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Sample records for retrofractum amomum cardamomum

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on medicinal plants and spices (2): Piper cubeba, piper nigrum, piper retrofractum, amomum cardamomum, and myristica fragrans

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    Chosdu, R; Hilmy, N; Bagiawati, S; Sudiro, S [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1983-12-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on essential oils of five medicinal plants i.e. dried seeds of piper cubeba(cubeb), piper nigrum(black pepper), piper retrofractum, amomum cardamomum(cardamom) and myristica fragrans(mace), packed in low density polyethylene bag of 0.13 mm thickness have been investigated. After being irradiated at doses of 5 and 10 kGy, a part of the samples was analysed, and the rest were stored for six months at temperature of 30 +- 2 degC, and humidity ranging from 70 to 95%. The essential oil characteristics of control, irradiated and six month stored samples were analysed using infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometers, HPLC, GLC and refractometer. Other parameters observed were moisture content and essential oil content of the samples. Results showed that irradiation up to a dose of 10 kGy do not give any significant effect on these parameters. Significant changes were only found in the essential oil content of piper cubeba, caused by storage treatment.

  2. The effects of gamma irradiation on medicinal plants and spices (2): Piper cubeba, piper nigrum, piper retrofractum, amomum cardamomum, and myristica fragrans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chosdu, Rahayu; Hilmy, Nazly; Bagiawati, S.; Sudiro, S.

    1983-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on essential oils of five medicinal plants i.e. dried seeds of piper cubeba(cubeb), piper nigrum(black pepper), piper retrofractum, amomum cardamomum(cardamom) and myristica fragrans(mace), packed in low density polyethylene bag of 0.13 mm thickness have been investigated. After being irradiated at doses of 5 and 10 kGy, a part of the samples was analysed, and the rest were stored for six months at temperature of 30+-2 degC, and humidity ranging from 70 to 95%. The essential oil characteristics of control, irradiated and six month stored samples were analysed using infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometers, HPLC, GLC and refractometer. Other parameters observed were moisture content and essential oil content of the samples. Results showed that irradiation up to a dose of 10 kGy do not give any significant effect on these parameters (P<0.05). Significant changes were only found in the essential oil content of piper cubeba, caused by storage treatment. (author)

  3. cardamomo (Elettaria cardamomum

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    LUIS RIOS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El cardamomo (Elettaria cardamomum es un producto agrícola con potencial industrial y comercial. En este artículo se reportan los resultados encontrados en la investigación para la extracción del aceite esencial de cardamomo, evaluando tres métodos: arrastre con vapor, hidrodestilación y extracción con solventes. Los componentes del aceite se identificaron y cuantificaron por técnicas de cromatografía gaseosa asociada con espectrometría de masas y detector TCD. Los rendimientos obtenidos están alrededor del 4.7% para arrastre con vapor, 3.7% para hidrodestilación, y 6.5% para extracción con solventes. Los pricipales compuestos identificados son: cineol, acetato de terpinilo, linalol y β-pineno. No se detectó agua en las muestras de aceite, y la concentración máxima de solvente residual en el aceite fue de 72.4 p.p.m. Los resultados obtenidos permiten determinar las principales variables operacionales para dimensionar una planta piloto para extracción del aceite.

  4. AKTIVITAS GLUTATION PEROKSIDASE DAN KADAR GULA DARAH TIKUS DIABETES YANG DIBERI EKSTRAK DAUN KAPULAGA (Amomum cardamomum

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    Hafsah Riyanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress in a patient with diabetes known to decrease the activity of GSH-PX and increase the level of blood glucose. Glibenclamide is commonly used by patients with diabetes to lower the blood glucose. However, the long-term use of glibenclamide may induce the damage of pancreatic β-cells. The extract containing flavonoids and vitamin C of cardamoms leaf can reduce free radicals. The effect of cardamoms leaf extract on the enzymes activity and the level of blood glucose in diabetic rats is yet unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cardamoms leaf extract administration in the GSH-PX activities and the level of blood glucose of diabetic rats. The method used in this study was experimental with completely randomized design (CRD. There were three groups with five replicates for each. The first group, diabetic rats as control group were given no treatment; the second group, diabetic rats were given cardamoms leaf extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight; the third group, the diabetic rat were given glibenclamide at the dose of 2 mg/kg of body weight. Blood samples were taken three times at 0, 7, and 14 days after each treatment. Parameters measured were GSH-PX activity and the level of blood glucose. The data were analyzed using ANOVA F-test with a confidence level of 95%. The result of this study showed that the cardamoms leaf extract treatment decreased the activity of GSH-PX activity and decreased the level of blood glucose at a significant level (p < 0.05 from 278.8 to 101.4 mg/dl.

  5. Essential oils Constituents of the leaves of Amomum gagnepainii and Amomum repoense.

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    Huong, Le T; Hung, Nguyen V; Chung, Mai V; Dai, Do N; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2018-02-01

    The chemical constituents identified in the essential oils hydrodistilled from the leaves of Amomum gagnepainii T.L.Wu, K.Larsen and Turland and Amomum repoense Pierre ex Gagnep (Zingiberaceae) of Vietnam origin are reported. The chemical analyses were performed by means of gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds of A. gagnepainii were farnesyl acetate (18.5%), zerumbone (16.4%) and β-caryophyllene (10.5%). On the other hand, Amomum repoense comprised of monoterpenes dominated by β-pinene (33.5%), (E)-β-ocimene (9.6%), γ-terpinene (9.1%) and α-pinene (8.4%). This is the first report on the essential oils of A. gagnepainii and A. repoense grown in Vietnam or elsewhere.

  6. [A New Pest of Amomum villosum in Xishuangbanna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-min; Wang, Yan-fang; Zhang, Li-xia; Li, Rong-ying; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2015-11-01

    To report a new pest of Amomum villosum and its distribution, occurrence regularity and damage situation, in order to provide reference for its control. Reared the pest larvae, observed the morphological characters, and made a preliminary investigation on its distribution, occurrence regularity and damage situation. Through macroscopic examination, the pest was identified as Anisodera rugulosa, which distributed in the main producing areas of Amomum villosum in Xishuangbanna, the pest larvae ate the inside of Amomum villosum fruit, which made the fruit formed holes, more seriously, it made the whole fruit rot black. The pest causes the fruit yield reduction of Amomum villosum. Pest control work needs to be carry out as soon as possible.

  7. Functional-drink rich in antioxidant cardamom-rhizome (Amomum cardamomum willd) suppresses inflammation and improves lipid profile

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    Winarsi, H.; Susilowati, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to know the effect of functional drink rich in antioxidant cardamom rhizome (Fd-Carrhi) on level of IL-6, C-RP, and lipid profile of atherosclerotic. A total of 30 women with atherosclerosis, age 40-65 years old, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, lived in Purwokerto, Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia, and were willing to sign informed consent, recruited as research subjects. They consumed simvastatin from doctors, divided by 3 groups of 10 people each. Group I, given Fd-Carrhi; II, placebo; and III, only simvastatin, for 2 months. As many as 100 ml of Fd-Carrhi or placebo were given every morning. Blood samples were taken 3 times, 1 ml, at baseline, 1 and 2 months after intervention. Blood plasma was determined levels of IL-6, C-RP, as well as total cholesterol (total-c), triglycerides (TG), LDL-c, and HDL-c. Result showed Fd-Carrhi versus placebo significantly decreased plasma level of IL-6, C-RP, total-c, and LDL-c, and otherwise increased HDL-c, but no differences were seen in TG. The findings clearly support Fd-Carrhi inhibit the development of atherosclerosis towards cardiovascular heart diseases (CHD) by suppressing IL-6 and CRP levels, and improving lipid profile.

  8. Development of Cardamom (Amomum cardamomum Herbal Coffee Beverages: A study of physicochemical characteristic and consumer perception towards sensory properties

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    Noor Ariefandi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbal coffee is one of the coffee diversivication product that has been well recognized in the market. The addition of herbs or spices, such as ginger, pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia, Panax (from the genus of Panax L. and Habbatussauda (black cumin/black seed/Nigella sativa in the coffee, not only offer an enhanced flavor characteristic, but more importantly also offer the consumer to gain a health benefit which are possessed by the herbs used. Cardamom (Amonum cardomum is commonly recognized as a food spices to add flavor to dishes. Cardamom is also known as a herb that possess health benefit such as the medicine for tonsil and throat inflammation, fever, asthma and fatigue reliever. This research was aimed to develop a herbal coffee containing the extract of cardamom and to study the characteristic of herbal coffee obtained physicochemically and by sensory analysis. Crystallized coffee and sugar mixture was blended with cardamom extract by several ratio, which were 90%:10%, 80%:20%, 70%:30%, 60%:40% and 50%:50% to obtain ready to drink cardamom herbal coffee. The mixtures and control (without the addition of cardamom were then subjected for consumer perception by testing it to 30 panelist based on hedonic sensory test. The 3 mixtures that were choosen were then analysed for its physicochemical characteristic such as its powder and brewing appearrance, insoluble solids, reducing sugar and caffein concentration. The result showed that the addition of 10%, 20% and 30% cardamom extracthad good preferences to consumer, which 10% of addition resulted the highest preferences. The hedonic sensory test resulted the preferences of the aforementioned herbal coffee on color, aroma, taste and flavor was 3.37; 3.14; 3.30; 3.27 and 3.37 (on scale 1 to 5, respectively, representing moderately like to like preferences.The physiscochemical analysis show that the mixture contain 0.17% of insoluble solid, 0.13% of reducing sugar and 0.45% caffeine which comply the Indonesia standard of SNI 4446:1998. This result show that the cardamom herbal coffee is potential to be developed as on of coffee diversification product. Keywords: coffee mix, herbal, cardamom, coffee diversification.

  9. Proximate composition, nutritional values and phytochemical screening of Piper retrofractum vahl. fruits

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    Nurul Jadid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the proximate and mineral composition of the Piper retrofractum (P. retrofractum vahl. Fruit and to evaluate its total alkaloids, phenol and flavonoid. Methods: The proximate composition of P. retrofractum fruit was ananlyzed using standard protocols according to Indonesian Standard and Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Meanwhile, mineral composition of the fruit was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Phytochemical screening and quantification were performed using standard protocols according to Harborn and spectrophotometric methods. Results: The results showed that P. retrofractum fruit contained carbohydrate (63.4%, crude protein (11.4%, total ash (4.29%, dietary fiber (28.8% and total fat (2.97%. The fruit also contained calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphor, potassium, sodium and zinc in different concentrations. Additionally, quinone, sterol, glycosides and alkaloid were detected in both n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. Moreover, tannin was presented also in ethylacetate and methanol extracts. Meanwhile, methanol extract contained sterol, glycosides, flavones, tannin and alkaloid. The results also revealed that methanol extract of the fruit contained highest phenol compared to other extract. Finally, small quantity of flavonoid (0.060 0%±0.000 2% was observed. Conclusions: The overall results show that P. retrofractum contains potential nutritional and phytochemicals values, which support their function for pharmaceutical purposes.

  10. Antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts of Piper retrofractum Vahl. using DPPH assay

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    Jadid, Nurul; Hidayati, Dewi; Hartanti, Sylviana Rosyda; Arraniry, Byan Arasyi; Rachman, Rizka Yuanita; Wikanta, Wiwi

    2017-06-01

    Piper retrofractum Vahl., which belongs to the family Piperaceae, is geographically dispersed in tropical region including Indonesia. They are well-known spice possessing high medicinal properties. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of P. retrofractum fruit, extracted with different solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. This research was carried out using different concentrations of methanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts, (0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60 ppm). Ascorbic acid was also used as positive antioxidant control. The percentage of inhibition and IC50 were measured. The results showed that the DPPH free radicals were scavenged by all plant extracts in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the IC50 values for DPPH radicals with methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane extract of the P. retrofractum Vahl. were found to be 101.74; 66.12 and 57.66 ppm, respectively. Interestingly, the IC50 value of n-hexane extract (57.66 ppm) was lower than ascorbic acid (66.12 ppm), indicating that n-hexane extract was a more potent scavenger of free radicals than methanol and ethyl acetate extracts. Taken together, our results suggested that n-hexane extract of P. Retrofractum Vahl. might contain potential antioxidant compounds.

  11. Transcriptome profiling of Elettaria cardamomum (L. Maton (small cardamom

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    F. Nadiya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Elettaria cardamomum (L. Maton, known as ‘queen of spices, is a perennial herbaceous monocot of the family Zingiberaceae, native to southern India. Cardamom is an economically valuable spice crop and used widely in culinary and medicinal purposes. In the present study, using Ion Proton RNA sequencing technology, we performed transcriptome sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly of a wild and five cultivar genotypes of cardamom. RNA-seq generated a total of 22,811,983 (92 base and 24,889,197 (75 base raw reads accounting for approximately 8.21GB and 7.65GB of sequence data for wild and cultivar genotypes of cardamom respectively. The raw data were submitted to SRA database of NCBI under the accession numbers SRX1141272 (wild and SRX1141276 (cultivars. The raw reads were quality filtered and assembled using MIRA assembler resulted with 112,208 and 264,161contigs having N50 value 616 and 664 for wild and cultivar cardamom respectively. The assembled unigenes were functionally annotated using several databases including PlantCyc for pathway annotation. This work represents the first report on cardamom transcriptome sequencing. In order to generate a comprehensive reference transcriptome, we further assembled the raw reads of wild and cultivar genotypes which might enrich the plant transcriptome database and trigger advanced research in cardamom genomics.

