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Sample records for retrieval airs amsu

  1. Comparative Results of AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS Retrievals Using a Scientifically Equivalent Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing high quality level-3 Climate Data Records (CDRs) from AIRS/AMSU which are critical for understanding climate processes. The AIRS Science Team is finalizing an improved Version-7 retrieval algorithm to reprocess all old and future AIRS data. AIRS CDRs should eventually cover the period September 2002 through at least 2020. CrIS/ATMS is the only scheduled follow on to AIRS/AMSU. The objective of this research is to prepare for generation of long term CrIS/ATMS CDRs using a retrieval algorithm that is scientifically equivalent to AIRS/AMSU Version-7.

  2. Analysis of CrIS ATMS and AIRS AMSU Data Using Scientifically Equivalent Retrieval Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena; Blaisdell, John

    2016-01-01

    Monthly mean August 2014 Version-6.28 AIRS and CrIS products agree well with OMPS and CERES, and reasonably well with each other. Version-6.28 CrIS total precipitable water is biased dry compared to AIRS. AIRS and CrIS Version-6.36 water vapor products are both improved compared to Version-6.28. Version-6.36 AIRS and CrIS total precipitable water also shows improved agreement with each other. AIRS Version-6.36 total ozone agrees even better with OMPS than does AIRS Version-6.28, and gives reasonable results during polar winter where OMPS does not generate products. CrIS and ATMS are high spectral resolution IR and Microwave atmospheric sounders currently flying on the SNPP satellite, and are also scheduled for flight on future NPOESS satellites. CrIS/ATMS have similar sounding capabilities to those of the AIRS/AMSU sounder suite flying on EOS Aqua. The objective of this research is to develop and implement scientifically equivalent AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS retrieval algorithms with the goal of generating a continuous data record of AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS level-3 data products with a seamless transition between them in time. To achieve this, monthly mean AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS retrieved products, and more importantly their interannual differences, should show excellent agreement with each other. The currently operational AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm has generated 14 years of level-3 data products. A scientifically improved AIRS Version-7 retrieval algorithm is expected to become operational in 2017. We see significant improvements in water vapor and ozone in Version-7 retrieval methodology compared to Version-6.We are working toward finalization and implementation of scientifically equivalent AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS Version-7 retrieval algorithms to be used for the eventual processing of all AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS data. The latest version of our retrieval algorithm is Verison-6.36, which includes almost all the improvements we want in Version-7

  3. Improved Temperature Sounding and Quality Control Methodology Using AIRS/AMSU Data: The AIRS Science Team Version 5 Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John M.; Iredell, Lena; Keita, Fricky

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm in terms of its three most significant improvements over the methodology used in the AIRS Science Team Version 4 retrieval algorithm. Improved physics in Version 5 allows for use of AIRS clear column radiances in the entire 4.3 micron CO2 absorption band in the retrieval of temperature profiles T(p) during both day and night. Tropospheric sounding 15 micron CO2 observations are now used primarily in the generation of clear column radiances .R(sub i) for all channels. This new approach allows for the generation of more accurate values of .R(sub i) and T(p) under most cloud conditions. Secondly, Version 5 contains a new methodology to provide accurate case-by-case error estimates for retrieved geophysical parameters and for channel-by-channel clear column radiances. Thresholds of these error estimates are used in a new approach for Quality Control. Finally, Version 5 also contains for the first time an approach to provide AIRS soundings in partially cloudy conditions that does not require use of any microwave data. This new AIRS Only sounding methodology, referred to as AIRS Version 5 AO, was developed as a backup to AIRS Version 5 should the AMSU-A instrument fail. Results are shown comparing the relative performance of the AIRS Version 4, Version 5, and Version 5 AO for the single day, January 25, 2003. The Goddard DISC is now generating and distributing products derived using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. This paper also described the Quality Control flags contained in the DISC AIRS/AMSU retrieval products and their intended use for scientific research purposes.

  4. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month. The...

  5. Aqua AIRS Level 3 8-day Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  6. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 8-day standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  7. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Monthly Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month. The...

  8. CrIS/ATMS Retrievals Using the Latest AIRS/AMSU Retrieval Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis C.; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    This research is being done under the NPP Science Team Proposal: Analysis of CrISATMS Using an AIRS Version 6-like Retrieval Algorithm Objective: Generate a long term CrISATMS level-3 data set that is consistent with that of AIRSAMSU Approach: Adapt the currently operational AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm, or an improved version of it, for use with CrISATMS data. Metric: Generate monthly mean level-3 CrISATMS climate data sets and evaluate the results by comparison of monthly mean AIRSAMSU and CrISATMS products, and more significantly, their inter-annual differences and, eventually, anomaly time series. The goal is consistency between the AIRSAMSU and CrISATMS climate data sets.

  9. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Daily standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours for...

  10. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Daily Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours for...

  11. Aqua AIRS L2 Support Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRX2SUP. However, it contains science retrievals that use the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). Because the HSB instrument lived only...

  12. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Support retrieval (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRX2SUP. However, it contains science retrievals that use the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). Because the HSB instrument lived only...

  13. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRX2RET. However, it contains science retrievals that use the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). Because the HSB instrument lived only...

  14. Aqua AIRS L2 Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRX2RET. However, it contains science retrievals that use the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). Because the HSB instrument lived only...

  15. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Daily standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRX3STD. However, it contains science retrievals that use the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). Because the HSB instrument lived only...

  16. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRX3STM. However, it contains science retrievals that use the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). Because the HSB instrument lived only...

  17. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Support Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  18. Aqua AIRS Near Real Time (NRT) Level 2 Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  19. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Support retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  20. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  1. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  2. Aqua AIRS Near Real Time (NRT) Level 2 Support Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  3. Comparative Results of AIRS AMSU and CrIS/ATMS Retrievals Using a Scientifically Equivalent Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing high quality level-3 Climate Data Records (CDRs) from AIRSAMSU which are critical for understanding climate processes. The AIRS Science Team is finalizing an improved Version-7 retrieval algorithm to reprocess all old and future AIRS data. AIRS CDRs should eventually cover the period September 2002 through at least 2020. CrISATMS is the only scheduled follow on to AIRSAMSU. The objective of this research is to prepare for generation of a long term CrISATMS level-3 data using a finalized retrieval algorithm that is scientifically equivalent to AIRSAMSU Version-7.

  4. AIRS-AMSU variables-CloudSat cloud mask, radar reflectivities, and cloud classification matchups V3.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is AIRS-CloudSat collocated subset, in NetCDF 4 format. These data contain collocated: AIRS/AMSU retrievals at AMSU footprints, CloudSat radar reflectivities,...

  5. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the AIRS mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval, from the AIRS and AMSU instruments on board of Aqua satellite. It is a...

  6. AIRS-only Product on Giovanni for Exploring Up-to-date AIRS Observation and Comparing with AIRS+AMSU Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, F.; Hearty, T. J., III; Theobald, M.; Vollmer, B.; Wei, J.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has been the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission since its launch in 2002 for the global observations of the atmospheric state. Giovanni, a web-based application developed by the GES DISC, provides a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of Earth science remote sensing data without having to download the data. Most important variables, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing longwave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases, from version 6 AIRS product are available on Giovanni. The AIRS is an instrument suite comprised of a hyperspectral infrared instrument AIRS and two multichannel microwave instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). As the HSB ceased operation in very early stage of AIRS mission, the AIRS project operates two parallel retrieval algorithms: one using both IR and MW measurements (AIRS+AMSU) and the other using only IR measurements (AIRS-only) for the most time of the mission. The AIRS+AMSU product is better and the variables on Giovanni are from it. However, the generation of AIRS+AMSU product has been suspended since the AMSU instrument anomaly occurred in late 2016. To continue exploring up-to-date AIRS observations, the same set of variables from the AIRS-only product are added on Giovanni by the GES DSIC. This will also support the comparison of AIRS-only with AIRS+AMSU retrievals. In the presentation, we will demonstrate the visualization of AIRS-only product and the plots/statistics of comparison with AIRS+AMSU product using Giovanni.

  7. AIRS/Aqua L3 Daily Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) 1 degree x 1 degree V006 (AIRX3STD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  8. Spatial and Temporal Inter-Relationship between Anomalies and Trends of Temperature, Moisture, Cloud Cover and OLR as Observed by AIRS/AMSU on Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula

    2009-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the advanced IR/MW atmospheric sounding system launched on EOS Aqua in May 2002. Products derived from AIRS/AMSU by the AIRS Science Team include surface skin temperature and atmospheric temperature profiled; atmospheric humidity profiles, fractional cloud clover and cloud top pressure, and OLR. Products covering the period September 2002 through the present have been derived from AIRS/AMSU using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. In this paper, we will show results covering the time period September 2006 - November 2008. This time period is marked by a substantial warming trend of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical land surface skin temperatures, as well as pronounced El Nino - La Nina episodes. These both influence the spatial and temporal anomaly patterns of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, as well as of cloud cover and Clear Sky and All Sky OLR. The relationships between temporal and spatial anomalies of these parameters over this time period, as determined from AIRS/AMSU observations, will be shown with particular emphasis on which contribute significantly to OLR anomalies in each of the tropics and extra-tropics. Results will also be shown to evaluate the anomalies and trends of temperature profiles and OLR as determined from analysis of AIRS/AMSU data. Global and regional trends during the 6 1/3 year time period are not necessarily indicative of what has happened in the past, or what may happen in the future. Nevertheless, the inter-relationships of spatial and temporal anomalies of atmospheric geophysical parameters with those of surface skin temperature are indicative of climate processes, and can be used to test the performance of climate models when driven by changes in surface temperatures.

  9. Estimating Sampling Biases and Measurement Uncertainties of AIRS-AMSU-A Temperature and Water Vapor Observations Using MERRA Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Thomas J.; Savtchenko, Andrey K.; Tian, Baijun; Fetzer, Eric; Yung, Yuk L.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Fishbein, Evan; Won, Young-In

    2014-01-01

    We use MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research Applications) temperature and water vapor data to estimate the sampling biases of climatologies derived from the AIRS/AMSU-A (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) suite of instruments. We separate the total sampling bias into temporal and instrumental components. The temporal component is caused by the AIRS/AMSU-A orbit and swath that are not able to sample all of time and space. The instrumental component is caused by scenes that prevent successful retrievals. The temporal sampling biases are generally smaller than the instrumental sampling biases except in regions with large diurnal variations, such as the boundary layer, where the temporal sampling biases of temperature can be +/- 2 K and water vapor can be 10% wet. The instrumental sampling biases are the main contributor to the total sampling biases and are mainly caused by clouds. They are up to 2 K cold and greater than 30% dry over mid-latitude storm tracks and tropical deep convective cloudy regions and up to 20% wet over stratus regions. However, other factors such as surface emissivity and temperature can also influence the instrumental sampling bias over deserts where the biases can be up to 1 K cold and 10% wet. Some instrumental sampling biases can vary seasonally and/or diurnally. We also estimate the combined measurement uncertainties of temperature and water vapor from AIRS/AMSU-A and MERRA by comparing similarly sampled climatologies from both data sets. The measurement differences are often larger than the sampling biases and have longitudinal variations.

  10. The Passive Microwave Neural Network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) for AMSU/MHS and ATMS cross-track scanning radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano', Paolo; Casella, Daniele; Panegrossi, Giulia; Cinzia Marra, Anna; Dietrich, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Spaceborne microwave cross-track scanning radiometers, originally developed for temperature and humidity sounding, have shown great capabilities to provide a significant contribution in precipitation monitoring both in terms of measurement quality and spatial/temporal coverage. The Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) algorithm for cross-track scanning radiometers, originally developed for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit/Microwave Humidity Sounder (AMSU-A/MHS) radiometers (on board the European MetOp and U.S. NOAA satellites), was recently newly designed to exploit the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on board the Suomi-NPP satellite and the future JPSS satellites. The PNPR algorithm is based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach. The main PNPR-ATMS algorithm changes with respect to PNPR-AMSU/MHS are the design and implementation of a new ANN able to manage the information derived from the additional ATMS channels (respect to the AMSU-A/MHS radiometer) and a new screening procedure for not-precipitating pixels. In order to achieve maximum consistency of the retrieved surface precipitation, both PNPR algorithms are based on the same physical foundation. The PNPR is optimized for the European and the African area. The neural network was trained using a cloud-radiation database built upon 94 cloud-resolving simulations over Europe and the Mediterranean and over the African area and radiative transfer model simulations of TB vectors consistent with the AMSU-A/MHS and ATMS channel frequencies, viewing angles, and view-angle dependent IFOV sizes along the scan projections. As opposed to other ANN precipitation retrieval algorithms, PNPR uses a unique ANN that retrieves the surface precipitation rate for all types of surface backgrounds represented in the training database, i.e., land (vegetated or arid), ocean, snow/ice or coast. This approach prevents different precipitation estimates from being inconsistent with one

  11. Results from CrIS-ATMS Obtained Using the AIRS Science Team Retrieval Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis C.; Iredell, Lena

    2013-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua in May 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB (which subsequently failed early in the mission), to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. AIRS/AMSU had two primary objectives. The first objective was to provide real-time data products available for use by the operational Numerical Weather Prediction Centers in a data assimilation mode to improve the skill of their subsequent forecasts. The second objective was to provide accurate unbiased sounding products with good spatial coverage that are used to generate stable multi-year climate data sets to study the earth's interannual variability, climate processes, and possibly long-term trends. AIRS/AMSU data for all time periods are now being processed using the state of the art AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval methodology. The Suomi-NPP mission was launched in October 2011 as part of a sequence of Low Earth Orbiting satellite missions under the "Joint Polar Satellite System" (JPSS). NPP carries CrIS and ATMS, which are advanced infra-red and microwave atmospheric sounders that were designed as follow-ons to the AIRS and AMSU instruments. The main objective of this work is to assess whether CrIS/ATMS will be an adequate replacement for AIRS/AMSU from the perspective of the generation of accurate and consistent long term climate data records, or if improved instruments should be developed for future flight. It is critical for CrIS/ATMS to be processed using an algorithm similar to, or at least comparable to, AIRS Version-6 before such an assessment can be made. We have been conducting research to optimize products derived from CrIS/ATMS observations using a scientific approach analogous to the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm. Our latest research uses Version-5.70 of the CrIS/ATMS retrieval algorithm, which is otherwise analogous to AIRS Version-6, but does not yet contain the benefit of use of a Neural-Net first guess start-up system

  12. Aqua AIRS L2 Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRI2CCF. However, it contains science retrievals that use the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). Because the HSB instrument lived only...

  13. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Support Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRX2SUP. It is newest product produced using AIRS IR only because the radiometric noise in AMSU channel 4 started to increase...

  14. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Support retrieval (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRX2SUP. It is newest product produced using AIRS IR only because the radiometric noise in AMSU channel 4 started to increase...

  15. Aqua AIRS Level 2G Precipitation Estimate (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  16. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The geophysical parameters have been averaged and binned into 1 x 1 deg grid cells,...

  17. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Cloud-cleared infrared radiances (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  18. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  19. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 monthly quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  20. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (With HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  1. Mean atmospheric temperature model estimation for GNSS meteorology using AIRS and AMSU data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rata Suwantong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of modeling the relationship between the mean atmospheric and air surface temperatures is addressed. Particularly, the major goal is to estimate the model parameters at a regional scale in Thailand. To formulate the relationship between the mean atmospheric and air surface temperatures, a triply modulated cosine function was adopted to model the surface temperature as a periodic function. The surface temperature was then converted to mean atmospheric temperature using a linear function. The parameters of the model were estimated using an extended Kalman filter. Traditionally, radiosonde data is used. In this paper, satellite data from an atmospheric infrared sounder, and advanced microwave sounding unit sensors was used because it is open source data and has global coverage with high temporal resolution. The performance of the proposed model was tested against that of a global model via an accuracy assessment of the computed GNSS-derived PWV.

  2. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  3. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Near Real Time (NRT) Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  4. Recent Improvements in Retrieving Near-Surface Air Temperature and Humidity Using Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent

    2010-01-01

    Detailed studies of the energy and water cycles require accurate estimation of the turbulent fluxes of moisture and heat across the atmosphere-ocean interface at regional to basin scale. Providing estimates of these latent and sensible heat fluxes over the global ocean necessitates the use of satellite or reanalysis-based estimates of near surface variables. Recent studies have shown that errors in the surface (10 meter)estimates of humidity and temperature are currently the largest sources of uncertainty in the production of turbulent fluxes from satellite observations. Therefore, emphasis has been placed on reducing the systematic errors in the retrieval of these parameters from microwave radiometers. This study discusses recent improvements in the retrieval of air temperature and humidity through improvements in the choice of algorithms (linear vs. nonlinear) and the choice of microwave sensors. Particular focus is placed on improvements using a neural network approach with a single sensor (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) and the use of combined sensors from the NASA AQUA satellite platform. The latter algorithm utilizes the unique sampling available on AQUA from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A). Current estimates of uncertainty in the near-surface humidity and temperature from single and multi-sensor approaches are discussed and used to estimate errors in the turbulent fluxes.

  5. A Web Service Tool (SOAR) for the Dynamic Generation of L1 Grids of Coincident AIRS, AMSU and MODIS Satellite Sounding Radiance Data for Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Yesha, Y.; Tilmes, C.; Chapman, D.; Goldberg, M.; Zhou, L.

    2007-05-01

    Three decades of Earth remote sensing from NASA, NOAA and DOD operational and research satellites carrying successive generations of improved atmospheric sounder instruments have resulted in petabytes of radiance data with varying spatial and spectral resolutions being stored at different data archives in various data formats by the respective agencies. This evolution of sounders and the diversities of these archived data sets have led to data processing obstacles limiting the science community from readily accessing and analyzing such long-term climate data records. We address this problem by the development of a web based Service Oriented Atmospheric Radiance (SOAR) system built on the SOA paradigm that makes it practical for the science community to dynamically access, manipulate and generate long term records of L1 pre-gridded sounding radiances of coincident multi-sensor data for regions specified according to user chosen criteria. SOAR employs a modification of the standard Client Server interactions that allows users to represent themselves directly to the Process Server through their own web browsers. The browser uses AJAX to request Javascript libraries and DHTML interfaces that define the possible client interactions and communicates the SOAP messages to the Process server allowing for dynamic web dialogs with the user to take place on the fly. The Process Server is also connected to an underlying high performance compute cluster and storage system which provides much of the data processing capabilities required to service the client requests. The compute cluster employs optical communications to NOAA and NASA for accessing the data and under the governance of the Process Server invokes algorithms for on-demand spatial, temporal, and spectral gridding. Scientists can choose from a variety of statistical averaging techniques for compositing satellite observed sounder radiances from the AIRS, AMSU or MODIS instruments to form spatial-temporal grids for

  6. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B AMSU (A1/A2) geolocated and calibrated brightness temperatures V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  7. The Impact of AMSU-A Radiance Assimilation in the U.S. Navy's Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Nancy L; Hogan, T. F; Campbell, W. F; Pauley, R. L; Swadley, S. D

    2005-01-01

    ...) sensor suite onboard NOAA 15 and 16 for NOGAPS. The direct assimilation of AMSU-A radiances replaced the assimilation of ATOVS temperature retrievals produced by NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS...

  8. Sensitivity Analysis for Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO2 Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a thermal infrared sensor able to retrieve the daily atmospheric state globally for clear as well as partially cloudy field-of-views. The AIRS spectrometer has 2378 channels sensing from 15.4 micrometers to 3.7 micrometers, of which a small subset in the 15 micrometers region has been selected, to date, for CO2 retrieval. To improve upon the current retrieval method, we extended the retrieval calculations to include a prior estimate component and developed a channel ranking system to optimize the channels and number of channels used. The channel ranking system uses a mathematical formalism to rapidly process and assess the retrieval potential of large numbers of channels. Implementing this system, we identifed a larger optimized subset of AIRS channels that can decrease retrieval errors and minimize the overall sensitivity to other iridescent contributors, such as water vapor, ozone, and atmospheric temperature. This methodology selects channels globally by accounting for the latitudinal, longitudinal, and seasonal dependencies of the subset. The new methodology increases accuracy in AIRS CO2 as well as other retrievals and enables the extension of retrieved CO2 vertical profiles to altitudes ranging from the lower troposphere to upper stratosphere. The extended retrieval method for CO2 vertical profile estimation using a maximum-likelihood estimation method. We use model data to demonstrate the beneficial impact of the extended retrieval method using the new channel ranking system on CO2 retrieval.

  9. Test plan for air monitoring during the Cryogenic Retrieval Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokuda, E.

    1992-06-01

    This report presents a test plan for air monitoring during the Cryogenic Retrieval Demonstration (CRD). Air monitors will be used to sample for the tracer elements neodymium, terbium, and ytterbium, and dysprosium. The results from this air monitoring will be used to determine if the CRD is successful in controlling dust and minimizing contamination. Procedures and equipment specifications for the test are included

  10. Compressed air piping, 241-SY-101 hydraulic pump retrieval trailer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    The following Design Analysis was prepared by the Westinghouse Hanford Company to determine pressure losses in the compressed air piping installed on the hydraulic trailer for the 241-SY-101 pump retrieval mission

  11. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly standard physical retrieval (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month....

  12. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Monthly Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a calendar month....

  13. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 8-day standard physical retrieval (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  14. Aqua AIRS Level 3 8-day Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 8-Day Gridded Retrieval Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers an 8-day period, or...

  15. Airport Information Retrieval System (AIRS) System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    This report presents the system design for a prototype air traffic flow control automation system developed for the FAA's Systems Command Center. The design was directed toward the immediate automation of airport data for use in traffic load predicti...

  16. AIRS/Aqua L3 Monthly Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS+AMSU) 5 degrees x 5 degrees V006 (AIRX3QPM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  17. Airport Information Retrieval System (AIRS) User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-08-01

    The handbook is a user's guide for a prototype air traffic flow control automation system developed for the FAA's System Command Center. The system is implemented on a time-sharing computer and is designed to provide airport traffic load predictions ...

  18. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Daily standard physical retrieval (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours...

  19. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Daily Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AIRS Only Level 3 Daily Gridded Product contains standard retrieval means, standard deviations and input counts. Each file covers a temporal period of 24 hours...

  20. AIRS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Level 1B AMSU (A1/A2) geolocated and calibrated brightness temperatures V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  1. Comparing AIRS/AMSU-A Satellite and MERRA/MERRA-2 Reanalysis products with In-situ Station Observations at Summit, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, T. J., III; Vollmer, B.; Wei, J. C.; Huwe, P. M.; Albayrak, A.; Wu, D. L.; Cullather, R. I.; Meyer, D. L.; Lee, J. N.; Blaisdell, J. M.; Susskind, J.; Nowicki, S.

    2017-12-01

    The surface air and skin temperatures reported by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and MERRA-2 at Summit, Greenland are compared with near surface air temperatures measured at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net) weather stations. Therefore this investigation requires familiarity with a heterogeneous set of swath, grid, and point data in several different formats, different granularity, and different sampling. We discuss the current subsetting capabilities available at the GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center) to perform the inter-comparisons necessary to evaluate the quality and trustworthiness of these datasets. We also explore potential future services which may assist users with this type of intercomparison. We find the AIRS Surface Skin Temperature (TS) is best correlated with the NOAA 2 m air temperature (T2M) but it tends to be colder than the station measurements. The difference may be the result of the frequent near surface temperature inversions in the region. The AIRS Surface Air Temperature (SAT) is also well correlated with the NOAA T2M but it has a warm bias with respect to the NOAA T2M during the cold season and a larger standard error than surface temperature. This suggests that the extrapolation of the temperature profile to the surface is not valid for the strongest inversions. Comparing the temperature lapse rate derived from the 2 stations shows that the lapse rate can increase closer to the surface. We also find that the difference between the AIRS SAT and TS is sensitive to near surface inversions. The MERRA-2 surface and near surface temperatures show improvements over MERRA but little sensitivity to near surface temperature inversions.

  2. Single-footprint retrievals of temperature, water vapor and cloud properties from AIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irion, Fredrick W.; Kahn, Brian H.; Schreier, Mathias M.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fishbein, Evan; Fu, Dejian; Kalmus, Peter; Wilson, R. Chris; Wong, Sun; Yue, Qing

    2018-02-01

    Single-footprint Atmospheric Infrared Sounder spectra are used in an optimal estimation-based algorithm (AIRS-OE) for simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, surface temperature, cloud-top temperature, effective cloud optical depth and effective cloud particle radius. In a departure from currently operational AIRS retrievals (AIRS V6), cloud scattering and absorption are in the radiative transfer forward model and AIRS single-footprint thermal infrared data are used directly rather than cloud-cleared spectra (which are calculated using nine adjacent AIRS infrared footprints). Coincident MODIS cloud data are used for cloud a priori data. Using single-footprint spectra improves the horizontal resolution of the AIRS retrieval from ˜ 45 to ˜ 13.5 km at nadir, but as microwave data are not used, the retrieval is not made at altitudes below thick clouds. An outline of the AIRS-OE retrieval procedure and information content analysis is presented. Initial comparisons of AIRS-OE to AIRS V6 results show increased horizontal detail in the water vapor and relative humidity fields in the free troposphere above the clouds. Initial comparisons of temperature, water vapor and relative humidity profiles with coincident radiosondes show good agreement. Future improvements to the retrieval algorithm, and to the forward model in particular, are discussed.

  3. AIR PERMIT COMPLIANCE FOR WASTE RETRIEVAL OEPRATIONS INVOLVING MULTI-UNIT EMISSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMMONS FM

    2007-01-01

    Since 1970, approximately 38,000 suspect-transuranic and transuranic waste containers have been placed in retrievable storage on the Hanford Site in the 200 Areas burial grounds. Hanford's Waste Retrieval Project is retrieving these buried containers and processing them for safe storage and disposition. Container retrieval activities require an air emissions permit to account for potential emissions of radionuclides. The air permit covers the excavation activities as well as activities associated with assaying containers and installing filters in the retrieved transuranic containers lacking proper venting devices. Fluor Hanford, Inc. is required to track radioactive emissions resulting from the retrieval activities. Air, soil, and debris media contribute to the emissions and enabling assumptions allow for calculation of emissions. Each of these activities is limited to an allowed annual emission (per calendar year) and .contributes to the overall total emissions allowed for waste retrieval operations. Tracking these emissions is required to ensure a permit exceedance does not occur. A tracking tool was developed to calculate potential emissions in real time sense. Logic evaluations are established within the tracking system to compare real time data against license limits to ensure values are not exceeded for either an individual activity or the total limit. Data input are based on field survey and workplace air monitoring activities. This tracking tool is used monthly and quarterly to verify compliance to the license limits. Use of this tool has allowed Fluor Hanford, Inc. to successfully retrieve a significant number of containers in a safe manner without any exceedance of emission limits

  4. Validation of the AMSU-B Bias Corrections Based on Satellite Measurements from SSM/T-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodner, Marc A.

    1999-01-01

    The NOAA-15 Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) was designed in the same spirit as the Special Sensor Microwave Water Vapor Profiler (SSM/T-2) on board the DMSP F11-14 satellites, to perform remote sensing of spatial and temporal variations in mid and upper troposphere humidity. While the SSM/T-2 instruments have a 48 km spatial resolution at nadir and 28 beam positions per scan, AMSU-B provides an improvement with a 16 km spatial resolution at nadir and 90 beam positions per scan. The AMSU-B instrument, though, has been experiencing radio frequency interference (RFI) contamination from the NOAA-15 transmitters whose effect is dependent upon channel, geographic location, and current spacecraft antenna configuration. This has lead to large cross-track biases reaching as high as 100 Kelvin for channel 17 (150 GHz) and 50 Kelvin for channel 19 (183 +/-3 GHz). NOAA-NESDIS has recently provided a series of bias corrections for AMSU-B data starting from March, 1999. These corrections are available for each of the five channels, for every third field of view, and for three cycles within an eight second period. There is also a quality indicator in each data record to indicate whether or not the bias corrections should be applied. As a precursor to performing retrievals of mid and upper troposphere humidity, a validation study is performed by statistically analyzing the differences between the F14 SSM/T-2 and the bias corrected AMSU-B brightness temperatures for three months in the spring of 1999.

  5. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) -GEOGRAPHIC, COMMON, AND MAINTENANCE SUBSYSTEM (GCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  6. Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Profiles of Temperature and Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Blackwell, William

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. AIRS retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to extreme precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 AIRS retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 AIRS Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved temperature and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. Forecasts are against ERA reanalyses.

  7. Compliance For Hanford Waste Retrieval: Radioactive Air Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    (sm b ullet) Since 1970, approximately 38,000 suspect transuranic (TRU) and TRU waste cont∼iners have been placed in retrievable storage on the Hanford Site in the 200Area's burial grounds. (sm b ullet) TRU waste is defined as waste containing greater than 100 nanocuries/gram of alpha emitting transuranic isotopes with half lives greater than 20 years. (sm b ullet) The United States currentl∼permanently disposes of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  8. Using AIRS retrievals in the WRF-LETKF system to improve regional numerical weather prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takemasa Miyoshi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to conventional observations, atmospheric temperature and humidity profile data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS Version 5 retrieval products are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, using the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF. Although a naive assimilation of all available quality-controlled AIRS retrieval data yields an inferior analysis, the additional enhancements of adaptive inflation and horizontal data thinning result in a general improvement of numerical weather prediction skill due to AIRS data. In particular, the adaptive inflation method is enhanced so that it no longer assumes temporal homogeneity of the observing network and allows for a better treatment of the temporally inhomogeneous AIRS data. Results indicate that the improvements due to AIRS data are more significant in longer-lead forecasts. Forecasts of Typhoons Sinlaku and Jangmi in September 2008 show improvements due to AIRS data.

  9. Airport Information Retrieval System (AIRS) System Support Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This handbook is a support manual for prototype air traffic flow control automation system developed for the FAA's Systems Command Center. The system is implemented on a time-sharing computer and is designed to provide airport traffic load prediction...

  10. Results from CrIS/ATMS Obtained Using an "AIRS Version-6 Like" Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena; Blaisdell, John

    2015-01-01

    AIRS and CrIS Version-6.22 O3(p) and q(p) products are both superior to those of AIRS Version-6.Monthly mean August 2014 Version-6.22 AIRS and CrIS products agree reasonably well with OMPS, CERES, and witheach other. JPL plans to process AIRS and CrIS for many months and compare interannual differences. Updates to thecalibration of both CrIS and ATMS are still being finalized. We are also working with JPL to develop a joint AIRS/CrISlevel-1 to level-3 processing system using a still to be finalized Version-7 retrieval algorithm. The NASA Goddard DISCwill eventually use this system to reprocess all AIRS and recalibrated CrIS/ATMS. .

  11. A Comparison of the Red Green Blue Air Mass Imagery and Hyperspectral Infrared Retrieved Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, E. B.; Folmer, Michael; Dunion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass imagery is derived from multiple channels or paired channel differences. Multiple channel products typically provide additional information than a single channel can provide alone. The RGB Air Mass imagery simplifies the interpretation of temperature and moisture characteristics of air masses surrounding synoptic and mesoscale features. Despite the ease of interpretation of multiple channel products, the combination of channels and channel differences means the resulting product does not represent a quantity or physical parameter such as brightness temperature in conventional single channel satellite imagery. Without a specific quantity to reference, forecasters are often confused as to what RGB products represent. Hyperspectral infrared retrieved profiles of temperature, moisture, and ozone can provide insight about the air mass represented on the RGB Air Mass product and provide confidence in the product and representation of air masses despite the lack of a quantity to reference for interpretation. This study focuses on RGB Air Mass analysis of Hurricane Sandy as it moved north along the U.S. East Coast, while transitioning to a hybrid extratropical storm. Soundings and total column ozone retrievals were analyzed using data from the Cross-track Infrared and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder Suite (CrIMSS) on the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership satellite and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aqua satellite along with dropsondes that were collected from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Air Force research aircraft. By comparing these datasets to the RGB Air Mass, it is possible to capture quantitative information that could help in analyzing the synoptic environment enough to diagnose the onset of extratropical transition. This was done by identifying any stratospheric air intrusions (SAIs) that existed in the vicinity of Sandy as the wind

  12. Retrieval of air temperatures from crowd-sourced battery temperatures of cell phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.

    2013-04-01

    Accurate air temperature observations are important for urban meteorology, for example to study the urban heat island and adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. The number of available temperature observations is often relatively limited. A new development is presented to derive temperature information for the urban canopy from an alternative source: cell phones. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. Results are presented for Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree Celsius. This shows that monitoring air temperatures employing an Android application holds great promise. Since 75% of the world's population has a cell phone, 20% of the land surface of the earth has cellular telephone coverage, and 500 million devices use the Android operating system, there is a huge potential for measuring air temperatures employing cell phones. This could eventually lead to real-time world-wide temperature maps.

  13. Importance of A Priori Vertical Ozone Profiles for TEMPO Air Quality Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Sullivan, J. T.; Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Newchurch, M.; Kuang, S.; McGee, T. J.; Leblanc, T.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone (O3) is a toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address the limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product. TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME, GOME-2, and OMI. This algorithm is suggested to use a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB-Clim) O3 climatology). This study evaluates the TB-Clim dataset and model simulated O3 profiles, which could potentially serve as a priori O3 profile information in TEMPO retrievals, from near-real-time data assimilation model products (NASA GMAO's operational GEOS-5 FP model and reanalysis data from MERRA2) and a full chemical transport model (CTM), GEOS-Chem. In this study, vertical profile products are evaluated with surface (0-2 km) and tropospheric (0-10 km) TOLNet observations and the theoretical impact of individual a priori profile sources on the accuracy of TEMPO O3 retrievals in the troposphere and at the surface are presented. Results indicate that while the TB-Clim climatological dataset can replicate seasonally-averaged tropospheric O3 profiles, model-simulated profiles from a full CTM resulted in more accurate tropospheric and surface-level O3 retrievals from

  14. Benchmarking, Research, Development, and Support for ORNL Automated Image and Signature Retrieval (AIR/ASR) Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, K.W.

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Applied Materials, Inc. (AMAT) of Santa Clara, California. This project encompassed the continued development and integration of the ORNL Automated Image Retrieval (AIR) technology, and an extension of the technology denoted Automated Signature Retrieval (ASR), and other related technologies with the Defect Source Identification (DSI) software system that was under development by AMAT at the time this work was performed. In the semiconductor manufacturing environment, defect imagery is used to diagnose problems in the manufacturing line, train yield management engineers, and examine historical data for trends. Image management in semiconductor data systems is a growing cause of concern in the industry as fabricators are now collecting up to 20,000 images each week. In response to this concern, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a semiconductor-specific content-based image retrieval method and system, also known as AIR. The system uses an image-based query-by-example method to locate and retrieve similar imagery from a database of digital imagery using visual image characteristics. The query method is based on a unique architecture that takes advantage of the statistical, morphological, and structural characteristics of image data, generated by inspection equipment in industrial applications. The system improves the manufacturing process by allowing rapid access to historical records of similar events so that errant process equipment can be isolated and corrective actions can be quickly taken to improve yield. The combined ORNL and AMAT technology is referred to hereafter as DSI-AIR and DSI-ASR.

  15. Western disturbances seen with AMSU-B and infrared sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: dileepmp@unipune.ernet.in. Western .... optic environment of two cases of WD (17 April. 2001, 19 February ... brings out the advantage of AMSU-B (and the scale analysis of ..... KLM users' guide; NOAA US Department of Commerce.

  16. Retrieval process development and enhancements FY96 pulsed-air mixer testing and deployment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, M.R.; Hymas, C.R.

    1996-08-01

    Millions of gallons of radioactive wastes resides in underground tanks at US Department of Energy sites. The waste was generated primarily by the processing of nuclear fuel elements to remove fissile radionuclides for use in atomic weapons. Plans call for the waste to be removed from the tanks and processed to create immobile waste forms, which will be stored to prevent release to the environment. The consistency of the waste ranges from liquid, to slurry, to sticky sludge, to hard saltcake. a variety of waste- retrieval and processing methods are being evaluated and implemented. One such method is pulsed-air mixing, which is the subject of this report. Pulsed-air mixing equipment has been successfully applied to a number of difficult mixing applications in various chemical-process industries. Most previous applications involved the mixing of particle-free viscous fluids. The study described in this report was preformed to improve the understanding of how pulsed-air mixing applies to slurries. This document describes work conducted to evaluate the potential application of pulsed-air mixers to the slurry- mixing needs of the US Department of Energy's waste-retrieval programs

  17. AirMOSS P-Band Radar Retrieval of Subcanopy Soil Moisture Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaeenejad, A.; Burgin, M. S.; Duan, X.; Moghaddam, M.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture, as a key variable of the Earth system, plays an important role in our under-standing of the global water, energy, and carbon cycles. The importance of such knowledge has led NASA to fund missions such as Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS). The AirMOSS mission seeks to improve the estimates of the North American Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) by providing high-resolution observations of the root zone soil moisture (RZSM) over regions representative of the major North American biomes. AirMOSS flies a P-band SAR to penetrate vegetation and into the root zone to provide estimates of RZSM. The flights cover areas containing flux tower sites in regions from the boreal forests in Saskatchewan, Canada, to the tropical forests in La Selva, Costa Rica. The radar snapshots are used to generate estimates of RZSM via inversion of a scattering model of vegetation overlying soils with variable moisture profiles. These retrievals will be used to generate a time record of RZSM, which will be integrated with an ecosystem demography model in order to estimate the respiration and photosynthesis carbon fluxes. The aim of this work is the retrieval of the moisture profile over AirMOSS sites using the collected P-band radar data. We have integrated layered-soil scattering models into a forest scattering model; for the backscattering from ground and for the trunk-ground double-bounce mechanism, we have used a layered small perturbation method and a coherent scattering model of layered soil, respectively. To estimate the soil moisture profile, we represent it as a second-order polynomial in the form of az2 + bz + c, where z is the depth and a, b, and c are the coefficients to be retrieved from radar measurements. When retrieved, these coefficients give us the soil moisture up to a prescribed depth of validity. To estimate the unknown coefficients of the polynomial, we use simulated

  18. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 108 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1 SIN 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  19. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  20. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, 08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  1. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of AIRS Temperature Soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste

    2010-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of AIRS/AMSU-A are twice daily global fields of atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin temperature, and cloud related parameters including OLR. The AIRS Version 5 retrieval algorithm, is now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC in the routine generation of geophysical parameters derived from AIRS/AMSU data. A major innovation in Version 5 is the ability to generate case-by-case level-by-level error estimates delta T(p) for retrieved quantities and the use of these error estimates for Quality Control. We conducted a number of data assimilation experiments using the NASA GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System as a step toward finding an optimum balance of spatial coverage and sounding accuracy with regard to improving forecast skill. The model was run at a horizontal resolution of 0.5 deg. latitude X 0.67 deg longitude with 72 vertical levels. These experiments were run during four different seasons, each using a different year. The AIRS temperature profiles were presented to the GEOS-5 analysis as rawinsonde profiles, and the profile error estimates delta (p) were used as the uncertainty for each measurement in the data assimilation process. We compared forecasts analyses generated from the analyses done by assimilation of AIRS temperature profiles with three different sets of thresholds; Standard, Medium, and Tight. Assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS temperature profiles significantly improve 5-7 day forecast skill compared to that obtained without the benefit of AIRS data in all of the cases studied. In addition, assimilation of Quality Controlled AIRS temperature soundings performs better than assimilation of AIRS observed radiances. Based on the experiments shown, Tight Quality Control of AIRS temperature profile performs best

  2. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Cloud-cleared infrared radiances (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRI2CCF. It is newest products produced using AIRS IR only because the radiometric noise in AMSU channel 4 started to increase...

  3. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product is similar to AIRI2CCF. It is newest products produced using AIRS IR only because the radiometric noise in AMSU channel 4 started to increase...

  4. Retrieving Vertical Air Motion and Raindrop Size Distributions from Vertically Pointing Doppler Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2017-12-01

    The vertical evolution of falling raindrops is a result of evaporation, breakup, and coalescence acting upon those raindrops. Computing these processes using vertically pointing radar observations is a two-step process. First, the raindrop size distribution (DSD) and vertical air motion need to be estimated throughout the rain shaft. Then, the changes in DSD properties need to be quantified as a function of height. The change in liquid water content is a measure of evaporation, and the change in raindrop number concentration and size are indicators of net breakup or coalescence in the vertical column. The DSD and air motion can be retrieved using observations from two vertically pointing radars operating side-by-side and at two different wavelengths. While both radars are observing the same raindrop distribution, they measure different reflectivity and radial velocities due to Rayleigh and Mie scattering properties. As long as raindrops with diameters greater than approximately 2 mm are in the radar pulse volumes, the Rayleigh and Mie scattering signatures are unique enough to estimate DSD parameters using radars operating at 3- and 35-GHz (Williams et al. 2016). Vertical decomposition diagrams (Williams 2016) are used to explore the processes acting on the raindrops. Specifically, changes in liquid water content with height quantify evaporation or accretion. When the raindrops are not evaporating, net raindrop breakup and coalescence are identified by changes in the total number of raindrops and changes in the DSD effective shape as the raindrops. This presentation will focus on describing the DSD and air motion retrieval method using vertical profiling radar observations from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility in Northern Oklahoma.

  5. Retrievals of Surface Air Temperature Using Multiple Satellite Data Combinations over Complex Terrain in the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, K.; Won, M.; Yoon, S.; Lim, J.

    2016-12-01

    Surface air temperature (Tair) is a fundamental factor for terrestrial environments and plays a major role in the fields of applied meteorology, climatology, and ecology. The satellite remotely sensed data offers the opportunity to estimate Tair on the earth's surface with high spatial and temporal resolutions. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides effective Tair retrievals although restricted to clear sky condition. MODIS Tair over complex terrain can result in significant retrieval errors due to the retrieval height mismatch to the elevation of local weather stations. In this study, we propose the methodology to estimate Tair over complex terrain for all sky conditions using multiple satellite data fusion based on the pixel-wise regression method. The combination of synergistic information from MODIS Tair and the brightness temperature (Tb) retrievals at 37 GHz frequency from the satellite microwave sensor were used for analysis. The air temperature lapse rate was applied to estimate the near-surface Tair considering the complex terrain such as mountainous regions. The retrieval results produced from this study showed a good agreement (RMSE Administration (KMA). The gaps in the MODIS Tair data due to cloud contamination were successfully filled using the proposed method which yielded similar accuracy as retrievals of clear sky. The results of this study indicate that the satellite data fusion can continuously produce Tair retrievals with reasonable accuracy and that the application of the temperature lapse rate can lead to improvement of the reliability over complex terrains such as the Korean Peninsula.

  6. Ozone retrievals from MAGEAQ GEO TIR+VIS for air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Ruiz, Samuel; Attié, Jean-Luc; Lahoz, William A.; Abida, Rachid; El-Amraoui, Laaziz; Ricaud, Philippe; Zbinden, Regina; Spurr, Robert; da Silva, Arlindo M.

