evolution of secondary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W., III; Wilson, Lionel

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in the geological analysis of lunar mare volcanism are reviewed. Analysis of returned samples and photogeological and remote sensing studies shows that mare volcanism began prior to the end of heavy bombardment (the period of cryptomare formation), in pre-Nectarian times, and continued until the Copernical Period, the total duration approaching 3.5-4 Ga. Stratigraphic analysis shows that the flux was not constant, but peaked in early lunar history, during the Imbrian Period. Average volcanic output rate during this period was about 0.01 cu cm/a. Volcanic landforms indicate that many eruptions were of high volume and long duration. Some eruptions associated with sinuous rills may have lasted a year and emplaced 1000 cu km of lava, representing the equivalent in one year of about 70,000 yr at the average flux. The occurrence of farside maria within craters whose diameter is generally near to or less than the thickness of the crust may be accounted for by the difference between local and regional compensation.

  12. Elemental Mercury Diffusion Processes and Concentration at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Frederick; Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft made the first detection of element mercury (Hg) vapor in the lunar exosphere after the Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted into the Cabeus crater in the southern polar region of the Moon. The lunar regolith core samples from the Apollo missions determined that Hg had a devolatilized pattern with a concentration gradient increasing with depth, in addition to a layered pattern suggesting multiple episodes of burial and volatile loss. Hg migration on the lunar surface resulted in cold trapping at the poles. We have modeled the rate at which indigenous Hg is lost from the regolith through diffusion out of lunar grains. We secondly modeled the migration of Hg vapor in the exosphere and estimated the rate of cold-trapping at the poles using a Monte Carlo technique. The Hg vapor may be lost from the exosphere via ionization, Jeans escape, or re-impact into the surface causing reabsorption.

  13. Chronology of early lunar crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasch, E.J.; Nyquist, L.E.; Ryder, G.

    1988-01-01

    The chronology of lunar rocks is summarized. The oldest pristine (i.e., lacking meteoritic contamination of admixed components) lunar rock, recently dated with Sm-Nd by Lugmair, is a ferroan anorthosite, with an age of 4.44 + 0.02 Ga. Ages of Mg-suite rocks (4.1 to 4.5 Ga) have large uncertainties, so that age differences between lunar plutonic rock suites cannot yet be resolved. Most mare basalts crystallized between 3.1 and 3.9 Ga. The vast bulk of the lunar crust, therefore, formed before the oldest preserved terrestrial rocks. If the Moon accreted at 4.56 Ga, then 120 Ma may have elapsed before lunar crust was formed

  14. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  15. Lunar Circular Structure Classification from Chang 'e 2 High Resolution Lunar Images with Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X. G.; Liu, J. J.; Zuo, W.; Chen, W. L.; Liu, Y. X.

    2018-04-01

    Circular structures are widely distributed around the lunar surface. The most typical of them could be lunar impact crater, lunar dome, et.al. In this approach, we are trying to use the Convolutional Neural Network to classify the lunar circular structures from the lunar images.

  16. A Lunar L2-Farside Exploration and Science Mission Concept with the ORion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and a Teleoperated Lander/Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Kring, David; Norris, Scott; Hopkins, Josh; Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin

    2012-01-01

    A novel concept is presented in this paper for a human mission to the lunar L2 (Lagrange) point that would be a proving ground for future exploration missions to deep space while also overseeing scientifically important investigations. In an L2 halo orbit above the lunar farside, the astronauts would travel 15% farther from Earth than did the Apollo astronauts and spend almost three times longer in deep space. Such missions would validate the Orion MPCV's life support systems, would demonstrate the high-speed re-entry capability needed for return from deep space, and would measure astronauts' radiation dose from cosmic rays and solar flares to verify that Orion would provide sufficient protection, as it is designed to do. On this proposed mission, the astronauts would teleoperate landers and rovers on the unexplored lunar farside, which would obtain samples from the geologically interesting farside and deploy a low radio frequency telescope. Sampling the South Pole-Aitkin basin (one of the oldest impact basins in the solar system) is a key science objective of the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Observations of the Universe's first stars/galaxies at low radio frequencies are a priority of the 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Such telerobotic oversight would also demonstrate capability for human and robotic cooperation on future, more complex deep space missions.

  17. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  18. Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Hazard Assessments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. L.; McKay, D. S.; Taylor, L. A.; Wallace, W. T.; James, J.; Riofrio, L.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) is developing data to set the permissible limits for human exposure to lunar dust. This standard will guide the design of airlocks and ports for EVA, as well as the requirements for filtering and monitoring the atmosphere in habitable vehicles, rovers and other modules. LADTAG’s recommendation for permissible exposure limits will be delivered to the Constellation Program in late 2010. The current worst-case exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3, estimated by LADTAG in 2006, reflects the concern that lunar dust may be as toxic as quartz dust. Freshly-ground quartz is known to be more toxic than un-ground quartz dust. Our research has shown that the surfaces of lunar soil grains can be more readily activated by grinding than quartz. Activation was measured by the amount of free radicals generated—activated simulants generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) i.e., production of hydroxyl free radicals. Of the various influences in the lunar environment, micrometeorite bombardment probably creates the most long-lasting reactivity on the surfaces of grains, although solar wind impingement and short-wavelength UV radiation also contribute. The comminution process creates fractured surfaces with unsatisfied bonds. When these grains are inhaled and carried into the lungs, they will react with lung surfactant and cells, potentially causing tissue damage and disease. Tests on lunar simulants have shown that dissolution and leaching of metals can occur when the grains are exposed to water—the primary component of lung fluid. However, simulants may behave differently than actual lunar soils. Rodent toxicity testing will be done using the respirable fraction of actual lunar soils (particles with physical size of less than 2.5 micrometers). We are currently separating the fine material from the coarser material that comprises >95% of the mass of each soil sample. Dry sieving is not practical in this size range, so a new system

  19. Chlorine isotopic compositions of apatite in Apollo 14 rocks: Evidence for widespread vapor-phase metasomatism on the lunar nearside ∼4 billion years ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potts, Nicola J.; Barnes, Jessica J.; Tartèse, Romain; Franchi, Ian A.; Anand, Mahesh

    2018-01-01

    Compared to most other planetary materials in the Solar System, some lunar rocks display high δ37Cl signatures. Loss of Cl in a H Cl environment has been invoked to explain the heavy signatures observed in lunar samples, either during volcanic eruptions onto the lunar surface or during large scale

  20. The Lunar Phases Project: A Mental Model-Based Observational Project for Undergraduate Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Angela Osterman; Mon, Manuel J.; Hibbard, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    We present our Lunar Phases Project, an ongoing effort utilizing students' actual observations within a mental model building framework to improve student understanding of the causes and process of the lunar phases. We implement this project with a sample of undergraduate, nonscience major students enrolled in a midsized public university located…

  1. Hydrogen Distribution in the Lunar Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Harshmann, K.; Fedosov, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a method of conversion of the lunar neutron counting rate measured by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument collimated neutron detectors, to water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the top approximately 1 m layer of lunar regolith. Polar maps of the Moon’s inferred hydrogen abundance are presented and discussed.

  2. Lunar Topography: Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model of the lunar topography with 50-meter horizontal and 1-m radial accuracy in a lunar center-of-mass coordinate system, with profiles of topography at 20-m horizontal resolution, and 0.1-m vertical precision. LOLA also provides measurements of reflectivity and surface roughness down to its 5-m laser spot size. With these data LOLA has measured the shape of all lunar craters 20 km and larger. In the proposed extended mission commencing late in 2012, LOLA will concentrate observations in the Southern Hemisphere, improving the density of the polar coverage to nearly 10-m pixel resolution and accuracy to better than 20 m total position error. Uses for these data include mission planning and targeting, illumination studies, geodetic control of images, as well as lunar geology and geophysics. Further improvements in geodetic accuracy are anticipated from the use of re ned gravity fields after the successful completion of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission in 2012.

  3. Lunar and Planetary Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar and planetary geology can be described using examples such as the geology of Earth (as the reference case) and geologies of the Earth's satellite the Moon; the planets Mercury, Mars and Venus; the satellite of Saturn Enceladus; the small stony asteroid Eros; and the nucleus of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Each body considered is illustrated by its global view, with information given as to its position in the solar system, size, surface, environment including gravity acceleration and properties of its atmosphere if it is present, typical landforms and processes forming them, materials composing these landforms, information on internal structure of the body, stages of its geologic evolution in the form of stratigraphic scale, and estimates of the absolute ages of the stratigraphic units. Information about one body may be applied to another body and this, in particular, has led to the discovery of the existence of heavy "meteoritic" bombardment in the early history of the solar system, which should also significantly affect Earth. It has been shown that volcanism and large-scale tectonics may have not only been an internal source of energy in the form of radiogenic decay of potassium, uranium and thorium, but also an external source in the form of gravity tugging caused by attractions of the neighboring bodies. The knowledge gained by lunar and planetary geology is important for planning and managing space missions and for the practical exploration of other bodies of the solar system and establishing manned outposts on them.

  4. Sample Acquisition for Materials in Planetary Exploration (SAMPLE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to analyze, design, and develop a device for autonomous lunar surface/subsurface sampling and processing applications. The Sample Acquisition for...

  5. Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

    The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double

  6. Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J. (Editor); Gaddis, L. R.; Joy, K. H.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    The announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2004 sparked a resurgence in lunar missions worldwide. Since the publication of the first "New Views of the Moon" volume, as of 2017 there have been 11 science-focused missions to the Moon. Each of these missions explored different aspects of the Moon's geology, environment, and resource potential. The results from this flotilla of missions have revolutionized lunar science, and resulted in a profoundly new emerging understanding of the Moon. The New Views of the Moon II initiative itself, which is designed to engage the large and vibrant lunar science community to integrate the results of these missions into new consensus viewpoints, is a direct outcome of this impressive array of missions. The "Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006" chapter will "set the stage" for the rest of the volume, introducing the planetary community at large to the diverse array of missions that have explored the Moon in the last decade. Content: This chapter will encompass the following missions: Kaguya; ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun); Chang’e-1; Chandrayaan-1; Moon Impact Probe; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS); Chang’e-2; Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL); Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE); Chang’e-3.

  7. Crosscutting Development- EVA Tools and Geology Sample Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Exploration to all destinations has at one time or another involved the acquisition and return of samples and context data. Gathered at the summit of the highest mountain, the floor of the deepest sea, or the ice of a polar surface, samples and their value (both scientific and symbolic) have been a mainstay of Earthly exploration. In manned spaceflight exploration, the gathering of samples and their contextual information has continued. With the extension of collecting activities to spaceflight destinations comes the need for geology tools and equipment uniquely designed for use by suited crew members in radically different environments from conventional field geology. Beginning with the first Apollo Lunar Surface Extravehicular Activity (EVA), EVA Geology Tools were successfully used to enable the exploration and scientific sample gathering objectives of the lunar crew members. These early designs were a step in the evolution of Field Geology equipment, and the evolution continues today. Contemporary efforts seek to build upon and extend the knowledge gained in not only the Apollo program but a wealth of terrestrial field geology methods and hardware that have continued to evolve since the last lunar surface EVA. This paper is presented with intentional focus on documenting the continuing evolution and growing body of knowledge for both engineering and science team members seeking to further the development of EVA Geology. Recent engineering development and field testing efforts of EVA Geology equipment for surface EVA applications are presented, including the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATs) field trial. An executive summary of findings will also be presented, detailing efforts recommended for exotic sample acquisition and pre-return curation development regardless of planetary or microgravity destination.