  12. Cluster and principal component analysis based on SSR markers of Amomum tsao-ko in Jinping County of Yunnan Province

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    Ma, Mengli; Lei, En; Meng, Hengling; Wang, Tiantao; Xie, Linyan; Shen, Dong; Xianwang, Zhou; Lu, Bingyue

    2017-08-01

    Amomum tsao-ko is a commercial plant that used for various purposes in medicinal and food industries. For the present investigation, 44 germplasm samples were collected from Jinping County of Yunnan Province. Clusters analysis and 2-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) was used to represent the genetic relations among Amomum tsao-ko by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Clustering analysis clearly distinguished the samples groups. Two major clusters were formed; first (Cluster I) consisted of 34 individuals, the second (Cluster II) consisted of 10 individuals, Cluster I as the main group contained multiple sub-clusters. PCA also showed 2 groups: PCA Group 1 included 29 individuals, PCA Group 2 included 12 individuals, consistent with the results of cluster analysis. The purpose of the present investigation was to provide information on genetic relationship of Amomum tsao-ko germplasm resources in main producing areas, also provide a theoretical basis for the protection and utilization of Amomum tsao-ko resources.

  13. KOMPOSISI KIMIA MINYAK ATSIRI BUAH SIRIH HIJAU (PIPER BETLE L, KEMUKUS (PIPER CUBEBA L DAN CABE JAWA (PIPER RETROFRACTUM VAHL

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    M. Widyo Wartono

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumbuhan genus Piper mempunyai kandungan minyak atsiri hampir disemua bagiannya, namun komposisi kimianya belum semua dilaporkan. Pada laporan ini kami melakukan isolasi dan identifikasi senyawa kimia minyak atsiri pada bagian buah tumbuhan Piper. Isolasi minyak atsiri buah Piper dilakukan dengan destilasi air menggunakan destilasi Stahl dan analisis komposisi kimia dengan kromatografi gas-spektroskopi masa (GC-MS. Kandungan minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (Piper betle 1,4% (v/b, cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum 1% (v/b, dan buah kemukus (Piper cubeba 1,7% (v/b. Hasil analisis GC-MS menunjukan kandungan utama minyak atsiri adalah senyawa golongan monoterpen, seskuiterpen dan fenil propanoid. Kandungan utama minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (P. betle adalah eugenol (12,36%, isokaryofillena (9,55% dan β-selinena (8,09%, sedangkan komponen utama buah cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum adalah isokaryofilen (8,88%, β-bisabolen (7,01% dan zingiberen (6,32%, dan minyak atsiri buah kemukus (Piper cubeba adalah spathulanol (27,05%, sativen (8,73% dan germakren D (7,50%.

  14. Zingiber officinale, Piper retrofractum and Combination Induced Apoptosis and p53 Expression in Myeloma and WiDr Cell Lines

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    HENY EKOWATI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, Zingiber officinale, Piper retrofractum, and the combination showed cytotoxic activity, induced apoptosis, and p53 expression of HeLa, T47D, and MCF-7 cell lines. This study was conducted to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of Zingiber officinale (ZO, Piper retrofractum (PR, and the combination as well as their effect to p53 expression on Myeloma and WiDr cells. The powder of ZO, PR, and ZO + PR combination (1:1 were macerated with 96% ethanol for 3 x 24 hours. MTT cytotoxic assay was performed on Myeloma and WiDr cell lines. Apoptotic cells were stained with ethidium bromide and acridine orange. Imunohistochemical expression of p53 was examined on Myeloma and WiDr cell lines. Doxorubicin was used as positive control in all assays. Results showed that ZO, PR, and ZO + PR combination had cytotoxic activity on Myeloma cells with IC50 of 28, 36, and 55 mg/ml respectively and WiDr cell lines with IC50 of 74, 158, and 64 mg/ml respectively, induced apoptotic activity, and increased p53 expression on Myeloma and WiDr cells. These results suggest that ZO, PR, and their combination induced Myeloma and WiDr cells in apoptosis through p53 expression.

  15. Essential Oil of Amomum maximum Roxb. and Its Bioactivities against Two Stored-Product Insects.

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    Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Liang, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Lei, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Amomum maximum Roxb. is a perennial herb distributed in South China and Southeast Asia. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical constituents and assess insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oil from Amomum maximum fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel). The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be β-pinene (23.39%), β-caryophyllene (16.43%), α-pinene (7.55%), sylvestrene (6.61%) and ç-cadinene (4.19%). It was found that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits possessed contact and fumigant toxicities against T. castaneum adults (LD50 = 29.57 μg/adult and LC(50) = 23.09 mg/L air, respectively) and showed contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila (LD(50) = 67.46 μg/cm(2)). Repellency of the crude oil was also evaluated. After 2 h treatment, the essential oil possessed 100% repellency at 78.63 nL/cm(2) against T. castaneum and 84% repellency at 63.17 nL/cm(2) against L. bostrychophila. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. maximum fruits had the potential to be developed as a natural insecticide and repellent for control of T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila.

  16. [Dynamics of Amomum villosum growth and its fruit yield cultivated under tropical forests].

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    Zheng, Zheng; Gan, Jianmin; Feng, Zhili; Meng, Ying

    2004-01-01

    Investigations on the dynamics of Amomum villosum growth and its fruit yield cultivated under tropical ravine rainforest and secondary forest at different elevations in Xishuangbanna showed that the yield of A. villosum was influenced by the site age, sun light level of understorey, and water stress in dry season. The fruit yield and mature plant density decreased with increasing age of the A. villosum site. The fruit yield increased with sun light level when the light level in understorey was under 35% of full sun light (P forest was not significant. Planned cultivation of A. villosum in the secondary forest of the shifting cultivation land by ravine from 800-1000 m elevation instead of customary cultivation in the ravine rainforest, could not only resolve the problem of the effect of light deficiency in understorey and water stress in the dry season on A. villosum fruit yield, but also be useful to protect the tropical ravine rain forest.

  17. Genetic diversity analysis of Amomum tsao-ko in Jinping County of Yunnan Province using SSR markers

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    Ma, Mengli; Wang, Tiantao; Lei, En; Meng, Hengling; Xie, Linyan; Zhu, Kunlong; Duan, Shaoze; Li, Wenqiang; Lu, Bingyue

    2017-08-01

    Genetic diversity analysis is very important for germplasm resources conservation and utilization. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity among 44 individuals of Amomum tsao-ko from Jinping County of Yunnan Province using 5 selected SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers. A total of 23 polymorphic loci were detected among these germplasms, with an average of 4.6 polymorphic loci per SSR primer combination. The percentage of polymorphic loci was 100%, whereas the mean effective number of alleles (Ne), observed heterozygosity(Ho), expected heterozygosity (He), Shannon's information index (I), and the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) were 3. 410, 0. 491, 0. 679, 1.266 and 0. 672, respectively, indicating that the Amomum tsao-ko germplasms from Jinping County had high genetic diversity.

  18. A new phenylpropanoid and an alkylglycoside from Piper retrofractum leaves with their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

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    Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Tai, Bui Huu; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Yang, Seo Young; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Kwon, Young In; Jang, Hae Dong; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-09-01

    Two new compounds, piperoside (1) and isoheptanol 2(S)-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl (1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (11), along with 10 known compounds 3,4-dihydroxyallylbenzene (2), 1,2-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-4-allylbenzene (3), tachioside (4), benzyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), icariside F2 (6), dihydrovomifoliol-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), isopropyl O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), isopropyl primeveroside (9), n-butyl O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), isoheptanol 2(S)-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (12), were isolated from the leaves of Piper retrofractum. Their structures were determined from 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS spectral, a modified Mosher's method, and comparisons with previous reports. All of the isolated compounds showed modest α-glucosidase inhibitory (4.60±1.74% to 11.97±3.30%) and antioxidant activities under the tested conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-hypercholesterolemic influence of the spice cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) in experimental rats.

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    Nagashree, Shamarao; Archana, Kottangada K; Srinivas, Pullabhatla; Srinivasan, Krishnapura; Sowbhagya, Halagur B

    2017-08-01

    Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) is an aromatic seed spice grown extensively in India and used as a flavoring in sweets. In this study, the anti-hypercholesterolemic effect of cardamom was evaluated in Wistar rats by inducing hypercholesterolemia with a high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions were made with (a) cardamom powder (50 g kg -1 ), (b) cardamom oil (3 g kg -1 , equivalent to 50 g kg -1 cardamom) and (c) de-oiled cardamom powder (50 g kg -1 ). A significant reduction in blood total cholesterol (31%) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (44%) was observed by oral administration of cardamom oil in hypercholesterolemic rats, accompanied by a marked decrease in serum triglycerides by 42%. The cholesterol content of cardiac muscle was beneficially lowered by 39% with administration of cardamom oil in hypercholesterolemic rats. Liver triglycerides were reduced by 33%. Incorporation of cardamom oil/powder in the diet did not alter feed consumption by rats. Compromised activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in the hypercholesterolemic situation were generally countered by dietary cardamom. Treatment with de-oiled cardamom as well as cardamom oil countered the diminished activity of catalase in hypercholesterolemic animals. Cardamom also enhanced the activity of heart superoxide dismutase in the hypercholesterolemic situation. The concentration of ascorbic acid in serum was significantly increased by dietary cardamom or its fractions in the hypercholesterolemic situation. This animal study has established the potential of cardamom oil in restoring the alteration in lipid homeostasis in conditions of hypercholesterolemia. The significant reduction in atherogenicity index by dietary intervention with cardamom powder and cardamom oil indicates the potential cardioprotective effect of cardamom. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Role of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) in Ameliorating Radiation Induced Oxidative Stress In Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, M.M.; Abd El Azime, A. Sh.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation is one of the most widespread sources of environmental stress in living environment which cause oxidative stress and metabolic changes. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant effect of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) on gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage in liver and heart tis sues. The study was conducted on forty (40) rats which were classified into four equal groups. Group1: Control group, Group. 2: rats given cardamom in basal diet.Group3: Irradiated rats, rats were subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at 6 Gy delivere d as single exposure dose. Group 4: irradiated +cardamom: rats receiving cardamom for 4 weeks and irradiated. The animals were scarified 24h after irradiation. Irradiated animals had significant increase in oxidative stress markers in liver and heart tissues expressed by significant increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) content associated to significant depletion of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , catalase (CAT) activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) content . Hepatic and cardiac changes included significant increases of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) , total cholesterol(TC), triacylglycerol(TAG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), and iron concentration. While, a significant decre ase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), manganese and copper were observed. Addition of cardamom to the basal diet prior to gamma radiation, improved the tested parameters . So it is a therapeutic alternative for oxidative stress, hyperlipidaemia and trace elements changes. . The data obtained in this study suggest that cardamom may prevent liver and heart from radiation-induced damage.

  1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AMOMUM VILLOSUM: A SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATION ON THREE DIFFERENT PRODUCTION MODES.

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    Lai, Yun-Feng; Chen, Ling-Xiao; Chen, Yu-Ning; Zhao, Jing; Leong, Fong; Li, Xi-Wen; Yang, Qing; Li, Peng; Hu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Amomum Villosum (A. Villosum ), called Chunsharen in Chinese, is widely used in treating gastrointestinal disease. Its clinical benefits have been confirmed by both in vitro and in vivo studies. Facing the shortage of wild A. Villosum , artificial cultivating and natural fostering have been practiced in recent years. Therefore, it would be wondered whether the three different types of A. Villosum are comparable or not, particularly the herbal qualities, technological challenges, ecological impacts and economic benefits. In this study, we combined quality research by using GC-MS, and field investigation to provide a systematic assessment about the three types of A. Villosum from these four aspects. It found that the wild type had low output and was in an endangered situation. The artificial cultivation had larger agriculturing area with higher productivity, but faced the ecological challenges. Lastly, the natural fostering type generated the highest economic benefit and relatively low ecological impact. In addition, the natural fostering type had relatively better quality than the other types. Therefore, it suggests that natural fostering can be applied for long-term sustainable development of A. Villosum .