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, air quality monitoring is based on the use of ground-based stations (GBS) or satellite measurements. GBS provide accurate measurements of pollutant concentrations, especially in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), but usually the spatial coverage is sparse. Polar-orbiting satellites provide good spatial resolution but low temporal coverage -this is insufficient for tracking pollutants exhibiting a diurnal cycle (Lahoz et al., 2012). However, pollutant concentrations can be measured by instruments placed on board a geostationary satellite, which can provide sufficiently high temporal and spatial resolutions (e.g. Hache et al., 2014). In this work, we investigate the potentiality of a possible future geostationary instrument, MAGEAQ (Monitoring the Atmosphere from Geostationary orbit for European Air Quality), for retrieving ozone measurements over Europe. In particular, MAGEAQ can provide 1-hour temporal sampling at 10x10km pixel resolution for measurements in both visible (VIS) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands -thus, we will be able to measure during the day and at night. MAGEAQ synthetic radiance observations are obtained through radiative transfer (RT) simulations using the VLIDORT discrete ordinate RT model (Spurr, 2006) based on output from the GEOS-5 Nature Run (Gelaro et al., 2015) providing optical information, plus a suitable instrument model. Ozone is retrieved from these synthetic measurements using the optimal estimation inversion scheme of Levenberg-Marquardt. Finally, we examine an application of the air quality concept based on these ozone retrievals during the heatwave event of July 2006 over Europe. REFERENCES Gelaro, R., Putman, W. M., Pawson, S., Draper, C., Molod, A., Norris, P. M., Ott, L., Privé, N., Reale, O., Achuthavarier, D., Bosilovich, M., Buchard, V., Chao, W., Coy, L., Cullather, R., da Silva, A., Darmenov, A., Errico, R. M., Fuentes, M., Kim, M-J., Koster, R., McCarty, W., Nattala, J., Partyka, G., Schubert, S., Vernieres, G

  7. AIRS retrieved CO2 and its association with climatic parameters over India during 2004–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K. Ravi; Revadekar, J.V.; Tiwari, Yogesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) retrieved mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) have been used to study the variability and its association with the climatic parameters over India during 2004 to 2011. The study also aims in understanding transport of CO 2 from surface to mid-troposphere over India. The annual cycle of mid-tropospheric CO 2 shows gradual increase in concentration from January till the month of May at the rate ∼ 0.6 ppm/month. It decreases continuously in summer monsoon (JJAS) at the same rate during which strong westerlies persists over the region. A slight increase is seen during winter monsoon (DJF). Being a greenhouse gas, annual cycle of CO 2 show good resemblance with annual cycle of surface air temperature with correlation coefficient (CC) of + 0.8. Annual cycle of vertical velocity indicate inverse pattern compared to annual cycle of CO 2 . High values of mid-tropospheric CO 2 correspond to upward wind, while low values of mid-tropospheric CO 2 correspond to downward wind. In addition to vertical motion, zonal winds are also contributing towards the transport of CO 2 from surface to mid-troposphere. Vegetation as it absorbs CO 2 at surface level, show inverse annual cycle to that of annual cycle of CO 2 (CC-0.64). Seasonal variation of rainfall-CO 2 shows similarities with seasonal variation of NDVI-CO 2 . However, the use of long period data sets for CO 2 at the surface and at the mid-troposphere will be an advantage to confirm these results. - Highlights: • Association of AIRS CO 2 with climate parameters over India • CO 2 show positive correlation with surface temperature • Vertical/horizontal winds contribute towards CO 2 transport • Vegetation and monsoonal rainfall show inverse relationship with CO 2

  8. Low-cost Citizen Science Balloon Platform for Measuring Air Pollutants to Improve Satellite Retrieval Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potosnak, M. J.; Beck-Winchatz, B.; Ritter, P.

    2016-12-01

    High-altitude balloons (HABs) are an engaging platform for citizen science and formal and informal STEM education. However, the logistics of launching, chasing and recovering a payload on a 1200 g or 1500 g balloon can be daunting for many novice school groups and citizen scientists, and the cost can be prohibitive. In addition, there are many interesting scientific applications that do not require reaching the stratosphere, including measuring atmospheric pollutants in the planetary boundary layer. With a large number of citizen scientist flights, these data can be used to constrain satellite retrieval algorithms. In this poster presentation, we discuss a novel approach based on small (30 g) balloons that are cheap and easy to handle, and low-cost tracking devices (SPOT trackers for hikers) that do not require a radio license. Our scientific goal is to measure air quality in the lower troposphere. For example, particulate matter (PM) is an air pollutant that varies on small spatial scales and has sources in rural areas like biomass burning and farming practices such as tilling. Our HAB platform test flight incorporates an optical PM sensor, an integrated single board computer that records the PM sensor signal in addition to flight parameters (pressure, location and altitude), and a low-cost tracking system. Our goal is for the entire platform to cost less than $500. While the datasets generated by these flights are typically small, integrating a network of flight data from citizen scientists into a form usable for comparison to satellite data will require big data techniques.

  9. AIRS-CloudSat cloud mask and radar reflectivities collocation indexes V4.0 (AIRS_CPR_IND) at GES_DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Version 4.1 is the current version of the data set. Previous versions are no longer available and have been superseded by Version 4.1. This is AIRS-AMSU-CloudSat...

  10. NOAA Climate Data Records (CDR) of AMSU-A/B and MHS Hydrological Properties, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Hydrological Properties for Applications Thematic Climate Data Record (TCDR) consist of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A), Advanced Microwave...

  11. NOAA Fundamental Climate Data Record (CDR) of AMSU-B and MHS Brightness Temperature, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) brightness temperature (Tb) in "window...

  12. Recent Advances in Improvement of Forecast Skill and Understanding Climate Processes Using AIRS Version-5 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. These observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, have been analyzed using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. AIRS is a high spectral resolution infrared grating spectrometer with spect,ral coverage from 650 per centimeter extending to 2660 per centimeter, with low noise and a spectral resolving power of 2400. A brief overview of the AIRS Version-5 retrieval procedure will be presented, including the AIRS channels used in different steps in the retrieval process. Many researchers have used these products to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. Recent significant results of these experiments will be presented, including results showing that 1) assimilation of AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles into a General Circulation Model (GCM) significantly improves the ability to predict storm tracks of intense precipitation events; and 2) anomaly time-series of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) computed using AIRS sounding products closely match those determined from the CERES instrument, and furthermore explain that the phenomenon that global and especially tropical mean OLR have been decreasing since September 2002 is a result of El Nino/La Nina oscillations during this period.

  13. Estimating Cloud optical thickness from SEVIRI, for air quality research, by implementing a semi-analytical cloud retrieval algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Praveen; De Ridder, Koen; van Looy, Stijn; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Clouds play an important role in Earth's climate system. As they affect radiation hence photolysis rate coefficients (ozone formation),they also affect the air quality at the surface of the earth. Thus, a satellite remote sensing technique is used to retrieve the cloud properties for air quality research. The geostationary satellite, Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) has onboard, the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). The channels in the wavelength 0.6 µm and 1.64 µm are used to retrieve cloud optical thickness (COT). The study domain is over Europe covering a region between 35°N-70°N and 5°W-30°E, centred over Belgium. The steps involved in pre-processing the EUMETSAT level 1.5 images are described, which includes, acquisition of digital count number, radiometric conversion using offsets and slopes, estimation of radiance and calculation of reflectance. The Sun-earth-satellite geometry also plays an important role. A semi-analytical cloud retrieval algorithm (Kokhanovsky et al., 2003) is implemented for the estimation of COT. This approach doesn't involve the conventional look-up table approach, hence it makes the retrieval independent of numerical radiative transfer solutions. The semi-analytical algorithm is implemented on a monthly dataset of SEVIRI level 1.5 images. Minimum reflectance in the visible channel, at each pixel, during the month is accounted as the surface albedo of the pixel. Thus, monthly variation of COT over the study domain is prepared. The result so obtained, is compared with the COT products of Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF). Henceforth, an approach to assimilate the COT for air quality research is presented. Address of corresponding author: Praveen Pandey, VITO- Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, B 2400, Mol, Belgium E-mail: praveen.pandey@vito.be

  14. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Tests of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, R.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, AMSU-A2 METSAT Instrument (S/N 108) Acceptance Level Vibration Test of Dec 1999/Jan 2000 (S/O 784077, OC-454), for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  15. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A2 (EOS/AMSU-A): EOS Software Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the results of the formal qualification test (FQT)/ Demonstration conducted on September 10, and 14, 1998 for the EOS AMSU-A2 instrument. The purpose of the report is to relate the results of the functional performance and interface tests of the software. This is the final submittal of the EOS/AMSU-A Software Test report.

  16. Snowfall Rate Retrieval Using Passive Microwave Measurements and Its Applications in Weather Forecast and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Yan, Banghua; Zavodsky, Bradley; Zhao, Limin; Dong, Jun; Wang, Nai-Yu

    2015-01-01

    (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has also been developed. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. It employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derives the probability of snowfall. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model. A method adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. The SFR products are being used mainly in two communities: hydrology and weather forecast. Global blended precipitation products traditionally do not include snowfall derived from satellites because such products were not available operationally in the past. The ATMS and AMSU/MHS SFR now provide the winter precipitation information for these blended precipitation products. Weather forecasters mainly rely on radar and station observations for snowfall forecast. The SFR products can fill in gaps where no conventional snowfall data are available to forecasters. The products can also be used to confirm radar and gauge snowfall data and increase forecasters' confidence in their prediction.

  17. Assimilation of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles using WRF-Var

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William

    2008-01-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model contains a three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation system (WRF-Var), which allows a user to join data from multiple sources into one coherent analysis. WRF-Var combines observations with a background field traditionally generated using a previous model forecast through minimization of a cost function. In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations may be able to improve analyses and produce improved forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced space-based atmospheric sounding systems. The combined AIRS/AMSU system provides radiance measurements used as input to a sophisticated retrieval scheme which has been shown to produce temperature profiles with an accuracy of 1 K over 1 km layers and humidity profiles with accuracy of 15% in 2 km layers in both clear and partly cloudy conditions. The retrieval algorithm also provides estimates of the accuracy of the retrieved values at each pressure level, allowing the user to select profiles based on the required error tolerances of the application. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate high-resolution AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version 2.2 using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background field type using gen_be and an optimal methodology for ingesting AIRS temperature and moisture profiles as separate overland and overwater retrievals with different error characteristics in the WRF-Var. The AIRS thermodynamic profiles are obtained from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm and contain information about the quality of each temperature layer. The quality indicators are used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture

  18. Coupled Retrieval of Liquid Water Cloud and Above-Cloud Aerosol Properties Using the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; van Harten, Gerard; Diner, David J.; Davis, Anthony B.; Seidel, Felix C.; Rheingans, Brian; Tosca, Mika; Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Ferrare, Richard A.; Burton, Sharon P.; Fenn, Marta A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Wood, Robert; Redemann, Jens

    2018-03-01

    An optimization algorithm is developed to retrieve liquid water cloud properties including cloud optical depth (COD), droplet size distribution and cloud top height (CTH), and above-cloud aerosol properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single-scattering albedo, and microphysical properties from sweep-mode observations by Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) instrument. The retrieval is composed of three major steps: (1) initial estimate of the mean droplet size distribution across the entire image of 80-100 km along track by 10-25 km across track from polarimetric cloudbow observations, (2) coupled retrieval of image-scale cloud and above-cloud aerosol properties by fitting the polarimetric data at all observation angles, and (3) iterative retrieval of 1-D radiative transfer-based COD and droplet size distribution at pixel scale (25 m) by establishing relationships between COD and droplet size and fitting the total radiance measurements. Our retrieval is tested using 134 AirMSPI data sets acquired during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) field campaign ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS. The retrieved above-cloud AOD and CTH are compared to coincident HSRL-2 (HSRL-2, NASA Langley Research Center) data, and COD and droplet size distribution parameters (effective radius reff and effective variance veff) are compared to coincident Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) (NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies) data. Mean absolute differences between AirMSPI and HSRL-2 retrievals of above-cloud AOD at 532 nm and CTH are 0.03 and mean absolute differences between RSP and AirMSPI retrievals of COD, reff, and veff in the cloudbow area are 2.33, 0.69 μm, and 0.020, respectively. Neglect of smoke aerosols above cloud leads to an underestimate of image-averaged COD by 15%.

  19. Operational Use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals Along with the RGB Air Mass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Michael; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (HPC) and Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) provide short-term and medium-range forecast guidance of heavy precipitation, strong winds, and other features often associated with mid-latitude cyclones over both land and ocean. As a result, detection of factors that lead to rapid cyclogenesis and high wind events is key to improving forecast skill. One phenomenon that has been identified with these events is the stratospheric intrusion that occurs near tropopause folds. This allows for deep mixing near the top of the atmosphere where dry air high in ozone concentrations and potential vorticity descends (sometimes rapidly) deep into the mid-troposphere. Observations from satellites can aid in detection of these stratospheric air intrusions (SAI) regions. Specifically, multispectral composite imagery assign a variety of satellite spectral bands to the red, green, and blue (RGB) color components of imagery pixels and result in color combinations that can assist in the detection of dry stratospheric air associated with PV advection, which in turn may alert forecasters to the possibility of a rapidly strengthening storm system. Single channel or RGB satellite imagery lacks quantitative information about atmospheric moisture unless the sampled brightness temperatures or other data are converted to estimates of moisture via a retrieval process. Thus, complementary satellite observations are needed to capture a complete picture of a developing storm system. Here, total column ozone retrievals derived from a hyperspectral sounder are used to confirm the extent and magnitude of SAIs. Total ozone is a good proxy for defining locations and intensity of SAIs and has been used in studies evaluating that phenomenon (e.g. Tian et al. 2007, Knox and Schmidt 2005). Steep gradients in values of total ozone seen by satellites have been linked

  20. The Use of a Magnetic Port Finder in the Retrieval of Air Rifle BBs to the Upper Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwanuka, Elizabeth; Hsieh, Sun; Roussel, Lauren Ouellet; Jehle, Charles Christopher; Mehrzad, Raman; Schmidt, Scott

    2018-04-03

    Air-powered rifles shoot ball bearings with enough kinetic energy to penetrate skin and fracture underlying bones. In addition, there are reports of these ball bearings embolizing within the vascular network, causing serious injuries such as ischemic stroke with resultant blindness. The severity of these complications warrants occasional removal of these foreign bodies; however, they can be difficult to localize. In this case report, we describe the use of a magnetic port finder, a sterilizable tool used in breast reconstruction, to localize the foreign body in situ. We believe that this tool is effective at locating ferrous foreign bodies precisely, allowing for surgical retrieval while minimizing damage to surrounding tissue. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Retrieval of sea surface air temperature from satellite data over Indian Ocean: An empirical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    the sea surface air temperature from satellite derived sea surface humidity in the Indian Ocean. Using the insitu data on surface met parameters collected on board O.R.V. Sagar Kanya in the Indian Ocean over a period of 15 years, the relationship between...

  2. Imaging gravity waves in lower stratospheric AMSU-A radiances, Part 2: Validation case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Eckermann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional radiance maps from Channel 9 (~60–90 hPa of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A, acquired over southern Scandinavia on 14 January 2003, show plane-wave-like oscillations with a wavelength λh of ~400–500 km and peak brightness temperature amplitudes of up to 0.9 K. The wave-like pattern is observed in AMSU-A radiances from 8 overpasses of this region by 4 different satellites, revealing a growth in the disturbance amplitude from 00:00 UTC to 12:00 UTC and a change in its horizontal structure between 12:00 UTC and 20:00 UTC. Forecast and hindcast runs for 14 January 2003 using high-resolution global and regional numerical weather prediction (NWP models generate a lower stratospheric mountain wave over southern Scandinavia with peak 90 hPa temperature amplitudes of ~5–7 K at 12:00 UTC and a similar horizontal wavelength, packet width, phase structure and time evolution to the disturbance observed in AMSU-A radiances. The wave's vertical wavelength is ~12 km. These NWP fields are validated against radiosonde wind and temperature profiles and airborne lidar profiles of temperature and aerosol backscatter ratios acquired from the NASA DC-8 during the second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II. Both the amplitude and phase of the stratospheric mountain wave in the various NWP fields agree well with localized perturbation features in these suborbital measurements. In particular, we show that this wave formed the type II polar stratospheric clouds measured by the DC-8 lidar. To compare directly with the AMSU-A data, we convert these validated NWP temperature fields into swath-scanned brightness temperatures using three-dimensional Channel 9 weighting functions and the actual AMSU-A scan patterns from each of the 8 overpasses of this region. These NWP-based brightness temperatures contain two-dimensional oscillations due to this resolved stratospheric mountain wave that have an amplitude, wavelength

  3. Improving Regional Forecast by Assimilating Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles into WRF Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and produce improved forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced space-based atmospheric sounding systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate high resolution AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version 2.2 using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background type, and an optimal methodology for ingesting AIRS temperature and moisture profiles as separate overland and overwater retrievals with different error characteristics. The AIRS thermodynamic profiles are derived from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm and contain information about the quality of each temperature layer. The quality indicators were used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture data for each profile location and pressure level. The analyses were then used to conduct a month-long series of regional forecasts over the continental U.S. The long-term impacts of AIRS profiles on forecast were assessed against verifying NAM analyses and stage IV precipitation data.

  4. Improving 7-Day Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Temperature Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Rosenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a new set of Data Assimilation Experiments covering the period January 1 to February 29, 2016 using the GEOS-5 DAS. Our experiments assimilate all data used operationally by GMAO (Control) with some modifications. Significant improvement in Global and Southern Hemisphere Extra-tropical 7-day forecast skill was obtained when: We assimilated AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles in place of observed AIRS radiances, and also did not assimilate CrISATMS radiances, nor did we assimilate radiosonde temperature profiles or aircraft temperatures. This new methodology did not improve or degrade 7-day Northern Hemispheric Extra-tropical forecast skill. We are conducting experiments aimed at further improving of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical forecast skill.

  5. Earth Observing System (EOS)/ Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Special Test Equipment. Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the functional, performance, and interface requirements for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A) Special Test Equipment (STE) software used in the test and integration of the instruments.

  6. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)-A Brightness Temperature, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) for Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) brightness temperature in "window channels". The data cover a time period from...

  7. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AMSU-A Level 1c Brightness Temperature, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains Level 1c inter-calibrated brightness temperatures from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) sensors onboard six polar orbiting...

  8. A Comparison of the Red Green Blue (RGB) Air Mass Imagery and Hyperspectral Infrared Retrieved Profiles and NOAA G-IV Dropsondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Folmer, Michael; Dunion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    RGB air mass imagery is derived from multiple channels or paired channel differences. The combination of channels and channel differences means the resulting imagery does not represent a quantity or physical parameter such as brightness temperature in conventional single channel imagery. Without a specific quantity to reference, forecasters are often confused as to what RGB products represent. Hyperspectral infrared retrieved profiles and NOAA G-IV dropsondes provide insight about the vertical structure of the air mass represented on the RGB air mass imagery and are a first step to validating the imagery.

  9. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 CO2 support retrieval (AIRS-only) V005 (AIRS2SPC) at GES DISC) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  10. Coupled Retrieval of Aerosol Properties and Surface Reflection Using the Airborne Multi-angle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F.; van Harten, G.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Diner, D. J.; Seidel, F. C.; Garay, M. J.; Dubovik, O.

    2016-12-01

    The Airborne Multi-angle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) [1] has been flying aboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft since October 2010. In step-and-stare operation mode, AirMSPI acquires radiance and polarization data at 355, 380, 445, 470*, 555, 660*, 865*, and 935 nm (* denotes polarimetric bands). The imaged area covers about 10 km by 10 km and is observed from 9 view angles between ±67° off of nadir. We have developed an efficient and flexible code that uses the information content of AirMSPI data for a coupled retrieval of aerosol properties and surface reflection. The retrieval was built based on the multi-pixel optimization concept [2], with the use of a hybrid radiative transfer model [3] that combines the Markov Chain [4] and adding/doubling methods [5]. The convergence and robustness of our algorithm is ensured by applying constraints on (a) the spectral variation of the Bidirectional Polarization Distribution Function (BPDF) and angular shape of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF); (b) the spectral variation of aerosol optical properties; and (c) the spatial variation of aerosol parameters across neighboring image pixels. Our retrieval approach has been tested using over 20 AirMSPI datasets having low to moderately high aerosol loadings ( 0.02550-nmSpace Sci. Rev. 16, 527 (1974).

  11. Effects of diurnal adjustment on biases and trends derived from inter-sensor calibrated AMSU-A data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Zou, X.; Qin, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Measurements of brightness temperatures from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) temperature sounding instruments onboard NOAA Polarorbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) have been extensively used for studying atmospheric temperature trends over the past several decades. Intersensor biases, orbital drifts and diurnal variations of atmospheric and surface temperatures must be considered before using a merged long-term time series of AMSU-A measurements from NOAA-15, -18, -19 and MetOp-A.We study the impacts of the orbital drift and orbital differences of local equator crossing times (LECTs) on temperature trends derivable from AMSU-A using near-nadir observations from NOAA-15, NOAA-18, NOAA-19, and MetOp-A during 1998-2014 over the Amazon rainforest. The double difference method is firstly applied to estimation of inter-sensor biases between any two satellites during their overlapping time period. The inter-calibrated observations are then used to generate a monthly mean diurnal cycle of brightness temperature for each AMSU-A channel. A diurnal correction is finally applied each channel to obtain AMSU-A data valid at the same local time. Impacts of the inter-sensor bias correction and diurnal correction on the AMSU-A derived long-term atmospheric temperature trends are separately quantified and compared with those derived from original data. It is shown that the orbital drift and differences of LECTamong different POESs induce a large uncertainty in AMSU-A derived long-term warming/cooling trends. After applying an inter-sensor bias correction and a diurnal correction, the warming trends at different local times, which are approximately the same, are smaller by half than the trends derived without applying these corrections.

  12. AIRS retrieved CO{sub 2} and its association with climatic parameters over India during 2004–2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. Ravi; Revadekar, J.V.; Tiwari, Yogesh K., E-mail: yktiwari@gmail.com

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) retrieved mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO{sub 2}) have been used to study the variability and its association with the climatic parameters over India during 2004 to 2011. The study also aims in understanding transport of CO{sub 2} from surface to mid-troposphere over India. The annual cycle of mid-tropospheric CO{sub 2} shows gradual increase in concentration from January till the month of May at the rate ∼ 0.6 ppm/month. It decreases continuously in summer monsoon (JJAS) at the same rate during which strong westerlies persists over the region. A slight increase is seen during winter monsoon (DJF). Being a greenhouse gas, annual cycle of CO{sub 2} show good resemblance with annual cycle of surface air temperature with correlation coefficient (CC) of + 0.8. Annual cycle of vertical velocity indicate inverse pattern compared to annual cycle of CO{sub 2}. High values of mid-tropospheric CO{sub 2} correspond to upward wind, while low values of mid-tropospheric CO{sub 2} correspond to downward wind. In addition to vertical motion, zonal winds are also contributing towards the transport of CO{sub 2} from surface to mid-troposphere. Vegetation as it absorbs CO{sub 2} at surface level, show inverse annual cycle to that of annual cycle of CO{sub 2} (CC-0.64). Seasonal variation of rainfall-CO{sub 2} shows similarities with seasonal variation of NDVI-CO{sub 2}. However, the use of long period data sets for CO{sub 2} at the surface and at the mid-troposphere will be an advantage to confirm these results. - Highlights: • Association of AIRS CO{sub 2} with climate parameters over India • CO{sub 2} show positive correlation with surface temperature • Vertical/horizontal winds contribute towards CO{sub 2} transport • Vegetation and monsoonal rainfall show inverse relationship with CO{sub 2}.

  13. HCl and ClO in activated Arctic air; first retrieved vertical profiles from TELIS submillimetre limb spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Lange

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The first profile retrieval results of the Terahertz and submillimeter Limb Sounder (TELIS balloon instrument are presented. The spectra are recorded during a 13-h balloon flight on 24 January 2010 from Kiruna, Sweden. The TELIS instrument was mounted on the MIPAS-B2 gondola and shared this platform with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS and the mini-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mini-DOAS instruments. The flight took place within the Arctic vortex at an altitude of ≈34 km in chlorine activated air, and both active (ClO and inactive chlorine (HCl were measured over an altitude range of respectively ≈16–32 km and ≈10–32 km. In this altitude range, the increase of ClO concentration levels during sunrise has been recorded with a temporal resolution of one minute. During the daytime equilibrium, a maximum ClO level of 2.1 ± 0.3 ppbv has been observed at an altitude of 23.5 km. This equilibrium profile is validated against the ClO profile by the satellite instrument Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS aboard EOS Aura. HCl profiles have been determined from two different isotopes – H35Cl and H37Cl – and are also validated against MLS. The precision of all profiles is well below 0.01 ppbv and the overall accuracy is therefore governed by systematic effects. The total uncertainty of these effects is estimated to be maximal 0.3 ppbv for ClO around its peak value at 23.5 km during the daytime equilibrium, and for HCl it ranges from 0.05 to 0.4 ppbv, depending on altitude. In both cases the main uncertainty stems from a largely unknown non-linear response in the detector.

  14. Advancing NASA’s AirMOSS P-Band Radar Root Zone Soil Moisture Retrieval Algorithm via Incorporation of Richards’ Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadeghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available P-band radar remote sensing applied during the Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS mission has shown great potential for estimation of root zone soil moisture. When retrieving the soil moisture profile (SMP from P-band radar observations, a mathematical function describing the vertical moisture distribution is required. Because only a limited number of observations are available, the number of free parameters of the mathematical model must not exceed the number of observed data. For this reason, an empirical quadratic function (second order polynomial is currently applied in the AirMOSS inversion algorithm to retrieve the SMP. The three free parameters of the polynomial are retrieved for each AirMOSS pixel using three backscatter observations (i.e., one frequency at three polarizations of Horizontal-Horizontal, Vertical-Vertical and Horizontal-Vertical. In this paper, a more realistic, physically-based SMP model containing three free parameters is derived, based on a solution to Richards’ equation for unsaturated flow in soils. Evaluation of the new SMP model based on both numerical simulations and measured data revealed that it exhibits greater flexibility for fitting measured and simulated SMPs than the currently applied polynomial. It is also demonstrated that the new SMP model can be reduced to a second order polynomial at the expense of fitting accuracy.

  15. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Support Daily Product (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The L3 support products are similar to the L3 standard products but contain fields which are not fully validated, or are inputs or intermediary values. Because no...

  16. Reanalysis of the Indian summer monsoon: four dimensional data assimilation of AIRS retrievals in a regional data assimilation and modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attada, Raju; Parekh, Anant; Chowdary, J. S.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2018-04-01

    This work is the first attempt to produce a multi-year downscaled regional reanalysis of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational analyses and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) version 5 temperature and moisture retrievals in a regional model. Reanalysis of nine monsoon seasons (2003-2011) are produced in two parallel setups. The first set of experiments simply downscale the original NCEP operational analyses, whilst the second one assimilates the AIRS temperature and moisture profiles. The results show better representation of the key monsoon features such as low level jet, tropical easterly jet, subtropical westerly jet, monsoon trough and the spatial pattern of precipitation when AIRS profiles are assimilated (compared to those without AIRS data assimilation). The distribution of temperature, moisture and meridional gradients of dynamical and thermodynamical fields over the monsoon region are better represented in the reanalysis that assimilates AIRS profiles. The change induced by AIRS data on the moist and thermodynamic conditions results in more realistic rendering of the vertical shear associated with the monsoon, which in turn leads to a proper moisture transport and the moist convective feedback. This feedback benefits the representation of the regional monsoon characteristics, the monsoon dynamics and the moist convective processes on the seasonal time scale. This study emphasizes the use of AIRS soundings for downscaling of ISM representation in a regional reanalysis.

  17. Reanalysis of the Indian summer monsoon: four dimensional data assimilation of AIRS retrievals in a regional data assimilation and modeling framework

    KAUST Repository

    Attada, Raju

    2017-07-04

    This work is the first attempt to produce a multi-year downscaled regional reanalysis of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational analyses and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) version 5 temperature and moisture retrievals in a regional model. Reanalysis of nine monsoon seasons (2003–2011) are produced in two parallel setups. The first set of experiments simply downscale the original NCEP operational analyses, whilst the second one assimilates the AIRS temperature and moisture profiles. The results show better representation of the key monsoon features such as low level jet, tropical easterly jet, subtropical westerly jet, monsoon trough and the spatial pattern of precipitation when AIRS profiles are assimilated (compared to those without AIRS data assimilation). The distribution of temperature, moisture and meridional gradients of dynamical and thermodynamical fields over the monsoon region are better represented in the reanalysis that assimilates AIRS profiles. The change induced by AIRS data on the moist and thermodynamic conditions results in more realistic rendering of the vertical shear associated with the monsoon, which in turn leads to a proper moisture transport and the moist convective feedback. This feedback benefits the representation of the regional monsoon characteristics, the monsoon dynamics and the moist convective processes on the seasonal time scale. This study emphasizes the use of AIRS soundings for downscaling of ISM representation in a regional reanalysis.

  18. Use of Quality Controlled AIRS Temperature Soundings to Improve Forecast Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Reale, Oreste; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. The primary products of AIRS/AMSU-A are twice daily global fields of atmospheric temperature-humidity profiles, ozone profiles, sea/land surface skin temperature, and cloud related parameters including OLR. Also included are the clear column radiances used to derive these products which are representative of the radiances AIRS would have seen if there were no clouds in the field of view. All products also have error estimates. The sounding goals of AIRS are to produce 1 km tropospheric layer mean temperatures with an rms error of 1K, and layer precipitable water with an rms error of 20 percent, in cases with up to 90 percent effective cloud cover. The products are designed for data assimilation purposes for the improvement of numerical weather prediction, as well as for the study of climate and meteorological processes. With regard to data assimilation, one can use either the products themselves or the clear column radiances from which the products were derived. The AIRS Version 5 retrieval algorithm is now being used operationally at the Goddard DISC in the routine generation of geophysical parameters derived from AIRS/AMSU data. A major innovation in Version 5 is the ability to generate case-by-case level-by-level error estimates for retrieved quantities and clear column radiances, and the use of these error estimates for Quality Control. The temperature profile error estimates are used to determine a case-by-case characteristic pressure pbest, down to which the profile is considered acceptable for data assimilation purposes. The characteristic pressure p(sub best) is determined by comparing the case dependent error estimate (delta)T(p) to the threshold values (Delta)T(p). The AIRS Version 5 data set provides error estimates of T(p) at all levels, and also profile dependent values of pbest based

  19. A Prototype Hail Detection Algorithm and Hail Climatology Developed with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Ralph; Beauchamp, James; Cecil, Dan; Heymsfeld, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies published in the open literature, a strong relationship between the occurrence of hail and the microwave brightness temperatures (primarily at 37 and 85 GHz) was documented. These studies were performed with the Nimbus-7 SMMR, the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and most recently, the Aqua AMSR-E sensor. This lead to climatologies of hail frequency from TMI and AMSR-E, however, limitations include geographical domain of the TMI sensor (35 S to 35 N) and the overpass time of the Aqua satellite (130 am/pm local time), both of which reduce an accurate mapping of hail events over the global domain and the full diurnal cycle. Nonetheless, these studies presented exciting, new applications for passive microwave sensors. Since 1998, NOAA and EUMETSAT have been operating the AMSU-A/B and the MHS on several operational satellites: NOAA-15 through NOAA-19; MetOp-A and -B. With multiple satellites in operation since 2000, the AMSU/MHS sensors provide near global coverage every 4 hours, thus, offering a much larger time and temporal sampling than TRMM or AMSR-E. With similar observation frequencies near 30 and 85 GHz and additionally three at the 183 GHz water vapor band, the potential to detect strong convection associated with severe storms on a more comprehensive time and space scale exists. In this study, we develop a prototype AMSU-based hail detection algorithm through the use of collocated satellite and surface hail reports over the continental U.S. for a 12-year period (2000-2011). Compared with the surface observations, the algorithm detects approximately 40 percent of hail occurrences. The simple threshold algorithm is then used to generate a hail climatology that is based on all available AMSU observations during 2000-11 that is stratified in several ways, including total hail occurrence by month (March through September), total annual, and over the diurnal cycle. Independent comparisons are made compared to similar data sets derived from other

  20. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Structural Math Model - A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, W.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the description for the NASTRAN finite element for the AMSU-A1 module. The purpose of this report is to document the NASTRAN bulk data deck, transmitted under separate cover. The structural Math Model is to be used by the spacecraft contractor for dynamic loads analysis.

  1. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrumentation interface control document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) defines the specific details of the complete accomodation information between the Earth Observing System (EOS) PM Spacecraft and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A)Instrument. This is the first submittal of the ICN: it will be updated periodically throughout the life of the program. The next update is planned prior to Critical Design Review (CDR).

  2. Comparison between linear and nonlinear trends in NOAA-15 AMSU-A brightness temperatures during 1998-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Z. [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Center of Data Assimilation for Research and Application, Nanjing (China); Zou, X. [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Center of Data Assimilation for Research and Application, Nanjing (China); Florida State University, Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Weng, F. [NOAA/NESDIS, Center for Satellite Applications and Research, Camp Springs, MD (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Brightness temperature observations from Microwave Sounding Unit and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) on board National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites have been widely utilized for estimating the global climate trend in the troposphere and stratosphere. A common approach for deriving the trend is linear regression, which implicitly assumes the trend being a straight line over the whole length of a time series and is often highly sensitive to the data record length. This study explores a new adaptive and temporally local data analysis method - Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) - for estimating the global trends. In EEMD, a non-stationary time series is decomposed adaptively and locally into a sequence of amplitude-frequency modulated oscillatory components and a time-varying trend. The AMSU-A data from the NOAA-15 satellite over the time period from October 26, 1998 to August 7, 2010 are employed for this study. Using data over Amazon rainforest areas, it is shown that channel 3 is least sensitive to the orbital drift among four AMSU-A surface sensitive channels. The decadal trends of AMSU-A channel 3 and other eight channels in the troposphere and stratosphere are deduced and compared using both methods. It is shown that the decadal climate trends of most AMSU-A channels are nonlinear except for channels 3-4 in Northern Hemisphere only and channels 12-13. Although the decadal trend variation of the global average brightness temperature is no more than 0.2 K, the regional decadal trend variation could be more (less) than 3 K (-3 K) in high latitudes and over high terrains. (orig.)

  3. Improvements to the swath-level near-surface atmospheric state parameter retrievals within the NRL Ocean Surface Flux System (NFLUX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rowley, C. D.; Meyer, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Ocean Surface Flux System (NFLUX) is an end-to-end data processing and assimilation system used to provide near-real-time satellite-based surface heat flux fields over the global ocean. The first component of NFLUX produces near-real-time swath-level estimates of surface state parameters and downwelling radiative fluxes. The focus here will be on the satellite swath-level state parameter retrievals, namely surface air temperature, surface specific humidity, and surface scalar wind speed over the ocean. Swath-level state parameter retrievals are produced from satellite sensor data records (SDRs) from four passive microwave sensors onboard 10 platforms: the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) sensor onboard the DMSP F16, F17, and F18 platforms; the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) sensor onboard the NOAA-15, NOAA-18, NOAA-19, Metop-A, and Metop-B platforms; the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) sensor onboard the S-NPP platform; and the Advanced Microwave Scannin Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) sensor onboard the GCOM-W1 platform. The satellite SDRs are translated into state parameter estimates using multiple polynomial regression algorithms. The coefficients to the algorithms are obtained using a bootstrapping technique with all available brightness temperature channels for a given sensor, in addition to a SST field. For each retrieved parameter for each sensor-platform combination, unique algorithms are developed for ascending and descending orbits, as well as clear vs cloudy conditions. Each of the sensors produces surface air temperature and surface specific humidity retrievals. The SSMIS and AMSR2 sensors also produce surface scalar wind speed retrievals. Improvement is seen in the SSMIS retrievals when separate algorithms are used for the even and odd scans, with the odd scans performing better than the even scans. Currently, NFLUX treats all SSMIS scans as even scans. Additional improvement in all of

  4. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of GPS RO-Calibrated AMSU Channel 7 (Temperatures of Troposphere / Stratosphere, TTS), Version 1.0 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Data Records (CDR) for Channel 7 contains Radio Occulation (RO) calibrated brightness temperatures from AMSU-A channel 7 measurements at 54.9 GHz from...

  5. Single-footprint retrievals for AIRS using a fast TwoSlab cloud-representation model and the SARTA all-sky infrared radiative transfer algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza-Machado, Sergio; Larrabee Strow, L.; Tangborn, Andrew; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong; Liu, Xu; Wu, Wan; Yang, Qiguang

    2018-01-01

    One-dimensional variational retrievals of temperature and moisture fields from hyperspectral infrared (IR) satellite sounders use cloud-cleared radiances (CCRs) as their observation. These derived observations allow the use of clear-sky-only radiative transfer in the inversion for geophysical variables but at reduced spatial resolution compared to the native sounder observations. Cloud clearing can introduce various errors, although scenes with large errors can be identified and ignored. Information content studies show that, when using multilayer cloud liquid and ice profiles in infrared hyperspectral radiative transfer codes, there are typically only 2-4 degrees of freedom (DOFs) of cloud signal. This implies a simplified cloud representation is sufficient for some applications which need accurate radiative transfer. Here we describe a single-footprint retrieval approach for clear and cloudy conditions, which uses the thermodynamic and cloud fields from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as a first guess, together with a simple cloud-representation model coupled to a fast scattering radiative transfer algorithm (RTA). The NWP model thermodynamic and cloud profiles are first co-located to the observations, after which the N-level cloud profiles are converted to two slab clouds (TwoSlab; typically one for ice and one for water clouds). From these, one run of our fast cloud-representation model allows an improvement of the a priori cloud state by comparing the observed and model-simulated radiances in the thermal window channels. The retrieval yield is over 90 %, while the degrees of freedom correlate with the observed window channel brightness temperature (BT) which itself depends on the cloud optical depth. The cloud-representation and scattering package is benchmarked against radiances computed using a maximum random overlap (RMO) cloud scheme. All-sky infrared radiances measured by NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and NWP thermodynamic and cloud

  6. Single-footprint retrievals for AIRS using a fast TwoSlab cloud-representation model and the SARTA all-sky infrared radiative transfer algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DeSouza-Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional variational retrievals of temperature and moisture fields from hyperspectral infrared (IR satellite sounders use cloud-cleared radiances (CCRs as their observation. These derived observations allow the use of clear-sky-only radiative transfer in the inversion for geophysical variables but at reduced spatial resolution compared to the native sounder observations. Cloud clearing can introduce various errors, although scenes with large errors can be identified and ignored. Information content studies show that, when using multilayer cloud liquid and ice profiles in infrared hyperspectral radiative transfer codes, there are typically only 2–4 degrees of freedom (DOFs of cloud signal. This implies a simplified cloud representation is sufficient for some applications which need accurate radiative transfer. Here we describe a single-footprint retrieval approach for clear and cloudy conditions, which uses the thermodynamic and cloud fields from numerical weather prediction (NWP models as a first guess, together with a simple cloud-representation model coupled to a fast scattering radiative transfer algorithm (RTA. The NWP model thermodynamic and cloud profiles are first co-located to the observations, after which the N-level cloud profiles are converted to two slab clouds (TwoSlab; typically one for ice and one for water clouds. From these, one run of our fast cloud-representation model allows an improvement of the a priori cloud state by comparing the observed and model-simulated radiances in the thermal window channels. The retrieval yield is over 90 %, while the degrees of freedom correlate with the observed window channel brightness temperature (BT which itself depends on the cloud optical depth. The cloud-representation and scattering package is benchmarked against radiances computed using a maximum random overlap (RMO cloud scheme. All-sky infrared radiances measured by NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS and NWP

  7. Evaluation of AirMSPI photopolarimetric retrievals of smoke properties with in-situ observations collected during the ImPACT-PM field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Garay, M. J.; Xu, F.; Seidel, F.; Diner, D. J.; Seinfeld, J.; Bates, K. H.; Kong, W.; Kenseth, C.; Cappa, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    We introduce and evaluate an approach for obtaining closure between in situ and polarimetric remote sensing observations of smoke properties obtained during the collocated CIRPAS Twin Otter and ER-2 aircraft measurements of the Lebec fire event on July 8, 2016. We investigate the utility of multi-angle, spectropolarimetric remote sensing imagery to evaluate the relative contribution of organics, non-organic and black carbon particles to smoke particulate composition. The remote sensing data were collected during the Imaging Polarimetric and Characterization of Tropospheric Particular Matter (ImPACT-PM) field campaign by the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI), which flew on NASA's high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. The ImPACT-PM field campaign was a joint JPL/Caltech effort to combine measurements from the Terra Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), AirMSPI, in situ airborne measurements, and a chemical transport model to validate remote sensing retrievals of different types of airborne particulate matter with a particular emphasis on carbonaceous aerosols. The in-situ aerosol data were collected with a suite of Caltech instruments on board the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft and included the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), the Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA), and the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP-2). The CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft was also equipped with the Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), nephelometer, a particle counter, and meteorological sensors. We found that the multi-angle polarimetric observations are capable of fire particulate emission monitoring by particle type as inferred from the in-situ airborne measurements. Modeling of retrieval sensitivities show that the characterization of black carbon is the most challenging. The work aims at evaluating multi-angle, spectropolarimetric capabilities for particulate matter characterization in support of the Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) satellite investigation

  8. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-10-22

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12-23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models.

  9. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric 137Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12–23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric 137Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models. PMID:25335435

  10. Synergistic multi-sensor and multi-frequency retrieval of cloud ice water path constrained by CloudSat collocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Tanvir; Srivastava, Prashant K.

    2015-01-01

    The cloud ice water path (IWP) is one of the major parameters that have a strong influence on earth's radiation budget. Onboard satellite sensors are recognized as valuable tools to measure the IWP in a global scale. Albeit, active sensors such as the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) onboard the CloudSat satellite has better capability to measure the ice water content profile, thus, its vertical integral, IWP, than any passive microwave (MW) or infrared (IR) sensors. In this study, we investigate the retrieval of IWP from MW and IR sensors, including AMSU-A, MHS, and HIRS instruments on-board the N19 satellite, such that the retrieval is consistent with the CloudSat IWP estimates. This is achieved through the collocations between the passive satellite measurements and CloudSat scenes. Potential benefit of synergistic multi-sensor multi-frequency retrieval is investigated. Two modeling approaches are explored for the IWP retrieval – generalized linear model (GLM) and neural network (NN). The investigation has been carried out over both ocean and land surface types. The MW/IR synergy is found to be retrieved more accurate IWP than the individual AMSU-A, MHS, or HIRS measurements. Both GLM and NN approaches have been able to exploit the synergistic retrievals. - Highlights: • MW/IR synergy is investigated for IWP retrieval. • The IWP retrieval is modeled using CloudSat collocations. • Two modeling approaches are explored – GLM and ANN. • MW/IR synergy performs better than the MW or IR only retrieval

  11. Earth Observing System/Meteorological Satellite (EOS/METSAT). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Contamination Control Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, M.

