WorldWideScience

Sample records for reticulated giraffe giraffa

  1. Cryptosporidium muris in a Reticulated Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodádková, A.; Kváč, M.; Ditrich, Oleg; Sak, Bohumil; Xiao, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 1 (2010), s. 211-212 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0992; GA ČR GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium muris * Reticulated giraffe * natural infection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2010

  2. Dystocia in a giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. de Vos

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available Dystocia in a free-living giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis in the Willem Pretorius Nature Reserve is described. Posterior presentation and a unilateral engaged hock flexion posture caused a complete obstacle to parturition. Both parties, maternal and foetal, died as a result of the condition.

  3. Frothy bloat and serous fat atrophy associated with insufficient fibre intake in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Colville, K; Bouts, T; Hartley, A; Clauss, Marcus; Routh, A

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Frothy bloat, a nutrition-related disease of domestic ruminants, has not previously been reported in Giraffidae. A 10-year-old female reticulated giraffe (G. c. reticulata) had a chronic cough and died in February 2007 following a two-month period of weight loss. Multiple nutrition-related abnormalities were identified post mortem: frothy bloat appeared to have been the immediate cause of de...

  4. Rumen content stratification in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Cathrine; Clauss, Marcus; Bertelsen, Mads F; Weisbjerg, Martin R; Lund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Ruminants differ in the degree of rumen content stratification, with 'cattle-types' (i.e., the grazing and intermediate feeding ruminants) having stratified content, whereas 'moose-types' (i.e., the browsing ruminants) have unstratified content. The feeding ecology, as well as the digestive morphophysiology of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), suggest that it is a 'moose-type' ruminant. Correspondingly, the giraffe should have an unstratified rumen content and an even rumen papillation pattern. Digesta samples were collected from along the digestive tract of 27 wild-caught giraffes kept in bomas for up to 2months, and 10 giraffes kept in zoological gardens throughout their lives. Samples were analysed for concentration of dry matter, fibre fractions, volatile fatty acids and NH 3 , as well as mean particle size and pH. There was no difference between the dorsal and ventral rumen region in any of these parameters, indicating homogenous rumen content in the giraffes. In addition to the digesta samples, samples of dorsal rumen, ventral rumen and atrium ruminis mucosa were collected and the papillary surface enlargement factor was determined, as a proxy for content stratification. The even rumen papillation pattern observed also supported the concept of an unstratified rumen content in giraffes. Zoo giraffes had a slightly more uneven papillation pattern than boma giraffes. This finding could not be matched by differences in physical characteristics of the rumen content, probably due to an influence of fasting time ante mortem on these parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) rumen microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roggenbuck, Michael; Sauer, Cathrine; Poulsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    camelopardalis), three of which were fed natural browse and four were fed Boskos pellets, leafy alfalfa hay, and cut savanna browse, by characterizing the 16S rRNA gene diversity using 454 FLX high-throughput sequencing. The microbial community composition varied according to diet, but differed little between...... the ruminal fluid and solid fraction. The giraffe rumen contained large levels of the phyla of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes independent of diet, while Prevotella, Succinclasticium, and Methanobrevibacter accounted for the largest abundant taxonomic assigned genera. However, up to 21% of the generated...

  6. Distribution and status of the desert-dwelling giraffe ( Giraffa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population density and distribution of desert dwelling giraffes was estimated in three study areas in the Hoanib River catchment, northwestern Namibia. Giraffe population densities (0.01 giraffe/km2) were equal to the lowest recorded in Africa with population numbers fluctuating over past decades. Sex ratios, herd sizes ...

  7. Quantitative macroscopic anatomy of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) digestive tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Cathrine; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Lund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative data on digestive anatomy of the world’s largest ruminant, the giraffe, are scarce. Data were collected from a total of 25 wild caught and 13 zoo housed giraffes. Anatomical measures were quantified by dimension, area or weight, and analyzed by allometric regression. The majority...... of measures scaled positively and isometrically to body mass. Giraffes had lower tissue weight of all stomach compartments and longer large intestinal length than cattle. When compared to other ruminants, the giraffe digestive tract showed many of the convergent morphological adaptations attributed...

  8. Orbit orientation and eye morphometrics in giraffes ( Giraffa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giraffe are thought to have excellent vision.We measured eye size, orbit orientation and retina surface area in 27 giraffes of both sexes ranging in age from neonates to mature adults (>10 yrs), to assess how it changes with growth, whether their eye anatomy correlates with their apparently excellent vision and lifestyle, and ...

  9. ACCURACY OF NONINVASIVE ANESTHETIC MONITORING IN THE ANESTHETIZED GIRAFFE (GIRAFFA CAMELOPARDALIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads F; Grøndahl, Carsten; Stegmann, George F

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of pulse oximetry, capnography, and oscillometric blood pressure during general anesthesia in giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). Thirty-two giraffes anesthetized for physiologic experiments were instrumented with a pulse oximeter transmittance probe positioned...... on the tongue and a capnograph sampling line placed at the oral end of the endotracheal tube. A human size 10 blood pressure cuff was placed around the base of the tail, and an indwelling arterial catheter in the auricular artery continuously measured blood pressure. Giraffes were intermittently ventilated...... using a Hudson demand valve throughout the procedures. Arterial blood for blood gas analysis was collected at multiple time points. Relationships between oxygen saturation as determined by pulse oximetry and arterial oxygen saturation, between arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure and end...

  10. CONGENITAL NUTRITIONAL MYODEGENERATION (WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE) IN A GIRAFFE ( GIRAFFA CAMELOPARDALIS) CALF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jan H; Klip, Fokko C; Kik, Marja J L

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that vitamin E and selenium deficiencies in domestic ruminants can lead to white muscle disease. After a clinically normal gestation period at Ouwehand Zoo in the Netherlands, a newborn giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis) calf showed clinical signs of white muscle disease almost immediately after birth. The calf was rejected by the mother and was euthanized 3 days later because of deterioration of clinical signs. At necropsy, pulmonary edema and pallor of skeletal and heart muscles was noted. Histologically, there was hyaline degeneration of skeletal muscle myocytes and pulmonary edema. Blood concentrations of vitamin E were ≤ 0.7 mg/L. Based on clinical, biochemical, and gross and microscopic pathological findings, congenital nutritional myodegeneration was diagnosed. This case of neonatal white muscle disease is particularly remarkable given that the diet of the dam contained more than the recommended amount of vitamin E.

  11. Linking social and pathogen transmission networks using microbial genetics in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Atwill, Edward R; Isbell, Lynne A; McCowan, Brenda

    2014-03-01

    Although network analysis has drawn considerable attention as a promising tool for disease ecology, empirical research has been hindered by limitations in detecting the occurrence of pathogen transmission (who transmitted to whom) within social networks. Using a novel approach, we utilize the genetics of a diverse microbe, Escherichia coli, to infer where direct or indirect transmission has occurred and use these data to construct transmission networks for a wild giraffe population (Giraffe camelopardalis). Individuals were considered to be a part of the same transmission chain and were interlinked in the transmission network if they shared genetic subtypes of E. coli. By using microbial genetics to quantify who transmits to whom independently from the behavioural data on who is in contact with whom, we were able to directly investigate how the structure of contact networks influences the structure of the transmission network. To distinguish between the effects of social and environmental contact on transmission dynamics, the transmission network was compared with two separate contact networks defined from the behavioural data: a social network based on association patterns, and a spatial network based on patterns of home-range overlap among individuals. We found that links in the transmission network were more likely to occur between individuals that were strongly linked in the social network. Furthermore, individuals that had more numerous connections or that occupied 'bottleneck' positions in the social network tended to occupy similar positions in the transmission network. No similar correlations were observed between the spatial and transmission networks. This indicates that an individual's social network position is predictive of transmission network position, which has implications for identifying individuals that function as super-spreaders or transmission bottlenecks in the population. These results emphasize the importance of association patterns in

  12. Diet and seasonal dispersal of extralimital giraffe at Sanbona Wildlife Reserve, Little Karoo, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire N. Gordon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa have been introduced as an extralimital species to private farms in the Little Karoo on the basis of economic sustainability, and the need to create a competitive tourism product. However, little is known about the medium- to long-term impacts and ecological sustainability of such introductions. The diet of a population of giraffe on Sanbona Wildlife Reserve, near the town of Ladismith, was assessed via direct observations between January and October 2014, in order to determine their potential impact on the world’s most species-rich semi-desert, the Succulent Karoo. Unlike giraffe in their native range, the Sanbona population showed seasonal preference for browse species. Acacia karroo (sweet thorn appears to be the preferred browse species during autumn and spring, with Schotia afra being the preferred species in winter, and no significant preference being shown in summer. Giraffe also appeared to seasonally move between catchments where tree species other than A. karroo occurs, especially during winter and spring when the tributaries of the Brak River, containing mixed Acacia with S. afra (karoo boer-bean and Euclea undulata (small-leaved guarri, were visited with increasing frequency. These results largely confirm the importance of A. karroo as the main browse species in this environment but also suggest that other species may be important components of the diet of extralimital giraffe in the Little Karoo. On farms where A. karroo is dominant, supplementary feed may be needed when A. karroo browse is unavailable due to leaf drop. Conservation implications: Acacia karroo was the main browse species of extralimital G. c. giraffa at Sanbona Wildlife Reserve, but it switched to S. afra during winter. This suggests that an assessment of alternative food species forms part of suitability assessments for the introduction of extralimital G. c. giraffa for areas similar to Sanbona.

  13. Extensive population genetic structure in the giraffe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grether Gregory F

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central question in the evolutionary diversification of large, widespread, mobile mammals is how substantial differentiation can arise, particularly in the absence of topographic or habitat barriers to dispersal. All extant giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis are currently considered to represent a single species classified into multiple subspecies. However, geographic variation in traits such as pelage pattern is clearly evident across the range in sub-Saharan Africa and abrupt transition zones between different pelage types are typically not associated with extrinsic barriers to gene flow, suggesting reproductive isolation. Results By analyzing mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellite loci, we show that there are at least six genealogically distinct lineages of giraffe in Africa, with little evidence of interbreeding between them. Some of these lineages appear to be maintained in the absence of contemporary barriers to gene flow, possibly by differences in reproductive timing or pelage-based assortative mating, suggesting that populations usually recognized as subspecies have a long history of reproductive isolation. Further, five of the six putative lineages also contain genetically discrete populations, yielding at least 11 genetically distinct populations. Conclusion Such extreme genetic subdivision within a large vertebrate with high dispersal capabilities is unprecedented and exceeds that of any other large African mammal. Our results have significant implications for giraffe conservation, and imply separate in situ and ex situ management, not only of pelage morphs, but also of local populations.

  14. Dystocia in a Rothschild Giraffe at the African Fund for Endangered Wildlife, Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rono

    Full Text Available A 15-year old female Rothschild Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi weighing approximately 800kg, at the African Fund for Endangered Wildlife (AFEW, Giraffe Center, Langata, Nairobi, Kenya was presented with dystocia in June 2010. This giraffe named Laura, had a protracted labor and was regularly monitored by sanctuary education staff. Dystocia was relieved on the 3rd day at this wildlife sanctuary. The giraffe was chemically immobilized by using 7mg of Etorphine Hcl (0.98% (M99® (Norvatis South Africa (Pty Limited and 50mg of Azaperone(10% (Kyron Laboratories (Pty Limited, South Africa in a Dan-Inject dart (Dan-inject APS, Sellerup Skowej, Denmark. On obstetrical examination of the giraffe, a fetal malposition type of dystocia had occurred. The fetus was positioned at posterior presentation extended posture with tail butting on the maternal pelvis, which is abnormal in giraffes. The fetus was manually extracted by using both alternate and simultaneous limb traction. The dam survived the procedure and later was reported to be in a good reproductive condition but the male fetus was a stillbirth. The fetus had died due to stress of prolonged labour. Relief of dystocia in giraffes is a difficult obstetrical procedure because obstetrical examination and relief requires chemical immobilization plus physical restrain with ropes by trained staff. Anesthesia or immobilization of giraffes remains a challenge because of the giraffe's unique anatomy and physiology. Giraffes are large animals which limits physical control and manipulation at critical times during induction and recovery of anesthesia. Giraffe's long neck if not pinned to the ground will act as a lever causing fatal injuries to self and support staff. Giraffes develop elevated systolic blood pressure; have a small respiratory tidal volume with a large dead space and relatively small cardiac output during anesthesia, which compromises safe levels of anesthesia. [Vet. World 2011; 4

  15. Digestive morphophysiology of the giraffe and other wild ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Cathrine

    Our current understanding of the complex digestive system of ruminants is mainly based on a few, but intensively studied livestock species. In comparison, information about the anatomy and function of the gastrointestinal tract of wild ruminants is limited. The aim of this thesis was to provide...... quantitative data on the digestive morphophysiology of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) and the Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica). Digestive tract anatomy was characterized by dimensions and weights of the different gastrointestinal tract sections......, and digesta samples were collected to describe the digestive function, as indirectly evidenced by the physical characteristics of the digesta. Of particular interest was to determine the presence/absence of rumen content stratification. The findings in each species were then evaluated against available data...

  16. Marius the Giraffe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet; Muus Larsen, Emil

    2015-01-01

    was handled properly or whether another strategy would have had a less damaging impact on the Zoo’s image. This case study has been written drawing on news media sources at the time when the events unfolded. For background information, the websites of the Copenhagen Zoo and the other animal wildlife parks......In the early months of 2014, the Copenhagen Zoo found itself at the centre of a media storm. The Zoo had not been prepared for the massive reaction from the Danish and international community to the culling of a young giraffe, Marius. Two issues were at the centre of the debate: Firstly, why did...

  17. Marius, the Giraffe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmerman, Chris; Chen, Yuran; Hardt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    On February 9, 2014, a giraffe named Marius was put to death by the Copenhagen Zoo in Denmark, sparking a storm of public discussion nationally and internationally. This paper presents a comparative informatics case study of the event. We employ the method of grounded comparison in the examination...... of the text of postings and articles in social media as well as mainstream media in Danish and English languages. At the macro-structural level, the social media discourse is characterized by arguments grounded in scientific and bureaucratic rationality, cultural and linguistic relativity, and animal ethics...

  18. Migratory herds of wildebeests and zebras indirectly affect calf survival of giraffes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Derek E; Kissui, Bernard M; Kiwango, Yustina A; Bond, Monica L

    2016-12-01

    In long-distance migratory systems, local fluctuations in the predator-prey ratio can exhibit extreme variability within a single year depending upon the seasonal location of migratory species. Such systems offer an opportunity to empirically investigate cyclic population density effects on short-term food web interactions by taking advantage of the large seasonal shifts in migratory prey biomass.We utilized a large-mammal predator-prey savanna food web to evaluate support for hypotheses relating to the indirect effects of "apparent competition" and "apparent mutualism" from migratory ungulate herds on survival of resident megaherbivore calves, mediated by their shared predator. African lions ( Panthera leo ) are generalist predators whose primary, preferred prey are wildebeests ( Connochaetes taurinus ) and zebras ( Equus quagga ), while lion predation on secondary prey such as giraffes ( Giraffa camelopardalis ) may change according to the relative abundance of the primary prey species.We used demographic data from five subpopulations of giraffes in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania, East Africa, to test hypotheses relating to direct predation and indirect effects of large migratory herds on calf survival of a resident megaherbivore. We examined neonatal survival via apparent reproduction of 860 adult females, and calf survival of 449 giraffe calves, during three precipitation seasons over 3 years, seeking evidence of some effect on neonate and calf survival as a consequence of the movements of large herds of migratory ungulates.We found that local lion predation pressure (lion density divided by primary prey density) was significantly negatively correlated with giraffe neonatal and calf survival probabilities. This supports the apparent mutualism hypothesis that the presence of migratory ungulates reduces lion predation on giraffe calves.Natural predation had a significant effect on giraffe calf and neonate survival, and could significantly affect giraffe

  19. The giraffe kidney tolerates high arterial blood pressure by high renal interstitial pressure and low glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Mads; Wang, T; Brøndum, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The tallest animal on earth, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is endowed with a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) twice that of other mammals. The kidneys reside at heart level and show no sign of hypertension-related damage. We hypothesized that a species-specific evolutionary...... cava generated a pressure drop of 12 ± 2 mmHg. RI was 0.27. The renal capsule was durable with a calculated burst pressure of 600 mmHg. Plasma renin and AngII were 2.6 ± 0.5 mIU L(-1) and 9.1 ± 1.5 pg mL(-1) respectively. CONCLUSION: In giraffes, GFR, ERPF and RI appear much lower than expected based...... adaption in the giraffe kidney allows normal for size renal haemodynamics and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) despite a MAP double that of other mammals. METHODS: Fourteen anaesthetized giraffes were instrumented with vascular and bladder catheters to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective...

  20. The Gravity of Giraffe Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    By virtue of its tallness and terrestrial environment, the giraffe is a uniquely sensitive African animal to investigate tissue adaptations to gravitational stress. One decade ago, we studied transcapillary fluid balance and local tissue adaptations to high cardiovascular and musculoskeletal loads in adult and fetal giraffes. Previous studies by Goetz, Pattersson, Van Citters, Warren and their colleagues revealed that arterial pressure near the giraffe heart is about twice that in humans, to provide more normal blood pressure and perfusion to the brain. Another important question is how giraffes avoid pooling of blood and tissue fluid (edema) in dependent tissue of the extremities. As monitored by radiotelemetry, the blood and tissue fluid pressures that govern transcapillary exchange vary greatly with exercise. These pressures, combined with a tight skin layer, move fluid upward against gravity. Other mechanisms that prevent edema include precapillary vasoconstriction and low permeability of capillaries to plasma proteins. Other anatomical adaptations in dependent tissues of giraffes represent developmental adjustments to high and variable gravitational forces. These include vascular wall hypertrophy, thickened capillary basement membrane and other connective tissue adaptations. Our results in giraffe suggest avenues of future gravitational research in other animals including humans.

  1. Confluent And Reticulate Papillomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder Mohan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17 year old South Indian female born of consanguineous marriage presented with a widespread non-itchy eruption over scalp, face, below breasts and flexural aspects of limbs including axillae, inguinal regions and popliteal fossae since 3 months of age. The eruption consisted of individual small, flat, brownish black hyperkeratotic papules, which at some places, coalesced to from a reticulate pattern. Histopathological examination of biopsies from the axilla and forearm showed typical hyperkeratosis and papillomatosis without acanthosis. The dermis demonstrated a mild perivascular infiltrate. On the basis of the clinical and histopathological findings, a diagnosis of confluent and reticulate papillomatosis of Gourgerot and Carteaud was made. Partial response to doxycline in our case point towards this being a keratinization disorder where microflora may be playing an exacerbating rather than a primary role.

  2. Hot water reticulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, S. K.

    1977-10-15

    Hot water reticulation (district heating) is an established method of energy supply within cities in many countries. It is based on the fact that heat can often be obtained cheaply in bulk, and that the resultant savings can, in suitable circumstances, justify the investment in a reticulation network of insulated pipes to distribute the heat to many consumers in the form of hot water or occasionally steam. The heat can be used by domestic, commercial, and industrial consumers for space heating and water heating, and by industries for process heat. The costs of supplying domestic consumers can be determined by considering an average residential area, but industrial and commercial consumers are so varied in their requirements that every proposal must be treated independently. Fixed costs, variable costs, total costs, and demand and resource constraints are discussed.

  3. Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Williams

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra from the Gariep Dam Nature Reserve, 2 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis from the Kruger National Park, and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger from the Kimberley area of South Africa. An African buffalo (Syncerus caffer cow from Kruger National Park also had papillomatous lesions but molecular characterisation of lesional virus was not done. Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. Fibropapillomatous and sarcoid-like lesions from an adult bovine were used as positive control for the immunohistochemistry and are described and the immunohistochemistry illustrated for comparison. Macroscopically, both adult female giraffe had severely thickened multifocal to coalescing nodular and occasionally ulcerated lesions of the head, neck and trunk with local poorly-circumscribed invasion into the subcutis. Necropsy performed on the 2nd giraffe revealed neither internal metastases nor serious underlying disease. Giraffe 1 had scattered, and Giraffe 2 numerous, large, anaplastic, at times indistinctly multinucleated dermal fibroblasts with bizarre nuclei within the sarcoid-like lesions, which were BPV-1 positive in Giraffe 1 and BPV-1 and -2 positive in Giraffe 2 by RT-PCR. The sable antelope

  4. The first description of dominance hierarchy in captive giraffe: not loose and egalitarian, but clear and linear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horová, Edita; Brandlová, Karolína; Gloneková, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    Wild giraffes live in extensive groups in the fission fusion system, maintaining long social distances and loose social bonds. Within these groups, resources are widely distributed, agonistic encounters are scarce and the dominance hierarchy was reported in males only, while never deeply analysed. In captivity, the possibility to maintain inter-individual distances is limited and part of the resources is not evenly distributed. Consequently, we suggest that agonistic encounters should be more frequent, leading to the establishment of the dominance hierarchy. Based on the differences in resource-holding potential, we suggested that the rank of an individual would be affected by age and sex. Based on hypotheses of prior ownership, we tested whether rank was positively affected by the time spent in a herd and whether it was stable in adult females, which were present long-term in the same herd. We originally monitored four herds of Rothschild giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildii) in Dvůr Králové zoo (n = 8), Liberec zoo (n = 6), and two herds in Prague zoo: Prague 1 (n = 8) and Prague 2 (n = 9). The Prague 1 and Prague 2 herds were then combined and the resulting fifth herd was observed over three consecutive years (2009, 2010, and 2011) (n = 14, 13, and 14, respectively). We revealed a significantly linear hierarchy in Dvůr Králové, Prague 2 and in the combined herd in Prague. Rank was significantly affected by age in all herds; older individuals dominated the younger ones. In females, rank was positively affected by the time spent in the herd and adult females in Prague maintained their rank during three consecutive years. This study represents the first analysis of the dominance hierarchy in the captive giraffe, and discusses the behavioural flexibility of the social structure in response to monopolisable resources in a captive environment.

  5. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær

    2013-01-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination....... All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure....... revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along...

  6. Who Said Giraffes Can't Dance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Mary Lu

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art activity for third-grade students in which they learned about African animals in one class period and spent time in another class period creating a picture of a giraffe. Explains that the students learned about watercolor wash and the wet-on-wet technique. (CMK)

  7. Capturing knowledge in institutional repositories: playing leapfrog with giraffes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, H

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Giraffes do not play leap frog, these animals however symbolise the giants whose shoulders one can stand. Leapfrogging requires action, get moving, and get playing. A digital repository is a database or catalogue where digital content and assests...

  8. Pressure profile and morphology of the arteries along the giraffe limb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Brøndum, Emil Toft

    2011-01-01

    Giraffes are the tallest animals on earth and the effects of gravity on their cardiovascular system have puzzled physiologists for centuries. The authors measured arterial and venous pressure in the foreleg of anesthetized giraffes, suspended in upright standing position, and determined the ratio......-fold higher innervation density than the immediate distal and proximal regions. The sudden narrowing was also observed in the hind legs of neonates, indicating that it does not develop as an adaptation to the high transmural pressure in the standing giraffe. More likely it represents a preadaptation...... to the high pressures experienced by adult giraffes....

  9. Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Electrodes for Gas Phase Pulsed Corona Reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Locke, B

    1998-01-01

    A new design for gas phase pulsed corona reactors incorporating reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes is demonstrated to be effective for the removal of nitrogen oxides from synthetic air mixtures...

  10. Primate numts and reticulate evolution of capped and golden leaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    A recent phylogenetic study of langurs and leaf monkeys of South Asia suggested a reticulate evolution of capped and golden leaf ..... Accordingly, transversions were weighted .... lineages. Most taxonomic schemes published till date place.

  11. Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Electrodes for Gas Phase Pulsed Corona Reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LOCKE, B

    1999-01-01

    A new design for gas phase pulsed corona reactors incorporating reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes is demonstrated to be effective for the removal of nitrogen oxides from synthetic air mixtures...

  12. Confluent And Reticulated Papillomatosis : Treatment Response to Fluconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar B C

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of confluent and reticulated papillomatosis with classical flexual pigmented papules distributed in reticular pattern is described. Patient responded well to a one- month course of Fluconazole therapy.

  13. Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis: A rare reticulate pigmentary disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Shanker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis is a rare ectodermal dysplasia with a triad of generalized reticulate hyperpigmentation, noncicatricial alopecia, and onychodystrophy. We report a case of a 21 year old woman who had generalized reticulate pigmentation, diffuse noncicatricial alopecia and onychodystrophy of finger and toe nails. Along with this triad she had palmoplantar keratoderma and poorly developed dermatoglyphics. There was no evidence of involvement of other ectodermally derived organ.

  14. Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis: A rare reticulate pigmentary disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Vinay; Gupta, Mudita

    2013-01-01

    Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis is a rare ectodermal dysplasia with a triad of generalized reticulate hyperpigmentation, noncicatricial alopecia, and onychodystrophy. We report a case of a 21 year old woman who had generalized reticulate pigmentation, diffuse noncicatricial alopecia and onychodystrophy of finger and toe nails. Along with this triad she had palmoplantar keratoderma and poorly developed dermatoglyphics. There was no evidence of involvement of other ectodermally derived organ. PMID:23440032

  15. Functional cervicothoracic boundary modified by anatomical shifts in the neck of giraffes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunji, Megu; Endo, Hideki

    2016-02-01

    Here we examined the kinematic function of the morpho- logically unique first thoracic vertebra in giraffes. The first thoracic vertebra of the giraffe displayed similar shape to the seventh cervical vertebra in general ruminants. The flexion experiment using giraffe carcasses demonstrated that the first thoracic vertebra exhibited a higher dorsoventral mobility than other thoracic vertebrae. Despite the presence of costovertebral joints, restriction in the intervertebral movement imposed by ribs is minimized around the first thoracic vertebra by subtle changes of the articular system between the vertebra and ribs. The attachment area of musculus longus colli, mainly responsible for ventral flexion of the neck, is partly shifted posteriorly in the giraffe so that the force generated by muscles is exerted on the cervical vertebrae and on the first thoracic vertebra. These anatomical modifications allow the first thoracic vertebra to adopt the kinematic function of a cervical vertebra in giraffes. The novel movable articulation in the thorax functions as a fulcrum of neck movement and results in a large displacement of reachable space in the cranial end of the neck. The unique first thoracic vertebra in giraffes provides higher flexibility to the neck and may provide advantages for high browsing and/or male competition behaviours specific to giraffes.

  16. Population structure of giraffes is affected by management in the Great Rift Valley, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Muller

    Full Text Available Giraffe populations in East Africa have declined in the past thirty years yet there has been limited research on this species. This study had four objectives: i to provide a baseline population assessment for the two largest populations of Rothschild's giraffes in Kenya, ii to assess whether there are differences in population structure between the two enclosed populations, iii to assess the potential and possible implications of different management practices on enclosed giraffe populations to inform future decision-making, and iv to add to the availability of information available about giraffes in the wild. I used individual identification to assess the size and structure of the two populations; in Soysambu Conservancy between May 2010 and January 2011, I identified 77 giraffes; in Lake Nakuru National Park between May 2011 and January 2012, I identified 89. Population structure differed significantly between the two sites; Soysambu Conservancy contained a high percentage of juveniles (34% and subadults (29% compared to Lake Nakuru NP, which contained fewer juveniles (5% and subadults (15%. During the time of this study Soysambu Conservancy contained no lions while Lake Nakuru NP contained a high density of lions (30 lions per 100km2. Lions are the main predator of giraffes, and preferential predation on juvenile giraffes has previously been identified in Lake Nakuru NP. My results suggest that high lion density in Lake Nakuru NP may have influenced the structure of the giraffe population by removing juveniles and, consequently, may affect future population growth. I suggest that wildlife managers consider lion densities alongside breeding plans for Endangered species, since the presence of lions appears to influence the population structure of giraffes in enclosed habitats.

  17. Population structure of giraffes is affected by management in the Great Rift Valley, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Zoe

    2018-01-01

    Giraffe populations in East Africa have declined in the past thirty years yet there has been limited research on this species. This study had four objectives: i) to provide a baseline population assessment for the two largest populations of Rothschild's giraffes in Kenya, ii) to assess whether there are differences in population structure between the two enclosed populations, iii) to assess the potential and possible implications of different management practices on enclosed giraffe populations to inform future decision-making, and iv) to add to the availability of information available about giraffes in the wild. I used individual identification to assess the size and structure of the two populations; in Soysambu Conservancy between May 2010 and January 2011, I identified 77 giraffes; in Lake Nakuru National Park between May 2011 and January 2012, I identified 89. Population structure differed significantly between the two sites; Soysambu Conservancy contained a high percentage of juveniles (34%) and subadults (29%) compared to Lake Nakuru NP, which contained fewer juveniles (5%) and subadults (15%). During the time of this study Soysambu Conservancy contained no lions while Lake Nakuru NP contained a high density of lions (30 lions per 100km2). Lions are the main predator of giraffes, and preferential predation on juvenile giraffes has previously been identified in Lake Nakuru NP. My results suggest that high lion density in Lake Nakuru NP may have influenced the structure of the giraffe population by removing juveniles and, consequently, may affect future population growth. I suggest that wildlife managers consider lion densities alongside breeding plans for Endangered species, since the presence of lions appears to influence the population structure of giraffes in enclosed habitats.

  18. Can osteophagia provide giraffes with phosphorus and calcium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Bredin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The daily requirement for calcium and phosphorus by giraffes to sustain the growth and maintenance of their skeletons is large. The source of sufficient calcium is browse. The source of necessary phosphorus is obscure, but it could be osteophagia, a frequently observed behaviour in giraffes. We have assessed whether bone ingested as a result of osteophagia can be digested in the rumen. Bone samples from cancellous (cervical vertebrae and dense bones (metacarpal shaft were immersed in the rumens of five sheep, for a period of up to 30 days, and the effect compared to immersion in distilled water and in artificial saliva for 30 days. Distilled water had no effect on the bones. Dense bone samples were softened by exposure to the saliva and rumen fluid, but did not lose either calcium or phosphorus. In saliva and rumen fluid the cancellous bone samples also softened, and their mass and volume decreased as a result of exposure to saliva, but in neither fluid did they lose significant amounts of calcium and phosphorus. We conclude that although saliva and rumen fluid can soften ingested bones, there is an insignificant digestion of bones in the rumen.

  19. The reticulating phylogeny of island biogeography theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomolino, Mark V; Brown, James H

    2009-12-01

    Biogeographers study all patterns in the geographic variation of life, from the spatial variation in genetic and physiological characteristics of cells and individuals, to the diversity and dynamics of biological communities among continental biotas or across oceanic archipelagoes. The field of island biogeography, in particular, has provided some genuinely transformative insights for the biological sciences, especially ecology and evolutionary biology. Our purpose here is to review the historical development of island biogeography theory during the 20th century by identifying the common threads that run through four sets of contributions made during this period, including those by Eugene Gordon Munroe (1948, 1953), Edward O. Wilson (1959, 1961), Frank W. Preston (1962a,b), and the seminal collaborations between Wilson and Robert H. MacArthur (1963, 1967), which revolutionized the field and served as its paradigm for nearly four decades. This epistemological account not only reviews the intriguing history of island theory, but it also includes fundamental lessons for advancing science through transformative integrations. Indeed, as is likely the case with many disciplines, island theory advanced not as a simple accumulation of facts and an orderly succession of theories and paradigms, but rather in fits and starts through a reticulating phylogeny of ideas and alternating periods of specialization and reintegration. We conclude this review with a summary of the salient features of this scientific revolution in the contest of Kuhn's structure, which strongly influenced theoretical advances during this period, and we then describe some of the fundamental assumptions and tenets of an emerging reintegration of island biogeography theory.

  20. Jugular venous pooling during lowering of the head affects blood pressure of the anesthetized giraffe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, E.; Hasenkam, John Michael; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    How blood flow and pressure to the giraffe's brain are regulated when drinking remains debated. We measured simultaneous blood flow, pressure, and cross-sectional area in the carotid artery and jugular vein of five anesthetized and spontaneously breathing giraffes. The giraffes were suspended...... veins collapsed and blood was returned to the central circulation, and CVP and cardiac output were restored. The results demonstrate that in the upright-positioned, anesthetized giraffe cerebral blood flow is governed by arterial pressure without support of a siphon mechanism and that when the head...... in the upright position so that we could lower the head. In the upright position, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 193 +/- 11 mmHg (mean +/- SE), carotid flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and carotid cross-sectional area was 0.85 +/- 0.04 cm(2). Central venous pressure (CVP) was 4 +/- 2 mmHg, jugular flow was 0...

  1. Reticulate evolution and incomplete lineage sorting among the ponderosa pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willyard, Ann; Cronn, Richard; Liston, Aaron

    2009-08-01

    Interspecific gene flow via hybridization may play a major role in evolution by creating reticulate rather than hierarchical lineages in plant species. Occasional diploid pine hybrids indicate the potential for introgression, but reticulation is hard to detect because ancestral polymorphism is still shared across many groups of pine species. Nucleotide sequences for 53 accessions from 17 species in subsection Ponderosae (Pinus) provide evidence for reticulate evolution. Two discordant patterns among independent low-copy nuclear gene trees and a chloroplast haplotype are better explained by introgression than incomplete lineage sorting or other causes of incongruence. Conflicting resolution of three monophyletic Pinus coulteri accessions is best explained by ancient introgression followed by a genetic bottleneck. More recent hybridization transferred a chloroplast from P. jeffreyi to a sympatric P. washoensis individual. We conclude that incomplete lineage sorting could account for other examples of non-monophyly, and caution against any analysis based on single-accession or single-locus sampling in Pinus.

  2. Endocardial fibrosarcoma in a reticulated python (Python reticularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Nevarez, Javier G; Cho, Doo-Youn

    2010-11-01

    A female, reticulated python (Python reticularis) of unknown age was presented with a history of lethargy, weakness, and distended coelom. Physical examination revealed severe dystocia and stomatitis. The reticulated python was euthanized due to a poor clinical prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed marked distention of the reproductive tract with 26 eggs (10-12 cm in diameter), pericardial effusion, and a slightly firm, pale tan mass (3-4 cm in diameter) adhered to the endocardium at the base of aorta. Based on histopathologic and transmission electron microscopic findings, the diagnosis of endocardial fibrosarcoma was made.

  3. Experimental Damage Identification of a Model Reticulated Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The damage identification of a reticulated shell is a challenging task, facing various difficulties, such as the large number of degrees of freedom (DOFs, the phenomenon of modal localization and transition, and low modeling accuracy. Based on structural vibration responses, the damage identification of a reticulated shell was studied. At first, the auto-regressive (AR time series model was established based on the acceleration responses of the reticulated shell. According to the changes in the coefficients of the AR model between the damaged conditions and the undamaged condition, the damage of the reticulated shell can be detected. In addition, the damage sensitive factors were determined based on the coefficients of the AR model. With the damage sensitive factors as the inputs and the damage positions as the outputs, back-propagation neural networks (BPNNs were then established and were trained using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm (L–M algorithm. The locations of the damages can be predicted by the back-propagation neural networks. At last, according to the experimental scheme of single-point excitation and multi-point responses, the impact experiments on a K6 shell model with a scale of 1/10 were conducted. The experimental results verified the efficiency of the proposed damage identification method based on the AR time series model and back-propagation neural networks. The proposed damage identification method can ensure the safety of the practical engineering to some extent.

  4. Reticulation of Aqueous Polyurethane Systems Controlled by DSC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Stamenkovic

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The DSC method has been employed to monitor the kinetics of reticulation ofaqueous polyurethane systems without catalysts, and with the commercial catalyst of zirconium(CAT®XC-6212 and the highly selective manganese catalyst, the complex Mn(III-diacetylacetonemaleinate (MAM. Among the polyol components, the acrylic emulsions wereused for reticulation in this research, and as suitable reticulation agents the water emulsiblealiphatic polyisocyanates based on hexamethylendoisocyanate with the different contents ofNCO-groups were employed. On the basis of DSC analysis, applying the methods of Kissinger,Freeman-Carroll and Crane-Ellerstein the pseudo kinetic parameters of the reticulation reactionof aqueous systems were determined. The temperature of the examination ranged from 50oC to450oC with the heat rate of 0.5oC/min. The reduction of the activation energy and the increaseof the standard deviation indicate the catalytic action of the selective catalysts of zirconium andmanganese. The impact of the catalysts on the reduction of the activation energy is thestrongest when using the catalysts of manganese and applying all the three afore-said methods.The least aberrations among the stated methods in defining the kinetic parameters wereobtained by using the manganese catalyst.

  5. Ascaridosis in captive reticulated python( Python reticulatus ) | Taiwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two captive reticulated pythons, Python reticulatus, in the Zoological Gardens, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria died and were submitted for necropsy at the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Ibadan. Both pythons had been infected with Ascaridia galli for a long period of time ...

  6. The thick left ventricular wall of the giraffe heart normalises wall tension, but limits stroke volume and cardiac output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Damkjær, Mads; Brøndum, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Giraffes - the tallest extant animals on Earth - are renowned for their high central arterial blood pressure, which is necessary to secure brain perfusion. The pressure which may exceed 300 mmHg has historically been attributed to an exceptionally large heart. Recently, this has been refuted...... by several studies demonstrating that the mass of giraffe heart is similar to that of other mammals when expressed relative to body mass. It remains enigmatic, however, how the normal-sized giraffe heart generates such massive arterial pressures.We hypothesized that giraffe hearts have a small...... intraventricular cavity and a relatively thick ventricular wall, allowing for generation of high arterial pressures at normal left ventricular wall tension. In nine anaesthetized giraffes (495±38 kg), we determined in vivo ventricular dimensions using echocardiography along with intraventricular and aortic...

  7. Elaboration of recycled polyethylene foams reticulated by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia M, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this work some obtained results are presented to make irradiation tests on recycled polymeric material (polyethylene) as well as mixtures of this with certain additive classes (foaming and reticulating agents) which will be used for the foams elaboration, objective of this work. Two types of foaming basically exist which are elaborated with low density polyethylene base. They are: a) the extruded and, b) the reticulated through ionizing radiation and chemically. Some of the properties that the expanded or foamed polyethylene are: flexibility, resistance, thermal stability, inter medium mechanical properties between the highly flexible foams and rigid among others. All of them determined by the cell type which conform them. Also was carried out the characterization of the obtained material contributing of this manner to diminish the quantity of solid wastes generated. (Author)

  8. Phylogenetic comparative methods on phylogenetic networks with reticulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Paul; Solís-Lemus, Claudia; Kriebel, Ricardo; Sparks, K William; Ané, Cécile

    2018-04-25

    The goal of Phylogenetic Comparative Methods (PCMs) is to study the distribution of quantitative traits among related species. The observed traits are often seen as the result of a Brownian Motion (BM) along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. Reticulation events such as hybridization, gene flow or horizontal gene transfer, can substantially affect a species' traits, but are not modeled by a tree. Phylogenetic networks have been designed to represent reticulate evolution. As they become available for downstream analyses, new models of trait evolution are needed, applicable to networks. One natural extension of the BM is to use a weighted average model for the trait of a hybrid, at a reticulation point. We develop here an efficient recursive algorithm to compute the phylogenetic variance matrix of a trait on a network, in only one preorder traversal of the network. We then extend the standard PCM tools to this new framework, including phylogenetic regression with covariates (or phylogenetic ANOVA), ancestral trait reconstruction, and Pagel's λ test of phylogenetic signal. The trait of a hybrid is sometimes outside of the range of its two parents, for instance because of hybrid vigor or hybrid depression. These two phenomena are rather commonly observed in present-day hybrids. Transgressive evolution can be modeled as a shift in the trait value following a reticulation point. We develop a general framework to handle such shifts, and take advantage of the phylogenetic regression view of the problem to design statistical tests for ancestral transgressive evolution in the evolutionary history of a group of species. We study the power of these tests in several scenarios, and show that recent events have indeed the strongest impact on the trait distribution of present-day taxa. We apply those methods to a dataset of Xiphophorus fishes, to confirm and complete previous analysis in this group. All the methods developed here are available in the Julia package PhyloNetworks.

  9. Attachment and sibling rivalry in Little Hans: the fantasy of the two giraffes revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2007-01-01

    Freud's interpretation of Little Hans's "phantasy of the two giraffes" is pivotal to his oedipal analysis that Hans has inchoate desires for sexual intercourse with his mother. Bowlby argued that Freud's focus on his oedipal theory led him to ignore preoedipal attachment-related factors that have equal plausibility in explaining the clinical data. However, Bowlby did not attempt to apply the attachment perspective to the interpretation of Hans's fantasies that form the core of the case material. A microanalysis of Hans's giraffe fantasy and the evidence used to support Freud's claims about it yields an attachment-based sibling rivalry account arguably of greater explanatory power than the oedipal account. Consistent with Bowlby's hypothesis, the evidence suggests that Hans's giraffe fantasy is about the sibling rivalry triangle involved in caregiver attachment access, rather than (or in addition to) the oedipal triangle. The issue of multiple levels of meaning and the methodological challenges raised by multiple determination is also considered. The giraffe fantasy's attachment-theoretic explanation encourages a rethinking of this classic case and strengthens Bowlby's claim that the case is fruitfully viewed from an attachment perspective.

  10. Optimal Control Problems for Partial Differential Equations on Reticulated Domains

    CERN Document Server

    Kogut, Peter I

    2011-01-01

    In the development of optimal control, the complexity of the systems to which it is applied has increased significantly, becoming an issue in scientific computing. In order to carry out model-reduction on these systems, the authors of this work have developed a method based on asymptotic analysis. Moving from abstract explanations to examples and applications with a focus on structural network problems, they aim at combining techniques of homogenization and approximation. Optimal Control Problems for Partial Differential Equations on Reticulated Domains is an excellent reference tool for gradu

  11. Finite element analysis of reticulated ceramics under compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Angelo, Claudio; Ortona, Alberto; Colombo, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: This paper shows how finite element analysis can be used to study the effect of the morphological features of reticulated ceramics on their mechanical properties under compression. Quantitative morphological data, obtained by X-ray computed tomography (XCT) for a commercially available Si–SiC foam produced by the replica method, have been linked to a set of computer generated cells in which one morphological parameter was varied at a time. The findings indicate how the modification of some morphological features, which depend on the careful selection of appropriate and specific processing parameters, would enable the production of ceramic foams possessing higher strength for a given total porosity value.

  12. Reticulate Evolution and Marine Organisms: The Final Frontier?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Arnold

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The role that reticulate evolution (i.e., via lateral transfer, viral recombination and/or introgressive hybridization has played in the origin and adaptation of individual taxa and even entire clades continues to be tested for all domains of life. Though falsified for some groups, the hypothesis of divergence in the face of gene flow is becoming accepted as a major facilitator of evolutionary change for many microorganisms, plants and animals. Yet, the effect of reticulate evolutionary change in certain assemblages has been doubted, either due to an actual dearth of genetic exchange among the lineages belonging to these clades or because of a lack of appropriate data to test alternative hypotheses. Marine organisms represent such an assemblage. In the past half-century, some evolutionary biologists interested in the origin and trajectory of marine organisms, particularly animals, have posited that horizontal transfer, introgression and hybrid speciation have been rare. In this review, we provide examples of such genetic exchange that have come to light largely as a result of analyses of molecular markers. Comparisons among these markers and between these loci and morphological characters have provided numerous examples of marine microorganisms, plants and animals that possess the signature of mosaic genomes.

  13. Late Paleogene reticulate Nummulites of the Western Tethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Less, G.; Kertész, B.; Özcan, E.

    2012-04-01

    Reticulate Nummulites can be found very often in rock-forming quantity in the Bartonian to lower Chattian beds of the Western Tethys; however their nomenclature is extremely complicated and rather controversial. Therefore, and since B-forms are quite rare and often missing, in the first phase of the research we have concentrated on the comparative morphometric study of megalospheric forms without prejudicing formerly introduced typological names to particular populations. We used material from fourty-six localities extending from SW France to Cutch (W India) and spanning from the early Bartonian to the early Chattian. Fifty-six populations could be encountered, fifty-five of which could be arranged safely into the well-known Nummulites fabianii-fichteli group. However, in the middle Bartonian locality of Keçili 1 (eastern Turkey) another population of reticulate Nummulites bearing about five times larger embryon than that of the population belonging to the N. fabianii-fichteli-lineage from the same sample could be observed. This population has been identified with N. hottingeri (the end-member of the N. partschi-lorioli-lineage) on the one hand but also with the original description of N. ptukhiani (later widely accepted as the precursor of N. fabianii) on the other. This means that the two names are synonymous and N. ptukhiani bearing priority advantage over N. hottingeri has to be applied for these forms. On the other hand, it can by no means be used for the precursor forms of N. fabianii. The fifly-five populations belonging to the Nummulites fabianii-fichteli group have been analyzed qualitatively by means of the surface characteristics and quantitatively by means of the internal features observable in the equatorial section of A-forms. In order to distinguish the evolutionary trends from the ecologically or ontogenetically induced phenomena we arranged these populations according to their supposed ages based on the accompanying fossils and/or stratigraphical

  14. Jugular venous pooling during lowering of the head affects blood pressure of the anesthetized giraffe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøndum, E; Hasenkam, J M; Secher, N H; Bertelsen, M F; Grøndahl, C; Petersen, K K; Buhl, R; Aalkjaer, C; Baandrup, U; Nygaard, H; Smerup, M; Stegmann, F; Sloth, E; Ostergaard, K H; Nissen, P; Runge, M; Pitsillides, K; Wang, T

    2009-10-01

    How blood flow and pressure to the giraffe's brain are regulated when drinking remains debated. We measured simultaneous blood flow, pressure, and cross-sectional area in the carotid artery and jugular vein of five anesthetized and spontaneously breathing giraffes. The giraffes were suspended in the upright position so that we could lower the head. In the upright position, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 193 +/- 11 mmHg (mean +/- SE), carotid flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and carotid cross-sectional area was 0.85 +/- 0.04 cm(2). Central venous pressure (CVP) was 4 +/- 2 mmHg, jugular flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and jugular cross-sectional area was 0.14 +/- 0.04 cm(2) (n = 4). Carotid arterial and jugular venous pressures at head level were 118 +/- 9 and -7 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively. When the head was lowered, MAP decreased to 131 +/- 13 mmHg, while carotid cross-sectional area and flow remained unchanged. Cardiac output was reduced by 30%, CVP decreased to -1 +/- 2 mmHg (P blood in the veins. When the head was raised, the jugular veins collapsed and blood was returned to the central circulation, and CVP and cardiac output were restored. The results demonstrate that in the upright-positioned, anesthetized giraffe cerebral blood flow is governed by arterial pressure without support of a siphon mechanism and that when the head is lowered, blood accumulates in the vein, affecting MAP.

  15. Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Michael P.; Wedel, Mathew J.