  2. Effect of extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Amomum villosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yajuan; Li, Xia; Wan, Mianjie; Chen, Jingping; Li, Shijie; Cao, Man; Zhang, Danyan

    2015-03-06

    In the present study, effect of different extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) from the seeds of Amomum villosum were investigated. Firstly, four different extraction methods were used to extract WSP, which include hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE). As a result, four WSP samples, WSP(H), WSP(U), WSP(M) and WSP(E) were acquired. Then, the difference of four WSP samples in yield, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro were further compared. Experimental results showed that the four WSP samples had the same monosaccharide composition, but mere difference in the content; they all had typical IR spectra characteristic of polysaccharides. WSP(U) contained the highest contents of uronic acid and sulfate. The yield of WSP(U) was the highest and its antioxidant activity was the best. These results suggested that ultrasonic-assisted extraction was the best extraction method for WSP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant characterizations of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae), Piper cubeba L. f. (Piperaceae), and Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Afnan Sh; Ahmed, Qamaruddin; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Jamal, Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase is an important strategy to regulate diabetes mellitus (DM). Antioxidants from plants are widely regarded in the prevention of diabetes. Fruits of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba L. f. (Piperaceae) and flowers of Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae) are traditionally used to cure DM in different countries. However, the role of these plants has been grossly under reported and is yet to receive proper scientific evaluation with respect to understand their traditional role in the management of diabetes especially as digestive enzymes inhibitors. Hence, methanol and aqueous extracts of the aforementioned plants were evaluated for their in vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition at 1 mg/mL and quantification of their antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP tests, total phenolic and total flavonoids contents). In vitro optimization studies for the extracts were also performed to enhance in vitro biological activities. The % inhibition of α-glucosidase by the aqueous extracts of the fruits of E. cardamomum, P. cubeba and flowers of P. rubra were 10.41 (0.03), 95.19 (0.01), and -2.92 (0.03), while the methanol extracts exhibited % inhibition 13.73 (0.02), 92.77 (0.01), and -0.98 (0.01), respectively. The % inhibition of α-amylase by the aqueous extracts were 82.99 (0.01), 64.35 (0.01), and 20.28 (0.02), while the methanol extracts displayed % inhibition 39.93 (0.01), 31.06 (0.02), and 39.40 (0.01), respectively. Aqueous extracts displayed good in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. Moreover, in vitro optimization experiments helped to increase the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of E. cardamomum. Our findings further justify the traditional claims of these plants as folk medicines to manage diabetes, however, through digestive enzymes inhibition effect.

  4. Variations in pollinator density and impacts on large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. crop yield in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash S. Gaira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb., a perennial cash crop, cultivated under an agroforestry system in the eastern Himalaya of India, is well recognized as a pollination-dependent crop. Observations on pollinator abundance in Mamlay watershed of Sikkim Himalaya were collected during the blooming season to evaluate the pollinator abundance across sites and time frames, and impact of pollinator abundance on crop yield from 2010 to 2012. The results revealed that the bumblebees and honeybees are most frequent visitors of large cardamom flowers. The abundance of honeybees, however, varied between sites for the years 2010–2012, while that of bumblebees varied for the years 2011 and 2012. The abundance of honeybees resulted in a variation within time frames for 2010 and 2011, while that of bumblebees varied for 2010 and 2012 (p<0.01. The density of pollinators correlated positively with the number of flowers of the target crop. The impact of pollinator abundance revealed that the increasing bumblebee visitation resulted in a higher yield of the crop (i.e. 17–41 g/plant and the increasing abundance of all bees (21–41 g/plant was significant (p<0.03. Therefore, the study concluded that the large cardamom yield is sensitive to pollinator abundance and there is a need for adopting the best pollinator conservation and management practices toward sustaining the yield of large cardamom.

  5. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from Amomum tsaoko against two stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; Chen, Ran; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Du, Shu-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical constituents and toxicities of the essential oil derived from Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemarie fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius). Essential oil of A. tsaoko was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 43 components, of which eucalyptol (23.87%), limonene (22.77%), 2-isopropyltoluene (6.66%) and undecane (5.74%) were the major components. With a further isolation, two active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol and limonene. The essential oil and the two isolated compounds exhibited potential insecticidal activities against two storedproduct insects. Limonene showed pronounced contact toxicity against both insect species (LD50 = 14.97 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 13.66 μg/adult for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than eucalyptol (LD50 = 18.83 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 15.58 μg/adult for L. serricorne). The essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LD50 values of 16.52 and 6.14 μg/adult, respectively. Eucalyptol also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against both insect species (LC50 = 5.47 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 5.18 mg/L air for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than limonene (LC50 = 6.21 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 14.07 mg/L air for L. serricorne), while the crude essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LC50 values of 5.85 and 8.70 mg/L air, respectively. These results suggested that the essential oil of A. tsaoko and the two compounds may be used in grain storage to combat insect pests.

  6. Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Amomum xanthioides Exerts Antihepatofibrotic Actions via the Regulation of Fibrogenic Cytokines in a Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Bae Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amomum xanthioides has been traditionally used to treat diverse digestive system disorders in the Asian countries. We investigated antihepatofibrotic effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Amomum xanthioides (EFAX. Liver fibrosis is induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN injection (intraperitoneally, 10 mg/kg of DMN for 4 weeks to Sprague-Dawley rats. EFAX (25 or 50 mg/kg, silymarin (50 mg/kg, or distilled water was orally administered every day. The DMN injection drastically altered body and organ mass, serum biochemistry, and platelet count, while EFAX treatment significantly attenuated this alteration. Severe liver fibrosis is determined by trichrome staining and measurement of hydroxyproline contents. EFAX treatment significantly attenuated these symptoms as well as the increase in oxidative by-products of lipid and protein metabolism in liver tissues. DMN induced a dramatic activation of hepatic stellate cells and increases in the levels of protein and gene expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β, platelet derived growth factor-beta (PDGF-β, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed increases in the levels of protein and gene expression of α-smooth muscle actin. These alterations were significantly normalized by EFAX treatment. Our findings demonstrate the potent antihepatofibrotic properties of EFAX via modulation of fibrogenic cytokines, especially TGF-β in the liver fibrosis rat model.

  7. RNA sequencing on Amomum villosum Lour. induced by MeJA identifies the genes of WRKY and terpene synthases involved in terpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xueying; Wang, Huan; Yang, Jinfen; Deng, Ke; Wang, Teng

    2018-02-01

    Amomum villosum Lour. is an important Chinese medicinal plant that has diverse medicinal functions, and mainly contains volatile terpenes. This study aims to explore the WRKY transcription factors (TFs) and terpene synthase (TPS) unigenes that might be involved in terpene biosynthesis in A. villosum, and thus providing some new information on the regulation of terpenes in plants. RNA sequencing of A. villosum induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) revealed that the WRKY family was the second largest TF family in the transcriptome. Thirty-six complete WRKY domain sequences were expressed in response to MeJA. Further, six WRKY unigenes were highly correlated with eight deduced TPS unigenes. Ultimately, we combined the terpene abundance with the expression of candidate WRKY TFs and TPS unigenes to presume a possible model wherein AvWRKY61, AvWRKY28, and AvWRKY40 might coordinately trans-activate the AvNeoD promoter. We propose an approach to further investigate TF unigenes that might be involved in terpenoid biosynthesis, and identified four unigenes for further analyses.

  8. Amomum tsao-ko suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 macrophages via Nrf2-dependent heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Choi, Hee-Jin; Lee, Dong-Sung; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Youn-Chul; Moon, Jin-Young; Park, Won-Hwan; Park, Sun-Dong; Kim, Jai-Eun

    2014-01-01

    Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire, used as a spice in Asia, is an important source of Chinese cuisine and traditional Chinese medicines. A. tsao-ko is reported to exert a variety of biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-proliferative, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. In this study, NNMBS227, consisting of the ethanol extract of A. tsao-ko, exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities in RAW264.7 macrophages. We investigated the effect of NNMBS227 in the suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators, including pro-inflammatory enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) in LPS stimulated macrophages. NNMBS227 also inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, as well as the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 caused by stimulation with LPS. In addition, NNMBS227 induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression through the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in macrophages. Using tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an HO activity inhibitor, we confirmed an association between the anti-inflammatory effects of NNMBS227 and the up-regulation of HO-1. These findings suggest that Nrf2-dependent increases in the expression of HO-1 induced by NNMBS227 conferred anti-inflammatory activities in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

  9. Gas chromatography x gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis and antibacterial activity of essential oil from Amomum xanthophlebium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masila, A.; Aminah, I.; Yaakob, W.A.; Nazlina, I.

    2011-01-01

    Essential oils of fresh leaves, stem, rhizomes and whole aromatic plants of Amomum xanthophlebium (Zingiberaceae) were obtained by hydro distillation. Percentage yields of the leaf, stem and whole plant oils were 0.0032, 0.0074 and 0.0021 % whereas the rhizome oil obtained was very little. Chemical components of each oil and their percentages were determined by Gas Chromatography x Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS). Analysis of A. xanthophlebium oils showed that they were dominated by terpenes. Main components in the leaves were allo-aromadendrene (3.41 %), (±)-globulol (2.58 %) and rosifoliol (2.55 %); stem, α-terpineol (4.25 %), rosifoliol (2.41 %) and bingpian (2.27 %); rhizomes, viridiflorol (5.72 %), (±)-globulol (5.23 %) and α-cadinol (4.81 %); whole plants, eucalyptol (4.11 %), l-α-terpineol (2.88 %) and rosifoliol (2.82 %). The stem oil of A. xanthophlebium showed antibacterial activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at the minimum inhibitory concentration of 80 mg/ ml. (author)

  10. Prototype Design of Smart System as A Vines Medium of Javanese Long Pepper (Piper Retrofractum Vahl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudia, M.; Umami, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    Javanese long pepper is one of the Indonesia’s native medicinal plants which is included in the family Piperaceae. This plant has a characteristic thrives on plains which high rainfall between 1,200 - 3,000 mm per year and the level of soil moisture ranges from 80-100%. In the area of Bluto, Madura, these plants are generally grown on farmland by using a moringa tree as a vines medium. However, in line with technological developments, the vines media plants of Javanese long pepper begin to be replaced by technology that utilizes a concrete cylindrical as the vines media. In this research, the vines media are made from hollow concrete cylindrical with a height of 180 cm which is controlled automatically by the device of Arduino Uno as a microcontroller and its connected with ultrasonic sensors, light dependent resistor sensors, soil moisture sensors, and solar cell as an alternative energy source which called smart system. It has several main functions such as medium vines of Javanese long pepper plants, keep the moisture of plants, store the water as well as being able to do the watering automatically. This prototype design is expected to be an alternative solution to improve the quality of plant growth, especially in the dry season.

  11. Actividad Fitotóxica del Filtrado Crudo de Colletotrichum Gloeosporioides en Cardamomo (Elettaria Cardamomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra S. Arango

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most important phytopatogen fungi specie in the world, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. In Colombia it is the causal agent of antracnosis in cardamom plants. Different experiments were done in order to evaluate the phytotoxic activity of the crude filtrate on cardamom leaves and vitroplants, and also to demonstrate the presence of phytotoxic compounds which are involved in the patogenical process. It was evaluated, on cardamom leaves, the phytotoxic activity of the crude filtrate that was obtained from the culture of four C. gloeosporioides isolations. These cultures were done under different growth conditions (light day vs. darkness and agitated culture at 110r.p.m. vs. non agitated cultures and under different fermentation periods (7, 14, 21, 28 days. It was observed a major phytotoxic activity in cultures that grew up under light day conditions and with a fermentation period superior to 21 days. The filtrate phytotoxicity compounds thermostability was evaluated at different temperatures (25°C, 40°C, 100°C and 120ºC and it was found that these components kept their phytotoxic activity even after being exposed to such temperatures. It was demonstrated the existence of phytotoxic activity of the filtrate on vitroplants when two groups of 150 plants (seedling each were exposed to concentrations of it of 50% and 90% respectively; damage and mortality of these vitroplant in comparison with the control (vitroplants were shown and found.

  12. Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum perinatal exposure effects on the development, behavior and biochemical parameters in mice offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasem Mohammad Abu-Taweel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardamom is a strong antioxidant plant, so it is called the queen of spices. In the present study, we explored the potentials of cardamom on developmental, learning ability and biochemical parameters of mice offspring. Thirty pregnant mice were allocated to three groups of ten animals in each. Groups Π and Ш received pilsbury's Diet containing 10 and 20% of cardamom (w/w respectively, whereas Group I used as control. Cardomom was administered from the first day of pregnancy and was continued until post-natal day 15 (PD 15 and thereafter the mothers were switched to plain pilsbury's Diet. During the weaning period, three pups in each litter were color marked from the others, and were subjected to various tests (Physical assessment such body weight and eye opening and hair appearance; the neuromaturation of reflexes like righting, rotating, and cliff avoidance reflexes; learning ability and memory retention; estimation of monoamines neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin, non-enzymatic oxidative stress such as TBARS and GSH in forebrain at different ages of pups. The results indicated that the body weight gain was declining significantly. Hair appearance and eyes opening were delayed significantly. Righting, rotating, and cliff avoidance reflexes were delayed in treated animals. Exposure to cardamom led to enhance learning and memory retention as compared to control. Monoamines (DA, 5-HT and GSH were elevated, whereas TBARS was inhibited significantly. In conclusion, perinatal cardamom exposure enhanced learning and memory as compared to control. Cardamom and its benefit compounds were transported via placenta or/and milk during lactation. Cardamom needs more researches to investigate its benefits on other kinds of behavior.