    1998-01-01

    This Contamination Control Plan is submitted in response the Contract Document requirements List (CDRL) 007 under contract NAS5-32314 for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A). In response to the CDRL instructions, this document defines the level of cleanliness and methods/procedures to be followed to achieve adequate cleanliness/contamination control, and defines the required approach to maintain cleanliness/contamination control through shipping, observatory integration, test, and flight. This plan is also applicable to the Meteorological Satellite (METSAT) except where requirements are identified as EOS-specific. This plan is based on two key factors: a. The EOS/METSAT AMSU-A Instruments are not highly contamination sensitive. b. Potential contamination of other EOS Instruments is a key concern as addressed in Section 9/0 of the Performance Assurance Requirements for EOS/METSAT Integrated Programs AMSU-A Instrument (MR) (NASA Specification S-480-79).

  12. Impact of Missing Passive Microwave Sensors on Multi-Satellite Precipitation Retrieval Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of one or two missing passive microwave (PMW input sensors on the end product of multi-satellite precipitation products is an interesting but obscure issue for both algorithm developers and data users. On 28 January 2013, the Version-7 TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA products were reproduced and re-released by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center because the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager-Sounder-F16 (SSMIS-F16 input data were unintentionally disregarded in the prior retrieval. Thus, this study investigates the sensitivity of TMPA algorithm results to missing PMW sensors by intercomparing the “early” and “late” Version-7 TMPA real-time (TMPA-RT precipitation estimates (i.e., without and with AMSU-B, SSMIS-F16 sensors with an independent high-density gauge network of 200 tipping-bucket rain gauges over the Chinese Jinghe river basin (45,421 km2. The retrieval counts and retrieval frequency of various PMW and Infrared (IR sensors incorporated into the TMPA system were also analyzed to identify and diagnose the impacts of sensor availability on the TMPA-RT retrieval accuracy. Results show that the incorporation of AMSU-B and SSMIS-F16 has substantially reduced systematic errors. The improvement exhibits rather strong seasonal and topographic dependencies. Our analyses suggest that one or two single PMW sensors might play a key role in affecting the end product of current combined microwave-infrared precipitation estimates. This finding supports algorithm developers’ current endeavor in spatiotemporally incorporating as many PMW sensors as possible in the multi-satellite precipitation retrieval system called Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement mission (IMERG. This study also recommends users of satellite precipitation products to switch to the newest Version-7 TMPA datasets and

  13. Air Mass Factor Formulation for Spectroscopic Measurements from Satellites: Application to Formaldehyde Retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Paul I.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Chance, Kelly; Martin, Randall V.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert; Fiore, Arlene; Li, Qinbin

    2004-01-01

    We present a new formulation for the air mass factor (AMF) to convert slant column measurements of optically thin atmospheric species from space into total vertical columns. Because of atmospheric scattering, the AMF depends on the vertical distribution of the species. We formulate the AMF as the integral of the relative vertical distribution (shape factor) of the species over the depth of the atmosphere, weighted by altitude-dependent coefficients (scattering weights) computed independently from a radiative transfer model. The scattering weights are readily tabulated, and one can then obtain the AMF for any observation scene by using shape factors from a three dimensional (3-D) atmospheric chemistry model for the period of observation. This approach subsequently allows objective evaluation of the 3-D model with the observed vertical columns, since the shape factor and the vertical column in the model represent two independent pieces of information. We demonstrate the AMF method by using slant column measurements of formaldehyde at 346 nm from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment satellite instrument over North America during July 1996. Shape factors are cumputed with the Global Earth Observing System CHEMistry (GEOS-CHEM) global 3-D model and are checked for consistency with the few available aircraft measurements. Scattering weights increase by an order of magnitude from the surface to the upper troposphere. The AMFs are typically 20-40% less over continents than over the oceans and are approximately half the values calculated in the absence of scattering. Model-induced errors in the AMF are estimated to be approximately 10%. The GEOS-CHEM model captures 50% and 60% of the variances in the observed slant and vertical columns, respectively. Comparison of the simulated and observed vertical columns allows assessment of model bias.

  14. Combining Passive Microwave Sounders with CYGNSS information for improved retrievals: Observations during Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    The launch of CYGNSS (Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System) has added an interesting component to satellite observations: it can provide wind speeds in the tropical area with a high repetition rate. Passive microwave sounders that are overpassing the same region can benefit from this information, when it comes to the retrieval of temperature or water profiles: the uncertainty about wind speeds has a strong impact on emissivity and reflectivity calculations with respect to surface temperature. This has strong influences on the uncertainty of retrieval of temperature and water content, especially under extreme weather conditions. Adding CYGNSS information to the retrieval can help to reduce errors and provide a significantly better sounder retrieval. Based on observations during Hurricane Harvey, we want to show the impact of CYGNSS data on the retrieval of passive microwave sensors. We will show examples on the impact on the retrieval from polar orbiting instruments, like the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) and AMSU-A/B on NOAA-18 and 19. In addition we will also show the impact on retrievals from HAMSR (High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer), which was flying on the Global Hawk during the EPOCH campaign. We will compare the results with other observations and estimate the impact of additional CYGNSS information on the microwave retrieval, especially on the impact in error and uncertainty reduction. We think, that a synergetic use of these different data sources could significantly help to produce better assimilation products for forecast assimilation.

  15. Investigation of Simultaneous Effects of Aerosol Properties and Aerosol Peak Height on the Air Mass Factors for Space-Borne NO2 Retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunkee Hong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the simultaneous effects of aerosol peak height (APH, aerosol properties, measurement geometry, and other factors on the air mass factor for NO2 retrieval at sites with high NO2 concentration. A comparison of the effects of high and low surface reflectance reveals that NO2 air mass factor (AMF values over a snowy surface (surface reflectance 0.8 are generally higher than those over a deciduous forest surface (surface reflectance 0.05. Under high aerosol optical depth (AOD conditions, the aerosol shielding effect over a high-albedo surface is revealed to reduce the path-length of light at the surface, whereas high single scattering albedo (SSA conditions (e.g., SSA = 0.95 lead to an increase in the aerosol albedo effect, which results in an increased AMF over areas with low surface reflectance. We also conducted an in-depth study of the APH effect on AMF. For an AOD of 0.1 and half width (HW of 5 km, NO2 AMF decreases by 29% from 1.36 to 0.96 as APH changes from 0 to 2 km. In the case of high-AOD conditions (0.9 and HW of 5 km, the NO2 AMF decreases by 240% from 1.85 to 0.54 as APH changes from 0 to 2 km. The AMF variation due to error in the model input parameters (e.g., AOD, SSA, aerosol shape, and APH is also examined. When APH is 0 km with an AOD of 0.4, SSA of 0.88, and surface reflectance of 0.05, a 30% error in AOD induces an AMF error of between 4.85% and −3.67%, an SSA error of 0.04 leads to NO2 VCD errors of between 4.46% and −4.77%, and a 30% error in AOD induces an AMF error of between −9.53% and 8.35% with an APH of 3 km. In addition to AOD and SSA, APH is an important factor in calculating AMF, due to the 2 km error in APH under high-SZA conditions, which leads to an NO2 VCD error of over 60%. Aerosol shape is also found to have a measureable effect on AMF under high-AOD and small relative azimuth angle (RAA conditions. The diurnal effect of the NO2 profile is also examined and discussed.

  16. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: Final Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N 1331720-2TST, S/N 105/A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, Final Comprehensive Performance Test (CPT) Report, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). This specification establishes the requirements for the CPT and Limited Performance Test (LPT) of the AMSU-1A, referred to here in as the unit. The sequence in which the several phases of this test procedure shall take place is shown.

  17. Comparison of Gaussian and non-Gaussian Atmospheric Profile Retrievals from Satellite Microwave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, A.; Forsythe, J. M.; Fletcher, S. J.; Jones, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere at Colorado State University has recently developed two different versions of a mixed-distribution (lognormal combined with a Gaussian) based microwave temperature and mixing ratio retrieval system as well as the original Gaussian-based approach. These retrieval systems are based upon 1DVAR theory but have been adapted to use different descriptive statistics of the lognormal distribution to minimize the background errors. The input radiance data is from the AMSU-A and MHS instruments on the NOAA series of spacecraft. To help illustrate how the three retrievals are affected by the change in the distribution we are in the process of creating a new website to show the output from the different retrievals. Here we present initial results from different dynamical situations to show how the tool could be used by forecasters as well as for educators. However, as the new retrieved values are from a non-Gaussian based 1DVAR then they will display non-Gaussian behaviors that need to pass a quality control measure that is consistent with this distribution, and these new measures are presented here along with initial results for checking the retrievals.

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  19. Image retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnager, Susanne

    1997-01-01

    The paper touches upon indexing and retrieval for effective searches of digitized images. Different conceptions of what subject indexing means are described as a basis for defining an operational subject indexing strategy for images. The methodology is based on the art historian Erwin Panofsky......), special knowledge about image codes, and special knowledge about history of ideas. The semiologist Roland Barthes has established a semiology for pictorial expressions based on advertising photos. Barthes uses the concepts denotation/connotation where denotations can be explained as the sober expression...

  20. Automated information retrieval using CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Rodney Doyle, III; Beug, James Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Expert systems have considerable potential to assist computer users in managing the large volume of information available to them. One possible use of an expert system is to model the information retrieval interests of a human user and then make recommendations to the user as to articles of interest. At Cal Poly, a prototype expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) serves as an Automated Information Retrieval System (AIRS). AIRS monitors a user's reading preferences, develops a profile of the user, and then evaluates items returned from the information base. When prompted by the user, AIRS returns a list of items of interest to the user. In order to minimize the impact on system resources, AIRS is designed to run in the background during periods of light system use.

  1. Comparison of Laser and Stereo Optical, SAR and InSAR Point Clouds from Air- and Space-Borne Sources in the Retrieval of Forest Inventory Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is anticipated that many of the future forest mapping applications will be based on three-dimensional (3D point clouds. A comparison study was conducted to verify the explanatory power and information contents of several 3D remote sensing data sources on the retrieval of above ground biomass (AGB, stem volume (VOL, basal area (G, basal-area weighted mean diameter (Dg and Lorey’s mean height (Hg at the plot level, utilizing the following data: synthetic aperture radar (SAR Interferometry, SAR radargrammetry, satellite-imagery having stereo viewing capability, airborne laser scanning (ALS with various densities (0.8–6 pulses/m2 and aerial stereo imagery. Laser scanning is generally known as the primary source providing a 3D point cloud. However, photogrammetric, radargrammetric and interferometric techniques can be used to produce 3D point clouds from space- and air-borne stereo images. Such an image-based point cloud could be utilized in a similar manner as ALS providing that accurate digital terrain model is available. In this study, the performance of these data sources for providing point cloud data was evaluated with 91 sample plots that were established in Evo, southern Finland within a boreal forest zone and surveyed in 2014 for this comparison. The prediction models were built using random forests technique with features derived from each data sources as independent variables and field measurements of forest attributes as response variable. The relative root mean square errors (RMSEs varied in the ranges of 4.6% (0.97 m–13.4% (2.83 m for Hg, 11.7% (3.0 cm–20.6% (5.3 cm for Dg, 14.8% (4.0 m2/ha–25.8% (6.9 m2/ha for G, 15.9% (43.0 m3/ha–31.2% (84.2 m3/ha for VOL and 14.3% (19.2 Mg/ha–27.5% (37.0 Mg/ha for AGB, respectively, depending on the data used. Results indicate that ALS data achieved the most accurate estimates for all forest inventory attributes. For image-based 3D data, high-altitude aerial images and WorldView-2

  2. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for installation and operation of a waste retrieval system and tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246 247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 07 for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in the 24 1 AP-102 Tank and one waste retrieval system in the 241 AP 104 Tank Pursuant to 40 CFR 61 09 (a)( 1) this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start up notification Its is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of the initial start up notification Project W 211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is scoped to install a waste retrieval system in the following double-shell tanks 241-AP 102-AP 104 AN 102, AN 103, AN-104, AN 105, AY 102 AZ 102 and SY-102 between now and the year 2011. Because of the extended installation schedules and unknowns about specific activities/designs at each tank, it was decided to submit NOCs as that information became available This NOC covers the installation and operation of a waste retrieval system in tanks 241 AP-102 and 241 AP 104 Generally this includes removal of existing equipment installation of new equipment and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings Tanks 241 AP 102 and 241 AP 104 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product (i.e. glass logs) The total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) from the construction activities is 0 045 millirem per year The unabated TEDE to the offsite ME1 from operation of the mixer pumps is 0 042 millirem per year

  3. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for installation and operation of a waste retrieval system and tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    1999-11-15

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246 247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 07 for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in the 24 1 AP-102 Tank and one waste retrieval system in the 241 AP 104 Tank Pursuant to 40 CFR 61 09 (a)( 1) this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start up notification Its is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of the initial start up notification Project W 211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is scoped to install a waste retrieval system in the following double-shell tanks 241-AP 102-AP 104 AN 102, AN 103, AN-104, AN 105, AY 102 AZ 102 and SY-102 between now and the year 2011. Because of the extended installation schedules and unknowns about specific activities/designs at each tank, it was decided to submit NOCs as that information became available This NOC covers the installation and operation of a waste retrieval system in tanks 241 AP-102 and 241 AP 104 Generally this includes removal of existing equipment installation of new equipment and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings Tanks 241 AP 102 and 241 AP 104 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product (i.e. glass logs) The total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) from the construction activities is 0 045 millirem per year The unabated TEDE to the offsite ME1 from operation of the mixer pumps is 0 042 millirem per year.

  4. Reanalysis of the Indian summer monsoon: four dimensional data assimilation of AIRS retrievals in a regional data assimilation and modeling framework

    KAUST Repository

    Attada, Raju; Parekh, Anant; Chowdary, J. S.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2017-01-01

    in the reanalysis that assimilates AIRS profiles. The change induced by AIRS data on the moist and thermodynamic conditions results in more realistic rendering of the vertical shear associated with the monsoon, which in turn leads to a proper moisture transport

  5. Assessing the Relative Performance of Microwave-Based Satellite Rain Rate Retrievals Using TRMM Ground Validation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, David B.; Fisher, Brad L.

    2011-01-01

    Space-borne microwave sensors provide critical rain information used in several global multi-satellite rain products, which in turn are used for a variety of important studies, including landslide forecasting, flash flood warning, data assimilation, climate studies, and validation of model forecasts of precipitation. This study employs four years (2003-2006) of satellite data to assess the relative performance and skill of SSM/I (F13, F14 and F15), AMSU-B (N15, N16 and N17), AMSR-E (Aqua) and the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) in estimating surface rainfall based on direct instantaneous comparisons with ground-based rain estimates from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Ground Validation (GV) sites at Kwajalein, Republic of the Marshall Islands (KWAJ) and Melbourne, Florida (MELB). The relative performance of each of these satellite estimates is examined via comparisons with space- and time-coincident GV radar-based rain rate estimates. Because underlying surface terrain is known to affect the relative performance of the satellite algorithms, the data for MELB was further stratified into ocean, land and coast categories using a 0.25deg terrain mask. Of all the satellite estimates compared in this study, TMI and AMSR-E exhibited considerably higher correlations and skills in estimating/observing surface precipitation. While SSM/I and AMSU-B exhibited lower correlations and skills for each of the different terrain categories, the SSM/I absolute biases trended slightly lower than AMSR-E over ocean, where the observations from both emission and scattering channels were used in the retrievals. AMSU-B exhibited the least skill relative to GV in all of the relevant statistical categories, and an anomalous spike was observed in the probability distribution functions near 1.0 mm/hr. This statistical artifact appears to be related to attempts by algorithm developers to include some lighter rain rates, not easily detectable by its scatter-only frequencies. AMSU

  6. Recent Global Warming as Observed by AIRS and Depicted in GISSTEMP and MERRA-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Lee, Jae; Iredell, Lena

    2017-01-01

    AIRS Version-6 monthly mean level-3 surface temperature products confirm the result, depicted in the GISSTEMP dataset, that the earth's surface temperature has been warming since early 2015, though not before that. AIRS is at a higher spatial resolution than GISSTEMP, and produces sharper spatial features which are otherwise in excellent agreement with those of GISSTEMP. Version-6 AO Ts anomalies are consistent with those of Version-6 AIRS/AMSU. Version-7 AO anomalies should be even more accurate, especially at high latitudes. ARCs of MERRA-2 Ts anomalies are spurious as a result of a discontinuity which occurred somewhere between 2007 and 2008. This decreases global mean trends.

  7. On the use of AMSU-based products for the description of soil water content at basin scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manfreda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the dynamics of soil moisture fields is a key issue in hydrology, offering a strategy to improve our understanding of complex climate-soil-vegetation interactions. Besides in-situ measurements and hydrological models, soil moisture dynamics can be inferred by analyzing data acquired by sensors on board of airborne and/or satellite platforms. In this work, we investigated the use of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration – Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (NOAA-AMSU-A radiometer for the remote characterization of soil water content. To this aim, a field measurement campaign, lasted about three months (3 March 2010–18 May 2010, was carried out using a portable time-domain reflectometer (TDR to get soil water content measures over five different locations within an experimental basin of 32.5 km2, located in the South of Italy. In detail, soil moisture measurements were carried out systematically at the times of satellite overpasses, over two square areas of 400 m2, a triangular area of 200 m2 and two transects of 60 and 170 m, respectively. Each monitored site is characterized by different land covers and soil textures, to account for spatial heterogeneity of land surface. Afterwards, a more extensive comparison (i.e. analyzing a 5 yr data time series was made using soil moisture simulated by a hydrological model. Measured and modeled soil moisture data were compared with two AMSU-based indices: the Surface Wetness Index (SWI and the Soil Wetness Variation Index (SWVI. Both time series of indices have been filtered by means of an exponential filter to account for the fact that microwave sensors only provide information at the skin surface. This allowed to understand the ability of each satellite-based index to account for soil moisture dynamics and to understand its performances under different conditions. As a general remark, the comparison shows a higher ability of the filtered

  8. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  9. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Report: Initial Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N 1331200-2-IT, S/N 105/A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report, Initial Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N 1331200-2-IT, S/N 105/A2, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The specification establishes the requirements for the Comprehensive Performance Test (CPT) and Limited Performance Test (LPT) of the Advanced Microwave Sounding, Unit-A2 (AMSU-A2), referred to herein as the unit. The unit is defined on Drawing 1331200. 1.2 Test procedure sequence. The sequence in which the several phases of this test procedure shall take place is shown in Figure 1, but the sequence can be in any order.

  10. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.

  11. Formaldehyde OMI operational retrieval upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.

    2013-05-01

    Total column of formaldehyde (HCHO), a proxy for biogenic emissions, can be observed from satellites using the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The operational HCHO retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the AURA satellite, part of NASA's A-train constellation of Earth Observing satellites, are described. The operational retrieval, based on a basic optical absorption spectroscopy (BOAS) algorithm, has been affected by the degradation of the instrument especially from 2008 onwards. The most significant problems are the unrealistic increasing high background concentrations of HCHO retrieved from OMI and the row anomaly. An upgrade for the original operational algorithm is therefore needed to ensure its trend quality and to account for these difficulties. The strategies implemented to deal with the instrumental degradation are presented here. Air mass factors (AMFs) in the current fitting window show significant wavelength dependence. Fitting uncertainties can potentially be improved by including shorter wavelengths as long as the AMFs wavelength dependence is taken into account. As part of these improvements a look-up table of wavelength-dependent AMFs have been calculated. Using this new table it is possible to retrieve the HCHO total column directly, weighting the HCHO cross sections with the wavelength-dependent AMFs. Additionally, the pixels affected by the row anomaly are now flagged in the level 2 data generated with the upgraded algorithm.

  12. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Performance Verification Reports: Final Comprehensive Performance Test Report, P/N: 1356006-1, S.N: 202/A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, R.

    1998-01-01

    This is the Performance Verification Report. the process specification establishes the requirements for the comprehensive performance test (CPT) and limited performance test (LPT) of the earth observing system advanced microwave sounding unit-A2 (EOS/AMSU-A2), referred to as the unit. The unit is defined on drawing 1356006.

  13. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  14. Laparoscopic specimen retrieval bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorgick, Noam

    2014-10-01

    Specimen retrieval bags have long been used in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery for contained removal of adnexal cysts and masses. More recently, the concerns regarding spread of malignant cells during mechanical morcellation of myoma have led to an additional use of specimen retrieval bags for contained "in-bag" morcellation. This review will discuss the indications for use retrieval bags in gynecologic endoscopy, and describe the different specimen bags available to date.

  15. Private information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Xun; Bertino, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with Private Information Retrieval (PIR), a technique allowing a user to retrieve an element from a server in possession of a database without revealing to the server which element is retrieved. PIR has been widely applied to protect the privacy of the user in querying a service provider on the Internet. For example, by PIR, one can query a location-based service provider about the nearest car park without revealing his location to the server.The first PIR approach was introduced by Chor, Goldreich, Kushilevitz and Sudan in 1995 in a multi-server setting, where the user retriev

  16. Passive Microwave Precipitation Retrieval Uncertainty Characterized based on Field Campaign Data over Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derin, Y.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Anagnostou, M.; Kalogiros, J. A.; Casella, D.; Marra, A. C.; Panegrossi, G.; Sanò, P.

    2017-12-01

    Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) for AMSU/MHS, developed at ISAC-CNR within the EUMETSAT H-SAF. We will present error analysis results for the different PMW rainfall retrievals and discuss dependences on precipitation type, elevation and precipitation microphysics (derived from XPOL).

  17. RETRIEVAL EVENTS EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate impacts to the retrieval concept presented in the Design Analysis ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' (Reference 6), from abnormal events based on Design Basis Events (DBE) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) as defined in two recent analyses: (1) DBE/Scenario Analysis for Preclosure Repository Subsurface Facilities (Reference 4); and (2) Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (Reference 5) The objective of this task is to determine what impacts the DBEs and BDBEs have on the equipment developed for retrieval. The analysis lists potential impacts and recommends changes to be analyzed in subsequent design analyses for developed equipment, or recommend where additional equipment may be needed, to allow retrieval to be performed in all DBE or BDBE situations. This analysis supports License Application design and therefore complies with the requirements of Systems Description Document input criteria comparison as presented in Section 7, Conclusions. In addition, the analysis discusses the impacts associated with not using concrete inverts in the emplacement drifts. The ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' analysis was based on a concrete invert configuration in the emplacement drift. The scope of the analysis, as presented in ''Development Plan for Retrieval Events Evaluation'' (Reference 3) includes evaluation and criteria of the following: Impacts to retrieval from the emplacement drift based on DBE/BDBEs, and changes to the invert configuration for the preclosure period. Impacts to retrieval from the main drifts based on DBE/BDBEs for the preclosure period

  18. Retrieval from semantic memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman-Vonk, Wietske

    1977-01-01

    The present study has been concerned with the retrieval of semantic information. Retrieving semantic information is a fundamental process in almost any kind of cognitive behavior. The introduction presented the main experimental paradigms and results found in the literature on semantic memory as

  19. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, K M

    2000-01-01

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval ...

  20. Retrieval options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  1. Retrieval options study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval;

  2. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  3. Information retrieval system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

    1970-01-01

    Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

  4. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-01-01

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Foreign Body Retrieval ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  7. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  8. Retrieve An Image

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Retrieve An Image. “A building”. “Box-shaped”. “Brown Color”. “Foreshortened view”. OR. Why not specify a similar looking picture? -- Main Motivation!

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to Foreign Body Retrieval Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  11. Rotation Invariant Color Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Swapna Borde; Udhav Bhosle

    2013-01-01

    The new technique for image retrieval using the color features extracted from images based on LogHistogram is proposed. The proposed technique is compared with Global color histogram and histogram ofcorners .It has been observed that number of histogram bins used for retrieval comparison of proposedtechnique (Log Histogram)is less as compared to Global Color Histogram and Histogram of corners. Theexperimental results on a database of 792 images with 11 classes indicate that proposed method (L...

  12. Remote technologies for buried waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.M.; Rice, P.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE is evaluating what should be done with this buried waste. Although the radioactive waste is not particularly mobile unless airborne, some of it was buried with volatile organics and/or other substances that tend to spread easily to surrounding soil or water tables. Volatile organics are hazardous materials (such as trichloroethylene) and require clean-up at certain levels in drinking water. There is concern that the buried volatile organics will spread into the water table and contaminate drinking water. Because of this, the DOE is considering options for handling this buried waste and reducing the risks of spreading or exposure. There are two primary options: containment and stabilization, or retrieval. Containment and stabilization systems would include systems that would leave the waste where it is, but contain and stabilize it so that the radioactive and hazardous materials would not spread to the surrounding soil, water, or air. For example, an in situ vitrification system could be used to melt the waste into a composite glass-like material that would not leach into the surrounding soil, water, or air. Retrieval systems are those that would remove the waste from its burial location for treatment and/or repackaging for long term storage. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate remote technologies that would minimize dust generation and the spread of airborne contaminants during buried waste retrieval. Remote technologies are essential for the retrieval of buried waste because they remove workers from the hazardous environment and provide greater automation, reducing the chances of human error. Minimizing dust generation is also essential to increased safety for the workers and the environment during buried waste retrieval. The main contaminants within the waste are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides, which are easily suspended in air and spread if disturbed

  13. CDRD and PNPR passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithms: verification study over Africa and Southern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panegrossi, Giulia; Casella, Daniele; Cinzia Marra, Anna; Petracca, Marco; Sanò, Paolo; Dietrich, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The ongoing NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement mission (GPM) requires the full exploitation of the complete constellation of passive microwave (PMW) radiometers orbiting around the globe for global precipitation monitoring. In this context the coherence of the estimates of precipitation using different passive microwave radiometers is a crucial need. We have developed two different passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithms: one is the Cloud Dynamics Radiation Database algorithm (CDRD), a physically ¬based Bayesian algorithm for conically scanning radiometers (i.e., DMSP SSMIS); the other one is the Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) algorithm for cross¬-track scanning radiometers (i.e., NOAA and MetOp¬A/B AMSU-¬A/MHS, and NPP Suomi ATMS). The algorithms, originally created for application over Europe and the Mediterranean basin, and used operationally within the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF, http://hsaf.meteoam.it), have been recently modified and extended to Africa and Southern Atlantic for application to the MSG full disk area. The two algorithms are based on the same physical foundation, i.e., the same cloud-radiation model simulations as a priori information in the Bayesian solver and as training dataset in the neural network approach, and they also use similar procedures for identification of frozen background surface, detection of snowfall, and determination of a pixel based quality index of the surface precipitation retrievals. In addition, similar procedures for the screening of not ¬precipitating pixels are used. A novel algorithm for the detection of precipitation in tropical/sub-tropical areas has been developed. The precipitation detection algorithm shows a small rate of false alarms (also over arid/desert regions), a superior detection capability in comparison with other widely used screening algorithms, and it is applicable

  14. Structure retrieval in HREM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribelyuk, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    A new iteration method for direct structure retrieval starting from the exit plane-wave function Ψ e (r) is proposed and tested on models. The imaginary part of the potential cannot be retrieved. The effects of the limited resolution of Ψ e (r) as well as neglect of high-order Laue-zone effects and the choice of the starting potential on the result are discussed. The procedure is found to be preferable to that based on the subsequent approximation method with respect to a higher convergence rate. It is shown that an error as low as 10% may be obtained for the real part of the retrieved potential up to vertical strokeσV(r)tvertical stroke<5. (orig.)

  15. Interactive Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the research area of interactive information retrieval (IIR) from a historical point of view. Further, the focus here is on evaluation, because much research in IR deals with IR evaluation methodology due to the core research interest in IR performance, system interaction...... and satisfaction with retrieved information. In order to position IIR evaluation, the Cranfield model and the series of tests that led to the Cranfield model are outlined. Three iconic user-oriented studies and projects that all have contributed to how IIR is perceived and understood today are presented......: The MEDLARS test, the Book House fiction retrieval system, and the OKAPI project. On this basis the call for alternative IIR evaluation approaches motivated by the three revolutions (the cognitive, the relevance, and the interactive revolutions) put forward by Robertson & Hancock-Beaulieu (1992) is presented...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. Common ... introduced with gentle pressure as the patient swallows. Air is blown into the esophagus for improved visualization, ...

  17. Introduction to information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Christopher D; Schütze, Hinrich

    2008-01-01

    Class-tested and coherent, this textbook teaches classical and web information retrieval, including web search and the related areas of text classification and text clustering from basic concepts. It gives an up-to-date treatment of all aspects of the design and implementation of systems for gathering, indexing, and searching documents; methods for evaluating systems; and an introduction to the use of machine learning methods on text collections. All the important ideas are explained using examples and figures, making it perfect for introductory courses in information retrieval for advanced un

  18. Information Retrieval Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation has always played a major role in information retrieval, with the early pioneers such as Cyril Cleverdon and Gerard Salton laying the foundations for most of the evaluation methodologies in use today. The retrieval community has been extremely fortunate to have such a well-grounded evaluation paradigm during a period when most of the human language technologies were just developing. This lecture has the goal of explaining where these evaluation methodologies came from and how they have continued to adapt to the vastly changed environment in the search engine world today. The lecture

  19. Development of retrievability plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1999-03-01

    It has become clear, from monitoring of many national programmes for siting of final repositories for radioactive waste disposal, that the potential or otherwise for retrievability of emplaced wastes is the one issue in particular which is repeatedly raised during public consultation and interaction. Although even those repositories which may be constructed over the next decades will operate for many decades more and be sealed only after a long-term monitoring phase, there is little operational pressure to finalise retrievability concepts. However, as siting processes require detailed conceptual designs to be developed, as do the associated safety assessment exercises, it is becoming increasingly recognised that the potential for retrieval must be examined now. This report is the culmination of a short project carried out for the Swedish National Co-ordinator for Nuclear Waste Disposal to examine the situation as regards the development and possible implementation of retrievability as an integral part of a disposal concept for nuclear waste. Because of the short work period involved, it can at best be only an overview, designed to provide a broad picture of current plans. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has begun to examine the issue, and a report is due later in 1999. A major collaborative investigation, which began in March 1998, is also currently underway under the auspices of the EU, but only involves implementing agencies from the various Member States. This report is intended to serve as background to these other studies when they appear. Utilising currently available information, as well as personal contacts, those countries currently examining retrievability or reversibility of disposal in some form have been identified. Information regarding these proposals has been collated, and contact made with relevant agencies and national regulatory bodies where possible. The report includes some review of the technical aspects of retrievability, with especial

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign ...

  1. Information Retrieval Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Göker, Ayse; Davies, John

    2009-01-01

    Many applications that handle information on the internet would be completely inadequate without the support of information retrieval technology. How would we find information on the world wide web if there were no web search engines? How would we manage our email without spam filtering? Much of the

  2. Energy Storage and Retrieval

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Energy Storage and Retrieval The Secondary Battery Route. A K Shukla P Vishnu Kamath.

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Foreign Body Retrieval Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  4. Utah Text Retrieval Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollaar, L A

    1983-10-01

    The Utah Text Retrieval project seeks well-engineered solutions to the implementation of large, inexpensive, rapid text information retrieval systems. The project has three major components. Perhaps the best known is the work on the specialized processors, particularly search engines, necessary to achieve the desired performance and cost. The other two concern the user interface to the system and the system's internal structure. The work on user interface development is not only concentrating on the syntax and semantics of the query language, but also on the overall environment the system presents to the user. Environmental enhancements include convenient ways to browse through retrieved documents, access to other information retrieval systems through gateways supporting a common command interface, and interfaces to word processing systems. The system's internal structure is based on a high-level data communications protocol linking the user interface, index processor, search processor, and other system modules. This allows them to be easily distributed in a multi- or specialized-processor configuration. It also allows new modules, such as a knowledge-based query reformulator, to be added. 15 references.

  5. The Knowledge Retrieval Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    AbstractPrevious discussions of knowledge transfer within multinational corporations tended tofocus on the process as an isolated phenomenon and on the factors that impede the process.Less attention has been given to how the individual knowledge worker retrieves or identifies,and then decodes kno...

  6. Music Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, J. Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Identifies MIR (Music Information Retrieval) computer system problems, historic influences, current state-of-the-art, and future MIR solutions through an examination of the multidisciplinary approach to MIR. Highlights include pitch; temporal factors; harmonics; tone; editorial, textual, and bibliographic facets; multicultural factors; locating…

  7. Information Retrieval in Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Arthur

    Discussed in this paper are the information problems in physics and the current program of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) being conducted in an attempt to develop an information retrieval system. The seriousness of the need is described by means of graphs indicating the exponential rise in the number of physics publications in the last…

  8. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A', the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-I13 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1,4,20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1,20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial

  9. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1 , 20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial

  10. Retrievability, ethics and democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.; Westerlind, M.

    2000-01-01

    Ethics is always a social concern, an integrated part of laws and regulations. Treatment of ethics as a separate part in the decision making process is therefore always debatable. It cannot be introduced as an extraneous component to compensate for, or to improve, a morally flawed practice, and the margin for unethical practices is strongly circumscribed by regulation in the nuclear field, internationally. However, a discussion on different stakeholders and their different ethical concerns should always be welcome. One example is the implementer's views on ethics. Even if they are in complete parity with existing legal and regulatory goals, the goals may still represent the implementer's own motives and choices. Also, stakeholders may view the laws or regulations as unfair. In making the critique, the stakeholder simply formulates a separate political standpoint. Finally, an alternative discussion is to place existing regulations into an ethical perspective - adding a new dimension to the issues. Retrievability for high level waste repositories is often in focus in ethical discussions. Unfortunately, it is used in many ways and has become an unclear term. It may cover anything from planned recuperation to the property of waste being retrievable in years or tens of years, or in the distant time range of hundreds or thousands of years. The term retrievability is often proposed to cover mainly positive qualities such as the option of later changes to the repository or a new disposal concept. However, as ICRP and others have pointed out, it also implies the possibility of: i) operational exposures, ii) continuing risks of accidental releases, iii) financial provisions to cover operating costs and iv) continuing reliance on institutional control, thus imposing some burdens to future generations. In a certain sense, anything can be retrieved from any repository. There is therefore a need for a clear and operable definition of retrievability requirements, including the

  11. The operational methane retrieval algorithm for TROPOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the operational methane retrieval algorithm for the Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P satellite and its performance tested on realistic ensembles of simulated measurements. The target product is the column-averaged dry air volume mixing ratio of methane (XCH4, which will be retrieved simultaneously with scattering properties of the atmosphere. The algorithm attempts to fit spectra observed by the shortwave and near-infrared channels of the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI spectrometer aboard S5P.The sensitivity of the retrieval performance to atmospheric scattering properties, atmospheric input data and instrument calibration errors is evaluated. In addition, we investigate the effect of inhomogeneous slit illumination on the instrument spectral response function. Finally, we discuss the cloud filters to be used operationally and as backup.We show that the required accuracy and precision of  < 1 % for the XCH4 product are met for clear-sky measurements over land surfaces and after appropriate filtering of difficult scenes. The algorithm is very stable, having a convergence rate of 99 %. The forward model error is less than 1 % for about 95 % of the valid retrievals. Model errors in the input profile of water do not influence the retrieval outcome noticeably. The methane product is expected to meet the requirements if errors in input profiles of pressure and temperature remain below 0.3 % and 2 K, respectively. We further find that, of all instrument calibration errors investigated here, our retrievals are the most sensitive to an error in the instrument spectral response function of the shortwave infrared channel.

  12. Mobile medical image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Samuel; Depeursinge, Adrien; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2011-03-01

    Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in

  13. Interactive Information Retrieval:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    IIR from the perspective of search dedication and task load in order to also include everyday life information seeking? With this presentation, the IIR community is invited to an exchange of ideas and is encouraged to engage in collaborations with the solving of these (and other) issues to our joint......This presentation addresses methodological issues of interactive information retrieval (IIR) evaluation in terms of what it entails to study users' use and interaction with IR systems, as well as their satisfaction with retrieved information. In particular, the presentation focuses on test design...... of the users to ensure a complete and realistic picture to enhance our understanding of IIR. The presentation also reflects on whether a re-thinking of the concept on an information need is necessary. One may ask whether it still makes sense to talk about types of information needs. Or should we rather study...

  14. Introduction to information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Christopher D; Schütze, Hinrich

    2008-01-01

    Class-tested and coherent, this textbook teaches classical and web information retrieval, including web search and the related areas of text classification and text clustering from basic concepts. It gives an up-to-date treatment of all aspects of the design and implementation of systems for gathering, indexing, and searching documents; methods for evaluating systems; and an introduction to the use of machine learning methods on text collections. All the important ideas are explained using examples and figures, making it perfect for introductory courses in information retrieval for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in computer science. Based on feedback from extensive classroom experience, the book has been carefully structured in order to make teaching more natural and effective. Slides and additional exercises (with solutions for lecturers) are also available through the book's supporting website to help course instructors prepare their lectures.

  15. JINR information retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaudov, D.D.; Govorun, N.N.

    1975-01-01

    The organization of the main files of the JINR Information Retrieval System is described. There are four main files in the System. They are as follows: MD file that consists of abstracts of documents; OMPOD file where the index records of documents are gathered; MZD file that consists of list heads, and OMD file- the file of descriptors. The last three files are considered in some detail. The System is realized in the COBOL language on the CDC computer

  16. Affective Music Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ju-Chiang; Yang, Yi-Hsuan; Wang, Hsin-Min

    2015-01-01

    Much of the appeal of music lies in its power to convey emotions/moods and to evoke them in listeners. In consequence, the past decade witnessed a growing interest in modeling emotions from musical signals in the music information retrieval (MIR) community. In this article, we present a novel generative approach to music emotion modeling, with a specific focus on the valence-arousal (VA) dimension model of emotion. The presented generative model, called \\emph{acoustic emotion Gaussians} (AEG)...

  17. Automated Medical Literature Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hawking

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The constantly growing publication rate of medical research articles puts increasing pressure on medical specialists who need to be aware of the recent developments in their field. The currently used literature retrieval systems allow researchers to find specific papers; however the search task is still repetitive and time-consuming. Aims In this paper we describe a system that retrieves medical publications by automatically generating queries based on data from an electronic patient record. This allows the doctor to focus on medical issues and provide an improved service to the patient, with higher confidence that it is underpinned by current research. Method Our research prototype automatically generates query terms based on the patient record and adds weight factors for each term. Currently the patient’s age is taken into account with a fuzzy logic derived weight, and terms describing blood-related anomalies are derived from recent blood test results. Conditionally selected homonyms are used for query expansion. The query retrieves matching records from a local index of PubMed publications and displays results in descending relevance for the given patient. Recent publications are clearly highlighted for instant recognition by the researcher. Results Nine medical specialists from the Royal Adelaide Hospital evaluated the system and submitted pre-trial and post-trial questionnaires. Throughout the study we received positive feedback as doctors felt the support provided by the prototype was useful, and which they would like to use in their daily routine. Conclusion By supporting the time-consuming task of query formulation and iterative modification as well as by presenting the search results in order of relevance for the specific patient, literature retrieval becomes part of the daily workflow of busy professionals.

  18. The Wikipedia Image Retrieval Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tsikrika (Theodora); J. Kludas

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe wikipedia image retrieval task at ImageCLEF provides a testbed for the system-oriented evaluation of visual information retrieval from a collection of Wikipedia images. The aim is to investigate the effectiveness of retrieval approaches that exploit textual and visual evidence in the

  19. DORS: DDC Online Retrieval System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Songqiao; Svenonius, Elaine

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Dewey Online Retrieval System (DORS), which was developed at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), to experiment with classification-based search strategies in online catalogs. Classification structures in automated information retrieval are discussed; and specifications for a classification retrieval interface are…

  20. Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements FY96 technology development summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, M.W.; Bamberger, J.A.; Hatchell, B.K.

    1996-09-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD ampersand E) activities are part of the Retrieval and Closure Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. The purposes of RPD ampersand E are to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on those processes, so that end users have the requisite technical basis to make retrieval decisions. Work has been initiated to support the need for multiple retrieval technologies across the DOE complex. Technologies addressed during FY96 focused on enhancements to sluicing, borehole mining, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, the lightweight scarifier, and pulsed air mixing. Furthermore, a decision tool and database have been initiated to link retrieval processes with tank closure to assist end users in making retrieval decisions

  1. Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters: Factors that Affect Retrieval Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisbuesch, Philipp, E-mail: philippgeisbuesch@gmx.de; Benenati, James F.; Pena, Constantino S.; Couvillon, Joseph; Powell, Alex; Gandhi, Ripal; Samuels, Shaun; Uthoff, Heiko [Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To report and analyze the indications, procedural success, and complications of retrievable inferior vena cava filters (rIVCF) placement and to identify parameters that influence retrieval attempt and failure. Methods: Between January 2005 and December 2010, a total of 200 patients (80 men, median age 67 years, range 11-95 years) received a rIVCF with the clinical possibility that it could be removed. All patients with rIVCF were prospectively entered into a database and followed until retrieval or a decision not to retrieve the filter was made. A retrospective analysis of this database was performed. Results: Sixty-one percent of patients had an accepted indication for filter placement; 39% of patients had a relative indication. There was a tendency toward a higher retrieval rate in patients with relative indications (40% vs. 55%, P = 0.076). Filter placement was technically successful in all patients, with no procedure-related mortality. The retrieval rate was 53%. Patient age of >80 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.056, P > 0.0001) and presence of malignancy (OR 0.303, P = 0.003) was associated with a significantly reduced probability for attempted retrieval. Retrieval failure occurred in 7% (6 of 91) of all retrieval attempts. A time interval of > 90 days between implantation and attempted retrieval was associated with retrieval failure (OR 19.8, P = 0.009). Conclusions: Patient age >80 years and a history of malignancy are predictors of a reduced probability for retrieval attempt. The rate of retrieval failure is low and seems to be associated with a time interval of >90 days between filter placement and retrieval.

  2. Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters: Factors that Affect Retrieval Success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisbüsch, Philipp; Benenati, James F.; Peña, Constantino S.; Couvillon, Joseph; Powell, Alex; Gandhi, Ripal; Samuels, Shaun; Uthoff, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report and analyze the indications, procedural success, and complications of retrievable inferior vena cava filters (rIVCF) placement and to identify parameters that influence retrieval attempt and failure. Methods: Between January 2005 and December 2010, a total of 200 patients (80 men, median age 67 years, range 11–95 years) received a rIVCF with the clinical possibility that it could be removed. All patients with rIVCF were prospectively entered into a database and followed until retrieval or a decision not to retrieve the filter was made. A retrospective analysis of this database was performed. Results: Sixty-one percent of patients had an accepted indication for filter placement; 39% of patients had a relative indication. There was a tendency toward a higher retrieval rate in patients with relative indications (40% vs. 55%, P = 0.076). Filter placement was technically successful in all patients, with no procedure-related mortality. The retrieval rate was 53%. Patient age of >80 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.056, P > 0.0001) and presence of malignancy (OR 0.303, P = 0.003) was associated with a significantly reduced probability for attempted retrieval. Retrieval failure occurred in 7% (6 of 91) of all retrieval attempts. A time interval of > 90 days between implantation and attempted retrieval was associated with retrieval failure (OR 19.8, P = 0.009). Conclusions: Patient age >80 years and a history of malignancy are predictors of a reduced probability for retrieval attempt. The rate of retrieval failure is low and seems to be associated with a time interval of >90 days between filter placement and retrieval.