    2013-01-01

    The necks of the sauropod dinosaurs reached 15 m in length: six times longer than that of the world record giraffe and five times longer than those of all other terrestrial animals. Several anatomical features enabled this extreme elongation, including: absolutely large body size and quadrupedal stance providing a stable platform for a long neck; a small, light head that did not orally process food; cervical vertebrae that were both numerous and individually elongate; an efficient air-sac-bas...

  16. Amyloidosis cutis dyschromica: A rare reticulate pigmentary dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a rare case of amyloidosis cutis dyschromica in a 41-year-old man. This is a rare form of primary cutaneous amyloidosis characterized by reticulate pigmentation with hypopigmented and hyperpigmented macules, onset in childhood, familial tendency in some, occasional mild itching and deposition of amyloid in the papillary dermis. Our case also had multiple bilaterally symmetrical hyperpigmented keratotic papules abutting the axillary vault resembling those seen in Dowling-Deogs disease. The other unusual feature in this patient was the strong family history of vitiligo, which we are unable to explain. We have also tried to explain the mechanism leading to the hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation in amyloidosis cutis dyschromica.

  17. Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedel, Mathew J.

    2013-01-01

    The necks of the sauropod dinosaurs reached 15 m in length: six times longer than that of the world record giraffe and five times longer than those of all other terrestrial animals. Several anatomical features enabled this extreme elongation, including: absolutely large body size and quadrupedal stance providing a stable platform for a long neck; a small, light head that did not orally process food; cervical vertebrae that were both numerous and individually elongate; an efficient air-sac-based respiratory system; and distinctive cervical architecture. Relevant features of sauropod cervical vertebrae include: pneumatic chambers that enabled the bone to be positioned in a mechanically efficient way within the envelope; and muscular attachments of varying importance to the neural spines, epipophyses and cervical ribs. Other long-necked tetrapods lacked important features of sauropods, preventing the evolution of longer necks: for example, giraffes have relatively small torsos and large, heavy heads, share the usual mammalian constraint of only seven cervical vertebrae, and lack an air-sac system and pneumatic bones. Among non-sauropods, their saurischian relatives the theropod dinosaurs seem to have been best placed to evolve long necks, and indeed their necks probably surpassed those of giraffes. But 150 million years of evolution did not suffice for them to exceed a relatively modest 2.5 m. PMID:23638372

  18. Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael P; Wedel, Mathew J

    2013-01-01

    The necks of the sauropod dinosaurs reached 15 m in length: six times longer than that of the world record giraffe and five times longer than those of all other terrestrial animals. Several anatomical features enabled this extreme elongation, including: absolutely large body size and quadrupedal stance providing a stable platform for a long neck; a small, light head that did not orally process food; cervical vertebrae that were both numerous and individually elongate; an efficient air-sac-based respiratory system; and distinctive cervical architecture. Relevant features of sauropod cervical vertebrae include: pneumatic chambers that enabled the bone to be positioned in a mechanically efficient way within the envelope; and muscular attachments of varying importance to the neural spines, epipophyses and cervical ribs. Other long-necked tetrapods lacked important features of sauropods, preventing the evolution of longer necks: for example, giraffes have relatively small torsos and large, heavy heads, share the usual mammalian constraint of only seven cervical vertebrae, and lack an air-sac system and pneumatic bones. Among non-sauropods, their saurischian relatives the theropod dinosaurs seem to have been best placed to evolve long necks, and indeed their necks probably surpassed those of giraffes. But 150 million years of evolution did not suffice for them to exceed a relatively modest 2.5 m.

  19. Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Taylor

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The necks of the sauropod dinosaurs reached 15 m in length: six times longer than that of the world record giraffe and five times longer than those of all other terrestrial animals. Several anatomical features enabled this extreme elongation, including: absolutely large body size and quadrupedal stance providing a stable platform for a long neck; a small, light head that did not orally process food; cervical vertebrae that were both numerous and individually elongate; an efficient air-sac-based respiratory system; and distinctive cervical architecture. Relevant features of sauropod cervical vertebrae include: pneumatic chambers that enabled the bone to be positioned in a mechanically efficient way within the envelope; and muscular attachments of varying importance to the neural spines, epipophyses and cervical ribs. Other long-necked tetrapods lacked important features of sauropods, preventing the evolution of longer necks: for example, giraffes have relatively small torsos and large, heavy heads, share the usual mammalian constraint of only seven cervical vertebrae, and lack an air-sac system and pneumatic bones. Among non-sauropods, their saurischian relatives the theropod dinosaurs seem to have been best placed to evolve long necks, and indeed their necks probably surpassed those of giraffes. But 150 million years of evolution did not suffice for them to exceed a relatively modest 2.5 m.

  20. Feeding choices and impacts of extralimital giraffe on two keystone tree species in the Kgalagadi National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund February

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we determine the effect of an extralimital megaherbivore on the reproductive potential and vegetation structure of two keystone tree species in the Auob River in the south western Kalahari Desert of southern Africa. Using spoor and dung counts we establish the presence of giraffe in three predetermined density zones by walking 50 transects across the river in each zone. We also photographed six trees from each species in each zone and use these photographs to determine browse impact on reproductive potential, canopy volume as well as the percentage dieback on the extremities of the canopy. We then perform stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on the leaves of the trees and compare these relative to the isotope ratios of giraffe dung to ascertain dietary preference. Crude protein was determined as a guide to nutritive value. Finally, we determine both chemical and physical defences for the two species. Our results show a significant negative impact of giraffe browse on tree canopies, no significant differences in recruitment and a noticeable decrease in flowers and pods at the giraffe browse height of 2 m – 5 m. No significant differences in crude protein or condensed tannins were found but significant differences in spinescence. Giraffe are not endemic to the Auob River and our study shows that the introduction of these animals is having a negative impact on the canopies of Vachellia haematoxylon. While there are, as yet, no significant impacts on reproductive potential we speculate that this will happen with time. Conservation implications: Our study shows that giraffe are significantly impacting the canopies of two common tree species in the Auob River in the arid Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park. Without management intervention an increasing population of giraffe will result in substantial changes to the plant community vegetation structure of the river.

  1. A Case of Confluent And Reticulated Papillomatosis of Gougerot And Carteaud

    OpenAIRE

    Hari Kishan Kumar.Y; Srivalli P; Ramesh Babu A

    2013-01-01

    Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis of Gougerot and Carteaud is a rare dermatosis of unknown etiology, but distinctive acquired icthyosiform dermatosis seen in young adults and characterized by persistent brown, scaly macules, papules, patches and plaques. Lesions tend to be localized predominantly on the neck, upper trunk and axillae where they tend to be confluent and become reticulated towards the periphery. Herein we present a 26 years old male with asymptomatic hyperpigmented and fe...

  2. Multiple origins of elytral reticulation modifications in the west palearctic Agabus bipustulatus complex (coleoptera, dytiscidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus K Drotz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Agabus bipustulatus complex includes one of Europe's most widely distributed and common diving beetles. This complex, which is known for its large morphological variation, has a complex demographic and altitudinal variation in elytral reticulation. The various depth of the reticulation imprint, both in smaller and larger meshes, results in both mat and shiny individuals, as well as intermediate forms. The West Palearctic lowland is inhabited by a sexually dimorphic form, with shiny males and mat females. In mountain regions, shiny individuals of both sexes are found intermixed with mat individuals or in pure populations in central and southern areas, whereas pure populations of mat individuals are exclusively found in the northern region at high altitude. Sexual selection is proposed as a driving force in shaping this variation. However, the occurrence of different types of reticulation in both sexes and disjunct geographical distribution patterns suggest an additional function of the reticulation. Here we investigate the phylogeographical history, genetic structure and reticulation variation of several named forms within the Agabus bipustulatus complex including A. nevadensis. The molecular analyses recognised several well-supported clades within the complex. Several of the named forms had two or more independent origins. Few south European populations were uniform in reticulation patterns, and the males were found to display large variation. Reticulation diversity and population genetic variability were clearly correlated to altitude, but no genetic differences were detected among populations with mixed or homogenous forms. Observed reduction in secondary reticulation in female and increased variance in male at high altitude in South Europe may be explained by the occurrence of an additional selective force, beside sexual selection. The combined effect of these selective processes is here demonstrated in an extreme case to generate

  3. Multiple origins of elytral reticulation modifications in the west palearctic Agabus bipustulatus complex (coleoptera, dytiscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotz, Marcus K; Brodin, Tomas; Nilsson, Anders N

    2010-02-03

    The Agabus bipustulatus complex includes one of Europe's most widely distributed and common diving beetles. This complex, which is known for its large morphological variation, has a complex demographic and altitudinal variation in elytral reticulation. The various depth of the reticulation imprint, both in smaller and larger meshes, results in both mat and shiny individuals, as well as intermediate forms. The West Palearctic lowland is inhabited by a sexually dimorphic form, with shiny males and mat females. In mountain regions, shiny individuals of both sexes are found intermixed with mat individuals or in pure populations in central and southern areas, whereas pure populations of mat individuals are exclusively found in the northern region at high altitude. Sexual selection is proposed as a driving force in shaping this variation. However, the occurrence of different types of reticulation in both sexes and disjunct geographical distribution patterns suggest an additional function of the reticulation. Here we investigate the phylogeographical history, genetic structure and reticulation variation of several named forms within the Agabus bipustulatus complex including A. nevadensis. The molecular analyses recognised several well-supported clades within the complex. Several of the named forms had two or more independent origins. Few south European populations were uniform in reticulation patterns, and the males were found to display large variation. Reticulation diversity and population genetic variability were clearly correlated to altitude, but no genetic differences were detected among populations with mixed or homogenous forms. Observed reduction in secondary reticulation in female and increased variance in male at high altitude in South Europe may be explained by the occurrence of an additional selective force, beside sexual selection. The combined effect of these selective processes is here demonstrated in an extreme case to generate isolation barriers between

  4. Unraveling reticulate evolution in North American Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sessa Emily B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thirteen species of Dryopteris in North America have long been suspected of having undergone a complicated history of reticulate evolution via allopolyploid hybridization. Various explanations for the origins of the allopolyploid taxa have been suggested, and though most lines of evidence have supported the so-called “semicristata” hypothesis, contention over the group’s history has continued in several recent, conflicting studies. Results Sequence data from nine plastid and two nuclear markers were collected from 73 accessions representing 35 species of Dryopteris. Sequences from each of the allopolyploids are most closely related to their progenitor species as predicted by the “semicristata” hypothesis. Allotetraploid D. campyloptera appears to be derived from a hybrid between diploid D. expansa and D. intermedia; D. celsa, from diploid D. ludoviciana x D. goldiana; and D. carthusiana and D. cristata, from diploid “D. semicristata” x D. intermedia and D. ludoviciana, respectively. Allohexaploid D. clintoniana appears to be derived from D. cristata x D.goldiana. The earliest estimated dates of formation of the allopolyploids, based on divergence time analyses, were within the last 6 Ma. We found no evidence for recurrent formation of any of the allopolyploids. The sexual allopolyploid taxa are derived from crosses between parents that show intermediate levels of genetic divergence relative to all pairs of potential progenitors. In addition, the four allotetraploids are transgressive with respect to geographic range relative to one or both of their parents (their ranges extend beyond those of the parents, suggesting that ecological advantages in novel habitats or regions may promote long-term regional coexistence of the hybrid taxa with their progenitors. Conclusions This study provides the first thorough evaluation of the North American complex of woodferns using extensive sampling of taxa and genetic

  5. Interspecific Plastome Recombination Reflects Ancient Reticulate Evolution in Picea (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alexis R; Schiffthaler, Bastian; Thompson, Stacey Lee; Street, Nathaniel R; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2017-07-01

    Plastid sequences are a cornerstone in plant systematic studies and key aspects of their evolution, such as uniparental inheritance and absent recombination, are often treated as axioms. While exceptions to these assumptions can profoundly influence evolutionary inference, detecting them can require extensive sampling, abundant sequence data, and detailed testing. Using advancements in high-throughput sequencing, we analyzed the whole plastomes of 65 accessions of Picea, a genus of ∼35 coniferous forest tree species, to test for deviations from canonical plastome evolution. Using complementary hypothesis and data-driven tests, we found evidence for chimeric plastomes generated by interspecific hybridization and recombination in the clade comprising Norway spruce (P. abies) and 10 other species. Support for interspecific recombination remained after controlling for sequence saturation, positive selection, and potential alignment artifacts. These results reconcile previous conflicting plastid-based phylogenies and strengthen the mounting evidence of reticulate evolution in Picea. Given the relatively high frequency of hybridization and biparental plastid inheritance in plants, we suggest interspecific plastome recombination may be more widespread than currently appreciated and could underlie reported cases of discordant plastid phylogenies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Theory and use of GIRAFFE for analysis of decay characteristics of delayed-neutron precursors in an LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.C.

    1980-07-01

    The application of the computer code GIRAFFE (General Isotope Release Analysis For Failed Elements) written in FORTRAN IV is described. GIRAFFE was designed to provide parameter estimates of the nonlinear discrete-measurement models that govern the transport and decay of delayed-neutron precursors in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). The code has been organized into a set of small, relatively independent and well-defined modules to facilitate modification and maintenance. The program logic, the numerical techniques, and the methods of solution used by the code are presented, and the functions of the MAIN program and of each subroutine are discussed

  7. Morphological analysis and pathological basis of the fine pulmonary reticulation at high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Chunshuang; Ma Daqing; Guan Yansheng; Chen Budong; Zhang Yansong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the morphological appearance and pathological basis of the fine pulmonary reticulation at HRCT. Methods: One hundred and seven patients were analyzed about the morphology findings and dynamic changes on pulmonary HRCT. Twenty-four coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) specimens were examined to make comparison between CT and pathology. The data was analyzed by using the Chi-square test. Results: The reticular gap was less than 3 mm in diameter. The morphology of reticulation was round or irregular. Pulmonary parenchyma was seen between the gaps. The reticular wall was smooth or coarse. The thickness was less than 1 mm. One hundred and seven patients had accompanying signs including ground-glass opacity (68.2%, 73 patients), crazy paving (23.4%, 25 patients), interlobular septal thickening (84.1%, 90 patients), emphysema (32.7%, 35 patients), interface sign (58.9%, 63 patients), traction bronchiolectasis (41.1%, 44 patients) and honeycombing (26.2%, 28 patients). The differences of the honeycomb, traction bronchiolectosis, interbobular septal thickening, interface sign and paving were statistically significant between the fibrotic group and pneunonia (P <0.01). Pneumonia showed extensive area of ground-glass opacity (GGO) with fine reticulation. Fine reticculation with both interlobular septal thickening and small nodules were observed more frequently in lmphangitic carcinomatosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) showed fine reticulation among the honeycombing. Connective tissue disease (CTD) showed fine reticulation with rarely honeycombing and it could be partly absorbed. Fine reticulation with emphysema was seen in chronic bronchitis. In the 58 follow-up patients, the fine reticulation increased in 26 patients, decreased or disappeared in 22 patients and showed no change in 10 patients. The major pathological basis of the fine reticulation was intralobular interstitial thickening, including fibrosis hyperplasia, inflammatory cells and tumor

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Pestivirus Strain PG-2, a Second Member of the Tentative Pestivirus Species Giraffe

    OpenAIRE

    Becher, Paul; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam; Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias; Postel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of bovine pestivirus strain PG-2. The sequence data from this virus showed that PG-2 is closely related to the giraffe pestivirus strain H138. PG-2 and H138 belong to one pestivirus species that should be considered an approved member of the genus Pestivirus.

  9. The impact of age-class and social context on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels in free-ranging male giraffes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, T E; Bennett, N C; Burroughs, R; Ganswindt, A

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary sources of perceived stress is the social environment of an animal and the interactions with conspecifics. An essential component of the response to a stressor is the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, which results amongst others in a temporal increase in circulating glucocorticoid (GC) levels. Giraffes occur in a highly flexible fission-fusion social system and group compositions can change on a daily basis, with bulls establishing an age-related dominance hierarchy and showing a roaming strategy in the search for fertile females. The aim of this study was to non-invasively monitor the influence of different group compositions (mixed sex groups vs. all-male groups) on GC concentrations in free ranging giraffe bulls of different age classes. We collected fecal samples from free-ranging giraffe bulls for 12months in a South African Private Game Reserve to examine age- and social context-related patterns of fecal GC metabolite (fGCM) concentrations. We found that fGCM levels in giraffe bulls are age-class dependent, as well asassociated with changes in the social environment. Independently of the social setting, bulls of the youngest age class exhibited the highest fGCM levels compared to bulls of the other two older age-classes, with differences most pronounced when the bulls are associated in all-male groups. In contrast, an almost reversed picture appears when looking at the fGCM levels of sexually active individuals in mixed sex groups, where highest levels were found for the bulls in the oldest age-class, and the lowest for the bulls in the youngest age-class. The study stresses the importance to taking factors such asage-related status and social settings into account, when interpreting fGCM levels in free ranging giraffes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dowling–Degos disease with reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura: Extended spectrum of a single entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Govind Rathoriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dowling–Degos disease (DDD and reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura (RAK are rare genodermatoses inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with variable penetrance. They are considered to be part of a spectrum of reticulate pigmentary dermatoses, characterized by the presence of hyperpigmented macules coalescing in a reticular fashion. The authors describe a 28-year-old male patient having hyperpigmented macules on the axillae, neck and face, reticulate acropigmentation of dorsum of the hands, forearms and feet, palmar pitting, and comedo-like lesions over back. The patient showed the unique clinical as well as histopathological overlap of both the rare diseases (DDD and RAK, substantiating the hypothesis that they represent two different features of a single entity with variable phenotypic expression.

  11. Saddle-shaped reticulate Nummulites from Early Oligocene rocks of Khari area, SW Kutch, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S.; Sarkar, Sampa; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2011-04-01

    Saddle-shaped reticulate Nummulites from the Early Oligocene rocks of Khari area, SW Kutch, India is reported here for the first time. Unusual shape of this Nummulites is due to the curved nature of the coiling plane, indicating space constrained postembryonic test growth. With regular development of chambers, septa and septal filaments, the saddle-shaped Nummulites constitutes the third morphotype of N. cf. fichteli Michelotti form A. Other morphotypes of the species reported earlier include inflated lenticular and conical tests. Multiple morphotypes of N. cf. fichteli form A indicates varied test growth in response to substrate conditions. Morphological variability exhibited by N. cf. fichteli form A from Kutch and some Early Oligocene reticulate Nummulites from the Far East are comparable. This faunal suite is morphologically distinct from the contemporary reticulate Nummulites of the European localities.

  12. Identification and characterization of a novel Chlamydia trachomatis reticulate body protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Roepstorff, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The genome of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis comprises 894 genes predicted by computer-based analysis. As part of a large-scale proteome analysis of C. trachomatis, a small abundant protein encoded by a previously unrecognized novel 204-bp open reading frame was identi...... cycle. The protein is rapidly degraded and is only present in reticulate or intermediate bodies, suggesting a possible function in the intracellular stage of C. trachomatis development. We have termed the protein '7-kDa reticulate body protein'....

  13. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome-associated Confluent and Reticulated Papillomatosis: Report of a Patient Successfully Treated with Azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Laura Paul; Cohen, Philip R

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a common endocrine disorder with a variety of dermatologic manifestations among young women. Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis is a rare dermatosis of unknown etiology that is seldom reported in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome. We describe the case of a young woman with obesity, confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, and concurrent acanthosis nigricans. Her history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation led to the diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome. The proposed etiologies and the various of treatment options for confluent and reticulated papillomatosis are discussed. In our case, the patient had a dramatic response to treatment with azithromycin. The etiology of confluent and reticulated papillomatosis remains to be established. Additionally, the mechanism behind the success of treatment with antibiotics is unclear; however, in this patient, azithromycin was a safe and effective option for the treatment of confluent and reticulated papillomatosis.

  14. The Leaf Reticulate Mutant dov1 Is Impaired in the First Step of Purine Metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosar, Ch.; Kanonenberg, K.; Nanda, A. M.; Mielewczik, M.; Brautigam, A.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Walter, A.; Weber, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2012), s. 1227-1241 ISSN 1674-2052 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : leaf development * reticulated mutants * cytokinin Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 6.126, year: 2012

  15. Confluent and reticulated Papillomatosis of Gougerot and Carteaud - presentation in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Leite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis (CRP of Gougerot and Carteaud is a rare dermatosis characterized by brownish papules with fine scaling, forming confluent plaques in the center and reticulated at the periphery. It is preferentially located in the central region of the trunk, armpits and neck. Case Report: A 13 year-old overweight female adolescent was admitted to Dermatology outpatient clinic for asymptomatic brownish skin lesions. At physical examination she presented brown plaques spread out on the breast, neck and armpits. Laboratory studies were normal and skin biopsy supported the hypothesis of CRP. She was initially treated with minocycline, suspended after completing the recommended treatment time. Then, the lesions began to return and oral isotretinoin was started with lesions resolution. Discussion: The CRP is a rare pathology that, by their usual adolescent onset and predominance in females, may have physical and psychological implications on self-image. The etiology is probably multifactorial, so there are several therapeutic options.

  16. Electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon current collectors for lead-acid batteries: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, Elod; Jung, Joey; Mahato, Basanta

    Reticulated, open-cell structures based on vitreous carbon substrates electroplated with a Pb-Sn (1 wt.%) alloy were investigated as current collectors for lead-acid batteries. Scanning and backscattered electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, anodic polarization and flooded 2 V single-cell battery testing was employed to characterize the performance of the proposed collectors. A battery equipped with pasted electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) electrodes of 137 cm 2 geometric area, at the time of manuscript submission, completed 500 cycles and over 1500 h of continuous operation. The cycling involved discharges at 63 A kg PAM-1 corresponding to a nominal 0.75 h rate and a positive active mass (PAM) utilization efficiency of 21%. The charging protocol was composed of two voltage limited (i.e. 2.6 V/cell), constant current steps of 35 and 9.5 A kg PAM-1, respectively, with a total duration of about 2 h. The charge factor was 1.05-1.15. The observed cycling behavior in conjunction with the versatility of electrodeposition to produce application-dependent optimized lead alloy coating thickness and composition shows promise for the development of lead-acid batteries using electroplated reticulated vitreous carbon collectors.

  17. Synthesis of protein in host-free reticulate bodies of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, T.P.; Miceli, M.; Silverman, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis of protein by the obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar L2) isolated from host cells (host-free chlamydiae) was demonstrated for the first time. Incorporation of [ 35 S]methionine and [ 35 S]cysteine into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material by reticulate bodies of chlamydiae persisted for 2 h and was dependent upon a exogenous source of ATP, an ATP-regenerating system, and potassium or sodium ions. Magnesium ions and amino acids stimulated synthesis; chloramphenicol, rifampin, oligomycin, and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (a proton ionophore) inhibited incorporation. Ribonucleoside triphosphates (other than ATP) had little stimulatory effect. The optimum pH for host-free synthesis was between 7.0 and 7.5. The molecular weights of proteins synthesized by host-free reticulate bodies closely resembled the molecular weights of proteins synthesized by reticulate bodies in an intracellular environment, and included outer membrane proteins. Elementary bodies of chlamydiae were unable to synthesize protein even when incubated in the presence of 10 mM dithiothreitol, a reducing agent which converted the highly disulfide bond cross-linked major outer membrane protein to monomeric form

  18. The sound of operation and the acoustic attenuation of the Ohmeda Medical Giraffe OmniBed™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubben, Stephanie M; Brueggeman, Paul M; Stevens, Dennis C; Helseth, Carol C; Blaschke, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is an environment that provides premature and fragile infants with health provisions needed to make a complete recovery. Premature infants are often born before their auditory systems have had an opportunity to fully mature. Research has shown that the ambient acoustic environment in the NICU exceeds the maximum noise level recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics, even after measures have been taken to decrease noise levels. The purpose of this study is to evaluate noise levels inside an Ohmeda Medical Giraffe™ OmniBed™, the natural attenuation of the incubator, and the effects of modifications on attenuation and reverberation within the Giraffe TM OmniBed™. The normal operation of the Giraffe™ OmniBed™ is 41.7 dBA which indicates a lower noise of operation than previous studies. The Giraffe™ OmniBed™ naturally attenuates 12 dBA. Leaving an access latch or portal door open causes a statistically significant (P=.001) increase in sound within the bassinet. All modifications in the no-noise and the noise conditions showed a statistically significant (P=.001) drop in L(eq) when compared to baseline.

  19. Morphogenesis of Pestiviruses: New Insights from Ultrastructural Studies of Strain Giraffe-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Jan; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; König, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge on the morphogenesis of pestiviruses is limited due to low virus production in infected cells. In order to localize virion morphogenesis and replication sites of pestiviruses and to examine intracellular virion transport, a cell culture model was established to facilitate ultrastructural studies. Based on results of virus growth kinetic analysis and quantification of viral RNA, pestivirus strain Giraffe-1 turned out to be a suitable candidate for studies on virion generation and export from culture cells. Using conventional transmission electron microscopy and single-tilt electron tomography, we found virions located predominately in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in infected cells and were able to depict the budding process of virions at ER membranes. Colocalization of the viral core protein and the envelope glycoprotein E2 with the ER marker protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was demonstrated by immunogold labeling of cryosections. Moreover, pestivirions could be shown in transport vesicles and the Golgi complex and during exocytosis. Interestingly, viral capsid protein and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were detected in multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which implies that the endosomal compartment plays a role in pestiviral replication. Significant cellular membrane alterations such as those described for members of the Flavivirus and Hepacivirus genera were not found. Based on the gained morphological data, we present a consistent model of pestivirus morphogenesis. PMID:24352462

  20. An assessment of RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 condensation heat transfer modeling with GIRAFFE heat transfer tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, B.D.; Parlatan, Y.; Slovik, G.C.

    1995-01-01

    RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 is being used to simulate Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) for the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) being proposed by General Electric (GE). One of the major components associated with the SBWR is the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) which provides the long-term heat sink to reject decay heat. The RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 code is being assessed for its ability to represent accurately the PCCS. Data from the Phase 1, Step 1 Heat Transfer Tests performed at Toshiba's Gravity-Driven Integral Full-Height Test for Passive Heat Removal (GIRAFFE) facility will be used for assessing the ability of RELAP5 to model condensation in the presence of noncondensables. The RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 condensation model uses the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) correlation developed by Vierow and Schrock. The RELAP5 code uses this heat transfer coefficient with the gas velocity effect multiplier being limited to 2. This heat transfer option was used to analyze the condensation heat transfer in the GIRAFFE PCCS heat exchanger tubes in the Phase 1, Step 1 Heat Transfer Tests which were at a pressure of 3 bar and had a range of nitrogen partial pressure fractions from 0.0 to 0.10. The results of a set of RELAP5 calculations at these conditions were compared with the GIRAFFE data. The effects of PCCS cell noding on the heat transfer process were also studied. The UCB correlation, as implemented in RELAP5, predicted the heat transfer to ±5% of the data with a three--node model. The three-node model has a large cell in the entrance region which smeared out the entrance effects on the heat transfer, which tend to overpredict the condensation. Hence, the UCB correlation predicts condensation heat transfer correlation implemented in the code must be removed to allow for accurate calculations with smaller cell sizes

  1. An assessment of RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 condensation heat transfer modeling with GIRAFFE heat transfer tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, B.D.; Parlatan, Y.; Slovik, G.C. [and others

    1995-09-01

    RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 is being used to simulate Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) for the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) being proposed by General Electric (GE). One of the major components associated with the SBWR is the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) which provides the long-term heat sink to reject decay heat. The RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 code is being assessed for its ability to represent accurately the PCCS. Data from the Phase 1, Step 1 Heat Transfer Tests performed at Toshiba`s Gravity-Driven Integral Full-Height Test for Passive Heat Removal (GIRAFFE) facility will be used for assessing the ability of RELAP5 to model condensation in the presence of noncondensables. The RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 condensation model uses the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) correlation developed by Vierow and Schrock. The RELAP5 code uses this heat transfer coefficient with the gas velocity effect multiplier being limited to 2. This heat transfer option was used to analyze the condensation heat transfer in the GIRAFFE PCCS heat exchanger tubes in the Phase 1, Step 1 Heat Transfer Tests which were at a pressure of 3 bar and had a range of nitrogen partial pressure fractions from 0.0 to 0.10. The results of a set of RELAP5 calculations at these conditions were compared with the GIRAFFE data. The effects of PCCS cell noding on the heat transfer process were also studied. The UCB correlation, as implemented in RELAP5, predicted the heat transfer to {plus_minus}5% of the data with a three--node model. The three-node model has a large cell in the entrance region which smeared out the entrance effects on the heat transfer, which tend to overpredict the condensation. Hence, the UCB correlation predicts condensation heat transfer correlation implemented in the code must be removed to allow for accurate calculations with smaller cell sizes.

  2. Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis: clinical and histopathological study of 10 cases from Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamraz, H; Raffoul, M; Kurban, M; Kibbi, A-G; Abbas, O

    2013-01-01

    Confluent and reticulate papillomatosis (CRP) is a rare disorder that has mostly been described in case reports and limited case series. Studies on this condition from our region are lacking. To describe the clinical and histopathological findings, as well as response to treatment of all patients diagnosed with CRP at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUB-MC) between 1999 and 2009, and to compare our findings with those published in the literature. Confluent and reticulate papillomatosis was diagnosed in 10 patients (five men, five women). Mean age at diagnosis was 19 years. Duration of lesions ranged from few months to several years. Skin lesions mainly consisted of reticulated, pigmented macules, patches and plaques. The most common area of involvement was the chest in five cases. The rash was asymptomatic in eight patients. Skin biopsy specimens from all patients revealed hyperkeratosis, papillomatosis and variable acanthosis. Whereas follicular plugging was observed in nine cases, anastomosis of the rete ridges was noted in three. Periodic acid Schiff stains highlighted yeast forms in six cases. The clinical and histopathological features of the CRP patients in our study are generally comparable to those published in the literature, with minor differences. Clinically, one case had an atypical clinical presentation, and microscopically follicular plugging was seen in the majority of cases. Yeast-like spores were seen in six cases further supporting a role of Malassezia furfur in the pathogenesis of CRP. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Reticulate evolution in stick insects: the case of Clonopsis (Insecta Phasmida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Liliana; Ghiselli, Fabrizio; Pellecchia, Marco; Scali, Valerio; Passamonti, Marco

    2010-08-25

    Phasmids show noteworthy abilities to overcome species-specific reproductive isolation mechanisms, including hybridization, polyploidy, parthenogenesis, hybridogenesis and androgenesis. From an evolutionary standpoint, such tangled reproductive interactions lead to the complex phyletic relationships known as "reticulate evolution". Moroccan stick insects of the genus Clonopsis include one bisexual (C. felicitatis) and two closely related parthenogenetic forms (C. gallica, C. soumiae), which represent a polyploid series in chromosome number, but with apparent diploid karyotypes. Moreover, two Clonopsis strains of ameiotic males have been described, C. androgenes-35 and C. androgenes-53. As a consequence, Clonopsis stick insects may have experienced complex micro-evolutionary events, which we try to disentangle in this study. Mitochondrial cox2 analysis supports a recent divergence of Clonopsis, while AFLPs evidence genetic differentiation not linked to karyotypes, so that parthenogenetic C. gallica and C. soumiae appear to be a mix of strains of polyphyletic origin rather than single parthenogenetic species. Moreover, an admixed hybrid origin seems to be confirmed for C. androgenes. On the whole, Clonopsis is an intriguing case of reticulate evolution. Actually, complex cladogenetic events should be taken into account to explain the observed genetic structure, including diploidization of polyploid karyotypes, possibly coupled with hybridization and androgenesis. We also proposed a "working hypothesis" to account for the observed data, which deserves further studies, but fits the observed data very well.

  4. An assessment of RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 condensation heat transfer modeling with GIRAFFE heat transfer tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, B.D.; Parlatan, Y.; Slovik, G.C.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1995-01-01

    RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 is being used to simulate Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) for the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) being proposed by General Electric (GE). One of the major components associated with the SBWR is the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) which provides the long-term heat sink to reject decay heat. The RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 code is being assessed for its ability to represent accurately the PCCS. Data from the Phase 1, Step 1 Heat Transfer Tests performed at Toshiba's Gravity-Driven Integral Full-Height Test for Passive Heat Removal (GIRAFFE) facility will be used for assessing the ability of RELAP5 to model condensation in the presence of noncondensables. The RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 condensation model uses the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) correlation developed by Vierow and Schrock. The RELAP5 code uses this heat transfer coefficient with the gas velocity effect multiplier being limited to 2. This heat transfer option was used to analyze the condensation heat transfer in the GIRAFFE PCCS heat exchanger tubes in the Phase 1, Step 1 Heat Transfer Tests which were at a pressure of 3 bar and had a range of nitrogen partial pressure fractions from 0.0 to 0.10. The results of a set of RELAP5 calculations al these conditions were compared with the GIRAFFE data. The effects of PCCS cell nodings on the heat transfer process were also studied. The UCB correlation, as implemented in RELAP5, predicted the heat transfer to ±5% of the data with a three-node model. The three-node model has a large cell in the entrance region which smeared out the entrance effects on the heat transfer, which tend to overpredict the condensation. Hence, the UCB correlation predicts condensation heat transfer in the presence of noncondensable gases with only a coarse mesh. The cell length term in the condensation heat transfer correlation implemented in the code must be removed to allow for accurate calculations with smaller cell sizes

  5. Intra-individual polymorphism in diploid and apomictic polyploid hawkweeds (Hieracium, Lactuceae, Asteraceae): disentangling phylogenetic signal, reticulation, and noise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fehrer, Judith; Krak, Karol; Chrtek, Jindřich

    -, č. 9 (2009), s. 239 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0657 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Hieracium * reticulation * evolution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.294, year: 2009 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/9/239

  6. Deep reticulation and incomplete lineage sorting obscure the diploid phylogeny of rain-lilies and allies (Amaryllidaceae tribe Hippeastreae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybridization is currently considered to be a frequent and important force in plant evolution; NGS methods offer new possibilities for clade resolution and ambitious sampling of gene genealogies, yet difficulty remains in detecting deep reticulation events using currently available methods. We exami...

  7. Aminoalkylated Merrifield Resins Reticulated by Tris-(2-chloroethyl Phosphate for Cadmium, Copper, and Iron (II Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Dardouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to synthesize novel substituted polymers bearing functional groups to chelate heavy metals during depollution applications. Three polyamine functionalized Merrifield resins were prepared via ethylenediamine (EDA, diethylenetriamine (DETA, and triethylenetetramine (TETA modifications named, respectively, MR-EDA, MR-DETA, and MR-TETA. The aminoalkylated polymers were subsequently reticulated by tris-(2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP to obtain new polymeric resins called, respectively, MR-EDA-TCEP, MR-DETA-TCEP, and MR-TETA-TCEP. The obtained resins were characterized via attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, elemental analysis (EA, and thermogravimetric (TGA, thermodynamic (DTA, and differential thermogravimetric (DTG analysis. The synthesized resins were then assayed to evaluate their efficiency to extract metallic ions such as Cd2+, Cu2+, and Fe2+ from aqueous solutions.

  8. Preparation, electrochemical characterization and charge-discharge of reticulated vitreous carbon/polyaniline composite electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmolin, Carla; Biaggio, Sonia R.; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.; Bocchi, Nerilso

    2009-01-01

    Polyaniline was electrodeposited onto reticulated vitreous carbon - RVC - in order to obtain a tridimensional composite electrode. Three variations of these electrodes were analysed: a small-anion-doped polyaniline (RVC/Pani), a polyanion-doped polyaniline (RVC/PaniPSS) and a bi-layer type formed by an inner layer of the first electrode and an outer layer of the second one (RVC/Pani/PaniPSS). These composites were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electronic microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Photomicrographies, voltammetric profiles and impedance data pointed to different morphological and electrochemical characteristics for polyaniline doped with small or large anions, and a mixed behavior for the bi-layer electrodes. Charge-discharge tests for these tridimensional (3D) electrodes, employed as the cathode in lithium batteries, indicated better performance for the RVC/Pani electrode. These RVC composites presented higher specific capacities when compared with those obtained for Pani deposited onto bidimensional substrates.

  9. Electrochemical reversibility of reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes heat treated at different carbonization temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Sarmento Gonçalves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical response of ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple is discussed for a system that uses reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC three dimensional electrodes prepared at five different Heat Treatment Temperatures (HTT in the range of 700 °C to 1100 °C. Electrical resistivity, scanning electron microscopy and X ray Diffraction analyses were performed for all prepared samples. It was observed that the HTT increasing promotes an electrical conductivity increasing while the Bragg distance d002 decreases. The correlation between reversibility behavior of ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple and both surface morphology and chemical properties of the RVC electrodes demonstrated a strong dependence on the HTT used to prepare the RVC.

  10. Lectin histochemical aspects of mucus function in the oesophagus of the reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, W; Luz, S; Schnapper, A

    2009-08-01

    Using lectin histochemistry, the study characterizes basic functional aspects of the mucus produced by the oesophageal epithelium of the Reticulated python (Python reticulatus). Reaction staining varied as related to the two epithelium types present, containing goblet cells and ciliary cells. Remarkable intensities were achieved especially in the luminal mucus layer and the fine mucus covering the epithelial ciliary border for Con A (alpha-D-Man; alpha-D-Glc) as part of neutral glycoproteins, Limax flavus agglutinin (NeuNac = NeuNgc), emphasizing that water binding hyaluronan provides a hydrated interface conductive to the passage of material and UEA-I (alpha-L-Fuc), corroborating the view that fucose-rich highly viscous mucus is helpful against mechanical stress during prey transport.

  11. Population structure and reticulate evolution of Saccharomyces eubayanus and its lager-brewing hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Sylvester, Kayla; Libkind, Diego; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo; Alexander, William G; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2014-04-01

    Reticulate evolution can be a major driver of diversification into new niches, especially in disturbed habitats and at the edges of ranges. Industrial fermentation strains of yeast provide a window into these processes, but progress has been hampered by a limited understanding of the natural diversity and distribution of Saccharomyces species and populations. For example, lager beer is brewed with Saccharomyces pastorianus, an alloploid hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus, a species only recently discovered in Patagonia, Argentina. Here, we report that genetically diverse strains of S. eubayanus are readily isolated from Patagonia, demonstrating that the species is well established there. Analyses of multilocus sequence data strongly suggest that there are two diverse and highly differentiated Patagonian populations. The low nucleotide diversity found in the S. eubayanus moiety of hybrid European brewing strains suggests that their alleles were drawn from a small subpopulation that is closely related to one of the Patagonian populations. For the first time, we also report the rare isolation of S. eubayanus outside Patagonia, in Wisconsin, USA. In contrast to the clear population differentiation in Patagonia, the North American strains represent a recent and possibly transient admixture of the two Patagonian populations. These complex and varied reticulation events are not adequately captured by conventional phylogenetic methods and required analyses of Bayesian concordance factors and phylogenetic networks to accurately summarize and interpret. These findings show how genetically diverse eukaryotic microbes can produce rare but economically important hybrids with low genetic diversity when they migrate from their natural ecological context. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Extracts of Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke show strong antiviral activity against the sexually transmitted pathogen herpes simplex virus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churqui, Marianela Patzi; Lind, Liza; Thörn, Karolina; Svensson, Alexandra; Savolainen, Otto; Aranda, Katty Terrazas; Eriksson, Kristina

    2018-01-10

    Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke have been traditionally used by women of the Tacana tribe in the Bolivian Amazonas for genital hygiene and for treatment of genital infection/inflammation. To assess the ability of extracts from Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke to block genital viral infection by herpes simplex virus type 2. Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke were collected from the Amazon region of La Paz, Bolivia. Extracts were prepared and screened for anti-viral activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) using both in vitro and in in vivo models of infection. Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke efficiently blocked HSV-2 infection of cell cultures without major cell cytotoxic effects. Extracts of Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke could prevent HSV-2 disease development when administered together with virus in a mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection. In vitro analyses revealed that both plant extracts exerted their anti-HSV-2 effects by interfering with viral cell attachment and entry, but could not block viral replication post entry. These studies show that extracts of Equisetum giganteum L and Copaifera reticulate Ducke have potent antiviral activities against HSV-2 comparable to those two previously identified plants, Croton lechleri Müll. Arg. and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult.) DC. These studies confirm that plants used by the Tacana tribe could be explored further for the development of novel topical antiviral microbicides. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Removal of Cd 2+ ion from diluted aqueous solutions by electrodeposition on reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tramontina Jucelânia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrodeposition of Cd2+ ion was investigated in pH 4.8 sulfuric-sulfate solutions in the presence of dissolved O2. In potentiostatic conditions, using reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC electrodes of 30, 60 and 100 pores per inch (ppi, high removal efficiency values were achieved in the potential range from --0.90 to --1.10 V for solutions containing 5 and 10 mg L-1 of Cd2+ ion. In this potential range, Cd electrodeposition is a mass transport controlled reaction and the concentration of the metallic ion decays exponentially with time following a pseudo-first order kinetics. For the 30 ppi RVC, the current efficiency and removal efficiency values found were, respectively, 45 % and 96 % for a solution containing 10 mg L-1 of Cd2+ ion after 30 minutes electrolysis at --0.90 V while 33 % and 99% were found for the 60 ppi RVC. The concentration decay of Cd2+ ion in the solution was monitored after each experiment by anodic stripping voltammetry at a hanging mercury drop electrode.

  14. Removal of Cd+2 from aqueous solutions onto polypyrrole coated reticulated vitreous carbon eletrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tramontina Jucelânia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of simple methods for removal of heavy metals from aqueous samples is a relevant field of research. In this connection, the electrodeposition of the Cd+2 ion, one of the most toxic species for animals and human beings, was investigated in aerated pH 4.8 sulfuric-sulfate solutions. In potentiostatic conditions, the maximum rate of cadmium deposition at a neutral polypyrrole (PPy0 coated reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC working electrode occurs at -3.0 V vs. the saturated calomel reference electrode (SCE. Moreover, the conversion rate depends both on the applied potential and on the mass transport regime, and, for solutions containing 10 mg L-1 of Cd2+, the highest removal efficiency achieved is 84% after 90 min of electrolysis. The concentration decay of the Cd+2 ion in the solution was monitored by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV at a hanging mercury drop electrode. Besides, metallic cadmium deposited onto the polypyrrole modified RVC electrode was evidenced by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis using the backscattered electron image (BEI technique and by Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS.

  15. Characterization of reticulated vitreous carbon foam using a frisch-grid parallel-plate ionization chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nathaniel S.; Conley, Jerrod C.; Reichenberger, Michael A.; Nelson, Kyle A.; Tiner, Christopher N.; Hinson, Niklas J.; Ugorowski, Philip B.; Fronk, Ryan G.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2018-06-01

    The propagation of electrons through several linear pore densities of reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foam was studied using a Frisch-grid parallel-plate ionization chamber pressurized to 1 psig of P-10 proportional gas. The operating voltages of the electrodes contained within the Frisch-grid parallel-plate ionization chamber were defined by measuring counting curves using a collimated 241Am alpha-particle source with and without a Frisch grid. RVC foam samples with linear pore densities of 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 80, and 100 pores per linear inch were separately positioned between the cathode and anode. Pulse-height spectra and count rates from a collimated 241Am alpha-particle source positioned between the cathode and each RVC foam sample were measured and compared to a measurement without an RVC foam sample. The Frisch grid was positioned in between the RVC foam sample and the anode. The measured pulse-height spectra were indiscernible from background and resulted in negligible net count rates for all RVC foam samples. The Frisch grid parallel-plate ionization chamber measurement results indicate that electrons do not traverse the bulk of RVC foam and consequently do not produce a pulse.

  16. Reticulated vitreous carbon doped with nano silver metallic particles for antimicrobial inhibitory application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Paula Silva; Oishi, Silvia; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro, E-mail: silvadeoliveira.ana@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Ito, Cristiane Yoga; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The development of composites for biocides application has attracted considerable attention in several research fields. Silver nanoparticles is a very know antimicrobial material.Manufacturing composite materials with high surface area and biocides characteristics is challenge. In this work was studied the morphological and structural characterization of silver nanoparticles dispersed in a structure of carbon Reticulated Vitreous (CVR), treated at different temperatures, resulting in a nanocomposite.The silver impregnation technique in carbon materials is not a simple work due to its chemical stability. The objective in this study was to evaluate the deposition of silver nanoparticles on the CVR as a composite material for microorganisms inhibition or eliminate. The characterization of the material will be carried out using the Raman spectroscopy, spectroscopy Photoelectron Excited by X-rays, diffraction X-ray-EDS.Through the results it was concluded that the CRV treated at 1300 ° C showed the highest concentration of silver on its structure. These results potentiate the deposition of silver nanoparticles on CRV structures and disorganized with large concentration of active sites to anchor silver particles. In addition, the average size of the deposited particles decreases due to heat treatment. (author)

  17. Reticulated vitreous carbon doped with nano silver metallic particles for antimicrobial inhibitory application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana Paula Silva; Oishi, Silvia; Marcuzzo, Jossano Saldanha; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Ito, Cristiane Yoga; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The development of composites for biocides application has attracted considerable attention in several research fields. Silver nanoparticles is a very know antimicrobial material.Manufacturing composite materials with high surface area and biocides characteristics is challenge. In this work was studied the morphological and structural characterization of silver nanoparticles dispersed in a structure of carbon Reticulated Vitreous (CVR), treated at different temperatures, resulting in a nanocomposite.The silver impregnation technique in carbon materials is not a simple work due to its chemical stability. The objective in this study was to evaluate the deposition of silver nanoparticles on the CVR as a composite material for microorganisms inhibition or eliminate. The characterization of the material will be carried out using the Raman spectroscopy, spectroscopy Photoelectron Excited by X-rays, diffraction X-ray-EDS.Through the results it was concluded that the CRV treated at 1300 ° C showed the highest concentration of silver on its structure. These results potentiate the deposition of silver nanoparticles on CRV structures and disorganized with large concentration of active sites to anchor silver particles. In addition, the average size of the deposited particles decreases due to heat treatment. (author)

  18. Extraction and quantification of polyphenols from kinnow (Citrus reticulate L. peel using ultrasound and maceration techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad N. Safdar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to extract polyphenols from the peel of kinnow (Citrus reticulate L. by maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE techniques. The antioxidant potential of these polyphenols was evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and superoxide radical scavenging assays; and their antimicrobial activity was assessed against bacterial strains Staphyloccoccus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium. The highest extraction yield was obtained through the solvent ethanol at 80% concentration level, whereas UAE was a more efficient technique and yielded comparatively higher polyphenol contents than maceration. Maximum polyphenols were extracted with 80% methanol [32.48 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract] using UAE, whereas minimum phenolics (8.64 mg GAE/g extract were obtained with 80% ethyl acetate through the maceration technique. Elevated antioxidant activity of kinnow peel extracts was exhibited in three antioxidant assays, where 80% methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant activity (27.67±1.11mM/100 g for FRAP and the highest scavenging activity, 72.83±0.65% and 64.80±0.91% for DPPH and superoxide anion radical assays, respectively. Strong correlations between total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were recorded. Eleven phenolic compounds—including five phenolic acids and six flavonoids—were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Ferulic acid and hesperidin were the most abundant compounds whereas caffeic acid was the least abundant phenolic compound in kinnow peel extracts. Maximum inhibition zone was recorded against S. aureus (16.00±0.58 mm whereas minimum inhibition zone was noted against S. typhimurium (9.00±1.16 mm. It was concluded that kinnow mandarin peels, being a potential source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, may be used as an ingredient for

  19. Akkermansia glycaniphila sp. nov., an anaerobic mucin-degrading bacterium isolated from reticulated python faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwerkerk, Janneke P; Aalvink, Steven; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, strictly anaerobic, oval-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain PytT) was isolated from reticulated python faeces. Strain PytT was capable of using mucin as sole carbon, energy and nitrogen source. Cells could grow singly, in pairs, and were also found to aggregate. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of filamentous structures connecting individual bacterial cells. Strain PytT could grow on a limited number of single sugars, including N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, glucose, lactose and galactose, but only when a plentiful protein source was provided. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed strain PytT to belong to the Verrucomicrobiae class I, family Akkermansiaceae, genus Akkermansia, with Akkermansia muciniphila MucT as the closest relative (94.4 % sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization revealed low relatedness of 28.3 % with A. muciniphila MucT. The G+C content of DNA from strain PytT was 58.2 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) of the genome of strain PytT compared to the genome of strain MucT was 79.7 %. Chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain PytT to the genus Akkermansia. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic characteristics, strain PytT represents a novel species of the genus Akkermansia, for which the name Akkermansia glycaniphila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PytT (=DSM 100705T=CIP 110913T).