  13. Dissipation kinetics and effect of processing on imidacloprid and its metabolites in cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheeshkumar, N; Chandran, M; Beevi, S Naseema; Mathew, Thomas Biju; George, Thomas; Paul, Ambily; Xavier, George; Ravi, K Prathibha; Kumar, S Visal; Rajith, R

    2016-01-01

    Dissipation behaviour of the chloronicotinyl insecticide, imidacloprid (Tatamida 17.8 % SL), in fresh and cured cardamom capsules was studied following application at doses 20 and 40 g a.i. ha(-1) in a cardamom plantation of Indian Cardamom Hills (ICH), Idukki, Kerala, India. A single-laboratory ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the estimation of imidacloprid and its six metabolites (5-hydroxy, olefin, guanidine, urea, 6-chloronicotinic acid and nitrosimine) in fresh and cured cardamom. At the lower dose, the initial deposits of total imidacloprid residues were 1.91 and 7.23 μg g(-1), respectively, in fresh and cured cardamom. At the higher dose, the initial residues were 3.94 and 14.72 μg g(-1), respectively, in fresh and cured capsules. The residues dissipated below the quantitation level of 0.01 μg g(-1) after 21 and 28 days at lower dose and after 28 days for both at higher dose. The half-lives of imidacloprid in fresh and cured cardamom were 4.02 and 3.63 days, respectively, at lower dose and 3.61 days for both at higher dose. The waiting periods of imidacloprid on fresh and cured cardamom at lower and higher doses were 21.40, 27.10, 23.85 and 30.70 days, respectively. The mean processing factor of imidacloprid was 3.96 at 20 g a.i. ha(-1). Amongst metabolites of imidacloprid, urea had maximum residues in fresh and cured cardamom followed by 5-hydroxy and guanidine. Other metabolites such as 6-chloronicotinic acid, olefin and nitrosimine were not detected either in fresh or cured cardamom.

  14. Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) perinatal exposure effects on the development, behavior and biochemical parameters in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Cardamom is a strong antioxidant plant, so it is called the queen of spices. In the present study, we explored the potentials of cardamom on developmental, learning ability and biochemical parameters of mice offspring. Thirty pregnant mice were allocated to three groups of ten animals in each. Groups Π and Ш received pilsbury's Diet containing 10 and 20% of cardamom (w/w) respectively, whereas Group I used as control. Cardomom was administered from the first day of pregnancy and was continued until post-natal day 15 (PD 15) and thereafter the mothers were switched to plain pilsbury's Diet. During the weaning period, three pups in each litter were color marked from the others, and were subjected to various tests (Physical assessment such body weight and eye opening and hair appearance; the neuromaturation of reflexes like righting, rotating, and cliff avoidance reflexes; learning ability and memory retention; estimation of monoamines neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin, non-enzymatic oxidative stress such as TBARS and GSH in forebrain at different ages of pups). The results indicated that the body weight gain was declining significantly. Hair appearance and eyes opening were delayed significantly. Righting, rotating, and cliff avoidance reflexes were delayed in treated animals. Exposure to cardamom led to enhance learning and memory retention as compared to control. Monoamines (DA, 5-HT) and GSH were elevated, whereas TBARS was inhibited significantly. In conclusion, perinatal cardamom exposure enhanced learning and memory as compared to control. Cardamom and its benefit compounds were transported via placenta or/and milk during lactation. Cardamom needs more researches to investigate its benefits on other kinds of behavior.

  15. The essential oil of Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemarie from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Bien, Le Kiem; Leclercq, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    The essential oil of the seeds of A. tsao-ko of Vietnamese origin was analyzed by a combination of gas chromatog. and gas chromatog./mass spectrometry. Twenty-one components were identified, of which the major ones were 1,8-cineole (30.6%), 2-decenal (17.3%), geranial (10.6%), and neural (7.0%)

  16. KOMPOSISI KIMIA MINYAK ATSIRI BUAH SIRIH HIJAU (PIPER BETLE L), KEMUKUS (PIPER CUBEBA L) DAN CABE JAWA (PIPER RETROFRACTUM VAHL)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Widyo Wartono; Ahmad Ainurofiq; Maya Ismaniar

    2014-01-01

    Tumbuhan genus Piper mempunyai kandungan minyak atsiri hampir disemua bagiannya, namun komposisi kimianya belum semua dilaporkan. Pada laporan ini kami melakukan isolasi dan identifikasi senyawa kimia minyak atsiri pada bagian buah tumbuhan Piper. Isolasi minyak atsiri buah Piper dilakukan dengan destilasi air menggunakan destilasi Stahl dan analisis komposisi kimia dengan kromatografi gas-spektroskopi masa (GC-MS). Kandungan minyak atsiri buah sirih hijau (Piper betle) 1,4% (v/b), cabe jawa ...

  17. Stability of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) essential oil in microcapsules made of whey protein isolate, guar gum, and carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehyar, Ghadeer F; Al-Ismail, Khalid M; Al-Isamil, Khalid M; Al-Ghizzawi, Hana'a M; Holley, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    The effects of microencapsulating cardamom essential oil (CEO) in whey protein isolate (WPI) alone and combined with guar gum (GG) and carrageen (CG) on microencapsulation efficiency, oil chemical stability, and microcapsule structure were investigated. Freeze-dried microcapsules were prepared from emulsions containing (w/w): 15% and 30% WPI; 0.1% GG, and 0.2% CG as wall materials with CEO (at 10% of polymer concentration) as core material, and physical properties and chemical stability were compared. Bulk density of microcapsules was highest in WPI without GG or CG and in 30% WPI + GG microcapsules, and was more affected by moisture content (r = -0.6) than by mean particle diameter (d43 ; r = -0.2) and span (r = 0.1). Microcapsules containing only WPI had the highest entrapped oil (7.5%) and microencapsulation efficiency (98.5%). The concentrations of 1,8-cineole and d-limonene were used as indicators for microcapsule chemical stability since they were the main components of CEO. Microcapsules retained higher (P ≤ 0.05) concentrations of both components than non-microencapsulated CEO during 16 wk storage at 20 ºC, but higher loss of both components was noted at 35 ºC. Microencapsulated d-limonene was reduced faster than 1,8-cineole regardless of temperature. The 30% WPI and 30% WPI + GG microcapsules retained CEO best throughout storage at both storage temperatures. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that WPI microcapsules had smooth surfaces, were relatively homogenous and regular in shape, whereas GG and CG addition increased visual surface porosity and reduced shape regularity. It was concluded that the best formulation for encapsulating CEO was 30% WPI. Encapsulating cardamom essential oil in whey protein isolate alone or combined with guar gum produced dried powders that effectively retained and chemically stabilized CEO, and therefore enhanced its handling and storability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Rapid extraction of Amomum tsao-ko essential oil and determination of its chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qi; Wang, Li-Tao; Liu, Ju-Zhao; Wang, Hui-Mei; Guo, Na; Gu, Cheng-Bo; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2017-09-01

    A simple, green and efficient extraction method named modified-solvent free microwave extraction (M-SFME) was employed for the extraction of essential oils (EOs) from Amomun tsao-ko. The process of M-SFME was optimized with the prominent preponderance of such higher extraction yield (1.13%) than those of solvent free microwave extraction (SFME, 0.91%) and hydrodistillation (HD, 0.84%) under the optimal parameters. Thirty-four volatile substances representing 95.4% were identified. The IC 50 values of EOs determined by DPPH radical scavenging activity and β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay were 5.27 and 0.63mg/ml. Furthermore, the EOs exhibited moderate to potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against all tested strains including five gram-positive and two gram-negative bacteria (MIC: 2.94-5.86mg/ml). In general, M-SFME is a potential and desirable alternative for the extraction of EOs from aromatic herbs, and the EOs obtained from A. tsao-ko can be explored as a potent natural antimicrobial and antioxidant preservative ingredient in food industry from the technological and economical points of view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis properties of the oil of Amomum tsao-ko and its major component, geraniol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Min; Peng, Cheng; Peng, Fu; Xie, Chengbin; Wang, Pinjia; Sun, Fenghui

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonosis, caused by the flagellate protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) and 5-nitroimidazole drugs are used for the treatment. However, a growing number of T. vaginalis isolates are resistant to these drugs, which make it becomes an urgent issue. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-T. vaginalis activity of the essential oil from A. tsao-ko used in traditional Chinese medicine and as a spice and its main component, geraniol. The anti-T. vaginalis activities of A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol were evaluated by the minimum lethal concentration (MLC) and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in vitro. The morphological changes of T. vaginalis were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, sub-MLC concentration treatment with sub-MLC A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol was also performed. This study shows that MLC/IC50 of A. tsao-ko essential oil was 44.97 µg/ml/22.49 µg/ml for T. vaginalis isolate Tv1, and 89.93 µg/ml/44.97 µg/ml for T. vaginalis isolate Tv2. Those of geraniol were 342.96 µg/ml/171.48 µg/ml, respectively. After A. tsao-ko essential oil or geraniol treatment, obvious similar morphological changes of T. vaginalis were observed by TEM: the nuclear membrane was damaged, nuclei were dissolved, and the chromatin was accumulated; in the cytoplasm, numerous vacuoles appeared, rough endoplasmic reticulum dilated, the number of ribosomes were reduced, organelles disintegrated, the cell membrane was partially damaged, with cytoplasmic leakage, and cell disintegration was observed. The action time did not increase the effect of A. tsao-ko essential oil or geraniol against T. vaginalis, as no significant difference was observed after sub-MLC concentration treatment for 1, 3, and 5 h with A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol. The study describes the first report on the activity and morphological changes of A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol against T. vaginalis. The results obtained herein presented new opportunities for antitrichomonal drugs.

  20. Pengaturan Hasil Agroforestry Jabon (Neolamarckia Cadamba Miq.) dan Kapulaga (Amomum Compactum) di Kecamatan Pakenjeng, Garut, Jawa Barat

    OpenAIRE

    Indrajaya, Yonky; Siarudin, M

    2015-01-01

    Agroforestry dapat berkontribusi pada pendapatan petani, baik jangka pendek maupun jangka panjang. Pola agroforestry jabon-kapulaga telah banyak diterapkan oleh petani di Pakenjeng, Garut, Jawa Barat. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis manajemen optimal agroforestry jabon-kapulaga menggunakan metode modeling bioekonomik yang dimodifikasi dari model Faustmann. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: 1) daur optimal agroforestry jabon-kapulaga sesuai daur biologis tegakan jabon adalah lima tahun; 2) d...

  1. In vitro investigation of the potential immunomodulatory and anti-cancer activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Carr, Ronald I

    2010-04-01

    Although the immunomodulatory effects of many herbs have been extensively studied, research related to possible immunomodulatory effects of various spices is relatively scarce. Here, the potential immunomodulatory effects of black pepper and cardamom are investigated. Our data show that black pepper and cardamom aqueous extracts significantly enhance splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent, synergistic fashion. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments reveal that black pepper and cardamom significantly enhance and suppress, respectively, T helper (Th)1 cytokine release by splenocytes. Conversely, Th2 cytokine release by splenocytes is significantly suppressed and enhanced by black pepper and cardamom, respectively. Experimental evidence suggests that black pepper and cardamom extracts exert pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively. Consistently, nitric oxide production by macrophages is significantly augmented and reduced by black pepper and cardamom, respectively. Remarkably, it is evident that black pepper and cardamom extracts significantly enhance the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells, indicating their potential anti-cancer effects. Our findings strongly suggest that black pepper and cardamom exert immunomodulatory roles and antitumor activities, and hence they manifest themselves as natural agents that can promote the maintenance of a healthy immune system. We anticipate that black pepper and cardamom constituents can be used as potential therapeutic tools to regulate inflammatory responses and prevent/attenuate carcinogenesis.

  2. Caracterización del aceite microencapsulado de cardamomo (Elettaria cardamomum extraído por fluidos supercríticos a escala semi-industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Villada Ramírez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo radicó en encontrar las condiciones óptimas para la obtención de un aceite de cardamomo, extraído por FSC a escala semi-industrial, con rendimientos iguales o superiores a los métodos convencionales, pero con calidad sensorial y técnica competitiva para los mercados internacionales, así como la producción de microcápsulas del aceite que permitieran incrementar la solubilidad, sin afectar las características sensoriales como aroma y sabor. Las semillas de cardamomo se obtuvieron en el municipio de Tarso, (Antioquia, Colombia, se acondicionaron para ser extraídas por FSC a escala de laboratorio a 200.400 bar y 50 °C, 60 °C, con tres réplicas al centro a 300 bar y 55 °C, de acuerdo a un diseño central compuesto y la optimización de los resultados por superficie de respuesta según el rendimiento (% y contenido de 1,8-cineol y acetato de α-terpenilo. Las condiciones finales (50 °C, 400 bar se escalaron a un extractor semi-industrial hasta obtener un aceite con un rendimiento de 8,54 ± 1,09% y una concentración de 1,8-cineol (28,37 ± 1,80% p/p y acetato de α-terpenilo (32,93 ± 1,24% p/p, analizados por GC-FID. La caracterización complementaria del aceite se encaminó al perfil sensorial y pruebas fisicoquímicas, con un resultado de atributos balanceados (herbal: 3,0, menta: 2,6, floral: 2,4 y cítrico: 2,3 e índice de color entre (+2 y +20. El aceite fue microencapsulado por secado por aspersión con una mezcla de goma arábiga, maltodextrina y almidón modificado (4/6, 1/6, 1/6 respectivamente. Se obtuvieron microcápsulas con un tamaño de partícula entre 12,2 y 25,78 µm y una distribución de la misma en solución acuosa de 13,18 µm, lo que permitió el aumento de la solubilidad del aceite en una matriz polar a temperatura ambiente.

  3. Aflatoxin B1-producing Aspergillus in sun-dried medicinal plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinaputi, A.