  3. Guenter Tulip Filter Retrieval Experience: Predictors of Successful Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turba, Ulku Cenk; Arslan, Bulent; Meuse, Michael; Sabri, Saher; Macik, Barbara Gail; Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Matsumoto, Alan H.; Angle, John F.

    2010-01-01

    We report our experience with Guenter Tulip filter placement indications, retrievals, and procedural problems, with emphasis on alternative retrieval techniques. We have identified 92 consecutive patients in whom a Guenter Tulip filter was placed and filter removal attempted. We recorded patient demographic information, filter placement and retrieval indications, procedures, standard and nonstandard filter retrieval techniques, complications, and clinical outcomes. The mean time to retrieval for those who experienced filter strut penetration was statistically significant [F(1,90) = 8.55, p = 0.004]. Filter strut(s) IVC penetration and successful retrieval were found to be statistically significant (p = 0.043). The filter hook-IVC relationship correlated with successful retrieval. A modified guidewire loop technique was applied in 8 of 10 cases where the hook appeared to penetrate the IVC wall and could not be engaged with a loop snare catheter, providing additional technical success in 6 of 8 (75%). Therefore, the total filter retrieval success increased from 88 to 95%. In conclusion, the Guenter Tulip filter has high successful retrieval rates with low rates of complication. Additional maneuvers such as a guidewire loop method can be used to improve retrieval success rates when the filter hook is endothelialized.

  4. Monetary rewards influence retrieval orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsband, Teresa M; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Bridger, Emma K; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-09-01

    Reward anticipation during learning is known to support memory formation, but its role in retrieval processes is so far unclear. Retrieval orientations, as a reflection of controlled retrieval processing, are one aspect of retrieval that might be modulated by reward. These processes can be measured using the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by retrieval cues from tasks with different retrieval requirements, such as via changes in the class of targeted memory information. To determine whether retrieval orientations of this kind are modulated by reward during learning, we investigated the effects of high and low reward expectancy on the ERP correlates of retrieval orientation in two separate experiments. The reward manipulation at study in Experiment 1 was associated with later memory performance, whereas in Experiment 2, reward was directly linked to accuracy in the study task. In both studies, the participants encoded mixed lists of pictures and words preceded by high- or low-reward cues. After 24 h, they performed a recognition memory exclusion task, with words as the test items. In addition to a previously reported material-specific effect of retrieval orientation, a frontally distributed, reward-associated retrieval orientation effect was found in both experiments. These findings suggest that reward motivation during learning leads to the adoption of a reward-associated retrieval orientation to support the retrieval of highly motivational information. Thus, ERP retrieval orientation effects not only reflect retrieval processes related to the sought-for materials, but also relate to the reward conditions with which items were combined during encoding.

  5. Final report for the cryogenic retrieval demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentich, D.J.; Yokuda, E.L.

    1992-09-01

    This report documents a demonstration of a proposed buried transuranic waste retrieval concept that uses cryogenic ground freezing and remote excavation. At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), there are over 8 million ft 3 of intermingled soil and transuranic (TRU) wastes in shallow land burial, and retrieval of the material is one of the options being considered by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration for the Environmental Restoration program. Cryogenically freezing contaminated soil and buried waste has been proposed as a way to greatly reduce or eliminate the climate the threat of contamination spread during retrieval activities. In support of this idea, a demonstration of an innovative ground freezing and retrieval technology was performed at the INEL. This initial demonstration was held near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at a ''cold test pit'' that was built in 1988 as a test bed for the demonstration of retrieval contamination control technologies. This pit is not contaminated with any radioactive or hazardous wastes. Barrels and boxes filled with metals, plastics, tools, paper, cloth, etc. configured in the same manner as expected in contaminated pits and trenches are buried at the cold test pit. After design, fabrication, and shop testing, Sonsub mobilized to the field in early July 1992 to perform the field demonstration. It was planned to freeze and extract four pits, each 9 x 9 x 10 ft. Each pit represented a different configuration of buried waste (stacked boxes, stacked barrels, random dumped barrels and boxes, and random dumped barrels). Sonsub's proposed technology consisted of driving a series of freeze pipes into the soil and waste, using liquid nitrogen to freeze the mass, and extracting the soil and debris using a series of remote operated, bridge crane mounted tools. In conjunction with the freezing and removal activities, temperature and moisture measurements, and air monitoring were performed

  6. Final report for the cryogenic retrieval demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentich, D.J.; Yokuda, E.L.

    1992-09-01

    This report documents a demonstration of a proposed buried transuranic waste retrieval concept that uses cryogenic ground freezing and remote excavation. At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), there are over 8 million ft{sup 3} of intermingled soil and transuranic (TRU) wastes in shallow land burial, and retrieval of the material is one of the options being considered by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration for the Environmental Restoration program. Cryogenically freezing contaminated soil and buried waste has been proposed as a way to greatly reduce or eliminate the climate the threat of contamination spread during retrieval activities. In support of this idea, a demonstration of an innovative ground freezing and retrieval technology was performed at the INEL. This initial demonstration was held near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at a ``cold test pit`` that was built in 1988 as a test bed for the demonstration of retrieval contamination control technologies. This pit is not contaminated with any radioactive or hazardous wastes. Barrels and boxes filled with metals, plastics, tools, paper, cloth, etc. configured in the same manner as expected in contaminated pits and trenches are buried at the cold test pit. After design, fabrication, and shop testing, Sonsub mobilized to the field in early July 1992 to perform the field demonstration. It was planned to freeze and extract four pits, each 9 {times} 9 {times} 10 ft. Each pit represented a different configuration of buried waste (stacked boxes, stacked barrels, random dumped barrels and boxes, and random dumped barrels). Sonsub`s proposed technology consisted of driving a series of freeze pipes into the soil and waste, using liquid nitrogen to freeze the mass, and extracting the soil and debris using a series of remote operated, bridge crane mounted tools. In conjunction with the freezing and removal activities, temperature and moisture measurements, and air monitoring were performed.

  7. Final report for the cryogenic retrieval demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentich, D.J.; Yokuda, E.L.

    1992-09-01

    This report documents a demonstration of a proposed buried transuranic waste retrieval concept that uses cryogenic ground freezing and remote excavation. At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), there are over 8 million ft[sup 3] of intermingled soil and transuranic (TRU) wastes in shallow land burial, and retrieval of the material is one of the options being considered by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration for the Environmental Restoration program. Cryogenically freezing contaminated soil and buried waste has been proposed as a way to greatly reduce or eliminate the climate the threat of contamination spread during retrieval activities. In support of this idea, a demonstration of an innovative ground freezing and retrieval technology was performed at the INEL. This initial demonstration was held near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at a cold test pit'' that was built in 1988 as a test bed for the demonstration of retrieval contamination control technologies. This pit is not contaminated with any radioactive or hazardous wastes. Barrels and boxes filled with metals, plastics, tools, paper, cloth, etc. configured in the same manner as expected in contaminated pits and trenches are buried at the cold test pit. After design, fabrication, and shop testing, Sonsub mobilized to the field in early July 1992 to perform the field demonstration. It was planned to freeze and extract four pits, each 9 [times] 9 [times] 10 ft. Each pit represented a different configuration of buried waste (stacked boxes, stacked barrels, random dumped barrels and boxes, and random dumped barrels). Sonsub's proposed technology consisted of driving a series of freeze pipes into the soil and waste, using liquid nitrogen to freeze the mass, and extracting the soil and debris using a series of remote operated, bridge crane mounted tools. In conjunction with the freezing and removal activities, temperature and moisture measurements, and air monitoring were

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anesthesia. A flexible esophagoscope is introduced with gentle pressure as the patient swallows. Air is blown into ... is numbed using local anesthetic. You may feel pressure when the catheter is inserted into the vein ...

  9. Music retrieval in ICOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterle, Lutz; Fischer, Stephan; Rimac, Ivica; Steinmetz, Ralf

    1999-08-01

    In this paper we describe music retrieval in ICOR, a project of Darmstadt TU. It is the goal of ICOR to find new interfaces to support applications of music video and music CDs. Although the project consists of audio and video analysis we concentrate on a description of the audio algorithms in this paper. We describe our MPEG-7 like data structure to store meta information for music pieces and explain which algorithms we use to analyze the content of music pieces automatically. We currently use an applause detection to distinguish live music from studio recordings, a genre classifier to distinguish pieces with beats form classical music, and a singer recognition.

  10. Monitored retrievable storage status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal for Congressional consideration of the inclusion of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility as part of the Federal Nuclear Waste Management System. The DOE plans to submit the proposal package to the Congress by January 15, 1986. The proposed preferred location of the MRS facility is the former Clinch River Breeder site in the state of Tennessee. If the Congress approves implementation of the MRS proposal, it is estimated that the facility could be licensed and operational in ten years

  11. Monitored retrievable storage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) established a national policy for the safe storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The NWPA requires that DOE... ''submit a proposal to Congress on the need for and feasibility of one or more Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facilities''... In subsequent evaluations of the commercial nuclear waste management system, DOE has identified important advantages in providing an MRS Facility as an integral part of the total system. The integral MRS Facility serves as an independent, centralized spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste handling and packaging facility with a safe temporary storage capacity

  12. Multimedia Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Rueger, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    At its very core multimedia information retrieval means the process of searching for and finding multimedia documents; the corresponding research field is concerned with building the best possible multimedia search engines. The intriguing bit here is that the query itself can be a multimedia excerpt: For example, when you walk around in an unknown place and stumble across an interesting landmark, would it not be great if you could just take a picture with your mobile phone and send it to a service that finds a similar picture in a database and tells you more about the building -- and about its

  13. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  14. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  15. A Demonstration of an Improved Filtering Technique for Analyzing Climate Records via Comparisons of Satellite MSU/AMSU Instrument Temperature Products from Three Research Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Climate data records typically exhibit considerable variation over short time scales both from natural variability and from instrumentation issues. The use of linear least squares regression can provide overall trend information from noisy data, however assessing intermediate time periods can also provide useful information unavailable from basic trend calculations. Extracting the short term information in these data for assessing changes to climate or for comparison of data series from different sources requires the application of filters to separate short period variations from longer period trends. A common method used to smooth data is the moving average, which is a simple digital filter that can distort the resulting series due to the aliasing of the sampling period into the output series. We utilized Hamming filters to compare MSU/AMSU satellite time series developed by three research groups (UAH, RSS and NOAA STAR), the results published in January 2017 [http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0121.1]. Since the last release date (July 2016) for the data analyzed in that paper, some of these groups have updated their analytical procedures and additional months of data are available to extend the series. An updated analysis of these data using the latest data releases available from each group is to be presented. Improved graphics will be employed to provide a clearer visualization of the differences between each group's results. As in the previous paper, the greatest difference between the UAH TMT series and those from the RSS and NOAA data appears during the early period of data from the MSU instruments before about 2003, as shown in the attached figure, and preliminary results indicate this pattern continues. Also to be presented are other findings regarding seasonal changes which were not included in the previous study.

  16. The 183-WSL Fast Rain Rate Retrieval Algorithm. Part II: Validation Using Ground Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The Water vapour Strong Lines at 183 GHz (183-WSL) algorithm is a method for the retrieval of rain rates and precipitation type classification (convectivestratiform), that makes use of the water vapor absorption lines centered at 183.31 GHz of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit module B (AMSU-B) and of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) flying on NOAA-15-18 and NOAA-19Metop-A satellite series, respectively. The characteristics of this algorithm were described in Part I of this paper together with comparisons against analogous precipitation products. The focus of Part II is the analysis of the performance of the 183-WSL technique based on surface radar measurements. The ground truth dataset consists of 2.5 years of rainfall intensity fields from the NIMROD European radar network which covers North-Western Europe. The investigation of the 183-WSL retrieval performance is based on a twofold approach: 1) the dichotomous statistic is used to evaluate the capabilities of the method to identify rain and no-rain clouds; 2) the accuracy statistic is applied to quantify the errors in the estimation of rain rates.The results reveal that the 183-WSL technique shows good skills in the detection of rainno-rain areas and in the quantification of rain rate intensities. The categorical analysis shows annual values of the POD, FAR and HK indices varying in the range 0.80-0.82, 0.330.36 and 0.39-0.46, respectively. The RMSE value is 2.8 millimeters per hour for the whole period despite an overestimation in the retrieved rain rates. Of note is the distribution of the 183-WSL monthly mean rain rate with respect to radar: the seasonal fluctuations of the average rainfalls measured by radar are reproduced by the 183-WSL. However, the retrieval method appears to suffer for the winter seasonal conditions especially when the soil is partially frozen and the surface emissivity drastically changes. This fact is verified observing the discrepancy distribution diagrams where2the 183-WSL

  17. EM-50 Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements. FY97 technology development summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, M.W.; Bamberger, J.A.; Alberts, D.G.

    1997-09-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD and E) activities are part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area, Retrieval and Closure program. The purpose of RPD and E is to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on these processes, so that end users have requisite technical bases to make retrieval decisions. Technologies addressed during FY97 include enhancements to sluicing, the use of pulsed air to assist mixing, mixer pumps, innovative mixing techniques, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, borehole mining, light weight scarification, and testing of Russian-developed retrieval equipment. Furthermore, the Retrieval Analysis Tool was initiated to link retrieval processes with tank waste farms and tank geometric to assist end users by providing a consolidation of data and technical information that can be easily assessed. The main technical accomplishments are summarized under the following headings: Oak Ridge site-gunite and associated tanks treatability study; pulsed air mixing; Oak Ridge site-Old Hydrofracture Facility; hydraulic testbed relocation; cooling coil cleaning end effector; light weight scarifier; innovative tank mixing; advanced design mixer pump; enhanced sluicing; Russian retrieval equipment testing; retrieval data analysis and correlation; simulant development; and retrieval analysis tool (RAT)

  18. MODIS Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth over Turbid Coastal Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to retrieve Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS over the turbid coastal water. This approach supplements the operational Dark Target (DT aerosol retrieval algorithm that currently does not conduct AOD retrieval in shallow waters that have visible sediments or sea-floor (i.e., Class 2 waters. Over the global coastal water regions in cloud-free conditions, coastal screening leads to ~20% unavailability of AOD retrievals. Here, we refine the MODIS DT algorithm by considering that water-leaving radiance at 2.1 μm to be negligible regardless of water turbidity, and therefore the 2.1 μm reflectance at the top of the atmosphere is sensitive to both change of fine-mode and coarse-mode AODs. By assuming that the aerosol single scattering properties over coastal turbid water are similar to those over the adjacent open-ocean pixels, the new algorithm can derive AOD over these shallow waters. The test algorithm yields ~18% more MODIS-AERONET collocated pairs for six AERONET stations in the coastal water regions. Furthermore, comparison of the new retrieval with these AERONET observations show that the new AOD retrievals have equivalent or better accuracy than those retrieved by the MODIS operational algorithm’s over coastal land and non-turbid coastal water product. Combining the new retrievals with the existing MODIS operational retrievals yields an overall improvement of AOD over those coastal water regions. Most importantly, this refinement extends the spatial and temporal coverage of MODIS AOD retrievals over the coastal regions where 60% of human population resides. This expanded coverage is crucial for better understanding of impact of anthropogenic aerosol particles on coastal air quality and climate.

  19. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction Application for Installation and Operation of a Waste Retrieval System in Tanks 241-AN-101, 241-AN--102, 241-AN--103, 241-AN--104, 241-AN--105, and 241-AN--107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in each of the following tanks; 241-AN-101, -AN-102, -AN-103, -AN-104, -AN-105 and -AN-107. Pursuant to 40 CFR 61.09 (aXI), this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start-up notification. It is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of the initial start-up notification. This NOC covers the installation and operation o f a waste retrieval system in tanks 241-AN-101, -AN-102, -AN-103, -AN-104, -AN-105 and -AN-107, and the 241-AN-A/-B Valve Pits. Generally, this includes removal of existing equipment, installation of new equipment, and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings between now and the year2011. Tanks 241-AN-101, -AN-102, -AN-103, -AN-104, -AN-105 and -AN-107 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product

  20. Ethics issues in retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.; Larsson, C.M.; Norden, M.

    2000-01-01

    We can isolate some issues, which should not be unresolved for a longer period of time. Disputes over well-defined waste management options fall in this category. The concept of retrievability has a possibility to invoke a series of questions in the minds of both specialists and non-specialists. It is intrinsically vague, in that it may refer to different phases in the repository's life, and to both open and closed repositories in the long time frame. Requirements for retrievability opens a series of issues, including open-ended philosophical question, which may give the impressions that things are not properly taken care of, since the experts differ in opinion. If such disputes cannot be resolved by consulting the existing legal framework, efforts should be made to put them to trial in the proper forum, i.e. parliament and national or local government or authorities, depending on the problem. In contrast, the value of institutional controls can easily be seen as an ethical value, whether included in the regulation of not. It has the potential to deter human intrusion and to allow remedial action by carrying information about a repository. (author)

  1. Cloud and Thermodynamic Parameters Retrieved from Satellite Ultraspectral Infrared Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Schluessel, Peter; Strow, L. Larrabee; Mango, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric-thermodynamic parameters and surface properties are basic meteorological parameters for weather forecasting. A physical geophysical parameter retrieval scheme dealing with cloudy and cloud-free radiance observed with satellite ultraspectral infrared sounders has been developed and applied to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS). The retrieved parameters presented herein are from radiance data gathered during the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx). JAIVEx provided intensive aircraft observations obtained from airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) systems, in-situ measurements, and dedicated dropsonde and radiosonde measurements for the validation of the IASI products. Here, IASI atmospheric profile retrievals are compared with those obtained from dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and the airborne FTS system. The IASI examples presented here demonstrate the ability to retrieve fine-scale horizontal features with high vertical resolution from satellite ultraspectral sounder radiance spectra.

  2. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  3. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions

  4. Cicero, Retrieving the Honorable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Frank

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From Marcus Tullius Cicero’s philosophical writings, the author first draws out a modest network of ideas that informs his understanding of what it means to be a good man (vir bonus. Then, he finds in Cicero the idea of a befitting mutuality among four distinctively human capacities: a faculty for inquiry into and love for truth manifest in words and actions (reason; a disposition for the recognition of and attraction to things of worth beyond self-interest (the honorable; an acute sense of one own spheres of responsibility along with facility for speaking and acting appropriately within them (appropriate action, and fostering and extending the bonds of mutual personal relations grounded in justice and benevolence (society. Against the background of deep commitments in modernity to hedonism and autonomous individualism, the author proposes a retrieval of the virtue of the honorable as an attractive alternative.

  5. Retrievability: An international overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Using available information from the published literature and material obtained from a network of contacts, a short introductory overview of international developments in the field of retrievability of emplaced nuclear waste was produced for the Swedish National Siting Coordinator for Nuclear Waste Disposal. This examined the issue in terms of a number of basic questions: Definition, Need, Design Implications, Safeguards for Fissile Material, Public Acceptability and Safety Assessment. The report was submitted in February 1999, and acted as a catalyst for the organisation of an international seminar by KASAM, the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (these proceedings). This paper describes the report contents, and points to the invited papers at the seminar which expand on and update the limited descriptions in the original report. (author)

  6. Beyond information retrieval: information discovery and multimedia information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Raieli

    2017-01-01

    The paper compares the current methodologies for search and discovery of information and information resources: terminological search and term-based language, own of information retrieval (IR); semantic search and information discovery, being developed mainly through the language of linked data; semiotic search and content-based language, experienced by multimedia information retrieval (MIR).MIR semiotic methodology is, then, detailed.

  7. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: AMSU-A1 EOS Instrument, (S/N 202) Qualification Level Vibration Tests of August/September 1998, (S/O 565632, OC-417) Plus Addendum A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffer, R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a qualification level vibration testing performed on the S/N 202, EOS AMSU-A1 Instrument was vibration tested to qualification levels per the Ref. 1 shop order. The instrument withstood the 8 g sine sweep test, the 7.5 Grms random vibration test, and the 18.75 g sine burst test in each of the three orthogonal axes. Some loss of transmissibility, however, is seen in the lower reflector after Z-axis random vibration. The test sequence was not without incidence. Failure of Channel 7 in the Limited Performance Test (LPT) performed after completion of the 1 st (X-axis) axis vibration sequence, required replacement of the DRO and subsequent re-testing of the instrument. The post-vibration comprehensive performance test (CPT) was successfully run after completion of the three axes of vibration with the replacement component installed in the instrument. Passing the CPT signified the successful completion of the S/N 202 A1 qualification vibration testing.

  8. The new Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR algorithm for the cross-track scanning ATMS radiometer: description and verification study over Europe and Africa using GPM and TRMM spaceborne radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sanò

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe the development and evaluate the performance of a completely new version of the Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR v2, an algorithm based on a neural network approach, designed to retrieve the instantaneous surface precipitation rate using the cross-track Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS radiometer measurements. This algorithm, developed within the EUMETSAT H-SAF program, represents an evolution of the previous version (PNPR v1, developed for AMSU/MHS radiometers (and used and distributed operationally within H-SAF, with improvements aimed at exploiting the new precipitation-sensing capabilities of ATMS with respect to AMSU/MHS. In the design of the neural network the new ATMS channels compared to AMSU/MHS, and their combinations, including the brightness temperature differences in the water vapor absorption band, around 183 GHz, are considered. The algorithm is based on a single neural network, for all types of surface background, trained using a large database based on 94 cloud-resolving model simulations over the European and the African areas. The performance of PNPR v2 has been evaluated through an intercomparison of the instantaneous precipitation estimates with co-located estimates from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (TRMM-PR and from the GPM Core Observatory Ku-band Precipitation Radar (GPM-KuPR. In the comparison with TRMM-PR, over the African area the statistical analysis was carried out for a 2-year (2013–2014 dataset of coincident observations over a regular grid at 0.5°  ×  0.5° resolution. The results have shown a good agreement between PNPR v2 and TRMM-PR for the different surface types. The correlation coefficient (CC was equal to 0.69 over ocean and 0.71 over vegetated land (lower values were obtained over arid land and coast, and the root mean squared error (RMSE was equal to 1.30 mm h−1 over ocean and 1.11 mm h−1 over

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... introduced with gentle pressure as the patient swallows. Air is blown into the esophagus for improved visualization, and images of the inside of the digestive tract can be seen on a screen. Rigid esophagoscopy This highly effective procedure involves the ...

  10. Electronic publishing and intelligent information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.

    1992-01-01

    Europeans are now taking steps to homogenize policies and standardize procedures in electronic publishing (EP) in astronomy and space sciences. This arose from an open meeting organized in Oct. 1991 at Strasbourg Observatory (France) and another business meeting held late Mar. 1992 with the major publishers and journal editors in astronomy and space sciences. The ultimate aim of EP might be considered as the so-called 'intelligent information retrieval' (IIR) or better named 'advanced information retrieval' (AIR), taking advantage of the fact that the material to be published appears at some stage in a machine-readable form. It is obvious that the combination of desktop and electronic publishing with networking and new structuring of knowledge bases will profoundly reshape not only our ways of publishing, but also our procedures of communicating and retrieving information. It should be noted that a world-wide survey among astronomers and space scientists carried out before the October 1991 colloquium on the various packages and machines used, indicated that TEX-related packages were already in majoritarian use in our community. It has also been stressed at each meeting that the European developments should be carried out in collaboration with what is done in the US (STELLAR project, for instance). American scientists and journal editors actually attended both meetings mentioned above. The paper will offer a review of the status of electronic publishing in astronomy and its possible contribution to advanced information retrieval in this field. It will also report on recent meetings such as the 'Astronomy from Large Databases-2 (ALD-2)' conference dealing with the latest developments in networking, in data, information, and knowledge bases, as well as in the related methodologies.

  11. Contextual Bandits for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; de Rijke, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give an overview of and outlook on research at the intersection of information retrieval (IR) and contextual bandit problems. A critical problem in information retrieval is online learning to rank, where a search engine strives to improve the quality of the ranked result lists it

  12. Retrieval Practice Benefits Deductive Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglington, Luke G.; Kang, Sean H. K.

    2018-01-01

    Retrieval practice has been shown to benefit learning. However, the benefit has sometimes been attenuated with more complex materials that require integrating multiple units of information. Critically, Tran et al. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22," 135-140 (2015) found that retrieval practice improves sentence memory but not the…

  13. Topology of Document Retrieval Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Daniel M.; Cater, Steven C.

    1992-01-01

    Explains the use of a topological structure to examine the closeness between documents in retrieval systems and analyzes the topological structure of a vector-space model, a fuzzy-set model, an extended Boolean model, a probabilistic model, and a TIRS (Topological Information Retrieval System) model. Proofs for the results are appended. (17…

  14. Intelligent Information Retrieval: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauch, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the application of artificial intelligence to online information retrieval systems and describes several systems: (1) CANSEARCH, from MEDLINE; (2) Intelligent Interface for Information Retrieval (I3R); (3) Gausch's Query Reformulation; (4) Environmental Pollution Expert (EP-X); (5) PLEXUS (gardening); and (6) SCISOR (corporate…

  15. How to average logarithmic retrievals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Funke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of mean trace gas contributions from profiles obtained by retrievals of the logarithm of the abundance rather than retrievals of the abundance itself are prone to biases. By means of a system simulator, biases of linear versus logarithmic averaging were evaluated for both maximum likelihood and maximum a priori retrievals, for various signal to noise ratios and atmospheric variabilities. These biases can easily reach ten percent or more. As a rule of thumb we found for maximum likelihood retrievals that linear averaging better represents the true mean value in cases of large local natural variability and high signal to noise ratios, while for small local natural variability logarithmic averaging often is superior. In the case of maximum a posteriori retrievals, the mean is dominated by the a priori information used in the retrievals and the method of averaging is of minor concern. For larger natural variabilities, the appropriateness of the one or the other method of averaging depends on the particular case because the various biasing mechanisms partly compensate in an unpredictable manner. This complication arises mainly because of the fact that in logarithmic retrievals the weight of the prior information depends on abundance of the gas itself. No simple rule was found on which kind of averaging is superior, and instead of suggesting simple recipes we cannot do much more than to create awareness of the traps related with averaging of mixing ratios obtained from logarithmic retrievals.

  16. Vocabulary Control for Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    This book deals with properties of vocabularies for indexing and searching document collections; the construction, organization, display, and maintenance of these vocabularies; and the vocabulary as a factor affecting the performance of retrieval systems. Most of the text is concerned with vocabularies for post-coordinate retrieval systems, with…

  17. Bayesian aerosol retrieval algorithm for MODIS AOD retrieval over land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipponen, Antti; Mielonen, Tero; Pitkänen, Mikko R. A.; Levy, Robert C.; Sawyer, Virginia R.; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Kolehmainen, Ville; Arola, Antti

    2018-03-01

    We have developed a Bayesian aerosol retrieval (BAR) algorithm for the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over land from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In the BAR algorithm, we simultaneously retrieve all dark land pixels in a granule, utilize spatial correlation models for the unknown aerosol parameters, use a statistical prior model for the surface reflectance, and take into account the uncertainties due to fixed aerosol models. The retrieved parameters are total AOD at 0.55 µm, fine-mode fraction (FMF), and surface reflectances at four different wavelengths (0.47, 0.55, 0.64, and 2.1 µm). The accuracy of the new algorithm is evaluated by comparing the AOD retrievals to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) AOD. The results show that the BAR significantly improves the accuracy of AOD retrievals over the operational Dark Target (DT) algorithm. A reduction of about 29 % in the AOD root mean square error and decrease of about 80 % in the median bias of AOD were found globally when the BAR was used instead of the DT algorithm. Furthermore, the fraction of AOD retrievals inside the ±(0.05+15 %) expected error envelope increased from 55 to 76 %. In addition to retrieving the values of AOD, FMF, and surface reflectance, the BAR also gives pixel-level posterior uncertainty estimates for the retrieved parameters. The BAR algorithm always results in physical, non-negative AOD values, and the average computation time for a single granule was less than a minute on a modern personal computer.

  18. Two-dimensional characterization of atmospheric profile retrievals from limb sounding observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worden, J.R.; Bowman, K.W.; Jones, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    Limb sounders measure atmospheric radiation that is dependent on atmospheric temperature and constituents that have a radial and angular distribution in Earth-centered coordinates. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of a limb retrieval to radial and angular distributions of trace gas concentrations, we perform and characterize one-dimensional (vertical) and two-dimensional (radial and angular) atmospheric profile retrievals. Our simulated atmosphere for these retrievals is a distribution of carbon monoxide (CO), which represents a plume off the coast of south-east Asia. Both the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) limb retrievals are characterized by evaluating their averaging kernels and error covariances on a radial and angular grid that spans the plume. We apply this 2D characterization of a limb retrieval to a comparison of the 2D retrieval with the 1D (vertical) retrieval. By characterizing a limb retrieval in two dimensions the location of the air mass where the retrievals are most sensitive can be determined. For this test case the retrievals are most sensitive to the CO concentrations about 2 deg.latitude in front of the tangent point locations. We find the information content for the 2D retrieval is an order of magnitude larger and the degrees of freedom is about a factor of two larger than that of the 1D retrieval primarily because the 2D retrieval can estimate angular distributions of CO concentrations. This 2D characterization allows the radial and angular resolution as well as the degrees of freedom and information content to be computed for these limb retrievals. We also use the 2D averaging kernel to develop a strategy for validation of a limb retrieval with an in situ measurement

  19. Impact of AIRS radiance in the NCUM 4D-VAR assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Desamsetti; Indira Rani, S.; Mallick, Swapan; George, John P.; Sharma, Priti

    2016-04-01

    The hyperspectral radiances from Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), on board NASA-AQUA satellite, have been processed through the Observation Processing System (OPS) and assimilated in the Variational Assimilation (VAR) System of NCMRWF Unified Model (NCUM). Numerical experiments are conducted in order to study the impact of the AIRS radiance in the NCUM analysis and forecast system. NCMRWF receives AIRS radiance from EUMETCAST through MOSDAC. AIRS is a grating spectrometer having 2378 channels covering the thermal infrared spectrum between 3 and 15 μm. Out of 2378 channels, 324 channels are selected for assimilation according to the peaking of weighting function and meteorological importance. According to the surface type and day-night conditions, some of the channels are not assimilated in the VAR. Observation Simulation Experiments (OSEs) are conducted for a period of 15 days to see the impact of AIRS radiances in NCUM. Statistical parameters like bias and RMSE are calculated to see the real impact of AIRS radiances in the assimilation system. Assimilation of AIRS in the NCUM system reduced the bias and RMSE in the radiances from instruments onboard other satellites. The impact of AIRS is clearly seen in the hyperspectral radiances like IASI and CrIS and also in infrared (HIRS) and microwave (AMSU, ATMS, etc.) sensors.

  20. Interactive Exploration for Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Fournier

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new version of our content-based image retrieval system RETIN. It is based on adaptive quantization of the color space, together with new features aiming at representing the spatial relationship between colors. Color analysis is also extended to texture. Using these powerful indexes, an original interactive retrieval strategy is introduced. The process is based on two steps for handling the retrieval of very large image categories. First, a controlled exploration method of the database is presented. Second, a relevance feedback method based on statistical learning is proposed. All the steps are evaluated by experiments on a generalist database.

  1. Rhetorical relations for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Lu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    -called discourse structure has been applied successfully to several natural language processing tasks. This work studies the use of rhetorical relations for Information Retrieval (IR): Is there a correlation between certain rhetorical relations and retrieval performance? Can knowledge about a document’s rhetorical...... relations be useful to IR? We present a language model modification that considers rhetorical relations when estimating the relevance of a document to a query. Empirical evaluation of different versions of our model on TREC settings shows that certain rhetorical relations can benefit retrieval effectiveness...

  2. Topic structure for information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, J.; Sanderson, M.; Zhai, C.; Zobel, J.; Allan, J.; Aslam, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In my research, I propose a coherence measure, with the goal of discovering and using topic structures within and between documents, of which I explore its extensions and applications in information retrieval.

  3. Ontology-based Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styltsvig, Henrik Bulskov

    In this thesis, we will present methods for introducing ontologies in information retrieval. The main hypothesis is that the inclusion of conceptual knowledge such as ontologies in the information retrieval process can contribute to the solution of major problems currently found in information...... retrieval. This utilization of ontologies has a number of challenges. Our focus is on the use of similarity measures derived from the knowledge about relations between concepts in ontologies, the recognition of semantic information in texts and the mapping of this knowledge into the ontologies in use......, as well as how to fuse together the ideas of ontological similarity and ontological indexing into a realistic information retrieval scenario. To achieve the recognition of semantic knowledge in a text, shallow natural language processing is used during indexing that reveals knowledge to the level of noun...

  4. Retrieving Balloon Data in Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program will soon make flights lasting up to 100 days. Some flights may generate high data rates and retrieving this data...

  5. Retrieval processes in social identification

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Alexander Ivor

    2015-01-01

    The utility of selective retrieval processes in our everyday lives is evident across the varied contexts we are subjected to as human beings. Memory is characterised by an unlimited storage capacity, but limited retrieval capacity. Subsequently, we are selective in what we remember in a given context in order to use memory in an adaptive manner. Previous theory places memory at the centre of deriving and maintaining a sense of self and personal identity. In contrast however, the extent to whi...

  6. The satellite-based remote sensing of particulate matter (PM) in support to urban air quality: PM variability and hot spots within the Cordoba city (Argentina) as revealed by the high-resolution MAIAC-algorithm retrievals applied to a ten-years dataset (2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Ceca, Lara Sofia; Carreras, Hebe A.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Barnaba, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the major harmful pollutants to public health and the environment [1]. In developed countries, specific air-quality legislation establishes limit values for PM metrics (e.g., PM10, PM2.5) to protect the citizens health (e.g., European Commission Directive 2008/50, US Clean Air Act). Extensive PM measuring networks therefore exist in these countries to comply with the legislation. In less developed countries air quality monitoring networks are still lacking and satellite-based datasets could represent a valid alternative to fill observational gaps. The main PM (or aerosol) parameter retrieved from satellite is the 'aerosol optical depth' (AOD), an optical parameter quantifying the aerosol load in the whole atmospheric column. Datasets from the MODIS sensors on board of the NASA spacecrafts TERRA and AQUA are among the longest records of AOD from space. However, although extremely useful in regional and global studies, the standard 10 km-resolution MODIS AOD product is not suitable to be employed at the urban scale. Recently, a new algorithm called Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) was developed for MODIS, providing AOD at 1 km resolution [2]. In this work, the MAIAC AOD retrievals over the decade 2003-2013 were employed to investigate the spatiotemporal variation of atmospheric aerosols over the Argentinean city of Cordoba and its surroundings, an area where a very scarce dataset of in situ PM data is available. The MAIAC retrievals over the city were firstly validated using a 'ground truth' AOD dataset from the Cordoba sunphotometer operating within the global AERONET network [3]. This validation showed the good performances of the MAIAC algorithm in the area. The satellite MAIAC AOD dataset was therefore employed to investigate the 10-years trend as well as seasonal and monthly patterns of particulate matter in the Cordoba city. The first showed a marked increase of AOD over time, particularly evident in

  7. The GRAPE aerosol retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol component of the Oxford-Rutherford Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC combined cloud and aerosol retrieval scheme is described and the theoretical performance of the algorithm is analysed. ORAC is an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for deriving cloud and aerosol properties from measurements made by imaging satellite radiometers and, when applied to cloud free radiances, provides estimates of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm, aerosol effective radius and surface reflectance at 550 nm. The aerosol retrieval component of ORAC has several incarnations – this paper addresses the version which operates in conjunction with the cloud retrieval component of ORAC (described by Watts et al., 1998, as applied in producing the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE data-set.

    The algorithm is described in detail and its performance examined. This includes a discussion of errors resulting from the formulation of the forward model, sensitivity of the retrieval to the measurements and a priori constraints, and errors resulting from assumptions made about the atmospheric/surface state.

  8. 2007-2017: 10 years of IASI CO retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M.; Clerbaux, C.; Hadji-Lazaro, J.; Pierre-Francois, C.; Hurtmans, D.; Edwards, D. P.; Worden, H. M.; Deeter, M. N.; Mao, D.; August, T.; Crapeau, M.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important trace gas for understanding air quality and atmospheric composition. It is a good tracer of pollution plumes and atmospheric dynamics. IASI CO concentrations are retrieved from the radiance data using the Fast Operational Retrievals on Layers for IASI (FORLI) algorithm, based on the Optimal Estimation theory. The operational production is performed at EUMETSAT and the products are distributed in NRT via EUMETCast under the AC SAF auspices. We present here an analysis of 10 years of global distributions of CO. Improvements of the last FORLI-CO version (v20151001) will be shown. Updates in the auxiliary parameters (temperature, cloud information) have an impact on the retrieved product. Comparison with MOPITT CO data (v7T, record starting in 2000) was performed, both for partial and total columns. Harmonizing IASI and MOPITT CO products is challenging: a method using corrective factors (developed in the framework of the QA4ECV project) will be presented.

  9. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the AIRS mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval, from the AIRS instrument on board of Aqua satellite. It is a monthly...

  10. Elaborative Retrieval: Do Semantic Mediators Improve Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Melissa; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The elaborative retrieval account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances retention because the retrieval process produces the generation of semantic mediators that link cues to target information. We tested 2 assumptions that form the basis of this account: that semantic mediators are more likely to be generated during…

  11. The role of retrieval mode and retrieval orientation in retrieval practice: insights from comparing recognition memory testing formats and restudying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuanji; Rosburg, Timm; Hou, Mingzhu; Li, Bingbing; Xiao, Xin; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-12-01

    The effectiveness of retrieval practice for aiding long-term memory, referred to as the testing effect, has been widely demonstrated. However, the specific neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In the present study, we sought to explore the role of pre-retrieval processes at initial testing on later recognition performance by using event-related potentials (ERPs). Subjects studied two lists of words (Chinese characters) and then performed a recognition task or a source memory task, or restudied the word lists. At the end of the experiment, subjects received a final recognition test based on the remember-know paradigm. Behaviorally, initial testing (active retrieval) enhanced memory retention relative to restudying (passive retrieval). The retrieval mode at initial testing was indexed by more positive-going ERPs for unstudied items in the active-retrieval tasks than in passive retrieval from 300 to 900 ms. Follow-up analyses showed that the magnitude of the early ERP retrieval mode effect (300-500 ms) was predictive of the behavioral testing effect later on. In addition, the ERPs for correctly rejected new items during initial testing differed between the two active-retrieval tasks from 500 to 900 ms, and this ERP retrieval orientation effect predicted differential behavioral testing gains between the two active-retrieval conditions. Our findings confirm that initial testing promotes later retrieval relative to restudying, and they further suggest that adopting pre-retrieval processing in the forms of retrieval mode and retrieval orientation might contribute to these memory enhancements.

  12. Comparisons of Upper Tropospheric Humidity Retrievals from TOVS and METEOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffier, C.; Bates, J.; Chedin, A.; Rossow, W. B.; Schmetz, J.

    1999-01-01

    Two different methods for retrieving Upper Tropospheric Humidities (UTH) from the TOVS (TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder) instruments aboard NOAA polar orbiting satellites are presented and compared. The first one, from the Environmental Technology Laboratory, computed by J. Bates and D. Jackson (hereafter BJ method), estimates UTH from a simplified radiative transfer analysis of the upper tropospheric infrared water vapor channel at wavelength measured by HIRS (6.3 micrometer). The second one results from a neural network analysis of the TOVS (HIRS and MSU) data developed at, the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (hereafter the 3I (Improved Initialization Inversion) method). Although the two methods give very similar retrievals in temperate regions (30-60 N and S), an absolute bias up to 16% appears in the convective zone of the tropics. The two datasets have also been compared with UTH retrievals from infrared radiance measurements in the 6.3 micrometer channel from the geostationary satellite METEOSAT (hereafter MET method). The METEOSAT retrievals are systematically drier than the TOVS-based results by an absolute bias between 5 and 25%. Despite the biases, the spatial and temporal correlations are very good. The purpose of this study is to explain the deviations observed between the three datasets. The sensitivity of UTH to air temperature and humidity profiles is analysed as are the clouds effects. Overall, the comparison of the three retrievals gives an assessment of the current uncertainties in water vapor amounts in the upper troposphere as determined from NOAA and METEOSAT satellites.

  13. Information retrieval in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyanagi, Yoshio

    1983-01-01

    Various information retrieval systems for elementary particle physics are introduced. Scientific information has been distributed in the form of books, periodicals or preprints. Some periodicals include the abstracts of information only. Recently, computer systems, by which the information retrieval can be easily done, have been developed. The construction of networks connecting various computer systems is in progress. It is possible to call the data base of Rutherford Laboratory from a telephone terminal of Laurence Berkeley Laboratory. The access to the Network by British Science Research Council can be made from DESY or CERN. The examples of on-line information retrieval in Japan are presented. Some of the periodicals of secondary information and data books are also introduced. (Kato, T.)

  14. Context based multimedia information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti

    The large amounts of digital media becoming available require that new approaches are developed for retrieving, navigating and recommending the data to users in a way that refl ects how we semantically perceive the content. The thesis investigates ways to retrieve and present content for users...... topics from a large collection of the transcribed speech to improve retrieval of spoken documents. The context modelling is done using a variant of probabilistic latent semantic analysis (PLSA), to extract properties of the textual sources that refl ect how humans perceive context. We perform PLSA...... of Wikipedia , as well as text-based semantic similarity. The final aspect investigated is how to include some of the structured data available in Wikipedia to include temporal information. We show that a multiway extension of PLSA makes it possible to extract temporally meaningful topics, better than using...

  15. Information retrieval in digital environments

    CERN Document Server

    Dinet, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Information retrieval is a central and essential activity. It is indeed difficult to find a human activity that does not need to retrieve information in an environment which is often increasingly digital: moving and navigating, learning, having fun, communicating, informing, making a decision, etc. Most human activities are intimately linked to our ability to search quickly and effectively for relevant information, the stakes are sometimes extremely important: passing an exam, voting, finding a job, remaining autonomous, being socially connected, developing a critical spirit, or simply surviv

  16. Robustness of phase retrieval methods in x-ray phase contrast imaging: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The robustness of the phase retrieval methods is of critical importance for limiting and reducing radiation doses involved in x-ray phase contrast imaging. This work is to compare the robustness of two phase retrieval methods by analyzing the phase maps retrieved from the experimental images of a phantom. Methods: Two phase retrieval methods were compared. One method is based on the transport of intensity equation (TIE) for phase contrast projections, and the TIE-based method is the most commonly used method for phase retrieval in the literature. The other is the recently developed attenuation-partition based (AP-based) phase retrieval method. The authors applied these two methods to experimental projection images of an air-bubble wrap phantom for retrieving the phase map of the bubble wrap. The retrieved phase maps obtained by using the two methods are compared. Results: In the wrap's phase map retrieved by using the TIE-based method, no bubble is recognizable, hence, this method failed completely for phase retrieval from these bubble wrap images. Even with the help of the Tikhonov regularization, the bubbles are still hardly visible and buried in the cluttered background in the retrieved phase map. The retrieved phase values with this method are grossly erroneous. In contrast, in the wrap's phase map retrieved by using the AP-based method, the bubbles are clearly recovered. The retrieved phase values with the AP-based method are reasonably close to the estimate based on the thickness-based measurement. The authors traced these stark performance differences of the two methods to their different techniques employed to deal with the singularity problem involved in the phase retrievals. Conclusions: This comparison shows that the conventional TIE-based phase retrieval method, regardless if Tikhonov regularization is used or not, is unstable against the noise in the wrap's projection images, while the AP-based phase retrieval method is shown in these

  17. Bibliometric-enhanced information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayr, Philipp; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Larsen, Birger; Schaer, Philipp; Mutschke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although they offer value-added effects for users. In this workshop we will explore how statistical modelling of scholarship, such as Bradfordizing or network analysis of coauthorship network, can

  18. Photopolarimetric Retrievals of Snow Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, M.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.