  20. Surgical management of maxillary and premaxillary osteomyelitis in a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latney, La'Toya V; McDermott, Colin; Scott, Gregory; Soltero-Rivera, Maria M; Beguesse, Kyla; Sánchez, Melissa D; Lewis, John R

    2016-05-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 1-year-old reticulated python (Python reticulatus) was evaluated because of a 2-week history of wheezing and hissing. CLINICAL FINDINGS Rostral facial cellulitis and deep gingival pockets associated with missing rostral maxillary teeth were evident. Tissues of the nares were swollen, resulting in an audible wheeze during respiration. Multiple scars and superficial facial wounds attributed to biting by live prey were apparent. Radiographic examination revealed bilateral, focal, rostral maxillary osteomyelitis. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Wound irrigation, antimicrobials, and anti-inflammatory drug treatment resulted in reduced cellulitis. A 3-week regimen that included empirical antimicrobial treatment and improved husbandry resulted in resolution of the respiratory sounds and partial healing of bite wounds, but radiographic evaluation revealed progressive maxillary osteomyelitis. Microbial culture of blood yielded scant gram-positive cocci and Bacillus spp, which were suspected sample contaminants. Bilateral partial maxillectomies were performed; microbial culture and histologic examination of resected bone confirmed osteomyelitis with gram-positive cocci. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was initiated on the basis of microbial susceptibility tests. Four months later, follow-up radiography revealed premaxillary osteomyelitis; surgery was declined, and treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was reinstituted. Eight months after surgery, the patient was reevaluated because of recurrent clinical signs; premaxillectomy was performed, and treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was prescribed on the basis of microbial culture of bone and microbial susceptibility testing. Resolution of osteomyelitis was confirmed by CT 11 months after the initial surgery. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Focal maxillectomies and premaxillectomy were successfully performed in a large python. Surgical management and appropriate antimicrobial treatment

  1. Evaluation of RELAP5 MOD 3.1.1 code with GIRAFFE Test Facility: Phase 1, Step 2 nitrogen venting tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, B.D.; Slovik, G.C.; Rohatgl, U.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) proposed by General Electric (GE) is an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) design that utilizes passive safety systems. The PCCS is a series of heat exchangers submerged in water and open to the containment. Since the containment is inerted with nitrogen during normal operation, the PCCS must condense the steam in the presence of noncondensable gases during an accident. To model the transient behavior of the SBWR with a system code, the code should properly simulate the expected phenomena. To validate the applicability of RELAP5 MOD 3.1.1, the data from three Phase 1, Step 2 nitrogen venting tests at Toshiba's Gravity-Driven Integral Full-Height Test for Passive Heat Removal facility and RELAP5 calculations of these tests were compared. The comparison of the GIRAFFE data against the results from the RELAP5 calculations showed that it can predict condensation and gas purging phenomena occurring in the long-term decay heat rejection phase. In this phase of the transient, condensation in the PCCS is the only means to reject heat from the SBWR containment. In the two tests where the nitrogen purge vent line was at its deepest submergence in the Suppression Pool (SIP), the RELAP5 results mirrored the behavior of the containment pressures and of the water levels in the Horizontal Vent (HV) and the nitrogen purge line tube of the GIRAFFE data. However, in the test with the shallowest purge line submergence, there was appreciable direct contact condensation on the pool surface of the HV despite modeling efforts to deter these phenomena. This surface condensation, unobserved in the GIRAFFE tests, was a major cause of RELAP5 predicting early containment depressurization and the subsequent early rise in HV and nitrogen purge line water levels. The present RELAP5 MOD3.1.1 interfacial heat and mass transfer model does not properly degrade direct contact steam condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases sitting on a pool

  2. Reticulate Pleistocene evolution of Ethiopian rodent genus along remarkable altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryja, Josef; Kostin, Danila; Meheretu, Yonas; Šumbera, Radim; Bryjová, Anna; Kasso, Mohammed; Mikula, Ondřej; Lavrenchenko, Leonid A

    2018-01-01

    The Ethiopian highlands are the most extensive complex of mountainous habitats in Africa. The presence of the Great Rift Valley (GRV) and the striking elevational ecological gradients inhabited by recently radiated Ethiopian endemics, provide a wide spectrum of model situations for evolutionary studies. The extant species of endemic rodents, often markedly phenotypically differentiated, are expected to possess complex genetic features which evolved asa consequence of the interplay between geomorphology and past climatic changes. In this study, we used the largest available multi-locus genetic dataset of the murid genus Stenocephalemys (347 specimens from ca 40 localities across the known distributional area of all taxa) to investigate the relative importance of disruptive selection, temporary geographic isolation and introgression in their adaptive radiations in the Pleistocene. We confirmed the four main highly supported mitochondrial (mtDNA) clades that were proposed as four species in a previous pilot study: S. albipes is a sister species of S. griseicauda (both lineages are present on both sides of the GRV), while the second clade is formed by two Afro-alpine species, S. albocaudata (east of GRV) and the undescribed Stenocephalemys sp. A (west of GRV). There is a clear elevational gradient in the distribution of the Stenocephalemys taxa with two to three species present at different elevations of the same mountain range. Surprisingly, the nuclear species tree corresponded only a little to the mtDNA tree. Multispecies coalescent models based on six nuclear markers revealed the presence of six separate gene pools (i.e. candidate species), with different topology. Phylogenetic analysis, together with the geographic distribution of the genetic groups, suggests a complex reticulate evolution. We propose a scenario that involves (besides classical allopatric speciation) two cases of disruptive selection along the elevational ecological gradient, multiple crosses of

  3. High-throughput expression of animal venom toxins in Escherichia coli to generate a large library of oxidized disulphide-reticulated peptides for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetto, Jeremy; Sequeira, Ana Filipa; Ramond, Laurie; Peysson, Fanny; Brás, Joana L A; Saez, Natalie J; Duhoo, Yoan; Blémont, Marilyne; Guerreiro, Catarina I P D; Quinton, Loic; De Pauw, Edwin; Gilles, Nicolas; Darbon, Hervé; Fontes, Carlos M G A; Vincentelli, Renaud

    2017-01-17

    Animal venoms are complex molecular cocktails containing a wide range of biologically active disulphide-reticulated peptides that target, with high selectivity and efficacy, a variety of membrane receptors. Disulphide-reticulated peptides have evolved to display improved specificity, low immunogenicity and to show much higher resistance to degradation than linear peptides. These properties make venom peptides attractive candidates for drug development. However, recombinant expression of reticulated peptides containing disulphide bonds is challenging, especially when associated with the production of large libraries of bioactive molecules for drug screening. To date, as an alternative to artificial synthetic chemical libraries, no comprehensive recombinant libraries of natural venom peptides are accessible for high-throughput screening to identify novel therapeutics. In the accompanying paper an efficient system for the expression and purification of oxidized disulphide-reticulated venom peptides in Escherichia coli is described. Here we report the development of a high-throughput automated platform, that could be adapted to the production of other families, to generate the largest ever library of recombinant venom peptides. The peptides were produced in the periplasm of E. coli using redox-active DsbC as a fusion tag, thus allowing the efficient formation of correctly folded disulphide bridges. TEV protease was used to remove fusion tags and recover the animal venom peptides in the native state. Globally, within nine months, out of a total of 4992 synthetic genes encoding a representative diversity of venom peptides, a library containing 2736 recombinant disulphide-reticulated peptides was generated. The data revealed that the animal venom peptides produced in the bacterial host were natively folded and, thus, are putatively biologically active. Overall this study reveals that high-throughput expression of animal venom peptides in E. coli can generate large

  4. Mutations in the Arabidopsis AtMRS2-11/AtMGT10/VAR5 Gene Cause Leaf Reticulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Liang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In higher plants, the development of functional chloroplasts is essential for photosynthesis and many other physiological processes. With a long-term goal of elucidating the genetic regulation of chloroplast development, we identified two allelic leaf variegation mutants, variegated5-1 (var5-1 and var5-2. Both mutants showed a distinct leaf reticulation phenotype of yellow paraveinal regions and green interveinal regions, and the leaf reticulation phenotype correlated with photosynthetic defects. Through the identification of mutation sites in the two mutant alleles and the molecular complementation, we confirmed that VAR5 encodes a CorA family of Mg2+ transporters also known as AtMRS2-11/AtMGT10. Using protoplast transient expression and biochemical fractionation assays, we demonstrated that AtMRS2-11/AtMGT10/VAR5 likely localizes to the chloroplast envelope. Moreover, we established that AtMRS2-11/AtMGT10/VAR5 forms large molecular weight complexes in the chloroplast and the sizes of these complexes clearly exceed those of their bacterial counterparts, suggesting the compositions of CorA Mg2+ transporter complex is different between the chloroplast and bacteria. Our findings indicate that AtMRS2-11/AtMGT10/VAR5 plays an important role in the tissue specific regulation of chloroplast development.

  5. Limb swinging in elephants and giraffes and implications for the reconstruction of limb movements and speed estimates in large dinosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christian

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Speeds of walking dinosaurs that left fossil trackways have been estimated using the stride length times natural pendulum frequency of the limbs. In a detailed analysis of limb movements in walking Asian elephants and giraffes, however, distinct differences between actual limb movements and the predicted limb movements using only gravity as driving force were observed. Additionally, stride frequency was highly variable. Swing time was fairly constant, but especially at high walking speeds, much shorter than half the natural pendulum period. An analysis of hip and shoulder movements during walking showed that limb swinging was influenced by accelerations of hip and shoulder joints especially at high walking speeds. These results suggest an economical fast walking mechanism that could have been utilised by large dinosaurs to increase maximum speeds of locomotion. These findings throw new light on the dynamics of large vertebrates and can be used to improve speed estimates in large dinosaurs. Geschwindigkeiten gehender Dinosaurier, die fossile Fährten hinterlassen haben, wurden als Produkt aus Schrittlänge und natürlicher Pendelfrequenz der Beine abgeschätzt. Eine detaillierte Analyse der Beinbewegungen von gehenden Asiatischen Elefanten und Giraffen offenbarte allerdings klare Unterschiede zwischen den tatsächlichen Extremitätenbewegungen und den Bewegungen, die zu erwarten wären, wenn die Gravitation die einzige treibende Kraft darstellte. Zudem erwies sich die Schrittfrequenz als hochgradig variabel. Die Schwingzeit der Gliedmaßen war recht konstant, aber besonders bei hohen Gehgeschwindigkeiten viel kürzer als die halbe natürliche Pendelperiode der Extremitäten. Eine Analyse der Bewegungen der Hüft- und Schultergelenke während des Gehens zeigte, daß das Schwingen der Gliedmaßen durch Beschleunigungen dieser Gelenke beeinflußt wurde, insbesondere bei hohen Gehgeschwindigkeiten. Die Resultate legen einen ökonomischen Mechanismus

  6. Evaluation of reticulated gelatin-hibiscus-propolis against intestinal commensal species commonly associated with urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olier, Maïwenn; Sekkal, Soraya; Harkat, Cherryl; Eutamene, Hélène; Theodorou, Vassilia

    2017-05-01

    Reticulated gelatin (RG), hibiscus and propolis (RGHP) is a medical device that can reduce the bacterial adherence to epithelial cultured cells and invasion by enteropathogens, thus gathering relevant properties to decrease the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs). We aimed at evaluating in Wistar rats the efficacy of RGHP, RG and vehicle against intestinal commensals commonly involved in UTIs. Animals received orally (with supplemental Na 2 CO 3 ): RGHP 1540 mg/day/rat; RG 500 mg/day/rat or vehicle. RGHP significantly reduced fecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. levels without affecting other targeted Enterobacteriaceae. The antagonistic property of RGHP was confirmed in streptomycin-pretreated rats highly colonized with a human commensal E. coli strain with uropathogenic potential. RGHP may decrease the risk of UTIs by reducing colonization by opportunistic uropathogens.

  7. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stanley R [Windsor, SC; Korinko, Paul S [Aiken, SC

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  8. Phylogeography of the reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.): Conservation implications for the worlds' most traded snake species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Dickson, Gillian; Ghazali, Muhammad; Ogden, Rob; Brown, Rafe; Auliya, Mark

    2017-01-01

    As an important economic natural resource in Southeast Asia, reticulated pythons (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.) are primarily harvested from the wild for their skins-which are prized in the luxury leather goods industry. Trade dynamics of this CITES Appendix II listed species are complex and management approaches on the country or regional level appear obscure. Little is known about the actual geographic point-of-harvest of snakes, how genetic diversity is partitioned across the species range, how current harvest levels may affect the genetic viability of populations, and whether genetic structure could (or should) be accounted for when managing harvest quotas. As an initial survey, we use mitochondrial sequence data to define the broad-scale geographic structure of genetic diversity across a significant portion of the reticulated python's native range. Preliminary results reveal: (1) prominent phylogenetic structure across populations east and west of Huxley's modification of Wallace's line. Thirty-four haplotypes were apportioned across two geographically distinct groups, estimated to be moderately (5.2%); (2) Philippine, Bornean and Sulawesian populations appear to cluster distinctly; (3) individuals from Ambon Island suggest recent human introduction. Malayopython reticulatus is currently managed as a single taxonomic unit across Southeast Asia yet these initial results may justify special management considerations of the Philippine populations as a phylogenetically distinct unit, that warrants further examination. In Indonesia, genetic structure does not conform tightly to political boundaries and therefore we advocate the precautionary designation and use of Evolutionary Significant Units within Malayopython reticulatus, to inform and guide regional adaptive management plans.

  9. Phylogeography of the reticulated python (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.: Conservation implications for the worlds' most traded snake species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Murray-Dickson

    Full Text Available As an important economic natural resource in Southeast Asia, reticulated pythons (Malayopython reticulatus ssp. are primarily harvested from the wild for their skins-which are prized in the luxury leather goods industry. Trade dynamics of this CITES Appendix II listed species are complex and management approaches on the country or regional level appear obscure. Little is known about the actual geographic point-of-harvest of snakes, how genetic diversity is partitioned across the species range, how current harvest levels may affect the genetic viability of populations, and whether genetic structure could (or should be accounted for when managing harvest quotas. As an initial survey, we use mitochondrial sequence data to define the broad-scale geographic structure of genetic diversity across a significant portion of the reticulated python's native range. Preliminary results reveal: (1 prominent phylogenetic structure across populations east and west of Huxley's modification of Wallace's line. Thirty-four haplotypes were apportioned across two geographically distinct groups, estimated to be moderately (5.2%; (2 Philippine, Bornean and Sulawesian populations appear to cluster distinctly; (3 individuals from Ambon Island suggest recent human introduction. Malayopython reticulatus is currently managed as a single taxonomic unit across Southeast Asia yet these initial results may justify special management considerations of the Philippine populations as a phylogenetically distinct unit, that warrants further examination. In Indonesia, genetic structure does not conform tightly to political boundaries and therefore we advocate the precautionary designation and use of Evolutionary Significant Units within Malayopython reticulatus, to inform and guide regional adaptive management plans.

  10. Structural and surface functionality changes in reticulated vitreous carbon produced from poly(furfuryl alcohol) with sodium hydroxide additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, Silvia Sizuka, E-mail: silviaoishi@uol.com.br [LAS, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, São José dos Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil); Botelho, Edson Cocchieri [Departamento de Materiais e Tecnologia, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av. Doutor Ariberto Pereira da Cunha 333, Guaratinguetá, SP 12516-410 (Brazil); Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Rua Talim 330, São José dos Campos, SP 12231-280 (Brazil); Ferreira, Neidenêi Gomes [LAS, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, São José dos Campos, SP 12227-010 (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) was processed from poly(furfuryl alcohol) with different amounts of NaOH. • A correlation between microstructure and surface functionalities was proposed. • The structural ordering was mainly influenced by the cured PFA polymerization degree and carboxylic acid content on RVC surface. - Abstract: The use of sodium hydroxide to neutralize the acid catalyst increases the storage life of poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) resin avoiding its continuous polymerization. In this work, a concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) was added directly to the PFA resin in order to minimize the production of wastes generated when PFA is washed with diluted basic solution. Thus, different amounts of this concentrated basic solution were added to the resin up to reaching pH values of around 3, 5, 7, and 9. From these four types of modified PFA two sample sets of reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) were processed and heat treated at two different temperatures (1000 and 1700 °C). A correlation among cross-link density of PFA and RVC morphology, structural ordering and surface functionalities was systematically studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The PFA neutralization (pH 7) led to its higher polymerization degree, promoting a crystallinity decrease on RVC treated at 1000 °C as well as its highest percentages of carboxylic groups on surface. A NaOH excess (pH 9) substantially increased the RVC oxygen content, but its crystallinity remained similar to those for samples from pH 3 and 5 treated at 1000 °C, probably due to the reduced presence of carboxylic group and the lower polymerization degree of its cured resin. Samples with pH 3 and 5 heat treated at 1000 and 1700 °C can be considered the most ordered which indicated that small quantities of NaOH may be advantageous to minimize continuous

  11. Reticulate phylogeny of gastropod-shell-breeding cichlids from Lake Tanganyika – the result of repeated introgressive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanc Michel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tribe Lamprologini is the major substrate breeding lineage of Lake Tanganyika's cichlid species flock. Among several different life history strategies found in lamprologines, the adaptation to live and breed in empty gastropod shells is probably the most peculiar. Although shell-breeding arose several times in the evolutionary history of the lamprologines, all obligatory and most facultative shell-breeders belong to the so called "ossified group", a monophyletic lineage within the lamprologine cichlids. Since their distinctive life style enables these species to live and breed in closest vicinity, we hypothesized that these cichlids might be particularly prone to accidental hybridization, and that introgression might have affected the evolutionary history of this cichlid lineage. Results Our analyses revealed discrepancies between phylogenetic hypotheses based on mitochondrial and nuclear (AFLP data. While the nuclear phylogeny was congruent with morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics, several species – usually highly specialized shell-breeders – were placed at contradicting positions in the mitochondrial phylogeny. The discordant phylogenies strongly suggest repeated incidents of introgressive hybridization between several distantly related shell-breeding species, which reticulated the phylogeny of this group of cichlids. Long interior branches and high bootstrap support for many interior nodes in the mitochondrial phylogeny argue against a major effect of ancient incomplete lineage sorting on the phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, we provide morphological and genetic (mtDNA and microsatellites evidence for ongoing hybridization among distantly related shell-breeders. In these cases, the territorial males of the inferred paternal species are too large to enter the shells of their mate, such that they have to release their sperm over the entrance of the shell to fertilize the eggs. With sperm

  12. Reticulate Evolution of the Rock Lizards: Meiotic Chromosome Dynamics and Spermatogenesis in Diploid and Triploid Males of the Genus Darevskia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Victor; Arakelyan, Marine; Galoyan, Eduard; Matveevsky, Sergey; Petrosyan, Ruzanna; Bogdanov, Yuri; Danielyan, Felix; Kolomiets, Oxana

    2017-05-24

    Knowing whether triploid hybrids resulting from natural hybridization of parthenogenetic and bisexual species are fertile is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of reticulate evolution in rock lizards. Here, using males of the bisexual diploid rock lizard species Darevskia raddei nairensis and Darevskia valentini and a triploid hybrid male Darevskia unisexualis × Darevskia valentini , we performed karyotyping and comparative immunocytochemistry of chromosome synapsis and investigated the distribution of RAD51 and MLH1 foci in spread spermatocyte nuclei in meiotic prophase I. Three chromosome sets were found to occur in cell nuclei in the D. unisexualis × D. valentini hybrid, two originating from a parthenogenetic D. unisexualis female and one from the D. valentini male. Despite this distorted chromosome synapsis and incomplete double-strand breaks repair in meiotic prophase I, the number of mismatch repair foci in the triploid hybrid was enough to pass through both meiotic divisions. The defects in synapsis and repair did not arrest meiosis or spermatogenesis. Numerous abnormal mature spermatids were observed in the testes of the studied hybrid.

  13. Morphological Study of Chitosan/Poly (Vinyl Alcohol Nanofibers Prepared by Electrospinning, Collected on Reticulated Vitreous Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Isela Sanchez-Alvarado

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, chitosan (CS/poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA nanofibers were prepared by using the electrospinning method. Different CS concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 wt %, maintaining the PVA concentration at 8 wt %, were tested. Likewise, the studied electrospinning experimental parameters were: syringe/collector distance, solution flow and voltage. Subsequently, the electrospun fibers were collected on a reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC support for 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 h. The morphology and diameter of the CS/PVA nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, finding diameters in the order of 132 and 212 nm; the best results (uniform fibers were obtained from the solution with 2 wt % of chitosan and a voltage, distance, and flow rate of 16 kV, 20 cm, and 0.13 mL/h, respectively. Afterwards, a treatment with an ethanolic NaOH solution was performed, observing a change in the fiber morphology and a diameter decrease (117 ± 9 nm.

  14. Reticulate evolution: frequent introgressive hybridization among chinese hares (genus lepus revealed by analyses of multiple mitochondrial and nuclear DNA loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shi-Fang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific hybridization may lead to the introgression of genes and genomes across species barriers and contribute to a reticulate evolutionary pattern and thus taxonomic uncertainties. Since several previous studies have demonstrated that introgressive hybridization has occurred among some species within Lepus, therefore it is possible that introgressive hybridization events also occur among Chinese Lepus species and contribute to the current taxonomic confusion. Results Data from four mtDNA genes, from 116 individuals, and one nuclear gene, from 119 individuals, provides the first evidence of frequent introgression events via historical and recent interspecific hybridizations among six Chinese Lepus species. Remarkably, the mtDNA of L. mandshuricus was completely replaced by mtDNA from L. timidus and L. sinensis. Analysis of the nuclear DNA sequence revealed a high proportion of heterozygous genotypes containing alleles from two divergent clades and that several haplotypes were shared among species, suggesting repeated and recent introgression. Furthermore, results from the present analyses suggest that Chinese hares belong to eight species. Conclusion This study provides a framework for understanding the patterns of speciation and the taxonomy of this clade. The existence of morphological intermediates and atypical mitochondrial gene genealogies resulting from frequent hybridization events likely contribute to the current taxonomic confusion of Chinese hares. The present study also demonstrated that nuclear gene sequence could offer a powerful complementary data set with mtDNA in tracing a complete evolutionary history of recently diverged species.

  15. Tomography based determination of permeability, Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient, and interfacial heat transfer coefficient in reticulate porous ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrasch, Joerg; Meier, Fabian; Friess, Hansmartin; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    A computer tomography based methodology is applied to determine the transport properties of fluid flow across porous media. A 3D digital representation of a 10-ppi reticulate porous ceramic (RPC) sample was generated by X-ray tomographic scans. Structural properties such as the porosity, specific interfacial surface area, pore-size distribution, mean survival time, two-point correlation function s 2 , and local geometry distribution of the RPC sample are directly extracted from the tomographic data. Reference solutions of the fluid flow governing equations are obtained for Re = 0.2-200 by applying finite volume direct pore-level numerical simulation (DPLS) using unstructured, body-fitted, tetrahedral mesh discretization. The permeability and the Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient are determined from the reference solutions by DPLS, and compared to the values predicted by selected porous media flow models, namely: conduit-flow, hydraulic radius theory, drag models, mean survival time bound, s 2 -bound, fibrous bed correlations, and local porosity theory-based models. DPLS is further employed to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient and to derive a corresponding Nu-correlation, which is compared to empirical correlations

  16. Mimicking mechanical response of natural tissues. Strain hardening induced by transient reticulation in lactose-modified chitosan (chitlac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Michela; Sacco, Pasquale; Porrelli, Davide; Travan, Andrea; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Marsich, Eleonora; Paoletti, Sergio; Donati, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    The effect of transient cross-links has been explored on a lactose-modified chitosan, which previously had shown interesting biological features. The presence of galactose side chains and of the polyol spacer resulted particularly appealing for the reticulation by borate ions. The interaction between chitlac and borax was investigated by means of 11 B NMR while rheology pointed to a marked non-linear behavior depending on the amount of borax added to the system. The presence of limited amount of cross-linking ion led to dilatant behavior when the steady flow curve was measured. In addition, strain stiffening was noticed on elastic response upon exceeding a critical stress, indicating a transient nature in the formation of the cross-links. The non-linear response of chitlac in the presence of borax compared surprisingly well with the one showed by proteins composing the natural ECM pointing at a possible role of mechanotransduction in the biological significance of the modified chitosan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Report on the observed response of Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) upon encountering a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Prayitno, Bambang; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    We observed an encounter between a reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and a group of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) at the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. A python (about 2 m in length) moved toward a group of lutungs in the trees. Upon seeing the python, an adult male and several adult female lutungs began to emit alarm calls. As the python approached, two adult and one sub-adult female jumped onto a branch near the python and began mobbing the python by shaking the branch. During the mobbing, other individuals in the group (including an adult lutung male) remained nearby but did not participate. The python then rolled into a ball-like shape and stopped moving, at which point the lutungs moved away. The total duration of the encounter was about 40 min, during which time the lutungs stopped feeding and grooming. Group cohesiveness during and after the encounter was greater than that before the encounter, indicating that lutungs adjust their daily activity in response to potential predation risk.

  18. Effects of ionizing radiations on reticulated polymers associated to nuclear wastes. The HSF-SIMS technique contribution; Effets des radiations ionisantes sur les polymeres reticules associes aux dechets nucleaires. Apport de la technique HSF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debre, O [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1997-06-30

    Among the materials used for confinement of nuclear wastes of low and medium level activity the epoxyde resins are known as matrices which preserve well their properties in an ionizing environment. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the modifications occurring in molecular structure of these materials as well as of the ion exchange resins they incorporate, irradiated in different conditions. The first part deals with the analysis of a commercial reticulated epoxyde resin submitted to a 2 MGy integral dose gamma irradiation under two different dose rate (51 and 900 Gy/h), and under two different environments (air and water). The results obtained with the techniques providing structure information (time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HSF-SIMS) and FT-IR spectrometry) confirm those obtained by techniques sensible to macroscopic properties of material (DMA, DSC), taking into account that no noticeable irradiation effect can be made evident inside the material. On the other hand, an irradiation carried out in air results in a superficial oxidation, due probably to the action of the air radiolysis products. The preliminary results of an ion irradiation followed by an in-situ HSF-SIMS analysis pointed out to a basic difference between the energy amount transferred by gamma photons and fast ions; the last ones being able to induce scissions of the nearby liaisons in the material. The second part of this work is concerned with the ion exchange resins of the type PS-DVB saturated in water and non-active ions, simulating real wastes, irradiated in the same conditions as the epoxyde resins. In contrast to the results on the last one, it appears that the irradiation of these materials results primarily in scissions of the functional groups on which the ions are attached. In addition to this finding it appears that the role of water as carrying outward the attached ions appears to be fundamental 175 refs.

  19. Kinetics of Acid Orange 7 oxidation by using carbon fiber and reticulated vitreous carbon in an electro-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Pereda, Blenda; Álvarez-Gallegos, Alberto; Rangel-Peraza, Jesús Gabriel; Bustos-Terrones, Yaneth A

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a micro-scale parallel plate reactor was built to electrochemically generate hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and to develop the Fenton reaction in situ, for the treatment of toxic organic pollutants. Two types of carbon materials were compared and used as cathodes: unidirectional carbon fiber (CF) and reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC). As anode, a stainless steel mesh was used. The results of H 2 O 2 were experimentally compared by means of electrogeneration process. RVC cathode with dimensions of 2.5 × 1 × 5 cm (170 mA and variable voltage V = 2.0-2.7) and 180 min produced 5.3 mM H 2 O 2 , with an H 2 O 2 production efficiency of 54%. Unidirectional carbon fiber cathode produced 7.5 mM of H 2 O 2 (96% of H 2 O 2 production efficiency) when a voltage of 1.8 V was applied during 180 min to a total area of 480 cm 2 of this material. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) was degraded to a concentration of 0.16 mM during the first 40 min of the process, which represented 95% of the initial concentration. Electrolysis process removed nearly 100% of the AO7 using both cathodes at the end of these experiments (180 min). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Deposition of nano-size particles on reticulated vitreous carbon using colloidal precursors : three-dimensional anodes for borohydride fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.; Gyenge, E.L. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2006-07-01

    In addition to their inherently larger specific surface area, mesoscopic materials also possess a higher density of surface constrained sites, which could serve as active sites in catalysis as well as facilitate the surface diffusion of small molecules and ions relevant to various catalytic steps. This study investigated the organosol method for the deposition of platinum (Pt), iridium (Ir), gold (Au) and nickel (Ni) nano-particles on reticulated vitreous carbon to evaluate the electrocatalytic activity for BH{sub 4} oxidation by both fundamental electrochemical studies and fuel cell experiments. The application of the organosol nanometal preparation technique was based on the quaternary ammonium compound N(C{sub 8}H{sub 17}){sub 4}B(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}H acting as both reductant and colloid stabilizer. A current assisted variant was also studied where the reticulated vitreous carbon substrate served as the cathode operating at superficial current densities between 1.0 and 2.5 mA per cm{sup 2}. The organosol method produced a low catalyst load on reticulated vitreous carbons between 0.01 and 0.12 mg per cm{sup 2}. The electrodes were evaluated for catalytic activity toward the electro-oxidation of BH{sub 4} by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and fuel cell experiments. Borohydride fuel cells with liquid electrolyte (2 M NaOH) were assembled using a 3-dimensional anode, a cation exchange membrane and a commercial oxygen cathode. Results showed that the anode catalyst mass activity was higher for the 3-D design compared to the case when a gas diffusion electrode served as the anode. It was concluded that the extended reaction zone of the three-dimensional anode with liquid electrolyte improved the catalyst utilization efficiency by allowing the reduction of the catalyst load. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Diversification of Scrophularia (Scrophulariaceae) in the Western Mediterranean and Macaronesia--phylogenetic relationships, reticulate evolution and biogeographic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheunert, Agnes; Heubl, Günther

    2014-01-01

    The flora of the Mediterranean region and Macaronesia is characterized by high levels of species diversity and endemism. We examined phylogenetic relationships of Scrophularia within one of its secondary centers of diversity located in the Iberian Peninsula and adjacent Macaronesia. In total, 65 ingroup accessions from 45 species, representing an almost complete sampling of the region, were analyzed using sequences from the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the plastid trnQ-rps16 intergenic spacer. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and statistical parsimony networking. Incongruence between datasets was assessed with statistical tests and displayed by split networks. Biogeographic inferences incorporating information from both markers (despite low resolution in some parts of the trees) and all incongruent taxa were accomplished with a novel combination of methods, using trees generated with the taxon duplication approach as input for Bayesian binary MCMC (BBM) analysis as implemented in RASP. Nuclear and chloroplast markers support a clade which comprises the majority of Iberian and Macaronesian species and consists of three subclades. Analyses of the substantial incongruence observed among markers indicate reticulate evolution and suggest that Scrophularia species diversity in this region is largely attributable to hybridization; a combination of both polyploidy and dysploidy in the karyotypic evolution of Western Mediterranean Scrophularia taxa is proposed. Our results provide support for an ancient hybridization event between two widespread lineages, which resulted in an allopolyploid ancestor of the Iberian - Macaronesian group with 2n=58 chromosomes. The ancestor then diverged into the three main lineages present in the Iberian Peninsula, Northern Africa and Macaronesia today. Subsequent interspecific hybridizations at different ploidy levels additionally generated new species. Presumably

  2. Timed feeding of mice modulates light-entrained circadian rhythms of reticulated platelet abundance and plasma thrombopoietin and affects gene expression in megakaryocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Paul S; Sheward, John; Scholefield, Emma; French, Karen; Horn, Jacqueline M; Holmes, Megan C; Harmar, Anthony J

    2009-07-01

    Circadian (c. 24 h) rhythms of physiology are entrained to either the environmental light-dark cycle or the timing of food intake. In the current work the hypothesis that rhythms of platelet turnover in mammals are circadian and entrained by food intake was explored in mice. Mice were entrained to 12 h light-dark cycles and given either ad libitum (AL) or restricted access (RF) to food during the light phase. Blood and megakaryocytes were then collected from mice every 4 h for 24 h. It was found that total and reticulated platelet numbers, plasma thrombopoietin (TPO) concentration and the mean size of mature megakaryocytes were circadian but not entrained by food intake. In contrast, a circadian rhythm in the expression of Arnt1 in megakaryocytes was entrained by food. Although not circadian, the expression in megakaryocytes of Nfe2, Gata1, Itga2b and Tubb1 expression was downregulated by RF, whereas Ccnd1 was not significantly affected by the feeding protocol. It is concluded that circadian rhythms of total platelet number, reticulated platelet number and plasma TPO concentration are entrained by the light-dark cycle rather than the timing of food intake. These findings imply that circadian clock gene expression regulates platelet turnover in mammals.

  3. A phylogenetic analysis of the grape genus (Vitis L.) reveals broad reticulation and concurrent diversification during neogene and quaternary climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yizhen; Schwaninger, Heidi R; Baldo, Angela M; Labate, Joanne A; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Simon, Charles J

    2013-07-05

    Grapes are one of the most economically important fruit crops. There are about 60 species in the genus Vitis. The phylogenetic relationships among these species are of keen interest for the conservation and use of this germplasm. We selected 309 accessions from 48 Vitis species,varieties, and outgroups, examined ~11 kb (~3.4 Mb total) of aligned nuclear DNA sequences from 27 unlinked genes in a phylogenetic context, and estimated divergence times based on fossil calibrations. Vitis formed a strongly supported clade. There was substantial support for species and less for the higher-level groupings (series). As estimated from extant taxa, the crown age of Vitis was 28 Ma and the divergence of subgenera (Vitis and Muscadinia) occurred at ~18 Ma. Higher clades in subgenus Vitis diverged 16 - 5 Ma with overlapping confidence intervals, and ongoing divergence formed extant species at 12 - 1.3 Ma. Several species had species-specific SNPs. NeighborNet analysis showed extensive reticulation at the core of subgenus Vitis representing the deeper nodes, with extensive reticulation radiating outward. Fitch Parsimony identified North America as the origin of the most recent common ancestor of extant Vitis species. Phylogenetic patterns suggested origination of the genus in North America, fragmentation of an ancestral range during the Miocene, formation of extant species in the late Miocene-Pleistocene, and differentiation of species in the context of Pliocene-Quaternary tectonic and climatic change. Nuclear SNPs effectively resolved relationships at and below the species level in grapes and rectified several misclassifications of accessions in the repositories. Our results challenge current higher-level classifications, reveal the abundance of genetic diversity in the genus that is potentially available for crop improvement, and provide a valuable resource for species delineation, germplasm conservation and use.

  4. Metschnikowia Species Share a Pool of Diverse rRNA Genes Differing in Regions That Determine Hairpin-Loop Structures and Evolve by Reticulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Sipiczki

    Full Text Available Modern taxonomy of yeasts is mainly based on phylogenetic analysis of conserved DNA and protein sequences. By far the most frequently used sequences are those of the repeats of the chromosomal rDNA array. It is generally accepted that the rDNA repeats of a genome have identical sequences due to the phenomenon of sequence homogenisation and can thus be used for identification and barcoding of species. Here we show that the rDNA arrays of the type strains of Metschnikowia andauensis and M. fructicola are not homogenised. Both have arrays consisting of diverse repeats that differ from each other in the D1/D2 domains by up to 18 and 25 substitutions. The variable sites are concentrated in two regions that correspond to back-folding stretches of hairpin loops in the predicted secondary structure of the RNA molecules. The substitutions do not alter significantly the overall hairpin-loop structure due to wobble base pairing at sites of C-T transitions and compensatory mutations in the complementary strand of the hairpin stem. The phylogenetic and network analyses of the cloned sequences revealed that the repeats had not evolved in a vertical tree-like way but reticulation might have shaped the rDNA arrays of both strains. The neighbour-net analysis of all cloned sequences of the type strains and the database sequences of different strains further showed that these species share a continuous pool of diverse repeats that appear to evolve by reticulate evolution.

  5. Increased platelet count and reticulated platelets in recently symptomatic versus asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and in cerebral microembolic signal-negative patient subgroups: results from the HaEmostasis In carotid STenosis (HEIST) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S J X; Lim, S T; Kinsella, J A; Murphy, D; Enright, H M; McCabe, Dominick J H

    2018-02-23

    The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the disparity in stroke risk between asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid stenosis patients are not fully understood. The functionally important reticulated platelet fraction and reticulocytes could play a role. We performed a prospective, multi-centre, observational analytical study comparing full blood count parameters and platelet production/turnover/activation markers in patients with asymptomatic versus recently symptomatic moderate (≥ 50-69%) or severe (≥ 70-99%) carotid stenosis. Data from 34 asymptomatic patients were compared with 43 symptomatic patients in the 'early phase' (≤ 4 weeks) and 37 of these patients in the 'late phase' (≥ 3 months) after TIA/ischaemic stroke. Reticulated platelets were quantified by whole blood flow cytometry and reticulated platelets and red cell reticulocytes by 'automated assays' (Sysmex XE-2100™). Bilateral simultaneous transcranial Doppler ultrasound monitoring classified patients as micro-embolic signal (MES)+ve or MES-ve. Mean platelet count was higher in early (216 × 10 9 /L; P = 0.04) and late symptomatic (219 × 10 9 /L; P = 0.044) than asymptomatic patients (194 × 10 9 /L). Mean platelet volume was higher in early symptomatic than asymptomatic patients (10.8 vs. 10.45 fl; P = 0.045). Automated assays revealed higher % reticulated platelet fractions in early (5.78%; P < 0.001) and late symptomatic (5.11%; P = 0.01) than asymptomatic patients (3.48%). Red cell reticulocyte counts were lower in early (0.92%; P = 0.035) and late symptomatic (0.93%; P = 0.036) than asymptomatic patients (1.07%). The automated % reticulated platelet fraction was also higher in early symptomatic than asymptomatic MES-ve patients (5.7 vs. 3.55%; P = 0.001). The combination of increased platelet counts and a shift towards production of an increased population of larger, young, reticulated platelets could contribute to a higher risk of first or recurrent

  6. Electrodeposition of mesoscopic Pt-Ru on reticulated vitreous carbon from reverse emulsions and microemulsions: Application to methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Tommy T.; Gyenge, Elod L.

    2006-01-01

    High surface area Pt-Ru (between 120 and 400 cm 2 mg -1 ) meso-sized particles and mesoporous coatings were electrodeposited on reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) three-dimensional electrodes using reverse emulsions and microemulsions. The organic phase of the colloidal media was composed of cyclohexane, Triton X-100 non-ionic surfactant and tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (for ionic conductivity) while the aqueous phase contained H 2 PtCl 6 and RuCl 3 (or (NH 4 ) 2 RuCl 6 ). For microemulsification to occur isopropanol was also added as co-surfactant. The catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of methanol was assessed by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry in conjunction with surface area measurement by Cu underpotential deposition. The composition and morphology of the Pt-Ru deposit was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The effects on the catalytic activity of the deposition current density, temperature, RVC pretreatment and plating bath composition are presented. It was found that the electrodeposition of Pt-Ru in reverse microemulsion yielded the highest specific surface area (400 cm 2 mg -1 ) and catalytic activity toward CH 3 OH electro-oxidation as shown, for example, by a 50-200 mV more negative anode potential determined by chronopotentiometry compared to a catalyst obtained by pure aqueous and emulsion electroplating

  7. Electrodeposition of mesoscopic Pt-Ru on reticulated vitreous carbon from reverse emulsions and microemulsions: Application to methanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Tommy T. [2360 East Mall, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Gyenge, Elod L. [2360 East Mall, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada)]. E-mail: egyenge@chml.ubc.ca

    2006-05-20

    High surface area Pt-Ru (between 120 and 400 cm{sup 2} mg{sup -1}) meso-sized particles and mesoporous coatings were electrodeposited on reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) three-dimensional electrodes using reverse emulsions and microemulsions. The organic phase of the colloidal media was composed of cyclohexane, Triton X-100 non-ionic surfactant and tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (for ionic conductivity) while the aqueous phase contained H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} and RuCl{sub 3} (or (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}RuCl{sub 6}). For microemulsification to occur isopropanol was also added as co-surfactant. The catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of methanol was assessed by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry in conjunction with surface area measurement by Cu underpotential deposition. The composition and morphology of the Pt-Ru deposit was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The effects on the catalytic activity of the deposition current density, temperature, RVC pretreatment and plating bath composition are presented. It was found that the electrodeposition of Pt-Ru in reverse microemulsion yielded the highest specific surface area (400 cm{sup 2} mg{sup -1}) and catalytic activity toward CH{sub 3}OH electro-oxidation as shown, for example, by a 50-200 mV more negative anode potential determined by chronopotentiometry compared to a catalyst obtained by pure aqueous and emulsion electroplating.

  8. Subpopulações dos reticulócitos e fração de reticulócitos imaturos como indicadores de aumento da eritropoese em doentes com anemia por deficiência de ferro Reticulocyte subpopulations and immature reticulocyte fractions as indicators of increased erythropoiesi in patients with iron deficiency anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. João

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é o de estudar as subpopulações dos reticulócitos e a fração de reticulócitos imaturos (IFR enquanto indicadores de atividade eritropoética em pacientes com anemia por deficiência de ferro e determinar o seu grau de correlação com os marcadores tradicionais de deficiência de ferro. Estudamos um total de 96 indivíduos, com idades compreendidas entre os 20 e os 86 anos, divididos em dois grupos: indivíduos controle (n=30 e indivíduos com anemia por deficiência de ferro (n=66. A todos eles foi efetuado hemograma completo, incluindo contagem de reticulócitos e os seus índices de maturação, ferro, transferrina, ferritina e capacidade total de fixação do ferro. Os indivíduos com anemia por deficiência de ferro mostraram um aumento da proporção de IFR quando comparados com o grupo controle (15.02 ± 9.70% vs 6.43 ± 3.98%, pThe aim of this work is to investigate reticulocyte subpopulations and immature reticulocyte fractions as indicators of bone marrow erythropoietic activity in patients with iron-deficiency anemia and their correlations with traditional hematological and biochemical markers of iron deficiency. A total of 96 individuals, aged 20 to 86 years old, were included in this study. These individuals were divided into two groups: healthy controls (n=30 and iron-deficiency anemia (n=66. Complete blood counts including reticulocytes and their subpopulations, iron, ferritin and transferrin and total binding capacity were determined in all individuals. Patients with iron-deficiency anemia had an increased proportion of immature reticulocyte fractions when compared with controls (15.02 ± 9.70% vs. 6.43 ± 3.98%, p<0.01, respectively. Comparing patients with healthy controls, the investigation of the subpopulations revealed higher medium-fluorescent reticulocyte (12.69 ± 6.69% vs. 5.88 ± 3.59%, respectively p<0.01 and high-fluorescent reticulocyte (1.45 [0.38-3.10] vs. 0.40 [0.00-0.90], p<0

  9. Combination of cathodic reduction with adsorption for accelerated removal of Cr(VI) through reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes modified with sulfuric acid–glycine co-doped polyaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Xi [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Yang, Zhao-hui, E-mail: yzh@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Xu, Hai-yin; Zeng, Guang-ming; Huang, Jing; Yang, Xia; Song, Pei-pei; Wang, Li-ke [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode was applied as a novel electrode material for accelerated removal of Cr(VI). • Faster reduction kinetics of Cr(VI) was observed by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode when compared with RVC/PANI-SA and RVC electrode. • Cr(VI) removal experienced an adsorption-reduction system built by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode. • The stability of RVC/PANI-SA-GLY electrode was relatively satisfactory. - Abstract: Improving the reduction kinetics is crucial in the electroreduction process of Cr(VI). In this study, we developed a novel adsorption–electroreduction system for accelerated removal of Cr(VI) by employing reticulated vitreous carbon electrode modified with sulfuric acid–glycine co-doped polyaniline (RVC/PANI-SA-GLY). Firstly, response surface methodology confirmed the optimum polymerization condition of co-doped polyaniline for modifying electrodes (Aniline, sulfuric acid and glycine, respectively, of 0.2 mol/L, 0.85 mol/L, 0.93 mol/L) when untraditional dopant glycine was added. Subsequently, RVC/PANI-SA-GLY showed higher Cr(VI) removal percentages in electroreduction experiments over RVC electrode modified with sulfuric acid doped polyaniline (RVC/PANI-SA) and bare RVC electrode. In contrast to RVC/PANI-SA, the improvement by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY was more significant and especially obvious at more negative potential, lower initial Cr(VI) concentration, relatively less acidic solution and higher current densities, best achieving 7.84% higher removal efficiency with entire Cr(VI) eliminated after 900 s. Current efficiencies were likewise enhanced by RVC/PANI-SA-GLY under quite negative potentials. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis revealed a possible adsorption–reduction mechanism of RVC/PANI-SA-GLY, which greatly contributed to the faster reduction kinetics and was probably relative to the absorption between protonated amine groups of glycine and HCrO{sub 4}{sup −}. Eventually, the

  10. Degradation of paracetamol by advance oxidation processes using modified reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes with TiO(2) and CuO/TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo Valdez, H C; García Jiménez, G; Gutiérrez Granados, S; Ponce de León, C

    2012-11-01

    The degradation of paracetamol in aqueous solutions in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was carried out by photochemistry, electrolysis and photoelectrolysis using modified 100 pores per inch reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes. The electrodes were coated with catalysts such as TiO(2) and CuO/TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) by electrophoresis followed by heat treatment. The results of the electrolysis with bare reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes show that 90% paracetamol degradation occurs in 4 h at 1.3 V vs. SCE, forming intermediates such as benzoquinone and carboxylic acids followed by their complete mineralisation. When the electrolysis was carried out with the modified electrodes such as TiO(2)/RVC, 90% degradation was achieved in 2 h while with CuO/TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3)/RVC, 98% degradation took only 1 h. The degradation was also carried out in the presence of UV reaching 95% degradation with TiO(2)/RVC/UV and 99% with CuO/TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3)/RVC/UV in 1 h. The reactions were followed by spectroscopy UV-Vis, HPLC and total organic carbon analysis. These studies show that the degradation of paracetamol follows a pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutrient cycling by Acacia erioloba (syn. Acacia giraffae ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arid areas of Southern Africa because of the many benefits it offers to local communities. However, little quantitative plant and soil data exist to explain its ability to enhance soil fertility under local conditions. Paired soil samples taken under and ...