    2001-10-01

    scanning electron microscope.Using the ELISA technique, all medicinal plants sampled showed aflatoxin B1. , with the highest contamination being found in Cassia garrettiana at 1,101.8 ppb, Caesalpinia sappan 655.9 ppb, Cassia siamea 583.0 ppb and Smilax ferox 572.5 ppb. Only 16 kinds ofmedicinal plant had levels of aflatoxin B1. lower than WHO guidelines (20 ppb specifically Smilax japonica, Derris scandens, Myristica fragrans, Piper spp., Curcuma zedoaria, Zingiber purpureum, Piper retrofractum, Elettaria cardamomum, Curcuma longa, Imperata cyhindrica, Rhinacathus nasutus, Kaempferia pulchra, Foeniculum vulgare, Diospyros decandra, Boesenbergia pandurata and Alyxia reinwardtiiplease contact auther via e-mail: ssiripor@ratree.psu.ac.th or rdo-sjst@group.psu.ac.th

  4. Pemodelan Matematik Kinerja Pengering Surya Efek Rumah Kaca (ERK-Hibrid Menggunakan Rak Berputar secara Vertikal (Mathematical Modeling Performance of Greenhouse Effect (GHE-Hybrid Solar Dryer with a Vertical Rotating Rack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Triwahyudi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance test and mathematical modeling of greenhouse effect (GHE-Hybrid solar dryer with vertical rotating rack. The dryer consists of a greenhouse dryer (1100 × 860 × 1300 mm with eight rack and additional heating system consists of a flat plate collector (1,04 m2, a hot water storage tank (197 liters and a heat exchanger. To investigate the performance of solar greenhouse dryer, five experimental variation speed of rack were conducted (1, 4, 7, 10 rpm and without rotation. Materials used in the experiment are local cardamom (Amomum cardamomum Wild. Weight of each experiment  about  9 to 10 kg. The average temperature of the hot water storage tank varies from 50.0 to 55.0 °C, drying air  temperature between 38.9 to 45.9 °C, while the relative humidity (RH of drying chamber ranged from 32.1 to 47.4 %. Variation of rotational speed affects on the uniformity of product temperature and water content in each rack drying. At rotation 1 rpm  (experiment II, obtained  as the best conditions (temperature and moisture content are most uniform. Increasing rotational speed of rack causes increasing in standard deviation of  product temperature and moisture content. To simulate the performance of the dryer, mathematical modeling based on heat  and mass transfer and a thin layer drying  approaches were conducted. Equations solved numerically using the finite difference Euler with Visual Basic Application (VBA program on Excel. Validation was conducted by comparing the calculation results of mathematical modeling (data prediction with measurement data (data observation. Criterion validity was determined by  the value of the coefficient of determination (R2, the value of RMSD and MAPD. Mathematical models that have been developed can be described precisely the temperature of the hot water storage tank, temperature of the drying chamber, temperature of the product as well as a moisture content decrease.   ABSTRAK Makalah

  5. PENGEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI FORMULASI INSEKTISIDA NABATI UNTUK PENGENDALIAN HAMA SAYURAN DALAM UPAYA MENGHASILKAN PRODUK SAYURAN SEHAT

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    Dadang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of synthetic insecticide for pest management to protect insect attacking the holticulture product have been done intensivelly and seems not wise which predicted could cause a negative impact to the environmental and human health. Due to that reason then the research prepared to know the pest management technology especially for holticultural product through the use of material or something that come from the agricultural planting material as natural insecticide which could be developed as commercial products that practice and safe to produce healty holticultural product. Three species of fruits and holticultural plant used for the research namely Annona squamosa (Annonaceae/seed, Piper retrofractum (Piperaceae/fruit and Tephrosia vogelii (Leguminosae/Leaves extracted with methanol. Every extract product tested with larva of Cricidolomia pavonana F. (Lepidoptera : Crambidae, that is one of the pest for holticultural product which treated with direction the planting and in the leaves. The extract was tested also to the food barrier of C. Pavonana. The extract of A. Squamosa was contact toxic than abdomen toxic, while on the contrary the extract of P. retrofractum have more impart to the abdomen toxic than contact toxic. The extract of P. Retrofractum and A. Squamosa at the concertation of 0.2 % could protect food activities of the larvas that was about 80 %. The mixed extract of T. Vogelii and A. Squamosa more toxic or more effective than the mixed extract of T. Vogelii and P. Retrofractum. In the developing natural insecticide formula, the using of agristic adjuvant was better tahan tween and miracle especially in formulation establishization. The treatment of P. Retrofractum and T. Vogelii in the field could reduce the development of C. Pavonana which finally those both extract could be used wider as combined with A. Squamosa extract in order to increase the effectiveness

  6. Phytotherapy for children's nocturnal enuresis | Ahmadipour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results have shown that Zingiber officinale, Valeriana officinalis, Alcea rosea, Elettaria cardamomum, Cinnamomum verum, Ribes uva-crispa, Cornus mas, Juglans regia, Vitis vinifera, Sinapis spp., Olea europaea, and Prunus cerasus are a number of important plants that are effective on nocturnal enuresis in traditional ...

  7. Kajian  Penerimaan Konsumen terhadap Produk “Koteja” Kopi dengan Tambahan Bahan Berkhasiat

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    Kurnia Harlina Dewi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to asses effect of different efficacious materials and types of sugar on consumer acceptance of “Koteja” (coffee with addition of sea cucumber and ginger based on organoleptic tests (taste, aroma, and color and to determine the most preferred coffee by consumers and in accordance with SNI. This study was conducted by using randomized completely design with 2 (two factors; efficacious materials (Morinda citrifolia, Piper retrofractum, Syzgium aromaticum and material mix and types of sugar (white sugar and brown sugar. Experimental data were subjected to ANOVA test followed by DMRT with 5% level of significant. The result showed that the use of Java chili (Piper retrofractum and brown sugar was the most preferred by consumer.

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 14, No 3 (2017), Survey of dental students' attitude regarding oriental medicine/complementary and alternative medicine: comparison between two Japanese dental schools, Abstract PDF. Atsushi Kameyama, Kazuo Toda. Vol 13, No 4 (2016), Sustainable development of Amomum villosum: A systematic investigation ...

  9. Pest risk analysis for Conogethes punctiferalis (Yellow peach moth or castor capsule borer)

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Environment Research Agency

    2012-01-01

    This is a highly polyphagous pest, the larvae boring into fruit, seeds and stems of plants in many different families. Economic hosts grown in the UK include Allium cepa (onion), Malus (apple), Prunus (plum, cherry), Pyrus (pear), Vitis vinifera (grape vine), and Zea mays (maize). Other recorded hosts include Castanea (chestnut), Citrus, Curcuma longa (tumeric), Durio zibethinus (durian), Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Punica granatum (po...

  10. Chemical composition of essential oils from four Vietnamese species of piper (piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Le D; Thang, Tran D; Hoi, Tran M; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils from four Piper species, Piper retrofractum Vahl., P. boehmeriaefolium (Miq.) C. DC., P. sarmentosum Roxb., and P. maclurei Merr., were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nineteen to sixty-four compounds representing 92.0%-98.4% of the total contents were identified in the oil samples. The major constituents identified in P. retrofractum leaf oil were benzyl benzoate (14.4%), myrcene (14.4%), bicycloelemene (9.9%), bicyclogermacrene (7.0%) and β-caryophyllene (5.3%). On the other hand, the main constituents of P. boehmeriaefolium were α-copaene (28.3%), α-pinene (7.4%) and 1, 8-cineole (5.7%). P. sarmentosum showed a very different chemical profile characterized mainly by aromatic compounds and devoid of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The major constituents were benzyl benzoate (49.1%), benzyl alcohol (17.9%), 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid phenylmethyl ester (10.0%) and 2-butenyl-benzene (7.9%). The leaf of P. maclurei was characterized by higher amount of (E)-cinnamic acid (37.4%) and (E)-nerolidol (19.4%). Moreover, (Z)-9-octadecanoic acid methyl ester (28.0%), (E)-cinnamyl acetate (17.2%), phytol (12.2%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (8.8%) were the major compounds identified in the stem oil.

  11. Antimicrobial screening of some plants of medicinal importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehjabeen, A.; Ahmad, M.; Zia-ul-Haq, M.; Wazir, A.; Jahan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of Solanum nigrum (leaves and seeds of both black and red varieties), Elettaria cardamomum Cuscuta reflexa and Cinnamomum camphora were tested in vitro for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Antibacterial study performed against six bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Shigella flexenari, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Yersinia aldovae indicated that investigated plants have potent activity against all microorganisms. The antifungal activity of these extracts was performed against six fungi, viz., Saccharomyces cereviciae, Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichophyton rubrum, Macrophomina, Fusarium solani and Candida albicans. The extracts showed moderate as well as significant activity against different fungal strains. (author)

  12. KEBERADAAN FUNGI MIKORIZA ARBUSKULA DI KAWASAN TAILING TAMBANG EMAS TIMIKA SEBAGAI UPAYA REHABILITASI LAHAN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN (The Presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Tailings of Mining Gold Timika as An Attempt of Environmentally Friendly

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    Suharno Suharno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Fungi mikoriza arbuskula (FMA berperan penting dalam menunjang rehabilitasi lahan terdegradasi, termasuk lahan tailing. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keberadaan FMA lokal di lahan tailing tambang emas Timika – Papua, Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan adalah survei dengan mengisolasi FMA dari rhizosfer beberapa jenis tumbuhan dominan di kawasan daerah pengendapan pasir sisa tambang. Pengecatan akar untuk melihat infeksi oleh FMA dilakukan dengan trypane blue, sedangkan perhitungan persen infeksinya dilakukan dengan metode slide. Keberadaan spora FMA dilakukan dengan metode wet sieving. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat FMA di lahan tailing di kawasan pengendapan Modified Ajkwa Deposition Area (ModADA. Persentase infeksi tertinggi (>50% diketahui pada jenis tumbuhan Ficus adenosperma (86,7%, Brachiaria sp (73,3%, Amomum sp (66,7%, Bidens pilosa (63,3%, dan Musaenda frondosa (56,7%, sedangkan beberapa jenis lain mempunyai persen infeksi yang lebih rendah. Jumlah spora pada rhizosfer tumbuhan Brachiaria sp., F. adenosperma, dan Amomum sp., merupakan yang tertinggi dibanding dengan tumbuhan lain yakni 17, 13, dan 11 spora per 10 g tanah.  ABSTRACT Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF has an important role in supporting the rehabilitation of degraded land such as tailings. The purpose of this research was to reveal the existence of indigenous AMF in tailing area of gold mine in Timika – Papua, Indonesia. The method was a survey by isolating some types of AMF from rhizosphere of dominant plant in the deposit area of mine sand residue. To define the AMF infected roots was conducted painting roots using trypane blue, where as the calculation of percent infection was carried out using slide methods. The presence of spores of AMF was done by wet sieving method. The results showed that AMF was found in tailings deposition on the Modified Ajkwa Deposition Area (ModADA. The highest percentage infections (>50% was found under

  13. Relationship of species Piper based on morphological and leaf essential oils characters in Yogyakarta

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    PURNOMO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of Piper species were used for traditional medicines and condiments. The leaf essential oil (terpenoid of those Piper species usually were used as a main component in traditional medicine. The taxonomycal study was aimed to determined Piper species relationships based on morphological and leaf essential oils characters. The plants were obtained by exploring this province, and samples were collected for identification and leaf essential oils isolation purposes. Species identification were carried out based on identification key (Backer and Bakhuizen v.d. Brink, 1965; Heyne, 1987; Shaorong, 1982. The isolation of leaf essential oils was carried out using Stahl destillation method, and their composition were interpreted with liquid gas chromatography, using caryophyllene and -pinene as a standard of essential oils component. Dendrogram, which showed phenetic relationships among those species, were obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis method. Results of the research showed that there were 8 species found as cultivated plants in Yogyakarta, which were P. miniatum Bl., P. betle L., P. recurvum Bl., P. aduncum L., P. nigrum L., P. cubeba L.f., P. retrofractum Vahl., and P. sarmentosum Roxb. Ex Hunter. Relationship between species of Piper based on morphological character showed that P. aduncum and P. sarmentosum at the same cluster on 69.2% similarity level, and 40.4% similarity level to the other clusters. Relationsips between species of Piper based on leaf essential oils character resulted the difference cluster among the species, P. retrofractum separated from the other species at 45.5% similarity level, P. aduncum and P. cubeba indicated the higest similarity level (81.5%.

  14. Ginger species in Besiq Bermai forest, East Borneo: Inventory and collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimanto

    2017-05-01

    This research is aimed to inventory and collect ginger species from Borneo, especially from Besiq Bermai forest, East Borneo forest. This research was conducted by surveys and using a purposive sampling method. The characterization of Borneo gingers also used a guide to ginger of Borneo. The results showed that there are 19 species which have been recorded in this forest. Amomum, Alpinia, Plagiostachys, Globba, Hornstedtia, Plagiostachys, Zingiber, is genus that found in the forest. The life collections are conserved in Purwodadi Botanical Gardens. The species of Zingiberaceae are Alpinia pubiflora (Benth.) K. Schum., Alpinia aquatica (Retz.) Roscoe, Alpinia capitellata Jack, Alpinia beamanii R.M.Sm. Amomum oliganthum K. Schum, Etlingera pauciflora (Ridl.) R.M.Sm, Elettaria surculosa (K.Schum) B.L. Burrt&R.M. Sm, Hornstedtia rumphii (Sm.) Valeton, Hornstedtia conica Ridl, Hornstedtia reticosa Valeton, Globba pumila Ridl, Plagiostachys bracteolata R.M. Sm, Plagiostachys albiflora Ridl, Plagiostachysbreviramosa Cowley, Zingiber aromaticum Noronha, Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiber montanum (J.Koenig) Link ex A. Dietr, and Zingiber leptostachyum Valeton.