  8. Tests of the lunar hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The concept that the Moon was fissioned from the Earth after core separation is the most readily testable hypothesis of lunar origin, since direct comparisons of lunar and terrestrial compositions can be made. Differences found in such comparisons introduce so many ad hoc adjustments to the fission hypothesis that it becomes untestable. Further constraints may be obtained from attempting to date the volatile-refractory element fractionation. The combination of chemical and isotopic problems suggests that the fission hypothesis is no longer viable, and separate terrestrial and lunar accretion from a population of fractionated precursor planetesimals provides a more reasonable explanation.

  9. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of building an infrastructure on the moon is discussed, assuming that earth-to-moon and moon-to-earth transport will be available. The sequence of events which would occur in the process of building an infrastructure is examined. The human needs which must be met on a lunar base are discussed, including minimal life support, quality of life, and growth stages. The technology available to meet these needs is reviewed and further research in fields related to a lunar base, such as the study of the moon's polar regions and the limits of lunar agriculture, is recommended.

  10. Year 3 LUNAR Annual Report to the NASA Lunar Science Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Jack; Lazio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar University Network for Astrophysics Research (LUNAR) is a team of researchers and students at leading universities, NASA centers, and federal research laboratories undertaking investigations aimed at using the Moon as a platform for space science. LUNAR research includes Lunar Interior Physics & Gravitation using Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Low Frequency Cosmology and Astrophysics (LFCA), Planetary Science and the Lunar Ionosphere, Radio Heliophysics, and Exploration Science. The LUN...

  11. Return of a giant: DNA from archival museum samples helps to identify a unique cutthroat trout lineage formerly thought to be extinct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Mary M; Hekkala, Evon R; Kirchoff, Veronica S; Heki, Lisa G

    2017-11-01

    Currently one small, native population of the culturally and ecologically important Lahontan cutthroat trout ( Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi , LCT, Federally listed) remains in the Truckee River watershed of northwestern Nevada and northeastern California. The majority of populations in this watershed were extirpated in the 1940s due to invasive species, overharvest, anthropogenic water consumption and changing precipitation regimes. In 1977, a population of cutthroat trout discovered in the Pilot Peak Mountains in the Bonneville basin of Utah, was putatively identified as the extirpated LCT lacustrine lineage native to Pyramid Lake in the Truckee River basin based on morphological and meristic characters. Our phylogenetic and Bayesian genotype clustering analyses of museum specimens collected from the large lakes (1872-1913) and contemporary samples collected from populations throughout the extant range provide evidence in support of a genetically distinct Truckee River basin origin for this population. Analysis of museum samples alone identified three distinct genotype clusters and historical connectivity among water bodies within the Truckee River basin. Baseline data from museum collections indicate that the extant Pilot Peak strain represents a remnant of the extirpated lacustrine lineage. Given the limitations on high-quality data when working with a sparse number of preserved museum samples, we acknowledge that, in the end, this may be a more complicated story. However, the paucity of remnant populations in the Truckee River watershed, in combination with data on the distribution of morphological, meristic and genetic data for Lahontan cutthroat trout, suggests that recovery strategies, particularly in the large lacustrine habitats should consider this lineage as an important part of the genetic legacy of this species.

  12. Late Bombardment of the Lunar Highlands Recorded in MIL 090034, MIL 090036 and MIL 090070 Lunar Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Herzog, G. F.; Yamaguchi, A.; Shirai, N.; Ebihara, M.; Lindsay, F. N.; Delaney, J.; Turrin, B.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Kaguya mission detected small but widespread outcrops of nearly pure ferroan anorthosite in and around large impact basins on the Moon. Along with certain lunar rocks, highly feldspathic lunar meteorites such as MIL 090034 (M34), 090036 (M36), and 090070 (M70) may provide samples of this material. We have measured the Ar-40/Ar-39 release patterns and cosmogenic Ar-38 concentrations of several small (<200 microg) samples separated from M34,36, and 70. From petrographic observations concluded that "some of the clasts and grains experienced generations of modifications," a conclusion that we examine in light of our data.

  13. NASA Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Law, E.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling Portals provide web-based suites of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, planetary scientists, students, and the general public to access mapped lunar data products from past and current missions for the Moon, Mars, and Vesta. New portals for additional planetary bodies are being planned. This presentation will recap significant enhancements to these toolsets during the past year and look forward to the results of the exciting work currently being undertaken. Additional data products and tools continue to be added to the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP). These include both generalized products as well as polar data products specifically targeting potential sites for the Resource Prospector mission. Current development work on LMMP also includes facilitating mission planning and data management for lunar CubeSat missions, and working with the NASA Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office's Lunar Apollo Sample database in order to help better visualize the geographic contexts from which samples were retrieved. A new user interface provides, among other improvements, significantly enhanced 3D visualizations and navigation. Mars Trek, the project's Mars portal, has now been assigned by NASA's Planetary Science Division to support site selection and analysis for the Mars 2020 Rover mission as well as for the Mars Human Landing Exploration Zone Sites. This effort is concentrating on enhancing Mars Trek with data products and analysis tools specifically requested by the proposing teams for the various sites. Also being given very high priority by NASA Headquarters is Mars Trek's use as a means to directly involve the public in these upcoming missions, letting them explore the areas the agency is focusing upon, understand what makes these sites so fascinating, follow the selection process, and get caught up in the excitement of exploring Mars. The portals also serve as

  14. Constraining the volatile budget of the lunar interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, N. J.; Bromiley, G. D.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of volatiles (F, Cl, S, H2O) in a range of lunar samples confirm the presence of volatile material in lunar magmas. It remains unknown, however, where this volatile material is stored and when it was delivered to the Moon. On Earth, point defects within mantle olivine, and its high-pressure polymorphs, are thought to be the largest reservoir of volatile material. However, as volatiles have been cycled into and out of the Earth's mantle throughout geological time, via subduction and volcanism, this masks any original volatile signatures. As the Moon has no plate tectonics, it is expected that any volatile material present in the deep lunar interior would have been inherited during accretion and differentiation, providing insight into the delivery of volatiles to the early Earth-Moon system. Our aim was, therefore, to test the volatile storage capacity of the deep lunar mantle and determine mineral/melt partitioning for key volatiles. Experiments were performed in a primitive lunar mantle composition and run at relevant T, P, and at fO2 below the IW buffer. Experiments replicated the initial stages of LMO solidification with either olivine + melt, olivine + pyroxene + melt, or pyroxene + melt as the only phases present. Mineral-melt partition coefficients (Dx) derived for volatile material (F, Cl, S, H2O) vary significantly compared to those derived for terrestrial conditions. An order of magnitude more H2O was found to partition into lunar olivine compared to the terrestrial upper mantle. DF derived for lunar olivine are comparable to the highest terrestrial derived values whilst no Cl was found to partition into lunar olivine under these conditions. Furthermore, an inverse trend between DF and DOH hints towards coupled-substitution mechanisms between H and F under low-fO2/lunar bulk composition. These results suggest that if volatile material was present in the LMO a significant proportion could be partitioned into the lower lunar mantle. The

  15. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators, Year 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L.; Shaner, A. J.; Dalton, H.

    2011-12-01

    This past summer, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) sponsored a series of weeklong professional development workshops designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers: the Lunar Workshops for Educators. Participants learned about lunar science and exploration, gained tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, heard some of the latest research results from LRO scientists, worked with LRO data, and learned how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks. Where possible, the workshops also included tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help the teachers better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. The workshops were very successful. Participants demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and productively share data from LRO with their students and provide them with authentic research experiences. Participant feedback on workshop surveys was also enthusiastically positive. 5 additional Lunar Workshops for Educators will be held around the country in the summer of 2012. For more information and to register, visit http://lunar.gsfc.nasa.gov/lwe/index.html.

  16. Early lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A new method (Shaw, 1974) for investigating paleointensity (the ancient magnetic field) was applied to three subsamples of a single, 1-m homogeneous clast from a recrystallized boulder of lunar breccia. Several dating methods established 4 billion years as the age of boulder assembly. Results indicate that the strength of the ambient magnetic field at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon was about 0.4 oersted at 4 billion years ago. Values as high as 1.2 oersted have been reported (Collison et al., 1973). The required fields are approximately 10,000 times greater than present interplanetary or solar flare fields. It is suggested that this large field could have arisen from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri sun.

  17. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  18. Google Moon Lunar Mapping Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A collection of lunar maps and charts. This tool is an exciting new way to explore the story of the Apollo missions, still the only time mankind has set foot on...

  19. Lunar Health Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  20. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  1. The Lunar Regolith as a Recorder of Cosmic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie; McKay, D.; Riofrio, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Moon can be considered a giant tape recorder containing the history of the solar system and Universe. The lunar regolith (soil) has recorded the early history of the Moon, Earth, the solar system and Universe. A major goal of future lunar exploration should be to find and play back existing fragments of that tape . By reading the lunar tape, we can uncover a record of planetary bombardment, as well as solar and stellar variability. The Moon can tell us much about our place in the Universe. The lunar regolith has likely recorded the original meteoritic bombardment of Earth and Moon, a violent cataclysm that may have peaked around 4 Gyr, and the less intense bombardment occurring since that time. This impact history is preserved on the Moon as regolith layers, ejecta layers, impact melt rocks, and ancient impact breccias. The impact history of the Earth and Moon possibly had profound effects on the origin and development of life. Decrease in meteor bombardment allowed life to develop on Earth. Life may have developed first on another body, such as Mars, then arrived via meteorite on Earth. The solar system may have experienced bursts of severe radiation from the Sun, other stars, or from unknown sources. The lunar regolith has recorded this radiation history in the form of implanted solar wind, solar flare materials and radiation damage. Lunar soil can be found sandwiched between layers of basalt or pyroclastic deposits. This filling constitutes a buried time capsule that is likely to contain well-preserved ancient regolith. Study of such samples will show us how the solar system has evolved and changed over time. The lunar tape recorder can provide detailed information on specific portions of solar and stellar variability. Data from the Moon also offers clues as to whether so-called fundamental constants have changed over time.