    2015-01-01

    Polarimetric observations of snow surfaces, obtained in the 410-2264 nm range with the Research Scanning Polarimeter onboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft, are analyzed and presented. These novel measurements are of interest to the remote sensing community because the overwhelming brightness of snow plagues aerosol and cloud retrievals based on airborne and spaceborne total reflection measurements. The spectral signatures of the polarized reflectance of snow are therefore worthwhile investigating in order to provide guidance for the adaptation of algorithms currently employed for the retrieval of aerosol properties over soil and vegetated surfaces. At the same time, the increased information content of polarimetric measurements allows for a meaningful characterization of the snow medium. In our case, the grains are modeled as hexagonal prisms of variable aspect ratios and microscale roughness, yielding retrievals of the grains' scattering asymmetry parameter, shape and size. The results agree with our previous findings based on a more limited data set, with the majority of retrievals leading to moderately rough crystals of extreme aspect ratios, for each scene corresponding to a single value of the asymmetry parameter.

  19. The Ecosystem of Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Munoz, Jose-Vicente; Martinez-Mendez, Francisco-Javier; Pastor-Sanchez, Juan-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents an initial proposal for a formal framework that, by studying the metric variables involved in information retrieval, can establish the sequence of events involved and how to perform it. Method: A systematic approach from the equations of Shannon and Weaver to establish the decidability of information retrieval…

  20. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.

    2015-01-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  1. Information Retrieval in Virtual Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Pöyry, Päivi

    2006-01-01

    Information retrieval in the context of virtual universities deals with the representation, organization, and access to learning objects. The representation and organization of learning objects should provide the learner with an easy access to the learning objects. In this article, we give an overview of the ONES system, and analyze the relevance…

  2. Wind Retrieval using Marine Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    utilized to remove the 180° directional ambiguity in SAR wave retrieval ( Engen and Johnson, 1995). We have observed a strong dependency of the...1629–1642, Sep 2007. Engen , G., and H. Johnson, “SAR ocean wave inversion using image cross spectra”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, vol. 33

  3. Phase 2, Solid waste retrieval strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Solid TRU retrieval, Phase 1 is scheduled to commence operation in 1998 at 218W-4C-T01 and complete recovery of the waste containers in 2001. Phase 2 Retrieval will recover the remaining buried TRU waste to be retrieved and provide the preliminary characterization by non-destructive means to allow interim storage until processing for disposal. This document reports on researching the characterization documents to determine the types of wastes to be retrieved and where located, waste configurations, conditions, and required methods for retrieval. Also included are discussions of wastes encompassed by Phase 2 for which there are valid reasons to not retrieve

  4. Phase 2, Solid waste retrieval strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-09-29

    Solid TRU retrieval, Phase 1 is scheduled to commence operation in 1998 at 218W-4C-T01 and complete recovery of the waste containers in 2001. Phase 2 Retrieval will recover the remaining buried TRU waste to be retrieved and provide the preliminary characterization by non-destructive means to allow interim storage until processing for disposal. This document reports on researching the characterization documents to determine the types of wastes to be retrieved and where located, waste configurations, conditions, and required methods for retrieval. Also included are discussions of wastes encompassed by Phase 2 for which there are valid reasons to not retrieve.

  5. Microphysical retrievals from simultaneous polarimetric and profiling radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Morris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The character of precipitation detected at the surface is the final product of many microphysical interactions in the cloud above, the combined effects of which may be characterized by the observed drop size distribution (DSD. This necessitates accurate retrieval of the DSD from remote sensing data, especially radar as it offers large areal coverage, high spatial resolution, and rigorous quality control and testing. Combined instrument observations with a UHF wind profiler, an S-band polarimetric weather radar, and a video disdrometer are analyzed for two squall line events occuring during the calendar year 2007. UHF profiler Doppler velocity spectra are used to estimate the DSD aloft, and are complemented by DSDs retrieved from an exponential model applied to polarimetric data. Ground truth is provided by the disdrometer. A complicating factor in the retrieval from UHF profiler spectra is the presence of ambient air motion, which can be corrected using the method proposed by Teshiba et al. (2009, in which a comparison between idealized Doppler spectra calculated from the DSDs retrieved from KOUN and those retrieved from contaminated wind profiler spectra is performed. It is found that DSDs measured using the distrometer at the surface and estimated using the wind profiler and polarimetric weather radar generally showed good agreement. The DSD retrievals using the wind profiler were improved when the estimates of the vertical wind were included into the analysis, thus supporting the method of Teshiba et al. (2009. Furthermore, the the study presents a method of investigating the time and height structure of DSDs.

  6. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  7. To retrieve or not to retrieve: These are the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M.; Nickelson, D.F.; Swanson, S.P.

    1997-10-01

    There are many factors that must be evaluated when determining whether a buried mixed waste site should be retrieved and subsequently stored, treated, and/or disposed of or if some other action is more appropriate. The criteria developed for the evaluation of remedial actions at mixed waste sites under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulation EPA, provide an excellent methodology for deciding upon a preferred action even if the site is not under CERCLA regulation. Each topic for evaluation in the criteria is not mutually exclusive, and many tradeoffs must be reviewed. The criteria have been broken down into a number of categories: overall protection of human health and the environment; compliance with Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs); long-term effectiveness and permanence; reduction of toxicity, mobility, and volume; short-term effectiveness; implementability; cost; state acceptance; and community acceptance. Once the data is gathered, a Hazards Analysis must be performed to understand the risks of the site to workers, the public, and the environment. The Hazard Analysis is critical in helping personnel understand the associated issues so that an effective evaluation can take place. The intent of this paper is not to focus on a particular site, but to provide information that is useful for many problem holders to better understand the issues associated with buried mixed waste retrieval. Ultimately, these issues affect the final decision of whether or not retrieval is a feasible alternative

  8. Impact of retrievability of repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Gaag, J. v.d.; Prij, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the impact of the retrievability on the design of the repository will be handled. Retrievability of radioactive waste from a repository in geological formations has received increasing attention during recent years. It is obvious that this retrievability will have consequences in terms of mining engineering, safety and cost. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate cost consequences by comparing two extreme options for retrievable storage. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  9. Database, expert systems, information retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedele, P.; Grandoni, G.; Mammarella, M.C.

    1989-12-01

    The great debate concerning the Italian high-school reform has induced a ferment of activity among the most interested and sensible of people. This was clearly demonstrated by the course 'Innovazione metodologico-didattica e tecnologie informatiche' organized for the staff of the 'lstituto Professionale L. Einaudi' of Lamezia Terme. The course was an interesting opportunity for discussions and interaction between the world of School and computer technology used in the Research field. This three day course included theoretical and practical lessons, showing computer facilities that could be useful for teaching. During the practical lessons some computer tools were presented from the very simple Electronic Sheets to the more complicated information Retrieval on CD-ROM interactive realizations. The main topics will be discussed later. They are: Modelling, Data Base, Integrated Information Systems, Expert Systems, Information Retrieval. (author)

  10. Construction, emplacement, and retrievability (preclosure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClain, W.

    1985-01-01

    Each of the three preclosure subgroups of the Construction, Emplacement, and Retrievability Working Group adopted a six-step approach to identify and assess current needs in geotechnical modeling and characterization. This approach may be summarized as follows: identify phenomena related to emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes, identify types of models which are required to calculate the phenomena, establish the input data needs for the models, assess the current availability of the models, assess the current status of documentation, verification, and validation of the models, and determine the adequacy of instrumentation and measurement techniques to (a) validate the models, where necessary, and (b) obtain input data for design. Systematic application of these six steps leads to the establishment of the research requirements for geotechnical modeling and characterization. A summary of modeling techniques which apply to the three subsequent sections on construction, emplacement, and retrievability is presented. Research needs, which apply to all preclosure activities, are summarized

  11. Hooked on Music Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bas de Haas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a reply to 'Lure(d into listening: The potential of cognition-based music information retrieval,' in which Henkjan Honing discusses the potential impact of his proposed Listen, Lure & Locate project on Music Information Retrieval (MIR. Honing presents some critical remarks on data-oriented approaches in MIR, which we endorse. To place these remarks in context, we first give a brief overview of the state of the art of MIR research. Then we present a series of arguments that show why purely data-oriented approaches are unlikely to take MIR research and applications to a more advanced level. Next, we propose our view on MIR research, in which the modelling of musical knowledge has a central role. Finally, we elaborate on the ideas in Honing's paper from a MIR perspective in this paper and propose some additions to the Listen, Lure & Locate project.

  12. Major Upgrades to the AIRS Version-6 Ozone Profile Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    This research is a continuation of part of what was shown at the last AIRS Science Team Meeting in the talk Improved Water Vapor and Ozone Profiles in SRT AIRS Version-6.X and the AIRS February 11, 2015 NetMeeting Further improvements in water vapor and ozone profiles compared to Version-6.AIRS Version-6 was finalized in late 2012 and is now operational. Version-6 contained many significant improvements in retrieval methodology compared to Version-5. However, Version-6 retrieval methodology used for the water vapor profile q(p) and ozone profile O3(p) retrievals is basically unchanged from Version-5, or even from Version-4. Subsequent research has made significant improvements in both water vapor and O3 profiles compared to Version-6. This talk will concentrate on O3 profile retrievals. Improvements in water vapor profile retrievals are given in a separate presentation.

  13. Topic Models in Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Information Processing Systems, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 2004. Brown, P.F., Della Pietra, V.J., deSouza, P.V., Lai, J.C. and Mercer, R.L., Class-based...2003. http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1216-0. Croft, W.B., Lucia , T.J., Cringean, J., and Willett, P., Retrieving Documents By Plausible Inference

  14. Retrievability in an ethical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunberg, A.-M.

    2000-01-01

    At the outset, a short summary is given of how the ethical discussion developed historically, all from the so-called double KASAM principle of 1987 - safety in operation, combined with reparability, with controls not necessary, but not impossible - until the phase of focusing on retrievability as a result of a deepened ethical discussion. The ethical development is seen schematically according to two phases. The concept of retrievability functions as a symbol for the shift from the first to the second phase. Intergenerational equity is interpreted as an obligation to maximize the safety of future generations, whilst imposing a minimum of risks, burdens and costs. The basic disposal concept is an intrinsically definitive and non-retrievable one. The second phase carries over from the first its principle of the total responsibility of our generation, but interprets the principle of intergenerational equity as also including equal opportunities. This leads to the following conclusion: What is at stake is a precarious act of balance, with a preserved equal weight for the two principles in each decision and every measure. Finally, some questions for future treatment are put, and the author draws the following conclusions. We can hardly advance further than to manufacture an interactive waste management system, allowing us to involve present and future generations in an open, flexible, and non-preconstrained decision making process. In such a process, retrievability presents itself as an inescapable dimension. But at the same time we cannot guarantee future generations freedom to act without providing for them a repository which is designed to be finally closed. (author)

  15. Credibility improves topical blog post retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Topical blog post retrieval is the task of ranking blog posts with respect to their relevance for a given topic. To improve topical blog post retrieval we incorporate textual credibility indicators in the retrieval process. We consider two groups of indicators: post level (determined using

  16. Interactive information seeking, behaviour and retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruthven, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) is a complex human activity supported by sophisticated systems. This book covers the whole spectrum of information retrieval, including: history and background information; behaviour and seeking task-based information; searching and retrieval approaches to investigating information; and, evaluation interfaces for IR.

  17. Retrievable surface storage facility conceptual system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-01

    The studies evaluated several potentially attractive methods for processing and retrievably storing high-level radioactive waste after delivery to the Federal repository. These studies indicated that several systems could be engineered to safely store the waste, but that the simplest and most attractive concept from a technical standpoint would be to store the waste in a sealed stainless steel canister enclosed in a 2 in. thick carbon steel cask which in turn would be inserted into a reinforced concrete gamma-neutron shield, which would also provide the necessary air-cooling through an air annulus between the cask and the shield. This concept best satisfies the requirements for safety, long-term exposure to natural phenomena, low capital and operating costs, retrievability, amenability to incremental development, and acceptably small environmental impact. This document assumes that the reference site would be on ERDA's Hanford reservation. This document is a Conceptual System Design Description of the facilities which could satisfy all of the functional requirements within the established basic design criteria. The Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) is planned with the capacity to process and store the waste received in either a calcine or glass/ceramic form. The RSSF planning is based on a modular development program in which the modular increments are constructed at rates matching projected waste receipts.

  18. Retrievable surface storage facility conceptual system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The studies evaluated several potentially attractive methods for processing and retrievably storing high-level radioactive waste after delivery to the Federal repository. These studies indicated that several systems could be engineered to safely store the waste, but that the simplest and most attractive concept from a technical standpoint would be to store the waste in a sealed stainless steel canister enclosed in a 2 in. thick carbon steel cask which in turn would be inserted into a reinforced concrete gamma-neutron shield, which would also provide the necessary air-cooling through an air annulus between the cask and the shield. This concept best satisfies the requirements for safety, long-term exposure to natural phenomena, low capital and operating costs, retrievability, amenability to incremental development, and acceptably small environmental impact. This document assumes that the reference site would be on ERDA's Hanford reservation. This document is a Conceptual System Design Description of the facilities which could satisfy all of the functional requirements within the established basic design criteria. The Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) is planned with the capacity to process and store the waste received in either a calcine or glass/ceramic form. The RSSF planning is based on a modular development program in which the modular increments are constructed at rates matching projected waste receipts

  19. Functional alarming and information retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodstein, L.P.

    1985-08-01

    This paper deals with two facets of the design and efficient utilisation by operating personnel of computer-based interfaces for monitoring and the supervisory control of complex industrial systems - e.g., power stations, chemical plants, etc. These are alarming and information retrieval both of which are extremely sensitive to computerisation. For example, the advent of computers for display requires that some means of assuring easy and rapid access to large amounts of relevant stored information be found. In this paper, alarming and information retrieval are linked together through a multilevel functional description of the target plant. This representation serves as a framework for structuring the access to information as well as defining associated ''alarms'' at the various descriptive levels. Particular attention is paid to the level where mass and energy flows and balances are relevant. It is shown that the number of alarms here is reduced considerably while information about content and interrelationships is enhanced - which at the same time eases the retrieval problem. (author)

  20. Interactive Information Retrieval: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borlund, Pia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the research area of interactive information retrieval (IIR from a historical point of view. Further, the focus here is on evaluation, because much research in IR deals with IR evaluation methodology due to the core research interest in IR performance, system interaction and satisfaction with retrieved information. In order to position IIR evaluation, the Cranfield model and the series of tests that led to the Cranfield model are outlined. Three iconic user-oriented studies and projects that all have contributed to how IIR is perceived and understood today are presented: The MEDLARS test, the Book House fiction retrieval system, and the OKAPI project. On this basis the call for alternative IIR evaluation approaches motivated by the three revolutions (the cognitive, the relevance, and the interactive revolutions put forward by Robertson & Hancock-Beaulieu (1992 is presented. As a response to this call the 'IIR evaluation model' by Borlund (e.g., 2003a is introduced. The objective of the IIR evaluation model is to facilitate IIR evaluation as close as possible to actual information searching and IR processes, though still in a relatively controlled evaluation environment, in which the test instrument of a simulated work task situation plays a central part.

  1. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  2. Retrieval.

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Allyson

    1990-01-01

    Allyson Clay’s "Traces of a City in the Spaces Between Some People" is a series of twenty diptychs contrasting fabricated faux finishing with expressionist painting and text. The fabricated paint applications evoke city surfaces like concrete and granite; they also evoke modernist painting.  Unlike modernist painting, however, the faux surfaces are decorative and mechanically painted. The choice to have the surfaces fabricated serves to disrupt the egoism of modern abstraction and the im...

  3. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  4. Relating the new language models of information retrieval to the traditional retrieval models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Vries, A.P.

    During the last two years, exciting new approaches to information retrieval were introduced by a number of different research groups that use statistical language models for retrieval. This paper relates the retrieval algorithms suggested by these approaches to widely accepted retrieval algorithms

  5. Retrieval Attempts Enhance Learning, but Retrieval Success (versus Failure) Does Not Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornell, Nate; Klein, Patricia Jacobs; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Retrieving information from memory enhances learning. We propose a 2-stage framework to explain the benefits of retrieval. Stage 1 takes place as one attempts to retrieve an answer, which activates knowledge related to the retrieval cue. Stage 2 begins when the answer becomes available, at which point appropriate connections are strengthened and…

  6. Innovative technology summary report: Innovative grouting and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    Innovative grouting and retrieval (IGR) technology provides an innovative and cost-effective approach for full-pit and hot-spot retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste sites and in situ disposal of buried waste with improved confinement. Innovative grouting technology: minimizes spreading of contamination by agglomerating the soil particles containing plutonium/americium particulates into nonaerosolizable particles; minimizes worker risks and exposure; is more effective in controlling the spread of contamination than common mining practices such as directed air flow, misting, and fixant sprays; eliminates further treatment because the grouted, rubberized waste is ready for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); reduces capital expenditures, operating costs, and containment structure requirements; and is an estimated five times faster than the baseline technology of removal, packaging, and storage

  7. Evaluation of Current Planetary Boundary Layer Retrieval Capabilities from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Schaefer, Alexander J.; Blaisdell, John; Yorks, John

    2016-01-01

    The PBL over land remains a significant gap in our water and energy cycle understanding from space. This work combines unique NASA satellite and model products to demonstrate the ability of current sensors (advanced IR sounding and lidar) to retrieve PBL properties and in turn their potential to be used globally to evaluate and improve weather and climate prediction models. While incremental progress has been made in recent AIRS retrieval versions, insufficient vertical resolution remains in terms of detecting PBL properties. Lidar shows promise in terms of detecting vertical gradients (and PBLh) in the lower troposphere, but daytime conditions over land remain a challenge due to noise, and their coverage is limited to approximately 2 weeks or longer return times.

  8. Multimedia information retrieval theory and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Raieli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Novel processing and searching tools for the management of new multimedia documents have developed. Multimedia Information Retrieval (MMIR) is an organic system made up of Text Retrieval (TR); Visual Retrieval (VR); Video Retrieval (VDR); and Audio Retrieval (AR) systems. So that each type of digital document may be analysed and searched by the elements of language appropriate to its nature, search criteria must be extended. Such an approach is known as the Content Based Information Retrieval (CBIR), and is the core of MMIR. This novel content-based concept of information handling needs to be integrated with more traditional semantics. Multimedia Information Retrieval focuses on the tools of processing and searching applicable to the content-based management of new multimedia documents. Translated from Italian by Giles Smith, the book is divided in to two parts. Part one discusses MMIR and related theories, and puts forward new methodologies; part two reviews various experimental and operating MMIR systems, a...

  9. A Unified Mathematical Definition of Classical Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominich, Sandor

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unified mathematical definition for the classical models of information retrieval and identifies a mathematical structure behind relevance feedback. Highlights include vector information retrieval; probabilistic information retrieval; and similarity information retrieval. (Contains 118 references.) (Author/LRW)

  10. Information retrieval and individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents individual differences, which are found in studies of information retrieval with emphasis on models of personality traits, cognitive and learning styles. It pays special attention to those models which are most often included in studies of information behaviour,information seeking,perceptions of IR systems, etc., but also brings forward some models which have not yet been included in such studies. Additionally, the relationship between different individual characteristics and individual’s chosen profession or academic area is discussed. In this context,the paper presents how investigation of individual differences can be useful in the design of IR systems.

  11. Six sigma for revenue retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonien, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Deficiencies in revenue retrieval due to failures in obtaining charges have contributed to a negative bottom line for numerous hospitals. Improving documentation practices through a Six Sigma process improvement initiative can minimize opportunities for errors through reviews and instill structure for compliance and consistency. Commitment to the Six Sigma principles with continuous monitoring of outcomes and constant communication of results to departments, management, and payers is a strong approach to reducing the financial impact of denials on an organization's revenues and expenses. Using Six Sigma tools can help improve the organization's financial performance not only for today, but also for health care's uncertain future.

  12. Innovative grout/retrieval demonstration final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Thompson, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of an innovative retrieval technique for buried transuranic waste. Application of this retrieval technique was originally designed for full pit retrieval; however, it applies equally to a hot spot retrieval technology. The technique involves grouting the buried soil waste matrix with a jet grouting procedure, applying an expansive demolition grout to the matrix, and retrieving the debris. The grouted matrix provides an agglomeration of fine soil particles and contaminants resulting in an inherent contamination control during the dusty retrieval process. A full-scale field demonstration of this retrieval technique was performed on a simulated waste pit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Details are reported on all phases of this proof-of-concept demonstration including pit construction, jet grouting activities, application of the demolition grout, and actual retrieval of the grouted pit. A quantitative evaluation of aerosolized soils and rare earth tracer spread is given for all phases of the demonstration, and these results are compared to a baseline retrieval activity using conventional retrieval means. 8 refs., 47 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Biomedical information retrieval across languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumke, Philipp; Markü, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan; Klar, Rüdiger

    2007-06-01

    This work presents a new dictionary-based approach to biomedical cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that addresses many of the general and domain-specific challenges in current CLIR research. Our method is based on a multilingual lexicon that was generated partly manually and partly automatically, and currently covers six European languages. It contains morphologically meaningful word fragments, termed subwords. Using subwords instead of entire words significantly reduces the number of lexical entries necessary to sufficiently cover a specific language and domain. Mediation between queries and documents is based on these subwords as well as on lists of word-n-grams that are generated from large monolingual corpora and constitute possible translation units. The translations are then sent to a standard Internet search engine. This process makes our approach an effective tool for searching the biomedical content of the World Wide Web in different languages. We evaluate this approach using the OHSUMED corpus, a large medical document collection, within a cross-language retrieval setting.

  14. Conservaton and retrieval of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.

    1993-01-01

    This is a summary of the findings of a Nordic working group formed in 1990 and given the task of establishing a basis for a common Nordic view of the need for information conservation for nuclear waste repositories by investigating the following: (1) the type of information that should be conserved; (2) the form in which the information should be kept; (3) the quality of the information as regards both type and form; and (4) the problems of future retrieval of information, including retrieval after very long periods of time. High-level waste from nuclear power generation will remain radioactive for very long times even though the major part of the radioactivity will have decayed within 1000 yr. Certain information about the waste must be kept for long time periods because future generations may-intentionally or inadvertently-come into contact with the radioactive waste. Current day waste management would benefit from an early identification of documents to be part of an archive for radioactive waste repositories. The same reasoning is valid for repositories for other toxic wastes

  15. Retrieval of collision kernels from the change of droplet size distributions with linear inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Ryo; Takahashi, Keiko [Earth Simulator Center, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan); Matsuda, Keigo; Kurose, Ryoichi; Komori, Satoru [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: onishi.ryo@jamstec.go.jp, E-mail: matsuda.keigo@t03.mbox.media.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: takahasi@jamstec.go.jp, E-mail: kurose@mech.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: komori@mech.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2008-12-15

    We have developed a new simple inversion scheme for retrieving collision kernels from the change of droplet size distribution due to collision growth. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of steady isotropic turbulence with colliding droplets are carried out in order to investigate the validity of the developed inversion scheme. In the DNS, air turbulence is calculated using a quasi-spectral method; droplet motions are tracked in a Lagrangian manner. The initial droplet size distribution is set to be equivalent to that obtained in a wind tunnel experiment. Collision kernels retrieved by the developed inversion scheme are compared to those obtained by the DNS. The comparison shows that the collision kernels can be retrieved within 15% error. This verifies the feasibility of retrieving collision kernels using the present inversion scheme.

  16. Retrieving fear memories, as time goes by…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Monte, Fabricio H.; Quirk, Gregory J.; Li, Bo; Penzo, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    Fear conditioning researches have led to a comprehensive picture of the neuronal circuit underlying the formation of fear memories. In contrast, knowledge about the retrieval of fear memories is much more limited. This disparity may stem from the fact that fear memories are not rigid, but reorganize over time. To bring clarity and raise awareness on the time-dependent dynamics of retrieval circuits, we review current evidence on the neuronal circuitry participating in fear memory retrieval at both early and late time points after conditioning. We focus on the temporal recruitment of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and its BDNFergic efferents to the central nucleus of the amygdala, for the retrieval and maintenance of fear memories. Finally, we speculate as to why retrieval circuits change across time, and the functional benefits of recruiting structures such as the paraventricular nucleus into the retrieval circuit. PMID:27217148

  17. Information retrieval implementing and evaluating search engines

    CERN Document Server

    Büttcher, Stefan; Cormack, Gordon V

    2016-01-01

    Information retrieval is the foundation for modern search engines. This textbook offers an introduction to the core topics underlying modern search technologies, including algorithms, data structures, indexing, retrieval, and evaluation. The emphasis is on implementation and experimentation; each chapter includes exercises and suggestions for student projects. Wumpus -- a multiuser open-source information retrieval system developed by one of the authors and available online -- provides model implementations and a basis for student work. The modular structure of the book allows instructors to use it in a variety of graduate-level courses, including courses taught from a database systems perspective, traditional information retrieval courses with a focus on IR theory, and courses covering the basics of Web retrieval. In addition to its classroom use, Information Retrieval will be a valuable reference for professionals in computer science, computer engineering, and software engineering.

  18. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  19. Impact of NO2 Profile Shape in OMI Tropospheric NO2 Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Lok; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Pickering, K.; Schwartz, W. H.; Celarier, E. A.; Bucsela, E. J.; Gleason, J. F.; Philip, S.; Nowlan, C.; Martin, R. V.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx NO + NO2) are key actors in air quality and climate change. Tropospheric NO2 columns from the nadir-viewing satellite sensors have been widely used to understand sources and chemistry of NOx. We have implemented several improvements to the operational algorithm developed at NASA GSFC and retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns. We present tropospheric NO2 validation studies of the new OMI Standard Product version 2.1 using ground-based and in-situ aircraft measurements. We show how vertical profile of scattering weight and a-priori NO2 profile shapes, which are taken from chemistry-transport models, affect air mass factor (AMF) and therefore tropospheric NO2 retrievals. Users can take advantage of scattering weights information that is made available in the operational NO2 product. Improved tropospheric NO2 data retrieved using thoroughly evaluated high spatial resolution NO2 profiles are helpful to test models.

  20. IMAGE DESCRIPTIONS FOR SKETCH BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL

    OpenAIRE

    SAAVEDRA RONDO, JOSE MANUEL; SAAVEDRA RONDO, JOSE MANUEL

    2008-01-01

    Due to the massive use of Internet together with the proliferation of media devices, content based image retrieval has become an active discipline in computer science. A common content based image retrieval approach requires that the user gives a regular image (e.g, a photo) as a query. However, having a regular image as query may be a serious problem. Indeed, people commonly use an image retrieval system because they do not count on the desired image. An easy alternative way t...

  1. Document image retrieval through word shape coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shijian; Li, Linlin; Tan, Chew Lim

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a document retrieval technique that is capable of searching document images without OCR (optical character recognition). The proposed technique retrieves document images by a new word shape coding scheme, which captures the document content through annotating each word image by a word shape code. In particular, we annotate word images by using a set of topological shape features including character ascenders/descenders, character holes, and character water reservoirs. With the annotated word shape codes, document images can be retrieved by either query keywords or a query document image. Experimental results show that the proposed document image retrieval technique is fast, efficient, and tolerant to various types of document degradation.

  2. Wellhead bowl protector and retrieving tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes improvement in a wellhead protection system including a wear bushing and a retrieving tool. The improvement comprises a wear bushing supported within the wellhead, wherein the wear bushing includes an enlarged upper end having an external support shoulder for engagement with an internal support shoulder formed in the wellhead; wherein the wear bushing further includes an internal circumferential slot intersected by at least one vertically extending slot, the vertical slot extending from the circumferential slot to the upper end of the wear bushing; a retrieving tool having at least one outwardly biased, retractable lug member mounted thereon; and wherein the retrieving tool includes an enlarged portion adapted to be received within the enlarged upper end of the wear bushing. This patent also describes a method of retrieving a wear bushing from a wellhead comprising the steps of: lowering a retrieving tool into the wellhead for locking engagement with the wear bushing; aligning the retrieving tool with the wear bushing for automatically forcing lug members carried by the retrieving tool outwardly into locking engagement with the wear bushing; monitoring drill string weight for determining engagement of the retrieving tool with the wear bushing, wherein a substantial decrease in drill string weight is an indication that the retrieving tool is engaged with the wear bushing; and removing the wear bushing from the wellhead

  3. Scalable Distributed Architectures for Information Retrieval

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Zhihong

    1999-01-01

    .... Our distributed architectures exploit parallelism in information retrieval on a cluster of parallel IR servers using symmetric multiprocessors, and use partial collection replication and selection...

  4. Rapid monitoring for transuranic contaminants during buried waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Shaw, P.G.; Randolph, P.D.; Amaro, C.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Thompson, D.N.; Loomis, G.G.

    1991-03-01

    This document reports results of research performed in support of possible future transuranic waste retrieval operations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The focus of this research was to evaluate various methods of performing rapid and, as much as possible, ''on-line'' quantitative measurements of 239 Pu or 241 Am, either as airborne or loose contamination. Four different alpha continuous air monitors were evaluated for lower levels of detection of airborne 239 Pu. All of the continuous air monitors were evaluated by sampling ambient air. In addition, three of the continuous air monitors were evaluated by sampling air synthetically laden with clean dust and dust spiked with 239 Pu. Six methods for making quantitative measurements of loose contamination were investigated. They were: (1) microwave digestion followed by counting in a photon electron rejecting alpha liquid scintillation spectrometer, (2) rapid radiochemical separation followed by alpha spectrometry, (3) measurement of the 241 Am 59 keV gamma ray using a thin window germanium detector, (4) measurement of uranium L-shell x-rays, (5) gross alpha counting using a large-area Ag activated ZnS scintillator, and (6) direct counting of alpha particles using a large-area ionization chamber. 40 refs., 42 figs., 24 tabs

  5. Experimental database retrieval system 'DARTS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Tetsuo; Tani, Keiji; Haginoya, Hirobumi; Naito, Shinjiro.

    1989-02-01

    In JT-60, a large tokamak device of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), a plasma is fired for 5 ∼ 10 seconds at intervals of about 10 minutes. The each firing is called a shot. Plasma diagnostic data are edited as JT-60 experimental database at every shot cycle and are stored in a large-scale computer (FACOM-M780). Experimentalists look up the data for specific shots which they want to analyze and consider. As the total number of shots increases, they find a difficulty in the looking-up work. In order that they can easily access to their objective shot data or shot group data by using a computer terminal, 'DARTS' (DAtabase ReTrieval System) has been developed. This report may provide enough information on DARTS handling for users. (author)

  6. Personalized Mobile Information Retrieval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okkyung Choi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Building a global Network Relations with the internet has made huge changes in personal information system and even comments left on a webpage of SNS(Social Network Services are appreciated as important elements that would provide valuable information for someone. Social Network is a relation between individuals or groups, represented in a graph model, which converts the concept of psychological and social relations into a logical structure by using node and link. But, most of the current personalized systems on the basis of Social Network are built and constructed mainly in the PC environment, and the systems are neither designed nor implemented in mobile environment. Hence, the objective of this study is to propose methods of providing Personalized Mobile Information Retrieval System using NFC (Near Field Communication Smartphone, which will be then used for Smartphone users. Besides, this study aims to verify its efficiency through a comparative analysis of existing studies.

  7. Conservation and retrieval of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.

    1993-01-01

    High-level waste from nuclear power generation will remain radioactive for thousands of years even though 99% of the radioactivity will have decayed within the first millennium. For a hypothetical group involved in future actions to retrieve or repair a repository, information about its location, design, and content would be necessary. The need of such groups can be used to design the information that should be kept in a waste archive. Two main strategies exist for long-germ information transfer, one which links information thorough successive transfers of archived material and other forms of knowledge in society, and one - such as marking the site with a monument - relying upon a direct link from the present to the distant future. Digital methods are not recommended for long-term storage, but digital processing may be a valuable tool to structure information summaries, and in the creation of better long-lasting records. Advances in archive management should also be pursued to widen the choice of information carriers of high durability. In the Nordic countries, during the first few thousand years, and perhaps up to the next period of glaciation, monuments at a repository site may be used to warn the public of the presence of dangerous waste. But messages from such markers may pose interpretation problems as we have today for messages left by earlier societies such as rune inscriptions. Since the national borders may change in the time scale relevant for nuclear waste, the creation of an international archive for all radioactive wastes would represent an improvement as regards conservation and retrieval of information. (EG)

  8. Tank Bump Accident Potential and Consequences During Waste Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides an evaluation of Hanford tank bump accident potential and consequences during waste retrieval operations. The purpose of this report is to consider the best available new information to support recommendations for safety controls. A new tank bump accident analysis for safe storage (Epstein et al. 2000) is extended for this purpose. A tank bump is a postulated event in which gases, consisting mostly of water vapor, are suddenly emitted from the waste and cause tank headspace pressurization. Tank bump scenarios, physical models, and frequency and consequence methods are fully described in Epstein et al. (2000). The analysis scope is waste retrieval from double-shell tanks (DSTs) including operation of equipment such as mixer pumps and air lift circulators. The analysis considers physical mechanisms for tank bump to formulate criteria for bump potential during retrieval, application of the criteria to the DSTs, evaluation of bump frequency, and consequence analysis of a bump. The result of the consequence analysis is the mass of waste released from tanks; radiological dose is calculated using standard methods (Cowley et al. 2000)

  9. Risk and cost tradeoffs for remote retrieval of buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, R.A.; Grienbenow, B.E.; Nickelson, D.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration is supporting the development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially available technologies, form a comprehensive system for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. As a part of the program's technology development, remote retrieval equipment is being developed and tested for the remediation of buried waste. During remedial planning, several factors are considered when choosing remote versus manual retrieval systems. Time that workers are exposed to radioactivity, chemicals, air particulate, and industrial hazards is one consideration. The generation of secondary waste is also a consideration because it amounts to more waste to treat and some wastes may require special handling or treatment. Cost is also a big factor in determining whether remote or manual operations will be used. Other considerations include implementability, effectiveness, and the number of required personnel. This paper investigates each of these areas to show the risk and cost benefits and limitations for remote versus manual retrieval of buried waste

  10. Risk and cost tradeoffs for remote retrieval of buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A.; Grienbenow, B.E.; Nickelson, D.F.

    1994-12-31

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration is supporting the development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially available technologies, form a comprehensive system for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. As a part of the program`s technology development, remote retrieval equipment is being developed and tested for the remediation of buried waste. During remedial planning, several factors are considered when choosing remote versus manual retrieval systems. Time that workers are exposed to radioactivity, chemicals, air particulate, and industrial hazards is one consideration. The generation of secondary waste is also a consideration because it amounts to more waste to treat and some wastes may require special handling or treatment. Cost is also a big factor in determining whether remote or manual operations will be used. Other considerations include implementability, effectiveness, and the number of required personnel. This paper investigates each of these areas to show the risk and cost benefits and limitations for remote versus manual retrieval of buried waste.

  11. Functional-anatomic study of episodic retrieval using fMRI. I. Retrieval effort versus retrieval success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, R L; Koutstaal, W; Schacter, D L; Wagner, A D; Rosen, B R

    1998-04-01

    A number of recent functional imaging studies have identified brain areas activated during tasks involving episodic memory retrieval. The identification of such areas provides a foundation for targeted hypotheses regarding the more specific contributions that these areas make to episodic retrieval. As a beginning effort toward such an endeavor, whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine 14 subjects during episodic word recognition in a block-designed fMRI experiment. Study conditions were manipulated by presenting either shallow or deep encoding tasks. This manipulation yielded two recognition conditions that differed with regard to retrieval effort and retrieval success: shallow encoding yielded low levels of recognition success with high levels of retrieval effort, and deep encoding yielded high levels of recognition success with low levels of effort. Many brain areas were activated in common by these two recognition conditions compared to a low-level fixation condition, including left and right prefrontal regions often detected during PET episodic retrieval paradigms (e.g., R. L. Buckner et al., 1996, J. Neurosci. 16, 6219-6235) thereby generalizing these findings to fMRI. Characterization of the activated regions in relation to the separate recognition conditions showed (1) bilateral anterior insular regions and a left dorsal prefrontal region were more active after shallow encoding, when retrieval demanded greatest effort, and (2) right anterior prefrontal cortex, which has been implicated in episodic retrieval, was most active during successful retrieval after deep encoding. We discuss these findings in relation to component processes involved in episodic retrieval and in the context of a companion study using event-related fMRI.

  12. Statistical Language Models and Information Retrieval: Natural Language Processing Really Meets Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, natural language processing techniques for information retrieval have always been studied outside the framework of formal models of information retrieval. In this article, we introduce a new formal model of information retrieval based on the application of statistical language models.

  13. In vivo oxidation in remelted highly cross-linked retrievals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, B H; Van Citters, D W; Currier, J H; Collier, J P

    2010-10-20

    Elimination of free radicals to prevent oxidation has played a major role in the development and product differentiation of the latest generation of highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene bearing materials. In the current study, we (1) examined oxidation in a series of retrieved remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene bearings from a number of device manufacturers and (2) compared the retrieval results with findings for shelf-stored control specimens. The hypothesis was that radiation-cross-linked remelted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene would maintain oxidative stability in vivo comparable with the stability during shelf storage and in published laboratory aging tests. Fifty remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular liners and nineteen remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene tibial inserts were received after retrieval from twenty-one surgeons from across the U.S. Thirty-two of the retrievals had been in vivo for two years or more. Each was measured for oxidation with use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A control series of remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular liners from three manufacturers was analyzed with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure free radical content and with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to measure oxidation initially and after eight to nine years of shelf storage in air. The never-implanted, shelf-aged controls had no measurable free-radical content initially or after eight to nine years of shelf storage. The never-implanted controls showed no increase in oxidation during shelf storage. Oxidation measurements showed measurable oxidation in 22% of the retrieved remelted highly cross-linked liners and inserts after an average of two years in vivo. Because never-implanted remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight

  14. The OMPS Limb Profiler Instrument: Two-Dimensional Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, Didier F.

    2010-01-01

    The upcoming Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS), which will be launched on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) platform in early 2011, will continue monitoring the global distribution of the Earth's middle atmosphere ozone and aerosol. OMPS is composed of three instruments, namely the Total Column Mapper (heritage: TOMS, OMI), the Nadir Profiler (heritage: SBUV) and the Limb Profiler (heritage: SOLSE/LORE, OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY, SAGE III). The ultimate goal of the mission is to better understand and quantify the rate of stratospheric ozone recovery. The focus of the paper will be on the Limb Profiler (LP) instrument. The LP instrument will measure the Earth's limb radiance (which is due to the scattering of solar photons by air molecules, aerosol and Earth surface) in the ultra-violet (UV), visible and near infrared, from 285 to 1000 nm. The LP simultaneously images the whole vertical extent of the Earth's limb through three vertical slits, each covering a vertical tangent height range of 100 km and each horizontally spaced by 250 km in the cross-track direction. Measurements are made every 19 seconds along the orbit track, which corresponds to a distance of about 150km. Several data analysis tools are presently being constructed and tested to retrieve ozone and aerosol vertical distribution from limb radiance measurements. The primary NASA algorithm is based on earlier algorithms developed for the SOLSE/LORE and SAGE III limb scatter missions. All the existing retrieval algorithms rely on a spherical symmetry assumption for the atmosphere structure. While this assumption is reasonable in most of the stratosphere, it is no longer valid in regions of prime scientific interest, such as polar vortex and UTLS regions. The paper will describe a two-dimensional retrieval algorithm whereby the ozone distribution is simultaneously retrieved vertically and horizontally for a whole orbit. The retrieval code relies on (1) a forward 2D Radiative Transfer code (to model limb

  15. Interactive storage and retrieval of pathologist's observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, G.M.; Dagle, G.E.; Watson, C.R.; McIntyre, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A system was developed for interactive storage and retrieval of pathologic observations. Data are entered on a CRT terminal using modified SNOP (Systematized Nomenclature of Pathology) codes. They are then stored and processed in a PDP 11/70 computer, and are retrieved on demand, utilizing DATATRIEVE and a variety of reports convenient for statistical analysis

  16. Information Retrieval and the Philosophy of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the main ideas in the philosophy of language that have relevance to the issues of information retrieval, focusing on the description of the intellectual content. Highlights include retrieval problems; recall and precision; words and meanings; context; externalism and the philosophy of language; and scaffolding and…

  17. Retrieval from Memory: Vulnerable or Inviolable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dylan M.; Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    We show that retrieval from semantic memory is vulnerable even to the mere presence of speech. Irrelevant speech impairs semantic fluency--namely, lexical retrieval cued by a semantic category name--but only if it is meaningful (forward speech compared to reversed speech or words compared to nonwords). Moreover, speech related semantically to the…

  18. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, D.; Trieschnigg, D.

    2012-01-01

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  19. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  20. MARC Coding of DDC for Subject Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajenberg, Arnold S.

    1983-01-01

    Recommends an expansion of MARC codes for decimal class numbers to enhance automated subject retrieval. Five values for a second indicator and two new subfields are suggested for encoding hierarchical relationships among decimal class numbers. Additional subfields are suggested to enhance retrieval through analysis of synthesized numbers in…

  1. Exploiting citation contexts for physics retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabrowska, Anna; Larsen, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The text surrounding citations within scientific papers may contain terms that usefully describe cited documents and can benefit retrieval. We present a preliminary study that investigates appending ci- tation contexts from citing documents to cited documents in the iSearch test collection. We ex...... in a large collection of physics papers, paving the way for future research that exploits citation contexts for retrieval....