  15. Evolutionary significance of seed structure in Alpinioideae (Zingiberaceae): Seed Structure in Alpinioideae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, John C. [Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI (United States); Smith, Selena Y. [Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI (United States); Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI (United States); Collinson, Margaret E. [Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London (United Kingdom); Leong-Škorničková, Jana [Herbarium, Singapore Botanic Gardens, National Parks Board (Singapore); Specht, Chelsea D. [Department of Plant and Microbial Biology & University and Jepson Herbaria, University of California, Berkeley CA (United States); Fife, Julie L. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Marone, Federica [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Xiao, Xianghui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS); Parkinson, Dilworth Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    2015-03-09

    Alpinioideae is the largest of the four subfamilies of Zingiberaceae and is widely distributed throughout the New and Old World tropics. Recent molecular studies have shown that, although Alpinioideae is a strongly supported monophyletic subfamily with two distinct tribes (Alpinieae and Riedelieae), large genera, such as Alpinia and Amomum, are polyphyletic and are in need of revision. Alpinia and Amomum have been shown to form seven and three distinct clades, respectively, but, for many of these clades, traditional vegetative and floral synapomorphies have not been found. A broad survey of seeds in Alpinioideae using light microscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy has shown that many clades have distinctive seed structures that serve as distinctive apomorphies. Tribes Riedelieae and Alpinieae can be distinguished on the basis of operculum structure, with the exception of three taxa analysed. The most significant seed characters were found to be various modifications of the micropylar and chalazal ends, the cell shape of the endotesta and exotesta, and the location of an endotestal gap. A chalazal chamber and hilar rim are reported for the first time in Zingiberaceae. In addition to characterizing clades of extant lineages, these data offer insights into the taxonomic placement of many fossil zingiberalean seeds that are critical to understanding the origin and evolution of Alpinioideae and Zingiberales as a whole.(c) 2015 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2015, 178, 441-466..

  16. Formação de biofilme por Pseudomonas aeruginosa sobre aço inoxidável em contato com leite e seu controle por óleos essenciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Nara BATISTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a ação bacteriostática e bactericida de diferentes óleos essenciais sobre células planctônicas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, bem como verificar a ação sanitizante, dos óleos essenciais que apresentarem a menor Concentração Mínima Inibitória (CMI, sobre o biofilme formado por esta espécie, Material e Métodos: A ação bacteriostática foi realizada por meio da determinação das CMIs dos óleos de Zingiber officinale, Eugenia caryophyllus, Elettaria cardamomum, Citrus limon e Citrus reticulata v, tangerine, O tempo de morte bacteriana foi determinado utilizando-se as CMIs de cada óleo essencial submetidos a diferentes tempos de contato, O biofilme de P, aeruginosa foi desenvolvido em cupons de aço inoxidável AISI 304 dispostos em placa de Petri contendo leite tratado por Ultra Alta Temperatura (UAT, sendo incubado sob agitação de 70 rpm, a 37 °C/96 horas, Células aderidas foram removidas através de swabs e enumeradas por contagem em placas após submissão a diferentes tratamentos, Resultados: Todos os óleos essenciais apresentaram efeito bacteriostático, se destacando Z, officinale, E, caryophyllus e E, cardamomum, por apresentarem menor CMI, O tempo de morte de P, aeruginosa foi de 10 minutos quando utilizadas soluções a base de E, cardamomum e E, caryophyllus, No entanto, quando testados em biofilme, apenas E, caryophyllus eliminou as células bacterianas viáveis de P, aeruginosa, Conclusão: E, caryophyllus é uma nova alternativa para o controle do biofilme de P, aeruginosa na indústria de alimentos, pois, além de sua alta atividade antimicrobiana, é um composto natural, o que atende as exigências do mercado consumidor.

  17. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of cardamom in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif ullah Khan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum is widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of asthma. This study describes its airways relaxant potential, with elucidation of possible underlying mechanism. Crude extract of cardamom which tested positive for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, sterols and tannins, when tested against carbachol-mediated bronchoconstriction in rats under anesthesia, it dose-dependently (10-100 mg/kg suppressed the carbachol (1 µmol/kg-evoked increase in the inspiratory pressure. In isolated rabbit trachea tissues, crude extract of cardamom caused relaxation of both carbachol (1 µM and high K+ (80 mM-induced contractions, like that caused by verapamil, suggesting its Ca++ channel blockade action. These results indicate that cardamom exhibits bronchodilatory effect, mediated through Ca++ antagonist mechanism, which provides sound mechanistic background for its medicinal use in asthma.

  18. Multifarious plant growth promotion by an entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium psalliotae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, C M; Jacob, T K; Devasahayam, S; Thomas, Stephy; Geethu, C

    2018-03-01

    An entomopathogenic fungus, Lecanicillium psalliotae strain IISR-EPF-02 previously found infectious to cardamom thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi promoted plant growth in cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum. The isolate exhibited direct plant growth promoting traits by production of indole-3-acetic acid and ammonia and by solubilizing inorganic phosphate and zinc. It also showed indirect plant growth promoting traits by producing siderophores and cell wall-degrading enzymes like, α-amylases, cellulases and proteases. In pot culture experiments, application of the fungus at the root zone of cardamom seedlings significantly increased shoot and root length, shoot and root biomass, number of secondary roots and leaves and leaf chlorophyll content compared to untreated plants. This is the first report on the plant growth promoting traits of this fungus. The entomopathogenic and multifarious growth promoting traits of L. psalliotae strain IISR-EPF-02 suggest that it has great potential for exploitation in sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimalarial efficacy of nine medicinal plants traditionally used by the Karens of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Punnam Chander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the antimalarial activity of nine medicinal plants used by Karens of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive MRC-2 isolate. The methanol extracts were obtained by cold percolation method and in vitro antimalarial activity was assessed using M-III method. The results indicated that out of nine plant species tested, four plants, viz., Z. spectabilis, S. wallichiana, C. pulcherrima and Amomum sp. demonstrated significant antimalarial activity (50% inhibitory concentration values were 5.5 ± 0.7, 12.0 ± 2.5, 14.6 ± 1.3 and 37.3 ± 2.5 μg/mL respectively with no toxicity effect on erythrocytes.

  20. Medicinal plants - a potent antibacterial source against bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, R.

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of indigenous medicinal plants as alternative chemical pesticides for controlling bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice was investigated. Twenty-five different species of medicinal plants were collected from various sites in Pakistan. Decoctions of all medicinal plant species were screened by the disc plate diffusion method for testing the susceptibility of an aggressive isolate of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo 105). Out of twenty five medicinal plants, Thuja orientalis (cone + leaves), Azadirachta indica (seeds + fruits), Amomum subulatum (fruits), Terminalia chebula (fruits), Terminalia bellirica (fruits), Anethum graveolens (fruits) and Ferula assa-foetida (fruits) decoctions showed significant activity. The efficacy of decoctions from six promising plants were further tested through detached leaf, glasshouse and field assays. A decoction of Terminalia chebula demonstrated the highest effectiveness in terms of regulating BLB in the plants both under laboratory and field conditions. Bioactive fractions of Terminalia chebula were purified, characterized and tentatively identified as allegic acid. (author)

  1. Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: practices and chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Fundamental in traditional postpartum recovery in Lao PDR is the use of hotbeds, mother roasting, steam sauna and steam baths. During these treatments medicinal plants play a crucial role, but little has been published about how the treatments are carried out precisely, which species are used, the medicinal properties of these species, and the medicinal efficacy of their chemical constituents. Methods Sixty-five interviews, in 15 rural villages, with women of 4 different ethnic groups were conducted to survey confinement rituals, and postpartum plant use and salience. Essential oils from the main species used were extracted using steam distillation and the main chemical constituents characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results A total of 10 different species were used by three or more of the ethnic groups included in this study. All species were used in steam sauna and bath, but only 3 species were used in hotbed and mother roasting. Essential oils of Amomum villosum, Amomum microcarpum and Blumea balsamifera were found to contain significant amounts of the following terpenes: β-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, borneol, linalool, D-limonene, fenchone, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene. Conclusions Many of these terpenes have documented antimicrobial and analgesic properties, and some have also synergistic interactions with other terpenes. The mode of application in hotbed and mother roasting differs from the documented mechanisms of action of these terpenes. Plants in these two practices are likely to serve mainly hygienic purposes, by segregating the mother from infection sources such as beds, mats, stools, cloth and towels. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through inhalation of essential oils vapors can possibly have medicinal efficacy, but is unlikely to alleviate the ailments commonly encountered during postpartum convalescence. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through dermal condensation of essential oils, and steam bath

  2. Evaluasi Keamanan dan Manfaat Ramuan Jamu untuk Hiperurisemia

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    Ulfa Fitriani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHyperuricemia is a condition where there is an elevated blood uric acid level above normal range. Hyperuricemia occurs due to increased uric acid metabolism, decreased uric acid expenditure, or a combination of both. The Jamu formula containingPiper retrofractum, Plantago majorandApiumgraveolens have the potential to overcome hyperuricemia. This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of formula inhuman subjects with hyperuricemia. The method used was pre and posttest design for 28 days. Safety parameters were assessed by renal function (urea and creatinine and liver function (SGOT and SGPT. The parameters of efficacy were measured by uric acid change (H0, H14, and H28, improvement of clinical symptoms and quality of life (SF-36. This study showed that kidney and liver function still in the normal rangeafter28 days of intervention. The levels of uric acid showed a significant decrease (p <0.05. Clinical symptoms of the subjectsimproved after 17 daysofintervention. SF-36indicated significant improvement (p <0.05. It can be concluded that the formula was proved to be safe and effective for 28 daysof intervention.Key words: hyperuricemia, jamu, safety, efficacyAbstrakHiperurisemia adalah suatu keadaan dimana terjadi peningkatan kadar asam urat darah di atas rentang normal. Hiperurisemia terjadi karena adanya peningkatan metabolisme asam urat, penurunan pengeluaranasam urat, atau gabungan keduanya. Ramuan jamu yang terdiri dari buah cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum, daun sendok (Plantago major dan herba seledri (Apium graveolens berpotensi dalam mengatasi hiperurisemia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan evaluasi keamanan dan manfaat ramuan jamudengan subjek manusia dengan hiperurisemia. Metode yang digunakan adalah quasi eksperimental pre and post test design selama 28 hari dengan 50 subjek. Parameter keamanan dinilai berdasarkan fungsi ginjal (ureum dan kreatinin dan fungsi hati (SGOT dan SGPT. Parameter manfaat dilihat dari

  3. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Jin [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Functional Control, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. {yields} PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. {yields} PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPAR{delta}, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPAR{delta} protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also

  4. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. → PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. → PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. → PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPARδ, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPARδ protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also protected against the development of

  5. Efficacy and safety of topical Trikatu preparation in, relieving mosquito bite reactions: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenthaisong, Ratree; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Tiyaboonchai, Waree; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Rojanawiwat, Archawin; Thavara, Usavadee

    2014-02-01

    Trikatu is composed of dried fruits of Piper nigrum L and Piper retrofractum Vahl, and dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale R. Although this preparation has been used to relieve pruritis, pain, and inflammation for a long time, there is no clinical evidence to confirm its efficacy and safety. Therefore, we performed a double-blind, within person-randomized controlled study of 30 healthy volunteers to determine efficacy and safety of topical Trikatu on mosquito bite reactions. All subjects were bitten by Aedes aegypti laboratory mosquitoes on their forearms and they were randomly assigned arms to apply either Trikatu or reference product on the mosquito bite papule. The main outcome was the difference of papule size reduction at 30 min, measured by a caliper, between the Trikatu and reference arms. Pruritis, redness, pain, and patient satisfaction were assessed at 15, 30, 60, 180, and 360 min as secondary outcomes. There were no significant differences between treatment and reference arms on any outcome at any time of measurement. Trikatu did not show additional effects for relieving mosquito bite reaction as compared with the reference product containing camphor, menthol, and eucalyptus. For further study, it is very important to consider a proper selection of subjects, comparator product, and concentration of extract when Trikatu preparation is investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antilisterial effects of ethanolic extracts of some edible Thai plants on refrigerated cooked pork

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    Siriporn Stonsaovapak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a major foodborne pathogen responsible for the disease listeriosis.Effective methods for reducing L. monocytogenes in foods would reduce the likelihood of foodborneoutbreaks of listeriosis and decrease economic losses to the food industry. Crude ethanolic extracts from 50 edible Thai plants were screened for inhibitory effects on isolated strains and type strains of L.monocytogenes by the well assay technique. Ethanolic extracts of Micromelum minutum, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Piper retrofractum and Cucurbita moschata, which showed listerial growth inhibition,were applied to cooked pork to determine their antimicrobial activities against L. monocytogenes. Pork was cooked to an internal temperature of 85C, allowed to cool to 8C and then treated by surface application with the plant extracts. Low (102 cfu g-1 or high (105 cfu g-1 population of L.monocytogenes were applied and samples were stored at 4C for up to 7 days. M. minutum and A.heterophyllus extracts were most effective in inhibiting the growth of the pathogen. These results suggested that some edible Thai plant extracts might be useful as antimicrobials in cooked, ready-to-eatpork.