  2. Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: Constraints from Fractional Crystallization Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    The currently accepted paradigm of lunar formation is that of accretion from the ejecta of a giant impact, followed by crystallization of a global scale magma ocean. This model accounts for the formation of the anorthosite highlands crust, which is globally distributed and old, and the formation of the younger mare basalts which are derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling the crystallization of such a lunar magma ocean (LMO) have been made, but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. Geodynamic models of lunar accretion suggest that shortly following accretion the bulk of the lunar mass was hot, likely at least above the solidus]. Models of LMO crystallization that assume a deep magma ocean are therefore geodynamically favorable, but they have been difficult to reconcile with a thick plagioclase-rich crust. A refractory element enriched bulk composition, a shallow magma ocean, or a combination of the two have been suggested as a way to produce enough plagioclase to account for the assumed thickness of the crust. Recently however, geophysical data from the GRAIL mission have indicated that the lunar anorthositic crust is not as thick as was initially estimated, which allows for both a deeper magma ocean and a bulk composition more similar to the terrestrial upper mantle. We report on experimental simulations of the fractional crystallization of a deep (approximately 100km) LMO with a terrestrial upper mantle-like (LPUM) bulk composition. Our experimental results will help to define the composition of the lunar crust and mantle cumulates, and allow us to consider important questions such as source regions of the mare basalts and Mg-suite, the role of mantle overturn after magma ocean crystallization and the nature of KREEP

  3. Workshop on New Views of the Moon: Integrated Remotely Sensed, Geophysical, and Sample Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, Brad L.; Ryder, Graham

    1998-01-01

    It has been more than 25 years since Apollo 17 returned the last of the Apollo lunar samples. Since then, a vast amount of data has been obtained from the study of rocks and soils from the Apollo and Luna sample collections and, more recently, on a set of about a dozen lunar meteorites collected on Earth. Based on direct studies of the samples, many constraints have been established for the age, early differentiation, crust and mantle structure, and subsequent impact modification of the Moon. In addition, geophysical experiments at the surface, as well as remote sensing from orbit and Earth-based telescopic studies, have provided additional datasets about the Moon that constrain the nature of its surface and internal structure. Some might be tempted to say that we know all there is to know about the Moon and that it is time to move on from this simple satellite to more complex objects. However, the ongoing Lunar Prospector mission and the highly successful Clementine mission have provided important clues to the real geological complexity of the Moon, and have shown us that we still do not yet adequately understand the geologic history of Earth's companion. These missions, like Galileo during its lunar flyby, are providing global information viewed through new kinds of windows, and providing a fresh context for models of lunar origin, evolution, and resources, and perhaps even some grist for new questions and new hypotheses. The probable detection and characterization of water ice at the poles, the extreme concentration of Th and other radioactive elements in the Procellarum-Imbrium-Frigon's resurfaced areas of the nearside of the Moon, and the high-resolution gravity modeling enabled by these missions are examples of the kinds of exciting new results that must be integrated with the extant body of knowledge based on sample studies, in situ experiments, and remote-sensing missions to bring about the best possible understanding of the Moon and its history.

  4. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  5. Goals and Strategies for the Human Lunar Reference Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Calvin H.

    2010-01-01

    The presentation examines common goals for human lunar exploration and strategic guidance. Three major sections include illustrative example goals, introduction to the GPoD campaign, and GPoD overview. The first section includes slides about strategic view of partnerships, the moon as a stepping stone and a uniquely preserved record, human-robotic partnership, innovative engagement, strategic considerations, and evaluation of campaigns against common goals. The second section examines campaigns considered, the philosophy of GPoD, GPoD campaign phase definitions, and GPoD design decision points. The third section examines lunar exploration capabilities, extended stay-relocation exploration mode, notional campaign destinations for GPoD, early robotics phase, development of the GPoD early robotics phase, polar exploration/system validation phase, polar relocatability phase, non-polar relocatability phase, long duration phase, and return to evaluation of campaigns.

  6. Reactive, Safe Navigation for Lunar and Planetary Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Hans; Ruland, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    When humans return to the moon, Astronauts will be accompanied by robotic helpers. Enabling robots to safely operate near astronauts on the lunar surface has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of crew surface operations. Safely operating robots in close proximity to astronauts on the lunar surface requires reactive obstacle avoidance capabilities not available on existing planetary robots. In this paper we present work on safe, reactive navigation using a stereo based high-speed terrain analysis and obstacle avoidance system. Advances in the design of the algorithms allow it to run terrain analysis and obstacle avoidance algorithms at full frame rate (30Hz) on off the shelf hardware. The results of this analysis are fed into a fast, reactive path selection module, enforcing the safety of the chosen actions. The key components of the system are discussed and test results are presented.

  7. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a

  8. New Measurements of the Particle Size Distribution of Apollo 11 Lunar Soil 10084

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, D.S.; Cooper, B.L.; Riofrio, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    We have initiated a major new program to determine the grain size distribution of nearly all lunar soils collected in the Apollo program. Following the return of Apollo soil and core samples, a number of investigators including our own group performed grain size distribution studies and published the results [1-11]. Nearly all of these studies were done by sieving the samples, usually with a working fluid such as Freon(TradeMark) or water. We have measured the particle size distribution of lunar soil 10084,2005 in water, using a Microtrac(TradeMark) laser diffraction instrument. Details of our own sieving technique and protocol (also used in [11]). are given in [4]. While sieving usually produces accurate and reproducible results, it has disadvantages. It is very labor intensive and requires hours to days to perform properly. Even using automated sieve shaking devices, four or five days may be needed to sieve each sample, although multiple sieve stacks increases productivity. Second, sieving is subject to loss of grains through handling and weighing operations, and these losses are concentrated in the finest grain sizes. Loss from handling becomes a more acute problem when smaller amounts of material are used. While we were able to quantitatively sieve into 6 or 8 size fractions using starting soil masses as low as 50mg, attrition and handling problems limit the practicality of sieving smaller amounts. Third, sieving below 10 or 20microns is not practical because of the problems of grain loss, and smaller grains sticking to coarser grains. Sieving is completely impractical below about 5- 10microns. Consequently, sieving gives no information on the size distribution below approx.10 microns which includes the important submicrometer and nanoparticle size ranges. Finally, sieving creates a limited number of size bins and may therefore miss fine structure of the distribution which would be revealed by other methods that produce many smaller size bins.

  9. Regolith Formation Rates and Evolution from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, P. O.; Ghent, R. R.; Bandfield, J. L.; Vasavada, A. R.; Williams, J. P.; Siegler, M. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Elder, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Fragmentation and overturn of lunar surface materials produces a layer of regolith, which increases in thickness through time. Experiments on the lunar surface during the Apollo era, combined with remote sensing, found that the upper 10's of cm of regolith exhibit a rapid increase in density and thermal conductivity with depth. This is interpreted to be the signature of impact gardening, which operates most rapidly in the uppermost layers. Gravity data from the GRAIL mission showed that impacts have also extensively fractured the deeper crust. The breakdown and mixing of crustal materials is therefore a central process to lunar evolution and must be understood in order to interpret compositional information from remote sensing and sample analysis. Recently, thermal infrared data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner radiometer were used to provide the first remote observational constraints on the rate of ejecta breakdown around craters L., Campbell, B. A., Allen, C. C., Carter, L. M., & Paige, D. A. (2014). Constraints on the recent rate of lunar ejecta breakdown and implications for crater ages. Geology, 42(12), 1059-1062.

  10. How We Used NASA Lunar Set in Planetary Material Science Analog Studies on Lunar Basalts and Breccias with Industrial Materials of Steels and Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczi, S.; Cech, V.; Jozsa, S.; Szakmany, G.; Fabriczy, A.; Foldi, T.; Varga, T.

    2005-01-01

    Analog studies play important role in space materials education. Various aspects of analogies are used in our courses. In this year two main rock types of NASA Lunar Set were used in analog studies in respect of processes and textures with selected industrial material samples. For breccias and basalts on the lunar side, ceramics and steels were found as analogs on the industrial side. Their processing steps were identified on the basis of their textures both in lunar and in industrial groups of materials.

  11. Lunar geodesy and cartography: a new era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Thomas; Smith, David; Robinson, Mark; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory; Danton, Jacob; Oberst, Juergen; Archinal, Brent; Glaeser, Philipp

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) ushers in a new era in precision lunar geodesy and cartography. LRO was launched in June, 2009, completed its Commissioning Phase in Septem-ber 2009 and is now in its Primary Mission Phase on its way to collecting high precision, global topographic and imaging data. Aboard LRO are the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA -Smith, et al., 2009) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC -Robinson, et al., ). LOLA is a derivative of the successful MOLA at Mars that produced the global reference surface being used for all precision cartographic products. LOLA produces 5 altimetry spots having footprints of 5 m at a frequency of 28 Hz, significantly bettering MOLA that produced 1 spot having a footprint of 150 m at a frequency of 10 Hz. LROC has twin narrow angle cameras having pixel resolutions of 0.5 meters from a 50 km orbit and a wide-angle camera having a pixel resolution of 75 m and in up to 7 color bands. One of the two NACs looks to the right of nadir and the other looks to the left with a few hundred pixel overlap in the nadir direction. LOLA is mounted on the LRO spacecraft to look nadir, in the overlap region of the NACs. The LRO spacecraft has the ability to look nadir and build up global coverage as well as looking off-nadir to provide stereo coverage and fill in data gaps. The LROC wide-angle camera builds up global stereo coverage naturally from its large field-of-view overlap from orbit to orbit during nadir viewing. To date, the LROC WAC has already produced global stereo coverage of the lunar surface. This report focuses on the registration of LOLA altimetry to the LROC NAC images. LOLA has a dynamic range of tens of km while producing elevation data at sub-meter precision. LOLA also has good return in off-nadir attitudes. Over the LRO mission, multiple LOLA tracks will be in each of the NAC images at the lunar equator and even more tracks in the NAC images nearer the poles. The registration of LOLA

  12. Money growth and aggregate stock returns

    OpenAIRE

    Böing, Tobias; Stadtmann, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We empirically evaluate the predictive power of money growth measured by M2 for stock returns of the S&P 500 index. We use monthly US data and predict multiperiod returns over 1, 3, and 5 years with long-horizon regressions. In-sample regressions show that money growth is useful for predicting returns. Higher recent money growth has a significantly negative effect on subsequent returns of the S&P 500. An out-of-sample analysis shows that a simple model with money growth as a single predictor ...

  13. The Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Hodges, R. Richard; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Harpold, Daniel N.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission is designed to measure the composition and variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere. The NMS complements two other instruments on the LADEE spacecraft designed to secure spectroscopic measurements of lunar composition and in situ measurement of lunar dust over the course of a 100-day mission in order to sample multiple lunation periods. The NMS utilizes a dual ion source designed to measure both surface reactive and inert species and a quadrupole analyzer. The NMS is expected to secure time resolved measurements of helium and argon and determine abundance or upper limits for many other species either sputtered or thermally evolved from the lunar surface.

  14. Determination of lunar surface ages from crater frequency–size ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the images from Apollo missions have been calibrated from the lunar soil samples from Apollo and Luna landing sites (Head 1976; Neukum et al. 1975). ... Table 1 shows the ages as derived for the craters with errors. Mare Humorum is believed to be made up of six ring structures of 210, 340, 425, 570 and 1195km.

  15. Mossbauer analysis of Luna 16 lunar surface material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nady, D. L.; Cher, L.; Kulcsar, K.

    1974-01-01

    Samples of Apollo 11 lunar surface material were studied by the Mossbauer effect. Owing to the small number of other resonant isotopes, all measurements were made with Fe-57 nuclei. The principal constituents of the material were as follows: Iron containing silicates (olivine, pyroxene, and so on), ilmenite (FeTiO3), and metallic iron.