  2. Evaluation of Technologies for Retrieval of Waste from Leaking Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Lewis, Benjamin E.; Randolph, John D.; Killough, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Environmental and Waste Management Tanks Focus Area selected as a strategic initiative the need to identify and develop technologies for remediation of tanks that are known or are suspected to leak. This investigation identified and evaluated technical options for single-shell tank waste retrieval applicable to retrieve waste from potentially leaking tanks. Technologies that minimize leakage use minimal water, and dry retrieval technologies were evaluated. Safety, cost, authorization basis, and schedule risks were identified for each technology to provide River Protection Program with information to evaluate technical and programmatic risk. A workshop was held to identify technology needs and solutions. These approaches grouped into five categories: those related to waste dislodging, waste conveyance, both waste dislodging and conveyance, the deployment platform, and technologies related to leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation. Based on the ranking, six technologies were selected as potential candidates for further evaluation. These items were prioritized into four technologies to recommend for further evaluation (1) Air assisted TORE(R). The TORE(R) produces a processing vortex core with the ability to convey solids at pre-determined slurry concentrations over great distances. The dry TORE(R) concept uses air to develop the vortex to fluidize dry solids. The TORE(R)the solids in a slurry transport line. (2) Sonication for waste dislodging utilizes ultrasonic energy to fracture and dislodge hard waste types such as salt cake and sludge. (3) Novel long-reach manipulators concept is to investigate novel cost effective approaches for long-reach manipulator technology. (4) Next generation crawler technology envisions a non-umbilical dislodger, possibly radio controlled and powered remotely to provide a deployment platform not affected by path, or the need to retrace steps

  3. BIR 2014 - Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This first “Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval” (BIR 2014) workshop1 aims to engage with the IR community about possible links to bibliometrics and scholarly communication. Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although...... analysis of co-authorship network, can improve retrieval services for specific communities, as well as for large, cross-domain collections. This workshop aims to raise awareness of the missing link between information retrieval (IR) and bibliometrics / scientometrics and to create a common ground...... for the incorporation of bibliometric-enhanced services into retrieval at the digital library interface. Our interests include information retrieval, information seeking, science modelling, network analysis, and digital libraries. The goal is to apply insights from bibliometrics, scientometrics, and informetrics...

  4. Compact binary hashing for music retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin S.

    2014-03-01

    With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.

  5. Generating Concise Rules for Human Motion Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Tomohiko; Wakisaka, Ken-Ichi; Kuriyama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for retrieving human motion data with concise retrieval rules based on the spatio-temporal features of motion appearance. Our method first converts motion clip into a form of clausal language that represents geometrical relations between body parts and their temporal relationship. A retrieval rule is then learned from the set of manually classified examples using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP automatically discovers the essential rule in the same clausal form with a user-defined hypothesis-testing procedure. All motions are indexed using this clausal language, and the desired clips are retrieved by subsequence matching using the rule. Such rule-based retrieval offers reasonable performance and the rule can be intuitively edited in the same language form. Consequently, our method enables efficient and flexible search from a large dataset with simple query language.

  6. Selective memory retrieval can impair and improve retrieval of other memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T; Samenieh, Anuscheh

    2012-03-01

    Research from the past decades has shown that retrieval of a specific memory (e.g., retrieving part of a previous vacation) typically attenuates retrieval of other memories (e.g., memories for other details of the event), causing retrieval-induced forgetting. More recently, however, it has been shown that retrieval can both attenuate and aid recall of other memories (K.-H. T. Bäuml & A. Samenieh, 2010). To identify the circumstances under which retrieval aids recall, the authors examined retrieval dynamics in listwise directed forgetting, context-dependent forgetting, proactive interference, and in the absence of any induced memory impairment. They found beneficial effects of selective retrieval in listwise directed forgetting and context-dependent forgetting but detrimental effects in all the other conditions. Because context-dependent forgetting and listwise directed forgetting arguably reflect impaired context access, the results suggest that memory retrieval aids recall of memories that are subject to impaired context access but attenuates recall in the absence of such circumstances. The findings are consistent with a 2-factor account of memory retrieval and suggest the existence of 2 faces of memory retrieval. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Data Fusion in Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The technique of data fusion has been used extensively in information retrieval due to the complexity and diversity of tasks involved such as web and social networks, legal, enterprise, and many others. This book presents both a theoretical and empirical approach to data fusion. Several typical data fusion algorithms are discussed, analyzed and evaluated. A reader will find answers to the following questions, among others: -          What are the key factors that affect the performance of data fusion algorithms significantly? -          What conditions are favorable to data fusion algorithms? -          CombSum and CombMNZ, which one is better? and why? -          What is the rationale of using the linear combination method? -          How can the best fusion option be found under any given circumstances?

  8. Retrieval-practice task affects relationship between working memory capacity and retrieval-induced forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Benjamin C; Bui, Dung C

    2016-11-01

    Retrieving a subset of items from memory can cause forgetting of other items in memory, a phenomenon referred to as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). Individuals who exhibit greater amounts of RIF have been shown to also exhibit superior working memory capacity (WMC) and faster stop-signal reaction times (SSRTs), results which have been interpreted as suggesting that RIF reflects an inhibitory process that is mediated by the processes of executive control. Across four experiments, we sought to further elucidate this issue by manipulating the way in which participants retrieved items during retrieval practice and examining how the resulting effects of forgetting correlated with WMC (Experiments 1-3) and SSRT (Experiment 4). Significant correlations were observed when participants retrieved items from an earlier study phase (within-list retrieval practice), but not when participants generated items from semantic memory (extra-list retrieval practice). These results provide important new insight into the role of executive-control processes in RIF.

  9. Ground-based FTIR retrievals of SF6 on Reunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minqiang; Langerock, Bavo; Vigouroux, Corinne; Wang, Pucai; Hermans, Christian; Stiller, Gabriele; Walker, Kaley A.; Dutton, Geoff; Mahieu, Emmanuel; De Mazière, Martine

    2018-02-01

    SF6 total columns were successfully retrieved from FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) measurements (Saint Denis and Maïdo) on Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) between 2004 and 2016 using the SFIT4 algorithm: the retrieval strategy and the error budget were presented. The FTIR SF6 retrieval has independent information in only one individual layer, covering the whole of the troposphere and the lower stratosphere. The trend in SF6 was analysed based on the FTIR-retrieved dry-air column-averaged mole fractions (XSF6) on Reunion Island, the in situ measurements at America Samoa (SMO) and the collocated satellite measurements (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, MIPAS, and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer, ACE-FTS) in the southern tropics. The SF6 annual growth rate from FTIR retrievals is 0.265 ± 0.013 pptv year-1 for 2004-2016, which is slightly weaker than that from the SMO in situ measurements (0.285 ± 0.002 pptv year-1) for the same time period. The SF6 trend in the troposphere from MIPAS and ACE-FTS observations is also close to the ones from the FTIR retrievals and the SMO in situ measurements.

  10. Ground-based FTIR retrievals of SF6 on Reunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available SF6 total columns were successfully retrieved from FTIR (Fourier transform infrared measurements (Saint Denis and Maïdo on Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E between 2004 and 2016 using the SFIT4 algorithm: the retrieval strategy and the error budget were presented. The FTIR SF6 retrieval has independent information in only one individual layer, covering the whole of the troposphere and the lower stratosphere. The trend in SF6 was analysed based on the FTIR-retrieved dry-air column-averaged mole fractions (XSF6 on Reunion Island, the in situ measurements at America Samoa (SMO and the collocated satellite measurements (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, MIPAS, and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer, ACE-FTS in the southern tropics. The SF6 annual growth rate from FTIR retrievals is 0.265 ± 0.013 pptv year−1 for 2004–2016, which is slightly weaker than that from the SMO in situ measurements (0.285 ± 0.002 pptv year−1 for the same time period. The SF6 trend in the troposphere from MIPAS and ACE-FTS observations is also close to the ones from the FTIR retrievals and the SMO in situ measurements.

  11. The Continuous Monitoring of Desert Dust using an Infrared-based Dust Detection and Retrieval Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Minnis, Patrick; Trepte, Qing; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2006-01-01

    Airborne dust and sand are significant aerosol sources that can impact the atmospheric and surface radiation budgets. Because airborne dust affects visibility and air quality, it is desirable to monitor the location and concentrations of this aerosol for transportation and public health. Although aerosol retrievals have been derived for many years using visible and near-infrared reflectance measurements from satellites, the detection and quantification of dust from these channels is problematic over bright surfaces, or when dust concentrations are large. In addition, aerosol retrievals from polar orbiting satellites lack the ability to monitor the progression and sources of dust storms. As a complement to current aerosol dust retrieval algorithms, multi-spectral thermal infrared (8-12 micron) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Meteosat-8 Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) are used in the development of a prototype dust detection method and dust property retrieval that can monitor the progress of Saharan dust fields continuously, both night and day. The dust detection method is incorporated into the processing of CERES (Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System) aerosol retrievals to produce dust property retrievals. Both MODIS (from Terra and Aqua) and SEVERI data are used to develop the method.

  12. Empirical analysis of aerosol and thin cloud optical depth effects on CO2 retrievals from GOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; O'Neill, N. T.; Strong, K.; Nakajima, T.; Uchino, O.; Shiobara, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground-based sunphotometer observations of aerosol and cloud optical properties at AEROCAN / AERONET sites co-located with TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) high resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) were used to investigate the aerosol and cloud influence on column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2) retrieved from the TANSO-FTS (Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - FTS) of GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite). This instrument employs high resolution spectra measured in the Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) band to retrieve XCO2estimates. GOSAT XCO2 retrievals are nominally corrected for the contaminating backscatter influence of aerosols and thin clouds. However if the satellite-retrieved aerosol and thin cloud optical depths applied to the CO2 correction is biased then the correction and the retrieved CO2 values will be biased. We employed independent ground based estimates of both cloud screened and non cloud screened AOD (aerosol optical depth) in the CO2 SWIR channel and compared this with the GOSAT SWIR-channel OD retrievals to see if that bias was related to variations in the (generally negative) CO2 bias (ΔXCO2= XCO2(GOSAT) - XCO2(TCCON)). Results are presented for a number of TCCON validation sites.

  13. Retrieval System for Calcined Waste for the Idaho Cleanup Project - 12104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, Randy L.; Johnston, Beau A.; Lower, Danielle E. [CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC. The Idaho Cleanup Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the conceptual approach to retrieve radioactive calcine waste, hereafter called calcine, from stainless steel storage bins contained within concrete vaults. The retrieval system will allow evacuation of the granular solids (calcine) from the storage bins through the use of stationary vacuum nozzles. The nozzles will use air jets for calcine fluidization and will be able to rotate and direct the fluidization or displacement of the calcine within the bin. Each bin will have a single retrieval system installed prior to operation to prevent worker exposure to the high radiation fields. The addition of an articulated camera arm will allow for operations monitoring and will be equipped with contingency tools to aid in calcine removal. Possible challenges (calcine bridging and rat-holing) associated with calcine retrieval and transport, including potential solutions for bin pressurization, calcine fluidization and waste confinement, are also addressed. The Calcine Disposition Project has the responsibility to retrieve, treat, and package HLW calcine. The calcine retrieval system has been designed to incorporate the functions and technical characteristics as established by the retrieval system functional analysis. By adequately implementing the highest ranking technical characteristics into the design of the retrieval system, the system will be able to satisfy the functional requirements. The retrieval system conceptual design provides the means for removing bulk calcine from the bins of the CSSF vaults. Top-down vacuum retrieval coupled with an articulating camera arm will allow for a robust, contained process capable of evacuating bulk calcine from bins and transporting it to the processing facility. The system is designed to fluidize, vacuum, transport and direct the calcine from its current location to the CSSF roof-top transport lines. An articulating camera arm, deployed through an adjacent access riser, will work in conjunction with the

  14. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  15. Memory retrieval of everyday information under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Lisa-Marie; Merz, Christian J

    2018-07-01

    Psychosocial stress is known to crucially influence learning and memory processes. Several studies have already shown an impairing effect of elevated cortisol concentrations on memory retrieval. These studies mainly used learning material consisting of stimuli with a limited ecological validity. When using material with a social contextual component or with educational relevant material both impairing and enhancing stress effects on memory retrieval could be observed. In line with these latter studies, the present experiment also used material with a higher ecological validity (a coherent text consisting of daily relevant numeric, figural and verbal information). After encoding, retrieval took place 24 h later after exposure to psychosocial stress or a control procedure (20 healthy men per group). The stress group was further subdivided into cortisol responders and non-responders. Results showed a significantly impaired retrieval of everyday information in non-responders compared to responders and controls. Altogether, the present findings indicate the need of an appropriate cortisol response for the successful memory retrieval of everyday information. Thus, the present findings suggest that cortisol increases - contrary to a stressful experience per se - seem to play a protective role for retrieving everyday information. Additionally, it could be speculated that the previously reported impairing stress effects on memory retrieval might depend on the used learning material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Semantic-based surveillance video retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Xie, Dan; Fu, Zhouyu; Zeng, Wenrong; Maybank, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Visual surveillance produces large amounts of video data. Effective indexing and retrieval from surveillance video databases are very important. Although there are many ways to represent the content of video clips in current video retrieval algorithms, there still exists a semantic gap between users and retrieval systems. Visual surveillance systems supply a platform for investigating semantic-based video retrieval. In this paper, a semantic-based video retrieval framework for visual surveillance is proposed. A cluster-based tracking algorithm is developed to acquire motion trajectories. The trajectories are then clustered hierarchically using the spatial and temporal information, to learn activity models. A hierarchical structure of semantic indexing and retrieval of object activities, where each individual activity automatically inherits all the semantic descriptions of the activity model to which it belongs, is proposed for accessing video clips and individual objects at the semantic level. The proposed retrieval framework supports various queries including queries by keywords, multiple object queries, and queries by sketch. For multiple object queries, succession and simultaneity restrictions, together with depth and breadth first orders, are considered. For sketch-based queries, a method for matching trajectories drawn by users to spatial trajectories is proposed. The effectiveness and efficiency of our framework are tested in a crowded traffic scene.

  17. Retrieval activates related words more than presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Hannah; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2018-03-23

    Retrieving information enhances learning more than restudying. One explanation of this effect is based on the role of mediators (e.g., sand-castle can be mediated by beach). Retrieval is hypothesised to activate mediators more than restudying, but existing tests of this hypothesis have had mixed results [Carpenter, S. K. (2011). Semantic information activated during retrieval contributes to later retention: Support for the mediator effectiveness hypothesis of the testing effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37(6), 1547-1552. doi: 10.1037/a0024140 ; Lehman, M., & Karpicke, J. D. (2016). Elaborative retrieval: Do semantic mediators improve memory? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42(10), 1573-1591. doi: 10.1037/xlm0000267 ]. The present experiments explored an explanation of the conflicting results, testing whether mediator activation during a retrieval attempt depends on the accessibility of the target information. A target was considered less versus more accessible when fewer versus more cues were given during retrieval practice (Experiments 1 and 2), when the target had been studied once versus three times initially (Experiment 3), or when the target could not be recalled versus could be recalled during retrieval practice (Experiments 1-3). A mini meta-analysis of all three experiments revealed a small effect such that retrieval activated mediators more than presentation, but mediator activation was not reliably related to target accessibility. Thus, retrieval may enhance learning by activating mediators, in part, but these results suggest the role of other processes, too.

  18. 108 Information Retrieval Methods in Libraries and Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    without adequate knowledge of information retrieval methods, the retrieval process for an ... discusses the concept of Information retrieval, the various information ..... Other advantages of automatic indexing are the maintenance of consistency.

  19. View-based 3-D object retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Content-based 3-D object retrieval has attracted extensive attention recently and has applications in a variety of fields, such as, computer-aided design, tele-medicine,mobile multimedia, virtual reality, and entertainment. The development of efficient and effective content-based 3-D object retrieval techniques has enabled the use of fast 3-D reconstruction and model design. Recent technical progress, such as the development of camera technologies, has made it possible to capture the views of 3-D objects. As a result, view-based 3-D object retrieval has become an essential but challenging res

  20. Reversibility and retrievability - What is the question?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.; Webster, S.

    2002-01-01

    Retrievability has become a very fashionable concept in recent years, undoubtedly as a result of the possible advantages regarding public acceptance. However, in this 'rush to retrieve' we must not lose sight of the fundamental principles that form the basis of any proposed strategy of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This paper takes a 'matter of fact' look at retrievability and the more general issue of reversibility in the context of geological disposal and draws a number of clear and concise conclusions on the subject. (author)

  1. Data retrieval techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozzi, G.L.; Dahl, C.C.; Gross, R.S.; Voeller, J.G. III

    1995-01-01

    Data retrieval, processing retrieved data, and maintaining the plant documentation system to reflect the as-built condition of the plant are challenging tasks for most existing nuclear facilities. The information management systems available when these facilities were designed and constructed are archaic by today's standards. Today's plant documentation systems generally include hard copy drawings and text, drawings in various CAD formats, handwritten information, and incompatible databases. These existing plant documentation systems perpetuate inefficiency for the plant technical staff in the performance of their daily activities. This paper discusses data retrieval techniques and tools available to nuclear facilities to minimize the impacts of the existing plant documentation system on plant technical staff productivity

  2. Solid waste retrieval. Phase 1, Operational basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This Document describes the operational requirements, procedures, and options for execution of the retrieval of the waste containers placed in buried storage in Burial Ground 218W-4C, Trench 04 as TRU waste or suspect TRU waste under the activity levels defining this waste in effect at the time of placement. Trench 04 in Burial Ground 218W-4C is totally dedicated to storage of retrievable TRU waste containers or retrievable suspect TRU waste containers and has not been used for any other purpose

  3. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: Semantics, Context, and Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissi......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous...... submissions. The papers cover topics of state of the art contributions, features and classification, location context, language and semantics, music retrieval, and adaption and HCI....

  4. Solid waste retrieval. Phase 1, Operational basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-09-30

    This Document describes the operational requirements, procedures, and options for execution of the retrieval of the waste containers placed in buried storage in Burial Ground 218W-4C, Trench 04 as TRU waste or suspect TRU waste under the activity levels defining this waste in effect at the time of placement. Trench 04 in Burial Ground 218W-4C is totally dedicated to storage of retrievable TRU waste containers or retrievable suspect TRU waste containers and has not been used for any other purpose.

  5. Accelerated Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Raymond K.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Green, Joseph J.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa A.; Basinger, Scott A.; Redding, David C.; Shi, Fang

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm is an image-based wavefront-sensing method that can turn any science instrument focal plane into a wavefront sensor. MGS characterizes optical systems by estimating the wavefront errors in the exit pupil using only intensity images of a star or other point source of light. This innovative implementation of MGS significantly accelerates the MGS phase retrieval algorithm by using stream-processing hardware on conventional graphics cards. Stream processing is a relatively new, yet powerful, paradigm to allow parallel processing of certain applications that apply single instructions to multiple data (SIMD). These stream processors are designed specifically to support large-scale parallel computing on a single graphics chip. Computationally intensive algorithms, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), are particularly well suited for this computing environment. This high-speed version of MGS exploits commercially available hardware to accomplish the same objective in a fraction of the original time. The exploit involves performing matrix calculations in nVidia graphic cards. The graphical processor unit (GPU) is hardware that is specialized for computationally intensive, highly parallel computation. From the software perspective, a parallel programming model is used, called CUDA, to transparently scale multicore parallelism in hardware. This technology gives computationally intensive applications access to the processing power of the nVidia GPUs through a C/C++ programming interface. The AAMGS (Accelerated Adaptive MGS) software takes advantage of these advanced technologies, to accelerate the optical phase error characterization. With a single PC that contains four nVidia GTX-280 graphic cards, the new implementation can process four images simultaneously to produce a JWST (James Webb Space Telescope) wavefront measurement 60 times faster than the previous code.

  6. Retrieving Baseflow from SWOT Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratelli, F.; Flipo, N.; Biancamaria, S.; Rivière, A.

    2017-12-01

    The quantification of aquifer contribution to river discharge is of primary importance to evaluate the impact of climatic and anthropogenic stresses on the availability of water resources. Several baseflow estimation methods require river discharge measurements, which can be difficult to obtain at high spatio-temporal resolution for large scale basins. The SWOT satellite mission will provide discharge estimations for large rivers (50 - 100 m wide) even in remote basins. The frequency of these estimations depends on the position and ranges from zero to four values in the 21-days satellite cycle. This work aims at answering the following question: can baseflow be estimated from SWOT observations during the mission lifetime? An algorithm based on hydrograph separation by Chapman's filter was developed to automatically estimate the baseflow in a river network at regional or larger scale (> 10000 km2). The algorithm was first applied using the discharge time series simulated at daily time step by a coupled hydrological-hydrogeological model to obtain the reference baseflow estimations. The same algorithm is then forced with discharge time series sampled at SWOT observation frequency. The methodology was applied to the Seine River basin (65000 km2, France). The results show that the average baseflow is estimated with good accuracy for all the reaches which are observed at least once per cycle (relative bias less than 4%). The time evolution of baseflow is also rather well retrieved, with a Nash coefficient which is more than 0.7 for 94% of the network length. This work provides new potential for the SWOT mission in terms of global hydrological analysis.

  7. Robust retrieval of fine art paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Bogdan; Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    The rapid growth of image archives increases the need for efficient and fast tools that can retrieve and search through large amount of visual data. In this paper we propose an efficient method of extracting the image color content, which serves as an image digital signature, allowing to efficiently index and retrieve the content of large, heterogeneous multimedia databases. We apply the proposed method for the retrieval of images from the WEBMUSEUM Internet database, containing the collection of fine art images and show that the new method of image color representation is robust to image distorsions caused by resizing and compression and can be incorporated into existing retrieval systems which exploit the information on color content in digital images.

  8. Information content of ozone retrieval algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chu, W. P.; Curran, R.; Deluisi, J.; Gille, J. C.; Hudson, R.; Mateer, C.; Rusch, D.; Thomas, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The algorithms are characterized that were used for production processing by the major suppliers of ozone data to show quantitatively: how the retrieved profile is related to the actual profile (This characterizes the altitude range and vertical resolution of the data); the nature of systematic errors in the retrieved profiles, including their vertical structure and relation to uncertain instrumental parameters; how trends in the real ozone are reflected in trends in the retrieved ozone profile; and how trends in other quantities (both instrumental and atmospheric) might appear as trends in the ozone profile. No serious deficiencies were found in the algorithms used in generating the major available ozone data sets. As the measurements are all indirect in someway, and the retrieved profiles have different characteristics, data from different instruments are not directly comparable.

  9. HTI retrieval demonstration project execution plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This plan describes the process for demonstrating the retrieval of difficult Hanford tank waste forms utilizing commercial technologies and the private sector to conduct the operations. The demonstration is to be conducted in Tank 241-C-106

  10. Testicular Damage following Testicular Sperm Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Marcussen, Niels; Fedder, Maja D.K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible development of histological abnormalities such as fibrosis and microcalcifications after sperm retrieval in a ram model. Fourteen testicles in nine rams were exposed to open biopsy, multiple TESAs, or TESE, and the remaining four testicles were...... left unoperated on as controls. Three months after sperm retrieval, the testicles were removed, fixed, and cut into 1/2 cm thick slices and systematically put onto a glass plate exposing macroscopic abnormalities. Tissue from abnormal areas was cut into 3 μm sections and stained for histological...... evaluation. Pathological abnormalities were observed in testicles exposed to sperm retrieval (≥11 of 14) compared to 0 of 4 control testicles. Testicular damage was found independently of the kind of intervention used. Therefore, cryopreservation of excess sperm should be considered while retrieving sperm....

  11. Parsimonious Language Models for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Robertson, Stephen; Zaragoza, Hugo

    We systematically investigate a new approach to estimating the parameters of language models for information retrieval, called parsimonious language models. Parsimonious language models explicitly address the relation between levels of language models that are typically used for smoothing. As such,

  12. Mobile Application Development: Component Retrieval System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project was to investigate requirements to develop an innovative mobile application to retrieve components’ detailed information from the Stennis...

  13. Snapchat media retrieval for novice device users

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khan, ZC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available procedures that are easily enough for novice smartphone users to employ: not necessarily hackers or information security specialists, but an average smartphone user. The results indicate that, it is indeed possible for novices to retrieve Snapchat data...

  14. Memory Retrieval in Mice and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yakov, Aya; Dudai, Yadin; Mayford, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Retrieval, the use of learned information, was until recently mostly terra incognita in the neurobiology of memory, owing to shortage of research methods with the spatiotemporal resolution required to identify and dissect fast reactivation or reconstruction of complex memories in the mammalian brain. The development of novel paradigms, model systems, and new tools in molecular genetics, electrophysiology, optogenetics, in situ microscopy, and functional imaging, have contributed markedly in recent years to our ability to investigate brain mechanisms of retrieval. We review selected developments in the study of explicit retrieval in the rodent and human brain. The picture that emerges is that retrieval involves coordinated fast interplay of sparse and distributed corticohippocampal and neocortical networks that may permit permutational binding of representational elements to yield specific representations. These representations are driven largely by the activity patterns shaped during encoding, but are malleable, subject to the influence of time and interaction of the existing memory with novel information. PMID:26438596

  15. Post-Retrieval Extinction Attenuates Cocaine Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Sartor, Gregory C; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that post-retrieval extinction training attenuates fear and reward-related memories in both humans and rodents. This noninvasive, behavioral approach has the potential to be used in clinical settings to treat maladaptive memories that underlie several psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. However, few studies to date have used a post-retrieval extinction approach to attenuate addiction-related memories. In the current study, we attempted to disrupt cocaine...

  16. Automated information retrieval system for radioactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrev, V.G.; Bochkov, P.E.; Gorokhov, S.A.; Nekrasov, V.V.; Tolstikova, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    An automated information retrieval system for radioactivation analysis has been developed. An ES-1022 computer and a problem-oriented software ''The description information search system'' were used for the purpose. Main aspects and sources of forming the system information fund, characteristics of the information retrieval language of the system are reported and examples of question-answer dialogue are given. Two modes can be used: selective information distribution and retrospective search [ru

  17. Dialog-based Interactive Image Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Hui; Cheng, Yu; Rennie, Steven; Feris, Rogerio Schmidt

    2018-01-01

    Existing methods for interactive image retrieval have demonstrated the merit of integrating user feedback, improving retrieval results. However, most current systems rely on restricted forms of user feedback, such as binary relevance responses, or feedback based on a fixed set of relative attributes, which limits their impact. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to interactive image search that enables users to provide feedback via natural language, allowing for more natural and effect...

  18. Kinematic gait analyses in healthy Golden Retrievers

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Gabriela C.A.; Cardoso, Mariana Trés; Gaiad, Thais P.; Brolio, Marina P.; Oliveira, Vanessa C.; Assis Neto, Antonio; Martins, Daniele S.; Ambrósio, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    Kinematic analysis relates to the relative movement between rigid bodies and finds application in gait analysis and other body movements, interpretation of their data when there is change, determines the choice of treatment to be instituted. The objective of this study was to standardize the march of Dog Golden Retriever Healthy to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. We used a kinematic analysis system to analyse the gait of seven dogs Golden Retriever, female,...

  19. Attention during memory retrieval enhances future remembering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, Nicole M; Dubrow, Sarah; Wagner, Anthony D

    2009-10-01

    Memory retrieval is a powerful learning event that influences whether an experience will be remembered in the future. Although retrieval can succeed in the presence of distraction, dividing attention during retrieval may reduce the power of remembering as an encoding event. In the present experiments, participants studied pictures of objects under full attention and then engaged in item recognition and source memory retrieval under full or divided attention. Two days later, a second recognition and source recollection test assessed the impact of attention during initial retrieval on long-term retention. On this latter test, performance was superior for items that had been tested initially under full versus divided attention. More importantly, even when items were correctly recognized on the first test, divided attention reduced the likelihood of subsequent recognition on the second test. The same held true for source recollection. Additionally, foils presented during the first test were also less likely to be later recognized if they had been encountered initially under divided attention. These findings demonstrate that attentive retrieval is critical for learning through remembering.

  20. Working memory retrieval as a decision process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Benjamin; Raskevicius, Julius; Bays, Paul M; Pertzov, Yoni; Husain, Masud

    2014-02-03

    Working memory (WM) is a core cognitive process fundamental to human behavior, yet the mechanisms underlying it remain highly controversial. Here we provide a new framework for understanding retrieval of information from WM, conceptualizing it as a decision based on the quality of internal evidence. Recent findings have demonstrated that precision of WM decreases with memory load. If WM retrieval uses a decision process that depends on memory quality, systematic changes in response time distribution should occur as a function of WM precision. We asked participants to view sample arrays and, after a delay, report the direction of change in location or orientation of a probe. As WM precision deteriorated with increasing memory load, retrieval time increased systematically. Crucially, the shape of reaction time distributions was consistent with a linear accumulator decision process. Varying either task relevance of items or maintenance duration influenced memory precision, with corresponding shifts in retrieval time. These results provide strong support for a decision-making account of WM retrieval based on noisy storage of items. Furthermore, they show that encoding, maintenance, and retrieval in WM need not be considered as separate processes, but may instead be conceptually unified as operations on the same noise-limited, neural representation.

  1. INIS retrieval service, towards on-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio; Komatsubara, Yasutoshi

    1983-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute executes the retrieval service of INIS atomic energy information by batch system in cooperation with Genshiryoku Kozaikai. This service is very popular to the users in whole Japan, but the demand of on-line service has increased recently. Therefore, it was decided to begin the INIS on-line service from January, 1984, through the on-line information retrieval system of the Japan Information Center of Science and Technology. It is expected that when the operation will be started, the utilization of INIS atomic energy information in Japan will drastically increase. Also Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has carried out the retrieval service by on-line system for those in the institute besides the batch system, accordingly, at this opportunity, the state of utilization of both systems and their distinction to use effectively, and the operation and the method of utilization of the on-line information retrieval system of JICST are explained. In the on-line system, the users are accessible to the data base themselves, and immediate information retrieval is possible, while in the batch system, the related information can be retrieved without fail, and the troublesome operation of equipment is not necessary. (Kako, I.)

  2. Operant conditioning of autobiographical memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Craeynest, Miet; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Functional avoidance is considered as one of the key mechanisms underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). According to this view OGM is regarded as a learned cognitive avoidance strategy, based on principles of operant conditioning; i.e., individuals learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. The aim of the present study was to test one of the basic assumptions of the functional avoidance account, namely that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control. Here 41 students were instructed to retrieve personal memories in response to 60 emotional cue words. Depending on the condition, they were punished with an aversive sound for the retrieval of specific or nonspecific memories in an operant conditioning procedure. Analyzes showed that the course of memory specificity significantly differed between conditions. After the procedure participants punished for nonspecific memories retrieved significantly more specific memories compared to participants punished for specific memories. However, whereas memory specificity significantly increased in participants punished for specific memories, it did not significantly decrease in participants punished for nonspecific memories. Thus, while our findings indicate that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control, they do not support a functional avoidance view on OGM.

  3. Gunther Tulip Retrievable Inferior Vena Caval Filters: Indications, Efficacy, Retrieval, and Complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looby, S.; Given, M.F.; Geoghegan, T.; McErlean, A.; Lee, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the Gunther Tulip (GT) retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filter with regard to indications, filtration efficacy, complications, retrieval window, and use of anticoagulation. Method. A retrospective study was performed of 147 patients (64 men, 83 women; mean age 58.8 years) who underwent retrievable GT filter insertion between 2001 and 2005. The indications for placement included a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis with a contraindication to anticoagulation (n = 68), pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis while on anticoagulation (n = 49), prophylactic filter placement for high-risk surgical patients with a past history of pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis (n = 20), and a high risk of pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis (n = 10). Forty-nine of the 147 patients did not receive anticoagulation (33.7%) while 96 of 147 patients did, 82 of these receiving warfarin (56.5%), 11 receiving low-molecular weight heparins (7.58%), and 3 receiving antiplatelet agents alone (2.06%). Results. Filter placement was successful in 147 patients (100%). Two patients had two filters inserted. Of the 147 patients, filter deployment was on a permanent basis in 102 and with an intention to retrieve in 45 patients. There were 36 (80%) successful retrievals and 9 (20%) failed retrievals. The mean time to retrieval was 33.6 days. The reasons for failed retrieval included filter struts tightly adherent to the IVC wall (5/9), extreme filter tilt (2/9), and extensive filter thrombus (2/9). Complications included pneumothorax (n = 4), failure of filter expansion (n = 1), and breakthrough pulmonary embolism (n = 1). No IVC thrombotic episodes were recorded. Discussion. The Gunther Tulip retrievable filter can be used as a permanent or a retrievable filter. It is safe and efficacious. GT filters can be safely retrieved at a mean time interval of 33.6 days. The newly developed Celect filter may extend the retrieval interval

  4. Retrieval-Based Learning: Positive Effects of Retrieval Practice in Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Karpicke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A wealth of research has demonstrated that practicing retrieval is a powerful way to enhance learning. However, nearly all prior research has examined retrieval practice with college students. Little is known about retrieval practice in children, and even less is known about possible individual differences in retrieval practice. In three experiments, 88 children (mean age 10 years studied a list of words and either restudied the items or practiced retrieving them. They then took a final free recall test (Experiments 1 and 2 or recognition test (Experiment 3. In all experiments, children showed robust retrieval practice effects. Although a range of individual differences in reading comprehension and processing speed were observed among these children, the benefits of retrieval practice were independent of these factors. The results contribute to the growing body of research supporting the mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice and provide preliminary evidence that practicing retrieval may be an effective learning strategy for children with varying levels of reading comprehension and processing speed.

  5. Comparison of the inversion algorithms applied to the ozone vertical profile retrieval from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rozanov

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to an intercomparison of ozone vertical profiles retrieved from the measurements of scattered solar radiation performed by the SCIAMACHY instrument in the limb viewing geometry. Three different inversion algorithms including the prototype of the operational Level 1 to 2 processor to be operated by the European Space Agency are considered. Unlike usual validation studies, this comparison removes the uncertainties arising when comparing measurements made by different instruments probing slightly different air masses and focuses on the uncertainties specific to the modeling-retrieval problem only. The intercomparison was performed for 5 selected orbits of SCIAMACHY showing a good overall agreement of the results in the middle stratosphere, whereas considerable discrepancies were identified in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere altitude region. Additionally, comparisons with ground-based lidar measurements are shown for selected profiles demonstrating an overall correctness of the retrievals.

  6. IASI's sensitivity to near-surface carbon monoxide (CO): Theoretical analyses and retrievals on test cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauduin, Sophie; Clarisse, Lieven; Theunissen, Michael; George, Maya; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2017-03-01

    Separating concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the boundary layer from the rest of the atmosphere with nadir satellite measurements is of particular importance to differentiate emission from transport. Although thermal infrared (TIR) satellite sounders are considered to have limited sensitivity to the composition of the near-surface atmosphere, previous studies show that they can provide information on CO close to the ground in case of high thermal contrast. In this work we investigate the capability of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) to retrieve near-surface CO concentrations, and we quantitatively assess the influence of thermal contrast on such retrievals. We present a 3-part analysis, which relies on both theoretical forward simulations and retrievals on real data, performed for a large range of negative and positive thermal contrast situations. First, we derive theoretically the IASI detection threshold of CO enhancement in the boundary layer, and we assess its dependence on thermal contrast. Then, using the optimal estimation formalism, we quantify the role of thermal contrast on the error budget and information content of near-surface CO retrievals. We demonstrate that, contrary to what is usually accepted, large negative thermal contrast values (ground cooler than air) lead to a better decorrelation between CO concentrations in the low and the high troposphere than large positive thermal contrast (ground warmer than the air). In the last part of the paper we use Mexico City and Barrow as test cases to contrast our theoretical predictions with real retrievals, and to assess the accuracy of IASI surface CO retrievals through comparisons to ground-based in-situ measurements.

  7. Fuel Retrieval and Management of Fuel Element Debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chande, Shridhar; Lachaume, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear accidents involving core meltdown have not been so rare. While the first occurred in early fifties, it is reported that about 20 have occurred worldwide in military and commercial reactors. The more recent and major accidents are 1. Three Mile Island, USA in 1979: Approximately half the core was melted, and flowed to the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel however the pressure vessel remained intact and contained the damaged fuel. 2. Chernobyl, former USSR in 1984: Explosive release of radioactive material occurred. About 6 tons of fuel was dispersed as air-borne particles. Most of the core was damaged or melted. 3. Fukushima, Japan 2011: Three units suffered melt down. In unit 1 almost all the fuel assemblies melted and accumulated at the bottom of the vessel. It is reported that the vessel failed and the molten corium has penetrated the concrete. In the units 2 and 3, partial melting of cores has occurred. In several of these cases, fuel retrieval and management activities have been carried out. The experience and insights gained from these activities will be extremely useful for planning and execution of similar activities in future if ever they are needed. The purpose of this session was to exchange this experience and also to share the lessons learned. This is of particularly important, at this juncture, when planning and preparation for retrieval of damaged cores in Fukushima NPP is in progress. (author)

  8. Trace Gas Retrievals from the GeoTASO Aircraft Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlan, C. R.; Liu, X.; Leitch, J. W.; Liu, C.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Cole, J.; Delker, T.; Good, W. S.; Murcray, F.; Ruppert, L.; Soo, D.; Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Janz, S. J.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Pickering, K. E.; Zoogman, P.; Al-Saadi, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) instrument is a passive remote sensing instrument capable of making 2-D measurements of trace gases and aerosols from aircraft. The instrument measures backscattered UV and visible radiation, allowing the retrieval of trace gas amounts below the aircraft at horizontal resolutions on the order of 250 m x 250 m. GeoTASO was originally developed under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program as a test-bed instrument for the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) decadal survey mission, and is now also part of risk reduction for the upcoming Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) geostationary satellite missions. We present spatially resolved observations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide over urban areas and power plants from flights during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns in Texas and Colorado, as well as comparisons with observations made by ground-based Pandora spectrometers, in situ monitoring instruments and other aircraft instruments deployed during these campaigns. These measurements at various times of day are providing a very useful data set for testing and improving TEMPO and GEMS retrieval algorithms, as well as demonstrating prototype validation strategies.

  9. Interference from retrieval cues in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Marin, Dario; Del Missier, Fabio; Biasutti, Emanuele; Shallice, Tim

    2011-11-01

    Existing studies on memory interference in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have provided mixed results and it is unknown whether PD patients have problems in overcoming interference from retrieval cues. We investigated this issue by using a part-list cuing paradigm. In this paradigm, after the study of a list of items, the presentation of some of these items as retrieval cues hinders the recall of the remaining ones. We tested PD patients' (n = 19) and control participants' (n = 16) episodic memory in the presence and absence of part-list cues, using initial-letter probes, and following either weak or strong serial associative encoding of list items. Both PD patients and control participants showed a comparable and significant part-list cuing effect after weak associative encoding (13% vs. 12% decrease in retrieval in part-list cuing vs. no part-list cuing -control- conditions in PD patients and control participants, respectively), denoting a similar effect of cue-driven interference in the two populations when a serial retrieval strategy is hard to develop. However, only PD patients showed a significant part-list cuing effect after strong associative encoding (20% vs. 5% decrease in retrieval in patients and controls, respectively). When encoding promotes the development of an effective serial retrieval strategy, the presentation of part-list cues has a specifically disruptive effect in PD patients. This indicates problems in strategic retrieval, probably related to PD patients' increased tendency to rely on external cues. Findings in control conditions suggest that less effective encoding may have contributed to PD patients' memory performance.

  10. Noncompetitive retrieval practice causes retrieval-induced forgetting in cued recall but not in recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundgeiger, Tobias

    2014-04-01

    Retrieving a subset of learned items can lead to the forgetting of related items. Such retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) can be explained by the inhibition of irrelevant items in order to overcome retrieval competition when the target item is retrieved. According to the retrieval inhibition account, such retrieval competition is a necessary condition for RIF. However, research has indicated that noncompetitive retrieval practice can also cause RIF by strengthening cue-item associations. According to the strength-dependent competition account, the strengthened items interfere with the retrieval of weaker items, resulting in impaired recall of weaker items in the final memory test. The aim of this study was to replicate RIF caused by noncompetitive retrieval practice and to determine whether this forgetting is also observed in recognition tests. In the context of RIF, it has been assumed that recognition tests circumvent interference and, therefore, should not be sensitive to forgetting due to strength-dependent competition. However, this has not been empirically tested, and it has been suggested that participants may reinstate learned cues as retrieval aids during the final test. In the present experiments, competitive practice or noncompetitive practice was followed by either final cued-recall tests or recognition tests. In cued-recall tests, RIF was observed in both competitive and noncompetitive conditions. However, in recognition tests, RIF was observed only in the competitive condition and was absent in the noncompetitive condition. The result underscores the contribution of strength-dependent competition to RIF. However, recognition tests seem to be a reliable way of distinguishing between RIF due to retrieval inhibition or strength-dependent competition.

  11. Can We Retrieve the Information Which Was Intentionally Forgotten? Electrophysiological Correlates of Strategic Retrieval in Directed Forgetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrui Mao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Retrieval inhibition hypothesis of directed forgetting effects assumed TBF (to-be-forgotten items were not retrieved intentionally, while selective rehearsal hypothesis assumed the memory representation of retrieved TBF (to-be-forgotten items was weaker than TBR (to-be-remembered items. Previous studies indicated that directed forgetting effects of item-cueing method resulted from selective rehearsal at encoding, but the mechanism of retrieval inhibition that affected directed forgetting of TBF (to-be-forgotten items was not clear. Strategic retrieval is a control process allowing the selective retrieval of target information, which includes retrieval orientation and strategic recollection. Retrieval orientation via the comparison of tasks refers to the specific form of processing resulted by retrieval efforts. Strategic recollection is the type of strategies to recollect studied items for the retrieval success of targets. Using a “directed forgetting” paradigm combined with a memory exclusion task, our investigation of strategic retrieval in directed forgetting assisted to explore how retrieval inhibition played a role on directed forgetting effects. When TBF items were targeted, retrieval orientation showed more positive ERPs to new items, indicating that TBF items demanded more retrieval efforts. The results of strategic recollection indicated that: (a when TBR items were retrieval targets, late parietal old/new effects were only evoked by TBR items but not TBF items, indicating the retrieval inhibition of TBF items; (b when TBF items were retrieval targets, the late parietal old/new effect were evoked by both TBR items and TBF items, indicating that strategic retrieval could overcome retrieval inhibition of TBF items. These findings suggested the modulation of strategic retrieval on retrieval inhibition of directed forgetting, supporting that directed forgetting effects were not only caused by selective rehearsal, but also retrieval

  12. A system design for storing, archiving, and retrieving hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedecker, Ralph G.; Whittaker, Tom; Garcia, Raymond K.; Knuteson, Robert O.

    2004-10-01

    Hyperspectral data and products derived from instrumentation such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) and the GOES-R Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) will impose storage and data retrieval requirements that far exceed the demands of earlier generation remote sensing instrumentation used for atmospheric science research. A new architecture designed to address projected real time and research needs is undergoing prototype design and development. The system is designed using proven aspects of distributed data storage networks, descriptive metadata associated with stored files, data cataloging and database search schemes, and a data delivery approach that obeys accepted standards. Preliminary implementation and testing of some components of this architecture indicate that the design approach shows promise of an improved method for storage and library functionality for the data volumes associated with operational hyperspectral instrumentation.

  13. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 1002.17 Section 1002.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or...

  14. Information Retrieval in Biomedical Research: From Articles to Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Information retrieval techniques have been applied to biomedical research for a variety of purposes, such as textual document retrieval and molecular data retrieval. As biomedical research evolves over time, information retrieval is also constantly facing new challenges, including the growing number of available data, the emerging new data types,…

  15. System engineering approach to GPM retrieval algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, C. R. (Chris R.); Chandrasekar, V.