  12. Cross-Linking of P.V.A. by Gamma Radiation; Reticulation de l'alcool polyvinylique par les rayons gamma; Dejstvie gamma-luchej na poperechnuyu svyaz' polivinologo spirta; Reticulacion del alcohol polivinilico por irradiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieu, H; Desreux, V

    1960-07-15

    The action of gamma rays on aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol was observed by determination of the viscosity, sedimentation constant and acetylation rate. There was a very definite critical concentration, 0.28%, below which a B gel could not be formed by any dose. Above the critical concentration, the chief reaction was apparently intermolecular cross-linking which increased with dosage. Below the critical concentration the reactions were much more complex. At small doses there was probably some competition between inter- and intra- molecular cross-linking and the formation of more symmetrical molecular clusters. At higher doses the aggregates and the molecular clusters were subject to more and more internal and external cross-linking, leading finally to the formation of micro-gel particles. At decreasing concentrations (0.2 - 0.6%) intra-molecular cross-linking apparently became increasingly important. The effects of radiation were thought to depend upon the initial concentration of the polyvinyl alcohol solutions. (author) [French] L'action des rayons gamma sur des solutions aqueuses d'alcool polyvinylique a ete suivie par determination de la viscosite, de la constante de sedimentation et du taux d'acetylation. Il existe une concentration critique bien definie 0,28%, au-dessous de laquelle il est impossible d'obtenir la formation d'un gel B quelque soit la dose. Au-dessus, le phenomene important semble etre une reticulation intermoleculair e qui augmente avec la dose. Au-dessous de la concentration critique, les phenomenes sont beaucoup plus complexes. Aux faibles doses il y a probablement competition entre les phenomenes de pontage inter- et intramoleculaires et formation d'amas moleculaires de configuration plus symetrique. A doses plus fortes, les aggregats et les amas moleculaires subissent un pontage interne et externe de plus en plus prononce avec finalement formation de particules de micro-gel. A des concentrations de plus en plus faibles (0

  13. Reticulate Evolution of the Rye Genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martis, M.M.; Zhou, R.; Haseneyer, G.; Schmutzer, T.; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Konig, S.; Kugler, K.G.; Scholz, U.; Hackauf, B.; Korzun, V.; Schon, C.C.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Bauer, E.; Mayer, K. F. X.; Stein, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 10 (2013), s. 3685-3698 ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : SECALE-CEREALE L. * CULTIVATED RYE * PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.575, year: 2013

  14. Avaliação do hemograma, reticulócitos e mielograma na intoxicação subaguda experimental por aflatoxina em cães Experimentally induced sub-acute aflatoxicosis in dogs: evaluation of hemogram, reticulocyte and myelogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Lopes

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available As aflatoxinas estão entre os produtos metabólicos de natureza tóxica e são produzidos por fungos do gênero Aspergillus. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo, verificar as possíveis alterações da aflatoxicose através da avaliação do hemograma, contagem de reticulócitos e mielograma em cães. Foram utilizados vinte cães (9 fêmeas e 11 machos, os quais foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de dez animais. O grupo I recebeu l4g de aflatoxina/kg/dia e o grupo II 21 g de aflatoxina/kg/dia, via oral, durante vinte dias. Após foram realizadas colheitas de sangue e medula óssea, a cada sete dias, durante seis semanas. Ambos os grupos apresentaram sinais clínicos de intoxicação por aflatoxina, o hemograma e a contagem de reticulócitos não demonstraram variações significativas. No mielograma, observou-se acentuada diminuição da série eritróide e do número de megacariócitos, aumento significativo da série mielóide e proporção mielóide: eritróide (M:E.The aflatoxins are between the metabolics products nature of toxic and produced are by genus of fungi Aspergillus. The objective of the present study was to verify alterations of aflatoxicosis through of evaluation hemogram, reticulocyte count and myelogram in dogs. Eleven males and nine female dogs were used. Dogs were randomly allocated into two groups. Group I was treated with l4g/kg/day of aflatoxin and group II with 2lg/kg/day. The drug was given miled with feed and treatment lasted for 20 days. After the beginning of intoxication, individual blood and bone marrow samples were taken weekly for six weeks. The two group to clinical signs present of intoxication by aflatoxin the hemogram and reticulocyte count not showed significative variation. The myelogram showed a total reduction in the erythroid series and number of megacaryocytes significative increase myeloid serie and myeloid: erythroid ratio (M: E.

  15. Inducible defences in Acacia sieberiana in response to giraffe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The resultant browsing pressure has led to the evolution of both physical and chemical responses in Acacia trees. In an observational study, we investigated the physical and chemical defenses in Acacia sieberiana var. woodii in response to ...

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Houqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis (27%, 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger (20%, 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious (17%, and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus (22% were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus, wild geese (Anser cygnoides, and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus. Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%, 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%, and 4 of 35 cattle (11% were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  17. Spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta prey on new-born elephant calves in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Salnicki

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta are known to be opportunists and to have a varied diet including mammals, reptiles and birds. Prey most often hunted are medium sized ungulates but spotted hyaenas will on occasion take larger species such as giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and zebra Equus burchellii. They are also known to hunt whichever species are most abundant and will vary their prey seasonally. In this study spotted hyaenas were observed to take an unusual prey species in the form of elephant calves (Loxodonta africana. On a number of occasions hyaenas were observed feeding on or killing newborn and very young elephant calves. These observations were made whilst the authors were conducting research on spotted hyaena ecology in the woodlands of Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe and were made during the dry season between September and November 1999.

  18. The role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, C.; Mwiine, F. N.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    (Alcelaphus buselaphus) and 5 waterbucks (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) from four major National Parks in Uganda between 2005 and 2008. Serum samples were screened to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) non-structural proteins (NSP) using the Ceditest FMDV NS ELISA. Solid Phase Blocking......Background To study the role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 African buffalos, 21 impalas (Aepyceros melampus), 1 giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), 1 common eland (Taurotragus oryx), 7 hartebeests...... ELISAs (SPBE) were used to determine the serotype-specificity of antibodies against the seven serotypes of FMDV among the positive samples. Virus isolation and sequencing were undertaken to identify circulating viruses and determine relatedness between them. Results Among the buffalo samples tested, 85...

  19. Phylogenetworks : exploring reticulate evolution and its consequences for phylogenetic reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriesendorp, B.

    2007-01-01

    Minerals are essential for humans, plants and animals and have an important micronutrient role in physiological and metabolic processes of plants. Next to this essential role of minerals, they can also be very toxic when available to the plant in elevated amounts. Plants therefore need to keep very

  20. The Reticulation Irrigation Scheme at Sankana, Upper West Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    farmers utilizing the irrigation project are food secure. ... The effects of ... Often, lack of maintenance, bad management and financial difficulties decrease the ...... and Mushunje A. (2010), 'Analysis of Irrigation Development Post Fast Track Land ...

  1. Benchmarking leakage from water reticulation systems in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    Abstract. A project to assess the levels of leakage in 30 water utilities throughout South Africa was initiated by the Water ... average operating pressure, systems input volume and the compo- ... simple, user-friendly model that is based on an excel spreadsheet ..... One can see from the four graphs presented here that various.

  2. Recent reticulate evolution in the ecologically dominant lineage of coccolithophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mahdi eBendif

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The coccolithophore family Noëlaerhabdaceae contains a number of taxa that are very abundant in modern oceans, including the cosmopolitan bloom-forming Emiliania huxleyi. Introgressive hybridization has been suggested to account for incongruences between nuclear, mitochondrial and plastidial phylogenies of morphospecies within this lineage, but the number of species cultured to date remains rather limited. Here, we present the characterization of 5 new Noëlaerhabdaceae culture strains isolated from samples collected in the south-east Pacific Ocean. These were analyzed morphologically using scanning electron microscopy and phylogenetically by sequencing 5 marker genes (nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, plastidial tufA, and mitochondrial cox1 and cox3 genes. Morphologically, one of these strains corresponded to Gephyrocapsa ericsonii and the four others to Reticulofenestra parvula. Ribosomal gene sequences were near identical between these new strains, but divergent from G. oceanica, G. muellerae and E. huxleyi. In contrast to the clear distinction in ribosomal phylogenies, sequences from other genomic compartments clustered with those of E. huxleyi strains with which they share an ecological range (i.e. warm temperate to tropical waters. These data provide strong support for the hypothesis of past (and potentially ongoing introgressive hybridization within this ecologically important lineage and for the transfer of R. parvula to Gephyrocapsa. These results have important implications for understanding the role of hybridization in speciation in vast ocean meta-populations of phytoplankton.

  3. A comparison of sewer reticulation system design standards gravity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirdly Botswana being a dry country does not always have the water supply available and only some households have a house connection which provides enough water to flush a gravity sewer. Coupled to this is the low housing density and generally flat landscape in rural Botswana that means the conventional gravity ...

  4. Perinatal maternal and neonatal behaviour in the captive reticulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subsequent to, the birth of her calf. Extensive observations were made of the birth sequence, feeding, drinking, sleeping and .... her alfalfa at a faster rate than she did during the first week .... between 16h25 and 16h54, but kept falling. She was.

  5. The Characterization and Manipulation of the Reticulated Microbiome in Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roggenbuck, Michael

    The term microbiome - “The ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms that literally share our body space” - was first described by Professor Joshua Lederberg of the Rockefeller University. With the beginning of the golden age of High-throughput-Sequencing, is has...... become more evident that animals and their microbial communities are metabolically and immunologically tightly connected and highly dependent on each other. Today the complex microbial flora is often considered as an organ – with a healthy and a diseased stage. Currently the human microbiome is most...... intense evaluated. However, mechanistically questions often cannot be studied in humans, therefor animal research is applied. In the first part of this thesis, the diet intervention on the “total” microbial community of two animal model organisms – mice and lambs - was characterized using 16S rRNA gene...

  6. A purple giraffe is faster than a purple elephant: Inconsistent phonology affects determiner selection in English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spalek, K.; Bock, K.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The form of a determiner is dependent on different contextual factors: in some languages grammatical number and grammatical gender determine the choice of a determiner variant. In other languages, the phonological onset of the element immediately following the determiner affects selection, too.

  7. A Purple Giraffe Is Faster than a Purple Elephant: Inconsistent Phonology Affects Determiner Selection in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, Katharina; Bock, Kathryn; Schriefers, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The form of a determiner is dependent on different contextual factors: in some languages grammatical number and grammatical gender determine the choice of a determiner variant. In other languages, the phonological onset of the element immediately following the determiner affects selection, too. Previous work has shown that the activation of…

  8. "Pinch the Giraffe with the Glove" - Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Previous research in language development focusing on the comprehension of ambiguous sentences has found that children are unable to use top-down information, such as referential context, to resolve the ambiguity. The present study aimed to discover whether children were also insensitive to a different form of top-down processing (the prior question). To do so, we conducted an experiment with 5- and 7-year-olds which involved playing with toys on a stage whilst listening to sound files which ...

  9. Why elephant have trunks and giraffe long tongues: how plants shape large herbivore mouth morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretorius, Y.; Boer, de W.F.; Kortekaas, K.; Wijngaarden, van M.; Grant, R.C.; Kohi, E.M.; Mwakiwa, E.; Slotow, R.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether mass and morphological spatial patterns in plants possibly induced the development of enlarged soft mouth parts in especially megaherbivores. We used power functions and geometric principles to explore allometric relationships of both morphological and foraging

  10. Influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of captive lion Panthera leo cubs: Benefits of behavior enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibonokuhle NCUBE, Hilton Garikai Taambuka NDAGURWA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of lion Panthera leo cubs was investigated at three sites. In this study, stimulus objects such as sticks, grass, fresh dung (elephant Loxondota africana, zebra Equus quagga, impala Aepyceros melampus, duiker Sylvicapra grimmia, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and cardboard boxes, were utilized in an enrichment program aimed at encouraging active behaviors of captive lion cubs at Antelope Park and Masuwe. Lion cubs at Chipangali were not behaviorally enriched. Activity patterns were recorded for 10 days at each site. We recorded moving, resting, playing, grooming, visual exploration and display of hunting instincts. We found that behavioral enrichment enhanced the active behaviors of captive lion cubs. Orphan-raised cubs spent more time moving, playing and displaying hunting instincts than mother-raised cubs, but the time spent grooming was similar across areas and suggests that grooming is not influenced by enrichment. Mother-raised cubs spent more time engaged in visual exploration than orphan-raised cubs and this could be a behavior acquired from mothers or a result of confidence to explore because of their presence. Activity patterns were different among time treatments across our three study sites. Based on these findings, we suggest that lion cubs raised in captivity could benefit from behavioral enrichment to encourage active behaviors essential for eventual reintroduction into the wild [Current Zoology 56 (4: 389–394, 2010].

  11. Structurally Efficient Anisotropic Organized Reticulated structures for Cooling of Electronics and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-31

    from a cylindrical copper stud attached to a heat source. The stud was covered with either microfins or multi-layered porous structures. The highest...performance was achieved from a stud having microfins on the side surfaces and porous plates on the tip. Critical heat flux in that case was 33 W/cm 2...sight tube on the side of the reservoir allows the fluid level to be visually ’r monitored. A magnetically- coupled March® 6 Series pump V 6 ’ 5a (PC

  12. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA reveals reticulate evolution in hares (Lepus spp., Lagomorpha, Mammalia from Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelalem Tolesa

    Full Text Available For hares (Lepus spp., Leporidae, Lagomorpha, Mammalia from Ethiopia no conclusive molecular phylogenetic data are available. To provide a first molecular phylogenetic model for the Abyssinian Hare (Lepus habessinicus, the Ethiopian Hare (L. fagani, and the Ethiopian Highland Hare (L. starcki and their evolutionary relationships to hares from Africa, Eurasia, and North America, we phylogenetically analysed mitochondrial ATPase subunit 6 (ATP6; n = 153 / 416bp and nuclear transferrin (TF; n = 155 / 434bp sequences of phenotypically determined individuals. For the hares from Ethiopia, genotype composition at twelve microsatellite loci (n = 107 was used to explore both interspecific gene pool separation and levels of current hybridization, as has been observed in some other Lepus species. For phylogenetic analyses ATP6 and TF sequences of Lepus species from South and North Africa (L. capensis, L. saxatilis, the Anatolian peninsula and Europe (L. europaeus, L. timidus were also produced and additional TF sequences of 18 Lepus species retrieved from GenBank were included as well. Median joining networks, neighbour joining, maximum likelihood analyses, as well as Bayesian inference resulted in similar models of evolution of the three species from Ethiopia for the ATP6 and TF sequences, respectively. The Ethiopian species are, however, not monophyletic, with signatures of contemporary uni- and bidirectional mitochondrial introgression and/ or shared ancestral polymorphism. Lepus habessinicus carries mtDNA distinct from South African L. capensis and North African L. capensis sensu lato; that finding is not in line with earlier suggestions of its conspecificity with L. capensis. Lepus starcki has mtDNA distinct from L. capensis and L. europaeus, which is not in line with earlier suggestions to include it either in L. capensis or L. europaeus. Lepus fagani shares mitochondrial haplotypes with the other two species from Ethiopia, despite its distinct phenotypic and microsatellite differences; moreover, it is not represented by a species-specific mitochondrial haplogroup, suggesting considerable mitochondrial capture by the other species from Ethiopia or species from other parts of Africa. Both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences indicate close phylogenetic relationships among all three Lepus species from Ethiopia, with L. fagani being surprisingly tightly connected to L. habessinicus. TF sequences suggest close evolutionary relationships between the three Ethiopian species and Cape hares from South and North Africa; they further suggest that hares from Ethiopia hold a position ancestral to many Eurasian and North American species.

  13. Repeated Reticulate Evolution in North American Papilio machaon Group Swallowtail Butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Dupuis

    Full Text Available Hybridization between distinct populations or species is increasingly recognized as an important process for generating biodiversity. However, the interaction between hybridization and speciation is complex, and the diverse evolutionary outcomes of hybridization are difficult to differentiate. Here we characterize potential hybridization in a species group of swallowtail butterflies using microsatellites, DNA sequences, and morphology, and assess whether adaptive introgression or homoploid hybrid speciation was the primary process leading to each putative hybrid lineage. Four geographically separated hybrid populations were identified in the Papilio machaon species group. One distinct mitochondrial DNA clade from P. machaon was fixed in three hybrid taxa (P. brevicauda, P. joanae, and P. m. kahli, while one hybrid swarm (P. zelicaon x machaon exhibited this hybrid mtDNA clade as well as widespread parental mtDNA haplotypes from both parental species. Microsatellite markers and morphology showed variable admixture and intermediacy, ranging from signatures of prolonged differential introgression from the paternal species (P. polyxenes/P. zelicaon to current gene flow with both parental species. Divergences of the hybrid lineages dated to early- to mid-Pleistocene, suggesting that repeated glaciations and subsequent range shifts of parental species, particularly P. machaon hudsonianus, facilitated initial hybridization. Although each lineage is distinct, P. joanae is the only taxon with sufficient evidence (ecological separation from parental species to define it as a homoploid hybrid species. The repetition of hybridization in this group provides a valuable foundation for future research on hybridization, and these results emphasize the potential for hybridization to drive speciation in diverse ways.

  14. Phylogenetic networks do not need to be complex: using fewer reticulations to represent conflicting clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van L.J.J.; Kelk, S.M.; Rupp, R.; Huson, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are widely used to display estimates of how groups of species are evolved. Each phylogenetic tree can be seen as a collection of clusters, subgroups of the species that evolved from a common ancestor. When phylogenetic trees are obtained for several datasets (e.g. for different

  15. Reticulate Pleistocene evolution of Ethiopian rodent genus along remarkable altitudinal gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Kostin, D.; Meheretu, Y.; Šumbera, R.; Bryjová, Anna; Kasso, M.; Mikula, Ondřej; Lavrenchenko, L. A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 118, January (2018), s. 75-87 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Stenocephalemys * mitochondrial introgression * Ethiopian highlands * Rodentia * ecological speciation * Great Rift Valley Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.419, year: 2016

  16. Process modeling of conductivity in nanocomposites based on reticulated polymers and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgoshej, V.B.; Korskanov, V.V.; Karpova, I.L.; Bardash, L.V.

    2012-01-01

    The dependences of electric conductivities of thermosetting polymer nanocomposites based on epoxy polymer and polycyanurate filled by carbon nanotubes were investigated. Low values of percolation threshold at volume fraction of carbon nanotubes from 0.001 to 0.002 were observed for all samples.Absolute values of the percolation threshold are in good agreement with the results of mathematical modeling. It is established that electrical properties of thermosetting polymer nanocomposites can be characterized in the frame of the same theoretical model despite difference in polymers properties

  17. Contribution of the higher modes in the dynamic analysis of reticulate structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, A.L.F.L.; Lima, E.C.P. de

    1982-01-01

    The approximation obtained using the high mode static contribution technique in the stress calculation, is analyzed. The results are compared to those obtained by a direct method using the structure movement differential equations. Several numerical examples are presented and discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Impacts of ungulates on the demography and diversity of small mammals in central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, Felicia

    1998-09-01

    The impacts of ungulates on small mammals in an East African savanna habitat were investigated by monitoring the population and community responses of small mammals on replicated 4-ha plots from which ungulates had been excluded. The dominant small mammal in this habitat is the pouched mouse, Saccostomusmearnsi, a medium-sized murid rodent. Eight other small mammal species, including Arvicanthis sp., Mus sp., Mastomys sp., Dendromus sp., Crocidura sp., and, rarely, Tatera sp., Aethomys sp., and Acomys sp., were also captured. The dominant ungulates are elephant (Loxodonta africana), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), Grevy's and common zebra (Equus grevyi and E. burchelli), buffalo (Syncerus cafer), eland (Taurotragus oryx), Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti), and domestic cattle. Within 1 year, S. mearnsi populations had responded dramatically to the exclusion of large mammals by a two-fold increase in density, a difference that was maintained through pronounced seasonal fluctuations in the second year. Though individual pouched mice showed no significant differences in their use of space with and without ungulates, male S. mearnsi maintained significantly higher body weights in the absence of ungulates, indicating that habitat quality had increased. One other species, Mastomys sp., also increased in the absence of ungulates. Overall, the small mammal community maintained relatively constant species diversity on the plots to which ungulates did not have access. On the plots to which ungulates did have access, on the other hand, there was a rapid 75% decrease in diversity in the control plots during one trapping session. Ungulates are most likely affecting small mammals through their effects on food quality, since there were no detectable differences in their exposure to predators, as determined by vegetative cover, in the absence of ungulates. These results demonstrate that ungulates can have strong and rapid impacts on small mammal abundance and diversity in East

  19. Interspecific interference competition at the resource patch scale: do large herbivores spatially avoid elephants while accessing water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Nicolas; Dray, Stéphane; Fritz, Hervé; Valeix, Marion

    2016-11-01

    Animals may anticipate and try to avoid, at some costs, physical encounters with other competitors. This may ultimately impact their foraging distribution and intake rates. Such cryptic interference competition is difficult to measure in the field, and extremely little is known at the interspecific level. We tested the hypothesis that smaller species avoid larger ones because of potential costs of interference competition and hence expected them to segregate from larger competitors at the scale of a resource patch. We assessed fine-scale spatial segregation patterns between three African herbivore species (zebra Equus quagga, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros and giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis) and a megaherbivore, the African elephant Loxodonta africana, at the scale of water resource patches in the semi-arid ecosystem of Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Nine waterholes were monitored every two weeks during the dry season of a drought year, and observational scans of the spatial distribution of all herbivores were performed every 15 min. We developed a methodological approach to analyse such fine-scale spatial data. Elephants increasingly used waterholes as the dry season progressed, as did the probability of co-occurrence and agonistic interaction with elephants for the three study species. All three species segregated from elephants at the beginning of the dry season, suggesting a spatial avoidance of elephants and the existence of costs of being close to them. However, contrarily to our expectations, herbivores did not segregate from elephants the rest of the dry season but tended to increasingly aggregate with elephants as the dry season progressed. We discuss these surprising results and the existence of a trade-off between avoidance of interspecific interference competition and other potential factors such as access to quality water, which may have relative associated costs that change with the time of the year. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology

  20. [Reticulate evolution of parthenogenetic species of the Lacertidae rock lizards: inheritance of CLsat tandem repeats and anonymous RAPD markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobanu, D; Rudykh, I A; Riabinina, N L; Grechko, V V; Kramerov, D A; Darevskiĭ, I S

    2002-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of several bisexual and of four unisexual "Lacerta saxicola complex" lizards was studied, using monomer sequences of the complex-specific CLsat tandem repeats and anonymous RAPD markers. Genomes of parthenospecies were shown to include different satellite monomers. The structure of each such monomer is specific for a certain pair of bisexual species. This fact might be interpreted in favor of co-dominant inheritance of these markers in bisexual species hybridogenesis. This idea is supported by the results obtained with RAPD markers; i.e., unisexual species genomes include only the loci characteristic of certain bisexual species. At the same time, in neither case parthenospecies possess specific, autoapomorphic loci that were not present in this or that bisexual species.

  1. Chlorinated organic compound removal by gas phase pulsed streamer corona electrical discharge with reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, M.J.; Finney, W.C.; Locke, B. R.

    2002-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and vinyl chloride removal by pulsed corona discharge was investigated with attention to energy efficiency and byproduct identification. Approximately, 50 to 95 percent removal of TCE and vinyl chloride was observed depending on the energy density applied to the gas. Water vapor had no significant effect on TCE removal. Evidence was found for post-corona reactions leading to removal of vinyl chloride downstream of the plasma discharge. Energy efficiencies of 100-900 g/kw-hr in the case of 1000 ppm feed of TCE and efficiencies of 2-24 g/kw-hr for a 100 ppm feed of vinyl chloride were found. In TCE experiments, the formation of dichloroacetyl chloride was observed, while chloro-ethane formation was found for vinyl chloride. In both cases, Cl- was measured downstream of the pulsed corona reactor in a water trap using an ion-selective electrode, although measured amounts varied widely due to condensation in the gas lines between the reactor and the water trap. The addition of a platinum-rhodium coated electrode was found only to reduce the downstream removal of vinyl chloride at low energy density. (author)

  2. [Investigation on Cheyletoidea mites breeding in culture environment of Eupolyphaga sinensis and morphologic observation of Eucheyletia reticulate Cunliffe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Tao; Wei, Guo; Shao-Sheng, Wang; Chao-Pin, Li

    2016-01-27

    To investigate the species of Cheyletoidea mites breeding in the culture environment of Eupolyphaga sinensis and to observe the morphology of Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe. The soil samples from an E. sinensis farm in northern Anhui were collected. The mites in the soil samples were separated directly under a microscope and the glass specimens were made to observe the morphological feature of the mites under a light microscope, then the mites species were identified and classified based on the morphological characteristics. In the culture soil of E. sinensis , totally 7 kinds of Cheyletoidea mites were isolated, namely Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe, Cheyletus eruditus Schrank, Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans, Cheyletus troussarti Oudemans, Cheyletus aveisor Rohdendorz, Acaropsis sollers Rohdendorz and Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum Shaw. They belonged to genera Eucheyletia , Cheletomorpha , Acaropsis and Cheyletus of Cheyletidae Leach family. The Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe was firstly found in the culture environment of E. sinensis , and its gnathosoma was large, the pedipalpal femurs were expanding and there were two strips of comb hair and two smooth bristles on the pedipalpal tarsus, and the back of the body was covered with two pieces of tergum, which were decorated with reticular pattern. The body and foot setae were fan-shape. There are various of Cheyletoidea mites found in the breeding environment of E. sinensis . These mites are important species for pest control in the culture environments of E. sinensis . Related measures should be taken to prevent the excessive growth of Cheyletoidea mites, so as to avoid the adverse effects on the quality and quantity of E. sinensis .

  3. Effect of Seed Pretreatment on Germination Parameters, Growth, and Fruit Yield of Muskmelon (Cucumis melo var reticulates L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moghbeli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed pretreated with plant growth regulators can improve germination parameters, growth, and yield of crops. Thus, in two greenhouse and field experiments, effects of seed treatment with 0.1 mM salicylic acid (SA, 1µM methyl jasmonate (MJ, 1.5% humic acid (HA, and water (as Control on germination parameters, seedling growth, and also growth and fruit yield were studied. In the first experiment which was conducted on two cultivars (Semsuri and Shahpasandi, all the treatments improved most of parameters the recorded, and the response of two cultivars was rather similar for most parameters. In the second experiment which was conducted on one cultivar (Shahpasandi in the field, all the treatments improved most of parameters the recorded. Compared with the control, SA, MJ and HA increased total plant fresh weight (19, 41 and 19%, fruit number (30, 35 and 20% and fruit yield (31, 45 and 31, respectively. Significant correlations were found between fruit yield and relative water content (r = -0.95*, ion leakage (r = -0.93*, final plant shoot fresh weight (r = 0.99** and fruit number (r = 0.93*, indicating that treatments could increase fruit yield by improving ion leakage and relative water content.

  4. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in a highly reticulate group with deep coalescence and recent speciation (Hieracium, Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Caklová, Petra; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fehrer, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2013), s. 138-151 ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0657; GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Grant - others:European Union(XE) ES-TAF-1365 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Hieracium * hybridization * incomplete lineage sorting Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.804, year: 2013

  5. Reticulated Origin of Domesticated Emmer Wheat Supports a Dynamic Model for the Emergence of Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civáň, P.; Ivaničová, Zuzana; Brown, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013) E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : RNA MULTIGENE FAMILY * TRITICUM-DICOCCOIDES * PHYLOGENETIC NETWORKS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  6. Ni-Pd-Al2O3 catalyst supported on reticulated ceramic foam for dry methane reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Nikolić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Ni-Pd/Al2O3 catalyst supported on α-Al2O3 based foam was prepared and evaluated in the dry methane reforming process. Corresponding metal chlorides were deposited to the foam surface by impregnation of the foam with ultrasonically aerosolized salt solutions at 473 K and drying at that temperature. Calcination step was excluded and the catalyst was reduced at very low temperature – 533 K. The reforming experiment lasted for 3 h, with standing time of 1 h at the following temperatures: 873, 973 and 1023 K. Conclusions on selectivity, catalytic activity and stability were reached on the basis of CO and H2 yields.

  7. Review of the Application of Modern Cytogenetic Methods (FISH/GISH to the Study of Reticulation (Polyploidy/Hybridisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chester

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of distinct lineages upon interspecific hybridisation, including when accompanied by increases in ploidy (allopolyploidy, is a driving force in the origin of many plant species. In plant breeding too, both interspecific hybridisation and allopolyploidy are important because they facilitate introgression of alien DNA into breeding lines enabling the introduction of novel characters. Here we review how fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH and genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH have been applied to: 1 studies of interspecific hybridisation and polyploidy in nature, 2 analyses of phylogenetic relationships between species, 3 genetic mapping and 4 analysis of plant breeding materials. We also review how FISH is poised to take advantage of nextgeneration sequencing (NGS technologies, helping the rapid characterisation of the repetitive fractions of a genome in natural populations and agricultural plants.

  8. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in a highly reticulate group with deep coalescence and recent speciation (Hieracium, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krak, K; Caklová, P; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J

    2013-02-01

    Phylogeny reconstruction based on multiple unlinked markers is often hampered by incongruent gene trees, especially in closely related species complexes with high degrees of hybridization and polyploidy. To investigate the particular strengths and limitations of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), low-copy nuclear and multicopy nuclear markers for elucidating the evolutionary history of such groups, we focus on Hieracium s.str., a predominantly apomictic genus combining the above-mentioned features. Sequences of the trnV-ndhC and trnT-trnL intergenic spacers were combined for phylogenetic analyses of cpDNA. Part of the highly variable gene for squalene synthase (sqs) was applied as a low-copy nuclear marker. Both gene trees were compared with previous results based on the multicopy external transcribed spacer (ETS) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The power of the different markers to detect hybridization varied, but they largely agreed on particular hybrid and allopolyploid origins. The same crown groups of species were recognizable in each dataset, but basal relationships were strongly incongruent among cpDNA, sqs and ETS trees. The ETS tree was considered as the best approximation of the species tree. Both cpDNA and sqs trees showed basal polytomies as well as merging or splitting of species groups of non-hybrid taxa. These patterns can be best explained by a rapid diversification of the genus with ancestral polymorphism and incomplete lineage sorting. A hypothetical scenario of Hieracium speciation based on all available (including non-molecular) evidence is depicted. Incorporation of seemingly contradictory information helped to better understand species origins and evolutionary patterns in this notoriously difficult agamic complex.

  9. DETOMIDINE AND BUTORPHANOL FOR STANDING SEDATION IN A RANGE OF ZOO-KEPT UNGULATE SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouts, Tim; Dodds, Joanne; Berry, Karla; Arif, Abdi; Taylor, Polly; Routh, Andrew; Gasthuys, Frank

    2017-09-01

    General anesthesia poses risks for larger zoo species, like cardiorespiratory depression, myopathy, and hyperthermia. In ruminants, ruminal bloat and regurgitation of rumen contents with potential aspiration pneumonia are added risks. Thus, the use of sedation to perform minor procedures is justified in zoo animals. A combination of detomidine and butorphanol has been routinely used in domestic animals. This drug combination, administered by remote intramuscular injection, can also be applied for standing sedation in a range of zoo animals, allowing a number of minor procedures. The combination was successfully administered in five species of nondomesticated equids (Przewalski horse [ Equus ferus przewalskii; n = 1], onager [ Equus hemionus onager; n = 4], kiang [ Equus kiang ; n = 3], Grevy's zebra [ Equus grevyi ; n = 4], and Somali wild ass [ Equus africanus somaliensis; n = 7]), with a mean dose range of 0.10-0.17 mg/kg detomidine and 0.07-0.13 mg/kg butorphanol; the white ( Ceratotherium simum simum; n = 12) and greater one-horned rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros unicornis ; n = 4), with a mean dose of 0.015 mg/kg of both detomidine and butorphanol; and Asiatic elephant bulls ( Elephas maximus ; n = 2), with a mean dose of 0.018 mg/kg of both detomidine and butorphanol. In addition, the combination was successfully used for standing sedation in six species of artiodactylids: giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata; n = 3), western bongo ( Tragelaphus eurycerus eurycerus; n = 2), wisent ( Bison bonasus ; n = 5), yak ( Bos grunniens ; n = 1), water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ; n = 4) and Bactrian camel ( Camelus bactrianus ; n = 5). The mean dose range for artiodactylid species except bongo was 0.04-0.06 mg/kg detomidine and 0.03-0.06 mg/kg butorphanol. The dose in bongo, 0.15-0.20 mg/kg detomidine and 0.13-0.15 mg/kg butorphanol, was considerably higher. Times to first effect, approach, and recovery after antidote were short. The use of detomidine and butorphanol has

  10. CARACTERISATION DE RESEAUX DE POLYMERES RETICULES ACRYLIQUES ETUDE DE L’INFLUENCE DES PARAMETRES DE PH DES SOLVANTS ET DE TEMPERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    HAMRI, Salah

    2009-01-01

    La préparation des solutions de PH différents, ainsi que la synthèse des réseaux de poly(acrylate de nbutyle)( PABu) et de poly(acrylate de 2-éthylhexyl)(PEHA), par photo polymérisation, constitue la première étape de notre travail, Le comportement de gonflement de réseaux réticulés acryliques l’ABu et l’EHA a été étudié en fonction de trois paramètres : le PH du milieu, le taux de réticulation et la température, Suivant les courbes que nous ayons obtenues, l’influence du PH reste...

  11. Reticulate leaves and stunted roots are independent phenotypes pointing at opposite roles of the phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator defective in cue1 in the plastids of both organs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staehr, P.; Loettgert, T.; Christmann, A.; Krueger, S.; Rosar, Ch.; Rolčík, Jakub; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Bell, K.; Weber, A.P.M.; Fluegge, U-I.; Haeusler, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, APR 2014 (2014) ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : secondary metabolism * phosphate translocator * phosphoenolpyruvate Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.948, year: 2014

  12. Microparticles obtained by complex coacervation: influence of the type of reticulation and the drying process on the release of the core material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Dutra Alvim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles obtained by complex coacervation were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde or with transglutaminase and dried using freeze drying or spray drying. Moist samples presented Encapsulation Efficiency (%EE higher than 96%. The mean diameters ranged from 43.7 ± 3.4 to 96.4 ± 10.3 µm for moist samples, from 38.1 ± 5.36 to 65.2 ± 16.1 µm for dried samples, and from 62.5 ± 7.5 to 106.9 ± 26.1 µm for rehydrated microparticles. The integrity of the particles without crosslinking was maintained when freeze drying was used. After spray drying, only crosslinked samples were able to maintain the wall integrity. Microparticles had a round shape and in the case of dried samples rugged walls apparently without cracks were observed. Core distribution inside the particles was multinuclear and homogeneous and core release was evaluated using anhydrous ethanol. Moist particles crosslinked with glutaraldehyde at the concentration of 1.0 mM.g-1 protein (ptn, were more efficient with respect to the core retention compared to 0.1 mM.g-1 ptn or those crosslinked with transglutaminase (10 U.g-1 ptn. The drying processes had a strong influence on the core release profile reducing the amount released to all dry samples

  13. Some ecological side-effects of chemical and physical bush clearing in a southern African rangeland ecosystem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haussmann, N. S.; Kalwij, Jesse; Bezuidenhout, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 102, JAN 2016 (2016), s. 234-239 ISSN 0254-6299 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Acacia giraffae * bush encroachment * physical soil disturbance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2016

  14. Delayed Post Mortem Predation in Lightning Strike Carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Senior Specialist: Forensic Pathologist. Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Pretoria. E-mail: ryan.blumenthal@up.ac.za. Abstract. An adult giraffe was struck dead by ... meticulous and scientific observations in future case studies. Case History. An adult giraffe was found dead in the South African lowveld (broad-.

  15. How Heart Valves Evolve to Adapt to an Extreme-Pressure System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstrup Funder, Jonas; Christian Danielsen, Carl; Baandrup, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart valves which exist naturally in an extreme-pressure system must have evolved in a way to resist the stresses of high pressure. Giraffes are interesting as they naturally have a blood pressure twice that of humans. Thus, knowledge regarding giraffe heart valves may aid...... in developing techniques to design improved pressure-resistant biological heart valves. METHODS: Heart valves from 12 giraffes and 10 calves were explanted and subjected to either biomechanical or morphological examinations. Strips from the heart valves were subjected to cyclic loading tests, followed...... in giraffes than in calves, which would make giraffe valves more resistant to the high-pressure forces. However, collagen also stiffens and thickens the valves. The mitral leaflets showed similar (but mostly insignificant) trends in strength, stiffness, and collagen content....

  16. To network or not to network, that is the question

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of reticulate evolution is now receiving growing attention. This is often because of ... minals divided by nodes and with evolutionary pathways. Keywords. reticulate ... to produce an explicitly interpretable collection of events and represent the ...

  17. The reticulate evolutionary history of the polyploid NW Iberian Leucanthemum pluriflorum clan (Compositae, Anthemideae) as inferred from nrDNA ETS sequence diversity and eco-climatological niche-modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberprieler, Christoph; Greiner, Roland; Konowalik, Kamil; Vogt, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The genus Leucanthemum Mill. is a species-rich polyploid complex of southern and central Europe, comprising 41 species with ploidy levels ranging from 2x to 22x. The Leucanthemum pluriflorum clan, a geographically isolated species group of the NW Iberian Peninsula, comprises the diploid L. pluriflorum, the tetraploids Leucanthemumircutianum subsp. pseudosylvaticum and Leucanthemum×corunnense (being a putative hybrid taxon based on a cross between L. pluriflorum and Leucanthemummerinoi), and the two hexaploids Leucanthemumsylvaticum and L. merinoi. In order to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this species group, we analysed sequence variation at the external transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat (nrDNA ETS) for its members and for a number of other diploid species of Leucanthemum. Our results indicate that there are two major ETS ribotypes present in Leucanthemum, with some of the diploid species fixed for either of the two types and several species (among them L. pluriflorum) exhibiting both types. This polymorphism at the nrDNA ETS locus suggests either gene flow among some of the diploid species (possibly via polyploids) or a homoploid hybrid origin of some of those diploids. Additionally, patterns of ETS ribotype sharing among populations of the four species of the L. pluriflorum clan suggest that the tetraploid L. ircutianum subsp. pseudosylvaticum and the hexaploids L. sylvaticum and L. merinoi have an allopolyploid origin with L. pluriflorum as the maternal parent. Eco-climatological modelling of present and past (last glacial maximum, LGM) distribution areas of the members of the L. pluriflorum clan indicates that the diploid L. pluriflorum may have undergone geographical differentiation into northern (Galician) and southern (central Portuguese) coastal lineages that could account for the two chloroplast haplotype groups observable in the tetra- and hexaploids. Later climatic changes in the Holocene could then have led to the extinction of southern diploid lineages. A distinct overlap of present and past (LGM) potential distribution ranges of L. pluriflorum with those of the N Iberian endemics Leucanthemumgallaecicum and Leucanthemumgaudinii subsp. cantabricum may indicate that one of the latter species may have acted as the paternal parent in the formation of the polyploids of the clan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ancient and modern genome shuffling: Reticulate mito-nuclear phylogeny of four related allopatric species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae), ectoparasites on the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.) (Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumme, Jaakko; Ziętara, Marek S; Lebedeva, Dar'ya

    2017-02-01

    Phylogenetic analyses including four allopatric species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 on the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.) (Cyprinidae) revealed incongruence between the nuclear ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and mitochondrial cox1 phylogenies due to ancient hybridisation. Gyrodactylus pannonicus Molnár, 1968 was sampled close to its type-locality, the upper reaches of River Tisza, tributary of Danube in the Black Sea Basin. Faunistic search detected three new related species with maximum composite likelihood distances in cox1 between 16.8-23.2% (tentatively 1.3 to 1.8 My of divergence). Gyrodactylus albolacustris n. sp. recorded in the White Sea Basin, eastern Baltic Basin and Mongolia was close to G. pannonicus in the nuclear ITS (divergence of 0.9%), but diverged in cox1 by 19.8%. The Mongolian isolate of G. albolacustris n. sp. diverged from the European isolates in cox1 by 8.9%, suggesting 0.7 My of isolation. The two other new species differed from G. pannonicus by >4% in ITS and some large indels in ITS1, and by >20% in cox1. Gyrodactylus danastriae n. sp. was found in River Strwiąż, a tributary of the River Dniester (Black Sea Basin) and was characterised by smaller size of anchors and by 29-41 bp dimorphic insertion in ITS1. Gyrodactylus botnicus n. sp. is considered endemic in the Baltic Basin, but was also found in the White Sea Basin as a postglacial immigrant, where it had hybridised with G. albolacustris n. sp. in spite of the high divergence in ITS (3.9%) and cox1 (22%). The discordant nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies revealed an ancient mitochondrial introgression: G. albolacustris n. sp. was derived from a hybridisation combining proto-pannonicus ITS with proto-danastriae mitochondria, perhaps 1.3 My ago. The postglacial hybridisation of G. albolacustris n. sp. (as the donor of mtDNA alb and ITS alb ) and G. botnicus n. sp. (donor of the ITS bot ) offered a model of shuffling of the genomic components: the process of the homogenisation and stabilisation of nuclear ITS (concerted evolution) and the lineage sorting has hardly begun.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of the monomer 2,2'-dialylbisphenol-A (ABFA) for production of proton exchange membranes based on sulphonated poly(arylene ether sulphone)s reticulated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Julio C.; Souza, Carlos H.F.B.; Silva, Maria Elisa S.R.; Sousa, Ricardo G.; Freitas, Roberto F.S.; Silva, Claudio Homero F.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, a methodology of synthesis and characterization of the monomer 2,2'- dialylbisphenol A was developed, aiming at getting a precursor, with adequate purity, for obtaining cross-linked membranes based on sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s. The monomer 2,2'- dialylbisphenol A was obtained through Claisen rearrangement of the 2,2-Bis(4-alyloxiphenyl)propane, synthesized from Bisphenol A. All the products and reagents were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, Thermo-gravimetric analysis and High-performance liquid chromatography. The thermal Claisen rearrangement process was conducted by using Differential Scanning Calorimetry technique, from a factorial experiment planning, with temperature and time being the variables. The above cited techniques were used for monitoring the Claisen rearrangement and for the characterization of the final product. The best results yield an ABFA purity between 85 and 90%. The obtained results suggest that, in the studied range, polymerization and degradation of the monomer ABFA occur, simultaneously to its formation. (author)

  20. JUST 27 No. 3 December 2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... weight hydrocarbon of like asphalts, taps, pitches and asphaltenes. In general, tar ... have been recorded in these areas since the dawn of this century. .... The hippopotamus, elephant, giraffe, leopard, and lion now remain.

  1. Afican Health Sciences Vol 10 No 3.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    the muscle fibers were blood vessels and nerves. Figure 3: Light ... Nerves and blood vessels were found in this space. .... a pressure gradient across the bridge with a distinctive negative .... of the carotid arterial system (Giraffe camelopardis).

  2. Radiator-induced erythema ab igne in 8-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Ismail, Samir; Chiriac, Anca

    2014-04-01

    The cutaneous lesion of erythema ab Igne are characterized by a reticulate erythema, hyperpigmentation, fine scaling, epidermal atrophy and telangiectasias, and reticulated erythema. We report a case of erythema ab igne on the hands of a 8-year-old girl, induced by classic homemade radiator.

  3. Application of a monoclonal antibody to a comparative study of alpha-lactalbumins from various species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminogawa, S.; Shimoda, M.; Kurisaki, J.; Yamauchi, K.

    1989-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody to bovine alpha-lactalbumin was prepared and purified. The binding ability of alpha-lactalbumin from different species (cow, goat, giraffe, horse, pig, human, monkey, and guinea pig) was examined by a competitive radioimmunoassay. The order in strength of the binding affinity was cow goat, giraffe, horse, cynomolgus monkey and human, pig, and guinea pig. The order of evolutional divergence calculated from the amino acid composition was cow, goat, giraffe, horse, pig, guinea pig and human, and monkey. The orders in both cases were similar. Hence, it is suggested that immunological divergence as deduced by a monoclonal antibody is likely to be close to the evolutional divergence of alpha-lactalbumin

  4. The sponge genus Ephydatia from the high-latitude middle Eocene: environmental and evolutionary significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisera, Andrzej; Manconi, Renata; Siver, Peter A; Wolfe, Alexander P

    2016-01-01

    The freshwater sponge species Ephydatia cf. facunda Weltner, 1895 (Spongillida, Spongillidae) is reported for the first time as a fossil from middle Eocene lake sediments of the Giraffe kimberlite maar in northern Canada. The sponge is represented by birotule gemmuloscleres as well as oxea megascleres. Today, E. facunda inhabits warm-water bodies, so its presence in the Giraffe locality provides evidence of a warm climate at high latitudes during the middle Eocene. The morphological similarity of the birotules to modern conspecific forms suggests protracted morphological stasis, comparable to that reported for other siliceous microfossils from the same locality.

  5. Bootstrap-based Support of HGT Inferred by Maximum Parsimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhleh Luay

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maximum parsimony is one of the most commonly used criteria for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Recently, Nakhleh and co-workers extended this criterion to enable reconstruction of phylogenetic networks, and demonstrated its application to detecting reticulate evolutionary relationships. However, one of the major problems with this extension has been that it favors more complex evolutionary relationships over simpler ones, thus having the potential for overestimating the amount of reticulation in the data. An ad hoc solution to this problem that has been used entails inspecting the improvement in the parsimony length as more reticulation events are added to the model, and stopping when the improvement is below a certain threshold. Results In this paper, we address this problem in a more systematic way, by proposing a nonparametric bootstrap-based measure of support of inferred reticulation events, and using it to determine the number of those events, as well as their placements. A number of samples is generated from the given sequence alignment, and reticulation events are inferred based on each sample. Finally, the support of each reticulation event is quantified based on the inferences made over all samples. Conclusions We have implemented our method in the NEPAL software tool (available publicly at http://bioinfo.cs.rice.edu/, and studied its performance on both biological and simulated data sets. While our studies show very promising results, they also highlight issues that are inherently challenging when applying the maximum parsimony criterion to detect reticulate evolution.