  16. Lunar Quest in Second Life, Lunar Exploration Island, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, F. M.; Day, B. H.; Mitchell, B.; Hsu, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    Linden Lab’s Second Life is a virtual 3D metaverse created by users. At any one time there may be 40,000-50,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move through Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting. Users form communities or groups of mutual interest such as music, computer graphics, and education. These groups communicate via e-mail, voice, and text within Second Life. Information on downloading the Second Life browser and joining can be found on the Second Life website: www.secondlife.com. This poster details Phase II in the development of Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) located in Second Life. Phase I LEI highlighted NASA’s LRO/LCROSS mission. Avatars enter LEI via teleportation arriving at a hall of flight housing interactive exhibits on the LRO/ LCROSS missions including full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the mission, both spacecraft’s instrument suites, and related EPO. Other lunar related activities such as My Moon and NLSI EPO programs. A special exhibit was designed for International Observe the Moon Night activities with links to websites for further information. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference stage to host talks, and a screen for viewing NASATV coverage of mission and other televised events. In Phase II exhibits are updated to reflect on-going lunar exploration highlights, discoveries, and future missions. A new section of LEI has been developed to showcase NASA’s Lunar Quest program. A new exhibit hall with Lunar Quest information has been designed and is being populated with Lunar Quest information, spacecraft models (LADEE is in place) and kiosks. A two stage interactive demonstration illustrates lunar phases with static and 3-D stations. As NASA’s Lunar Quest program matures further

  17. Precision Lunar Laser Ranging For Lunar and Gravitational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Arnold, D.; Dabney, P. W.; Livas, J. C.; McGarry, J. F.; Neumann, G. A.; Zagwodzki, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ranging to retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Lunar missions over the past 39 years have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Significant advances in these areas will require placing modern retroreflectors and/or active laser ranging systems at new locations on the lunar surface. Ranging to new locations will enable better measurements of the lunar librations, aiding in our understanding of the interior structure of the moon. More precise range measurements will allow us to study effects that are too small to be observed by the current capabilities as well as enabling more stringent tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Setting up retroreflectors was a key part of the Apollo missions so it is natural to ask if future lunar missions should include them as well. The Apollo retroreflectors are still being used today, and nearly 40 years of ranging data has been invaluable for scientific as well as other studies such as orbital dynamics. However, the available retroreflectors all lie within 26 degrees latitude of the equator, and the most useful ones within 24 degrees longitude of the sub-earth meridian. This clustering weakens their geometrical strength.

  18. View of the Lunar Module 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A view of the Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), as photographed by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descates landing site. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen directly behind the LRV. The lunar surface feature in the left background is Stone Mountain.

  19. Cataclysm No More: New Views on the Timing and Delivery of Lunar Impactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Nicolle E B

    2017-09-01

    If properly interpreted, the impact record of the Moon, Earth's nearest neighbour, can be used to gain insights into how the Earth has been influenced by impacting events since its formation ~4.5 billion years (Ga) ago. However, the nature and timing of the lunar impactors - and indeed the lunar impact record itself - are not well understood. Of particular interest are the ages of lunar impact basins and what they tell us about the proposed "lunar cataclysm" and/or the late heavy bombardment (LHB), and how this impact episode may have affected early life on Earth or other planets. Investigations of the lunar impactor population over time have been undertaken and include analyses of orbital data and images; lunar, terrestrial, and other planetary sample data; and dynamical modelling. Here, the existing information regarding the nature of the lunar impact record is reviewed and new interpretations are presented. Importantly, it is demonstrated that most evidence supports a prolonged lunar (and thus, terrestrial) bombardment from ~4.2 to 3.4 Ga and not a cataclysmic spike at ~3.9 Ga. Implications for the conditions required for the origin of life are addressed.

  20. Human lunar mission capabilities using SSTO, ISRU and LOX-augmented NTR technologies: A preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1995-10-01

    The feasibility of conducting human missions to the Moon is examined assuming the use of three 'high leverage' technologies: (1) a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle, (2) 'in-situ' resource utilization (ISRU)--specifically 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX), and (3) LOX-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (LANTR) propulsion. Lunar transportation system elements consisting of a LANTR-powered lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a chemical propulsion lunar landing/Earth return vehicle (LERV) are configured to fit within the 'compact' dimensions of the SSTO cargo bay (diameter: 4.6 m/length: 9.0 m) while satisfying an initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) limit of approximately 60 t (3 SSTO launches). Using approximately 8 t of LUNOX to 'reoxidize' the LERV for a 'direct return' flight to Earth reduces its size and mass allowing delivery to LEO on a single 20 t SSTO launch. Similarly, the LANTR engine's ability to operate at any oxygen/ hydrogen mixture ratio from 0 to 7 with high specific impulse (approximately 940 to 515 s) is exploited to reduce hydrogen tank volume, thereby improving packaging of the LANTR LTV's 'propulsion' and 'propellant modules'. Expendable and reusable, piloted and cargo missions and vehicle designs are presented along with estimates of LUNOX production required to support the different mission modes. Concluding remarks address the issue of lunar transportation system costs from the launch vehicle perspective.

  1. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.

    becoming the place to go to honeymoon, and to go to the Moon. A world apart, Hawaii, with its microgravity environment, is part way in space already, a stepping stone to the Moon, stars, and beyond. References 1. NASA Technical Memorandum 4757; Paul D. Lowman Jr, "Lunar Limb Observatory", An Incremental Plan for the Utilization, Exploration and Settlement of the Moon; Goddard Space Flight Center, October 1996. 2. Japan NASDA Report 61; "An Infinity of Twinkling Stars Visible from the Moon", The Day the Moon Becomes the Heartland of Humankind - Series 4; July 1997. 3. China Space Flight High Tech Program 863; "Research on the Necessity and Feasibility of Lunar Exploration in our Country"; May 1995. 4. European Space Agency SP-1150; "Mission to the Moon", Europe's Priorities for the Scientific Exploration and Utilization of the Moon; 1992. 5. Lavochkin Association; Company Prospectus; Moscow, Russia; August 1995. 6. India Space Research Organization; Lunar Spacecraft 2005 Feasibility Study; Bangalore; due late 2000. 7. "International Lunar Observatory", Steve Durst; 3rd International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; October 1998. 8. "Lunar Observatories: Why, Where, and When?"; Paul D. Lowman Jr, Peter C. Chen, Steve Durst; 8th International Space Conference of Pacific -basin Societies; Xian, China; June 1999. 9. "International Lunar Observatory: From Hawaii to the Moon", Steve Durst; 4th International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon; ESA / ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, July 2000. (Paper Revised; Prepared for but not Presented to the 2nd Annual Lunar Development Conference: `Return to the Moon II' 20-21 July 2000, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada)

  2. Predictability of Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sekreter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Predictability of stock returns has been shown by empirical studies over time. This article collects the most important theories on forecasting stock returns and investigates the factors that affecting behavior of the stocks’ prices and the market as a whole. Estimation of the factors and the way of estimation are the key issues of predictability of stock returns.

  3. Two lunar global asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The Moon's center of mass is displaced from its center of figure about 2 km in a roughly earthward direction. Most maria are on the side of the Moon which faces the Earth. It is assumed that the Moon was initially spherically symmetric. The emplacement of mare basalts transfers mass which produces most of the observed center of mass displacement toward the Earth. The cause of the asymmetric distribution of lunar maria was examined. The Moon is in a spin orbit coupled relationship with the Earth and the effect of the Earth's gravity on the Moon is asymmetric. The earth-facing side of the Moon is a gravitational favored location for the extrusion of mare basalt magma in the same way that the topographically lower floor of a large impact basin is a gravitationally favored location. This asymmetric effect increases inversely with the fourth power of the Earth Moon distance. The history of the Earth-Moon system includes: formation of the Moon by accretion processes in a heliocentric orbit ner that of the Earth; a gravitational encounter with the Earth about 4 billion years ago resulting in capture of the Moon into a geocentric orbit and heating of the Moon through dissipation of energy related to tides raised during close approaches to the Earth(5) to produce mare basalt magma; and evolution of the Moon's orbit to its present position, slowly at first to accommodate more than 500 million years during which magmas were extruded.

  4. Martian Chemical and Isotopic Reference Standards in Earth-based Laboratories — An Invitation for Geochemical, Astrobiological, and Engineering Dialog on Considering a Weathered Chondrite for Mars Sample Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, J. W.; Tait, A. W.; Velbel, M. A.; Boston, P. J.; Carrier, B. L.; Cohen, B. A.; Schröder, C.; Bland, P.

    2017-12-01

    Exogenic rocks (meteorites) found on Mars 1) have unweathered counterparts on Earth; 2) weather differently than indigenous rocks; and 3) may be ideal habitats for putative microorganisms and subsequent biosignature preservation. These attributes show the potential of meteorites for addressing hypothesis-driven science. They raise the question of whether chondritic meteorites, of sufficient weathering intensity, might be considered as candidates for sample return in a potential future mission. Pursuant to this discussion are the following questions. A) Is there anything to be learned from the laboratory study of a martian chondrite that cannot be learned from indigenous materials; and if so, B) is the science value high enough to justify recovery? If both A and B answer affirmatively, then C) what are the engineering constraints for sample collection for Mars 2020 and potential follow-on missions; and finally D) what is the likelihood of finding a favorable sample? Observations relevant to these questions include: i) Since 2005, 24 candidate and confirmed meteorites have been identified on Mars at three rover landing sites, demonstrating their ubiquity and setting expectations for future finds. All have been heavily altered by a variety of physical and chemical processes. While the majority of these are irons (not suitable for recovery), several are weathered stony meteorites. ii) Exogenic reference materials provide the only chemical/isotope standards on Mars, permitting quantification of alteration rates if residence ages can be attained; and possibly enabling the removal of Late Amazonian weathering overprints from other returned samples. iii) Recent studies have established the habitability of chondritic meteorites with terrestrial microorganisms, recommending their consideration when exploring astrobiological questions. High reactivity, organic content, and permeability show stony meteorites to be more attractive for colonization and subsequent biosignature

  5. Mars Sample Return Orbiter Rapid Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, A.; Johnson, M.; Stroud, C.

    2018-04-01

    An overview of rapid systems analysis (mass, risk, and schedule) on 1000s of MSRO configurations to understand key technologies and feasible options. Can we generate enough power? Can we aerobrake in time? Are some technology elements just too risky?

  6. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  7. Lunar remnant magnetic field mapping from orbital observations of mirrored electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, J E [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, Tex. (USA). Johnson Space Center; Anderson, K A; Lin, R P; Howe, H C; McGuire, R E [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Space Sciences Lab.

    1975-09-01

    Areas of lunar surface magnetic field are observed to ''mirror'' low energy electrons present in the normal lunar space environment. The ambient electrons provide, in effect, a probe along the ambient magnetic field lines down to the lunar surface for remote sensing of the presence of surface fields. Use of the on-board vector magnetometer measurements of the ambient magnetic field orientation allows accurate projection of such mapping onto the lunar surface. Preliminary maps of the lunar surface magnetic areas underlying the orbit of the ''Particles and Fields Satellite deployed from Apollo 16'' have been generated, obtaining 40% coverage from partial data to demonstrate feasibility of the technique. These maps reveal many previously unreported areas of surface magnetism. The method is sensitive to fields of less than 0.1..gamma.. at the surface. The surface field regions observed are generally due to sources smaller than 10-50km in size, although many individual regions are often so close together as to give much larger regions of effectively continuous mirroring. Absence of consistent mirroring by any global field places an upper limit on the size of any net lunar dipole moment of less than 10/sup 10/..gamma..km/sup 3/. Much additional information regarding the magnetic regions can be obtained by correlated analysis of both the electron return and vector magnetometer measurements at orbital altitude, the two techniques providing each other with directly complimentary measurements at the satellite and along the ambient field lines to the surface.