    2004-01-01

    System engineering principles and methods are very useful in large-scale complex systems for developing the engineering requirements from end-user needs. Integrating research into system engineering is a challenging task. The proposed Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) satellite will use a dual-wavelength precipitation radar to measure and map global precipitation with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and areal coverage. The satellite vehicle, precipitation radars, retrieval algorithms, and ground validation (GV) functions are all critical subsystems of the overall GPM system and each contributes to the success of the mission. Errors in the radar measurements and models can adversely affect the retrieved output values. Ground validation (GV) systems are intended to provide timely feedback to the satellite and retrieval algorithms based on measured data. These GV sites will consist of radars and DSD measurement systems and also have intrinsic constraints. One of the retrieval algorithms being studied for use with GPM is the dual-wavelength DSD algorithm that does not use the surface reference technique (SRT). The underlying microphysics of precipitation structures and drop-size distributions (DSDs) dictate the types of models and retrieval algorithms that can be used to estimate precipitation. Many types of dual-wavelength algorithms have been studied. Meneghini (2002) analyzed the performance of single-pass dual-wavelength surface-reference-technique (SRT) based algorithms. Mardiana (2003) demonstrated that a dual-wavelength retrieval algorithm could be successfully used without the use of the SRT. It uses an iterative approach based on measured reflectivities at both wavelengths and complex microphysical models to estimate both No and Do at each range bin. More recently, Liao (2004) proposed a solution to the Do ambiguity problem in rain within the dual-wavelength algorithm and showed a possible melting layer model based on stratified spheres. With the No and Do

  16. Retrieval and analysis of atmospheric XCO2 using ground-based spectral observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiu-Chun; Lei, Li-Ping; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Masafumi, Ohashi; Takahiro, Kuroki; Zeng, Zhao-Cheng; Zhang, Bing

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric CO2 column concentration (column-averaged dry air mole fractions of atmospheric carbon dioxide) data obtained by ground-based hyperspectral observation is an important source of data for the verification and improvement of the results of CO2 retrieval based on satellite hyperspectral observation. However, few studies have been conducted on atmospheric CO2 column concentration retrieval based on ground-based spectral hyperspectral observation in China. In the present study, we carried out the ground-based hyperspectral observation in Xilingol Grassland, Inner Mongolia of China by using an observation system which is consisted of an optical spectral analyzer, a sun tracker, and some other elements. The atmospheric CO2 column concentration was retrieved using the observed hyperspectral data. The effect of a wavelength shift of the observation spectra and the meteorological parameters on the retrieval precision of the atmospheric CO2 concentration was evaluated and analyzed. The results show that the mean value of atmospheric CO2 concentration was 390.9 microg x mL(-1) in the study area during the observing period from July to September. The shift of wavelength in the range between -0.012 and 0.042 nm will generally lead to 1 microg x mL(-1) deviation in the CO2 retrievals. This study also revealed that the spectral transmittance was sensitive to meteorological parameters in the wavelength range of 6 357-6 358, 6 360-6 361, and 6 363-6 364 cm(-1). By comparing the CO2 retrievals derived from the meteorological parameters observed in synchronous and non-synchronous time, respectively, with the spectral observation, it was showed that the concentration deviation caused by using the non-synchronously observed meteorological parameters is ranged from 0.11 to 4 microg x mL(-1). These results can be used as references for the further improvement of retrieving CO2 column concentration based on spectral observation.

  17. Retrieval of Saharan desert dust optical depth from thermal infrared measurements by IASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, S.; Kochenova, S.; Vandaele, A.-C.; Kumps, N.; De Mazière, M.

    2012-04-01

    Aerosols are a major actor in the climate system. They are responsible for climate forcing by both direct (by emission, absorption and scattering) and indirect effects (for example, by altering cloud microphysics). A better knowledge of aerosol optical properties, of the atmospheric aerosol load and of aerosol sources and sinks may therefore significantly improve the modeling of climate changes. Aerosol optical depth and other properties are retrieved on an operational basis from daytime measurements in the visible and near infrared spectral range by a number of instruments, like the satellite instruments MODIS, CALIOP, POLDER, MISR and ground-based sunphotometers. Aerosol retrievals from day and night measurements at thermal infrared (TIR) wavelengths (for example, from SEVIRI, AIRS and IASI satellite instruments) are less common, but they receive growing interest in more recent years. Among those TIR measuring instruments, IASI on METOP has one major advantage for aerosol retrievals: its large continuous spectral coverage, allowing to better capture the broadband signature of aerosols. Furthermore, IASI has a high spectral resolution (0.5cm-1 after apodization) which allows retrieving a large number of trace gases at the same time, it will nominally be in orbit for 15 years and offers a quasi global Earth coverage twice a day. Here we will show recently obtained results of desert aerosol properties (concentration, altitude, optical depth) retrieved from IASI TIR measurements, using the ASIMUT software (BIRA-IASB, Belgium) linked to (V)LIDORT (R. Spurr, RTsolutions Inc, US) and to SPHER (M. Mishchenko, NASA GISS, USA). In particular, we will address the case of Saharan desert dust storms, which are a major source of desert dust particles in the atmosphere. Those storms frequently transport sand to Europe, Western Asia or even South America. We will show some test-case comparisons between our retrievals and measurements from other instruments like those listed

  18. Retrieval of snow albedo and grain size using reflectance measurements in Himalayan basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Negi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, spectral reflectance measurements of Himalayan seasonal snow were carried out and analysed to retrieve the snow albedo and effective grain size. The asymptotic radiative transfer (ART theory was applied to retrieve the plane and spherical albedo. The retrieved plane albedo was compared with the measured spectral albedo and a good agreement was observed with ±10% differences. Retrieved integrated albedo was found within ±6% difference with ground observed broadband albedo. The retrieved snow grain sizes using different models based on the ART theory were compared for various snow types and it was observed that the grain size model using two channel method (one in visible and another in NIR region can work well for the Himalayan seasonal snow and it was found consistent with temporal changes in grain size. This method can work very well for clean, dry snow as in the upper Himalaya, but sometimes, due to the low reflectances (<20% using wavelength 1.24 μm, the ART theory cannot be applied, which is common in lower and middle Himalayan old snow. This study is important for monitoring the Himalayan cryosphere using air-borne or space-borne sensors.

  19. [Competition-dependence on retrieval-induced forgetting: the influence of the amount of retrieval cues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yohei; Tsukimoto, Takashi; Hirano, Tetsuji

    2010-02-01

    Remembering some of the studied (target) items impairs subsequent remembrance of relevant (non-target) items. This phenomenon, retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF), occurs when non-targets actively compete with the retrieval of a target. Researchers suggest that suppression mechanisms reduce interference from relevant items to facilitate the retrieval of target items (Anderson, 2003). Competition-dependence is one of the properties that support the suppression hypothesis (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present study, we manipulated the type of retrieval practice (normal, last-letter, or category-name) in order to vary the degree of competition between the target and the non-targets. For the high-scoring retrieval practice group, RIF occurred in the normal retrieval condition, but not in the last-letter or in the category-name conditions. For the low-scoring retrieval practice group, RIF did not occur in any of the conditions. These findings provide new evidence that the occurrence of RIF depends on the degree of competition between a target item and related non-target items during retrieval practice.

  20. Retrieval Cues on Tests: A Strategy for Helping Students Overcome Retrieval Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kristel M.

    2017-01-01

    Students often struggle to recall information on tests, frequently claiming to experience a "retrieval failure" of learned information. Thus, the retrieval of information from memory may be a roadblock to student success. I propose a relatively simple adjustment to the wording of test items to help eliminate this potential barrier.…

  1. Competitive retrieval is not a prerequisite for forgetting in the retrieval practice paradigm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camp, Gino; Dalm, Sander

    2018-01-01

    Retrieving information from memory can lead to forgetting of other, related information. The inhibition account of this retrieval-induced forgetting effect predicts that this form of forgetting occurs when competition arises between the practiced information and the related information, leading to

  2. Reward eliminates retrieval-induced forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hisato; Kim, Dongho; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2014-12-02

    Although it is well known that reward enhances learning and memory, how extensively such enhancement occurs remains unclear. To address this question, we examined how reward influences retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) in which the retrieval of a nonpracticed item under the same category as a practiced item is worse than the retrieval of a nonpracticed item outside the category. Subjects were asked to try to encode category-exemplar pairs (e.g., FISH-salmon). Then, they were presented with a category name and a two-letter word stem (e.g., FISH-sa) and were asked to complete an encoded word (retrieval practice). For a correct response, apple juice was given as a reward in the reward condition and a beeping sound was presented in the no-reward condition. Finally, subjects were asked to report whether each exemplar had been presented in the first phase. RIF was replicated in the no-reward condition. However, in the reward condition, RIF was eliminated. These results suggest that reward enhances processing of retrieval of unpracticed members by mechanisms such as spreading activation within the same category, irrespective of whether items were practiced or not.

  3. Retrievable disposal - opposing views on ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    In the previous decades many research programmes on the disposal of radioactive waste have been completed in the Netherlands. The experts involved have reconfirmed their view that deep underground disposal in suitable geological formations would ensure a safe and prolonged isolation of the waste from the biosphere. Both rock salt and clay formations are considered to qualify as a suitable host rock. In 1993 the government in a position paper stated that such a repository should be designed in a way that the waste can be retrieved from it, should the need arise. In an attempt to involve stakeholders in the decision-making process, a research contract was awarded to an environmental group to study the ethical aspects related to retrievable disposal of radioactive waste. In their report which was published in its final form in January 2000 the authors concluded that retrievable disposal is acceptable from an ethical point of view. However, this conclusion was reached in the understanding that this situation of retrievability would be permanent. From the concept of equity between generations, each successive generation should be offered equal opportunities to decide for itself how to dispose of the radioactive waste. Consequently, the preferred disposal option is retrievable disposal (or long term storage) in a surface facility. Although this view is not in conformity with the ''official'' position on radioactive waste disposal, there is a benefit of having established a dialogue between interested parties in a broad sense. (author)

  4. Web information retrieval based on ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Information Retrieval (IR) is to find a set of documents that are relevant for a specific information need of a user. Traditional Information Retrieval model commonly used in commercial search engine is based on keyword indexing system and Boolean logic queries. One big drawback of traditional information retrieval is that they typically retrieve information without an explicitly defined domain of interest to the users so that a lot of no relevance information returns to users, which burden the user to pick up useful answer from these no relevance results. In order to tackle this issue, many semantic web information retrieval models have been proposed recently. The main advantage of Semantic Web is to enhance search mechanisms with the use of Ontology's mechanisms. In this paper, we present our approach to personalize web search engine based on ontology. In addition, key techniques are also discussed in our paper. Compared to previous research, our works concentrate on the semantic similarity and the whole process including query submission and information annotation.

  5. Retrieval of aerosol mass load (PM10 from MERIS/Envisat top of atmosphere spectral reflectance measurements over Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vountas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of a new methodology for retrievals of surface particulate matter concentration (PM10 from satellite reflectance measurements over Germany are presented in this paper. The retrieval derives effective radii from Ångström-α exponents and benefits from the fitting of a smooth spectral slope from seven MERIS spectrometer channels. Comparisons with ground measurements from the air quality surveillance show standard deviations of 33.9% with −18.9% bias over Hamburg. Over rural sites a standard deviation of 17.9% (bias 12.9% is reached. We discuss critically limitations and potential applications of the retrieval. Additionally, we talk about the aspects at comparing of retrieved particulate matter with ground station measurements.

  6. Extinction learning, which consists of the inhibition of retrieval, can be learned without retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Furini, Cristiane Regina Guerino; Schmidt, Bianca; Ferreira, Flávia; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2015-01-13

    In the present study we test the hypothesis that extinction is not a consequence of retrieval in unreinforced conditioned stimulus (CS) presentation but the mere perception of the CS in the absence of a conditioned response. Animals with cannulae implanted in the CA1 region of hippocampus were subjected to extinction of contextual fear conditioning. Muscimol infused intra-CA1 before an extinction training session of contextual fear conditioning (CFC) blocks retrieval but not consolidation of extinction measured 24 h later. Additionally, this inhibition of retrieval does not affect early persistence of extinction when tested 7 d later or its spontaneous recovery after 2 wk. Furthermore, both anisomycin, an inhibitor of ribosomal protein synthesis, and rapamycin, an inhibitor of extraribosomal protein synthesis, given into the CA1, impair extinction of CFC regardless of whether its retrieval was blocked by muscimol. Therefore, retrieval performance in the first unreinforced session is not necessary for the installation, maintenance, or spontaneous recovery of extinction of CFC.

  7. Image Information Retrieval: An Overview of Current Research

    OpenAIRE

    Abby A. Goodrum

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current research in image information retrieval and provides an outline of areas for future research. The approach is broad and interdisciplinary and focuses on three aspects of image research (IR): text-based retrieval, content-based retrieval, and user interactions with image information retrieval systems. The review concludes with a call for image retrieval evaluation studies similar to TREC.

  8. Retrieving autobiographical memories: How different retrieval strategies associated with different cues explain reaction time differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzer, Tugba

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has shown that memories cued by concrete concepts, such as objects, are retrieved faster than those cued by more abstract concepts, such as emotions. This effect has been explained by the fact that more memories are directly retrieved from object versus emotion cues. In the present study, we tested whether RT differences between memories cued by emotion versus object terms occur not only because object cues elicit direct retrieval of more memories (Uzer, Lee, & Brown, 2012), but also because of differences in memory generation in response to emotions versus objects. One hundred university students retrieved memories in response to basic-level (e.g. orange), superordinate-level (e.g. plant), and emotion (e.g. surprised) cues. Retrieval speed was measured and participants reported whether memories were directly retrieved or generated on each trial. Results showed that memories were retrieved faster in response to basic-level versus superordinate-level and emotion cues because a) basic-level cues elicited more directly retrieved memories, and b) generating memories was more difficult when cues were abstract versus concrete. These results suggest that generative retrieval is a cue generation process in which additional cues that provide contextual information including the target event are produced. Memories are retrieved more slowly in response to emotion cues in part because emotion labels are less effective cues of appropriate contextual information. This particular finding is inconsistent with the idea that emotion is a primary organizational unit for autobiographical memories. In contrast, the difficulty of emotional memory generation implies that emotions represent low-level event information in the organization of autobiographical memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. DOLPHIn—Dictionary Learning for Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Andreas M.; Eldar, Yonina C.; Mairal, Julien

    2016-12-01

    We propose a new algorithm to learn a dictionary for reconstructing and sparsely encoding signals from measurements without phase. Specifically, we consider the task of estimating a two-dimensional image from squared-magnitude measurements of a complex-valued linear transformation of the original image. Several recent phase retrieval algorithms exploit underlying sparsity of the unknown signal in order to improve recovery performance. In this work, we consider such a sparse signal prior in the context of phase retrieval, when the sparsifying dictionary is not known in advance. Our algorithm jointly reconstructs the unknown signal - possibly corrupted by noise - and learns a dictionary such that each patch of the estimated image can be sparsely represented. Numerical experiments demonstrate that our approach can obtain significantly better reconstructions for phase retrieval problems with noise than methods that cannot exploit such "hidden" sparsity. Moreover, on the theoretical side, we provide a convergence result for our method.

  10. Feature hashing for fast image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lingyu; Fu, Jiarun; Zhang, Hongxin; Yuan, Lu; Xu, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Currently, researches on content based image retrieval mainly focus on robust feature extraction. However, due to the exponential growth of online images, it is necessary to consider searching among large scale images, which is very timeconsuming and unscalable. Hence, we need to pay much attention to the efficiency of image retrieval. In this paper, we propose a feature hashing method for image retrieval which not only generates compact fingerprint for image representation, but also prevents huge semantic loss during the process of hashing. To generate the fingerprint, an objective function of semantic loss is constructed and minimized, which combine the influence of both the neighborhood structure of feature data and mapping error. Since the machine learning based hashing effectively preserves neighborhood structure of data, it yields visual words with strong discriminability. Furthermore, the generated binary codes leads image representation building to be of low-complexity, making it efficient and scalable to large scale databases. Experimental results show good performance of our approach.

  11. Major Upgrades to the AIRS Version-6 Water Vapor Profile Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    This research is a continuation of part of what was shown at the last AIRS Science Team Meeting and the AIRS 2015 NetMeeting. AIRS Version 6 was finalized in late 2012 and is now operational. Version 6 contained many significant improvements in retrieval methodology compared to Version 5. Version 6 retrieval methodology used for the water vapor profile q(p) and ozone profile O3(p) retrievals is basically unchanged from Version 5, or even from Version 4. Subsequent research has made significant improvements in both water vapor and O3 profiles compared to Version 6.

  12. Evolutionary Computing Methods for Spectral Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrile, Richard; Fink, Wolfgang; Huntsberger, Terrance; Lee, Seugwon; Tisdale, Edwin; VonAllmen, Paul; Tinetti, Geivanna

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for processing spectral images to retrieve information on underlying physical, chemical, and/or biological phenomena is based on evolutionary and related computational methods implemented in software. In a typical case, the solution (the information that one seeks to retrieve) consists of parameters of a mathematical model that represents one or more of the phenomena of interest. The methodology was developed for the initial purpose of retrieving the desired information from spectral image data acquired by remote-sensing instruments aimed at planets (including the Earth). Examples of information desired in such applications include trace gas concentrations, temperature profiles, surface types, day/night fractions, cloud/aerosol fractions, seasons, and viewing angles. The methodology is also potentially useful for retrieving information on chemical and/or biological hazards in terrestrial settings. In this methodology, one utilizes an iterative process that minimizes a fitness function indicative of the degree of dissimilarity between observed and synthetic spectral and angular data. The evolutionary computing methods that lie at the heart of this process yield a population of solutions (sets of the desired parameters) within an accuracy represented by a fitness-function value specified by the user. The evolutionary computing methods (ECM) used in this methodology are Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing, both of which are well-established optimization techniques and have also been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These are embedded in a conceptual framework, represented in the architecture of the implementing software, that enables automatic retrieval of spectral and angular data and analysis of the retrieved solutions for uniqueness.

  13. Information retrieval models foundations and relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Roelleke, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Information Retrieval (IR) models are a core component of IR research and IR systems. The past decade brought a consolidation of the family of IR models, which by 2000 consisted of relatively isolated views on TF-IDF (Term-Frequency times Inverse-Document-Frequency) as the weighting scheme in the vector-space model (VSM), the probabilistic relevance framework (PRF), the binary independence retrieval (BIR) model, BM25 (Best-Match Version 25, the main instantiation of the PRF/BIR), and language modelling (LM). Also, the early 2000s saw the arrival of divergence from randomness (DFR).Regarding in

  14. Learning to rank for information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie-Yan

    2011-01-01

    Due to the fast growth of the Web and the difficulties in finding desired information, efficient and effective information retrieval systems have become more important than ever, and the search engine has become an essential tool for many people. The ranker, a central component in every search engine, is responsible for the matching between processed queries and indexed documents. Because of its central role, great attention has been paid to the research and development of ranking technologies. In addition, ranking is also pivotal for many other information retrieval applications, such as coll

  15. Emergent web intelligence advanced information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Youakim; Abraham, Ajith; Hassanien, Aboul-Ella

    2010-01-01

    Web Intelligence explores the impact of artificial intelligence and advanced information technologies representing the next generation of Web-based systems, services, and environments, and designing hybrid web systems that serve wired and wireless users more efficiently. Multimedia and XML-based data are produced regularly and in increasing way in our daily digital activities, and their retrieval must be explored and studied in this emergent web-based era. 'Emergent Web Intelligence: Advanced information retrieval, provides reviews of the related cutting-edge technologies and insights. It is v

  16. Automated emplacement and retrieval of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum, A.H.; Hou, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The design of several dedicated machines to perform simple tasks often results in higher system reliability and efficiency than the design of a single, multifunctional machine. Similarly, a reliable system for emplacement and retrieval of nuclear waste can be realized if emplacement/retrieval operations are decomposed into a well-defined series of independent tasks. The basic methodology is to design a system that eliminates contact between the waste package and the vehicle in the event of machine failure. The disabled vehicle can then be withdrawn to a safe location, repaired, and set back to resume normal operation

  17. Information retrieval system based on INIS tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pultorak, G.

    1976-01-01

    An information retrieval system based on the INIS computer tapes is described. It includes the three main elements of a computerized information system: a data base on a machine -readable medium, a collection of queries which represent the information needs from the data - base, and a set of programs by which the actual retrieval is done, according to the user's queries. The system is built for the center's computer, a CDC 3600, and its special features characterize, to a certain degree, the structure of the programs. (author)

  18. Logistics and safety of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in medical retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Brian J; Habig, Karel; Reid, Cliff; Kernick, Paul; Wilkinson, Chris; Tall, Gary; Coombes, Sarah; Manning, Ron

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the logistics and safety of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) medical retrieval in New South Wales, Australia. We describe the logistics involved in ECMO road and rotary-wing retrieval by a multidisciplinary team during the H1N1 influenza epidemic in winter 2009 (i.e., June 1 to August 31, 2009). Basic patient demographics and key retrieval time lines were analyzed. There were 17 patients retrieved on ECMO, with their ages ranging from 22 to 55 years. The median weight was 110 kg. Four critical events were recorded during retrieval, with no adverse outcomes. The retrieval distance varied from 20.8 to 430 km. There were delays in times from retrieval booking to both retrieval tasking and retrieval team departure in 88% of retrievals. The most common reasons cited were "patient not ready" 23.5% (4/17); "vehicle not available," 23.5% (4/17); and "complex retrieval," 41.2% (7/17). The median time (hours:minutes) from booking with the medical retrieval unit (MRU) to tasking was 4:35 (interquartile range [IQR] 3:27-6:15). The median time lag from tasking to departure was 1:00 (IQR 00:10-2:20). The median stabilization time was 1:30 (IQR 1:20-1:55). The median retrieval duration was 7:35 (IQR 5:50-10:15). The process of development of ECMO retrieval was enabled by the preexistence of a high-volume experienced medical retrieval service. Although ECMO retrieval is not a new concept, we describe an entire process for ECMO retrieval that we believe will benefit other retrieval service providers. The increased workload of ECMO retrieval during the swine flu pandemic has led to refinement in the system and process for the future.

  19. Global High Resolution Sea Surface Flux Parameters From Multiple Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Reynolds, R. W.; Shi, L.; Bates, J. J.

    2007-05-01

    Advances in understanding the coupled air-sea system and modeling of the ocean and atmosphere demand increasingly higher resolution data, such as air-sea fluxes of up to 3 hourly and every 50 km. These observational requirements can only be met by utilizing multiple satellite observations. Generation of such high resolution products from multiple-satellite and in-situ observations on an operational basis has been started at the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center. Here we describe a few products that are directly related to the computation of turbulent air-sea fluxes. Sea surface wind speed has been observed from in-situ instruments and multiple satellites, with long-term observations ranging from one satellite in the mid 1987 to six or more satellites since mid 2002. A blended product with a global 0.25° grid and four snapshots per day has been produced for July 1987 to present, using a near Gaussian 3-D (x, y, t) interpolation to minimize aliases. Wind direction has been observed from fewer satellites, thus for the blended high resolution vector winds and wind stresses, the directions are taken from the NCEP Re-analysis 2 (operationally run near real time) for climate consistency. The widely used Reynolds Optimum Interpolation SST analysis has been improved with higher resolutions (daily and 0.25°). The improvements use both infrared and microwave satellite data that are bias-corrected by in- situ observations for the period 1985 to present. The new versions provide very significant improvements in terms of resolving ocean features such as the meandering of the Gulf Stream, the Aghulas Current, the equatorial jets and other fronts. The Ta and Qa retrievals are based on measurements from the AMSU sounder onboard the NOAA satellites. Ta retrieval uses AMSU-A data, while Qa retrieval uses both AMSU-A and AMSU-B observations. The retrieval algorithms are developed using the neural network approach. Training

  20. Probabilistic and machine learning-based retrieval approaches for biomedical dataset retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisani, Payam; Qin, Zhaohui S; Agichtein, Eugene

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The bioCADDIE dataset retrieval challenge brought together different approaches to retrieval of biomedical datasets relevant to a user’s query, expressed as a text description of a needed dataset. We describe experiments in applying a data-driven, machine learning-based approach to biomedical dataset retrieval as part of this challenge. We report on a series of experiments carried out to evaluate the performance of both probabilistic and machine learning-driven techniques from information retrieval, as applied to this challenge. Our experiments with probabilistic information retrieval methods, such as query term weight optimization, automatic query expansion and simulated user relevance feedback, demonstrate that automatically boosting the weights of important keywords in a verbose query is more effective than other methods. We also show that although there is a rich space of potential representations and features available in this domain, machine learning-based re-ranking models are not able to improve on probabilistic information retrieval techniques with the currently available training data. The models and algorithms presented in this paper can serve as a viable implementation of a search engine to provide access to biomedical datasets. The retrieval performance is expected to be further improved by using additional training data that is created by expert annotation, or gathered through usage logs, clicks and other processes during natural operation of the system. Database URL: https://github.com/emory-irlab/biocaddie

  1. Less we forget: retrieval cues and release from retrieval-induced forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Tanya R; Seli, Paul; Macleod, Colin M

    2012-11-01

    Retrieving some items from memory can impair the subsequent recall of other related but not retrieved items, a phenomenon called retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). The dominant explanation of RIF-the inhibition account-asserts that forgetting occurs because related items are suppressed during retrieval practice to reduce retrieval competition. This item inhibition persists, making it more difficult to recall the related items on a later test. In our set of experiments, each category was designed such that each exemplar belonged to one of two subcategories (e.g., each BIRD exemplar was either a bird of prey or a pet bird), but this subcategory information was not made explicit during study or retrieval practice. Practicing retrieval of items from only one subcategory led to RIF for items from the other subcategory when cued only with the overall category label (BIRD) at test. However, adapting the technique of Gardiner, Craik, and Birtwistle (Journal of Learning and Verbal Behavior 11:778-783, 1972), providing subcategory cues during the final test eliminated RIF. The results challenge the inhibition account's fundamental assumption of cue independence but are consistent with a cue-based interference account.

  2. Memory networks supporting retrieval effort and retrieval success under conditions of full and divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Erin I; Fernandes, Myra A; Grady, Cheryl L

    2009-01-01

    We used a multivariate analysis technique, partial least squares (PLS), to identify distributed patterns of brain activity associated with retrieval effort and retrieval success. Participants performed a recognition memory task under full attention (FA) or two different divided attention (DA) conditions during retrieval. Behaviorally, recognition was disrupted when a word, but not digit-based distracting task, was performed concurrently with retrieval. PLS was used to identify patterns of brain activation that together covaried with the three memory conditions and which were functionally connected with activity in the right hippocampus to produce successful memory performance. Results indicate that activity in the right dorsolateral frontal cortex increases during conditions of DA at retrieval, and that successful memory performance in the DA-digit condition is associated with activation of the same network of brain regions functionally connected to the right hippocampus, as under FA, which increases with increasing memory performance. Finally, DA conditions that disrupt successful memory performance (DA-word) interfere with recruitment of both retrieval-effort and retrieval-success networks.

  3. FRESCO+: an improved O2 A-band cloud retrieval algorithm for tropospheric trace gas retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Roozendael

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-band algorithm has been used to retrieve cloud information from measurements of the O2 A-band around 760 nm by GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2. The cloud parameters retrieved by FRESCO are the effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure, which are used for cloud correction in the retrieval of trace gases like O3 and NO2. To improve the cloud pressure retrieval for partly cloudy scenes, single Rayleigh scattering has been included in an improved version of the algorithm, called FRESCO+. We compared FRESCO+ and FRESCO effective cloud fractions and cloud pressures using simulated spectra and one month of GOME measured spectra. As expected, FRESCO+ gives more reliable cloud pressures over partly cloudy pixels. Simulations and comparisons with ground-based radar/lidar measurements of clouds show that the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about the optical midlevel of the cloud. Globally averaged, the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about 50 hPa higher than the FRESCO cloud pressure, while the FRESCO+ effective cloud fraction is about 0.01 larger. The effect of FRESCO+ cloud parameters on O3 and NO2 vertical column density (VCD retrievals is studied using SCIAMACHY data and ground-based DOAS measurements. We find that the FRESCO+ algorithm has a significant effect on tropospheric NO2 retrievals but a minor effect on total O3 retrievals. The retrieved SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs using FRESCO+ cloud parameters (v1.1 are lower than the tropospheric NO2VCDs which used FRESCO cloud parameters (v1.04, in particular over heavily polluted areas with low clouds. The difference between SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs v1.1 and ground-based MAXDOAS measurements performed in Cabauw, The Netherlands, during the DANDELIONS campaign is about −2.12×1014molec cm−2.

  4. Fast and secure retrieval of DNA sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    Sequence models are retrieved from a sequences index. The sequence models model DNA or RNA sequences stored in a database, and each comprises a finite memory tree source model and parameters for the finite memory tree source model. One or more DNA or RNA sequences stored in the database are

  5. Systems and Architectures for Multimedia Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djeraba, C.; Sebe, N.; Lew, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a brief survey on multimedia information retrieval and we introduce some ideas investigated in the special issue. We hope that the contributions of this issue will stimulate the readers to tackle the current challenges and problems in this highly important research

  6. Fusion and diversification in information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, S.

    2014-01-01

    Data fusion and search result diversification are two critical research topics in information retrieval. Data fusion approaches combine search result lists in order to produce a new and hopefully better ranking. We propose two data fusion models for microblog search that exploit temporal information

  7. Data bank for a data retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernikovskii, V V

    1980-01-01

    The data bank of the computerized data retrieval system is an organic and constituent part of the system; the level of technology and performance of the data retrieval system as a whole depend on the results of its design and operation. The data bank integrates a storage system for the entire set of data, as well as implementing an organization of a feasible storage mode for the system dictionary, computer processing procedures, user forms, system archieves and other service information. Functions of the data bank are computerized by means of a database control system. The retriveal system data bank was designed for the OKA database control system; the selection and evaluation of the feasibility of the OKA database control system, in turn, were one stage in the design of the system as a whole. The OKA database control system has been used to computerize data retrieval functions in the computerized data retrieval system, and also to maintain the system data bank in updated status.

  8. Amphetamine increases errors during episodic memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Michael Edward; Gallo, David A; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-02-01

    Moderate doses of stimulant drugs are known to enhance memory encoding and consolidation, but their effects on memory retrieval have not been explored in depth. In laboratory animals, stimulants seem to improve retrieval of emotional memories, but comparable studies have not been carried out in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of dextroamphetamine (AMP) on retrieval of emotional and unemotional stimuli in healthy young adults, using doses that enhanced memory formation when administered before encoding in our previous study. During 3 sessions, healthy volunteers (n = 31) received 2 doses of AMP (10 and 20 mg) and placebo in counterbalanced order under double-blind conditions. During each session, they first viewed emotional and unemotional pictures and words in a drug-free state, and then 2 days later their memory was tested, 1 hour after AMP or placebo administration. Dextroamphetamine did not affect the number of emotional or unemotional stimuli remembered, but both doses increased recall intrusions and false recognition. Dextroamphetamine (20 mg) also increased the number of positively rated picture descriptions and words generated during free recall. These data provide the first evidence that therapeutic range doses of stimulant drugs can increase memory retrieval errors. The ability of AMP to positively bias recollection of prior events could contribute to its potential for abuse.

  9. Efficient Similarity Retrieval in Music Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Audio music is increasingly becoming available in digital form, and the digital music collections of individuals continue to grow. Addressing the need for effective means of retrieving music from such collections, this paper proposes new techniques for content-based similarity search. Each music...

  10. Formalizing Evaluation in Music Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a formalism to disambiguate the evaluation of music information retrieval systems. We define a ``system,'' what it means to ``analyze'' one, and make clear the aims, parts, design, execution, interpretation, and assumptions of its ``evaluation.'' We apply this formalism to discuss...

  11. Profiles and Context for Structured Text Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine

    2017-01-01

    The combination of structured information retrieval with user profile information represents the scenario where systems search with an explicit statement of the information need—a search query—as well as a profile of a user, which can contain information about previous interactions, search histor...

  12. Robust keyword retrieval method for OCRed text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yusaku; Takebe, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hotta, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    Document management systems have become important because of the growing popularity of electronic filing of documents and scanning of books, magazines, manuals, etc., through a scanner or a digital camera, for storage or reading on a PC or an electronic book. Text information acquired by optical character recognition (OCR) is usually added to the electronic documents for document retrieval. Since texts generated by OCR generally include character recognition errors, robust retrieval methods have been introduced to overcome this problem. In this paper, we propose a retrieval method that is robust against both character segmentation and recognition errors. In the proposed method, the insertion of noise characters and dropping of characters in the keyword retrieval enables robustness against character segmentation errors, and character substitution in the keyword of the recognition candidate for each character in OCR or any other character enables robustness against character recognition errors. The recall rate of the proposed method was 15% higher than that of the conventional method. However, the precision rate was 64% lower.

  13. Task Oriented Tools for Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peilin

    2017-01-01

    Information Retrieval (IR) is one of the most evolving research fields and has drawn extensive attention in recent years. Because of its empirical nature, the advance of the IR field is closely related to the development of various toolkits. While the traditional IR toolkit mainly provides a platform to evaluate the effectiveness of retrieval…

  14. Language-based multimedia information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Gauvain, J.L.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Netter, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes various methods and approaches for language-based multimedia information retrieval, which have been developed in the projects POP-EYE and OLIVE and which will be developed further in the MUMIS project. All of these project aim at supporting automated indexing of video material

  15. Millennial Students' Mental Models of Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examines first-year college students' online search habits in order to identify patterns in millennials' mental models of information retrieval. The study employed a combination of modified contextual inquiry and concept mapping methodologies to elicit students' mental models. The researcher confirmed previously observed…

  16. Wave propagation retrieval method for chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the wave propagation method for the retrieving of effective properties of media with circularly polarized eigenwaves, in particularly for chiral metamaterials. The method is applied for thick slabs and provides bulk effective parameters. Its strong sides are the absence...

  17. Memory Retrieval in Parsing and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Ananda Lila Zoe

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationship between the parser and the grammar in error-driven retrieval by examining the mechanism underlying the illusory licensing of subject-verb agreement violations ("agreement attraction"). Previous work motivates a two-stage model of agreement attraction in which the parser predicts the verb's…

  18. Towards an Information Retrieval Theory of Everything

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Lammerink, J.M.W.; Katoen, Joost P.; Kok, J.N.; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Raamsdonk, F.

    2009-01-01

    I present three well-known probabilistic models of information retrieval in tutorial style: The binary independence probabilistic model, the language modeling approach, and Google's page rank. Although all three models are based on probability theory, they are very different in nature. Each model

  19. Retrieval-Induced Forgetting: A Developmental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Ruth M.; Keating, Sam; Patel, Rina

    2004-01-01

    Two studies examined the possibility of retrieval-induced forgetting by 7-year-olds. Children heard a story while viewing pictures of events mentioned in the story, each highlighting objects drawn from two distinct semantic categories (e.g. animals and food). Over the next several days, children were asked the same yes/no questions about half the…

  20. Transfer of memory retrieval cues in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, James F; Fitz, Kelly I; Riccio, David C

    2007-06-01

    Two experiments using rats were conducted to determine whether the retrieval of a memory could be brought under the control of new contextual cues that had not been present at the time of training. In Experiment 1, rats were trained in one context and then exposed to different contextual cues immediately, 60 min, or 120 min after training. When tested in the shifted context, rats that had been exposed shortly after training treated the shifted context as if it were the original context. The control that the previously neutral context had over retrieval disappeared with longer posttraining delays, suggesting the importance of an active memory representation during exposure. Experiment 2 replicated the basic finding and demonstrated that the transfer of retrieval cues was specific to the contextual cues present during exposure. These findings with rats are consistent with findings from infant research (see, e.g., Boller & Rovee-Collier, 1992) that have shown that a neutral context can come to serve as a retrieval cue for an episode experienced elsewhere.

  1. Design Case Retrieval by Generic Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, H.H.; Gero, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Case-Based Reasoning and Case-Based Design have been proposed to utilize knowledge of previous design solutions to understand or solve current design problems. Case retrieval is often performed on the basis of verbal indexing systems, whereas in design the use of graphic representations is

  2. Random walk term weighting for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, R.; Lioma, Christina

    2007-01-01

    We present a way of estimating term weights for Information Retrieval (IR), using term co-occurrence as a measure of dependency between terms.We use the random walk graph-based ranking algorithm on a graph that encodes terms and co-occurrence dependencies in text, from which we derive term weights...

  3. Bibliographic Information Retrieval Systems: Increasing Cognitive Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the impact of research in artificial intelligence and human computer interaction on the design of bibliographic information retrieval systems, and presents design principles of a prototype system that uses semantically based searches and a knowledge base consisting of conceptual frames. (10 references) (CLB)

  4. Test plan for the retrieval demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentich, D.J.

    1993-05-01

    This test plan describes a simulated buried waste retrieval demonstration that will be performed at the Caterpillar, Inc., Edwards Training Center located near Peoria, Illinois. The purpose of the demonstration is to determine the effectiveness of using readily available excavation equipment to retrieve, size, and handle various simulated waste forms that are similar in size, structure, and composition to those expected to be found in US Department of Energy contaminated waste pits and trenches. The objectives of this demonstration are to: meet and maintain daily production goals of 80 yd 3 /day; minimize spillage and dust generation through careful and deliberate operations; document and evaluate methods for manipulating, sizing, and/or working around large objects; and document and evaluate requirements for operator augmentation and remote operation for hot test pit excavation operations. Four conditions comprising the range of environments to be evaluated include excavation of random material from below grade; stacked boxes and barrels from below grade; random materials from at grade; and stacked boxes and barrels from at grade. Results of the retrieval demonstration will reduce unknowns in the body of knowledge about retrieval equipment and procedural options for removal of buried transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It is anticipated that DOE will factor this information into a remedial investigation/feasibility plan leading to a final record of decision for disposition of buried TRU waste

  5. Single gene retrieval from thermally degraded DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To simulate single gene retrieval from ancient DNA, several related factors have been investigated. By monitoring a 889 bp polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product and genomic DNA degradation, we find that heat and oxygen (especially heat) are both crucial factors influencing DNA degradation. The heat influence ...

  6. Semantic association ranking schemes for information retrieval ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    retrieval applications using term association graph representation ... Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Government College of ... Introduction ... leads to poor precision, e.g., model, python, and chip. ...... The approaches proposed in this paper focuses on the query-centric re-ranking of search results.

  7. Active learning methods for interactive image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Philippe Henri; Cord, Matthieu

    2008-07-01

    Active learning methods have been considered with increased interest in the statistical learning community. Initially developed within a classification framework, a lot of extensions are now being proposed to handle multimedia applications. This paper provides algorithms within a statistical framework to extend active learning for online content-based image retrieval (CBIR). The classification framework is presented with experiments to compare several powerful classification techniques in this information retrieval context. Focusing on interactive methods, active learning strategy is then described. The limitations of this approach for CBIR are emphasized before presenting our new active selection process RETIN. First, as any active method is sensitive to the boundary estimation between classes, the RETIN strategy carries out a boundary correction to make the retrieval process more robust. Second, the criterion of generalization error to optimize the active learning selection is modified to better represent the CBIR objective of database ranking. Third, a batch processing of images is proposed. Our strategy leads to a fast and efficient active learning scheme to retrieve sets of online images (query concept). Experiments on large databases show that the RETIN method performs well in comparison to several other active strategies.

  8. Radiographic features of Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumitt, Jason W; Essman, Stephanie C; Kornegay, Joe N; Graham, John P; Weber, William J; Berry, Clifford R

    2006-01-01

    Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy is an inherited, degenerative myopathy due to the absence of dystrophin and is used as a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy of young boys. This report describes the radiographic abnormalities of Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy in 26 dogs. The thoracic abnormalities included diaphragmatic asymmetry (18/26), diaphragmatic undulation (18/26), and gastro-esophageal hiatal hernia (6/26). Pelvic abnormalities included narrowing of the body of the ilia (14/19), ventral deviation and curvature of the tuber ischii (14/19), elongation of the obturator foramen with a decrease in opacity of the surrounding bone (12/19), and lateral flaring of the wings of the ilia (12/19). Abdominal abnormalities consisted of hepatomegaly (14/22) and poor serosal detail (12/22). The unique thoracic abnormalities were a consistent finding in affected Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy dogs. The diagnosis of muscular dystrophy should be included in the differential list if the combination of diaphragm undulation and asymmetry, and gastro-esophageal hiatal hernia are identified. These diaphragmatic abnormalities are related to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the diaphragm. Additionally, the skeletal changes of pelvic tilt, elongation of the pelvis, widening of the obturator foramina and thinning of the ischiatic tables appear to be specific to Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy in dogs. These pelvic abnormalities are most likely secondary to bone remodeling associated with the progressive skeletal myopathy and subsequent contracture/fibrosis.

  9. Spare mitigation/retrieval mixer pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the functional design criteria for design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and installation of a waste tank mixer pump. The mixer pump will be operated to eliminate the periodic releases of large quantities of flammable gas (e.g., hydrogen) from Hanford Site waste tanks and also to accommodate retrieval of tank waste

  10. Retrieval-induced forgetting in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Paul G; Piech, Richard; Allen, Christopher; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Shenton, Martha; McCarley, Robert W

    2005-06-15

    Retrieving category associates (e.g., FRUIT-ORANGE) may induce forgetting other category members (e.g., FRUIT-BANANA), a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). We designed 2 experiments to examine the role of RIF in the associative memory impairment of schizophrenia (SZ). Subjects studied 36 category-exemplar pairs, generated from 6 categories composed of 6 members each. For half of the studied category-exemplar pairs, subjects practiced retrieval by completing word stems, followed by a delayed category-cued recall on all of the practiced and unpracticed items. Experiment 1 used unrelated category exemplars-pairs (e.g., FRUIT-ORANGE, METALS-IRON), whereas experiment 2 included related category exemplar pairs (e.g., COTTON-SHIRT, LEATHER-SKIRT). SZ showed reduced associative memory but normal RIF for unrelated categories used in experiment 1. For experiment 2, SZ showed a significant decline in associative memory for related but not unrelated category-exemplars in comparison to controls. Results suggested faulty specificity/distinctiveness for encoding and retrieval, but not abnormal RIF in the associative memory disturbance of SZ.

  11. Thoracoscopic retrieval of a fractured thoracentesis catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M H; McAllister, E W

    1994-08-01

    With the resurgence of laparoscopic surgical procedures, thorascopic procedures have followed close behind. Many procedures which in the past have required formal thoracotomy may now be performed via less invasive methods. Presented herein is a report and description of thoracoscopic retrieval of a fractured thoracentesis catheter.

  12. The Development of Relevance in Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate the notion of relevance in information retrieval. It discusses various definitions for relevance from historical viewpoints and the characteristics of relevance judgments. Also, it introduces empirical results of important related researches.[Article content in Chinese

  13. The JPL Library information retrieval system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J.

    1975-01-01

    The development, capabilities, and products of the computer-based retrieval system of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Library are described. The system handles books and documents, produces a book catalog, and provides a machine search capability. Programs and documentation are available to the public through NASA's computer software dissemination program.