  6. Bootstrap-based support of HGT inferred by maximum parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jung; Jin, Guohua; Nakhleh, Luay

    2010-05-05

    Maximum parsimony is one of the most commonly used criteria for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Recently, Nakhleh and co-workers extended this criterion to enable reconstruction of phylogenetic networks, and demonstrated its application to detecting reticulate evolutionary relationships. However, one of the major problems with this extension has been that it favors more complex evolutionary relationships over simpler ones, thus having the potential for overestimating the amount of reticulation in the data. An ad hoc solution to this problem that has been used entails inspecting the improvement in the parsimony length as more reticulation events are added to the model, and stopping when the improvement is below a certain threshold. In this paper, we address this problem in a more systematic way, by proposing a nonparametric bootstrap-based measure of support of inferred reticulation events, and using it to determine the number of those events, as well as their placements. A number of samples is generated from the given sequence alignment, and reticulation events are inferred based on each sample. Finally, the support of each reticulation event is quantified based on the inferences made over all samples. We have implemented our method in the NEPAL software tool (available publicly at http://bioinfo.cs.rice.edu/), and studied its performance on both biological and simulated data sets. While our studies show very promising results, they also highlight issues that are inherently challenging when applying the maximum parsimony criterion to detect reticulate evolution.

  7. Physico-chemical modifications of plastics by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouif, S.

    2002-01-01

    The industrial use of ionizing radiations (beta and gamma), initially for the sterilization of medico-surgical instruments and for the preservation of food products, has led to the development of the chemistry of polymers under radiations. Ionizing radiations can initiate chemical reactions (chain cutting, poly-additions, polymerization etc..) thanks to the formation of free radicals. The main applications concerns the degradation of plastics, the reticulation of plastics and of woods impregnated with resin, and the grafting of polymers. The processing of plastic materials was initially performed with low energy electron accelerators (0.1 to 3 MeV), allowing only surface treatments, while recent high energy accelerators (10 MeV) and gamma facilities allow the treatment in depth of materials (from few cm to 1 m). This article describes the industrial treatments performed with such high energy facilities: 1 - action of ionizing radiations on plastic materials: different types of ionizing radiations, action of beta and gamma radiations, chemical changes induced by beta and gamma radiations; 2 - reticulation of plastic materials submitted to beta and gamma radiations: radio-'reticulable' polymers and reticulation co-agents, modification of the properties of reticulated plastic materials under beta and gamma radiations; 3 - industrial aspects of reticulation under beta and gamma radiation: industrial irradiation facilities, dosimetry and radio-reticulation control, applications; 4 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  8. Extremely metal-poor stars in classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies : Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tafelmeyer, M.; Jablonka, P.; Hill, V.; Shetrone, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M. J.; Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Starkenburg, E.; Venn, K. A.; Abel, T.; Francois, P.; Kaufer, A.; North, P.; Primas, F.; Szeifert, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a dedicated search for extremely metal-poor stars in the Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans dSphs. Five stars were selected from two earlier VLT/Giraffe and HET/HRS surveys and subsequently followed up at high spectroscopic resolution with VLT/UVES. All of them turned out to

  9. A high-resolution VLT/FLAMES study of individual stars in the centre of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letarte, B.; Hill, V.; Tolstoy, E.; Jablonka, P.; Shetrone, M.; Venn, K. A.; Spite, M.; Irwin, M. J.; Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Primas, F.; François, P.; Kaufer, A.; Szeifert, T.; Arimoto, N.; Sadakane, K.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time we show the detailed, late-stage, chemical evolution history of a small nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the Local Group. We present the results of a high-resolution (R similar to 20 000, lambda = 5340-5620; 6120-6701) FLAMES/GIRAFFE abundance study at ESO/VLT of 81

  10. Extremely metal-poor stars in classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tafelmeyer, M.; Jablonka, P.; Hill, V.; Shetrone, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M. J.; Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Starkenburg, E.; Venn, K. A.; Abel, T.; Francois, P.; Kaufer, A.; North, P.; Primas, F.; Szeifert, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a dedicated search for extremely metal-poor stars in the Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans dSphs. Five stars were selected from two earlier VLT/Giraffe and HET/HRS surveys and subsequently followed up at high spectroscopic resolution with VLT/UVES. All of them turned out to

  11. Sulphur in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Including NLTE corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skúladóttir, Á.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Tolstoy, E.; Hill, V.; Salvadori, S.; Korotin, S. A.; Pettini, M.

    In Galactic halo stars, sulphur has been shown to behave like other α-elements, but until now, no comprehensive studies have been done on this element in stars of other galaxies. Here, we use high-resolution ESO VLT/FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra to determine sulphur abundances for 85 stars in the Sculptor

  12. Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta 1 LIST OF TABLES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kheira Kortenbout

    Morphodynamics of the Manyema tidal delta. 1. LIST OF ... Location of Manyema Creek and its associated tidal delta platform at Kunduchi. Fig. 2. ... platform. Beachcomber. Hotel. Whitesands. Hotel. Kunduchi. Beach Hotel. Giraffe. Hotel. INDIAN. OCEAN. Mombasa. Dar es. Salaam. KUNDUCHI. KENYA. TANZANIA.

  13. Trends in woody vegetation cover in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, between 1940 and 1998

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Eckhardt, HC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available in savanna parks. J. Grassl. Soc. Sthern. Afr. 7, 81–85. OWEN-SMITH, R.N. (1988) Megaherbivores: the Influence of Very Large Body Size on Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. PELLEW, R.A.P. (1983) The impacts of elephant, giraffe and fire...

  14. Delayed Post Mortem Predation in Lightning Strike Carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    An adult giraffe was struck dead by lightning on a game farm outside. Phalaborwa, South Africa in March 2014. Interestingly, delayed post-mortem predation occurred on the carcass, which according to the farm owners was an atypical phenomenon for the region. Delayed post-mortem scavenging on lightning strike ...

  15. Portraits of Learning 2007: We Present This Year's Winning Student Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This year's more than 4,000 Portraits of Learning entries attest to the growing comfort with digital technologies and visual arts that today's kids have. This article presents 12 winning student photos of the Portraits of Learning 2007. The winners emerged from the selection of subjects that varied wildly--from grasshoppers, giraffes, zebras, and…

  16. Pencil beam proton radiography using a multilayer ionization chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Meijers, Arturs

    2016-01-01

    A pencil beam proton radiography (PR) method, using a commercial multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) integrated with a treatment planning system (TPS) was developed. A Giraffe (IBA Dosimetry) MLIC (+/- 0.5 mm accuracy) was used to obtain pencil beam PR by delivering spots uniformly positioned at a

  17. Development of Teleological Explanations in Peruvian Quechua-Speaking and U.S. English-Speaking Preschoolers and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Tapia, Ingrid; Gelman, Susan A.; Hollander, Michelle A.; Manczak, Erika M.; Mannheim, Bruce; Escalante, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Teleological reasoning involves the assumption that entities exist for a purpose (giraffes have long necks for reaching leaves). This study examines how teleological reasoning relates to cultural context, by studying teleological reasoning in 61 Quechua-speaking Peruvian preschoolers (M[subscript age] = 5.3 years) and adults in an indigenous…

  18. Decline of large mammals in the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (iv) Some assessments of illegal hunting indicate little influence on herbivore populations but one measure points to giraffe, hippopotamus, warthog and perhaps other species being adversely affected. (v) Tourist hunting quotas of lions and greater kudu in hunting blocks appear high and there are indications that both may ...

  19. camelopardalis reticulata)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    giraffes (ages nine and three years) was maintained at the. Buffalo Zoological ... the neck to an almost horizontal position, look at the floor, and place each ofthe ... reaching the ground, they frequently emitted a deep, long sigh, which was the ...

  20. THE USE OF Ro 5-2807 (ROCHE) AS A TRANQUILLISER IN WILD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giraffe came/opardis, blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, oribi Ourebia ourebi, ... Of the five animals immobilised, three evinced relaxation of the neck as well, ..... animals either have to be held by hand for long periods, or else kept in ...

  1. Relationships between cattle and biodiversity revealed by the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On rangelands worldwide, cattle interact with many forms of biodiversity, most obviously with vegetation and other large herbivores. Since 1995, we have been manipulating the presence of cattle, medium-sized herbivores, and mega-herbivores (elephants and giraffes) in a series of eighteen 4ha (10-acr...

  2. Trinets encode tree-child and level-2 phylogenetic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.J. van Iersel (Leo); V. Moulton

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractPhylogenetic networks generalize evolutionary trees, and are commonly used to represent evolutionary histories of species that undergo reticulate evolutionary processes such as hybridization, recombination and lateral gene transfer. Recently, there has been great interest in trying to

  3. Use of the montmorillonite as crosslink agents for chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Rossemberg C.; Lima, Rosemary S. Cunha; Braga, Carla R. Costa; Fook, Marcus V. Lia; Silva, Suedina M. Lima

    2009-01-01

    The montmorillonite (the main constituent of bentonite) has been the most commonly used inorganic load in the formation of nanocomposites chitosan / layered silicate. To evaluate its effect as an agent for the reticulation of chitosan, a sodium montmorillonite, Cloisite Na + , supplied by Southern Clay Products, Texas, USA, was used. For the reticulation of chitosan dispersions of chitosan / Cloisite Na + were prepared in different proportions and the obtained films characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The results indicated that the Cloisite Na + was for efficient and the reticulation of the chitosan and can be used in place of sulfuric acid, which is one of the most common reticulants for chitosan. (author)

  4. Storage rack for fuel cell receiving shrouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollon, L.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a rack for receiving a multiplicity of vertical tubular shrouds or tubes for storing spent nuclear fuel cells. The rack comprises a plurality of horizontally reticulated frames interconnected by tension rods and spacing tubes surrounding the rods

  5. Use of the montmorillonite as crosslink agents for chitosan; Uso da montmorilonita como agente de reticulacao para a quitosana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Rossemberg C.; Lima, Rosemary S. Cunha; Braga, Carla R. Costa [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Fook, Marcus V. Lia; Silva, Suedina M. Lima [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    The montmorillonite (the main constituent of bentonite) has been the most commonly used inorganic load in the formation of nanocomposites chitosan / layered silicate. To evaluate its effect as an agent for the reticulation of chitosan, a sodium montmorillonite, Cloisite Na{sup +}, supplied by Southern Clay Products, Texas, USA, was used. For the reticulation of chitosan dispersions of chitosan / Cloisite Na{sup +} were prepared in different proportions and the obtained films characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The results indicated that the Cloisite Na{sup +} was for efficient and the reticulation of the chitosan and can be used in place of sulfuric acid, which is one of the most common reticulants for chitosan. (author)

  6. 75 FR 38069 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Boa Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Python Species, and Four Anaconda Species as Injurious Reptiles AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... regulations to add Indian python (Python molurus, including Burmese python Python molurus bivittatus), reticulated python (Broghammerus reticulatus or Python reticulatus), Northern African python (Python sebae...

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 6802 dwarf cluster members and non-members (Tang+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, B.; Geisler, D.; Friel, E.; Villanova, S.; Smiljanic, R.; Casey, A. R.; Randich, S.; Magrini, L.; San, Roman I.; Munoz, C.; Cohen, R. E.; Mauro, F.; Bragaglia, A.; Donati, P.; Tautvaisiene, G.; Drazdauskas, A.; Zenoviene, R.; Snaith, O.; Sousa, S.; Adibekyan, V.; Costado, M. T.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Jimenez-Esteban, F.; Carraro, G.; Zwitter, T.; Francois, P.; Jofre, P.; Sordo, R.; Gilmore, G.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Damiani, F.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2016-11-01

    The dwarf stars in NGC 6802 observed by GIRAFFE spectrograph are separated into four tables: 1. cluster members in the lower main sequence; 2. cluster members in the upper main sequence; 3. non-member dwarfs in the lower main sequence; 4. non-member dwarfs in the upper main sequence. The star coordinates, V band magnitude, V-I color, and radial velocity are given. (4 data files).

  8. Quartet-net: a quartet-based method to reconstruct phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jialiang; Grünewald, Stefan; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2013-05-01

    Phylogenetic networks can model reticulate evolutionary events such as hybridization, recombination, and horizontal gene transfer. However, reconstructing such networks is not trivial. Popular character-based methods are computationally inefficient, whereas distance-based methods cannot guarantee reconstruction accuracy because pairwise genetic distances only reflect partial information about a reticulate phylogeny. To balance accuracy and computational efficiency, here we introduce a quartet-based method to construct a phylogenetic network from a multiple sequence alignment. Unlike distances that only reflect the relationship between a pair of taxa, quartets contain information on the relationships among four taxa; these quartets provide adequate capacity to infer a more accurate phylogenetic network. In applications to simulated and biological data sets, we demonstrate that this novel method is robust and effective in reconstructing reticulate evolutionary events and it has the potential to infer more accurate phylogenetic distances than other conventional phylogenetic network construction methods such as Neighbor-Joining, Neighbor-Net, and Split Decomposition. This method can be used in constructing phylogenetic networks from simple evolutionary events involving a few reticulate events to complex evolutionary histories involving a large number of reticulate events. A software called "Quartet-Net" is implemented and available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/QuartetNet/.

  9. Developmental adaptations to gravity in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.

    1991-01-01

    Terrestrial animals have adapted to a constant gravitational stress over millions of years. Tissues of the cardiovascular system and lumbar spine in tall species of animals such as the giraffe are particularly well adapted to high and variable vectors of gravitational force. Swelling of the leg tissues in the giraffe is prevented by a variety of physiological mechanisms including (1) a natural 'antigravity suit', (2) impermeable capillaries, (3) arterial-wall hypertrophy, (4) variable blood pressures during normal activity, and (5) a large-capacity lymphatic system. These adaptations, as well as a natural hypertension, maintain blood perfusion to the giraffe's brain. The intervertebral disk is another tissue that is uniquely adapted to gravitational stress. Tall and large terrestrial animals have higher swelling pressures than their smaller or aquatic counterparts. Finally, the meniscus of the rabbit knee provides information on the effects of aging and load-bearing on cartilaginous tissues. Such tissues within the joints of animals are important for load-bearing on Earth; these connective tissues may degenerate during long-duration space flight.

  10. Design and optimization of the large span dry-coal-shed latticed shell in Liyuan of Henan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Wenfeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and optimization about the large span dry-coal-shed latticed shell in Liyuan of Henan province were studied. On the basis of the structural scheme of double-layer cylindrical reticulated shell, the optimization scheme of the folding double-layer cylindrical reticulated shell was proposed. Through the analysis of a plurality of calculation models, the optimal geometric parameters were obtained after discussing the influence of different slopes of folding lines and shell thickness on the structural bearing capacity and the amount of steel. The research results show that in the case of the same amount of steel, the ultimate bearing capacity of the double-layer folding cylindrical reticulated shell whose folding line slope is 9% and the shell thickness is about 4.4m can be increased 27.3% compared with the original design scheme.

  11. Atypical adult non-calcified pilomatricoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masih, S.; Gentili, A.; Sorenson, S.M.; Seeger, L.L.

    2000-01-01

    We present a rare case of a non-calcified pilomatricoma in a 67-year-old man. This tumor was extremely large in size, and its location, in the lower extremity, was very unusual. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathological features are described in detail. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of this entity is discussed. Definite internal reticulations and septations were observed. A possible explanation for this observation is that the high signal intensity reticulations may represent edematous stroma surrounding basaloid cells. (orig.)

  12. 40 CFR 463.1 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plastics molding and forming category in this part. (c) Processes that coat a plastic material onto a... and development laboratories that produce plastic products using a plastics molding and forming... development laboratories. (f) Chemical and thermal reticulation processes for polyurethane foam are not...

  13. Influence of the surroundings conditions on the evolution of elastomers in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Stevenson, I.; Celette, N.; David, L.; Vigier, G.; David, L.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution under radiations of EPDM elastomers used as cable insulators reveals the determining role of the surrounding atmosphere. The formation of unsaturated bonds and a recovery of the reticulation are revealed for irradiations in inert atmosphere, whereas a lot of oxidized species are formed in presence of oxygen. The dynamic mechanical relaxation spectroscopy shows a decrease of the molecular mobility in all the cases. This ones results of the reticulation under inert atmosphere, but its origin is less clear during the radio-oxidation where the chain cleavages constitute the main process. The evolution of the conservation modulus with the irradiation dose is in agreement with the waited evolution after the melting of the crystallites. The number of reticulation intersection increases until a dose corresponding to the complete consumption of diene, for decreasing then under the influence of the chain cleavages. The crystallites growth due to chain cleavages explains then the evolution at ambient temperature in presence of oxygen. The mechanical properties at the great deformations show the role of reinforcement of the crystallites at ambient temperature which disappears during the crystallites melting. The evolution of the EPDM properties results of a complex equilibrium between reticulations, chain cleavages and crystallites growth, which is controlled by the temperature and the atmosphere. (O.M.)

  14. A practical approximation algorithm for solving massive instances of hybridization number

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van L.J.J.; Kelk, S.M.; Lekic, N.; Scornavacca, C.; Raphael, B.; Tang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Reticulate events play an important role in determining evolutionary relationships. The problem of computing the minimum number of such events to explain discordance between two phylogenetic trees is a hard computational problem. In practice, exact solvers struggle to solve instances with

  15. Supplementary Material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mraga

    1. Supplementary Material. A soluble-lead Redox Flow Battery with corrugated graphite sheet and reticulated vitreous carbon as positive and negative current collectors by A Banerjee et al (pp 163-. 170). Figure S1. SEM images for bare substrates: (a) graphite sheet, (b) 20 ppi RVC, (c) 30 ppi. RVC and (d) 45 ppi RVC.

  16. Mutations in POGLUT1, Encoding Protein O-Glucosyltransferase 1, Cause Autosomal-Dominant Dowling-Degos Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basmanav, F Buket; Oprisoreanu, Ana-Maria; Pasternack, Sandra M

    2014-01-01

    Dowling-Degos disease (DDD) is an autosomal-dominant genodermatosis characterized by progressive and disfiguring reticulate hyperpigmentation. We previously identified loss-of-function mutations in KRT5 but were only able to detect pathogenic mutations in fewer than half of our subjects. To ident...

  17. What Is the Tree of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, W Ford; Brunet, Tyler D P

    2016-04-01

    A universal Tree of Life (TOL) has long been a goal of molecular phylogeneticists, but reticulation at the level of genes and possibly at the levels of cells and species renders any simple interpretation of such a TOL, especially as applied to prokaryotes, problematic.

  18. What Is the Tree of Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Ford Doolittle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A universal Tree of Life (TOL has long been a goal of molecular phylogeneticists, but reticulation at the level of genes and possibly at the levels of cells and species renders any simple interpretation of such a TOL, especially as applied to prokaryotes, problematic.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis contains a protein similar to the Legionella pneumophila mip gene product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend; Fey, SJ

    1991-01-01

    A 27kDa Chlamydia trachomatis L2 protein was characterized by the use of monoclonal antibodies and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein was shown to be located in the membrane of reticulate bodies as well as elementary bodies. Its synthesis could be detected from 10 hours post-infe...... potentiator (mip) gene of Legionella pneumophila....

  20. Molecular and morpho-anatomical characterization of some Egyptian durum wheat cultivars/lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.M.; Hamiedeldin, N.; Khafaga, A.

    2016-01-01

    Grains of eight durum wheat cultivars were tested for identification of genetic relationship among molecular, anatomical and morphological levels. On the molecular level, two techniques have been used; Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR). Amplification of RAPD primers showed different numbers of fragments ranged from six to thirteen fragments. Percentage of polymorphism ranged from 0% to 100%. The highest similarity value recorded was 91%, while the lowest similarity value was 69%. Amplification of ISSR primers showed different numbers of fragments ranged from six to twelve fragments. The highest similarity value recorded was 91%, while the lowest similarity value was 68%. The grain's coat morphology was reticulated in all taxa. There were variations with regard to the alignment and the shape of network and architecture of interspaces enclosed by raised line. Reticulate surface patterns appeared some variations ranged from weakly reticulate such as G 413 to strongly reticulate such as G 203. Stem cuticles of all cultivars were thick except cultivar; Benisweif 1. For leaf anatomy, all cultivars had epidermis composed of one layer of thick wall cells except cultivars; G 203 and Benisweif 1. (author)

  1. Notes on Michigan Boletaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Alexander H.

    1973-01-01

    Studies have continued on the diversity of the Michigan bolete flora. During the season of 1972 a variety of Boletus affinis Peck having a reticulate stipe was discovered and abundant material of Boletus bicolor var. subreticulatus Smith & Thiers was obtained. Boletus hortonii Smith & Thiers was

  2. Framework for assessing the viability of implementing dual water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many settlements across the world (e.g. Pimpama Coomera and Mawson Lakes – Australia, Hong Kong – China, Majuro – Marshall Islands, Tarawa – Kiribati, and Windhoek – Namibia), dual water reticulation systems have been implemented in response to increasing water demands and decreasing freshwater ...

  3. Recent Updates from Africa: Africa’s Energy Needs and Potential Role of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayacko, Ochilo G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Africa’s energy challenges: ∗ Access to electricity - not universal; ∗ Electricity shortages - inadequate electricity generating capacity, rising demand; ∗ Not enough diversity of supply; ∗ Dependence on imports (of fuel); ∗ Dependence on emergency generation – exorbitant cost; ∗ National transmission, distribution and reticulation networks need upgrading and expansion; ∗ Inter-connections between countries inadequate; ∗ Energy planning

  4. Influence of irrigation on the level, salinity and flow of groundwater at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective drainage would minimise the salt build-up in the soil, have a positive influence on the sustainability of irrigation farming and improve crop yields and quality in the area. The drained water can be reticulated into an evaporation pond to confine the salt mass, thus preventing it from influencing the environment and ...

  5. Box-like gel capsules from heterostructures based on a core-shell MOF as a template of crystal crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Takumi; Michibata, Ayano; Kokado, Kenta; Ferlay, Sylvie; Hosseini, Mir Wais; Sada, Kazuki

    2018-02-06

    New polymer capsules (PCs) were obtained using a crystal crosslinking (CC) method on core-shell MOF crystals. The latter are based on the epitaxial growth of two isostructural coordination polymers which are then selectively crosslinked. Decomposition of the non-reticulated phase leads to new PCs, possessing a well-defined hollow cubic shape reflecting the heterostructure of the template.

  6. Low temperature thermal conductivities of glassy carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of glassy carbon in the temperature range 0.1 to 100 0 K appears to depend only on the temperature at which the material was pyrolyzed. The thermal conductivity can be related to the microscopic structure of glassy carbon. The reticulated structure is especially useful for thermal isolation at cryogenic temperatures

  7. A new species of Euonymus (Celastraceae) from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1975-01-01

    Euonymus globularis, a new species from Queensland, is here described. It is the second species of Euonymus for Australia. It shows reticulate affinities with species belonging to different sections or series of this genus as well as with species of Brassiantha and Hedraianthera in the same family.

  8. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae : XIV. Elaeoluma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohumil Francis Kukachka

    1980-01-01

    The genus Elaeoluma consists of three species distributed in the Amazon Basin, Surinam, Guyana, and Venezuela. The description presented here is based on E. glabrescens of the Amazon Basin. The wood is easily differentiated from all other neotropical Sapotaceae by its pale brown color, reticulate parenchyma, which is hardly discernable with a hand lens, and a low...

  9. 76 FR 40082 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... are: Indian python (including Burmese python), reticulated python, Northern African python, Southern African python, boa constrictor, yellow anaconda, DeSchauensee's anaconda, green anaconda, and Beni... Required: Yes. Agency Contact: Art Roybal, Senior Fish and Wildlife Biologist, Department of the Interior...

  10. Taxonomical Studies Of Selected Ornamental Plants | Oloyede | Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plants were collected in Osun-State, Nigeria and identified using standard horticultural literatures and herbarium specimens of the Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. ... Reticulate venation was common to them with the exception of C.bicolor and R. spathacea with parallel venation.

  11. A Case of Laptop Computer-Induced Erythema Ab Igne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Özgür Doğan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Erythema ab igne, also known as toasted skin syndrome, is a skin reaction characterized by reticulate erythema, brown pigmentation, and telangiectasia. In some cases, epidermal atrophy and scaling are also identified. The condition is usually caused by prolonged exposure to a source of heat or infrared radiation. Here, we report a case of erythema ab igne associated with laptop computer use.

  12. Exotic reptile bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, J; Ehrlich, M; Henderson, S O

    1997-09-01

    Reptiles are a growing part of the exotic pet trade, and reptile bites have been considered innocuous in the emergency medicine literature. Two cases are reported of reptile bites, one from a green iguana and the other from a reticulated python. The treatment concerns associated with reptile bites are discussed.

  13. A time and a place for everything: phylogenetic history and geography as joint predictors of oak plastome phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasey K. Pham; Andrew L. Hipp; Paul S. Manos; Richard C. Cronn

    2017-01-01

    Owing to high rates of introgressive hybridization, the plastid genome is poorly suited to fine-scale DNA barcoding and phylogenetic studies of the oak genus (Quercus, Fagaceae). At the tips of the oak plastome phylogeny, recent gene migration and reticulation generally cause topology to reflect geographic structure, while deeper branches reflect...

  14. Uniqueness, intractability and exact algorithms: reflections on level-k phylogenetic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.J. van Iersel (Leo); S.M. Kelk (Steven); M. Mnich

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractPhylogenetic networks provide a way to describe and visualize evolutionary histories that have undergone so-called reticulate evolutionary events such as recombination, hybridization or horizontal gene transfer. The level k of a network determines how non-treelike the evolution can be,

  15. If it looks like a duck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela

    ), and end users from the home. Data for this study were gathered through field notes during the workshops and discourse analysis of email exchanges [2]. A testing workshop with an initial prototype is planned at the home for spring 2018. This study builds on multimodality [3] and digital ecologies ([5...... artefacts with different roles [6]. In this study animal names, such as: penguin, bear, giraffe, and swan, acted as shared signifiers, enabling the research team to decode the different visualisations of the robot and explore its aesthetics, functionalities, and possible interactions....

  16. Suspected adverse reactions to veterinary drugs reported in South Africa (January 1998 - February 2001 : special report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gehring

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The Veterinary Pharmacovigilance Centre received 59 reports of suspected adverse drug reactions during the period January 1998 - February 2001. The number of reports received increased after the establishment of a formal procedure for recording and responding to reports. The number of reports received per species was: dogs 19, cats 15, cattle 7, sheep/ goats 6, chickens 4, pigs 3, horses 2 and giraffe 1. Many different types of adverse reactions were reported, including lack of efficacy, hypersensitivity, inappropriate use of products by non-veterinarians, known adverse effects and adverse effects encountered with extra-label use of products.

  17. Nuclear Astrophysics Experiments at CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weiping; Li Zhihong; Bai Xixiang; Lian Gang; Guo Bing; Zeng, Sheng; Yan Shengquan; Wang Baoxiang; Shu Nengchuan; Wu Kaisu; Chen Yongshou

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes nuclear astrophysical studies using the unstable ion beam facility GIRAFFE. We measured the angular distributions for some low energy reactions, such as 7 Be(d, n) 8 B, 11 C(d, n) 12 N, 8 Li(d, n) 9 Be and 8 Li(d, p) 9 Li in inverse kinematics, and indirectly derived the astrophysical S-factors or reaction rates of 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B, 11 C(p, γ) 12 N, 8 Li(n, γ) 9 Li at astrophysically relevant energies

  18. Metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2015-04-01

    Two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. The results demonstrate that listeners' consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., 'jury/gi'raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. When preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing characteristics with the first syllable of the target word, pictures of alternatives with primary lexical stress on the first syllable (e.g., jury) initially attracted more looks than alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe). This effect was modulated when preceding unstressed syllables had pitch and timing characteristics similar to the initial syllable of the target word, with more looks to alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe) than to those with stressed initial syllables (e.g., jury). These findings suggest that expectations about the acoustic realization of upcoming speech include information about metrical organization and lexical stress and that these expectations constrain the initial interpretation of suprasegmental stress cues. These distal prosody effects implicate online probabilistic inferences about the sources of acoustic-phonetic variation during spoken-word recognition. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Emerging pestiviruses infecting domestic and wildlife hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Julia F

    2015-06-01

    Until the early 1990 s there were just three recognized species in the pestivirus genus, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Subsequently BVDV were divided into two different species, BVDV1 and BVDV2 and four additional putative pestivirus species have been identified, based on phylogenetic analysis. The four putative pestivirus specices, listed in chronological order of published reports, are Giraffe (isolated from one of several giraffes in the Nanyuki District of Kenya suffering from mucosal disease-like symptoms), HoBi (first isolated from fetal bovine serum originating in Brazil and later from samples originating in Southeast Asia), Pronghorn (isolated from an emaciated blind pronghorn antelope in the USA), and Bungowannah (isolated following an outbreak in pigs, resulting in still birth and neonatal death, in Australia). In addition to the emergence of putative new species of pestivirus, changes in host and virulence of recognized or 'classic' pestiviruses have led to reevaluation of disease control programs and management of domestic and wildlife populations.

  20. Monitoring the fibrolytic potential of microbial ecosystems from domestic and wild ruminants browsing tanniferous forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nokwethemba Nqobile Philile Msimango

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the rumen microbiome has been reported to synthesize a rich source of symbiotic enzymes (exocellulase, endocellulase, hemicellulase and cellobiase, the digestion of tropical C4 grasses and browses by ruminants is still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to unveil potential fibrolytic microbial ecosystems from giraffe, kudu, impala and consortia (A1 [giraffe + kudu], A2 [giraffe + impala], A3 [kudu + impala], and A4 [giraffe + kudu + impala] browsing tanniferous plants, which can be used to improve forage utilization in domesticated goat. Crude protein enzyme extracts (CPZ from fresh faecal samples were precipitated by 60% ammonium sulphate and assayed for exocellulase, endocellulase and hemicellulase by incubating with crystalline cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan at 38 °C with optimum pH of 5.5 to 6.5 for 1, 2, and 48 h, respectively. Enzyme specific activities were defined as μg of reducing sugar/mg CPZ. In vitro fermentation study was done by transferring 33 mL of fresh faecal inoculum into 67 mL of salivary buffer containing 1 g Acacia sieberiana and incubating for 72 h at 38 °C. Apparent degradability (APDeg, true degradability (TD, neutral detergent fibre degradability (NDFdeg, acid detergent fibre degradability (ADFdeg, microbial yield (MY, metabolizable energy (ME and total gas emitted (Gas were measured. Exocellulase activities were higher (P < 0.05 in all wild animals and consortia than those in goat except for A4. Minimal differences in hemicellulase activities (P < 0.05 were observed among goat and wild animals and consortia, while endocellulase activity was generally higher (P < 0.05 in goat than that in the rest of the systems. Apart from A3, TDeg, NDFdeg and ADFdeg were higher (P < 0.05 in all microbial ecosystems from wild animals and consortia than those in goat. Apparent degradability, MY and ME also varied (P < 0.05 among these systems. Giraffe, Kudu and A3 produced lower (P

  1. Finite element structural study of the VGOT wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, A.D. [University of Buenos Aires (Argentina). College of Engineering; Ponta, F.L. [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics

    2004-07-01

    We analyse the implementation of the finite element method to simulate the structural behaviour of the blade-wagons of variable-geometry oval-trajectory (VGOT) Darrieus wind turbines. The key feature of a VGOT machine is that each blade, instead of rotating around a central vertical axis, slides over rails mounted on a wagon formed by a tubular reticulated structure supported by standard train bogies. The structure should be designed to absorb the efforts in the vertical and traverse directions of the railroad due to the aerodynamic loads, the weight of the components and the centrifugal acceleration along the curved tracks. We show some results for the tip deflection and the tip torsion of the blade, the frontal and lateral angle variations in the blade bottom and the Von Misses tensions of five sample beams, all of them in function of the trajectory-length parameter; and some examples of the deformed configuration of the reticulated structure. (author)

  2. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - correlation of high-resolution computed tomography and anatomopathology; Pneumocistose na sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson; Moreira, Luiza Beatriz [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br; Capone, Domenico [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia; Pereira, Cyntia Inez Guedes Soares

    2001-12-01

    We present the main findings observed on the high-resolution computed tomography examinations of 15 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The high-resolution computed tomography and autopsy findings of 5 patients were also compared. The most frequently observed high-resolution computed tomography patterns were ground-glass attenuation, consolidation areas, crazy-paving pattern and cysts. Nodules and intralobular reticulation were less frequently observed. Ground-glass attenuation and consolidation areas corresponded to alveolar filling with inflammatory exudate. Thickening of the interlobular septa was due to cell infiltration and edema. One patient presented interlobular reticulation, and the pathology study revealed alveolar septa thickening due to cell infiltration and fibrosis. Nodules observed in one of the patients corresponded to a patchy intra alveolar accumulation of microorganisms and inflammatory cells forming a 'granulomatous' pattern. (author)

  3. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heineman, W.R.

    1990-04-01

    A comprehensive study of the electrochemical generation of Tc-MDP complexes at reticulated vitreous carbon is in progress. Results thus far indicate that high yields of the same complexes that are formed by electrochemical generation at mercury electrodes and by chemical reduction by NaBH 4 at various values of solution pH are formed. Reticulated vitreous carbon offers the advantage of a flow through electrode with a large surface area for the rapid generation of Tc-MDP complexes at very low cost. It is a suitable electrode material for the proposed electrochemical syringe. A prototype TcO 4 - sensor has been fabricated by coating a graphite electrode with a thin film of the polymer poly(dimethyl-diallylammonium chloride). The polymer concentrates electroactive anions at the electrode surface as demonstrated with ferricyanide and thereby enhances the analytical signal for their detection. 2 figs

  4. Pollen and Seed Morphology of Rhinacanthus Nees and Hypoestes Sol. ex R. Br. (Acanthaceae) of Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hakimi, A.S.; Maideen, H.; Latiff, A.; Al-Hakimi, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Pollens and seeds of Hypoestes and Rhinacanthus collected from different field localities in Taiz and Soqotra Island, Yemen were investigated by using light and scanning electron microscopes. Pollen grains of Hypoestes were prolate in equatorial view, lobate trigonal to lobate circular in polar view whereas those of Rhinacanthus were sub spheroidal and rounded trigonal in polar view. The aperture was tricolporate and exine ornamentation was coarsely reticulate for all species in the two genera. Scanning electron microscopy and morphological observations showed that mature dry seeds of Hypoestes and Rhinacanthus have various sizes and shapes, the surface ornamentations observed were reticulate to cristate, an addition to the tuberculum and papillae. The three Hypoestes species differ in the seed structure which are useful for identification and their high structural diversity provides an important taxonomic value for species differentiation. (author)

  5. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - correlation of high-resolution computed tomography and anatomopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, Edson; Moreira, Luiza Beatriz; Capone, Domenico; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de; Pereira, Cyntia Inez Guedes Soares

    2001-01-01

    We present the main findings observed on the high-resolution computed tomography examinations of 15 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The high-resolution computed tomography and autopsy findings of 5 patients were also compared. The most frequently observed high-resolution computed tomography patterns were ground-glass attenuation, consolidation areas, crazy-paving pattern and cysts. Nodules and intralobular reticulation were less frequently observed. Ground-glass attenuation and consolidation areas corresponded to alveolar filling with inflammatory exudate. Thickening of the interlobular septa was due to cell infiltration and edema. One patient presented interlobular reticulation, and the pathology study revealed alveolar septa thickening due to cell infiltration and fibrosis. Nodules observed in one of the patients corresponded to a patchy intra alveolar accumulation of microorganisms and inflammatory cells forming a 'granulomatous' pattern. (author)

  6. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanka, J; Smith, S D; Soloy, E

    1999-01-01

    in nuclear morphology as a transformation of the nucleolus precursor body into a functional rRNA synthesising nucleolus with a characteristic ultrastructure. We examined nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine in vitro produced (control) embryos and in nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed from a MII phase...... at 1 hr after fusion and, by 3 hr after fusion, it was restored again. At this time, the reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleolus had an almost round shape. The nucleolar precursor body seen in the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryos consisted of intermingled filamentous components and secondary...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  7. Effect of 60Co γ-irradiation on saccharification of uncooked sweet potato material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Tingchun; Xiong Xingyao; Yi Jinqiong; Wang Keqin; Su Xiaojun; Zou Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Using the starch and powder of sweet potato of Xiangshu 86 and Xiangshu 541 as materials, the effect of 60 Co γ-irradiation on the structure of starch particle and the efficiency of saccharification were studied. The result showed that some reticulate flaws appeared in the surface of irradiated starch particles, and the reticulate flaws were increased with the increase of irradiation dose. The content of reducing sugar and total soluble sugar in both starch and the powder were obviously increased along with the increase of irradiation dose ranged from 50 to 1200 kGy. The saccharification efficiency of Xiangshu 86 and Xiangshu 541 was obviously difference at the dose lower than 500 kGy, and then the efficiency showed the similar trends at higher dose irradiation, the saccharification rate reached the highest value after the treatment of 1200 kGy irradiation. (authors)

  8. A General Purpose Microcontroller Trainer | Talukder | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the method is discussed primarily for a communication network, it may be applied to any other type of network, such as transportation, water reticulation or any large scale process plants. (Af. J. of Science and Technology: 2002 3(1): 114-121). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajst.v3i1.15296 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Ion conducting interpenetrated lattices for lithium generators; Reseaux interpenetres conducteurs ioniques pour generateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosz, M.; Boileau, S. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France); Guegan, P.; Cheradame, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 94 - Thiais (France). LPCB; Deshayes, A. [CNET, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1996-12-31

    Interpenetrated lattices (IPL) are combinations of reticulated polymers linked together by permanent crisscross. This structure is well-adapted to combined highly incompatible pairs of polymers. The in-situ sequential method has been applied successfully to the synthesis of ethylene poly-oxides / poly-siloxanes IPLs. The results concerning the preparation of such lattices and their behaviour as solid polymer electrolytes are presented in this paper. (J.S.) 24 refs.

  10. Microvascularized 3D Breast Cancer Constructs for Drug Testing and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    title, patent application number, filing date, patent number if issued, patent issued date, national, or international . Patent application filed March...Methods Of Making and Methods of Using the Tissue Constructs International Application Number: PCT/US13/29366 No licenses have resulted from this... Microporous cell-laden hydrogels for engineered tissue constructs. Biotechnol Bioeng, 106(1): 138-148. Pec MK, Reyes R, Sanchez E, et al. 2010; Reticulated

  11. Dune field pattern formation and recent transporting winds in the Olympia Undae Dune Field, north polar region of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, Aymeric-Pierre B.; Kocurek, Gary; Bourke, Mary

    2010-01-01

    High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery of the central Olympia Undae Dune Field in the north polar region of Mars shows a reticulate dune pattern consisting of two sets of nearly orthogonal dune crestlines, with apparent slipfaces on the primary crests, ubiquitous wind ripples, areas of coarse-grained wind ripples, and deflated interdune areas. Geomorphic evidence and dune field pattern analysis of dune crest length, spacing, defect density, and orientation indicates that ...

  12. Dyskeratosis congenita--two siblings with a new missense mutation in the DKC1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Joana Dias; Lestre, Sara; Kay, Teresa; Lopes, Maria João Paiva; Fiadeiro, Teresa; Apetato, Margarida

    2011-01-01

    Dyskeratosis congenital is reported in two siblings. They presented with the classic triad of mucocutaneous features: leukoplakia of the tongue, dystrophic nails, and a widespread reticulate pigmentation on the neck and upper chest. A genetic analysis was performed and a new missense mutation S356P, hemizygous, was identified in the DKC1 gene in both patients. Acitretin was started at a low-dose in both patients, resulting in clinical improvement and important, positive psychosocial effects. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A case of vildagliptin-induced interstitial pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kuse, Naoyuki; Abe, Shinji; Kuribayashi, Hidehiko; Inomata, Minoru; Saito, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Yuh; Gemma, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old Japanese male with type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital with a productive cough and worsening dyspnea. He had started receiving vildagliptin, which is one of the dipeptideylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, several days before the appearance of his symptoms. Laboratory findings revealed markedly elevated levels of immunoglobulin E and Krebs von den Lungen-6. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacity with irregular reticulation throughout both lungs. ...

  14. Contingency planning and risk analysis for water and tailings management at Ranger Uranium Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes some of the more likely risks and contingency procedures associated with the extremely variable monsoonal climate of the Alligator Rivers region in the Northern Territory in relation to the Ranger Uranium Mine. The tailings management system is basically a large storage impoundment and a reticulation system that delivers tailings sludge and recycles supernatant water. It is a closed circuit within the water management system and is dealt with as an integral part of that system

  15. Divergent evolutionary histories of DNA markers in a Hawaiian population of the coral Montipora capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Hollie M. Putnam; Diane K. Adams; Ehud Zelzion; Nicole E. Wagner; Huan Qiu; Tali Mass; Paul G. Falkowski; Ruth D. Gates; Debashish Bhattacharya

    2017-01-01

    We investigated intra- and inter-colony sequence variation in a population of the dominant Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by analyzing marker gene and genomic data. Ribosomal ITS1 regions showed evidence of a reticulate history among the colonies, suggesting incomplete rDNA repeat homogenization. Analysis of the mitochondrial genome identified a major (M. capitata) and a minor (M. flabellata) haplotype in single polyp-derived sperm bundle DNA with some colonies containing 2?3 different mtD...

  16. Paracoccidioidomycosis: high-resolution computed tomography - anatomo-pathological correlation; Paracoccidioidomicose: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson; Muniz, Maria Angelica Soares; Santos, Maria Lucia de Oliveira [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Patologia; Capone, Domenico [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Pneumologia

    2000-12-01

    We reviewed the high-resolution computed tomography scans of 13 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis and correlated the findings with the anatomo-pathological findings of 5 patients. The most frequent findings observed were thickening of the interlobular septa, emphysema, ground glass areas, thickening of bronchial walls, tracheal dilatation, nodules, cavities and evidence of fibrosing disease such as architectural distortion, parenchymatous bands, spicular pleural thickening, intralobular reticulate and thickening with distortion off the axial interstitium. (author)

  17. Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa; Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A.

    2013-11-01

    Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

  18. Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taiz University, Taiz (Yemen); Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

  19. Embolis cutis medicamentosa, a rare preventable iatrogenic complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Kavya,

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Embolis cutis medicamentosa is an uncommon iatrogenic complication characterised by variable degree of skin and tissue necrosis, likely to follow intramuscular injection. Intense pain and purplish discoloration of overlying skin, with or without reticulate pattern subsequently followed by tissue necrosis and scarring is highly specific for this syndrome. It has also been reported following intravenous, intra-articular and subcutaneous injections. Herein we are reporting two cases of this rare preventable entity.

  20. New Porcini (Boletus sect. Boletus) from Australia and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, Roy E; Desjardin, Dennis E; Fechner, Nigel; Arora, David; Soytong, Kasem; Dentinger, Bryn T M

    2014-01-01

    Boletus albobrunnescens and B. austroedulis are described as new species in section Boletus from Thailand and Australia respectively. The former is easily characterized by the pure white basidiomata that stain brown. Boletus austroedulis has a gray-brown, slightly rugulose pileus with hymeniform pileipellis producing pileocystidia, and the stipe is only apically reticulate if at all. These new species represent ancient lineages inferred from prior molecular phylogenetic analyses. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  1. Taxonomy of Cyrtochilum-alliance (Orchidaceae) in the light of molecular and morphological data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szlachetko, D. L.; Kolanowska, Marta; Naczk, A.; Gorniak, M.; Dudek, M.; Rutkowski, P.; Chiron, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 58, JAN (2017), č. článku 8. ISSN 1999-3110 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : ribosomal-rna genes * hybrid speciation * chloroplast dna * allopolyploid speciation * reconstructing patterns * phylogenetic inference * reticulate evolution * concerted evolution * horizontal transfer * sequence alignment * Cyrtochilum * Monophyly * New combinations * New species * Oncidiinae * Paraphyly * Taxonomy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.452, year: 2016

  2. Transforming phylogenetic networks: Moving beyond tree space

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Katharina T.; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that are used to represent reticulate evolution. Unrooted phylogenetic networks form a special class of such networks, which naturally generalize unrooted phylogenetic trees. In this paper we define two operations on unrooted phylogenetic networks, one of which is a generalization of the well-known nearest-neighbor interchange (NNI) operation on phylogenetic trees. We show that any unrooted phylogenetic network can be transforme...

  3. Modeling approaches to natural convection in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the field of flow and heat transfer in porous medium and focuses on presentation of a generalized approach to predict drag and convective heat transfer within porous medium of arbitrary microscopic geometry, including reticulated foams and packed beds. Practical numerical methods to solve natural convection problems in porous media will be presented with illustrative applications for filtrations, thermal storage and solar receivers.

  4. Cellular Pathways of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia*

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstone, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Human voluntary movement is controlled by the pyramidal motor system, a long CNS pathway comprising corticospinal and lower motor neurons. Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a large, genetically diverse group of inherited neurologic disorders characterized by a length-dependent distal axonopathy of the corticospinal tracts, resulting in lower limb spasticity and weakness. A range of studies are converging on alterations in the shaping of organelles, particularly the endoplasmic reticul...

  5. Ion conducting interpenetrated lattices for lithium generators; Reseaux interpenetres conducteurs ioniques pour generateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosz, M; Boileau, S [College de France, 75 - Paris (France); Guegan, P; Cheradame, H [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 94 - Thiais (France). LPCB; Deshayes, A [CNET, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1997-12-31

    Interpenetrated lattices (IPL) are combinations of reticulated polymers linked together by permanent crisscross. This structure is well-adapted to combined highly incompatible pairs of polymers. The in-situ sequential method has been applied successfully to the synthesis of ethylene poly-oxides / poly-siloxanes IPLs. The results concerning the preparation of such lattices and their behaviour as solid polymer electrolytes are presented in this paper. (J.S.) 24 refs.

  6. Revesz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristine Issaho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revesz syndrome is a rare variant of dyskeratosis congenita and is characterized by bilateral exudative retinopathy, alterations in the anterior ocular segment, intrauterine growth retardation, fine sparse hair, reticulate skin pigmentation, bone marrow failure, cerebral calcification, cerebellar hypoplasia and psychomotor retardation. Few patients with this syndrome have been reported, and significant clinical variations exist among patients. This report describes the first Brazilian case of Revesz syndrome and its ocular and clinical features.

  7. Deployment of a pentagonal hollow-rope tensegrity module

    OpenAIRE

    Rhode-Barbarigos , Landolf; Bel Hadj Ali , Nizar; Motro , René; Smith , Ian F.C.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Tensegrity structures are spatial reticulated structures composed of cables and struts. Tensegrity systems are good candidates for adaptive and deployable structures and thus have applications in various engineering fields. A "hollow-rope" tensegrity system composed of tensegrity-ring modules has been demonstrated by the authors to be a viable system for a pedestrian bridge. This paper focuses on the deployment of pentagonal ring modules. A geometric study is performed...