  8. The Stratigraphy and Evolution of the Lunar Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, I. Stewart

    1998-01-01

    Reconstruction of stratigraphic relationships in the ancient lunar crust has proved to be a formidable task. The intense bombardment during the first 700 m.y. of lunar history has severely perturbed the original stratigraphy and destroyed the primary textures of all but a few nonmare rocks. However, a knowledge of the crustal stratigraphy as it existed prior to the cataclysmic bombardment about 3.9 Ga is essential to test the major models proposed for crustal origin, i.e., crystal fractionation in a global magmasphere or serial magmatism in a large number of smaller bodies. Despite the large difference in scale implicit in these two models, both require an efficient separation of plagioclase and mafic minerals to form the anorthositic crust and the mafic mantle. Despite the havoc wreaked by the large body impactors, these same impact processes have brought to the lunar surface crystalline samples derived from at least the upper half of the lunar crust, thereby providing an opportunity to reconstruct the stratigraphy in areas sampled by the Apollo missions. As noted, ejecta from the large multiring basins are dominantly, or even exclusively, of crustal origin. Given the most recent determinations of crustal thicknesses, this implies an upper limit to the depth of excavation of about 60 km. Of all the lunar samples studied, a small set has been recognized as "pristine", and within this pristine group, a small fraction have retained some vestiges of primary features formed during the earliest stages of crystallization or recrystallization prior to 4.0 Ga. We have examined a number of these samples that have retained some record of primary crystallization to deduce thermal histories from an analysis of structural, textural, and compositional features in minerals from these samples. Specifically, by quantitative modeling of (1) the growth rate and development of compositional profiles of exsolution lamellae in pyroxenes and (2) the rate of Fe-Mg ordering in

  9. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Goodman, R. E.; Hurlbut, F. C.; Houston, W. N.; Willis, D. R.; Witherspoon, P. A.; Hovland, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    Research on the mechanics of lunar soils and on developing probes to determine the properties of lunar surface materials is summarized. The areas of investigation include the following: soil simulation, soil property determination using an impact penetrometer, soil stabilization using urethane foam or phenolic resin, effects of rolling boulders down lunar slopes, design of borehole jack and its use in determining failure mechanisms and properties of rocks, and development of a permeability probe for measuring fluid flow through porous lunar surface materials.

  10. Lunar power systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The findings of a study on the feasibility of several methods of providing electrical power for a permanently manned lunar base are provided. Two fundamentally different methods for lunar electrical power generation are considered. One is the use of a small nuclear reactor and the other is the conversion of solar energy to electricity. The baseline goal was to initially provide 300 kW of power with growth capability to one megawatt and eventually to 10 megawatts. A detailed, day by day scenario for the establishment, build-up, and operational activity of the lunar base is presented. Also presented is a conceptual approach to a supporting transportation system which identifies the number, type, and deployment of transportation vehicles required to support the base. An approach to the use of solar cells in the lunar environment was developed. There are a number of heat engines which are applicable to solar/electric conversions, and these are examined. Several approaches to energy storage which were used by the electric power utilities were examined and those which could be used at a lunar base were identified

  11. Distribution of iron and titanium on the lunar surface from lunar prospector gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Feldman, W.C.; Lawrence, David J.; Elphic, R.C.; Gasnault, O.M.; Maurice, S.; Moore, K.R.; Binder, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma ray pulse height spectra acquired by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) contain information on the abundance of major elements in the lunar surface, including O, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Th. With the exception of Th and K, prompt gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with surface materials are used to determine elemental abundance. Most of these gamma rays are produced by inelastic scattering of fast neutrons and by neutron capture. The production of neutron-induced gamma rays reaches a maximum deep below the surface (e.g. ∼140 g/cm 2 for inelastic scattering and ∼50 g/cm 2 for capture). Consequently, gamma rays sense the bulk composition of lunar materials, in contrast to optical methods (e.g. Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR)), which only sample the top few microns. Because most of the gamma rays are produced deep beneath the surface, few escape unscattered and the continuum of scattered gamma rays dominates the spectrum. In addition, due to the resolution of the spectrometer, there are few well-isolated peaks and peak fitting algorithms must be used to deconvolve the spectrum in order to determine the contribution of individual elements.

  12. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Falcke, Heino

    2014-01-01

    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  13. Status and Future of Lunar Geoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986

    A review of the status, progress, and future direction of lunar research is presented in this report from the lunar geoscience working group of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Information is synthesized and presented in four major sections. These include: (1) an introduction (stating the reasons for lunar study and identifying…

  14. Nanophase Fe0 in lunar soils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    globules that occur in the rinds of many soil grains and in the ... tinitic glass is a quenched product of silicate melts, also produced by micrometeorite impacts on lunar soils ..... stand impact processes and their products. ... cules at night; the earth's atmosphere by con- .... deep lunar interior from an inversion of lunar free oscil-.

  15. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dall'Agnol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  16. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  17. Lunar Rotation, Orientation and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Ratcliff, J. T.; Boggs, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    The Moon is the most familiar example of the many satellites that exhibit synchronous rotation. For the Moon there is Lunar Laser Ranging measurements of tides and three-dimensional rotation variations plus supporting theoretical understanding of both effects. Compared to uniform rotation and precession the lunar rotational variations are up to 1 km, while tidal variations are about 0.1 m. Analysis of the lunar variations in pole direction and rotation about the pole gives moment of inertia differences, third-degree gravity harmonics, tidal Love number k2, tidal dissipation Q vs. frequency, dissipation at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and emerging evidence for an oblate boundary. The last two indicate a fluid core, but a solid inner core is not ruled out. Four retroreflectors provide very accurate positions on the Moon. The experience with the Moon is a starting point for exploring the tides, rotation and orientation of the other synchronous bodies of the solar system.

  18. Lunar heat-flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    The principal components of the experiment were probes, each with twelve thermometers of exceptional accuracy and stability, that recorded temperature variations at the surface and in the regolith down to 2.5 m. The Apollo 15 experiment and the Apollo 17 probes recorded lunar surface and subsurface temperatures. These data provided a unique and valuable history of the interaction of solar energy with lunar surface and the effects of heat flowing from the deep interior out through the surface of the moon. The interpretation of these data resulted in a clearer definition of the thermal and mechanical properties of the upper two meters of lunar regolith, direct measurements of the gradient in mean temperature due to heat flow from the interior and a determination of the heat flow at the Apollo 15 and Apollo 17 sites.

  19. Estimate of safe human exposure levels for lunar dust based on comparative benchmark dose modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Santana, Patricia A; Scully, Robert R

    2013-04-01

    Brief exposures of Apollo astronauts to lunar dust occasionally elicited upper respiratory irritation; however, no limits were ever set for prolonged exposure to lunar dust. The United States and other space faring nations intend to return to the moon for extensive exploration within a few decades. In the meantime, habitats for that exploration, whether mobile or fixed, must be designed to limit human exposure to lunar dust to safe levels. Herein we estimate safe exposure limits for lunar dust collected during the Apollo 14 mission. We instilled three respirable-sized (∼2 μ mass median diameter) lunar dusts (two ground and one unground) and two standard dusts of widely different toxicities (quartz and TiO₂) into the respiratory system of rats. Rats in groups of six were given 0, 1, 2.5 or 7.5 mg of the test dust in a saline-Survanta® vehicle, and biochemical and cellular biomarkers of toxicity in lung lavage fluid were assayed 1 week and one month after instillation. By comparing the dose--response curves of sensitive biomarkers, we estimated safe exposure levels for astronauts and concluded that unground lunar dust and dust ground by two different methods were not toxicologically distinguishable. The safe exposure estimates were 1.3 ± 0.4 mg/m³ (jet-milled dust), 1.0 ± 0.5 mg/m³ (ball-milled dust) and 0.9 ± 0.3 mg/m³ (unground, natural dust). We estimate that 0.5-1 mg/m³ of lunar dust is safe for periodic human exposures during long stays in habitats on the lunar surface.

  20. A pyroloysis technique for determining microamounts of hydrogen in lunar soil using the helium ionization detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustin, R.

    1983-01-01

    A method has been developed which will determine hydrogen in sub-milligram samples of lunar soil. It consists of heating the sample in a pyroprobe followed by the gas chromatographic determination of hydrogen using the helium ionization detector. Using a 7 foot, 1/8 OD stainless steel column packed with Carbosieve S, 120/140 mesh, hydrogen was well-separated from the other gases released from lunar soil. Standards of hydrogen in helium were used for calibration. The limit to detection under the conditions used was about 2 ng. The method was linear from 2 ng to 270 ng. The method was checked using some actual lunar samples. Results were typical of those obtained for lunar soils using other methods.

  1. Light element geochemistry and spallogenesis in lunar rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Marais, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The abundances and isotopic compositions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur were measured in eleven lunar rocks. Samples were combusted sequentially at three temperatures to resolve terrestrial contamination from indigenous volatiles. Sulfur abundances in Apollo 16 highland rocks range from 73 to 1165 μg/g, whereas sulfur contents in Apollo 15 and 17 basalts range from 719 to 1455 μg/g and correlate with TiO 2 content. Lunar rocks as a group have a remarkably uniform sulfur isotopic composition, which may reflect the low oxygen fugacity of the basaltic magmas. Much of the range of reported delta 34 Ssub(CD) values is caused by systematic analytical discrepancies between laboratories. Lunar rocks very likely contain less than 0.1 μg/g of nitrogen. The measured spallogenic production rate, 4.1 x 10 -6 μg 15 N/g sample/m.y., agrees remarkably closely with previous estimates. An estimate which includes all available data is 3.7 x 10 -6 μg 15 N/g sample/m.y. Lunar basalts may contain no indigenous lunar carbon in excess of procedural blank levels. Highland rocks consistently release about 1 to 5 μg/g of carbon in excess of blank levels, but this carbon might either derive from ancient meteoritic debris or be a mineralogic product of terrestrial weathering. The average measured spallogenic 13 C production rate is 4.1 x 10 -6 μg 13 C/g sample/m.y. (author)

  2. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  3. Uses for lunar crawler transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Richard A.

    This article discusses state-of-the-art crawler transporters and expresses the need for additional research and development for lunar crawlers. The thrust of the paper illustrates how the basic crawler technology has progressed to a point where extremely large modules can be shop fabricated and move to some distant location at a considerable savings. Also, extremely heavy loads may be lifted by large crawler cranes and placed in designed locations. The Transi-Lift Crawler crane with its traveling counterweight is an attractive concept for lunar construction.

  4. Building lunar roads - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Bennett

    The problems involved in constructing lunar roads are explored. The main challenges are airlessness, low gravity, and solar effects, especially temperature extremes. Also involved are the expense of delivering equipment and material to the job site (especially for bridges and other structures), obtaining skilled labor, and providing maintenance. The lunar road will most likely be gravel, but with the size of the material closer to cobblestone to reduce scattering. They will probably be very winding, even on the flats, and feature numerous bridges and some cuts. This traffic will be mostly automatic or teleoperated cargo carriers with a handful of shirtsleeve-pressurized 'passenger cars' large enough to live in for several days.