  7. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Georgescu, Rodica; Ali, Shaban Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and 60 Co γ-ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After γ-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 o C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices

  8. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duliu, Octavian G. [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: duliu@pcnet.ro; Georgescu, Rodica [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering -Horia Hulubei, C.P. MG-6, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Ali, Shaban Ibrahim [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-06-15

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After {gamma}-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 {sup o}C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.

  9. EPR investigation of some irradiated traditional oriental spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Ali, Ibrahim Shaban; Georgescu, Rodica

    2005-01-01

    The X-band EPR spectra of unirradiated and 60 Co gamma ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae), and curry have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones, most probably due to the presence of semiquinones, previously reported to have paramagnetic properties. After gamma ray irradiation at absorbed dose up to 11.3 kGy we have noticed in all spices the presence of complex EPR spectra consisting of a superposition of at last two different paramagnetic species whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose. A 100 deg. C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that form the initial spectra, but even after 5 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less than 40% from the initial ones, testifying for a good thermal stability. The presences of initial EPR spectra as well as the remaining amplitude after isothermal annealing are very useful in identifying any irradiation treatment applied to this category of species. (authors)

  10. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Georgescu, Rodica; Ali, Shaban Ibrahim

    2007-06-01

    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and 60Co γ-ray irradiated cardamom ( Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger (( Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron ( Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After γ-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 °C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.

  11. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy.

  12. Solubility investigation of ether and ester essential oils in water using spectrometry and GC/MS

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    B. Khodabandeloo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Essential oils (volatiles are aromatic oily liquids prepared from different parts of plants and demonstrate various therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The dissolution of essential oils are not desirable in water, therefore the aim of this research was evaluation and selection the best co-solvents for increasing their solubility and bio availability. Methods:The solubility of six  plants essential oils were investigated in presence of propylene glycol (PG, polyethylene glycol 300 (PEG, glycerin and ethanol as solvent and tween 80 or lecithin as co-solvent by observation and spectrophotometric assay. Chemical composition of the essential oils and supersaturated 50% ethanol (SSE and 50% PG or PEG (SSP solutions were analyzed by GC/MS, too. Results: Ester (Lavandula dentata, Heracleum persicum and, Elettaria cardamomum essential oils showed the best solubility in ethanol and PG, respectively. Ether (Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Petroselinum crispum essential oils had the best solubility in ethanol and PEG, respectively. In ester class, mixture of ethanol/water was the best solvent according to solubility and total amounts of major compounds of the essential oils. In ether class, all samples had better solubility in mixtures of ethanol/water than PEG, but the amounts of total phenols or ethers in SSP of some samples were higher than SSE. Therefore selecting the best solvent for these class need more experiments. Conclusion: Selecting the solvent for essential oils changes their chemical composition; therefore the best solvent was different for various purposes.

  13. The use of health foods, spices and other botanicals in the Sikh community in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Davinder S; Heinrich, Michael

    2005-07-01

    Attitudes and practice concerning complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are currently an area of considerable interest. However, little is known about the overall importance of such practices, for example, in immigrant communities such as the Sikh (Punjabi) British. The use of CAM in immigrants belonging to the Sikh religion in London was studied. The primary objective was to analyse the extent to which traditional medicine is used and understood by this population. Traditional Sikh medicine is important to this group of informants and a total of 42 species were recorded and identified tentatively. The most frequently mentioned species were Allium cepa (onion -- gunda), Allium sativum (garlic -- lasan, thon), Capsicum frutescens (cayenne pepper -- lalmirch), Cinnamomum verum (cinnamom--dhal chini), Citrus limon (lemon -- nimbu), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel -- saunf), Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom -- elaichi) and Zingiber officinale (ginger -- adrak). The study also highlights the rapid change this tradition is undergoing in a diaspora situation. In depth studies on the use of CAM among other immigrant communities and among ethnic groups are urgent and may help to manage better the treatment of minor ailments as well as chronic diseases. Specifically, more research on traditional and herbal remedies amongst the numerous ethnic groups in urban Britain and how this impacts on the use of biomedicine (e.g. as it is provided by the NHS) is essential.

  14. Identification of highly effective antitrypanosomal compounds in essential oils from the Apiaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngahang Kamte, Stephane L; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Sut, Stefania; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Bruno, Maurizio; Afshar, Fariba Heshmati; Iannarelli, Romilde; Benelli, Giovanni; Cappellacci, Loredana; Hofer, Anders; Maggi, Filippo; Petrelli, Riccardo

    2018-07-30

    The Apiaceae family encompasses aromatic plants of economic importance employed in foodstuffs, beverages, perfumery, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Apiaceae are rich sources of essential oils because of the wealth of secretory structures (ducts and vittae) they are endowed with. The Apiaceae essential oils are available on an industrial level because of the wide cultivation and disposability of the bulky material from which they are extracted as well as their relatively cheap price. In the fight against protozoal infections, essential oils may represent new therapeutic options. In the present work, we focused on a panel of nine Apiaceae species (Siler montanum, Sison amomum, Echinophora spinosa, Kundmannia sicula, Crithmum maritimum, Helosciadium nodiflorum, Pimpinella anisum, Heracleum sphondylium and Trachyspermum ammi) and their essential oils as a model for the identification of trypanocidal compounds to be used as alternative/integrative therapies in the treatment of Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and as starting material for drug design. The evaluation of inhibitory effects of the Apiaceae essential oils against Trypanosoma brucei showed that some of them (E. spinosa, S. amomum, C. maritimum and H. nodiflorum) were active, with EC 50 in the range 2.7-10.7 μg/mL. Most of these oils were selective against T. brucei, except the one from C. maritimum that was highly selective against the BALB/3T3 mammalian cells. Testing nine characteristic individual components (α-pinene, sabinene, α-phellandrene, p-cymene, limonene, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, terpinolene, and myristicin) of these oils, we showed that some of them had much higher selectivity than the oils themselves. Terpinolene was particularly active with an EC 50 value of 0.035 μg/mL (0.26 µM) and a selectivity index (SI) of 180. Four other compounds with EC 50 in the range 1.0-6.0 μg/mL (7.4-44 µM) had also good SI: α-pinene (>100), β-ocimene (>91), limonene (>18) and sabinene (>17

  15. Medicinal plants used for hypertension treatment by folk healers in Songkhla province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamsuvan, Oratai; Komonhiran, Panadda; Boonming, Kamonvadee

    2018-03-25

    Hypertension is the most dominant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular, kidney, and eye diseases. In Thailand, illness and hospitalisation in the modern public health system due to high blood pressure is increasing. However, some Thai people have turned their attention to the use of herbal medicines for healthcare. Therefore, this study aimed (1) to study the folk knowledge of hypertension treatment and (2) to study plant utilisation in the treatment of high blood pressure by Songkhla folk healers. Field surveys and semi-structured interviews about theories of disease, principles of healing, and herbal usage (plant species, parts used, preparation, and application methods) were gathered. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics. The literatures regarding medicinal plants used in any traditional medicine, antihypertension activity, and toxicity was reviewed. Most healers believed that hypertension was caused by the disorder of fire and wind elements in the body. The medicinal plants containing hot and mild tastes, which had the potential for treating problems in the wind element, were applied. A total of 62 species were used for hypertension treatment. Most plants were in the Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Rutaceae, or Zingiberaceae family (4 species each). Herbal medicines were preferred to be prepared by boiling (78%) and consumed by drinking 1 teacup before 3 meals each day (26%). Piper retrofractum and Cleome viscosa had the greatest Frequency of Citation (FC = 6, n = 14). Thirty-seven species have been reported for use in traditional medicine. Twenty-four and 46 species have already been investigated for antihypertension activity and toxicity, respectively. Identifying medicinal plants that have been tested by experienced folk doctors would provide an opportunity for people to choose and consume local herbs that are easy to access in their local area. However, the remaining plants that have not been studied for antihypertension activity and

  16. UJI PENDAHULUAN PENGARUH EKSTRAK AIR DARI TUMBUHAN TERHADAP KETERJADIAN KARAT PADA CAKRAM DAUN KOPI DI LABORATORIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipta Ginting

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary test on the effect of water extract from plants on rust incidence on coffee leaf disks at the latroratory. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of several water extract from plants on rust incidence on coffee leaf disk a laboratory condition. The study was done from March to June 2003. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications, One experimental unit consisted of eight leaf disks with 2 cm in diameter. To prepare water extract, 1 00 g of plant or its part was homogenized with 100 ml sterilized distilled water.  After being passed through four layers of sterilized cheesecloth, the mixture was defined as the aliquot. Ten percent of the aliquot was sparyed on leaf disks before inoculation. As inoculum, uredospores developed on leaves under field condition were taken with sterilized scalpel and placed in sterilized distilled water and counted with hemacyometer to get suspension (4x105 uredospores per ml spores per ml. Data on disease incidence were analyzed with ANOVA and Duncan test. The results showed that disease incidence was significantly reduced by water extract processed from the leaves of Piper betle, Azadirachta indica, and Eugeni aromatica, the rhizomes of Zingiber afficinale and Curcumq longa, stem of Cymbopogon citratus, Allium ascalonium, A.sativa, and copper fungicide. Disease was not significantly reduced in leaf disks sprayed with extract prepares from the leaves of Piper retrofractum, P. nigrum,  the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica and Alpina galanga, A. cepa,Ageratum comysoides, and Elephantopus scaber.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against the honeybee pathogens, Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis and their topical toxicity to Apis mellifera adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, V; Thongtue, U; Sornmai, N; Songsri, S; Pettis, J S

    2017-11-01

    To explore alternative nonchemical control measures against two honeybee pathogens, Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis, 37 plant species were screened for antimicrobial activity. The activity of selected plant extracts was screened using an in vitro disc diffusion assay and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth microdilution method. The results showed that 36 plant extracts had some antibacterial activity on P. larvae by disc diffusion assay. Chromolaena odorata showed the greatest antibacterial activity against P. larvae (MIC 16-64 μg ml -1 ). Of the 37 tested plants, only seven species, Amomum krervanh, Allium sativum, Cinnamomum sp., Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Piper sarmentosum and Syzygium aromaticum had inhibitory effects on A. apis (MICs of 32-64 μg ml -1 ). The results demonstrated that promising plant extracts were not toxic to adult bees at the concentrations used in this study. The results demonstrate the potential antimicrobial activity of natural products against honeybee diseases caused by P. larvae and A. apis. Chromolaena odorata in particular showed high bioactivity against P. larvae. Further study is recommended to develop these nonchemical treatments against American foulbrood and chalkbrood in honeybees. This work proposes new natural products for the control of American foulbrood and chalkbrood in honeybees. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Ranging behavior of eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys) in a northern montane forest in Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dao; Fei, Han-Lan; Yuan, Sheng-Dong; Sun, Wen-Mo; Ni, Qing-Yong; Cui, Liang-Wei; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2014-04-01

    Generally, food abundance and distribution exert important influence on primate ranging behavior. Hoolock gibbons (genus Hoolock) live in lowland and montane forests in India, Bangladesh, Myanmar and China. All information about hoolock gibbons comes from studies on western hoolock gibbons (Hoolock hoolock) living in lowland forest. Between August 2010 and September 2011, we studied the ranging behavior of one habituated group of eastern hoolock gibbon (H. leuconedys) living in a seasonal montane forest in Gaoligongshan, Yunnan, China. Results show that the study group did not increase foraging effort, calculated in this study as the daily path length, when fruit was less available. Instead, the gibbons fed more on leaves and decreased traveling to conserve energy. They relied heavily on a single food species in most study months which was patchily distributed within their total (14-month) home range, and during most months they used only a small portion of their total home range. In order to find enough food, the group shifted its monthly home range according to the seasonal availability of food species. To satisfy their annual food requirements, they occupied a total home range of 93 ha. The absence of neighboring groups of gibbons and the presence of tsaoko cardamom (Amomum tsaoko) plantations may also have influenced the ranging behavior of the group. Further long-term studies of neighboring groups living in intact forests are required to assess these effects.

  19. In vitro and in vivo Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Some Indigenous Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheeha Naveed, Iftikhar Hussain, M Shahid Mahmood and Masood Akhtar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial activity of some indigenous essential oils (EOs extracted by hydrodistillation from spices such as Cuminum cyminum, Amomum subulatum, Cinnamomum verum and Syzygium aromaticum against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans by performing the disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC in-vitro, and in vivo antibacterial effect of EOs was studied in rabbits infected with S. aureus and treatment was done at infected site immediately with EOs. Among all treated groups, C. verum EO treated group showed significant decrease in viable bacterial counts at infected site after 24h and 48h of infection to 7.4×106 and 7.6×105 cfu, respectively, from 4.3×107 cfu before treatment. C. verum EO was found to be the most effective against S. aureus and C. albicans, showing zone of inhibition diameters 34±2.0mm and 50.3±8.6mm, respectively. The EOs, applied at different concentrations, showed variable inhibitory effects to all the microorganisms tested and more effective than control, both in-vitro and in-vivo. The results of the present study screened out the antibacterial and antifungal potential of the EOs, however further dose dependent studies, both in-vitro and in-vivo are required to find out their maximum safe levels against bacteria and fungi.