  8. DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Jani Switu; Harisha C.R.; Mohaddesi Behzad

    2012-01-01

    Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cav...

  9. Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    Integration of poly-(MG) modified RVC with NAD+-dependent enzymes immobilized in chitosan /CNTs composite scaffold -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6...voltammetry 2D glassy carbon 3D reticulated vitreous carbon 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 200 400 600 800 1000 10 cycles 25 cycles 50 cycles 200 cycles

  10. GAMBARAN KLINIK DAN LATAR BELAKANG PASIEN DENGAN DIAGNOSIS KLNIK SEBAGAI LICHEN PLANUS DI POLI PENYAKIT MULUT RSCM DAN RSGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Tjahjani Sumantri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planys is disorder of the skin and mucous membrane that presenting pruritic, purple and polygonal papules. Oral lesions may persist for years and with clinical appearance that sometimes very ocnfusing. In most cases, oral lesions are present as white, reticulated or natelike areas involving the mucosa. These lesions are characteristic and called Wickham's striae. This paper presented some cases with lesions that resembled oral lichen planus.

  11. Rapid radiations of both kiwifruit hybrid lineages and their parents shed light on a two-layer mode of species diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Qiong; Song, Chi; Zhong, Caihong; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ying; Yao, Xiaohong; Wang, Zupeng; Zeng, Shaohua; Wang, Ying; Guo, Yangtao; Wang, Shuaibin; Li, Xinwei; Li, Li; Liu, Chunyan; McCann, Honour C; He, Weiming; Niu, Yan; Chen, Min; Du, Liuwen; Gong, Junjie; Datson, Paul M; Hilario, Elena; Huang, Hongwen

    2017-07-01

    Reticulate speciation caused by interspecific hybridization is now recognized as an important mechanism in the creation of biological diversity. However, depicting the patterns of phylogenetic networks for lineages that have undergone interspecific gene flow is challenging. Here we sequenced 25 taxa representing natural diversity in the genus Actinidia with an average mapping depth of 26× on the reference genome to reconstruct their reticulate history. We found evidence, including significant gene tree discordance, cytonuclear conflicts, and changes in genome-wide heterozygosity across taxa, collectively supporting extensive reticulation in the genus. Furthermore, at least two separate parental species pairs were involved in the repeated origin of the hybrid lineages, in some of which a further phase of syngameon was triggered. On the basis of the elucidated hybridization relationships, we obtained a highly resolved backbone phylogeny consisting of taxa exhibiting no evidence of hybrid origin. The backbone taxa have distinct demographic histories and are the product of recent rounds of rapid radiations via sorting of ancestral variation under variable climatic and ecological conditions. Our results suggest a mode for consecutive plant diversification through two layers of radiations, consisting of the rapid evolution of backbone lineages and the formation of hybrid swarms derived from these lineages. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. A practical approximation algorithm for solving massive instances of hybridization number for binary and nonbinary trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iersel, Leo; Kelk, Steven; Lekić, Nela; Scornavacca, Celine

    2014-05-05

    Reticulate events play an important role in determining evolutionary relationships. The problem of computing the minimum number of such events to explain discordance between two phylogenetic trees is a hard computational problem. Even for binary trees, exact solvers struggle to solve instances with reticulation number larger than 40-50. Here we present CycleKiller and NonbinaryCycleKiller, the first methods to produce solutions verifiably close to optimality for instances with hundreds or even thousands of reticulations. Using simulations, we demonstrate that these algorithms run quickly for large and difficult instances, producing solutions that are very close to optimality. As a spin-off from our simulations we also present TerminusEst, which is the fastest exact method currently available that can handle nonbinary trees: this is used to measure the accuracy of the NonbinaryCycleKiller algorithm. All three methods are based on extensions of previous theoretical work (SIDMA 26(4):1635-1656, TCBB 10(1):18-25, SIDMA 28(1):49-66) and are publicly available. We also apply our methods to real data.

  13. Long term radiological features of radiation-induced lung damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Catarina; Landau, David; McClelland, Jamie R; Ledermann, Jonathan A; Hawkes, David; Janes, Sam M; Devaraj, Anand

    2018-02-01

    To describe the radiological findings of radiation-induced lung damage (RILD) present on CT imaging of lung cancer patients 12 months after radical chemoradiation. Baseline and 12-month CT scans of 33 patients were reviewed from a phase I/II clinical trial of isotoxic chemoradiation (IDEAL CRT). CT findings were scored in three categories derived from eleven sub-categories: (1) parenchymal change, defined as the presence of consolidation, ground-glass opacities (GGOs), traction bronchiectasis and/or reticulation; (2) lung volume reduction, identified through reduction in lung height and/or distortions in fissures, diaphragm, anterior junction line and major airways anatomy, and (3) pleural changes, either thickening and/or effusion. Six patients were excluded from the analysis due to anatomical changes caused by partial lung collapse and abscess. All remaining 27 patients had radiological evidence of lung damage. The three categories, parenchymal change, shrinkage and pleural change were present in 100%, 96% and 82% respectively. All patients had at least two categories of change present and 72% all three. GGOs, reticulation and traction bronchiectasis were present in 44%, 52% and 37% of patients. Parenchymal change, lung shrinkage and pleural change are present in a high proportion of patients and are frequently identified in RILD. GGOs, reticulation and traction bronchiectasis are common at 12 months but not diagnostic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The HRCT appearances of granulomatous pulmonary disease in common variable immune deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.E.S.; Beal, I.; Dilworth, J.P.; Tormey, V.; Haddock, J.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 10% of patients with common variable immune deficiency have systemic granulomatous disease with associated interstitial lung disease. From a population of patients with CVID attending a large tertiary referral clinic for primary immunodeficiency diseases we selected a cohort who had a restrictive defect or impaired gas transfer on pulmonary function testing and/or histologically proven granulomatous disease. HRCT scans of the thorax were reviewed retrospectively in 18 patients by two radiologists. Thirteen patients had diffuse reticulation, which varied from fine to coarse with features of fibrosis. Nodules were found in eight patients. In seven, these were associated with reticulation and in one they were an isolated finding. Bronchiectasis was found as the only abnormality in three and in addition to diffuse reticulation or nodules in another three patients. Greater appreciation of the spectrum of the radiological abnormalities in CVID patients with interstitial lung disease is important. Deteriorating lung function in patients with granulomatous CVID may be secondary to interstitial lung disease rather than bronchiectasis, and treatment should be tailored accordingly

  15. Quartet-based methods to reconstruct phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jialiang; Grünewald, Stefan; Xu, Yifei; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2014-02-20

    Phylogenetic networks are employed to visualize evolutionary relationships among a group of nucleotide sequences, genes or species when reticulate events like hybridization, recombination, reassortant and horizontal gene transfer are believed to be involved. In comparison to traditional distance-based methods, quartet-based methods consider more information in the reconstruction process and thus have the potential to be more accurate. We introduce QuartetSuite, which includes a set of new quartet-based methods, namely QuartetS, QuartetA, and QuartetM, to reconstruct phylogenetic networks from nucleotide sequences. We tested their performances and compared them with other popular methods on two simulated nucleotide sequence data sets: one generated from a tree topology and the other from a complicated evolutionary history containing three reticulate events. We further validated these methods to two real data sets: a bacterial data set consisting of seven concatenated genes of 36 bacterial species and an influenza data set related to recently emerging H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in China. QuartetS, QuartetA, and QuartetM have the potential to accurately reconstruct evolutionary scenarios from simple branching trees to complicated networks containing many reticulate events. These methods could provide insights into the understanding of complicated biological evolutionary processes such as bacterial taxonomy and reassortant of influenza viruses.

  16. Laser Fluorescence Illuminates the Soft Tissue and Life Habits of the Early Cretaceous Bird Confuciusornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R Falk

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the discovery of non-plumage soft tissues in Confuciusornis, a basal beaked bird from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota in northeastern China. Various soft tissues are visualized and interpreted through the use of laser-stimulated fluorescence, providing much novel anatomical information about this early bird, specifically reticulate scales covering the feet, and the well-developed and robust pro- and postpatagium. We also include a direct comparison between the forelimb soft tissues of Confuciusornis and modern avian patagia. Furthermore, apparently large, fleshy phalangeal pads are preserved on the feet. The reticulate scales, robust phalangeal pads as well as the highly recurved pedal claws strongly support Confuciusornis as an arboreal bird. Reticulate scales are more rounded than scutate scales and do not overlap, thus allowing for more flexibility in the toe. The extent of the pro- and postpatagium and the robust primary feather rachises are evidence that Confuciusornis was capable of powered flight, contrary to previous reports suggesting otherwise. A unique avian wing shape is also reconstructed based on plumage preserved. These soft tissues combined indicate an arboreal bird with the capacity for short-term (non-migratory flight, and suggest that, although primitive, Confuciusornis already possessed many relatively advanced avian anatomical characteristics.

  17. The HRCT appearances of granulomatous pulmonary disease in common variable immune deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.E.S. [Royal Free and Hampstead NHS Trust, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG (United Kingdom); Beal, I. [Royal Free and Hampstead NHS Trust, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG (United Kingdom); Dilworth, J.P. [Royal Free and Hampstead NHS Trust, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG (United Kingdom); Tormey, V. [Royal Free and Hampstead NHS Trust, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG (United Kingdom); Haddock, J. [Royal Free and Hampstead NHS Trust, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jamandahaddock@royalfree.nhs.uk

    2005-06-01

    Approximately 10% of patients with common variable immune deficiency have systemic granulomatous disease with associated interstitial lung disease. From a population of patients with CVID attending a large tertiary referral clinic for primary immunodeficiency diseases we selected a cohort who had a restrictive defect or impaired gas transfer on pulmonary function testing and/or histologically proven granulomatous disease. HRCT scans of the thorax were reviewed retrospectively in 18 patients by two radiologists. Thirteen patients had diffuse reticulation, which varied from fine to coarse with features of fibrosis. Nodules were found in eight patients. In seven, these were associated with reticulation and in one they were an isolated finding. Bronchiectasis was found as the only abnormality in three and in addition to diffuse reticulation or nodules in another three patients. Greater appreciation of the spectrum of the radiological abnormalities in CVID patients with interstitial lung disease is important. Deteriorating lung function in patients with granulomatous CVID may be secondary to interstitial lung disease rather than bronchiectasis, and treatment should be tailored accordingly.

  18. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  19. A qualified presumption of safety approach for the safety assessment of Grana Padano whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Lia; Carminati, Domenico; Zago, Miriam; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2009-03-15

    A Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach was applied to dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with Grana Padano cheese whey starters. Thirty-two strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus fermentum, and representing the overall genotypic LAB diversity associated with 24 previously collected whey starters [Rossetti, L., Fornasari, M.E., Gatti, M., Lazzi, C., Neviani, E., Giraffa, G., 2008. Grana Padano cheese whey starters: microbial composition and strain distribution. International Journal of Food Microbiology 127, 168-171], were analyzed. All L. helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, and S. thermophilus isolates were susceptible to four (i.e. vancomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and erythromycin) of the clinically most relevant antibiotics. One L. fermentum strain displayed phenotypic resistance to tetracycline (Tet(R)), with MIC of 32 microg/ml, and gentamycin (Gm(R)), with MIC of 32 microg/ml. PCR was applied to this strain to test the presence of genes tet(L), tet(M), tet(S), and aac(6')-aph(2')-Ia, which are involved in horizontal transfer of Tet(R) and Gm(R), respectively but no detectable amplification products were observed. According to QPS criteria, we conclude that Grana cheese whey starters do not present particular safety concerns.

  20. Tracing the Chemical Evolution of Metal-rich Galactic Bulge Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Gonzalez, Cesar; Saviane, Ivo; Geisler, Doug; Villanova, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    We present in this poster the metallicity characterization of the four metal rich Bulge Galactic Gobular Clusters, which have controversial metallicities. We analyzed our high-resolution spectra (using UVES-580nm and GIRAFFE-HR13 setups) for a large sample of RGB/AGB targets in each cluster in order to measure their metallicity and prove or discard the iron spread hypothesis. We have also characterized chemically stars with potentially different iron content by measuring light (O, Na, Mg, Al), alpha (Si, Ca, Ti), iron–peak (V, Cr, Ni, Mn) and s and r process (Y, Zr, Ba, Eu) elements. We have identified possible channels responsible for the chemical heterogeneity of the cluster populations, like AGB or massive fast-rotating stars contamination, or SN explosion. Also, we have analyzed the origin and evolution of these bulge GCs and their connection with the bulge itself.

  1. Cognitive flexibility in drawings of bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Berberich-Artzi, Jennie; Libnawi, Afaf

    2010-01-01

    A. Karmiloff-Smith's (1990) task of drawing a nonexistent object is considered to be a measure of cognitive flexibility. The notion of earlier emergence of cognitive flexibility in bilingual children motivated the current researchers to request 4- and 5-year-old English-Hebrew and Arabic-Hebrew bilingual children and their monolingual peers to draw a flower and a house that do not exist (N=80). Bilinguals exhibited a significantly higher rate of interrepresentational flexibility in their drawings (e.g., "a giraffe flower,"a chair-house," found in 28 of 54 drawings), whereas the level of complex intrarepresentational change was similar across groups. Interrepresentational drawings were previously reported only for children older than 7 years. The specific mechanisms by which bilinguals' language experience may lead to interrepresentational flexibility are discussed. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: M6 open cluster: star members properties (Kilicoglu+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, T.; Monier, R.; Richer, J.; Fossati, L.; Albayrak, B.

    2018-03-01

    The spectra of 104 objects in the region of M6 were obtained using the Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) instrument with the GIRAFFE spectrograph attached to the Unit 2 Kueyen of the Very Large Telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) by one of us (L.F.). The instrument settings and target selection were carried out in the same way as described by Fossati et al. (2011MNRAS.413.1132F). We primarily considered 56 targets with Teff>6100 K and spectra with S/N~100, and selected 44 targets to perform a more thorough spectral analysis considering the membership from 3 criteria: (i) proper motions, (ii) radial velocity, and (iii) position of the stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram (Table 3). (6 data files).

  3. Sperm preservation by freeze-drying for the conservation of wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Kaneko

    Full Text Available Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of "freeze-drying zoo" to conserve wild animals.

  4. Rock Art Paintings (Rock Inscriptions) At Gebel Abraq, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, E.A.; Yehia, M.A.; Elewa, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents rock art painting in an area located at the scarp face of Wadi Abraq (Latitude 230 28' N and Longitude 340 45' E). The site is a sandstone protruding ledge rising about 30m. above the ground level. The Gebel Abraq paintings depict a tropical fauna including Elephants, Giraffes, Cows and Ostrich denoting that the area was previously subjected to intensive rainfall during the last pluvial periods. The result was a savana type of land. During recent times, the climate became dry and the communities were forced to move to other areas wher natural springs are still flowing such as Ain Abraq and Bir Abu-Safa. The present founding of the prehistoric paintings (Graffiti) has revealed a mass of evidence that many of the concepts regarding Sahara rock art should be studied

  5. Proposed revision to the taxonomy of the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald B; Meyers, Gregor; Bukh, Jens; Gould, Ernest A; Monath, Thomas; Scott Muerhoff, A; Pletnev, Alexander; Rico-Hesse, Rebecca; Stapleton, Jack T; Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul

    2017-08-01

    We propose the creation of seven new species in the genus Pestivirus (family Flaviviridae) in addition to the four existing species, and naming species in a host-independent manner using the format Pestivirus X. Only the virus species names would change; virus isolates would still be referred to by their original names. The original species would be re-designated as Pestivirus A (original designation Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1), Pestivirus B (Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2), Pestivirus C (Classical swine fever virus) and Pestivirus D (Border disease virus). The seven new species (and example isolates) would be Pestivirus E (pronghorn pestivirus), Pestivirus F (Bungowannah virus), Pestivirus G (giraffe pestivirus), Pestivirus H (Hobi-like pestivirus), Pestivirus I (Aydin-like pestivirus), Pestivirus J (rat pestivirus) and Pestivirus K (atypical porcine pestivirus). A bat-derived virus and pestiviruses identified from sheep and goat (Tunisian sheep pestiviruses), which lack complete coding region sequences, may represent two additional species.

  6. Genetic and antigenic characterization of an atypical pestivirus isolate, a putative member of a novel pestivirus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmeier, Horst; Strebelow, Günther; Depner, Klaus; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2004-12-01

    The genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae currently consists of four different main species: Classical swine fever virus, Bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2 and Border disease virus. A fifth tentative species is represented by an isolate from a giraffe. In this study, a completely new pestivirus, isolated from a batch of fetal calf serum that was collected in Brazil, is described. It is proposed that the isolate D32/00_'HoBi' may constitute a novel sixth pestivirus species, because it is genetically, as well as antigenically, markedly different from all other pestiviruses. Based on the entire N(pro)- and E2-encoding sequences, identities of pestivirus species were determined. Similarly, cross-neutralization and binding studies using antisera and mAbs revealed marked antigenic differences between D32/00_'HoBi' and all other pestiviruses.

  7. Numerical taxonomy of the genus Pestivirus: new software for genotyping based on the palindromic nucleotide substitutions method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, Massimo; Apicella, Claudio; Harasawa, Ryô

    2013-09-01

    The genus Pestivirus from the family Flaviviridae is represented by four established species; Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1); Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2); Border disease virus (BDV); and Classical swine fever virus (CSFV); as well a tentative species from a Giraffe. The palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of Pestivirus RNA has been described as a new, simple and practical method for genotyping. New software is described, also named PNS, that was prepared specifically for this PNS genotyping procedure. Pestivirus identification using PNS was evaluated on five hundred and forty-three sequences at genus, species and genotype level using this software. The software is freely available at www.pns-software.com. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Buffalo, bush meat, and the zoonotic threat of brucellosis in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Anne Alexander

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana.Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995-2000 were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA and included the African buffalo (247, bushbuck (1, eland (5, elephant (25, gemsbok (1, giraffe (9, hartebeest (12, impala (171, kudu (27, red lechwe (10, reedbuck (1, rhino (2, springbok (5, steenbok (2, warthog (24, waterbuck (1, wildebeest (33, honey badger (1, lion (43, and zebra (21. Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974-2006.Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%-8.96% and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0-38.43% were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46% occurring in children (<14 years old and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector.Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife sources of infection in determining public health risks from

  9. Analysis of panthers full-scale heat transfer tests with RELAP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlatan, Y.; Boyer, B.D.; Jo, J.; Rohatgi, S.

    1996-01-01

    The RELAP5 code is being assessed on the full-scale Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) in the Performance ANalysis and Testing of HEat Removal Systems (PANTHERS) facility at Societa Informazioni Termoidrauliche (SIET) in Italy. PANTHERS is a test facility with fall-size prototype beat exchangers for the PCCS in support of the General Electric's (GE) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) program. PANTHERS tests with a low noncondensable gas concentration and with a high noncondensable gas concentration were analyzed with RELAP5. The results showed that beat transfer rate decreases significantly along the PCCS tubes. In the test case with a higher inlet noncondensable gas fraction, the PCCS removed 35% less heat than in the test case with the lower noncondensable gas fraction. The dominant resistance to the overall heat transfer is the condensation beat transfer resistance inside the tubes. This resistance increased by about 5-fold between the inlet and exit of the tube due to the build up of noncondensable gases along the tube. The RELAP5 calculations also predicted that 4% to 5% of the heat removed to the PCCS pool occurs in the inlet steam piping and PCCS upper and lower headers. These piping needs to be modeled for other tests systems. The full-scale PANTHERS predictions are also compared against 1/400 scale GIRAFFE tests. GIRAFFE has 33% larger heat surface area, but its efficiency is only 15% and 23% higher than PANTHERS for the two cases analyzed This was explained by the high heat transfer resistance inside the tubes near the exit

  10. Genetic and antigenic characterization of novel pestivirus genotypes: implications for classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, Paul; Avalos Ramirez, Ramiro; Orlich, Michaela; Cedillo Rosales, Sibilina; Koenig, Matthias; Schweizer, Matthias; Stalder, Hanspeter; Schirrmeier, Horst; Thiel, Heinz-Juergen

    2003-01-01

    Currently, the genus Pestivirus comprises the four approved species Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2, Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and Border disease virus (BDV) and one tentative fifth species represented by a single strain (H138) isolated from a giraffe in Kenya more than 30 years ago. To further address the issue of heterogeneity of pestiviruses we have determined the entire N pro and E2 coding sequences for several new pestivirus isolates. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis revealed that one pestivirus isolated in the 1990s in Africa is closely related to strain H138. Moreover, several novel pestiviruses isolated from sheep group together with the previously described strain V60 (Reindeer-1) isolated from a reindeer, whereas one ovine pestivirus strain (Gifhorn) significantly differs from all previously described pestiviruses, including BDV. We propose to term these mainly sheep-derived pestiviruses BDV-2 (V60-like isolates) and BDV-3 (Gifhorn); consequently, the 'classical' BDV isolates should be termed BDV-1. As an additional criterion for segregation of pestiviruses, the antigenic relatedness of pestivirus isolates covering all observed major genotypes was studied by cross-neutralization assays. Analysis of the antigenic similarities indicated the presence of seven major antigenic groups corresponding to BVDV-1, BVDV-2, CSFV, BDV-1, BDV-2, BDV-3, and 'giraffe'. Taking into account the host origin, the lack of differences concerning the course of disease, and the results of our genetic and antigenic analyses, we suggest that BDV-1, BDV-2, and BDV-3 should be considered as major genotypes within the species BDV

  11. Short-term Automated Quantification of Radiologic Changes in the Characterization of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Versus Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia and Prediction of Long-term Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giacomi, Federica; Raghunath, Sushravya; Karwoski, Ronald; Bartholmai, Brian J; Moua, Teng

    2018-03-01

    Fibrotic interstitial lung diseases presenting with nonspecific and overlapping radiologic findings may be difficult to diagnose without surgical biopsy. We hypothesized that baseline quantifiable radiologic features and their short-term interval change may be predictive of underlying histologic diagnosis as well as long-term survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) presenting without honeycombing versus nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Forty biopsy-confirmed IPF and 20 biopsy-confirmed NSIP patients with available high-resolution chest computed tomography 4 to 24 months apart were studied. CALIPER software was used for the automated characterization and quantification of radiologic findings. IPF subjects were older (66 vs. 48; P<0.0001) with lower diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and higher volumes of baseline reticulation (193 vs. 83 mL; P<0.0001). Over the interval period, compared with NSIP, IPF patients experienced greater functional decline (forced vital capacity, -6.3% vs. -1.7%; P=0.02) and radiologic progression, as noted by greater increase in reticulation volume (24 vs. 1.74 mL; P=0.048), and decrease in normal (-220 vs. -37.7 mL; P=0.045) and total lung volumes (-198 vs. 58.1 mL; P=0.03). Older age, male gender, higher reticulation volumes at baseline, and greater interval decrease in normal lung volumes were predictive of IPF. Both baseline and short-term changes in quantitative radiologic findings were predictive of mortality. Baseline quantitative radiologic findings and assessment of short-term disease progression may help characterize underlying IPF versus NSIP in those with difficult to differentiate clinicoradiologic presentations. Our study supports the possible utility of assessing serial quantifiable high-resolution chest computed tomographic findings for disease differentiation in these 2 entities.

  12. A Structurally Specialized Uniform Wall Layer is Essential for Constructing Wall Ingrowth Papillae in Transfer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xue; Zhang, Hui-Ming; Offler, Christina E.; Patrick, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Transfer cells are characterized by wall labyrinths with either a flange or reticulate architecture. A literature survey established that reticulate wall ingrowth papillae ubiquitously arise from a modified component of their wall labyrinth, termed the uniform wall layer; a structure absent from flange transfer cells. This finding sparked an investigation of the deposition characteristics and role of the uniform wall layer using a Vicia faba cotyledon culture system. On transfer of cotyledons to culture, their adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously trans-differentiate to a reticulate architecture comparable to their abaxial epidermal transfer cell counterparts formed in planta. Uniform wall layer construction commenced once adaxial epidermal cell expansion had ceased to overlay the original outer periclinal wall on its inner surface. In contrast to the dense ring-like lattice of cellulose microfibrils in the original primary wall, the uniform wall layer was characterized by a sparsely dispersed array of linear cellulose microfibrils. A re-modeled cortical microtubule array exerted no influence on uniform wall layer formation or on its cellulose microfibril organization. Surprisingly, formation of the uniform wall layer was not dependent upon depositing a cellulose scaffold. In contrast, uniform wall cellulose microfibrils were essential precursors for constructing wall ingrowth papillae. On converging to form wall ingrowth papillae, the cellulose microfibril diameters increased 3-fold. This event correlated with up-regulated differential, and transfer-cell specific, expression of VfCesA3B while transcript levels of other cellulose biosynthetic-related genes linked with primary wall construction were substantially down-regulated. PMID:29259611

  13. Reconstructible phylogenetic networks: do not distinguish the indistinguishable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardi, Fabio; Scornavacca, Celine

    2015-04-01

    Phylogenetic networks represent the evolution of organisms that have undergone reticulate events, such as recombination, hybrid speciation or lateral gene transfer. An important way to interpret a phylogenetic network is in terms of the trees it displays, which represent all the possible histories of the characters carried by the organisms in the network. Interestingly, however, different networks may display exactly the same set of trees, an observation that poses a problem for network reconstruction: from the perspective of many inference methods such networks are "indistinguishable". This is true for all methods that evaluate a phylogenetic network solely on the basis of how well the displayed trees fit the available data, including all methods based on input data consisting of clades, triples, quartets, or trees with any number of taxa, and also sequence-based approaches such as popular formalisations of maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood for networks. This identifiability problem is partially solved by accounting for branch lengths, although this merely reduces the frequency of the problem. Here we propose that network inference methods should only attempt to reconstruct what they can uniquely identify. To this end, we introduce a novel definition of what constitutes a uniquely reconstructible network. For any given set of indistinguishable networks, we define a canonical network that, under mild assumptions, is unique and thus representative of the entire set. Given data that underwent reticulate evolution, only the canonical form of the underlying phylogenetic network can be uniquely reconstructed. While on the methodological side this will imply a drastic reduction of the solution space in network inference, for the study of reticulate evolution this is a fundamental limitation that will require an important change of perspective when interpreting phylogenetic networks.

  14. Reconstructible phylogenetic networks: do not distinguish the indistinguishable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic networks represent the evolution of organisms that have undergone reticulate events, such as recombination, hybrid speciation or lateral gene transfer. An important way to interpret a phylogenetic network is in terms of the trees it displays, which represent all the possible histories of the characters carried by the organisms in the network. Interestingly, however, different networks may display exactly the same set of trees, an observation that poses a problem for network reconstruction: from the perspective of many inference methods such networks are "indistinguishable". This is true for all methods that evaluate a phylogenetic network solely on the basis of how well the displayed trees fit the available data, including all methods based on input data consisting of clades, triples, quartets, or trees with any number of taxa, and also sequence-based approaches such as popular formalisations of maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood for networks. This identifiability problem is partially solved by accounting for branch lengths, although this merely reduces the frequency of the problem. Here we propose that network inference methods should only attempt to reconstruct what they can uniquely identify. To this end, we introduce a novel definition of what constitutes a uniquely reconstructible network. For any given set of indistinguishable networks, we define a canonical network that, under mild assumptions, is unique and thus representative of the entire set. Given data that underwent reticulate evolution, only the canonical form of the underlying phylogenetic network can be uniquely reconstructed. While on the methodological side this will imply a drastic reduction of the solution space in network inference, for the study of reticulate evolution this is a fundamental limitation that will require an important change of perspective when interpreting phylogenetic networks.

  15. [Experimental study of percutaneous vertebroplasty with a novel bone void filling container system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tai-Ping; Zhang, Kui-bo; Zheng, Zhao-min; Liu, Hui; Yu, Bin-sheng

    2011-04-19

    To investigate vertebral augmentation with a novel reticulate bone filling container system by polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) injection in cadaveric simulated vertebral compressive fracture and explore the effect of reticulate bone filling container on cement distribution controlling within vertebral body and the restoration of biomechanical properties after augmentation. A total of 28 freshly frozen human vertebrae specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups. After the measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) and vertebral height, each vertebra received an axle load by a MTS (material testing system) machine to test the initial strength and stiffness. Subsequently a simultaneous compressive fracture model was created to measure the stiffness and height of fractured vertebrae. Then the augmentation procedure was performed. Afterward the biomechanical properties and the vertebral height were similarly measured as pre-operatively. The expansion of bone filling container and the distribution of cement within vertebral body were morphologically observed by crossing the specimens in sagittal midline and also integrated with the radiographic results. Stiffness was significantly restored comparing with that of fractured level (P container groups while it was irregular in single-layer groups. After crossing, the double-layer version expanded well in vertebral body and could enwrap most of injected cement. There was only a little leakage near the vessel layer. But the single-layer version had a poor expansion and a large amount of cement leakage. This novel reticulate bone void filling container system with different layers may restore both the biomechanical properties and the height of fractured vertebrae. But, with the benefit of reducing cement leakage, a double-layer design can enwrap most of injected PMMA and has a brighter prospect of clinical application.

  16. Characterization and improvement of PVAl/PVP/PEG hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Maria Jose A.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Almeida, Monise F.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2009-01-01

    The use of hydrogels matrices for particular drug release applications has been investigated with the synthesis of modified polymeric hydrogel of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVAl), poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly (ethylene glycol). They were processed using gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at 25 kGy dose. In this study it was compared the hydrogels reticulation for irradiation gamma O 2 and N 2 atmosphere. The characterization of the hydrogels was conducted and the toxicity was evaluated. The dried hydrogel was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TGA), swelling and gel determinations. The membranes have no toxicity and gel content revealed the crosslinking degree. (author)

  17. Management reporting in gas and fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.L.; Foot, B.G.

    1997-01-01

    Gas and Fuel is the sole supplier of reticulated natural gas to 1.3 m customers in the State of Victoria, Australia. Reporting is performed monthly and is tailored to satisfy the requirements of the Board, executive management and business units. The reports include profit and cash statements, gas sales data, capital expenditure, benchmarks, operational data and human resources information. The reports are a mixture of written commentary, accounting statements and graphical presentations. The reports are used at monthly Board and executive meetings to review performance and manage the business. (au)

  18. Phenotypic plasticity of wall ultrastructure in the green alga Pediastrum s.l. (Chlorophyta, Sphaeropleales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenarczyk Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined wall ultrastructure variability in the microscopic green alga Pediastrum s.l. Its value as a diagnostic character is discussed. Field and cultured material of 21 taxa were compared using light and scanning electron microscopy. Nine ultrastructural elements occurring on the surface of Pediastrum are documented with LM and SEM micrographs. The highest number of taxa showed reticulate ornamentation composed of a trigonal mesh and granules situated on its corners. The paper considers the use of wall ultrastructure to reconcile traditional and modern taxonomical systems with regard to Pediastrum varieties, and addresses the phylogenetic relationships between strains representing different varieties.

  19. Studies in the liverwort genus Fossombronia (Metzgeriales from southern Africa. 6. New species from Lesotho, Swaziland and Mpumalanga and new records from Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Perold

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Fossombronia are described: F. angulifolia Perold from Lesotho and F. swaziensis Perold from Swaziland and Mpumalanga. F. angulifolia is characterised by erect or semi-erect, 2-4-lobed, angular leaves, by mostly incompletely reticulate spores and by rather short elaters  F.  swaziensis can be recognised by large, rounded or sometimes shallowly notched leaves, which are rather stiff and bi- to multistratose basally, by quite large perigonial bracts in the male plants and by spores which have irregular areolae containing tubercular inclusions

  20. Bacterial cellulose–kaolin nanocomposites for application as biomedical wound healing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanna, Dwi; Alam, Parvez; Alam, Catharina; Toivola, Diana M

    2013-01-01

    This short communication provides preliminary experimental details on the structure–property relationships of novel biomedical kaolin–bacterial cellulose nanocomposites. Bacterial cellulose is an effective binding agent for kaolin particles forming reticulated structures at kaolin–cellulose interfaces and entanglements when the cellulose fraction is sufficiently high. The mechanical performance of these materials hence improves with an increased fraction of bacterial cellulose, though this also causes the rate of blood clotting to decrease. These composites have combined potential as both short-term (kaolin) and long-term (bacterial cellulose) wound healing materials. (paper)

  1. Keratitis-Ichthyosis-Deafness syndrome: A rare congenital disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Vinay; Gupta, Mudita; Prashar, Aditi

    2012-01-01

    Keratitis-Icthyosis-Deafness syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by keratitis, ichthyosis, and deafness. We report a 13 year old female child who presented with diffuse alopecia of the scalp and body. There was erythrokeratoderma of face and discrete hyperkeratotic hyperpigmented papulo plaque lesions on the body. Patient also had reticulate hyperkeratosis of palms and soles. There was history of recurrent episodes of folliculitis over the scalp and body. There was no evidence of any malignancy. Eye involvement in the form of bilateral vascularising keratitis was present. There was bilateral mixed hearing loss. PMID:23130264

  2. Keratitis-Ichthyosis-Deafness syndrome: A rare congenital disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Shanker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratitis-Icthyosis-Deafness syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by keratitis, ichthyosis, and deafness. We report a 13 year old female child who presented with diffuse alopecia of the scalp and body. There was erythrokeratoderma of face and discrete hyperkeratotic hyperpigmented papulo plaque lesions on the body. Patient also had reticulate hyperkeratosis of palms and soles. There was history of recurrent episodes of folliculitis over the scalp and body. There was no evidence of any malignancy. Eye involvement in the form of bilateral vascularising keratitis was present. There was bilateral mixed hearing loss.

  3. Dicty_cDB: SLC832 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC832 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13922-1 SLC832Z (Link... to Original site) - - SLC832Z 638 - - - - Show SLC832 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLC832 (Link to dic..._1( EU565733 |pid:none) Uncultured soil bacterium clone gl... 35 2.4 CP000010_276....1 AP009385_2728( AP009385 |pid:none) Burkholderia multivorans ATCC 1... 33 5.3 A... 20.0 %: nuclear 16.0 %: vesicles of secretory system 12.0 %: mitochondrial 8.0 %: Golgi 8.0 %: endoplasmic reticul

  4. Comparative palynomorphological investigation of the representatives tribe Antirrhineae Dumort. (Veronicaceae Durande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya M. Tsymbalyuk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grains of 22 species from 6 genera of the tribe Antirrhineae (Veronicaceae were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of the studied species are 3-colporate, prolate, spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal, small and middle-sized. It is established that pollen grains are characterized by the common sculpture type, which is reticulate. Diagnostic features at the genus level are the structure of apertures and sculpture, shape and size of pollen grains. Pollen morphology supports the suggestion of a close relationship between Linaria, Antirrhinum, Misopates andCymbalaria. The genera Chaenorhinumand Kickxiahave the distinctive palynomorphological characters.

  5. Linear programming model to construct phylogenetic network for 16S rRNA sequences of photosynthetic organisms and influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Rinku; Adlakha, Neeru

    2014-06-01

    Phylogenetic trees give the information about the vertical relationships of ancestors and descendants but phylogenetic networks are used to visualize the horizontal relationships among the different organisms. In order to predict reticulate events there is a need to construct phylogenetic networks. Here, a Linear Programming (LP) model has been developed for the construction of phylogenetic network. The model is validated by using data sets of chloroplast of 16S rRNA sequences of photosynthetic organisms and Influenza A/H5N1 viruses. Results obtained are in agreement with those obtained by earlier researchers.

  6. Pollen Flora of Pakistan-LXV, berberidaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perveen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 12 species representing 2 genera of the family Berberidaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains usually radially symmetrical, iso polar or apolar, spheroidal or sub-prolate, spiroaperturate rarely colpate (3- more), sexine thicker than nexine. Tectal surface mostly foveolate-fossulate or sub-psilate, often rugulate - reticulate. On the basis of apertutal types and exine ornamentation four distinct pollen types are recognized, viz., Berberis calliobotrys-type, Berberis jaeschkeana-type, Berberis kunawurensis-type and Epimedium elatum-type. (author)

  7. An inexpensive and fast method for infiltration coating of complex geometry matrices for ISOL production target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.; Alton, G.D.; Bilheux, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    An inexpensive, fast, and close to universal infiltration coating technique has been developed for fabricating fast diffusion-release ISOL targets. Targets are fabricated by deposition of finely divided (∼1μm) compound materials in a paint-slurry onto highly permeable, complex structure reticulated-vitreous-carbon-foam (RVCF) matrices, followed by thermal heat treatment. In this article, we describe the coating method and present information on the physical integrity, uniformity of deposition, and matrix adherence of SiC, HfC and UC 2 targets, destined for on-line use as targets at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF)

  8. Cellular structures with interconnected microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaefer, Robert Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Williams, Brian

    2018-01-30

    A method for fabricating a cellular tritium breeder component includes obtaining a reticulated carbon foam skeleton comprising a network of interconnected ligaments. The foam skeleton is then melt-infiltrated with a tritium breeder material, for example, lithium zirconate or lithium titanate. The foam skeleton is then removed to define a cellular breeder component having a network of interconnected tritium purge channels. In an embodiment the ligaments of the foam skeleton are enlarged by adding carbon using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) prior to melt-infiltration. In an embodiment the foam skeleton is coated with a refractory material, for example, tungsten, prior to melt infiltration.

  9. Cutaneous findings in five cases of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh B Vaishnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Cutaneous lesions in malaria are rarely reported and include urticaria, angioedema, petechiae, purpura, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Here, five malaria cases associated with cutaneous lesions have been described. Out of the five cases of malaria, two were associated with urticaria and angioedema, one case was associated with urticaria, and other two were associated with reticulated blotchy erythema with petechiae. Most of the cutaneous lesions in malaria were nonspecific and reflected the different immunopathological mechanism in malarial infection.

  10. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO EARTHQUAKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubirou, A.

    1967-12-31

    The object of the study was the investigation of the behaviour of structures subject to earthquakes. After .describing and analysing seismic movements, useful concepts for earthquake-proofing structures are lintroduced. Then, the dynamic behaviour of systems with n degrees of freedom was studied in order to evolve the theoretical computation of seismic behaviour, a typical application being reticulated structures. The next stage was showing the computational procedure for seismic spectra and the natural frequencies of buildings, an attempt being made to define earthquake-proofing criteria for a special type of reinforced-concrete construction. . The last matter dealt with is elastoplastic behaviour of structures, a study of increasingly growing importance.

  11. Improved Maximum Parsimony Models for Phylogenetic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Scornavacca, Celine

    2018-05-01

    Phylogenetic networks are well suited to represent evolutionary histories comprising reticulate evolution. Several methods aiming at reconstructing explicit phylogenetic networks have been developed in the last two decades. In this article, we propose a new definition of maximum parsimony for phylogenetic networks that permits to model biological scenarios that cannot be modeled by the definitions currently present in the literature (namely, the "hardwired" and "softwired" parsimony). Building on this new definition, we provide several algorithmic results that lay the foundations for new parsimony-based methods for phylogenetic network reconstruction.

  12. Effects of ionizing radiation on gelatine films added with antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraide, Felipe H.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluates the effect of ionizing radiation on the gelatin films in presence of antioxidant. Gelatin solutions of glycerine and poly vinil alcohol, with and without the addition were prepared until the complete homogenization. The films were irradiated with 20 and 40 kGy in a electron accelerator, in the presence of air and at the room temperature. The use of ionizing radiation and the addition of antioxidant changed the properties of the film. The result of water absorption test revealed that with increasing of radiation dose occurred a reduction in the absorption, suggesting that happen a reticulation

  13. Pollen morphology of Rhizophora L. in Peninsular Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd-Arrabe' , A. B.; Noraini, Talip Noraini [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Rhizophora L. are common mangrove genus in Peninsular Malaysia, it contains 3 species and 1 hybrid (R. apiculata Blume, R. mucronata Lam., R. stylosa Griff., R. x lamarckii Montrouz). This genus has some unique adaptation towards extreme environment. Rhizophora has looping aerial stilt-root and uniformly viviparous. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation in the pollen morphology of Rhizophora that can be related to their habitat. Methods include in this study is pollen observation under light and acetolysis method under scanning electron microscope. Pollen type of Rhizophora species studied except hybrid species is classified tricolporate, shape spheroidal based on ratio of length polar axis/ length of equatorial axis (1.03 - 1.09). The exine ornamentation is perforate-reticulate for R. apiculata and R. mucronata, while R. stylosa is perforate. For the only hybrid in Peninsular Malaysia, R. x lamarckii (R. apiculata x R. stylosa) differs from others, tricolpate with the absence of porate, shape is subprolate and exine ornamentation is reticulate and striate in equatorial region. Pollenkitt is present due to the salty and extreme environment. This may enhance the volume of pollenkitt present surrounding the pollen grains in Rhizophora for protection and adaptation purposes. Based on these findings, it is evident that pollen morphology is somehow related to its natural habitat.

  14. Eritrograma de bezerras sadias, da raça Holandesa, no primeiro mês de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. Benesi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de estabelecer valores de referência e de avaliar a influência do fator etário sobre o eritrograma de bezerras sadias, da raça Holandesa, utilizaram-se amostras de sangue de 300 animais, distribuídos por 15 grupos experimentais, de acordo com a idade, no primeiro mês de vida. As variações dos valores médios obtidos para os componentes do eritrograma foram as seguintes: número de hemácias (x10(6/mm³ = 6,68-7,60, volume globular (% = 29,80-33,35, taxa de hemoglobina (g/dl = 9,00-10,43, volume corpuscular médio (fl = 38,93 47,68, hemoglobina corpuscular média (pg = 11,75-14,69, concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (% = 29,53-31,63% e número de reticulócitos (x10³/mm³ = 0,00-11,86. A influência do fator etário provou-se significativa para o volume corpuscular médio, hemoglobina corpuscular média e número de reticulócitos.

  15. Detection of heavy metals in water in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia: From source to consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Baydaa; Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Tahrim, Nurfaizah Abu

    2018-04-01

    Drinking water should be free from harmful levels of impurities, such as heavy metals. The aim of this study is to investigate the heavy metals concentrations in a water reticulation system of Negeri Sembilan. 25 stations were selected along Sungai Linggi (upstream of intake point) and through there reticulation system of Sungai Linggi Water Treatment Plant encompassing raw water through to the last point of use. Sampling activities were carried out in June and July 2016. The samples taken were analysed for heavymetals using an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). In addition other water quality parameters were measured in situ (pH, water temperature, conductivity and dissolved oxygen) and analysed in the laboratory (BOD, COD, TSS, NH3-N, TOC and residual chlorine). The results showed a high level of Ca in the distribution system, while in the treatment plant it was normal, as well as Fe is decreased. Meanwhile Mn is decreased after treatment processes. The concentrations of DO and temperature in the tap water exceeded the standard concentrations.

  16. Polarized Ends of Human Macula Densa Cells: Ultrastructural Investigation and Morphofunctional Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangiotti, Angela Maria; Lorenzi, Teresa; Zingaretti, Maria Cristina; Fabri, Mara; Morroni, Manrico

    2018-05-01

    The morphology of the kidney macula densa (MD) has extensively been investigated in animals, whereas human studies are scanty. We studied the fine structure of human MD cells focusing on their apical and basal ends and correlating structure and function. The MD region was examined by transmission electron microscopy in six renal biopsies from patients with kidney disease. Ultrastructural analysis of MD cells was performed on serial sections. MD cells show two polarized ends. The apical portion is characterized by a single, immotile cilium associated with microvilli; apically, cells are joined by adhering junctions. In the basal portion, the cytoplasm contains small, dense granules and numerous, irregular cytoplasmic projections extending to the adjacent extraglomerular mesangium. The projections often contain small, dense granules. A reticulated basement membrane around MD cells separates them from the extraglomerular mesangium. Although the fact that tissue specimens came from patients with kidney disease mandates extreme caution, ultrastructural examination confirmed that MD cells have sensory features due to the presence of the primary cilium, that they are connected by apical adhering junctions forming a barrier that separates the tubular flow from the interstitium, and that they present numerous basal interdigitations surrounded by a reticulated basement membrane. Conceivably, the latter two features are related to the functional activity of the MD. The small, dense granules in the basal cytoplasm and in cytoplasmic projections are likely related to the paracrine function of MD cells. Anat Rec, 301:922-931, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Open-cellular copper structures fabricated by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, D.A.; Murr, L.E.; Li, S.J.; Tian, Y.X.; Martinez, E.; Martinez, J.L.; Machado, B.I.; Gaytan, S.M.; Medina, F.; Wicker, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Relative stiffness versus relative density measurements for reticulated mesh and stochastic open cellular copper were shown to follow the Gibson-Ashby foam model. → Microstructures for the mesh struts and foam ligaments illustrated a propensity of copper oxide precipitates which provided structural hardness and strength. → These components, fabricated by electron beam melting, exhibit interesting prospects for specialized, complex heat-transfer devices. - Abstract: Cu reticulated mesh and stochastic open cellular foams were fabricated by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting. Fabricated densities ranged from 0.73 g/cm 3 to 6.67 g/cm 3 . The precursor Cu powder contained Cu 2 O precipitates and the fabricated components contained arrays of Cu 2 O precipitates and interconnected dislocation microstructures having average spacings of ∼2 μm, which provide hardness values ∼75% above commercial Cu products. Plots of stiffness (Young's modulus) versus density and relative stiffness versus relative density were in very close agreement with the Gibson-Ashby model for open cellular foams. These open cellular structure components exhibit considerable potential for novel, complex, multi-functional electrical and thermal management systems, especially complex, monolithic heat exchange devices.

  18. Recent origin and semi-permeable species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Stylophora from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Roberto; Benzoni, Francesca; Terraneo, Tullia I; Caragnano, Annalisa; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-10-07

    Reticulate evolution, introgressive hybridisation, and phenotypic plasticity have been documented in scleractinian corals and have challenged our ability to interpret speciation processes. Stylophora is a key model system in coral biology and physiology, but genetic analyses have revealed that cryptic lineages concealed by morphological stasis exist in the Stylophora pistillata species complex. The Red Sea represents a hotspot for Stylophora biodiversity with six morphospecies described, two of which are regionally endemic. We investigated Stylophora species boundaries from the Red Sea and the associated Symbiodinium by sequencing seven DNA loci. Stylophora morphospecies from the Red Sea were not resolved based on mitochondrial phylogenies and showed nuclear allele sharing. Low genetic differentiation, weak isolation, and strong gene flow were found among morphospecies although no signals of genetic recombination were evident among them. Stylophora mamillata harboured Symbiodinium clade C whereas the other two Stylophora morphospecies hosted either Symbiodinium clade A or C. These evolutionary patterns suggest that either gene exchange occurs through reticulate evolution or that multiple ecomorphs of a phenotypically plastic species occur in the Red Sea. The recent origin of the lineage leading to the Red Sea Stylophora may indicate an ongoing speciation driven by environmental changes and incomplete lineage sorting.