  5. A Combined XRD/XRF Instrument for Lunar Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Blacic, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Robotic surface missions to the Moon should be capable of measuring mineral as well as chemical abundances in regolith samples. Although much is already known about the lunar regolith, our data are far from comprehensive. Most of the regolith samples returned to Earth for analysis had lost the upper surface, or it was intermixed with deeper regolith. This upper surface is the part of the regolith most recently exposed to the solar wind; as such it will be important to resource assessment. In addition, it may be far easier to mine and process the uppermost few centimeters of regolith over a broad area than to engage in deep excavation of a smaller area. The most direct means of analyzing the regolith surface will be by studies in situ. In addition, the analysis of the impact-origin regolith surfaces, the Fe-rich glasses of mare pyroclastic deposits, are of resource interest, but are inadequately known; none of the extensive surface-exposed pyroclastic deposits of the Moon have been systematically sampled, although we know something about such deposits from the Apollo 17 site. Because of the potential importance of pyroclastic deposits, methods to quantify glass as well as mineral abundances will be important to resource evaluation. Combined x ray diffraction (XRD) and x ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis will address many resource characterization problems on the Moon. XRF methods are valuable for obtaining full major-element abundances with high precision. Such data, collected in parallel with quantitative mineralogy, permit unambiguous determination of both mineral and chemical abundances where concentrations are high enough to be of resource grade. Collection of both XRD and XRF data from a single sample provides simultaneous chemical and mineralogic information. These data can be used to correlate quantitative chemistry and mineralogy as a set of simultaneous linear equations, the solution of which can lead to full characterization of the sample. The use of

  6. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

    1990-02-01

    The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group.

  7. What is a lunar standstill III?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Duke Sims

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prehistoric monument alignments on lunar standstills are currently understood for horizon range, perturbation event, crossover event, eclipse prediction, solstice full Moon and the solarisation of the dark Moon. The first five models are found to fail the criteria of archaeoastronomy field methods. The final model of lunar-solar conflation draws upon all the observed components of lunar standstills – solarised reverse phased sidereal Moons culminating in solstice dark Moons in a roughly nine-year alternating cycle between major and minor standstills. This lunar-solar conflation model is a syncretic overlay upon an antecedent Palaeolithic template for lunar scheduled rituals and amenable to transformation.

  8. The negligible chondritic contribution in the lunar soils water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephant, Alice; Robert, François

    2014-10-21

    Recent data from Apollo samples demonstrate the presence of water in the lunar interior and at the surface, challenging previous assumption that the Moon was free of water. However, the source(s) of this water remains enigmatic. The external flux of particles and solid materials that reach the surface of the airless Moon constitute a hydrogen (H) surface reservoir that can be converted to water (or OH) during proton implantation in rocks or remobilization during magmatic events. Our original goal was thus to quantify the relative contributions to this H surface reservoir. To this end, we report NanoSIMS measurements of D/H and (7)Li/(6)Li ratios on agglutinates, volcanic glasses, and plagioclase grains from the Apollo sample collection. Clear correlations emerge between cosmogenic D and (6)Li revealing that almost all D is produced by spallation reactions both on the surface and in the interior of the grains. In grain interiors, no evidence of chondritic water has been found. This observation allows us to constrain the H isotopic ratio of hypothetical juvenile lunar water to δD ≤ -550‰. On the grain surface, the hydroxyl concentrations are significant and the D/H ratios indicate that they originate from solar wind implantation. The scattering distribution of the data around the theoretical D vs. (6)Li spallation correlation is compatible with a chondritic contribution lunar surface, and (ii) the postulated chondritic lunar water is not retained in the regolith.

  9. Formation of Nanophase Iron in Lunar Soil Simulant for Use in ISRU Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Hill, Eddy; Day, James D. M.

    2005-01-01

    For the prospective return of humans to the Moon and the extensive amount of premonitory studies necessary, large quantities of lunar soil simulants are required, for a myriad of purposes from construction/engineering purposes all the way to medical testing of its effects from ingestion by humans. And there is only a limited and precious quantity of lunar soil available on Earth (i.e., Apollo soils) - therefore, the immediate need for lunar soil simulants. Since the Apollo era, there have been several simulants; of these JSC-1 (Johnson Space Center) and MLS-1 (Minnesota Lunar Simulant) have been the most widely used. JSC-1 was produced from glassy volcanic tuff in order to approximate lunar soil geotechnical properties; whereas, MLS-1 approximates the chemistry of Apollo 11 high-Ti soil, 10084. Stocks of both simulants are depleted, but JSC-1 has recently gone back into production. The lunar soil simulant workshop, held at Marshall Space Flight Center in January 2005, identified the need to make new simulants for the special properties of lunar soil, such as nanophase iron (np-Fe(sup 0). Hill et al. (2005, this volume) showed the important role of microscale Fe(sup 0) in microwave processing of the lunar soil simulants JSC-1 and MLS-1. Lunar soil is formed by space weathering of lunar rocks (e.g., micrometeorite impact, cosmic particle bombardment). Glass generated during micrometeorite impact cements rock and mineral fragments together to form aggregates called agglutinates, and also produces vapor that is deposited and coats soil grains. Taylor et al. (2001) showed that the relative amount of impact glass in lunar soil increases with decreasing grain size and is the most abundant component in lunar dust (less than 20 micrometer fraction). Notably, the magnetic susceptibility of lunar soil also increases with the decreasing grain size, as a function of the amount of nanophase-sized Fe(sup 0) in impact-melt generated glass. Keller et al. (1997, 1999) also

  10. Infrared spectra of lunar soils. [using a Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.; Smith, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    Measured data obtained by Michelson interferometer spectrometer were stored in a computer file and smoothed by being passed forward and backward through a digital four-pole low pass filter. Infrared spectra of the 10 lunar samples are presented in the format of brightness temperature versus frequency. The mol % of feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, ilmenite and ferromagnetic silicate in each sample is presented in tables. The reflectance spectra of ilmenite and enstatite are shown in graphs.

  11. Mechanical properties of lunar regolith and lunar soil simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Through the Surveyor 3 and 7, and Apollo 11-17 missions a knowledge of the mechanical properties of Lunar regolith were gained. These properties, including material cohesion, friction, in-situ density, grain-size distribution and shape, and porosity, were determined by indirect means of trenching, penetration, and vane shear testing. Several of these properties were shown to be significantly different from those of terrestrial soils, such as an interlocking cohesion and tensile strength formed in the absence of moisture and particle cementation. To characterize the strength and deformation properties of Lunar regolith experiments have been conducted on a lunar soil simulant at various initial densities, fabric arrangements, and composition. These experiments included conventional triaxial compression and extension, direct tension, and combined tension-shear. Experiments have been conducted at low levels of effective confining stress. External conditions such as membrane induced confining stresses, end platten friction and material self weight have been shown to have a dramatic effect on the strength properties at low levels of confining stress. The solution has been to treat these external conditions and the specimen as a full-fledged boundary value problem rather than the idealized elemental cube of mechanics. Centrifuge modeling allows for the study of Lunar soil-structure interaction problems. In recent years centrifuge modeling has become an important tool for modeling processes that are dominated by gravity and for verifying analysis procedures and studying deformation and failure modes. Centrifuge modeling is well established for terrestrial enginering and applies equally as well to Lunar engineering. A brief review of the experiments is presented in graphic and outline form.

  12. "First Convention of Lunar Explorers" - Invitation to the media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The first LUNEX Convention will bring together lunar explorers from all backgrounds, including professionals, amateur space enthusiasts and interested visitors from the public. During the Convention numerous oral presentations will prompt detailed discussions on all aspects of future lunar exploration: the Moon as a geology laboratory or an astronomical platform; the knowledge of lunar geography needed to land and move on the surface; the implications of finding water-ice on the Moon and whether this might be detected by forthcoming missions; the architecture of lunar habitats; what would be needed in the future for the Moon to support life; cultural and social aspects; and the scientific motivation for returning to the Moon. The Convention will also be the main public event in 2001 at which SMART-1 is presented. SMART-1, due to be launched in 2002 will test solar electric propulsion and other innovative approaches for future deep space probes. It is the first European satellite to be sent towards the Moon. Visitors to the Palais de la Découverte will be able to view a model of SMART-1. On 9 March, at 09:00, the media is invited to hear about the LUNEX objectives and activities and to learn about the European Space Agency’s SMART-1 mission within the broader context of ESA’s Planetary Exploration Programme. Background information on LUNEX The Lunar Explorers Society (LUNEX) is an international organization created by 200 founder members in July 2000. LUNEX was founded at the end of the 4th Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM4), organised by ESA and the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG). Its aim is to promote the exploration of the Moon for the benefit of humanity, bridging the gap between space agencies and the general public to promote planetary exploration and space. The Lunar Explorers Society invites all interested individuals to become members. Background information on SMART-1 SMART-1 is the first of ESA

  13. NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The

  14. Lunar Gene Bank for Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ramakrushna

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Before the dawn of the 22nd century, we face the huge risk of losing our genetic heritage accumulated during aeons of evolution. The losses include hundreds of vertebrates, human gene pools, hundreds of thousands of plants and over a million insect species. As we have observed, adequate conservation of habitat is unfeasible and active breeding programs cover only a handful of the many thousand species threatened. We propose cryopreservation of germplasms by constructing a cDNA library based gene bank for endangered species in the permanently shadowed polar lunar craters that would provide immunity from both natural disadvantages and humanitarian intrusions. Rationale: Under such alarming circumstances, we turned to cryopreservation as an option but over thousands of years economic depression, sabotage, conflicts, warfare or even a brief disruption to the precise cryopreservation can hamper the storage of genetic samples.When we are considering conservation it is always preferable to go for a more secure and permanent solution. It was found out that the climatic and strategic location of the lunar polar craters are adequately hospitable, remote and free of maintenance and human observation as they provide naturally cryogenic temperature, reduced gravity and vacuum environment, non-reactive surface, safety from celestial intrusion and permanent shadow which doesn't allow the temperature to fluctuate thus providing most suitable storage facilities for the germplasms. PSRs provide steady temperature of 40- 60K and immunity to earthquakes due to low seismic activity. At these sites, burial in one meter or more of the regolith will provide protection against the solar wind, solar and galactic cosmic rays and micrometeorite impact. It provides the minimum necessary barrier from human intervention and at the same time enables easy retrieval for future usage. Genetic samples of endangered species can enable restoration even after its extinction. Preserved

  15. Concept of Lunar Energy Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Masayuki; Kisara, Katsuto; Chen, Lidong

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents a new concept of energy supply system named Lunar Energy Park (LEP) as one of the next-generation clean energy sources. In this concept, electricity is generated by nuclear power plants built on the moon and then transmitted to receiving stations on the earth by laser beam through transporting systems situated in geostationary orbit. The lunar nuclear power plants use a high-efficiency composite energy conversion system consisting of thermionic and thermoelectric generators to change nuclear thermal energy into electricity directly. The nuclear resources are considered to be available from the moon, and nuclear fuel transport from earth to moon is not necessary. Because direct energy conversion systems are employed, the lunar nuclear plants can be operated and controlled by robots and are maintenance-free, and so will cause no pollution to humans. The key technologies for LEP include improvements of conversion efficiency of both thermionic and thermoelectric converters, and developments of laser-beam power transmission technology as well. The details, including the construction of lunar nuclear plants, energy conversion and energy transmission systems, as well as the research plan strategies for this concept are reviewed.

  16. Propulsion Aspects of Unmanned and Manned Lunar Landings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. CARTON

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct vertical descent and descent from an intermediate
    lunar parking orbit are discussed. The difference in philosophy between
    langing a payload of instruments and of humans is considered in some
    detail. The " human return to eartli " problem is separated from the
    " mission success-failure " criteria.
    Some anticipated performances are given in terms of payload ratio
    for various propulsion-cehicle vcaling constants for botli forms of descent.
    Manned descent from parking orbit is discussed with respect to the
    general problem of maximising the probability of human return. .Minimum
    impulse, high safety and long low approaches are mentioned. In conclusion
    the problem of abort during the final powered descent is considered for
    fixed and variable geometry vehicles.