  14. Perceptual Constraints on Infant Memory Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardstein, Peter; Liu, Jane; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined characteristics of a stimulus-cueing retrieval from long-term memory for 3-month olds. Used mobiles displaying either Qs (feature-present stimuli) or Os (feature-absent stimuli) and tested 24 hours later. Findings indicated that target-distractor similarity constraints, whether or not a feature-present stimulus, would…

  15. IMIRSEL: a secure music retrieval testing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John S.

    2004-10-01

    The Music Information Retrieval (MIR) and Music Digital Library (MDL) research communities have long noted the need for formal evaluation mechanisms. Issues concerning the unavailability of freely-available music materials have greatly hindered the creation of standardized test collections with which these communities could scientifically assess the strengths and weaknesses of their various music retrieval techniques. The International Music Information Retrieval Systems Evaluation Laboratory (IMIRSEL) is being developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) specifically to overcome this hindrance to the scientific evaluation of MIR/MDL systems. Together with its subsidiary Human Use of Music Information Retrieval Systems (HUMIRS) project, IMIRSEL will allow MIR/MDL researchers access to the standardized large-scale collection of copyright-sensitive music materials and standardized test queries being housed at UIUC's National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). Virtual Research Labs (VRL), based upon NCSA's Data-to-Knowledge (D2K) tool set, are being developed through which MIR/MDL researchers will interact with the music materials under a "trusted code" security model.

  16. Retrieval and Representation of Nucleotide Sequence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (March, 2013), 21(1): 27-32 ... Full Length R esearch A rticle ... The present study highlights data retrieval and representation. .... the end of information and the start of the sequence on the next ...

  17. A Bayesian Approach to Interactive Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, Jean M.

    1973-01-01

    A probabilistic model for interactive retrieval is presented. Bayesian statistical decision theory principles are applied: use of prior and sample information about the relationship of document descriptions to query relevance; maximization of expected value of a utility function, to the problem of optimally restructuring search strategies in an…

  18. Fernald Silo Remote Retrieval Tool Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    A long-reach tool was developed to remove discrete objects from the silos at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in Ohio. If they are not removed, these objects can potentially cause problems during the retrieval and transfer of waste from the silos. Most of the objects are on top of the Bentogrout cap inside the silos at or near the primary opening into the tank and will therefore require only vertical lifting. The objects are located about 20 ft from the top of the silo. Although most of the objects can be retrieved from 20 ft, the long-reach tool was designed to for a reach up to 40 ft in case objects roll towards the walls of the tank or need to be removed during heel retrieval operations. This report provides a detailed description of the tool that was developed, tested, and demonstrated at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Scaffolding was erected over two experimental cells to simulate the 40-ft maximum working depth anticipated in the silos at Fernald. Plastic bottles and plastic sheeting simulated the debris that could be encountered during waste retrieval operations

  19. Stability of disposal rooms during waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandshaug, T.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the results of a numerical analysis to determine the stability of waste disposal rooms for vertical and horizontal emplacement during the period of waste retrieval. It is assumed that waste retrieval starts 50 years after the initial emplacement of the waste, and that access to and retrieval of the waste containers take place through the disposal rooms. It is further assumed that the disposal rooms are not back-filled. Convective cooling of the disposal rooms in preparation for waste retrieval is included in the analysis. Conditions and parameters used were taken from the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (MacDougall et al., 1987). Thermal results are presented which illustrate the heat transfer response of the rock adjacent to the disposal rooms. Mechanical results are presented which illustrate the predicted distribution of stress, joint slip, and room deformations for the period of time investigated. Under the assumption that the host rock can be classified as ''fair to good'' using the Geomechanics Classification System (Bieniawski, 1974), only light ground support would appear to be necessary for the disposal rooms to remain stable. 23 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Selective Document Retrieval from Encrypted Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bösch, C.T.; Tang, Qiang; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem

    We propose the concept of selective document retrieval (SDR) from an encrypted database which allows a client to store encrypted data on a third-party server and perform efficient search remotely. We propose a new SDR scheme based on the recent advances in fully homomorphic encryption schemes. The

  1. Dynamic neural architecture for social knowledge retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Collins, Jessica A; Koski, Jessica; Nugiel, Tehila; Metoki, Athanasia; Olson, Ingrid R

    2017-04-18

    Social behavior is often shaped by the rich storehouse of biographical information that we hold for other people. In our daily life, we rapidly and flexibly retrieve a host of biographical details about individuals in our social network, which often guide our decisions as we navigate complex social interactions. Even abstract traits associated with an individual, such as their political affiliation, can cue a rich cascade of person-specific knowledge. Here, we asked whether the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) serves as a hub for a distributed neural circuit that represents person knowledge. Fifty participants across two studies learned biographical information about fictitious people in a 2-d training paradigm. On day 3, they retrieved this biographical information while undergoing an fMRI scan. A series of multivariate and connectivity analyses suggest that the ATL stores abstract person identity representations. Moreover, this region coordinates interactions with a distributed network to support the flexible retrieval of person attributes. Together, our results suggest that the ATL is a central hub for representing and retrieving person knowledge.

  2. Identify, Organize, and Retrieve Items Using Zotero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian; Stierman, John

    2009-01-01

    Librarians build collections. To do this they use tools that help them identify, organize, and retrieve items for the collection. Zotero (zoh-TAIR-oh) is such a tool that helps the user build a library of useful books, articles, web sites, blogs, etc., discovered while surfing online. A visit to Zotero's homepage, www.zotero.org, shows a number of…

  3. A new retrieval algorithm for tropospheric temperature, humidity and pressure profiling based on GNSS radio occultation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Gottfried; Li, Ying; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Schwärz, Marc; Schwarz, Jakob; Nielsen, Johannes K.

    2017-04-01

    The GNSS radio occultation (RO) technique is an important remote sensing technique for obtaining thermodynamic profiles of temperature, humidity, and pressure in the Earth's troposphere. However, due to refraction effects of both dry ambient air and water vapor in the troposphere, retrieval of accurate thermodynamic profiles at these lower altitudes is challenging and requires suitable background information in addition to the RO refractivity information. Here we introduce a new moist air retrieval algorithm aiming to improve the quality and robustness of retrieving temperature, humidity and pressure profiles in moist air tropospheric conditions. The new algorithm consists of four steps: (1) use of prescribed specific humidity and its uncertainty to retrieve temperature and its associated uncertainty; (2) use of prescribed temperature and its uncertainty to retrieve specific humidity and its associated uncertainty; (3) use of the previous results to estimate final temperature and specific humidity profiles through optimal estimation; (4) determination of air pressure and density profiles from the results obtained before. The new algorithm does not require elaborated matrix inversions which are otherwise widely used in 1D-Var retrieval algorithms, and it allows a transparent uncertainty propagation, whereby the uncertainties of prescribed variables are dynamically estimated accounting for their spatial and temporal variations. Estimated random uncertainties are calculated by constructing error covariance matrices from co-located ECMWF short-range forecast and corresponding analysis profiles. Systematic uncertainties are estimated by empirical modeling. The influence of regarding or disregarding vertical error correlations is quantified. The new scheme is implemented with static input uncertainty profiles in WEGC's current OPSv5.6 processing system and with full scope in WEGC's next-generation system, the Reference Occultation Processing System (rOPS). Results from

  4. Evaluating A Priori Ozone Profile Information Used in TEMPO Tropospheric Ozone Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Sullivan, John T.; Liu, Xiong; Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; McGee, Thomas J.; Langford, Andrew O'Neil; Senff, Christoph J.; Leblanc, Thierry; Berkoff, Timothy; hide

    2016-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a greenhouse gas and toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is primarily conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address these limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product. TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME, GOME-2, and OMI. This algorithm uses a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB) O3 climatology). It has been shown that satellite O3 retrievals are sensitive to a priori O3 profiles and covariance matrices. During this work we investigate the climatological data to be used in TEMPO algorithms (TB O3) and simulated data from the NASA GMAO Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Forward Processing (FP) near-real-time (NRT) model products. These two data products will be evaluated with ground-based lidar data from the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) at various locations of the US. This study evaluates the TB climatology, GEOS-5 climatology, and 3-hourly GEOS-5 data compared to lower tropospheric observations to demonstrate the accuracy of a priori information to potentially be used in TEMPO O3 algorithms. Here we present our initial analysis and the theoretical impact on TEMPO retrievals in the lower troposphere.

  5. Evaluating A Priori Ozone Profile Information Used in TEMPO Tropospheric Ozone Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Sullivan, J. T.; Liu, X.; Newchurch, M.; Kuang, S.; McGee, T. J.; Langford, A. O.; Senff, C. J.; Leblanc, T.; Berkoff, T.; Gronoff, G.; Chen, G.; Strawbridge, K. B.

    2016-12-01

    Ozone (O3) is a greenhouse gas and toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is primarily conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address these limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product. TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME, GOME-2, and OMI. This algorithm uses a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB) O3 climatology). It has been shown that satellite O3 retrievals are sensitive to a priori O3 profiles and covariance matrices. During this work we investigate the climatological data to be used in TEMPO algorithms (TB O3) and simulated data from the NASA GMAO Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Forward Processing (FP) near-real-time (NRT) model products. These two data products will be evaluated with ground-based lidar data from the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) at various locations of the US. This study evaluates the TB climatology, GEOS-5 climatology, and 3-hourly GEOS-5 data compared to lower tropospheric observations to demonstrate the accuracy of a priori information to potentially be used in TEMPO O3 algorithms. Here we present our initial analysis and the theoretical impact on TEMPO retrievals in the lower troposphere.

  6. Vertical grid of retrieved atmospheric profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccherini, Simone; Carli, Bruno; Raspollini, Piera

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the vertical grid of atmospheric profiles retrieved from remote sensing observations is discussed considering the two cases of profiles used to represent the results of individual measurements and of profiles used for subsequent data fusion applications. An ozone measurement of the MIPAS instrument is used to assess, for different vertical grids, the quality of the retrieved profiles in terms of profile values, retrieval errors, vertical resolutions and number of degrees of freedom. In the case of individual retrievals no evident advantage is obtained with the use of a grid finer than the one with a reduced number of grid points, which are optimized according to the information content of the observations. Nevertheless, this instrument dependent vertical grid, which seems to extract all the available information, provides very poor results when used for data fusion applications. A loss of about a quarter of the degrees of freedom is observed when the data fusion is made using the instrument dependent vertical grid relative to the data fusion made using a vertical grid optimized for the data fusion product. This result is explained by the analysis of the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix and leads to the conclusion that different vertical grids must be adopted when data fusion is the expected application. - Highlights: • Data fusion application is taken into account for the choice of the vertical grid. • The study is performed using ozone profiles retrieved from MIPAS measurements. • A very fine vertical grid is not needed for the analysis of a single instrument. • The instrument dependent vertical grid is not the best choice for data fusion. • A data fusion dependent vertical grid must be used for profiles that will be fused.

  7. Automatic evidence retrieval for systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Miew Keen; Galgani, Filippo; Dunn, Adam G; Tsafnat, Guy

    2014-10-01

    Snowballing involves recursively pursuing relevant references cited in the retrieved literature and adding them to the search results. Snowballing is an alternative approach to discover additional evidence that was not retrieved through conventional search. Snowballing's effectiveness makes it best practice in systematic reviews despite being time-consuming and tedious. Our goal was to evaluate an automatic method for citation snowballing's capacity to identify and retrieve the full text and/or abstracts of cited articles. Using 20 review articles that contained 949 citations to journal or conference articles, we manually searched Microsoft Academic Search (MAS) and identified 78.0% (740/949) of the cited articles that were present in the database. We compared the performance of the automatic citation snowballing method against the results of this manual search, measuring precision, recall, and F1 score. The automatic method was able to correctly identify 633 (as proportion of included citations: recall=66.7%, F1 score=79.3%; as proportion of citations in MAS: recall=85.5%, F1 score=91.2%) of citations with high precision (97.7%), and retrieved the full text or abstract for 490 (recall=82.9%, precision=92.1%, F1 score=87.3%) of the 633 correctly retrieved citations. The proposed method for automatic citation snowballing is accurate and is capable of obtaining the full texts or abstracts for a substantial proportion of the scholarly citations in review articles. By automating the process of citation snowballing, it may be possible to reduce the time and effort of common evidence surveillance tasks such as keeping trial registries up to date and conducting systematic reviews.

  8. Video Retrieval Berdasarkan Teks dan Gambar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Hidayati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Retrieval video has been used to search a video based on the query entered by user which were text and image. This system could increase the searching ability on video browsing and expected to reduce the video’s retrieval time. The research purposes were designing and creating a software application of retrieval video based on the text and image on the video. The index process for the text is tokenizing, filtering (stopword, stemming. The results of stemming to saved in the text index table. Index process for the image is to create an image color histogram and compute the mean and standard deviation at each primary color red, green and blue (RGB of each image. The results of feature extraction is stored in the image table The process of video retrieval using the query text, images or both. To text query system to process the text query by looking at the text index tables. If there is a text query on the index table system will display information of the video according to the text query. To image query system to process the image query by finding the value of the feature extraction means red, green means, means blue, red standard deviation, standard deviation and standard deviation of blue green. If the value of the six features extracted query image on the index table image will display the video information system according to the query image. To query text and query images, the system will display the video information if the query text and query images have a relationship that is query text and query image has the same film title.   Keywords—  video, index, retrieval, text, image

  9. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  10. Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Project Plan for Tank 241-C-104 Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEFIGH PRICE, C.

    2000-01-01

    In support of the SST Interim Closure Project, Project W-523 ''Tank 241-C-104 Waste Retrieval System'' will provide systems for retrieval and transfer of radioactive waste from tank 241-C-104 (C-104) to the DST staging tank 241-AY-101 (AY-101). At the conclusion of Project W-523, a retrieval system will have been designed and tested to meet the requirements for Acceptance of Beneficial Use and been turned over to operations. Completion of construction and operations of the C-104 retrieval system will meet the recently proposed near-term Tri-Party Agreement milestone, M-45-03F (Proposed Tri-Party Agreement change request M-45-00-01A, August, 30 2000) for demonstrating limits of retrieval technologies on sludge and hard heels in SSTs, reduce near-term storage risks associated with aging SSTs, and provide feed for the tank waste treatment plant. This Project Plan documents the methodology for managing Project W-523; formalizes responsibilities; identifies key interfaces required to complete the retrieval action; establishes the technical, cost, and schedule baselines; and identifies project organizational requirements pertaining to the engineering process such as environmental, safety, quality assurance, change control, design verification, testing, and operational turnover

  11. BIBLIO: A Computerized Retrieval System for Communication Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. Lee; Edwards, Renee

    1983-01-01

    Describes BIBLIO, a computer program created for the storage and retrieval of articles in the 1970-80 issues of "Communication Education." Tells how articles were coded, method used to retrieve information, and advantages and uses of the system. (PD)

  12. Retrieval of vertical wind profiles during monsoon from satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Complex EOF analysis; cloud motion vector winds; wind profiles; retrieval; monsoon. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. .... The data gaps are removed using simple linear interpolation .... retrieved via standard linear regression using the two independent ...

  13. Retrieval of humidity and temperature profiles over the oceans from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India. ... inspired many researchers and the power of invok- ing prior knowledge in .... to accelerate the process of retrieval if direct ANN ... to drive a more robust retrieval algorithm. Fur-.

  14. Memory retrieval as a self-propagating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T; Schlichting, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Retrieval of a subset of studied items and the presentation of those items as retrieval cues typically impair retrieval of the other items. Previous research on this self-limiting property of memory retrieval has relied heavily on short retention intervals and similar context between encoding and test. Here, we examined retrieval dynamics also after a prolonged retention interval with different spatial and social context between encoding and test, conditions that mimic people's remembering in many situations of daily life. For both unrelated word lists and more integrated prose material, we found retrieval and cuing to impair recall of other studied items after a short retention interval, but to improve recall in the prolonged retention interval condition. The results demonstrate that retrieval dynamics depend critically on situation, indicating that quite often in daily life, retrieval may be a self-propagating, rather than a self-limiting process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. User Needs and Strategies in Structured Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ramirez Camps (Georgina)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractStructured information retrieval studies the combination of the content and the structure information of documents to perform different IR tasks. Different approaches make use of the structural information of documents to improve information retrieval effectiveness. However, most of

  16. Minimization of Retrieval Time During Software Reuse | Salami ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimization of Retrieval Time During Software Reuse. ... Retrieval of relevant software from the repository during software reuse can be time consuming if the repository contains many ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. Delve: A Data Set Retrieval and Document Analysis System

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna Thankgod; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2017-01-01

    Academic search engines (e.g., Google scholar or Microsoft academic) provide a medium for retrieving various information on scholarly documents. However, most of these popular scholarly search engines overlook the area of data set retrieval, which

  18. Content-based multimedia retrieval: indexing and diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leuken, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    The demand for efficient systems that facilitate searching in multimedia databases and collections is vastly increasing. Application domains include criminology, musicology, trademark registration, medicine and image or video retrieval on the web. This thesis discusses content-based retrieval

  19. An Improved Single-Channel Method to Retrieve Land Surface Temperature from the Landsat-8 Thermal Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Cristóbal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is one of the sources of input data for modeling land surface processes. The Landsat satellite series is the only operational mission with more than 30 years of archived thermal infrared imagery from which we can retrieve LST. Unfortunately, stray light artifacts were observed in Landsat-8 TIRS data, mostly affecting Band 11, currently making the split-window technique impractical for retrieving surface temperature without requiring atmospheric data. In this study, a single-channel methodology to retrieve surface temperature from Landsat TM and ETM+ was improved to retrieve LST from Landsat-8 TIRS Band 10 using near-surface air temperature (Ta and integrated atmospheric column water vapor (w as input data. This improved methodology was parameterized and successfully evaluated with simulated data from a global and robust radiosonde database and validated with in situ data from four flux tower sites under different types of vegetation and snow cover in 44 Landsat-8 scenes. Evaluation results using simulated data showed that the inclusion of Ta together with w within a single-channel scheme improves LST retrieval, yielding lower errors and less bias than models based only on w. The new proposed LST retrieval model, developed with both w and Ta, yielded overall errors on the order of 1 K and a bias of −0.5 K validated against in situ data, providing a better performance than other models parameterized using w and Ta or only w models that yielded higher error and bias.

  20. High Resolution Trajectory-Based Smoke Forecasts Using VIIRS Aerosol Optical Depth and NUCAPS Carbon Monoxide Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, R. B.; Smith, N.; Barnet, C.; Barnet, C. D.; Kondragunta, S.; Davies, J. E.; Strabala, K.

    2016-12-01

    We use Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and combined Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) NOAA-Unique CrIS-ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) carbon monoxide (CO) retrievals to initialize trajectory-based, high spatial resolution North American smoke dispersion forecasts during the May 2016 Fort McMurray wildfire in northern Alberta and the July 2016 Soberanes Fire in Northern California. These two case studies illustrate how long range transport of wild fire smoke can adversely impact surface air quality thousands of kilometers downwind and how local topographic flow can lead to complex transport patterns near the wildfire source region. The NUCAPS CO retrievals are shown to complement the high resolution VIIRS AOD retrievals by providing retrievals in partially cloudy scenes and also providing information on the vertical distribution of the wildfire smoke. This work addresses the need for low latency, web-based, high resolution forecasts of smoke dispersion for use by NWS Incident Meteorologists (IMET) to support on-site decision support services for fire incident management teams. The primary user community for the IDEA-I smoke forecasts is the Western regions of the NWS and US EPA due to the significant impacts of wildfires in these regions. Secondary users include Alaskan NWS offices and Western State and Local air quality management agencies such as the Western Regional Air Partnership (WRAP).

  1. Phase retrieval in near-field measurements by array synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian; Larsen, Flemming Holm

    1991-01-01

    The phase retrieval problem in near-field antenna measurements is formulated as an array synthesis problem. As a test case, a particular synthesis algorithm has been used to retrieve the phase of a linear array......The phase retrieval problem in near-field antenna measurements is formulated as an array synthesis problem. As a test case, a particular synthesis algorithm has been used to retrieve the phase of a linear array...

  2. Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Robert; Lee, Sung-Yung; Chahine, Moustafa; Susskind, Joel; arnet, Christopher; McMillin, Larry; Goldberg, Mitchell; Blaisdell, John; Rosenkranz, Philip; Strow, Larrabee

    2007-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Spectrometer (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, denoted product generation executives (PGEs), for processing the readings of the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth aboard NASA s Aqua spacecraft. AIRS SPS at an earlier stage of development was described in "Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data' (NPO-35243), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 39. To recapitulate: Starting from level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the PGEs and their data products are denoted by alphanumeric labels (1A, 1B, and 2) that signify the successive stages of processing. The cited prior article described processing through level 1B (the level-2 PGEs were not yet operational). The level-2 PGEs, which are now operational, receive packages of level-1B geolocated radiance data products and produce such geolocated geophysical atmospheric data products such as temperature and humidity profiles. The process of computing these geophysical data products is denoted "retrieval" and is quite complex. The main steps of the process are denoted microwave-only retrieval, cloud detection and cloud clearing, regression, full retrieval, and rapid transmittance algorithm.

  3. Retrieving the characteristics of slab ice covering snow by remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Andrieu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an effort to validate a previously developed radiative transfer model, and an innovative Bayesian inversion method designed to retrieve the properties of slab-ice-covered surfaces. This retrieval method is adapted to satellite data, and is able to provide uncertainties on the results of the inversions. We focused on surfaces composed of a pure slab of water ice covering an optically thick layer of snow in this study. We sought to retrieve the roughness of the ice–air interface, the thickness of the slab layer and the mean grain diameter of the underlying snow. Numerical validations have been conducted on the method, and showed that if the thickness of the slab layer is above 5 mm and the noise on the signal is above 3 %, then it is not possible to invert the grain diameter of the snow. In contrast, the roughness and the thickness of the slab can be determined, even with high levels of noise up to 20 %. Experimental validations have been conducted on spectra collected from laboratory samples of water ice on snow using a spectro-radiogoniometer. The results are in agreement with the numerical validations, and show that a grain diameter can be correctly retrieved for low slab thicknesses, but not for bigger ones, and that the roughness and thickness are correctly inverted in every case.

  4. Preliminary results of the aerosol optical depth retrieval in Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H Q; Lau, A M S; Kanniah, K D

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric aerosols over the urban area is important as tremendous amounts of pollutants are released by industrial activities and heavy traffic flow. Air quality monitoring by satellite observation provides better spatial coverage, however, detailed aerosol properties retrieval remains a challenge. This is due to the limitation of aerosol retrieval algorithm on high reflectance (bright surface) areas. The aim of this study is to retrieve aerosol optical depth over urban areas of Iskandar Malaysia; the main southern development zone in Johor state, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 500 m resolution data. One of the important steps is the aerosol optical depth retrieval is to characterise different types of aerosols in the study area. This information will be used to construct a Look Up Table containing the simulated aerosol reflectance and corresponding aerosol optical depth. Thus, in this study we have characterised different aerosol types in the study area using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data. These data were processed using cluster analysis and the preliminary results show that the area is consisting of coastal urban (65%), polluted urban (27.5%), dust particles (6%) and heavy pollution (1.5%) aerosols

  5. Retrieval of RTG'S in earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, B.; Frieder, M.A.; Skrabek, A.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1961, some ten Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG's) have been placed into a variety of spacecraft which are now in earth orbit. All of these spacecraft are in orbits with lifetimes in excess of 100 years and pose no risk. However, since most of these spacecraft are no longer being actively used, these may be subject to an active removal program to reduce the population of objects in space. Therefore, a study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of retrieving or disposing of spacecraft with RTGs on board. Intervention scenarios are developed and an orbital rendezvous vehicle is conceptualized. The costs of RTG retrieval are derived and compared to the costs of RTG disposal, i.e., boost to a higher, multi-millenium-lifetime orbit, and are found to be not significantly different

  6. Secure image retrieval with multiple keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Haihua; Zhang, Xinpeng; Wei, Qiuhan; Cheng, Hang

    2018-03-01

    This article proposes a secure image retrieval scheme under a multiuser scenario. In this scheme, the owner first encrypts and uploads images and their corresponding features to the cloud; then, the user submits the encrypted feature of the query image to the cloud; next, the cloud compares the encrypted features and returns encrypted images with similar content to the user. To find the nearest neighbor in the encrypted features, an encryption with multiple keys is proposed, in which the query feature of each user is encrypted by his/her own key. To improve the key security and space utilization, global optimization and Gaussian distribution are, respectively, employed to generate multiple keys. The experiments show that the proposed encryption can provide effective and secure image retrieval for each user and ensure confidentiality of the query feature of each user.

  7. Lightweight Active Object Retrieval with Weak Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czúni, László; Rashad, Metwally

    2018-03-07

    In the last few years, there has been a steadily growing interest in autonomous vehicles and robotic systems. While many of these agents are expected to have limited resources, these systems should be able to dynamically interact with other objects in their environment. We present an approach where lightweight sensory and processing techniques, requiring very limited memory and processing power, can be successfully applied to the task of object retrieval using sensors of different modalities. We use the Hough framework to fuse optical and orientation information of the different views of the objects. In the presented spatio-temporal perception technique, we apply active vision, where, based on the analysis of initial measurements, the direction of the next view is determined to increase the hit-rate of retrieval. The performance of the proposed methods is shown on three datasets loaded with heavy noise.

  8. Lightweight Active Object Retrieval with Weak Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Czúni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, there has been a steadily growing interest in autonomous vehicles and robotic systems. While many of these agents are expected to have limited resources, these systems should be able to dynamically interact with other objects in their environment. We present an approach where lightweight sensory and processing techniques, requiring very limited memory and processing power, can be successfully applied to the task of object retrieval using sensors of different modalities. We use the Hough framework to fuse optical and orientation information of the different views of the objects. In the presented spatio-temporal perception technique, we apply active vision, where, based on the analysis of initial measurements, the direction of the next view is determined to increase the hit-rate of retrieval. The performance of the proposed methods is shown on three datasets loaded with heavy noise.

  9. Analysis, Retrieval and Delivery of Multimedia Content

    CERN Document Server

    Cavallaro, Andrea; Leonardi, Riccardo; Migliorati, Pierangelo

    2013-01-01

    Covering some of the most cutting-edge research on the delivery and retrieval of interactive multimedia content, this volume of specially chosen contributions provides the most updated perspective on one of the hottest contemporary topics. The material represents extended versions of papers presented at the 11th International Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services, a vital international forum on this fast-moving field. Logically organized in discrete sections that approach the subject from its various angles, the content deals in turn with content analysis, motion and activity analysis, high-level descriptors and video retrieval, 3-D and multi-view, and multimedia delivery. The chapters cover the finest detail of emerging techniques such as the use of high-level audio information in improving scene segmentation and the use of subjective logic for forensic visual surveillance. On content delivery, the book examines both images and video, focusing on key subjects including an efficient p...

  10. Toward privacy-preserving JPEG image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hang; Wang, Jingyue; Wang, Meiqing; Zhong, Shangping

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a privacy-preserving retrieval scheme for JPEG images based on local variance. Three parties are involved in the scheme: the content owner, the server, and the authorized user. The content owner encrypts JPEG images for privacy protection by jointly using permutation cipher and stream cipher, and then, the encrypted versions are uploaded to the server. With an encrypted query image provided by an authorized user, the server may extract blockwise local variances in different directions without knowing the plaintext content. After that, it can calculate the similarity between the encrypted query image and each encrypted database image by a local variance-based feature comparison mechanism. The authorized user with the encryption key can decrypt the returned encrypted images with plaintext content similar to the query image. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme not only provides effective privacy-preserving retrieval service but also ensures both format compliance and file size preservation for encrypted JPEG images.

  11. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  12. Test plan, sludge retrieval, sludge packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigenbutz, L.V.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides direction for the cold testing of tools, equipment and systems which will be installed and operated in K-East (KE) Basin in support of the sludge retrieval and packaging project. The technical uncertainties related to the effectiveness of sludge retrieval procedures and equipment require that cold testing be completed before installation in KE Basin to identify and resolve existing problems, and to optimize the efficiency of all equipment and systems used. This plan establishes the responsibilities, test requirements, and documentation requirements necessary to complete cold tests of: (1) equipment with no potential for plant use; (2) prototype equipment and systems which may be upgraded for use in K-Basin; and (3) plant equipment and systems requiring cold acceptance testing prior to plant use. Some equipment and systems may have been subject to a formal design review and safety assessment; the results of which will be included as supporting documents to the operational readiness review (ORR)

  13. Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang He; Chini, Michael; Khan, Sabih D; Chen, Shouyuan; Gilbertson, Steve; Feng Ximao; Mashiko, Hiroki; Chang Zenghu

    2009-01-01

    The attosecond streaking technique is used for the characterization of isolated extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulses. This type of measurement suffers from low photoelectron counts in the streaked spectrogram, and is thus susceptible to shot noise. For the retrieval of few- or mono-cycle attosecond pulses, high-intensity streaking laser fields are required, which cause the energy spectrum of above-threshold ionized (ATI) electrons to overlap with that of the streaked photoelectrons. It is found by using the principal component generalized projections algorithm that the XUV attosecond pulse can accurately be retrieved for simulated and experimental spectrograms with a peak value of 50 or more photoelectron counts. Also, the minimum streaking intensity is found to be more than 50 times smaller than that required by the classical streaking camera for retrieval of pulses with a spectral bandwidth supporting 90 as transform-limited pulse durations. Furthermore, spatial variation of the streaking laser intensity, collection angle of streaked electrons and time delay jitter between the XUV pulse and streaking field can degrade the quality of the streaked spectrogram. We find that even when the XUV and streaking laser focal spots are comparable in size, the streaking electrons are collected from a 4π solid angle, or the delay fluctuates by more than the attosecond pulse duration, the attosecond pulses can still be accurately retrieved. In order to explain the insusceptibility of the streaked spectrogram to these factors, the linearity of the streaked spectrogram with respect to the streaking field is derived under the saddle point approximation.

  14. Efficient Information Retrieval: Tools for Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Beat; Stanoevska-Slabeva, Katarina; Handschuh, Siegfried; Hombrecher, Alexis

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge has become an important resource in many organisations. Thesuccess of an organisation depends on its ability to transform personal knowledge of employees into organisational knowledge. This knowledge can then be madewidely available to the entire organisation and be reused when needed.One necessary prerequisite for reusing knowledge, coded and stored indocuments, are appropriate classification and retrieval procedures. Classificationaccompanies the process of knowledge externalisati...

  15. Multimedia database retrieval technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Muneesawang, Paisarn; Guan, Ling

    2014-01-01

    This book explores multimedia applications that emerged from computer vision and machine learning technologies. These state-of-the-art applications include MPEG-7, interactive multimedia retrieval, multimodal fusion, annotation, and database re-ranking. The application-oriented approach maximizes reader understanding of this complex field. Established researchers explain the latest developments in multimedia database technology and offer a glimpse of future technologies. The authors emphasize the crucial role of innovation, inspiring users to develop new applications in multimedia technologies

  16. Ensuring safety in monitored retrievable storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Slate, S.C.; Devine, J.R.; Kreid, D.K.; Partain, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of spent fuel in dry storage will be one of the principal considerations in the design of monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facilities. Reliable predictive tools for extrapolating fuel performance during long storage periods can provide guidance and criteria for the design and operation of MRS facilities. This article reviews the results of recent efforts to predict the degradation of spent fuel in MRS and summarises the expected performance of other waste forms during storage. (author)

  17. Multilevel resistive information storage and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohn, Andrew; Mickel, Patrick R.

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to resistive random-access memory (RRAM or ReRAM) systems, as well as methods of employing multiple state variables to form degenerate states in such memory systems. The methods herein allow for precise write and read steps to form multiple state variables, and these steps can be performed electrically. Such an approach allows for multilevel, high density memory systems with enhanced information storage capacity and simplified information retrieval.

  18. GALIST, Decay Gamma Spectra Retrieval from ENSDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimiya, Tsutomu

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: GALIST consists of two main programs, GAMRET and GNOI. - GAMRET retrieves from ENSDF or files with ENSDF-like format gamma rays following radioactive decay. GAMRET uses two auxiliary programs, ENSORT and AMSORT (see below under item 8). - GNOI makes a list of radionuclides and their gamma rays. In the decay data of ENSDF, however, not all gamma-ray intensities are included

  19. System for histogram entry, retrieval, and plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Gallup, J.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.

    1977-10-01

    This manual describes the systems for producing histograms and dot plots that were designed for use in connection with the Q general-purpose data-acquisition system. These systems allow for the creation of histograms; the entry, retrieval, and plotting of data in the form of histograms; and the dynamic display of scatter plots as data are acquired. Although the systems are designed for use with Q, they can also be used as a part of other applications. 3 figures

  20. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

    1999-10-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

  1. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.D.; Berry, S.M.; Galloway, K.J.; Langenwalter, T.A.; Lopez, D.A.; Noakes, C.M.; Peterson, H.K.; Pope, M.I.; Turk, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase

  2. Robust histogram-based image retrieval

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Höschl, Cyril; Flusser, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 1 (2016), s. 72-81 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Image retrieval * Noisy image * Histogram * Convolution * Moments * Invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.995, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/ZOI/hoschl-0452147.pdf

  3. Description and search labor for information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Julian

    2007-01-01

    Selection power is taken as the fundamental value for information retrieval systems. Selection power is regarded as produced by selection labor, which itself separates historically into description and search labor. As forms of mental labor, description and search labor participate in the conditions for labor and for mental labor. Concepts and distinctions applicable to physical and mental labor are indicated, introducing the necessity of labor for survival, the idea of technology as a human ...

  4. Test plan for tank 241-C-104 retrieval testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Tank 241-C-104 has been identified as one of the first tanks to be retrieved for high-level waste pretreatment and immobilization. Retrieval of the tank waste will require dilution. Laboratory tests are needed to determine the amount of dilution required for safe retrieval and transfer of feed. The proposed laboratory tests are described in this document

  5. Graph-Based Interactive Bibliographic Information Retrieval Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    In the big data era, we have witnessed the explosion of scholarly literature. This explosion has imposed challenges to the retrieval of bibliographic information. Retrieval of intended bibliographic information has become challenging due to the overwhelming search results returned by bibliographic information retrieval systems for given input…

  6. 46 CFR 520.6 - Retrieval of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retrieval of information. 520.6 Section 520.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.6 Retrieval of information. (a) General. Tariffs systems shall present retrievers with the...

  7. Information Retrieval Methods in Libraries and Information Centers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volumes of information created, generated and stored are immense that without adequate knowledge of information retrieval methods, the retrieval process for an information user would be cumbersome and frustrating. Studies have further revealed that information retrieval methods are essential in information centers ...

  8. High Working Memory Capacity Predicts Less Retrieval Induced Forgetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mall, Jonathan T.; Morey, Candice C.

    2013-01-01

    Background : Working Memory Capacity (WMC) is thought to be related to executive control and focused memory search abilities. These two hypotheses make contrasting predictions regarding the effects of retrieval on forgetting. Executive control during memory retrieval is believed to lead to retrieval

  9. Data Discretization for Novel Relationship Discovery in Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an information retrieval, visualization, and manipulation model which offers the user multiple ways to exploit the retrieval set, based on weighted query terms, via an interactive interface. Outlines the mathematical model and describes an information retrieval application built on the model to search structured and full-text files.…

  10. Test Plan for Tank 241-C-104 Retrieval Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Tank 241-C-104 has been identified as one of the first tanks to be retrieved for high-level waste pretreatment and immobilization. Retrieval of the tank waste will require dilution. Laboratory tests are needed to determine the amount of dilution required for safe retrieval and transfer of feed. The proposed laboratory tests are described in this document

  11. A Database Approach to Content-based XML retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a rst prototype system for content-based retrieval from XML data. The system's design supports both XPath queries and complex information retrieval queries based on a language modelling approach to information retrieval. Evaluation using the INEX benchmark shows that it is

  12. Cognitive Process as a Basis for Intelligent Retrieval Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Dhar, Vasant

    1991-01-01

    Two studies of the cognitive processes involved in online document-based information retrieval were conducted. These studies led to the development of five computational models of online document retrieval which were incorporated into the design of an "intelligent" document-based retrieval system. Both the system and the broader implications of…

  13. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  14. A New Retrieval Algorithm for OMI NO2: Tropospheric Results and Comparisons with Measurements and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, W. H.; Bucesla, E. J.; Lamsal, L. N.; Celarier, E. A.; Krotkov, N. A.; Bhartia, P, K,; Strahan, S. E.; Gleason, J. F.; Herman, J.; Pickering, K.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx =NO+NO2) are important atmospheric trace constituents that impact tropospheric air pollution chemistry and air quality. We have developed a new NASA algorithm for the retrieval of stratospheric and tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities using measurements from the nadir-viewing Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's Aura satellite. The new products rely on an improved approach to stratospheric NO2 column estimation and stratosphere-troposphere separation and a new monthly NO2 climatology based on the NASA Global Modeling Initiative chemistry-transport model. The retrieval does not rely on daily model profiles, minimizing the influence of a priori information. We evaluate the retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns using surface in situ (e.g., AQS/EPA), ground-based (e.g., DOAS), and airborne measurements (e.g., DISCOVER-AQ). The new, improved OMI tropospheric NO2 product is available at high spatial resolution for the years 200S-present. We believe that this product is valuable for the evaluation of chemistry-transport models, examining the spatial and temporal patterns of NOx emissions, constraining top-down NOx inventories, and for the estimation of NOx lifetimes.

  15. XPIR : Private Information Retrieval for Everyone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Melchor Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A Private Information Retrieval (PIR scheme is a protocol in which a user retrieves a record from a database while hiding which from the database administrators. PIR can be achieved using mutuallydistrustful replicated databases, trusted hardware, or cryptography. In this paper we focus on the later setting which is known as single-database computationally- Private Information Retrieval (cPIR. Classic cPIR protocols require that the database server executes an algorithm over all the database content at very low speeds which impairs their usage. In [1], given certain assumptions, realistic at the time, Sion and Carbunar showed that cPIR schemes were not practical and most likely would never be. To this day, this conclusion is widely accepted by researchers and practitioners. Using the paradigm shift introduced by lattice-based cryptography, we show that the conclusion of Sion and Carbunar is not valid anymore: cPIR is of practical value. This is achieved without compromising security, using standard crytosystems, and conservative parameter choices.

  16. Techniques for Soundscape Retrieval and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechtley, Brandon Michael

    The study of acoustic ecology is concerned with the manner in which life interacts with its environment as mediated through sound. As such, a central focus is that of the soundscape: the acoustic environment as perceived by a listener. This dissertation examines the application of several computational tools in the realms of digital signal processing, multimedia information retrieval, and computer music synthesis to the analysis of the soundscape. Namely, these tools include a) an open source software library, Sirens, which can be used for the segmentation of long environmental field recordings into individual sonic events and compare these events in terms of acoustic content, b) a graph-based retrieval system that can use these measures of acoustic similarity and measures of semantic similarity using the lexical database WordNet to perform both text-based retrieval and automatic annotation of environmental sounds, and c) new techniques for the dynamic, realtime parametric morphing of multiple field recordings, informed by the geographic paths along which they were recorded.

  17. Intelligent image retrieval based on radiology reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstmair, Axel; Langer, Mathias; Kotter, Elmar [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Daumke, Philipp; Simon, Kai [Averbis GmbH, Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    To create an advanced image retrieval and data-mining system based on in-house radiology reports. Radiology reports are semantically analysed using natural language processing (NLP) techniques and stored in a state-of-the-art search engine. Images referenced by sequence and image number in the reports are retrieved from the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and stored for later viewing. A web-based front end is used as an interface to query for images and show the results with the retrieved images and report text. Using a comprehensive radiological lexicon for the underlying terminology, the search algorithm also finds results for synonyms, abbreviations and related topics. The test set was 108 manually annotated reports analysed by different system configurations. Best results were achieved using full syntactic and semantic analysis with a precision of 0.929 and recall of 0.952. Operating successfully since October 2010, 258,824 reports have been indexed and a total of 405,146 preview images are stored in the database. Data-mining and NLP techniques provide quick access to a vast repository of images and radiology reports with both high precision and recall values. Consequently, the system has become a valuable tool in daily clinical routine, education and research. (orig.)

  18. Document retrieval on repetitive string collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagie, Travis; Hartikainen, Aleksi; Karhu, Kalle; Kärkkäinen, Juha; Navarro, Gonzalo; Puglisi, Simon J; Sirén, Jouni

    2017-01-01

    Most of the fastest-growing string collections today are repetitive, that is, most of the constituent documents are similar to many others. As these collections keep growing, a key approach to handling them is to exploit their repetitiveness, which can reduce their space usage by orders of magnitude. We study the problem of indexing repetitive string collections in order to perform efficient document retrieval operations on them. Document retrieval problems are routinely solved by search engines on large natural language collections, but the techniques are less developed on generic string collections. The case of repetitive string collections is even less understood, and there are very few existing solutions. We develop two novel ideas, interleaved LCPs and precomputed document lists , that yield highly compressed indexes solving the problem of document listing (find all the documents where a string appears), top- k document retrieval (find the k documents where a string appears most often), and document counting (count the number of documents where a string appears). We also show that a classical data structure supporting the latter query becomes highly compressible on repetitive data. Finally, we show how the tools we developed can be combined to solve ranked conjunctive and disjunctive multi-term queries under the simple [Formula: see text] model of relevance. We thoroughly evaluate the resulting techniques in various real-life repetitiveness scenarios, and recommend the best choices for each case.

  19. Web information retrieval for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S L; See-To, Eric W K; Tse, Y K

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a Web Information Retrieval System (WebIRS), which is designed to assist the healthcare professionals to obtain up-to-date medical knowledge and information via the World Wide Web (WWW). The system leverages the document classification and text summarization techniques to deliver the highly correlated medical information to the physicians. The system architecture of the proposed WebIRS is first discussed, and then a case study on an application of the proposed system in a Hong Kong medical organization is presented to illustrate the adoption process and a questionnaire is administrated to collect feedback on the operation and performance of WebIRS in comparison with conventional information retrieval in the WWW. A prototype system has been constructed and implemented on a trial basis in a medical organization. It has proven to be of benefit to healthcare professionals through its automatic functions in classification and summarizing the medical information that the physicians needed and interested. The results of the case study show that with the use of the proposed WebIRS, significant reduction of searching time and effort, with retrieval of highly relevant materials can be attained.

  20. Reliability of goniometry in Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegger, Gayle; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Levine, David

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the reliability of goniometry by comparing goniometric measurements with radiographic measurements and evaluate the effects of sedation on range of joint motion. 16 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers. 3 investigators blindly and independently measured range of motion of the carpus, elbow, shoulder, tarsus, stifle, and hip joints of 16 Labrador Retrievers in triplicate before and after dogs were sedated. Radiographs of all joints in maximal flexion and extension were made during under sedation. Goniometric measurements were compared with radiographic measurements. The influence of sedation and the intra- and intertester variability were evaluated; 95% confidence intervals for all ranges of motion were determined. Results of goniometric and radiographic measurements were not significantly different. Results of measurements made by the 3 investigators were not significantly different. Multiple measurements made by 1 investigator varied from 1 to 6 degrees (median, 3 degrees) depending on the joint. Sedation did not influence the range of motion of the evaluated joints. Goniometry is a reliable and objective method for determining range of motion of joints in healthy Labrador Retrievers.