  19. Obtaining new composite biomaterials by means of mineralization of methacrylate hydrogels using the reaction–diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Yousof; González-Sánchez, M. Isabel; Hawkins, Karl; Rubio-Retama, Jorge; Valero, Edelmira; Perni, Stefano; Prokopovich, Polina; López-Cabarcos, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a new polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction–diffusion method. The scaffold of this biomaterial was a hydrogel constituted by biocompatible polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEM) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEM), which were cross-linked with N-N’-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS). The cross-linking content of the hydrogels was varied from 0.25% to 15% (w/w). The gels were used as matrix where two reactants (Na 2 HPO 4 and CaCl 2 ) diffused from both ends of the gel and upon encountering produced calcium phosphate crystals that precipitated within the polymer matrix forming bands. The shape of the crystals was tuned by modifying the matrix porosity in such a way that when the polymer matrix was slightly reticulated the diffusion reaction produced round calcium phosphate microcrystals, whilst when the polymer matrix was highly reticulated the reaction yielded flat calcium phosphate crystals. Selected area electron diffraction performed on the nanocrystals that constitute the microcrystals showed that they were formed by Brushite (CaHPO 4 .2H 2 O). This new composite material could be useful in medical and dentistry applications such as bone regeneration, bone repair or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • New polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction-diffusion method.-Growing of brushite nanocrystals within a polymeric matrix. • Mineralization by reaction diffusion method controls the crystal growth within gels

  20. Recent origin and semi-permeable species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Stylophora from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Arrigoni, Roberto; Benzoni, Francesca; Terraneo, Tullia Isotta; Caragnano, Annalisa; Berumen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Reticulate evolution, introgressive hybridisation, and phenotypic plasticity have been documented in scleractinian corals and have challenged our ability to interpret speciation processes. Stylophora is a key model system in coral biology and physiology, but genetic analyses have revealed that cryptic lineages concealed by morphological stasis exist in the Stylophora pistillata species complex. The Red Sea represents a hotspot for Stylophora biodiversity with six morphospecies described, two of which are regionally endemic. We investigated Stylophora species boundaries from the Red Sea and the associated Symbiodinium by sequencing seven DNA loci. Stylophora morphospecies from the Red Sea were not resolved based on mitochondrial phylogenies and showed nuclear allele sharing. Low genetic differentiation, weak isolation, and strong gene flow were found among morphospecies although no signals of genetic recombination were evident among them. Stylophora mamillata harboured Symbiodinium clade C whereas the other two Stylophora morphospecies hosted either Symbiodinium clade A or C. These evolutionary patterns suggest that either gene exchange occurs through reticulate evolution or that multiple ecomorphs of a phenotypically plastic species occur in the Red Sea. The recent origin of the lineage leading to the Red Sea Stylophora may indicate an ongoing speciation driven by environmental changes and incomplete lineage sorting.

  1. Ultrastructural and autoradiographic studies of nucleolar development and rDNA transcription in preimplantation mouse embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geuskens, M.; Alexandre, H. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Dep. de Biologie Moleculaire)

    1984-06-01

    The development of the nucleoli and the sites of rDNA transcription have been studies by high-resolution autoradiography during the cleavage stages of mouse embryos. The appearance of fibrillar centres at the periphery of the fibrillar primary nucleoli has been observed at the 4-cell stage. Several fibrillar centres interconnected by electron-dense fibrillar strands, form a reticulated region around the fibrillar mass at the 6- to 8-cell stage. After a 10 min pulse with (/sup 3/H)uridine, only this peripheral network is labelled. At the late morula and at the blastocyst stage, the fibrillar component (nucleolonema) of the reticulated nucleoli is labelled after 10 min (/sup 3/H)uridine incorporation. When the embryos are reincubated for 2 h in cold medium, the label is localized mainly in the granular component. Fibrillar centres are not labelled. Autoradiograms of in vitro developed embryos pulsed for 2 h with (/sup 3/H)uridine confirm that the central fibrillar core of the nucleoli of 6- to 8-cell embryos is never labelled. Thus, the fibrillar constituent of this core is not homologous to the fibrillar component of the nucleoli of later stage embryos, which is the site of active rDNA transcription. An interpretation of nucleologenesis during early mouse embryogenesis is proposed.

  2. Ultrastructural and autoradiographic studies of nucleolar development and rDNA transcription in preimplantation mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geuskens, M.; Alexandre, H.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the nucleoli and the sites of rDNA transcription have been studies by high-resolution autoradiography during the cleavage stages of mouse embryos. The appearance of fibrillar centres at the periphery of the fibrillar primary nucleoli has been observed at the 4-cell stage. Several fibrillar centres interconnected by electron-dense fibrillar strands, form a reticulated region around the fibrillar mass at the 6- to 8-cell stage. After a 10 min pulse with ( 3 H)uridine, only this peripheral network is labelled. At the late morula and at the blastocyst stage, the fibrillar component (nucleolonema) of the reticulated nucleoli is labelled after 10 min ( 3 H)uridine incorporation. When the embryos are reincubated for 2 h in cold medium, the label is localized mainly in the granular component. Fibrillar centres are not labelled. Autoradiograms of in vitro developed embryos pulsed for 2 h with ( 3 H)uridine confirm that the central fibrillar core of the nucleoli of 6- to 8-cell embryos is never labelled. Thus, the fibrillar constituent of this core is not homologous to the fibrillar component of the nucleoli of later stage embryos, which is the site of active rDNA transcription. An interpretation of nucleologenesis during early mouse embryogenesis is proposed. (author)

  3. Study of crosslinking induced by gamma radiation in mixtures of polyacrylamide anionic and water; Estudo da reticulacao induzida por radiacao gama de misturas de poliacrilamida anionica e agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara, M.T.S.; Brant, A.J.C.; Naime, N.; Guadagnin, H.C.; Ponce, P.; Lugao, A.B., E-mail: ablugao@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels are composed of three-dimensional polymeric networks that can absorb and retain body of water hundreds of times the weight of its dry weight. The hydrogels can be crosslinked by chemical or physical. In general, chemical crosslinking is performed in the presence of reactive substances of high toxicity at elevated temperatures, may cause harmful secondary reactions to final product quality. However, ionizing radiation provides the crosslinking in the absence of chemical initiators or crosslinkers, therefore without contamination or toxicity. It also allows the realization of the reaction at low temperatures. These materials find use in several application fields, such as sanitary pads, diapers, controlled release of nutrients to the soil, separation processes, water purification systems and controlled release of drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of gamma radiation in doses of 15 and 25 kGy, in reticulation system of polyacrylamide (PAAm) and water, which were characterized by swelling and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the importance of the amount of water in the reticulation. It was concluded that gamma radiation has excellent potential for the synthesis of hiperabsorbent hydrogels. (author)

  4. Study of crosslinking induced by gamma radiation in mixtures of polyacrylamide anionic and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, M.T.S.; Brant, A.J.C.; Naime, N.; Guadagnin, H.C.; Ponce, P.; Lugao, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogels are composed of three-dimensional polymeric networks that can absorb and retain body of water hundreds of times the weight of its dry weight. The hydrogels can be crosslinked by chemical or physical. In general, chemical crosslinking is performed in the presence of reactive substances of high toxicity at elevated temperatures, may cause harmful secondary reactions to final product quality. However, ionizing radiation provides the crosslinking in the absence of chemical initiators or crosslinkers, therefore without contamination or toxicity. It also allows the realization of the reaction at low temperatures. These materials find use in several application fields, such as sanitary pads, diapers, controlled release of nutrients to the soil, separation processes, water purification systems and controlled release of drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of gamma radiation in doses of 15 and 25 kGy, in reticulation system of polyacrylamide (PAAm) and water, which were characterized by swelling and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the importance of the amount of water in the reticulation. It was concluded that gamma radiation has excellent potential for the synthesis of hiperabsorbent hydrogels. (author)

  5. Prevalence of Amblyomma gervaisi ticks on captive snakes in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, B R; Jayathangaraj, M G; Soundararajan, C; Bala Guru, C; Yogaraj, D

    2017-12-01

    Ticks are the important ectoparasites that occur on snakes and transmit rickettsiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis. A total of 62 snakes (Reticulated python, Indian Rock Python, Rat snakes and Spectacled cobra) were examined for tick infestation at Chennai Snake Park Trust (Guindy), Arignar Anna Zoological Park (Vandalur) and Rescue centre (Velachery) in Tamil Nadu from September, 2015 to June, 2016. Ticks from infested snakes were collected and were identified as Amblyomma gervaisi (previously known as Aponomma gervaisi ). Overall occurrence of tick infestation on snakes was 66.13%. Highest prevalence of tick infestation was observed more on Reticulated Python ( Python reticulatus , 90.91%) followed by Indian Rock Python ( Python molurus , 88.89%), Spectacled cobra ( Naja naja, 33.33%) and Rat snake ( Ptyas mucosa, 21.05%). Highest prevalence of ticks were observed on snakes reared at Chennai Snake Park Trust, Guindy (83.33%), followed by Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur (60.00%) and low level prevalence of 37.50% on snakes at Rescue centre, Velachery. Among the system of management, the prevalence of ticks were more on captive snakes (70.37%) than the free ranging snakes (37.5%). The presences of ticks were more on the first quarter when compared to other three quarters and were highly significant ( P  ≤ 0.01).

  6. Accuracy of high-resolution CT in distinguishing between Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and non-Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, A.; Mauleon, S.; Andreu, J.; Caceres, J.; Falco, V.; Crespo, M.; Ribera, E.; Pahissa, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of high-resolution CT in distinguishing between Pneumocystis carinii and non-Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients HIV-positive and high risk to have PCP. We performed a prospective study in 30 patients with <200 CD4 lymphocytes, clinical symptoms of pulmonary disease and chest X-ray non-conclusive for pulmonary infection. Evaluated CT findings included ground-glass opacities, reticulation, tree-in-bud appearance, consolidation, cystic lesions, bronchiectasis and lymphadenopathies. The diagnosis of ''examination suggestive of PCP'' was applied to cases showing a diffuse or predominant ground-glass pattern in the upper fields, associated or not with reticulations and small cystic lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the diagnosis of PCP was 100, 83.3, 90.5 and 100%, respectively. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was not demonstrated in any of the cases classified as ''examination not suggestive of PCP''. Significant small airway disease was not observed in any of the PCP cases. We conclude that HRCT is a reliable method for differentiating PCP from other infectious processes in HIV-positive patients and a good method to rule our PCP. Its inclusion in the diagnostic algorithm of lung infections is justified in these patients. (orig.)

  7. Different Clinical Features of Acral Abortive Hemangiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vega Mata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some infantile hemangiomas called in literature “minimal or arrested growth hemangiomas” or “abortive hemangiomas” are present at birth and have a proliferative component equaling less than 25% of its total surface area. Often, they are mistaken for vascular malformation. We present five patients (three girls and two boys with abortive hemangiomas diagnosed between January 2010 and December 2015 localized in acral part of the extremities. They were congenital lesions resembling precursor of hemangiomas but did not show proliferation phase. Immunohistochemical Glut-1 was performed in all of them as a way to confirm the abortive hemangioma diagnosis. The most common appearance was a reticulated erythematous patch with multiple fine telangiectasias on the surface. We remark that one of them presented a segmental patch with two different morphologies and evolutions. The proximal part showed pebbled patches of bright-red hemangioma and presented proliferation and the distal part with a reticulated network-like telangiectasia morphology remained unchanged. We detected lower half of the body preference and dorsal region involvement preference without ventral involvement. The ulceration occurred in three patients with two different degrees of severity.

  8. CD40L induces functional tunneling nanotube networks exclusively in dendritic cells programmed by mediators of type 1 immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccard, Colleen R; Watkins, Simon C; Kalinski, Pawel; Fecek, Ronald J; Yates, Aarika L; Salter, Russell D; Ayyavoo, Velpandi; Rinaldo, Charles R; Mailliard, Robbie B

    2015-02-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DC) to mediate CD4(+) T cell help for cellular immunity is guided by instructive signals received during DC maturation, as well as the resulting pattern of DC responsiveness to the Th signal, CD40L. Furthermore, the professional transfer of antigenic information from migratory DC to lymph node-residing DC is critical for the effective induction of cellular immune responses. In this study we report that, in addition to their enhanced IL-12p70 producing capacity, human DC matured in the presence of inflammatory mediators of type 1 immunity are uniquely programmed to form networks of tunneling nanotube-like structures in response to CD40L-expressing Th cells or rCD40L. This immunologic process of DC reticulation facilitates intercellular trafficking of endosome-associated vesicles and Ag, but also pathogens such HIV-1, and is regulated by the opposing roles of IFN-γ and IL-4. The initiation of DC reticulation represents a novel helper function of CD40L and a superior mechanism of intercellular communication possessed by type 1 polarized DC, as well as a target for exploitation by pathogens to enhance direct cell-to-cell spread. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Recent origin and semi-permeable species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Stylophora from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Arrigoni, Roberto

    2016-10-07

    Reticulate evolution, introgressive hybridisation, and phenotypic plasticity have been documented in scleractinian corals and have challenged our ability to interpret speciation processes. Stylophora is a key model system in coral biology and physiology, but genetic analyses have revealed that cryptic lineages concealed by morphological stasis exist in the Stylophora pistillata species complex. The Red Sea represents a hotspot for Stylophora biodiversity with six morphospecies described, two of which are regionally endemic. We investigated Stylophora species boundaries from the Red Sea and the associated Symbiodinium by sequencing seven DNA loci. Stylophora morphospecies from the Red Sea were not resolved based on mitochondrial phylogenies and showed nuclear allele sharing. Low genetic differentiation, weak isolation, and strong gene flow were found among morphospecies although no signals of genetic recombination were evident among them. Stylophora mamillata harboured Symbiodinium clade C whereas the other two Stylophora morphospecies hosted either Symbiodinium clade A or C. These evolutionary patterns suggest that either gene exchange occurs through reticulate evolution or that multiple ecomorphs of a phenotypically plastic species occur in the Red Sea. The recent origin of the lineage leading to the Red Sea Stylophora may indicate an ongoing speciation driven by environmental changes and incomplete lineage sorting.

  10. Estimating heat transfer bias of kinetic measurement for polymers by differential scanning calorimetry with isothermal mode; Evaluation de l'erreur due au transfert de chaleur lors des mesures cinetiques dans les polymeres par calorimetrie differentielle a balayage en mode isotherme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danes, Florin; Garnier, Bertrand [Laboratoire de Thermocinetique, UMR CNRS 6607, Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite de Nantes, rue C. Pauc, BP50609, 44306 cedex 3, Nantes (France)

    2003-06-01

    The non-uniformity of temperatures in the DSC sample, and the subsequent difference between mean sample temperature and measured one (in the support of the crucible) are identified as the main source of bias for the isothermal mode determination of kinetic characteristics by differential scanning calorimetry. Chemical reactions under consideration are these with important heat effects into thermal insulators, as for example the reticulation of polymeric materials.By introducing an analytical model of heat transfer in DSC reactive samples, we have performed an estimation for the upper limit of the maximal size of samples which corresponds to a given relative error of the reaction rate, as measured by isothermal DSC calorimetry. For example, with a 5% error and flat samples, we have found admissible sample thicknesses which decrease with temperature and are between 1.9 and 3.1 mm for the sulphur vulcanization of a natural rubber and between 0.6 and 1.1 mm for the reticulation of a pre-polymerized epoxy resin. (authors)

  11. Phylogenetic relatedness limits co-occurrence at fine spatial scales: evidence from the schoenoid sedges (Cyperaceae: Schoeneae) of the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingsby, Jasper A; Verboom, G Anthony

    2006-07-01

    Species co-occurrence at fine spatial scales is expected to be nonrandom with respect to phylogeny because of the joint effects of evolutionary (trait convergence and conservatism) and ecological (competitive exclusion and habitat filtering) processes. We use data from 11 existing vegetation surveys to test whether co-occurrence in schoenoid sedge assemblages in the Cape Floristic Region shows significant phylogenetic structuring and to examine whether this changes with the phylogenetic scale of the analysis. We provide evidence for phylogenetic overdispersion in an alliance of closely related species (the reticulate-sheathed Tetraria clade) using both quantile regression analysis and a comparison between the mean observed and expected phylogenetic distances between co-occurring species. Similar patterns are not evident when the analyses are performed at a broader phylogenetic scale. Examination of six functional traits suggests a general pattern of trait conservatism within the reticulate-sheathed Tetraria clade, suggesting a potential role for interspecific competition in structuring co-occurrence within this group. We suggest that phylogenetic overdispersion of communities may be common throughout many of the Cape lineages, since interspecific interactions are likely intensified in lineages with large numbers of species restricted to a small geographic area, and we discuss the potential implications for patterns of diversity in the Cape.

  12. Pollen morphology of Waltheria L. (Malvaceae-Byttnerioideae from Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Eduardo Amaral Silveira Júnior

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Waltheria encompasses about 60 species distributed in Brazil and Mexico. To improve the palynology of the genus, we analyzed 14 species occurring in the Brazilian State of Bahia. Pollen grains were acetolyzed and examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Non-acetolyzed pollen grains were viewed by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed two general pollen types based on exine ornamentation, such as reticulate and echinate, which are distinct with regard to (1 size and shape, (2 apertural type and number, (3 relative length of ectoapertures, and (4 thickening of the nexine compared to the sexine. An ultrastructural analysis of the pollen wall revealed a continuous foot layer and a compact and discontinuous endexine in most cases. The sexine consisted of heterogeneous columellae, which support a perforated semitectum (echinate type or the semitectum was composed of perforations and muri-shaped thickening (reticulate type. These results confirm a high degree of pollen dimorphism in Waltheria associated with heterostyly.

  13. Local-scale stratigraphy of grooved terrain on Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, Scott L.; Head, James W.; Helfenstein, Paul; Plescia, Jeffrey B.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of the Jovian satellite, Ganymede, is divided into two main units, dark terrain cut by arcuate and subradial furrows, and light terrain consisting largely of areas with pervasive U-shaped grooves. The grooved terrain may be subdivided on the basis of pervasive morphology of groove domains into four terrain types: (1) elongate bands of parallel grooves (groove lanes); (2) polygonal domains of parallel grooves (grooved polygons); (3) polygonal domains of two orthogonal groove sets (reticulate terrain); and (4) polygons having two to several complexly cross-cutting groove sets (complex grooved terrain). Reticulate terrain is frequently dark and not extensively resurfaced, and grades to a more hummocky terrain type. The other three grooved terrain types have almost universally been resurfaced by light material during their emplacement. The sequence of events during grooved terrain emplacement has been investigated. An attempt is made to integrate observed geologic and tectonic patterns to better constrain the relative ages and styles of emplacement of grooved terrain types. A revised model of grooved terrain emplacement is proposed and is tested using detailed geologic mapping and measurement of crater density.

  14. Accuracy of high-resolution CT in distinguishing between Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and non-Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, A.; Mauleon, S.; Andreu, J.; Caceres, J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Paseo Vall d' Hebron 119-129, 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Falco, V.; Crespo, M.; Ribera, E.; Pahissa, A. [Department of Medicine, Service of Infectious Diseases, Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Paseo Vall d' Hebron 119-129, 08035 Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of high-resolution CT in distinguishing between Pneumocystis carinii and non-Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients HIV-positive and high risk to have PCP. We performed a prospective study in 30 patients with <200 CD4 lymphocytes, clinical symptoms of pulmonary disease and chest X-ray non-conclusive for pulmonary infection. Evaluated CT findings included ground-glass opacities, reticulation, tree-in-bud appearance, consolidation, cystic lesions, bronchiectasis and lymphadenopathies. The diagnosis of ''examination suggestive of PCP'' was applied to cases showing a diffuse or predominant ground-glass pattern in the upper fields, associated or not with reticulations and small cystic lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the diagnosis of PCP was 100, 83.3, 90.5 and 100%, respectively. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was not demonstrated in any of the cases classified as ''examination not suggestive of PCP''. Significant small airway disease was not observed in any of the PCP cases. We conclude that HRCT is a reliable method for differentiating PCP from other infectious processes in HIV-positive patients and a good method to rule our PCP. Its inclusion in the diagnostic algorithm of lung infections is justified in these patients. (orig.)

  15. Orobanchaceae in the

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    Foley, Michael J.Y.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new Orobanche taxa are described: O. austrohispanica MJ.Y. Foley, and O. crinita Viv. var. occidentalis MJ.Y. Foley. Thirty-one species or subspecies of Orobanche and one species of Cistanche have been confirmed as being present within the Flora iberica área but some others previously recorded appear to have been so erroneously. In addition, Lathraea phelypaea L. {Cistanche phelypaea (L. Cout.] and nine species of Orobanche (O. caryophyllacea Sm., O. cernua Loefl., O. elatior Sutton, O. gracilis Sm., O. ramose L., O. reticulate Wallr., O. rosmarina Beck, O. schultzii Mutel y O. variegata Wallr. are typified.Se describen una especie y una variedad nuevas de Orobanche: O. austrohispanica M J.Y. Foley y O. crinita Viv. var. occidentalis MJ.Y. Foley. Del estudio del material de herbario disponible se concluye que las Orobanchaceae están representadas en el área de Flora iberica por una especie de Cistanche y 31 de Orobanche. Se discuten las citas de varias especies de ambos géneros que han de ser consideradas erróneas o dudosas. Además se tipifican Lathraea phelypaea L. [Cistanche phelypaea (L. Cout.] y nueve especies de Orobanche (O. caryophyllacea Sm., O. cernua Loefl., O. elatior Sutton, O. gracilis Sm., O. ramose L., O. reticulate Wallr., O. rosmarina Beck, O. schultzii Mutel y O. variegate Wallr..

  16. Parasitic fauna of captive snakes in Tamilnadu, India

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    Nakulan Valsala Rajesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the parasitic fauna on serpentines under captive condition in zoological park of Tamilnadu, India. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from (n = 247 serpentines, Arignar Anna Zoological Park (n = 22, Vandalur, Tamilnadu, India and Snake Park (n = 27, Guindy, Tamilnadu, India and screened for endoparasites using sedimentation techniques. Ectoparasites were also reported in this study. Results: Coprological examination (n = 247 from captive snakes (n = 49 on random analysis revealed strongyles were predominant in Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur and Snake Park, Guindy, however the parasites were absent in king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah. Eggs of Capillaria sp. showed less predominance in Vandalur and Gunidy. Rat snakes [Ptyas mucosus (P. mucosus] showed higher prevalence of strongyle infection in Vandalur, and Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii showed higher prevalence in Guindy. Study on ectoparasites revealed Aponomma gerviasii ticks in P. mucosus, Indian cobras (Naja naja, king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah, reticulated pythons (Python reticulates and Indian rock pythons (Python molurus, among them, the most heavy infestation was documented in P. mucosus (n = 9. Conclusions: Confinement favour stress and dysecdysis in captive condition affect the health status of snakes in zoological park.

  17. Perfusion- and pattern-based quantitative CT indexes using contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography in diffuse interstitial lung disease: relationships with physiologic impairment and prediction of prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jung Won [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jang Pyo; Kim, Namkug; Chang, Yongjun; Seo, Joon Beom [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Yun; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Man Pyo; Park, Hye Yun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pulmonology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To evaluate automated texture-based segmentation of dual-energy CT (DECT) images in diffuse interstitial lung disease (DILD) patients and prognostic stratification by overlapping morphologic and perfusion information of total lung. Suspected DILD patients scheduled for surgical biopsy were prospectively included. Texture patterns included ground-glass opacity (GGO), reticulation and consolidation. Pattern- and perfusion-based CT measurements were assessed to extract quantitative parameters. Accuracy of texture-based segmentation was analysed. Correlations between CT measurements and pulmonary function test or 6-minute walk test (6MWT) were calculated. Parameters of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (IPF/UIP) and non-IPF/UIP were compared. Survival analysis was performed. Overall accuracy was 90.47 % for whole lung segmentation. Correlations between mean iodine values of total lung, 50-97.5th (%) attenuation and forced vital capacity or 6MWT were significant. Volume of GGO, reticulation and consolidation had significant correlation with DLco or SpO{sub 2} on 6MWT. Significant differences were noted between IPF/UIP and non-IPF/UIP in 6MWT distance, mean iodine value of total lung, 25-75th (%) attenuation and entropy. IPF/UIP diagnosis, GGO ratio, DILD extent, 25-75th (%) attenuation and SpO{sub 2} on 6MWT showed significant correlations with survival. DECT combined with pattern analysis is useful for analysing DILD and predicting survival by provision of morphology and enhancement. (orig.)

  18. Pollen morphology of the subfamily arecoideae griff. (family-arecaceae) from pakistan and kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, A.A.; Perveen, A.; Abid, R.

    2016-01-01

    Pollen morphological characters are potentially informative in the systematic of monocotyledons including (Arecaceae), at supra and infra familial level. The pollen morphology of 8 species (subfamily Arecoideae) clearly shows that the qualitative pollen characters (such as aperture, exine pattern and shape) are found to be taxonomically important as compared to the quantitative characters (such as size of the grain and exine thickness).Considerable pollen variations have been found within the subfamily Arecoideae with regard to size, shape, aperture type and exine pattern. For instance, 7 out of 8 species have monosulcate pollen (i.e., 87.5%) and a remaining species (viz., Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) have trichotomosulcate pollen. The pollen are frequently elliptical, but in some cases rounded-triangular pollen were also found. Similarly, there is a great diversity in exine pattern such as punctate, reticulate, vermiculate, spinose, rugulate and perforate or combination of these types have also been found, but the most predominant pattern is the reticulate type. On the basis of pollen aperture, size and exine pattern, four pollen types have been recognized such as Areca-type, Dypsis-type, Cocos-type and Elaies-type. The data obtained from the palynological studies have been analyzed by Agglomerative cluster analysis choosing the Euclidean distance and Ward's method for a group linkage method. The objective of the present work is to classify studied taxa on the basis of pollen characters and to quantify the species relationships representing the subfamily Arecoideae based on numerical techniques. (author)

  19. Development of a double-layered ceramic filter for aerosol filtration at high-temperatures: the filter collection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Normanda L; Gonçalves, José A S; Innocentini, Murilo D M; Coury, José R

    2006-08-25

    The performance of double-layered ceramic filters for aerosol filtration at high temperatures was evaluated in this work. The filtering structure was composed of two layers: a thin granular membrane deposited on a reticulate ceramic support of high porosity. The goal was to minimize the high pressure drop inherent of granular structures, without decreasing their high collection efficiency for small particles. The reticulate support was developed using the technique of ceramic replication of polyurethane foam substrates of 45 and 75 pores per inch (ppi). The filtering membrane was prepared by depositing a thin layer of granular alumina-clay paste on one face of the support. Filters had their permeability and fractional collection efficiency analyzed for filtration of an airborne suspension of phosphatic rock in temperatures ranging from ambient to 700 degrees C. Results revealed that collection efficiency decreased with gas temperature and was enhanced with filtration time. Also, the support layer influenced the collection efficiency: the 75 ppi support was more effective than the 45 ppi. Particle collection efficiency dropped considerably for particles below 2 microm in diameter. The maximum collection occurred for particle diameters of approximately 3 microm, and decreased again for diameters between 4 and 8 microm. Such trend was successfully represented by the proposed correlation, which is based on the classical mechanisms acting on particle collection. Inertial impaction seems to be the predominant collection mechanism, with particle bouncing/re-entrainment acting as detachment mechanisms.

  20. Influence of different temperatures on the thermal fatigue behavior and thermal stability of hot-work tool steel processed by a biomimetic couple laser technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chao; Zhou, Hong; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Ming; Tong, Xin; Cong, Dalong; Wang, Chuanwei; Chang, Fang; Ren, Luquan

    2014-04-01

    Three kinds of biomimetic non-smooth shapes (spot-shape, striation-shape and reticulation-shape) were fabricated on the surface of H13 hot-work tool steel by laser. We investigated the thermal fatigue behavior of biomimetic non-smooth samples with three kinds of shapes at different thermal cycle temperature. Moreover, the evolution of microstructure, as well as the variations of hardness of laser affected area and matrix were studied and compared. The results showed that biomimetic non-smooth samples had better thermal fatigue behavior compared to the untreated samples at different thermal cycle temperatures. For a given maximal temperature, the biomimetic non-smooth sample with reticulation-shape had the optimum thermal fatigue behavior, than with striation-shape which was better than that with the spot-shape. The microstructure observations indicated that at different thermal cycle temperatures the coarsening degrees of microstructures of laser affected area were different and the microstructures of laser affected area were still finer than that of the untreated samples. Although the resistance to thermal cycling softening of laser affected area was lower than that of the untreated sample, laser affected area had higher microhardness than the untreated sample at different thermal cycle temperature.

  1. [Modern aspects of surgical treatment of locally advanced pelvic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyov, I A; Vasilchenko, M V; Lychev, A B; Ambartsumyan, S V; Alekseev, V V

    2015-09-01

    The aim of investigation is to improve surgical treatment of patients with locally advanced pelvic cancer. The basis of investigation is 186 patients with locally advanced pelvic cancer. The average age of patients is 65.2 ± 5.2 years (from 43.7 to 88.4 years). Among them are 112 women and 74 men. In the period from 2007 to 2015 they were carried out combined (101 patients) and expanded (85 patients) surgical intervention in the department of naval surgery of the Military medical academy after S.M.Kirov. Pelvic evisceration was performed in 63 cases. Both patients were performed isolated vascular hyperthermic chemical pelvic perfusion. Indications for plastic surgery of peritoneum pelvic were: total infralitoral pelvic evisceration (9 patients), dorsal infralitoral pelvic evisceration (11 cases) and expanded abdominoperineal rectum extirpation (34 patients). Plastic surgery with autogenouse tissues was performed to 43 patients, with reticulate explants--to 11 patients. The rate of postoperative complications was 40.2%. The rate of postoperative lethality was 8%. Expanded and combined operations of pelvic at patients with locally advanced cancer without absolute contra-indications can be performed irrespective of age. Plastic surgery of peritoneum pelvic after total and dorsal infralitoral pelvic evisceration and expanded abdominoperineal rectum extirpation indicated in all cases. The easiest method is plastic surgery with greater omentum or peritoneum pelvic. Plastic surgery with reticulate explants is performed when autoplastic is impossible.

  2. Phylogeny reconstruction and hybrid analysis of populus (Salicaceae) based on nucleotide sequences of multiple single-copy nuclear genes and plastid fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoshan; Du, Shuhui; Dayanandan, Selvadurai; Wang, Dongsheng; Zeng, Yanfei; Zhang, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    Populus (Salicaceae) is one of the most economically and ecologically important genera of forest trees. The complex reticulate evolution and lack of highly variable orthologous single-copy DNA markers have posed difficulties in resolving the phylogeny of this genus. Based on a large data set of nuclear and plastid DNA sequences, we reconstructed robust phylogeny of Populus using parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The resulting phylogenetic trees showed better resolution at both inter- and intra-sectional level than previous studies. The results revealed that (1) the plastid-based phylogenetic tree resulted in two main clades, suggesting an early divergence of the maternal progenitors of Populus; (2) three advanced sections (Populus, Aigeiros and Tacamahaca) are of hybrid origin; (3) species of the section Tacamahaca could be divided into two major groups based on plastid and nuclear DNA data, suggesting a polyphyletic nature of the section; and (4) many species proved to be of hybrid origin based on the incongruence between plastid and nuclear DNA trees. Reticulate evolution may have played a significant role in the evolution history of Populus by facilitating rapid adaptive radiations into different environments.

  3. Phylogeny reconstruction and hybrid analysis of populus (Salicaceae based on nucleotide sequences of multiple single-copy nuclear genes and plastid fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoshan Wang

    Full Text Available Populus (Salicaceae is one of the most economically and ecologically important genera of forest trees. The complex reticulate evolution and lack of highly variable orthologous single-copy DNA markers have posed difficulties in resolving the phylogeny of this genus. Based on a large data set of nuclear and plastid DNA sequences, we reconstructed robust phylogeny of Populus using parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The resulting phylogenetic trees showed better resolution at both inter- and intra-sectional level than previous studies. The results revealed that (1 the plastid-based phylogenetic tree resulted in two main clades, suggesting an early divergence of the maternal progenitors of Populus; (2 three advanced sections (Populus, Aigeiros and Tacamahaca are of hybrid origin; (3 species of the section Tacamahaca could be divided into two major groups based on plastid and nuclear DNA data, suggesting a polyphyletic nature of the section; and (4 many species proved to be of hybrid origin based on the incongruence between plastid and nuclear DNA trees. Reticulate evolution may have played a significant role in the evolution history of Populus by facilitating rapid adaptive radiations into different environments.

  4. Different patterns of skin manifestations associated with parvovirus B19 primary infection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mage, Valentia; Lipsker, Dan; Barbarot, Sébastien; Bessis, Didier; Chosidow, Olivier; Del Giudice, Pascal; Aractingi, Sélim; Avouac, Jérôme; Bernier, Claire; Descamps, Vincent; Dupin, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    Skin involvement is reported during primary parvovirus B19 infection in adults. We sought to describe the cutaneous presentations associated with parvovirus B19 primary infection in adults. We conducted a descriptive, retrospective, multicenter study. The patients included (>18 years old) had well-established primary infections with parvovirus B19. Twenty-nine patients were identified between 1992 and 2013 (17 women, 12 men). The elementary dermatologic lesions were mostly erythematous (86%) and often purpuric (69%). Pruritus was reported in 48% of cases. The rash predominated on the legs (93%), trunk (55%), and arms (45%), with a lower frequency of facial involvement (20%). Four different but sometimes overlapping patterns were identified (45%): exanthema, which was reticulated and annular in some cases (80%); the gloves-and-socks pattern (24%); the periflexural pattern (28%); and palpable purpura (24%). The limitations of this study were its retrospective design and possible recruitment bias in tertiary care centers. Our findings suggest that primary parvovirus B19 infection is associated with polymorphous skin manifestations with 4 predominant, sometimes overlapping, patterns. The acral or periflexural distribution of the rash and the presence of purpuric or annular/reticulate lesions are highly suggestive of parvovirus B19 infection. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pollen morphology of Rhizophora L. in Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd-Arrabe', A. B.; Noraini, Talip Noraini

    2013-01-01

    Rhizophora L. are common mangrove genus in Peninsular Malaysia, it contains 3 species and 1 hybrid (R. apiculata Blume, R. mucronata Lam., R. stylosa Griff., R. x lamarckii Montrouz). This genus has some unique adaptation towards extreme environment. Rhizophora has looping aerial stilt-root and uniformly viviparous. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation in the pollen morphology of Rhizophora that can be related to their habitat. Methods include in this study is pollen observation under light and acetolysis method under scanning electron microscope. Pollen type of Rhizophora species studied except hybrid species is classified tricolporate, shape spheroidal based on ratio of length polar axis/ length of equatorial axis (1.03 - 1.09). The exine ornamentation is perforate-reticulate for R. apiculata and R. mucronata, while R. stylosa is perforate. For the only hybrid in Peninsular Malaysia, R. x lamarckii (R. apiculata x R. stylosa) differs from others, tricolpate with the absence of porate, shape is subprolate and exine ornamentation is reticulate and striate in equatorial region. Pollenkitt is present due to the salty and extreme environment. This may enhance the volume of pollenkitt present surrounding the pollen grains in Rhizophora for protection and adaptation purposes. Based on these findings, it is evident that pollen morphology is somehow related to its natural habitat

  6. Fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: HRCT findings that predict mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edey, Anthony J.; Hansell, David M. [The Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Devaraj, Anand A. [St. George' s NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Tooting (United Kingdom); Barker, Robert P. [Frimley Park Hosptal, Department of Radiology, Frimley, Surrey (United Kingdom); Nicholson, Andrew G. [The Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Wells, Athol U. [The Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    The study aims were to identify CT features that predict outcome of fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) when information from lung biopsy data is unavailable. HRCTs of 146 consecutive patients presenting with fibrotic IIP were studied. Visual estimates were made of the extent of abnormal lung and proportional contribution of fine and coarse reticulation, microcystic (cysts {<=}4 mm) and macrocystic honeycombing. A score for severity of traction bronchiectasis was also assigned. Using death as our primary outcome measure, variables were analysed using the Cox proportional hazards model. CT features predictive of a worse outcome were coarse reticulation, microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing, as well as overall extent of lung abnormality (p < 0.001). Importantly, increased severity of traction bronchiectasis, corrected for extent of parenchymal abnormality, was predictive of poor prognosis regardless of the background pattern of abnormal lung (HR = 1.04, CI = 1.03-1.06, p < 0.001). On bivariate Cox analysis microcystic honeycombing was a more powerful determinant of a poor prognosis than macrocystic honeycombing. In fibrotic IIPs we have shown that increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis is indicative of higher mortality irrespective of the HRCT pattern and extent of disease. Extent of microcystic honeycombing is a more powerful determinant of outcome than macrocystic honeycombing. (orig.)

  7. The Carina Project. VIII. The α-element abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, M.; Nonino, M.; Bono, G.; Primas, F.; Thévenin, F.; Stetson, P. B.; Cassisi, S.; Buonanno, R.; Coppola, G.; da Silva, R. O.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Genovali, K.; Gilmozzi, R.; Iannicola, G.; Marconi, M.; Monelli, M.; Romaniello, M.; Walker, A. R.

    2015-08-01

    We have performed a new abundance analysis of Carina red giant (RG) stars from spectroscopic data collected with UVES (high spectral resolution) and FLAMES/GIRAFFE (high and medium resolution) at ESO/VLT. The former sample includes 44 RGs, while the latter consists of 65 (high-resolution) and ~800 (medium-resolution) RGs, covering a significant fraction of the galaxy's RG branch, and red clump stars. To improve the abundance analysis at the faint magnitude limit, the FLAMES/GIRAFFE data were divided into ten surface gravity and effective temperature bins. The spectra of the stars belonging to the same gravity and temperature bin were stacked. This approach allowed us to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in the faint magnitude limit (V≥ 20.5 mag) by at least a factor of five. We took advantage of the new photometry index cU,B,I introduced recently as an age and probably a metallicity indicator to split stars along the red giant branch. These two stellar populations display distinct [Fe/H] and [Mg/H] distributions: their mean iron abundances are -2.15 ± 0.06 dex (σ = 0.28), and -1.75 ± 0.03 dex (σ = 0.21), respectively. The two iron distributions differ at the 75% level. This supports preliminary results. Moreover, we found that the old and intermediate-age stellar populations have mean [Mg/H] abundances of -1.91 ± 0.05 dex (σ = 0.22) and -1.35 ± 0.03 dex (σ = 0.22); these differ at the 83% level. Carina's α-element abundances agree, within 1σ, with similar abundances for field halo stars and for cluster (Galactic and Magellanic) stars. The same outcome applies to nearby dwarf spheroidals and ultra-faint dwarf galaxies in the iron range covered by Carina stars. Finally, we found evidence of a clear correlation between Na and O abundances, thus suggesting that Carina's chemical enrichment history is quite different from that in the globular clusters. Based on spectra retrieved from the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility and collected either with UVES at

  8. Climate processes shape the evolution of populations and species leading to the assembly of modern biotas - examples along a continuum from shallow to deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    California experiences droughts, so lets begin with the effects of streamflow variation on population evolution in a coastal lagoon-specialist endangered fish, the tidewater goby. Streamflow controls the closing and opening of lagoons to the sea determining genetic isolation or gene flow. Here evolution is a function of habitat preference for closing lagoons. Other estuarine fishes, with different habitat preferences, differentiate at larger spatial scales in response to longer glacio-eustatic control of estuarine habitat. Species of giraffes in Africa are a puzzle. Why do the ranges of large motile, potentially interbreeding, species occur in contact each other without hybridization? The answer resides in the timing of seasonal precipitation. Although the degree of seaonality of climate does not vary much between species, the timing of precipitation and seasonal "greenup" does. This provides a selective advantage to reproductive isolation, as reproductive timing can be coordinated in each region with seasonal browse availability for lactating females. Convective rainfall in Africa follows the sun and solar intensity is influenced by the precession cycle such that more extensive summer rains fell across the Sahara and South Asia early in the Holocene, this may also contribute to the genetic isolation and speciation of giraffes and others savanna species. But there also appears to be a correlation with rarity (CITES designation) of modern wetland birds, as the dramatic drying of the late Holocene landscape contributes to this conservation concern. Turning back to the West Coast we find the most diverse temperate coastal fauna in the world, yet this diversity evolved and is a relict of diversity accumulation during the apex of upwelling in the late Miocene, driven by the reglaciation of Antarctica. Lastly we can see that the deep-sea evolution is broadly constrained by the transitions from greenhouse to icehouse worlds over the last 90 mya as broad periods of warm

  9. Semantic Memory Organization in Japanese Patients With Schizophrenia Examined With Category Fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Sumiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDisorganization of semantic memory in patients with schizophrenia has been studied by referring to their category fluency performance. Recently, data-mining techniques such as singular value decomposition (SVD analysis have been reported to be effective in elucidating the latent semantic memory structure in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to investigate semantic memory organization in patients with schizophrenia using a novel method based on data-mining approach.MethodCategory fluency data were collected from 181 patients with schizophrenia and 335 healthy controls at the Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University. The 20 most frequently reported animals were chosen for SVD analysis. In the two-dimensional (2D solution, item vectors (i.e., animal names were plotted in the 2D space of each group. In the six-dimensional (6D solution, inter-item similarities (i.e., cosines were calculated among items. Cosine charts were also created for the six most frequent items to show the similarities to other animal items.ResultsIn the 2D spatial representation, the six most frequent items were grouped in the same clusters (i.e., dog, cat as pet cluster, lion, tiger as wild/carnivorous cluster, and elephant, giraffe as wild/herbivorous cluster for patients and healthy adults. As for 6D spatial cosines, the correlations (Pearson’s r between 17 items commonly generated in the two groups were moderately high. However, cosine charts created for the three pairs from the six most frequent animals (dog–cat, lion–tiger, elephant–giraffe showed that pair-wise similarities between other animals were less salient in patients with schizophrenia.DiscussionSemantic memory organization in patients with schizophrenia, revealed by SVD analysis, did not appear to be seriously impaired in the 2D space representation, maintaining a clustering structure similar to that in healthy controls for common animals. However, the coherence of those

  10. Phylogenetics of tribe Orchideae (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae) based on combined DNA matrices: inferences regarding timing of diversification and evolution of pollination syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Luis A; Pimentel, Manuel; Chase, Mark W

    2012-07-01

    Tribe Orchideae (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae) comprises around 62 mostly terrestrial genera, which are well represented in the Northern Temperate Zone and less frequently in tropical areas of both the Old and New Worlds. Phylogenetic relationships within this tribe have been studied previously using only nuclear ribosomal DNA (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, nrITS). However, different parts of the phylogenetic tree in these analyses were weakly supported, and integrating information from different plant genomes is clearly necessary in orchids, where reticulate evolution events are putatively common. The aims of this study were to: (1) obtain a well-supported and dated phylogenetic hypothesis for tribe Orchideae, (ii) assess appropriateness of recent nomenclatural changes in this tribe in the last decade, (3) detect possible examples of reticulate evolution and (4) analyse in a temporal context evolutionary trends for subtribe Orchidinae with special emphasis on pollination systems. The analyses included 118 samples, belonging to 103 species and 25 genera, for three DNA regions (nrITS, mitochondrial cox1 intron and plastid rpl16 intron). Bayesian and maximum-parsimony methods were used to construct a well-supported and dated tree. Evolutionary trends in the subtribe were analysed using Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods of character evolution. The dated phylogenetic tree strongly supported the recently recircumscribed generic concepts of Bateman and collaborators. Moreover, it was found that Orchidinae have diversified in the Mediterranean basin during the last 15 million years, and one potential example of reticulate evolution in the subtribe was identified. In Orchidinae, pollination systems have shifted on numerous occasions during the last 23 million years. The results indicate that ancestral Orchidinae were hymenopteran-pollinated, food-deceptive plants and that these traits have been dominant throughout the evolutionary history of the

  11. Introgression of mitochondrial DNA among Myodes voles: consequences for energetics?

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    Boratyński Zbyszek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Introgression of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is among the most frequently described cases of reticulate evolution. The tendency of mtDNA to cross interspecific barriers is somewhat counter-intuitive considering the key function of enzymes that it encodes in the oxidative-phosphorylation process, which could give rise to hybrid dysfunction. How mtDNA reticulation affects the evolution of metabolic functions is, however, uncertain. Here we investigated how morpho-physiological traits vary in natural populations of a common rodent (the bank vole, Myodes glareolus and whether this variation could be associated with mtDNA introgression. First, we confirmed that M. glareolus harbour mtDNA introgressed from M. rutilus by analyzing mtDNA (cytochrome b, 954 bp and nuclear DNA (four markers; 2333 bp in total sequence variation and reconstructing loci phylogenies among six natural populations in Finland. We then studied geographic variation in body size and basal metabolic rate (BMR among the populations of M. glareolus and tested its relationship with mtDNA type. Results Myodes glareolus and its arctic neighbour, M. rutilus, are reciprocally monophyletic at the analyzed nuclear DNA loci. In contrast, the two northernmost populations of M. glareolus have a fixed mitotype that is shared with M. rutilus, likely due to introgressive hybridization. The analyses of phenotypic traits revealed that the body mass and whole-body, but not mass corrected, BMR are significantly reduced in M. glareolus females from northern Finland that also have the introgressed mitotype. Restricting the analysis to the single population where the mitotypes coexist, the association of mtDNA type with whole-body BMR remained but those with mass corrected BMR and body mass did not. Mitochondrial sequence variation in the introgressed haplotypes is compatible with demographic growth of the populations, but may also be a result of positive selection. Conclusion Our

  12. The late Miocene Phractocephalus catfish (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae from Urumaco, Venezuela: additional specimens and reinterpretation as a distinct species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Lundberg

    Full Text Available Based on additional specimens the fossil pimelodid catfish from the upper Miocene Urumaco Formation, Falcón State, Venezuela originally assigned to the extant species Phractocephalus hemioliopterus is described as a new, extinct species. †Phractocephalus nassi n. sp. is diagnosed by the following combination of characters: 1 posterior half of frontals and anterior half of supraoccipital with elongate, coarse ridges and sulci in addition to reticulating ridges and subcircular pits; 2 very broad and ornamented mesethmoid bone; 3 lateral ethmoid margin convex and eliminating orbital notch but not projecting far anteriorly over palatine condyle; 4 anterior cranial fontanelle closed or represented by a small pit; 5 supraoccipital process rounded laterally and posterolaterally, concave posteriorly and completely concealing Weberian complex in dorsal view; 6 opercle covered with reticulating ridges and pits; 7 cleithrum coarsely ornamented along ventral edge and bulging outward lateral to spine articulation; 8 pectoral spine mostly ornamented with coarse ridges and sulci. †Phractocephalus nassi is compared to modern P. hemioliopterus and an undescribed extinct species from the upper Miocene Solimões Formation, Acre, Brazil. New diagnostic characters of Phractocephalus are presented that apply to the modern and fossil species, including: 1 ornamentation of skull, pectoral girdle and fin spines comprising a coarse meshwork of reticulating ridges surrounding rounded pits plus some elongate ridges and sulci; 2 supraoccipital posterior process greatly expanded laterally and posteriorly behind occipital wall; 3 lateral ethmoid and sphenotic broadly sutured behind eye; 4 anterior cranial fontanelle reduced or completely closed and posterior cranial fontanelle closed; 5 vomerine tooth plate large, roughly pentagonal to triangular in form, and with fine teeth. Today Phractocephalus ranges widely throughout the lowland Orinoco, Amazon and Essequibo basins

  13. Ethically sound technology? Guidelines for interactive ethical assessment of personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Elin; Nordgren, Anders; Verweij, Marcel; Collste, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Novel care-technologies possess a transformational potential. Future care and support may be provided via monitoring technologies such as smart devices, sensors, actors (robots) and Information and Communication Technologies. Such technologies enable care provision outside traditional care institutions, for instance in the homes of patients. Health monitoring may become "personalized" i.e. tailored to the needs of individual care recipients' but may also alter relations between care providers and care recipents, shape and form the care environment and influence values central to health-care. Starting out from a social constructivist theory of technology, an interactive ethical assessment-model is offered. The suggested model supplements a traditional analysis based on normative ethical theory (top-down approach) with interviews including relevant stakeholders (a bottom-up approach). This method has been piloted by small-scale interviews encircling stakeholder perspectives on three emerging technologies: (1) Careousel, a smart medicine-management device, (2) Robot Giraff, an interactive and mobile communication-device and (3) I-Care, a care-software that combines alarm and register system. By incorporating stakeholder perspectives into the analysis, the interactive ethical assessment model provides a richer understanding of the impact of PHM-technologies on ethical values than a traditional top-down model. If the assessment is conducted before the technology has reached the market - preferably in close interaction with developers and users - ethically sound technologies may be obtained.