  17. Element distribution and noble gas isotopic abundances in lunar meteorite Allan Hills A81005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.; Eugster, O.; Niedermann, S.

    1986-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite ALLAN HILLS A81005, an anorthositic breccia, is recognized to be of lunar origin. The noble gases in this meteorite were analyzed and found to be solar-wind implanted gases, whose absolute and relative concentrations are quite similar to those in lunar regolith samples. A sample of this meteorite was obtained for the analysis of the noble gas isotopes, including Kr(81), and for the determination of the elemental abundances. In order to better determine the volume derived from the surface correlated gases, grain size fractions were prepared. The results of the instrumental measurements of the gamma radiation are listed. From the amounts of cosmic ray produced noble gases and respective production rates, the lunar surface residence times were calculated. It was concluded that the lunar surface time is about half a billion years

  18. Cis-Lunar Base Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, John D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, when mounting expeditions into uncharted territories, explorers have established strategically positioned base camps to pre-position required equipment and consumables. These base camps are secure, safe positions from which expeditions can depart when conditions are favorable, at which technology and operations can be tested and validated, and facilitate timely access to more robust facilities in the event of an emergency. For human exploration missions into deep space, cis-lunar space is well suited to serve as such a base camp. The outer regions of cis-lunar space, such as the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, lie near the edge of Earth s gravity well, allowing equipment and consumables to be aggregated with easy access to deep space and to the lunar surface, as well as more distant destinations, such as near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars and its moons. Several approaches to utilizing a cis-lunar base camp for sustainable human exploration, as well as some possible future applications are identified. The primary objective of the analysis presented in this paper is to identify options, show the macro trends, and provide information that can be used as a basis for more detailed mission development. Compared within are the high-level performance and cost of 15 preliminary cis-lunar exploration campaigns that establish the capability to conduct crewed missions of up to one year in duration, and then aggregate mass in cis-lunar space to facilitate an expedition from Cis-Lunar Base Camp. Launch vehicles, chemical propulsion stages, and electric propulsion stages are discussed and parametric sizing values are used to create architectures of in-space transportation elements that extend the existing in-space supply chain to cis-lunar space. The transportation options to cis-lunar space assessed vary in efficiency by almost 50%; from 0.16 to 0.68 kg of cargo in cis-lunar space for every kilogram of mass in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For the 15 cases, 5-year campaign

  19. LLR data analysis and impact on lunar dynamics from recent developments at OCA LLR Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vishnu; Fienga, Agnes; Courde, Clement; Torre, Jean-Marie; Exertier, Pierre; Samain, Etienne; Feraudy, Dominique; Albanese, Dominique; Aimar, Mourad; Mariey, Hervé; Viot, Hervé; Martinot-Lagarde, Gregoire

    2016-04-01

    Since late 2014, OCA LLR station has been able to range with infrared wavelength (1064nm). IR ranging provides both temporal and spatial improvement in the LLR observations. IR detection also permits in densification of normal points, including the L1 and L2 retroreflectors due to better signal to noise ratio. This contributes to a better modelisation of the lunar libration. The hypothesis of lunar dust and environmental effects due to the chromatic behavior noticed on returns from L2 retroreflector is discussed. In addition, data analysis shows that the effect of retroreflector tilt and the use of calibration profile for the normal point deduction algorithm, contributes to improving the precision of normal points, thereby impacting lunar dynamical models and inner physics.

  20. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTN): Testing and Demonstration for Lunar Surface Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing of the Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN) designed for use with Lunar Surface applications. This is being done through the DTN experimental Network (DEN), that permit access and testing by other NASA centers, DTN team members and protocol developers. The objective of this work is to demonstrate DTN for high return applications in lunar scenarios, provide DEN connectivity with analogs of Constellation elements, emulators, and other resources from DTN Team Members, serve as a wireless communications staging ground for remote analog excursions and enable testing of detailed communication scenarios and evaluation of network performance. Three scenarios for DTN on the Lunar surface are reviewed: Motion imagery, Voice and sensor telemetry, and Navigation telemetry.

  1. The Moon is a Planet Too: Lunar Science and Robotic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of what is known about the moon, and draws parallels between the moon and any other terrestrial planet. The Moon is a cornerstone for all rocky planets The Moon is a terrestrial body, formed and evolved similarly to Earth, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and large asteroids The Moon is a differentiated body, with a layered internal structure (crust, mantle, and core) The Moon is a cratered body, preserving a record of bombardment history in the inner solar system The Moon is an active body, experiencing moonquakes, releasing primordial heat, conducting electricity, sustaining bombardment, and trapping volatile molecules Lunar robotic missions provide early science return to obtain important science and engineering objectives, rebuild a lunar science community, and keep our eyes on the Moon. These lunar missions, both past and future are reviewed.

  2. On the chronology of lunar origin and evolution. Implications for Earth, Mars and the Solar System as a whole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, Johannes; Rossi, Angelo Pio

    2013-11-01

    An origin of the Moon by a Giant Impact is presently the most widely accepted theory of lunar origin. It is consistent with the major lunar observations: its exceptionally large size relative to the host planet, the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system, the extreme depletion of volatile elements, and the delayed accretion, quickly followed by the formation of a global crust and mantle. According to this theory, an impact on Earth of a Mars-sized body set the initial conditions for the formation and evolution of the Moon. The impact produced a protolunar cloud. Fast accretion of the Moon from the dense cloud ensured an effective transformation of gravitational energy into heat and widespread melting. A "Magma Ocean" of global dimensions formed, and upon cooling, an anorthositic crust and a mafic mantle were created by gravitational separation. Several 100 million years after lunar accretion, long-lived isotopes of K, U and Th had produced enough additional heat for inducing partial melting in the mantle; lava extruded into large basins and solidified as titanium-rich mare basalt. This delayed era of extrusive rock formation began about 3.9 Ga ago and may have lasted nearly 3 Ga. A relative crater count timescale was established and calibrated by radiometric dating (i.e., dating by use of radioactive decay) of rocks returned from six Apollo landing regions and three Luna landing spots. Fairly well calibrated are the periods ≈4 Ga to ≈3 Ga BP (before present) and ≈0.8 Ga BP to the present. Crater counting and orbital chemistry (derived from remote sensing in spectral domains ranging from γ- and x-rays to the infrared) have identified mare basalt surfaces in the Oceanus Procellarum that appear to be nearly as young as 1 Ga. Samples returned from this area are needed for narrowing the gap of 2 Ga in the calibrated timescale. The lunar timescale is not only used for reconstructing lunar evolution, but it serves also as a standard for chronologies of the

  3. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  4. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  5. Digging Deep: Is Lunar Mantle Excavated Around the Imbrium Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, R. L.; Bretzfelder, J.; Buczkowski, D.; Ernst, C. M.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Petro, N. E.; Shusterman, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Moon has experienced over a dozen impacts resulting in basins large enough to have excavated mantle material. With many of those basins concentrated on the lunar near side, and extensive regolith mixing since the lunar magma ocean crystallized, one might expect that some mantle material would have been found among the lunar samples on Earth. However, so far, no mantle clasts have been definitively identified in lunar samples [1]. From orbit, a number of olivine-bearing localities, potentially sourced from the mantle, have been identified around impact basins [2]. Based on analysis of near-infrared (NIR) and imaging data, [3] suggest that roughly 60% of these sites represent olivine from the mantle. If this is the case and the blocks are coherent and not extensively mixed into the regolith, these deposits should be ultramafic, containing olivine and/or pyroxenes and little to no plagioclase. In the mid-infrared, they would thus exhibit Christiansen features at wavelengths in excess of 8.5 μm, which has not been observed in global studies using the Diviner Lunar Radiometer [4]. We present an integrated study of the massifs surrounding the Imbrium basin, which, at over 1000 km wide, is large enough to have penetrated through the lunar crust and into the mantle. These massifs are clearly associated with the Imbrium basin-forming impact, but existing geological maps do not distinguish between whether they are likely ejecta or rather uplifted from beneath the surface during crustal rebound [5]. We examine these massifs using vis, NIR and Mid IR data to determine the relationships between and the bulk mineralogy of local lithologies. NIR data suggest that the massifs contain exposures of four dominant minerals: olivine, Mg-rich orthopyroxene, a second low-Ca pyroxene, and anorthite. Mid IR results suggest that though many of these massifs are plagioclase-rich, portions of some may be significantly more mafic. We will present our growing mineralogical map of the

  6. Summary of the results from the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment (LADEE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, Mihaly

    2016-07-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (9/2013 - 4/2014) discovered a permanently present dust cloud engulfing the Moon. The size, velocity, and density distributions of the dust particles are consistent with ejecta clouds generated from the continual bombardment of the lunar surface by sporadic interplanetary dust particles. Intermittent density enhancements were observed during several of the annual meteoroid streams, especially during the Geminids. LDEX found no evidence of the expected density enhancements over the terminators where electrostatic processes were predicted to efficiently loft small grains. LDEX is an impact ionization dust detector, it captures coincident signals and full waveforms to reliably identify dust impacts. LDEX recorded average impact rates of approximately 1 and 0.1 hits/minute of particles with impact charges of q > 0.5 and q > 5 fC, corresponding to particles with radii of a > 0.3 and a> 0.7~μm, respectively. Several of the yearly meteor showers generated sustained elevated levels of impact rates, especially if their radiant direction intersected the lunar surface near the equatorial plane, greatly enhancing the probability of crossing their ejecta plumes. The characteristic velocities of dust particles in the cloud are on the order of ~100 m/s which we neglect compared to the typical spacecraft speeds of 1.6 km/s. Hence, with the knowledge of the spacecraft orbit and attitude, impact rates can be directly turned into particle densities as functions of time and position. LDEX observations are the first to identify the ejecta clouds around the Moon sustained by the continual bombardment of interplanetary dust particles. Most of the dust particles generated in impacts have insufficient energy to escape and follow ballistic orbits, returning to the surface, 'gardening' the regolith. Similar ejecta clouds are expected to engulf all airless planetary objects, including

  7. Lunar Limb Observatory: An Incremental Plan for the Utilization, Exploration, and Settlement of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Paul. D., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive incremental program, Lunar Limb Observatory (LLO), for a return to the Moon, beginning with robotic missions and ending with a permanent lunar settlement. Several recent technological developments make such a program both affordable and scientifically valuable: robotic telescopes, the Internet, light-weight telescopes, shared- autonomy/predictive graphics telerobotic devices, and optical interferometry systems. Reasons for focussing new NASA programs on the Moon include public interest, Moon-based astronomy, renewed lunar exploration, lunar resources (especially helium-3), technological stimulus, accessibility of the Moon (compared to any planet), and dispersal of the human species to counter predictable natural catastrophes, asteroidal or cometary impacts in particular. The proposed Lunar Limb Observatory would be located in the crater Riccioli, with auxiliary robotic telescopes in M. Smythii and at the North and South Poles. The first phase of the program, after site certification, would be a series of 5 Delta-launched telerobotic missions to Riccioli (or Grimaldi if Riccioli proves unsuitable), emplacing robotic telescopes and carrying out surface exploration. The next phase would be 7 Delta-launched telerobotic missions to M. Smythii (2 missions), the South Pole (3 missions), and the North Pole (2 missions), emplacing robotic telescopes to provide continuous all-sky coverage. Lunar base establishment would begin with two unmanned Shuttle/Fitan-Centaur missions to Riccioli, for shelter emplacement, followed by the first manned return, also using the Shuttle/Fitan-Centaur mode. The main LLO at Riccioli would then be permanently or periodically inhabited, for surface exploration, telerobotic rover and telescope operation and maintenance, and support of Earth-based student projects. The LLO would evolve into a permanent human settlement, serving, among other functions, as a test area and staging base for the exploration