  20. Quantitative Determination of Catechin as Chemical Marker in Pediatric Polyherbal Syrup by HPLC/DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Zeeshan A; Siddiqui, Zafar A; Naveed, Safila; Usmanghani, Khan

    2016-09-01

    Vivabon syrup is a balanced composition of dietary ingredients of phytopharmaceutical nature for maintaining the physique, vigor, vitality and balanced growth of children. The herbal ingredients of pediatric syrup are rich in bioflavonoid, proteins, vitamins, glycosides and trace elements. Vivabon is formulated with herbal drugs such as Phoenix sylvestris, Emblica officinalis, Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Amomum subulatum, Zingiber officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Centaurea behen and Piper longum Catechins are flavan-3-ols that are found widely in the medicinal herbs and are utilized for anti-inflammatory, cardio protective, hepato-protective, neural protection and other biological activities. In general, the dietary intake of flavonoids has been regarded traditionally as beneficial for body growth. Standardization of Vivabon syrup dosage form using HPLC/DAD has been developed for quantitative estimation of Catechin as a chemical marker. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Validation studies demonstrated that the developed HPLC method is quite distinct, reproducible as well as quick and fast. The relatively high recovery and low comparable standard deviation confirm the suitability of the developed method for the determination of Catechin in syrup. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Five Apiaceae Taxa and Some of Their Main Constituents Against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman; Maggi, Filippo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Bruno, Maurizio; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Apiaceae are aromatic herbs producing essential oils which are used on an industrial scale for various purposes. Notably, Apiaceae essential oils may replace synthetic insecticides keeping most of their efficacy and avoiding environmental pollution and human poisoning. In the present work, we explored the insecticidal potential of the essential oils from five Apiaceae taxa, namely Sison amomum, Echinophora spinosa, Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sphondylium, Heracleum sphondylium subsp. ternatum, and Trachyspemum ammi, as well as their major constituents (sabinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, myristicin, and thymol), against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. For the purpose, the essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and their composition was achieved by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their acute toxicity on third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus was determined. The two most active essential oils were those from T. ammi fruits and E. spinosa roots, showing LC 50 below 20 μl/l and LD 90 below 50 μl/l. These oils were dominated by the monoterpene phenol thymol and the phenylpropanoid myristicin, respectively, which showed the strongest larvicidal activity (LC 50 of 15.1 and 16.3 μl/l, respectively) among the pure compounds tested. These results showed that Apiaceae may be useful as source of larvicidal compounds to be used for the development of cheap, effective and eco-friendly insecticidal formulations. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, Gail B; Pendland, Susan L; Stoia, Adenia; Hamill, Frank A; Fabricant, Daniel; Dietz, Birgit M; Chadwick, Lucas R

    2005-11-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP), identified in 1982, is now recognized as the primary etiological factor associated with the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, HP infections are also associated with chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. For centuries, herbals have been used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments, including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, the mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic effects has not been completely elucidated. As part of an ongoing screening program, the study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of 15 HP strains to botanical extracts, which have a history of traditional use in the treatment of GI disorders. Methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans (seed) had a MIC of 12.5 microg/mL; Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizome/root) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary leaf) had an MIC of 25 microg/mL. Methanol extracts of botanicals with a MIC of 50 microg/mL included Achillea millefolium, Foeniculum vulgare (seed), Passiflora incarnata (herb), Origanum majorana (herb) and a (1:1) combination of Curcuma longa (root) and ginger rhizome. Botanical extracts with a MIC of 100 microg/mL included Carum carvi (seed), Elettaria cardamomum (seed), Gentiana lutea (roots), Juniper communis (berry), Lavandula angustifolia (flowers), Melissa officinalis (leaves), Mentha piperita (leaves) and Pimpinella anisum (seed). Methanol extracts of Matricaria recutita (flowers) and Ginkgo biloba (leaves) had a MIC > 100 microg/mL.

  3. Inhibitory effect of 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation through suppression of IκB kinase complex

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    Je, In-Gyu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyun Gyu [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hui-Hun; Lee, Soyoung; Choi, Jin Kyeong [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Duk-Sil [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, CHA Gumi Medical Center, CHA University, Gumi 730-040 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Taeg Kyu [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Tae-Yong [College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Jeonju 565-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Khang, Dongwoo, E-mail: dkhang@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    As the importance of allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis and allergic asthma, research on potential drug candidates becomes more necessary. Mast cells play an important role as initiators of allergic responses through the release of histamine; therefore, they should be the target of pharmaceutical development for the management of allergic inflammation. In our previous study, anti-allergic effect of extracts of Amomum xanthioides was demonstrated. To further investigate improved candidates, 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene (TMB) was isolated from methanol extracts of A. xanthioides. TMB dose-dependently attenuated the degranulation of mast cells without cytotoxicity by inhibiting calcium influx. TMB decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-4 at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Increased expression of these cytokines was caused by translocation of nuclear factor-κB into the nucleus, and it was hindered by suppressing activation of IκB kinase complex. To confirm the effect of TMB in vivo, the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) models were used. In the ASA model, hypothermia was decreased by oral administration of TMB, which attenuated serum histamine, OVA-specific IgE, and IL-4 levels. Increased pigmentation of Evans blue was reduced by TMB in a dose-dependent manner in the PCA model. Our results suggest that TMB is a possible therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory diseases that acts through the inhibition of mast cell degranulation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. - Highlights: • TMB reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • TMB inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • TMB suppressed both active and passive anaphylaxis. • Anti-allergic inflammatory effects of TMB might be due to the blocking IKK complex. • TMB might be a candidate for the treatment of

  4. From common to rare Zingiberaceae plants - A metabolomics study using GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Gina B; Jayasinghe, Nirupama S; Natera, Siria H A; Inutan, Ellen D; Peteros, Nonita P; Roessner, Ute

    2017-08-01

    Zingiberaceae plants, commonly known as gingers, have been popular for their medicinal and culinary uses since time immemorial. In spite of their numerous health-promoting applications, many Zingiberaceae plants still receive no scientific attention. Moreover, existing reports mostly focused only on the Zingiberaceae rhizomes. Here, untargeted metabolite profiling using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to compare the metabolic composition of leaves and rhizomes of the more common gingers, Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ZO), Curcuma longa L. (CL), and Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Smith (EE), and the rare gingers, Amomum muricarpum Elmer (AM), Etlingera philippinensis (Ridl.) R.M. Smith (EP), and Hornstedtia conoidea Ridl. (HC). Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that different species show substantial chemical differentiation and revealed potential markers among the different Zingiberaceae plants. Interestingly, the leaves of AM, CL, EE, EP, and HC had significantly higher levels of chlorogenic acid than ZO. Moreover, rhizomes of EP and HC were found to contain significantly higher levels of amino acids than ZO. Sugars and organic acids were generally less abundant in ZO leaves and rhizomes than in the other gingers. The leaves of EP and rhizomes of AM were found most similar to the leaves and rhizomes of common gingers, respectively. Results of this study provide significant baseline information on assessing the possible usage of the leaves of common gingers and further propagation and exploration of EP and AM. This study, being the first metabolomics report on rare plants such as AM, EP and HC, affirms the usefulness of untargeted metabolite profiling in exploring under-investigated plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Feeding and oviposition deterrent activities of microencapsulated cardamom oleoresin and eucalyptol against Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Baris Kovanci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral manipulation of codling moth with spice-based deterrents may provide an alternative control strategy. Microencapsulation technology could lead to more effective use of spice essential oils and oleoresins in the field by extending their residual activity. The feeding and oviposition deterrent potential of the microencapsulated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum [L.] Maton oleoresin (MEC-C and eucalyptol (MEC-E were evaluated against codling moth, Cydia pomonella Linnaeus, 1758. MEC-C capsules contained both 1,8-cineole and a-terpinyl acetate, whereas MEC-E capsules contained only 1,8-cineole. In larval feeding bioassays, MEC-E exhibited the lowest feeding deterrent activity (33% while MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 had the highest (91%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity against gravid females was also shown by MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 with 84% effective repellency. In 2010 and 2011, two apple orchards were divided into four 1 ha blocks and sprayed with the following treatments in ultra-low volume sprays: (a MEC-E at 100 g L-1, (b MEC-C at 50 g L-1, (c MEC-C at 100 g L-1, and (d MEC-pyrethrin at 15 mL L-1. Water-treated abandoned orchards were used as negative controls. Moth catches were monitored weekly using Ajar traps baited with the combination of codlemone, pear ester, and terpinyl acetate. Based on pooled data, mean cumulative moth catch per trap per week was significantly higher in the MEC-E blocks (26.3 male and 13.5 female moths than those in other treatments except the abandoned blocks. At mid-season and pre-harvest damage assessment, the percentage of infested fruits with live larvae in the high dose MEC-C-treated blocks was reduced to 1.9% and 2.3% in 2010 and to 1.1% and 1.8% in 2011, respectively. Since fruit damage exceeded the economic damage threshold of 1%, high-dose MEC-C treatment may only offer supplementary protection against codling moth in integrated pest management programs.

  6. The Roman and Islamic spice trade: New archaeological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Veen, Marijke; Morales, Jacob

    2015-06-05

    Tropical spices have long been utilized in traditional medicine and cuisine. New archaeological evidence highlights temporal changes in the nature and scale of the ancient spice trade and in the ancient usage of these plants. Furthermore, a study of their 'materiality' highlights that the impact of spices extends beyond their material properties. Here the botanical remains of spices recovered from archaeological excavations at a port active in the Roman and medieval Islamic spice trade are evaluated. Recent excavations at Quseir al-Qadim, an ancient port located on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, have provided new evidence for the spice trade. Due to the arid conditions ancient botanical remains were preserved in abundance and these included spices, as well as a wide range of other food plants. Quseir al-Qadim was active as a transport hub during both the Roman and Islamic periods (ca. AD 1-250, known as Myos Hormos, and again during ca. AD 1050-1500, known as Kusayr), and the remains thus facilitate a study of temporal change in the trade and usage of these spices. Standard archaeobotanical methods were used to recover, identify and analyze these remains. At least seven tropical spices were recovered from the excavations, as well as several other tropical imports, including black pepper (Piper nigrum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), turmeric (Curcuma sp.), fagara (cf. Tetradium ruticarpum), myrobalan (Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula) and betelnut (Areca catechu). A marked contrast between the two chronological periods in the range of spices recovered points to changes in the nature and scale of the trade between the Roman and medieval Islamic periods, while differences in the contexts from which they were recovered help to identify temporal changes in the way in which the spices were utilized during those periods. Archaeological and textual evidence suggest that in antiquity spices were used in ritual (funeral rites

  7. Spices: Therapeutic Potential in Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Subha; Pandey, Madan Mohan; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Dietary factors play a key role in the development as well as prevention of certain human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Currently there has been an increase in global interest to identify medicinal plants that are pharmacologically effective and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine. Culinary herbs and spices are an important part of human nutrition in all the cultures of the world. There is a growing amount of literature concerning the potential benefits of these herbs and spices from a health perspective especially in conferring protection against cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this review is to provide information on the recent scientific findings on some common spices that have a distinct place in folk medicine in several of the Asian countries as well as on their traditional uses for the role they can play in the management of heart diseases and which may be useful in defining cost effective and inexpensive interventions for the prevention and control of CVDs. Systematic literature searches were carried out and the available information on various medicinal plants traditionally used for cardiovascular disorders was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, GoogleScholar, JCCC@INSTIRC and Web of Science) and a library search for articles published in peerreviewed journals. No restrictions regarding the language of publication were imposed. This article highlights the recent scientific findings on four common spices viz. Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), for the role they can play in the management of heart diseases. Although they have been used by many cultures since ancient times and have been known to exhibit several medicinal properties, current research shows that they can also be effectively used for the prevention and control of CVDs. Although scientific evidences supporting

  8. Antimicrobial activity of the bioactive components of essential oils from Pakistani spices against Salmonella and other multi-drug resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The main objective of this study was the phytochemical characterization of four indigenous essential oils obtained from spices and their antibacterial activities against the multidrug resistant clinical and soil isolates prevalent in Pakistan, and ATCC reference strains. Methods Chemical composition of essential oils from four Pakistani spices cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), cardamom (Amomum subulatum) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) were analyzed on GC/MS. Their antibacterial activities were investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Thin-Layer Chromatography-Bioautographic (TLC-Bioautographic) assays against pathogenic strains Salmonella typhi (D1 Vi-positive), Salmonella typhi (G7 Vi-negative), Salmonella paratyphi A, Escherichia coli (SS1), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus licheniformis (ATCC 14580). The data were statistically analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference (LSD) method to find out significant relationship of essential oils biological activities at p essential oils, oil from the bark of C. verum showed best antibacterial activities against all selected bacterial strains in the MIC assay, especially with 2.9 mg/ml concentration against S. typhi G7 Vi-negative and P. fluorescens strains. TLC-bioautography confirmed the presence of biologically active anti-microbial components in all tested essential oils. P. fluorescens was found susceptible to C. verum essential oil while E. coli SS1 and S. aureus were resistant to C. verum and A. subulatum essential oils, respectively, as determined in bioautography assay. The GC/MS analysis revealed that essential oils of C. cyminum, C. verum, A. subulatum, and S. aromaticum contain 17.2% cuminaldehyde, 4.3% t-cinnamaldehyde, 5.2% eucalyptol and 0.73% eugenol, respectively. Conclusions Most of the essential oils included in this study possessed good antibacterial activities against selected multi