  8. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  9. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Data Enable Science and Terrain Analysis of Potential Landing Sites in South Pole-Aitken Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Exploring the South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA), one of the key unsampled geologic terranes on the Moon, is a high priority for Solar System science. As the largest and oldest recognizable impact basin on the Moon, it anchors the heavy bombardment chronology. It is thus a key target for sample return to better understand the impact flux in the Solar System between formation of the Moon and 3.9 Ga when Imbrium, one of the last of the great lunar impact basins, formed. Exploration of SPA has implications for understanding early habitable environments on the terrestrial planets. Global mineralogical and compositional data exist from the Clementine UV-VIS camera, the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1, the Chang'E-1 Imaging Interferometer, the spectral suite on SELENE, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Cameras (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Diviner thermal radiometer. Integration of data sets enables synergistic assessment of geology and distribution of units across multiple spatial scales. Mineralogical assessment using hyperspectral data indicates spatial relationships with mineralogical signatures, e.g., central peaks of complex craters, consistent with inferred SPA basin structure and melt differentiation (Moriarty & Pieters, 2015, JGR-P 118). Delineation of mare, cryptomare, and nonmare surfaces is key to interpreting compositional mixing in the formation of SPA regolith to interpret remotely sensed data, and for scientific assessment of landing sites. LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images show the location and distribution of >0.5 m boulders and fresh craters that constitute the main threats to automated landers and thus provide critical information for landing site assessment and planning. NAC images suitable for geometric stereo derivation and digital terrain models so derived, controlled with Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data, and oblique NAC images made with large slews of the spacecraft, are

  10. The Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) Paradigm Versus the Realities of Lunar Anorthosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.; Gross, J.

    2018-05-01

    The paradigm of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) is inconsistent with much chemical and compositional data on lunar anorthosites. The paradigm of serial anorthosite diapirism is more consistent, though not a panacea.

  11. Plume Impingement to the Lunar Surface: A Challenging Problem for DSMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Forrest; Marichalar, Jermiah; Piplica, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The President's Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of human exploration of the Moon. The plans are ambitious and call for the creation of a lunar outpost. Lunar Landers will therefore be required to land near predeployed hardware, and the dust storm created by the Lunar Lander's plume impingement to the lunar surface presents a hazard. Knowledge of the number density, size distribution, and velocity of the grains in the dust cloud entrained into the flow is needing to develop mitigation strategies. An initial step to acquire such knowledge is simulating the associated plume impingement flow field. The following paper presents results from a loosely coupled continuum flow solver/Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique for simulating the plume impingement of the Apollo Lunar module on the lunar surface. These cases were chosen for initial study to allow for comparison with available Apollo video. The relatively high engine thrust and the desire to simulate interesting cases near touchdown result in flow that is nearly entirely continuum. The DSMC region of the flow field was simulated using NASA's DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) and must begin upstream of the impingement shock for the loosely coupled technique to succeed. It was therefore impossible to achieve mean free path resolution with a reasonable number of molecules (say 100 million) as is shown. In order to mitigate accuracy and performance issues when using such large cells, advanced techniques such as collision limiting and nearest neighbor collisions were employed. The final paper will assess the benefits and shortcomings of such techniques. In addition, the effects of plume orientation, plume altitude, and lunar topography, such as craters, on the flow field, the surface pressure distribution, and the surface shear stress distribution are presented.

  12. Lunar domes properties and formation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lena, Raffaello; Phillips, Jim; Chiocchetta, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Lunar domes are structures of volcanic origin which are usually difficult to observe due to their low heights. The Lunar Domes Handbook is a reference work on these elusive features. It provides a collection of images for a large number of lunar domes, including telescopic images acquired with advanced but still moderately intricate amateur equipment as well as recent orbital spacecraft images. Different methods for determining the morphometric properties of lunar domes (diameter, height, flank slope, edifice volume) from image data or orbital topographic data are discussed. Additionally, multispectral and hyperspectral image data are examined, providing insights into the composition of the dome material. Several classification schemes for lunar domes are described, including an approach based on the determined morphometric quantities and spectral analyses. Furthermore, the book provides a description of geophysical models of lunar domes, which yield information about the properties of the lava from which the...

  13. Mars Earth Return Vehicle (MERV) Propulsion Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Fincannon, James; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Parkey, Thomas; Colozza, Tony; Fittje, Jim; Martini, Mike; hide

    2010-01-01

    The COMPASS Team was tasked with the design of a Mars Sample Return Vehicle. The current Mars sample return mission is a joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA) mission, with ESA contributing the launch vehicle for the Mars Sample Return Vehicle. The COMPASS Team ran a series of design trades for this Mars sample return vehicle. Four design options were investigated: Chemical Return /solar electric propulsion (SEP) stage outbound, all-SEP, all chemical and chemical with aerobraking. The all-SEP and Chemical with aerobraking were deemed the best choices for comparison. SEP can eliminate both the Earth flyby and the aerobraking maneuver (both considered high risk by the Mars Sample Return Project) required by the chemical propulsion option but also require long low thrust spiral times. However this is offset somewhat by the chemical/aerobrake missions use of an Earth flyby and aerobraking which also take many months. Cost and risk analyses are used to further differentiate the all-SEP and Chemical/Aerobrake options.

  14. Infrared Lunar Laser Ranging at Calern : Impact on Lunar Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vishnu; Fienga, Agnes; Manche, Herve; Gastineau, Mickael; Courde, Clement; Torre, Jean Marie; Exertier, Pierre; Laskar, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: Since 2015, in addition to the traditional green (532nm), infrared (1064nm) has been the preferred wavelength for lunar laser ranging at the Calern lunar laser ranging (LLR) site in France. Due to the better atmospheric transmission of IR with respect to Green, nearly 3 times the number of normal points have been obtained in IR than in Green [1]. Dataset: In our study, in addition to the historical data obtained from various other LLR sites, we include the recent IR normal points obtained from Calern over the 1 year time span (2015-2016), constituting about 4.2% of data spread over 46 years of LLR. Near even distribution of data provided by IR on both the spatial and temporal domain, helps us to improve constraints on the internal structure of the Moon modeled within the planetary ephemeris : INPOP [2]. Data reduction: IERS recommended models have been used in the data reduction software GINS (GRGS,CNES) [3]. Constraints provided by GRAIL [4], on the Lunar gravitational potential and Love numbers have been taken into account in the least-square fit procedure. Earth orientation parameters from KEOF series have been used as per a recent study [5]. Results: New estimates on the dynamical parameters of the lunar core will be presented. Acknowledgements: We thank the lunar laser ranging observers at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France, McDonald Observatory, Texas, Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, and Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico for providing LLR observations that made this study possible. The research described in this abstract was carried out at Geoazur-CNRS, France, as a part of a PhD thesis funded by Observatoire de Paris and French Ministry of Education and Research. References: [1] Clement C. et al. (2016) submitted to A&A [2] Fienga A. et al. (2015) Celest Mech Dyn Astr, 123: 325. doi:10.1007/s10569-015-9639-y [3] Viswanathan V. et al. (2015) EGU, Abstract 18, 13995 [4] Konopliv A. S. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 1415

  15. Partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus and fluorine in some lunar lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, W. P.; Hausel, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar sample 14310 is a feldspar-rich basalt which shows no evidence of shock deformation or recrystallization. Pyroxenes include Mg-rich orthopyroxene, pigeonite and augite; pyroxferroite occurs in the interstitial residuum. Plagioclase feldspars are zoned from An(96) to An(67), and variations in feldspar compositions do not necessarily indicate loss of Na during eruption of the lava. Opaque phases include ilmenite, ulvospinel, metallic iron, troilite, and schreibersite. Both whitlockite and apatite are present, and the interstitial residua contain baddeleyite, tranquillityite and barium-rich sanidine. Theoretical calculations provide estimates of partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus, and fluorine in lunar magmas. In general, partial pressures of oxygen are restricted by the limiting assemblages of iron-wuestite and ilmenite-iron-rutile; phosphorus partial pressures are higher in lunar magmas than in terrestrial lavas. The occurrence of whitlockite indicates significantly lower fugacities of fluorine in lunar magmas than in terrestrial magmas.

  16. Alteration of Lunar Rock Surfaces through Interaction with the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frushour, A. M.; Noble, S. K; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering occurs on all ex-posed surfaces of lunar rocks, as well as on the surfaces of smaller grains in the lunar regolith. Space weather-ing alters these exposed surfaces primarily through the action of solar wind ions and micrometeorite impact processes. On lunar rocks specifically, the alteration products produced by space weathering form surface coatings known as patina. Patinas can have spectral reflectance properties different than the underlying rock. An understanding of patina composition and thickness is therefore important for interpreting re-motely sensed data from airless solar system bodies. The purpose of this study is to try to understand the physical and chemical properties of patina by expanding the number of patinas known and characterized in the lunar rock sample collection.

  17. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-02-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  18. Production of Synthetic Lunar Simulants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zybek Advanced Products has proven the ability to produce industrial quantities of lunar simulant materials, including glass, agglutinate and melt breccias. These...

  19. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    If humans are to reside continuously and productively on the Moon, they must be surrounded and supported there by an infrastructure having some attributes of the support systems that have made advanced civilization possible on Earth. Building this lunar infrastructure will, in a sense, be an investment. Creating it will require large resources from Earth, but once it exists it can do much to limit the further demands of a lunar base for Earthside support. What is needed for a viable lunar infrastructure? This question can be approached from two directions. The first is to examine history, which is essentially a record of growing information structures among humans on Earth (tribes, agriculture, specialization of work, education, ethics, arts and sciences, cities and states, technology). The second approach is much less secure but may provide useful insights: it is to examine the minimal needs of a small human community - not just for physical survival but for a stable existence with a net product output. This paper presents a summary, based on present knowledge of the Moon and of the likely functions of a human community there, of some of these infrastructure requirements, and also discusses possible ways to proceed toward meeting early infrastructure needs.

  20. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dust in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has been contemplating returning astronauts to the moon for long-duration habitation and research and using it as a stepping-stone to Mars. Other spacefaring nations are planning to send humans to the moon for the first time. The surface of the moon is covered by a layer of fine dust. Fine terrestrial dusts, if inhaled, are known to pose a health risk to humans. Some Apollo crews briefly exposed to moon dust that adhered to spacesuits and became airborne in the Lunar Module reported eye and throat irritation. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle or outpost would inevitably become contaminated with lunar dust. To assess the health risks of exposure of humans to airborne lunar dust, we evaluated the toxicity of Apollo 14 moon dust in animal lungs. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally first done by intratracheal instillation (ITI) of aqueous suspensions of the test dust into the lungs of rodents. If a test dust is irritating or cytotoxic to the lungs, the alveolar macrophages, after phagocytizing the dust particles, will release cellular messengers to recruit white blood cells (WBCs) and to induce dilation of blood capillary walls to make them porous, allowing the WBCs to gain access to the alveolar space. The dilation of capillary walls also allows serum proteins and water entering the lung. Besides altering capillary integrity, a toxic dust can also directly kill the cells that come into contact with it or ingest it, after which the dead cells would release their contents, including lactate d