  14. A Study of Sasin-Animal Sky Map on Chonmunryucho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jin Yang

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Chon-Mun-Ryu-Cho, written (edited by Lee Sun-Ji during the period of King Se-Jong, is a representative astronomy book of Cho-Sun (A.D. 1392 -1910 Dynasty. We find and study in the first page of the book; the description of 28 oriental constellations as a Sasin (four mythical oriental animals-animal sky map which is not widely known yet. The map consists of four groups of constellations, each of which represents the Sasin: Chang-Ryong (dragon, Baek-Ho (tigers with Ki-Rin [Oriental giraffe], Ju-Jak (Chinese phoenix, Hyun-Mu (a tortoise interwined with a snake. Each group (animals spans 2˜7 of 28 oriental constellations As we know from the illustration of the Chon-Sang-Yol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do a representative sky map of Cho-Sun Dynasty, astronomy in Cho-Sun Dynasty is closely related to that in Go-Gu-Ryer (B.C. 37 -A.D. 668 Dynasty. Since these Sasin-animals appear in most mural paintings of Go-Gu-Ryer tombs, visualization of sky with these animal constellations could have been established as early as in Go-Gu-Ryer Dynasty. We also reconstruct this ''A Sasin-animal Korean sky map'' based on the shapes of the Sasin and Ki-Rin from Go-Gu-Ryer paintings and 28 oriental constellations in Chon-Sang-Yol-Cha-Bun-Ya-Ji-Do.

  15. Spinning like a blue straggler: the population of fast rotating blue straggler stars in ω Centauri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Lovisi, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Monaco, L. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-12-10

    By using high-resolution spectra acquired with FLAMES-GIRAFFE at the ESO/VLT, we measured the radial and rotational velocities for 110 blue straggler stars (BSSs) in ω Centauri, the globular cluster-like stellar system harboring the largest known BSS population. According to their radial velocities, 109 BSSs are members of the system. The rotational velocity distribution is very broad, with the bulk of BSSs spinning at less than ∼40 km s{sup –1} (in agreement with the majority of such stars observed in other globular clusters) and a long tail reaching ∼200 km s{sup –1}. About 40% of the sample has v{sub e} sin i > 40 km s{sup –1} and about 20% has v{sub e} sin i > 70 km s{sup –1}. Such a large fraction is very similar to the percentage of fast rotating BSSs observed in M4. Thus, ω Centauri is the second stellar cluster, beyond M4, with a surprisingly high population of fast spinning BSSs. We found a hint of radial behavior for a fraction of fast rotating BSSs, with a mild peak within one core radius, and a possible rise in the external regions (beyond four core radii). This may suggest that recent formation episodes of mass transfer BSSs occurred preferentially in the outskirts of ω Centauri, or that braking mechanisms able to slow down these stars are least efficient in the lowest density environments.

  16. Atmospheric stellar parameters for large surveys using FASMA, a new spectral synthesis package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsantaki, M.; Andreasen, D. T.; Teixeira, G. D. C.; Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Bruzual, G.

    2018-02-01

    In the era of vast spectroscopic surveys focusing on Galactic stellar populations, astronomers want to exploit the large quantity and good quality of data to derive their atmospheric parameters without losing precision from automatic procedures. In this work, we developed a new spectral package, FASMA, to estimate the stellar atmospheric parameters (namely effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity) in a fast and robust way. This method is suitable for spectra of FGK-type stars in medium and high resolution. The spectroscopic analysis is based on the spectral synthesis technique using the radiative transfer code, MOOG. The line list is comprised of mainly iron lines in the optical spectrum. The atomic data are calibrated after the Sun and Arcturus. We use two comparison samples to test our method, (i) a sample of 451 FGK-type dwarfs from the high-resolution HARPS spectrograph; and (ii) the Gaia-ESO benchmark stars using both high and medium resolution spectra. We explore biases in our method from the analysis of synthetic spectra covering the parameter space of our interest. We show that our spectral package is able to provide reliable results for a wide range of stellar parameters, different rotational velocities, different instrumental resolutions and for different spectral regions of the VLT-GIRAFFE spectrographs, used amongst others for the Gaia-ESO survey. FASMA estimates stellar parameters in less than 15 m for high-resolution and 3 m for medium-resolution spectra. The complete package is publicly available to the community.

  17. Seasonal patterns of mixed species groups in large East African mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, Christian; Kioko, John; Leweri, Cecilia; Krause, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Mixed mammal species groups are common in East African savannah ecosystems. Yet, it is largely unknown if co-occurrences of large mammals result from random processes or social preferences and if interspecific associations are consistent across ecosystems and seasons. Because species may exchange important information and services, understanding patterns and drivers of heterospecific interactions is crucial for advancing animal and community ecology. We recorded 5403 single and multi-species clusters in the Serengeti-Ngorongoro and Tarangire-Manyara ecosystems during dry and wet seasons and used social network analyses to detect patterns of species associations. We found statistically significant associations between multiple species and association patterns differed spatially and seasonally. Consistently, wildebeest and zebras preferred being associated with other species, whereas carnivores, African elephants, Maasai giraffes and Kirk's dik-diks avoided being in mixed groups. During the dry season, we found that the betweenness (a measure of importance in the flow of information or disease) of species did not differ from a random expectation based on species abundance. In contrast, in the wet season, we found that these patterns were not simply explained by variations in abundances, suggesting that heterospecific associations were actively formed. These seasonal differences in observed patterns suggest that interspecific associations may be driven by resource overlap when resources are limited and by resource partitioning or anti-predator advantages when resources are abundant. We discuss potential mechanisms that could drive seasonal variation in the cost-benefit tradeoffs that underpin the formation of mixed-species groups.

  18. Sensor network infrastructure for a home care monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Filippo; Ullberg, Jonas; Stimec, Ales; Furfari, Francesco; Karlsson, Lars; Coradeschi, Silvia

    2014-02-25

    This paper presents the sensor network infrastructure for a home care system that allows long-term monitoring of physiological data and everyday activities. The aim of the proposed system is to allow the elderly to live longer in their home without compromising safety and ensuring the detection of health problems. The system offers the possibility of a virtual visit via a teleoperated robot. During the visit, physiological data and activities occurring during a period of time can be discussed. These data are collected from physiological sensors (e.g., temperature, blood pressure, glucose) and environmental sensors (e.g., motion, bed/chair occupancy, electrical usage). The system can also give alarms if sudden problems occur, like a fall, and warnings based on more long-term trends, such as the deterioration of health being detected. It has been implemented and tested in a test environment and has been deployed in six real homes for a year-long evaluation. The key contribution of the paper is the presentation of an implemented system for ambient assisted living (AAL) tested in a real environment, combining the acquisition of sensor data, a flexible and adaptable middleware compliant with the OSGistandard and a context recognition application. The system has been developed in a European project called GiraffPlus.

  19. A genome survey sequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) adds new aspects to the evolution of lineage specific retrotransposons in Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, S; Kumar, V; Bertelsen, M F; Janke, A; Nilsson, M A

    2015-10-25

    Ruminantia, the ruminating, hoofed mammals (cow, deer, giraffe and allies) are an unranked artiodactylan clade. Around 50-60 million years ago the BovB retrotransposon entered the ancestral ruminantian genome through horizontal gene transfer. A survey genome screen using 454-pyrosequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) and the lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) was done to investigate and to compare the landscape of transposable elements within Ruminantia. The family Tragulidae (mouse deer) is the only representative of Tragulina and phylogenetically important, because it represents the earliest divergence in Ruminantia. The data analyses show that, relative to other ruminantian species, the lesser kudu genome has seen an expansion of BovB Long INterspersed Elements (LINEs) and BovB related Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) like BOVA2. In comparison the genome of Java mouse deer has fewer BovB elements than other ruminants, especially Bovinae, and has in addition a novel CHR-3 SINE most likely propagated by LINE-1. By contrast the other ruminants have low amounts of CHR SINEs but high numbers of actively propagating BovB-derived and BovB-propagated SINEs. The survey sequencing data suggest that the transposable element landscape in mouse deer (Tragulina) is unique among Ruminantia, suggesting a lineage specific evolutionary trajectory that does not involve BovB mediated retrotransposition. This shows that the genomic landscape of mobile genetic elements can rapidly change in any lineage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. TRAC analysis of passive containment cooling system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji; Kataoka, Kazuyoshi; Nagasaka, Hideo

    1993-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system (PCCS) is a promising concept to improve the reliability of decay heat removal during an accident. Toshiba has carried out analytical studies for PCCS development in addition to experimental studies, using a best estimate thermal hydraulic computer code TRAC. In order to establish an analytical model for the PCCS performance analysis, it is necessary for the analytical model to be qualified against experimental results and thoroughly address the phenomena important for PCCS performance analysis. In this paper, the TRAC qualification for PCCS application is reported. A TRAC model has been verified against a drain line break simulation test conducted at the PCCS integral test facility, GIRAFFE. The result shows that the TRAC model can accurately predict the major system response and the PCCS performance in the drain line break test. In addition, the results of several sensitivity analyses, showing various points concerning the modeling in the PCCS performance analysis, have been reported. The analyses have been carried out for the SBWR and the analytical points are closely related to important phenomena which can affect PCCS performance

  1. SBWR design update: Passively safe, nuclear power generation for the twenty first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, H.A.; Torbeck, J.E.; Billig, P.F.; Duncan, J.D.; Herzog, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the current state of design, development and testing of a new generation of Boiling Water Reactors, the SBWR. The SBWR is a plant that will be significantly simpler to build, operate and maintain compared to operating plants. In this paper, the design and performance of the reference 670 MWe SBWR is summarized, the economics of SBWR power generation is addressed and the current developments in component testing and integrated system testing are given. This paper specifically discusses the current innovations and key reference design features of the SBWR including the RPV, depressurization system, pressure suppression system, flammability control system (based on passive autocatalytic recombiners), gravity driven cooling system, the passive containment cooling system, isolation condenser system and other unique engineered safety features that rely on gravity or stored energy to ensure core cooling, decay heat removal, and ATWS mitigation. The component and integrated system development testing summarized includes key results of recently concluded PANTHERS condenser tests conducted at SIET in Italy, GIRAFFE non-condensable gas testing by Toshiba in Japan, and the ongoing testing at the PANDA facility at PSI in Switzerland

  2. Are we prepared for emerging and re-emerging diseases? Experience and lessons from epidemics that occurred in Tanzania during the last five decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Mboera, Leonard E G; Mbugi, Erasto; Simba, Azma; Kivaria, Fredrick M; Mmbuji, Peter; Rweyemamu, Mark M

    2011-12-01

    This paper reviews preparedness for containing and controlling emerging and re-emerging diseases drawing lessons from disease events that occurred in animal and human populations in the last five decades (1961-2011). A comprehensive analysis based on retrieval and analysis of grey and published literature as well as reported cases was carried out to document type and trend of occurrence of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in different parts of Tanzania. Overall, the majority of diseases reported in the country were viral in nature followed by bacterial diseases. The trend for the occurrence shows a number of new emerging diseases as well as re-occurrence of old diseases in both animal (domestic and wild) and human populations. In humans, the major disease epidemics reported in the last five decades include cholera, influenza A H1N1, plague and rubella. In animals, the major epidemic diseases reported were Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia, Peste des petits ruminants and Giraffe Ear and Skin Diseases. Some epidemics have been reported in both human and animal populations including Rift Valley fever and anthrax. The emergence of the 'fit-for purpose' approaches and technologies such as the discipline of One Health, use of participatory epidemiology and disease surveillance and mobile technologies offers opportunity for optimal use of limited resources to improve early detection, diagnosis and response to disease events and consequently reduced impact of such diseases in animal and human populations.

  3. Neck length and mean arterial pressure in the sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen; Barry, John; Russell, Jeremy; Bell, Robert; Gurung, Som

    2016-04-15

    How blood was able to reach the heads of the long-necked sauropod dinosaurs has long been a matter of debate and several hypotheses have been presented. For example, it has been proposed that sauropods had exceptionally large hearts, multiple 'normal' sized hearts spaced at regular intervals up the neck or held their necks horizontal, or that the siphon effect was in operation. By means of an experimental model, we demonstrate that the siphon principle is able to explain how blood was able to adequately perfuse the sauropod brain. The return venous circulation may have been protected from complete collapse by a structure akin to the vertebral venous plexus. We derive an equation relating neck height and mean arterial pressure, which indicates that with a mean arterial pressure similar to that of the giraffe, the maximum safe vertical distance between heart and head would have been about 12 m. A hypothesis is presented that the maximum neck length in the fossil record is due to the siphon height limit. The equation indicates that to migrate over high ground, sauropods would have had to either significantly increase their mean arterial pressure or keep their necks below a certain height dependent on altitude. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Comparisons of Salmonella conjugation and virulence gene hyperexpression mediated by rumen protozoa from domestic and exotic ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matt T; Xiong, Nalee; Dier, Jeffery D; Anderson, Kristi L; Rasmussen, Mark A; Franklin, Sharon K; Carlson, Steve A

    2011-08-05

    Recent studies have identified a phenomenon in which ciliated protozoa engulf Salmonella and the intra-protozoal environment hyperactivates virulence gene expression and provides a venue for conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids. The former observation is relegated to Salmonella bearing the SGI1 multiresistance integron while the latter phenomenon appears to be a more generalized event for recipient Salmonella. Our previous studies have assessed virulence gene hyperexpression only with protozoa from the bovine rumen while conjugal transfer has been demonstrated in rumen protozoa from cattle and goats. The present study examined virulence gene hyperexpression for Salmonella exposed to rumen protozoa obtained from cattle, sheep, goats, or two African ruminants (giraffe and bongo). Conjugal transfer was also assessed in these protozoa using Salmonella as the recipient. Virulence gene hyperexpression was only observed following exposure to the rumen protozoa from cattle and sheep while elevated virulence was also observed in these animals. Conjugal transfer events were, however, observed in all protozoa evaluated. It therefore appears that the protozoa-based hypervirulence is not universal to all ruminants while conjugal transfer is more ubiquitous. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fertility suppression of some wildlife species in southern Africa-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschinger, H J; Caldwell, P

    2016-09-01

    Generally speaking, southern Africa's wildlife populations in small-to-medium-sized protected game reserves (10,000-65,000 ha) reproduce at rapid rates which often lead overpopulation of certain species. Most commonly these are large predators such as lions, African wild dogs and cheetahs, and elephants. Overpopulation of large predators leads to depletion of prey species, breakouts into neighbouring communities and increased risks for disease transmission. An overabundance of elephants leads to habitat destruction which is to the detriment of not only other herbivores but also certain bird species. By far, the most acceptable and effective method of population control is contraception. Another problem, particularly in South Africa, is the large numbers of large predators that are held in zoos, wildlife sanctuaries or captive breeding facilities. Once again, there is a need for contraception to control the rate of reproduction. In this review, we discuss the methods that have been most commonly used for some wildlife species in southern Africa. The methods include hormonal control and immunocontraception. We also address the problem of androgen-related aggressive behaviours in elephant bulls and giraffe males and present solutions that have been used to ameliorate such behaviours. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Radiological air quality in a depleted uranium (DU) storage vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, T.; Cucchiara, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The radiological air quality of two storage vaults, one with depleted uranium (DU) and one without, was evaluated and compared. The intent of the study was to determine if the presence of stored DU would significantly contribute to the gaseous/airborne radiation level compared to natural background. Both vaults are constructed out of concrete and are dimensionally similar. The vaults are located on the first floor of the same building. Neither vault has air supply or air exhaust. The doors to both vaults remained closed during the evaluation period, except for brief and infrequent access by the operational group. One vault contained 700 KG of depleted uranium, and the other vault contained documents inside of file cabinets. Radon detectors and giraffe air samplers were used to gather data on the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in both vaults. The results of this study indicated that there was no significant difference in the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in the two vaults. This paper gives a discussion of the effects of the stored DU on the air quality, and poses several theories supporting the results

  7. Numerical taxonomy of the genus Pestivirus based on palindromic nucleotide substitutions in the 5' untranslated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, Massimo; Harasawa, Ryô

    2007-12-01

    The palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS) at the three variable loci (V1, V2 and V3) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of Pestivirus RNA have been considered for taxonomical segregation of species, through the evaluation of 430 genomic sequences. On the basis of qualitative and quantitative secondary structure characteristics, six species have been identified: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Border disease virus (BDV), the tentative species Giraffe and a new proposed taxon named Pronghorn. The first step was qualitative and consisted in the characterization of the different positions of the three stems and loops in the 5' UTR sequences of all the strains under consideration belonging to the genus. Secondary structure sequences showing divergent base-pair combinations have been aligned for comparison. Palindromic positions have been characterized according to changes in nucleotide base-pairs identifying low-variable positions (LVP) including base-pairs present in less than 80% of the genus. The second step was quantitative, allowing the identification of genomic groups by clustering the base-pair combinations according to LVP. Relatedness among types was evaluated to identify homogeneous groups. Cross comparisons between types within the genus have been evaluated by computing the divergence percentage thus clarifying borderline and multirelated sequences.

  8. Proceedings of the 19th ASPA Congress, Cremona, June 7-10, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guest Editor: Giacomo Pirlo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The 19th Congress of the Animal Science and Production Association (ASPA, is held in the capital of one of the main European regions for animal production: Cremona. Despite its Gallic origin (Carra = rock, the name Cremona means big cream in modern Italian, in a clear allusion to milk. In this Congress, 153 oral presentations and 165 posters are presented, for a total of 318 scientific contributions. The Congress sessions with their relative number of papers are listed as follows: Animal breeding and genetics 87, Nutrition and feeding 57, Dairy production 40, Meat production 46, Animal welfare, Health and behaviour 37, Poultry and rabbit production 28 and Aquaculture 23. I would like to point out that 4 main lectures will be presented in the Animal breeding and genetics and Nutrition and feeding sessions (two in each, and that the Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura (Agricultural Research Council, the Agricultural Ministery research agency, which took charge of organizing the Congress, will award a prize for the best work here presented by young researchers. I would thank, first of all, Prof. Paolo Cescon, President of the Congress, for the contribution of all the CRA in organizing this event. I would also thank all the members of the Scientific Committee, dr. Riccardo Aleandri (President, dr. Fabio Abeni, dr. Fabiola Canavesi, dr. Giacinto Della Casa and dr. Marisanna Speroni, and of the Organizing Committee, dr. Giovanni Lo Piparo (President, dr. Stefania Barzaghi, dr. Maurizio Capelletti, dr. Giorgio Giraffa and dr. Luciano Migliorati. A special thanks to the secretary components, Maria Dissegna and Patrizia Re, assisted by Claudia Federici, Francesca Petrera, Miriam Odoardi, Maddalena Carli, Caterina Sanna, Stefania Marruso, Leonardo Boselli, Milena Rosi and Aldo Dal Prà. A special acknowlegment to Giacomo Pirlo, the real driving force organizing the Congress, a tireless and enthusiastic embroiderer of opportunities in scientific and

  9. Polymer - (BEDT-TTF) polyiodide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulanski, J [Polymer Inst., Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland); Glowacki, I [Polymer Inst., Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland); Kryszewski, M [Polymer Inst., Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland); Jeszka, J K [Center of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, Lodz (Poland); Tracz, A [Center of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, Lodz (Poland); Laukhina, E [Inst. of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1993-03-29

    Preparation and properties of reticulate doped polymers containing BEDT-TTF polyiodide crystalline network are discussed. The highly conducting films are obtained using different methods, including recently developed one in which oxidation of the donor with iodine and crystallization of the resulting salt take place simultaneously in situ, in the swollen polymer matrix. It was found that the temperature dependence of conductivity of the separated microcrystal grown in the film exhibits metallic character with a maximum around 100K. The conductivity of the as-obtained composite increases with temperature up to ca. 120K with an activation energy of ca. 50 meV, then levels off. Annealing of the composites in order to transform the BEDT-TTF polyiodide crystalites into superconducting [beta][sup *]-phase causes dramatic changes in the conductivity behaviour; the [sigma](T) dependence of the composite switches from semiconductor- to metal-like. Stability of the films at ambient conditions is good. (orig.)

  10. Pollen morphology of the Onobrychis sect. Heliobrychis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Karamian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen morphology of 20 species belonging to Onobrychis sect. Heliobrychis was studied in Iran. The pollen grains from the herbarium specimens were prepared by acetolysis method and then 8 quantitative characters were studied by light microscopy. Data analysis was carried out by cluster analysis and principal component analysis methods. Pollen grains of the sections were 3-colpate with reticulate ornamentation. Results of the study showed that although the pollen grains in the section were comparatively homogenous, but had a considerable variation in the studied quantitative characters. However among the studied characters, equatorial and polar diameters of pollen grains were the most significant characters. The members of the section can be divided into 3 groups based on these characters.

  11. Computational design of high efficiency release targets for use at ISOL facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Y

    1999-01-01

    This report describes efforts made at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design high-efficiency-release targets that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, controllable temperatures, and heat-removal properties required for the generation of useful radioactive ion beam (RIB) intensities for nuclear physics and astrophysics research using the isotope separation on-line (ISOL) technique. Short diffusion lengths are achieved either by using thin fibrous target materials or by coating thin layers of selected target material onto low-density carbon fibers such as reticulated-vitreous-carbon fiber (RVCF) or carbon-bonded-carbon fiber (CBCF) to form highly permeable composite target matrices. Computational studies that simulate the generation and removal of primary beam deposited heat from target materials have been conducted to optimize the design of target/heat-sink systems for generating RIBs. The results derived from diffusion release-rate simulation studies for selected t...

  12. Inferring the Clonal Structure of Viral Populations from Time Series Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatien F Chedom

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA virus populations will undergo processes of mutation and selection resulting in a mixed population of viral particles. High throughput sequencing of a viral population subsequently contains a mixed signal of the underlying clones. We would like to identify the underlying evolutionary structures. We utilize two sources of information to attempt this; within segment linkage information, and mutation prevalence. We demonstrate that clone haplotypes, their prevalence, and maximum parsimony reticulate evolutionary structures can be identified, although the solutions may not be unique, even for complete sets of information. This is applied to a chain of influenza infection, where we infer evolutionary structures, including reassortment, and demonstrate some of the difficulties of interpretation that arise from deep sequencing due to artifacts such as template switching during PCR amplification.

  13. Polyether matrices for lithium generators; Matrices polyethers pour generateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloin, F.; Sanchez, J.Y. [Laboratoire d`Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, 38 - Saint-Martin-d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    The use of solvating polymers of polyether type is an interesting solution for the manufacturing of high capacity lithium batteries with lithium metal anodes and which can operate at T > 50 deg. C. These operating conditions are perfectly compatible with electric-powered vehicle and stationary battery applications. In order to improve the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes, new aprotic and amorphous polyether lattices have been synthesized having a good conductivity but also good thermal, mechanical and electrochemical stabilities. Two type of 3-D polyether lattices obtained by reticulation of linear pre-polymers have been selected as host polymers: unsaturated poly-condensate and unsaturated co-polyethers. (J.S.) 18 refs.

  14. Effect of cerium (IV) ions on the anticorrosion properties of siloxane-poly(methyl methacrylate) based film applied on tin coated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suegama, P.H.; Sarmento, V.H.V.; Montemor, M.F.; Benedetti, A.V.; de Melo, H.G.; Aoki, I.V.; Santilli, C.V.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates the influence of the addition of cerium (IV) ions on the anticorrosion properties of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings applied to passivated tin coated steel. In order to evaluate the specific effect of cerium (IV) addition on nanostructural features of the organic and inorganic phases of the hybrid coating, the hydrolytic polycondensation of silicon alkoxide and the radical polymerization of the methyl methacrylate (MMA) function were induced separately. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by means of linear polarization, Tafel type curves and electrochemical impedance measurements. The impedance results obtained for the hybrid coatings were discussed based on an electrical equivalent circuit used to fit the experimental data. The electrochemical results clearly showed the improvement of the protective properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid coating mainly when the cerium (IV) was added to the organic phase solution precursor, which seemed to be due to the formation of a more uniform and densely reticulated siloxane-PMMA film.

  15. Biofilm formation on materials into contact with water: hygienic and technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonadonna, L; Memoli, G.; Chiaretti, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biofilm formation in man-made water systems has a hygienic concern when it is considered that the continuous detachment of this structure in the water flow, condition representing a potential source of contamination of plumbing and a risk for health, allows also pathogen microorganisms to reach consumers. The trend of biofilm formation was evaluated through series of microbiological analyses performed, under controlled conditions, on pipes made of materials that come into contact with drinking water according to the Decree of Ministry of Health n. 174. The investigation showed that, respect to the other materials, the reticulated polyethylene allows to sustain higher microorganisms concentrations. This characteristic was also observed in biofilms developed in condition of water stagnation compared to biofilm risen on surfaces of pipes under water flow [it

  16. Effect of cerium (IV) ions on the anticorrosion properties of siloxane-poly(methyl methacrylate) based film applied on tin coated steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suegama, P.H. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 61548, 05424-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sarmento, V.H.V. [Departamento Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, CP 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Montemor, M.F. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Benedetti, A.V. [Departamento Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, CP 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); de Melo, H.G.; Aoki, I.V. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 61548, 05424-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santilli, C.V., E-mail: santilli@iq.unesp.b [Departamento Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, CP 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    This work investigates the influence of the addition of cerium (IV) ions on the anticorrosion properties of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings applied to passivated tin coated steel. In order to evaluate the specific effect of cerium (IV) addition on nanostructural features of the organic and inorganic phases of the hybrid coating, the hydrolytic polycondensation of silicon alkoxide and the radical polymerization of the methyl methacrylate (MMA) function were induced separately. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by means of linear polarization, Tafel type curves and electrochemical impedance measurements. The impedance results obtained for the hybrid coatings were discussed based on an electrical equivalent circuit used to fit the experimental data. The electrochemical results clearly showed the improvement of the protective properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid coating mainly when the cerium (IV) was added to the organic phase solution precursor, which seemed to be due to the formation of a more uniform and densely reticulated siloxane-PMMA film.

  17. Effect of Electron-Beam Irradiation on Bacterial Cellulose Membranes Used as Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica-Guzun, A.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple methods are used to modify material surfaces. Radiation is an effective tool for polymer surfaces modification in order to obtain transdermal systems with different controlled release properties. Bacterial cellulose is a promising biomaterial synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum. It has a distinctive ultrafine reticulated structure that may become a perfect matrix as an optimal wound healing environment. In this work, high energy irradiation (γ rays from 137 C s) was applied to modify bacterial cellulose membranes. The effect of varying irradiation doses on membranes permeability was studied. Tetracycline was involved in the study of diffusivity as model drug. Release and permeation of drug from irradiated and non-irradiated membranes were done using a diffusion cell. The membrane permeability was determined using a psudo-steady state analysis based on Fick's law

  18. Future trypanosomatid phylogenies: refined homologies, supertrees and networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stothard JR

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been good progress in inferring the evolutionary relationships within trypanosomes from DNA data as until relatively recently, many relationships have remained rather speculative. Ongoing molecular studies have provided data that have adequately shown Trypanosoma to be monophyletic and, rather surprisingly, that there are sharply contrasting levels of genetic variation within and between the major trypanosomatid groups. There are still, however, areas of research that could benefit from further development and resolution that broadly fall upon three questions. Are the current statements of evolutionary homology within ribosomal small sub-unit genes in need of refinement? Can the published phylograms be expanded upon to form `supertrees' depicting further relationships? Does a bifurcating tree structure impose an untenable dogma upon trypanosomatid phylogeny where hybridisation or reticulate evolutionary steps have played a part? This article briefly addresses these three questions and, in so doing, hopes to stimulate further interest in the molecular evolution of the group.

  19. MASS TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF A FLOW-THROUGH ELECTROLYTIC REACTOR USING A POROUS ELECTRODE: PERFORMANCE AND FIGURES OF MERIT FOR Pb(II REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertazzoli R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of lead from an acid borate-nitrate solution containing Pb(II was used to characterize the mass transport properties of an electrolytic reactor with reticulated vitreous carbon cathodes, operated in the flow-through mode. Current potential curves recorded at a rotating vitreous carbon disc electrode were used to determine the diffusion coefficient for Pb(II under the conditions of the experiments. The performance and figures of merit of the electrolytic reactor were investigated by using different flowrates and cathode porosities. Dimensionless Sherwood and Reynolds numbers were correlated to characterize the mass transport properties of the reactor, and they were fitted to the equation Sh=24Re0.32Sc0.33.

  20. Multifunctional porous solids derived from tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celzard, Alain; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Zhao, Weigang

    2013-03-01

    Tannins are extremely valuable, non toxic, wood extractives combining reactivity towards aldehydes, low cost, natural origin and easy handling. When polymerized in the presence of suitable chemicals including blowing agent, ultra lightweight rigid tannin-based foams are obtained. If pyrolyzed under inert gas, reticulated carbon foams having the same pore structure and the same density are obtained. The most remarkable features of tannin-based foams are the following: mechanical resistance similar to, or higher than, that of commercial phenolic foams, tuneable pore size and permeability, infusibility, very low thermal conductivity, cheapness, ecological character, high resistance to flame and to chemicals. Carbon foams have even better properties and are also electrically conducting. Consequently, various applications are suggested for organic foams: cores of sandwich composite panels, sound and shock absorbers and thermal insulators, whereas carbon foams can be used as porous electrodes, filters for molten metals and corrosive chemicals, catalyst supports and adsorbents.

  1. Interstitial lung disease associated with collagen vascular disorders: disease quantification using a computer-aided diagnosis tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.; Engelke, C.; Dicken, V.; Kneitz, C.; Hoehmann, M.; Kenn, W.; Hahn, D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool compared to human observers in quantification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with collagen-vascular disorders. A total of 52 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n=24), scleroderma (n=14) and systemic lupus erythematosus (n=14) underwent thin-section CT. Two independent observers assessed the extent of ILD (EoILD), reticulation (EoRet) and ground-glass opacity (EoGGO). CAD assessed EoILD twice. Pulmonary function tests were obtained. Statistical evaluation used 95% limits of agreement and linear regression analysis. CAD correlated well with diffusing capacity (DL CO ) (R=-0.531, P CO (R=-0.705, P CO and moderately with FVC (DL CO : R=-0.663; FVC: R=-0.436; P≤0.005). The CAD system is a promising tool for ILD quantification, showing close correlation with human observers and physiologic impairment. (orig.)

  2. Pollen flora of pakistan-lxxi. rosaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perveen, A.; Qaiser, M.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 50 species representing 17 genera of the family Rosaceae i.e., Alchemilla, Argimonia, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Duchesnea, Fragaria, Eriybotyra, Filipandula, Geum, Malus, Prunus, Potentilla, Pyrus , Rosa, Sibbaldia, Sorbaria and Sorbus has been studied from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal to subprolate or oblate-spheroidal rarely perprolate, tricolporate rarely tricolpate. Tectum mostly coarsely-finely striate, rarely striate-rugulate, scabrate or spinulose often reticulate. Rosaceae is more or less eurypalynous family. Significant variation is found in P/E ratio, shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis of these characters family has been divided into seven pollen types viz., Agrimonia eupatoria-type, Alchemilla ypsilotoma-type, Cotoneaster affinis-type, Fragaria nubicola-type, Geum roylei-type, Malus pumila-type, Potentilla pamirica-type. Pollen data is useful at specific and generic level. (author)

  3. The fourth Bent-toed Gecko of the genus Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L

    2015-12-22

    Cyrtodactylus petani sp. nov. is a new species of Bent-toed Gecko from Java, Indonesia that had been masquerading under the name C. fumosus (Müller, 1895). The new species is differentiated from C. fumosus and all its Sundaland congeners by having the following combination of morphological characters: a maximum SVL of 57.2 mm; nine or ten supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; strongly tuberculate body and limbs; 20-25 paravertebral tubercles; 30-35 ventral scales; enlarged precloacal scales; enlarged femoral scales; 17-18 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 31-35 continuous precloacal and femoral pores in males, pores absent in females; no precloacal groove; no enlarged median subcaudals; tubercles on anterior portion of tail; no reticulated pattern on top of head; a blotched dorsal pattern; and no paired, dark, semi-lunar shaped blotches on the nape.

  4. Defining operational taxonomic units using DNA barcode data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, Mark; Mann, Jenna; Chapman, Tom; Thomas, Fran; Whitton, Claire; Floyd, Robin; Abebe, Eyualem

    2005-10-29

    The scale of diversity of life on this planet is a significant challenge for any scientific programme hoping to produce a complete catalogue, whatever means is used. For DNA barcoding studies, this difficulty is compounded by the realization that any chosen barcode sequence is not the gene 'for' speciation and that taxa have evolutionary histories. How are we to disentangle the confounding effects of reticulate population genetic processes? Using the DNA barcode data from meiofaunal surveys, here we discuss the benefits of treating the taxa defined by barcodes without reference to their correspondence to 'species', and suggest that using this non-idealist approach facilitates access to taxon groups that are not accessible to other methods of enumeration and classification. Major issues remain, in particular the methodologies for taxon discrimination in DNA barcode data.

  5. Erythema Ab igne after footbath with Chinese herbal remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Feng Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema ab igne (EAI is a reticulated, telangiectatic, and hyperpigmented skin eruption resulting from chronic exposure to long-term moderate heat. The incidence has decreased substantially today because of the advent of modern central heating systems. Recently, we encountered a patient who developed EAI after 2 weeks of footbaths with Chinese herbal remedies, which she used to treat her acute ankle sprain. Alternative Chinese medicine, such as herbal footbath, is a prevalent medical practice to treat acute pains as well as many chronic musculoskeletal ailments among Chinese and Asian populations. It has also become increasingly popular in Western countries in the past decade. Herein, we would like to report an uncommon case of iatrogenic EAI caused by footbath and raise the attention of clinicians to such rare, potentially malignant-transforming, dermatosis.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of New Geopolymer-Epoxy Resin Hybrid Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cioffi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and characterization of metakaolin-based geopolymer mortars containing an organic epoxy resin are presented here for the first time. The specimens have been prepared by means of an innovative in situ co-reticulation process, in mild conditions, of commercial epoxy based organic resins and geopolymeric slurry. In this way, geopolymer based hybrid mortars characterized by a different content of normalized sand (up to 66% in weight and by a homogeneous dispersion of the organic resin have been obtained. Once hardened, these new materials show improved compressive strength and toughness in respect to both the neat geopolymer and the hybrid pastes since the organic polymer provides a more cohesive microstructure, with a reduced amount of microcracks. The microstructural characterization allows to point out the presence of an Interfacial Transition Zone similar to that observed in cement based mortars and concretes. A correlation between microstructural features and mechanical properties has been studied too.

  7. Amalgamation of Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusions with lipid droplets in foam cells in human atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Tran, Dihn; Lord, Reginald

    2008-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (Chlamydophila pneumoniae) infect macrophages and accelerates foam cell formation in in vitro experiments, but whether this might occur in human atherosclerosis is unknown. In the present study, we examined 17 carotid artery segments, obtained by endarterectomy, in which the presence of C. pneumoniae was confirmed by both polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of structures with the appearance of elementary, reticulate and aberrant bodies of C. pneumoniae in the cytoplasm of macrophage foam cells. The volume of the cytoplasm that was free from vacuoles and lipid droplets in C. pneumoniae-infected foam cells was dramatically reduced, and a phenomenon of the amalgamation of C. pneumoniae inclusions with lipid droplets was detected. Double immunohistochemistry showed that C. pneumoniae-infected foam cells contained a large number of oxidized low-density lipoproteins. The observations provide support to the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae could affect foam cell formation in human atherosclerosis.

  8. June 2013 imaging case of the month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotway MB

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. Clinical History A 42-year-old woman complained of cough and intermittent wheezing with shortness of breath. Her previous medical history was unremarkable. Frontal and lateral (Figures 1A and B chest radiography was performed. Figure 1. Frontal (Panel A and lateral (Panel B chest x-ray. Which of the following statements regarding the chest radiograph is most accurate? 1.The chest radiograph shows no abnormalities 2.The chest radiograph shows bilateral, basal reticulation suggesting fibrotic lung disease 3.The chest radiograph shows medial left lower lobe opacities 4.The chest radiograph shows large lung volumes associated with faint cystic change 5.The chest radiograph shows numerous small nodules suggesting a miliary pattern

  9. Modelling of the concentration-time relationship based on global diffusion-charge transfer parameters in a flow-by reactor with a 3D electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, J.L.; Sosa, E.; Carreno, G.; Ponce-de-Leon, C.; Oropeza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    A concentration versus time relationship model based on the isothermal diffusion-charge transfer mechanism was developed for a flow-by reactor with a three-dimensional (3D) reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) electrode. The relationship was based on the effectiveness factor (η) which lead to the simulation of the concentration decay at different electrode polarisation conditions, i.e. -0.1, -0.3 and -0.59 V versus SCE; the charge transfer process was used for the former and mix and a mass transport control was used for the latter. Charge transfer and mass transport parameters were estimated from experimental data using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Linear Voltammetry (LV) techniques, respectively

  10. Electrical infrared in the baking of paints and the drying of coatings; L`infrarouge electrique dans la cuisson des peintures et le sechage des revetements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `industrial electro-thermal engineering` section of the French association of thermal engineers. This book of proceedings contains 11 papers entitled: `recalls about infrared emitters and furnaces technology`; `experimental study of transfer phenomena and of the thermophysical properties of paints during baking under infrared radiation`; `synthetic report of a theoretical and experimental study about drying and reticulation under infrared radiation of a aqueous-based epoxy-amine-type paint on metal support`; `short IR baking as viewed by the paint manufacturer`; `influence of texture and impurities on the radiative properties of materials`; `contribution of modeling to the dimensioning of IR furnaces`; `IR baking of paints`; `experimental studies and testing means of EdF`; `presentation of ABB Capponi Alesina company`; `presentation report of the Infrarouge System company`; `the choice of heat transfer technologies`. (J.S.)

  11. Teoría transfeminista para el análisis de la violencia machista y la reconstrucción no-violenta del tejido social en el México contemporáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayak Valencia Triana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfeminist theory for the analysis of male violence and the nonviolent reconstruction of the social fabric in contemporary Mexico Abstract We start from the transfeminist perspective which is understood as an articulation of both thought and social resistance that is able to integrate mobility between genders, corporalities and sexualities with the assumptions of feminist struggles to build alliances with non-hegemonic masculinities in order to create an reticulated organization implacable to the opposition between genders. We create a brief genealogy of what is meant by transfeminisms in different contexts for answering the questions: What kind of subjects and practices does the extreme sexist reinterpretation of neoliberalism create and what are its most evident social implications in Mexico?, how can transfeminism redirect and propose other models to create individuals who are not related to the dystopia of gore capitalism, nor hegemonic masculinity, or the neoliberal hyper-consumerism?

  12. Crystallography and Morphology of Niobium Carbide in As-Cast HP-Niobium Reformer Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Karl G.; Kral, Milo V.

    2012-06-01

    The microstructures of two as-cast heats of niobium-modified HP stainless steels were characterized. Particular attention was paid to the interdendritic niobium-rich carbides formed during solidification of these alloys. At low magnifications, these precipitates are grouped in colonies of similar lamellae. Higher magnifications revealed that the lamellae actually obtain two distinct morphologies. The type I morphology exhibits broad planar interfaces with a smooth platelike shape. Type II lamellae have undulating interfaces and an overall reticulated shape. To provide further insight into the origin of these two different morphologies, the microstructure and crystallography of each have been studied in detail using high resolution scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, various electron diffraction methods (electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), selected area diffraction (SAD), and convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED)), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  13. A molecular phylogeny of living primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Polina; Johnson, Warren E; Roos, Christian; Seuánez, Hector N; Horvath, Julie E; Moreira, Miguel A M; Kessing, Bailey; Pontius, Joan; Roelke, Melody; Rumpler, Yves; Schneider, Maria Paula C; Silva, Artur; O'Brien, Stephen J; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-03-01

    Comparative genomic analyses of primates offer considerable potential to define and understand the processes that mold, shape, and transform the human genome. However, primate taxonomy is both complex and controversial, with marginal unifying consensus of the evolutionary hierarchy of extant primate species. Here we provide new genomic sequence (~8 Mb) from 186 primates representing 61 (~90%) of the described genera, and we include outgroup species from Dermoptera, Scandentia, and Lagomorpha. The resultant phylogeny is exceptionally robust and illuminates events in primate evolution from ancient to recent, clarifying numerous taxonomic controversies and providing new data on human evolution. Ongoing speciation, reticulate evolution, ancient relic lineages, unequal rates of evolution, and disparate distributions of insertions/deletions among the reconstructed primate lineages are uncovered. Our resolution of the primate phylogeny provides an essential evolutionary framework with far-reaching applications including: human selection and adaptation, global emergence of zoonotic diseases, mammalian comparative genomics, primate taxonomy, and conservation of endangered species.

  14. Genetic relationship between the Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto cysts located in lung and liver of hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Cabaret, Jacques; M'rad, Selim; Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Mekki, Mongi; Zmantar, Sofien; Nouri, Abdellatif; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-10-01

    G1 genotype of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto is the major cause of hydatidosis in Northern Africa, Tunisia included. The genetic relationship between lung and liver localization were studied in ovine, bovine and human hydatid cysts in Tunisia. Allozyme variation and single strand conformation polymorphism were used for genetic differentiation. The first cause of genetic differentiation was the host species and the second was the localization (lung or liver). The reticulated genetic relationship between the liver or the lung human isolates and isolates from bovine lung, is indicative of recombination (sexual reproduction) or lateral genetic transfer. The idea of two specialized populations (one for the lung one for the liver) that are more or less successful according to host susceptibility is thus proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. UV-A photocatalytic treatment of Legionella pneumophila bacteria contaminated airflows through three-dimensional solid foam structured photocatalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josset, Sebastien; Hajiesmaili, Shabnam; Begin, Dominique; Edouard, David; Pham-Huu, Cuong [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse (LMSPC), European Laboratory for Catalysis and Surface Sciences (ELCASS), CNRS, Strasbourg University, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France); Lett, Marie-Claire [Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Genomique, Microbiologie, CNRS, Strasbourg University, 28, rue Goethe 67083 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Keller, Nicolas, E-mail: nkeller@chimie.u-strasbg.fr [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse (LMSPC), European Laboratory for Catalysis and Surface Sciences (ELCASS), CNRS, Strasbourg University, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France); Keller, Valerie [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse (LMSPC), European Laboratory for Catalysis and Surface Sciences (ELCASS), CNRS, Strasbourg University, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-03-15

    A 3D-structured photocatalytic media was designed for allowing a tubular reactor to work in a traversing-flow mode at low pressure drops with a strong increase in the surface area-to-volume ratio inside the reactor. A protective polysiloxane coating was performed for protecting a structured polyurethane foam and anchoring the active TiO{sub 2} particles. Filled with the 3D-structured solid foam supporting TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst, the reactor could thus take advantages from the static mixer effect and from the low pressure drop resulting from the reticulated foam support. Very efficient decontamination levels towards airborne Legionella pneumophila bacteria were reached in a single-pass test mode.

  16. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Kayal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP is defined as a hematologic disorder, characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia without a clinically apparent cause. The major causes of accelerated platelet consumption include immune thrombocytopenia, decreased bone marrow production, and increased splenic sequestration. The clinical presentation may be acute with severe bleeding, or insidious with slow development with mild or no symptoms. The initial laboratory tests useful at the first visit to predict future diagnosis were erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antibodies, reticulated platelets, plasma thrombopoietin level. Treatment should be restricted to those patients with moderate or severe thrombocytopenia who are bleeding or at risk of bleeding. We present a case report on ITP with clinical presentation, diagnosis and management.

  17. Clarifying the butter Boletes: a new genus, Butyriboletus, is established to accommodate Boletus sect. Appendiculati, and six new species are described.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, David; Frank, Jonathan L

    2014-01-01

    The butter boletes (Boletus s.l. sect. Appendiculati) are an economically important group of ectomycorrhizal fungi whose basidiocarps have a yellow tube layer that often bruises blue, yellow reticulate stipe, mild flavor and firm yellow-tinged flesh that may or may not turn blue when exposed. Morphological characters and molecular data (ITS and LSU) place this group in a separate phylogenetic clade from Boletus sensu stricto. Here we establish a new genus, Butyriboletus, to accommodate 14 species of butter boletes that range from Asia to Europe, north Africa and North America. We recombine eight previously described butter bolete species and we describe six new species: four from western USA (Bu. persolidus, Bu. primiregius, Bu. autumnigius, Bu. querciregius) and two from Yunnan, China (Bu. yicibus, Bu. sanicibus). © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  18. PhySortR: a fast, flexible tool for sorting phylogenetic trees in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Timothy G; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Ragan, Mark A; Chan, Cheong Xin

    2016-01-01

    A frequent bottleneck in interpreting phylogenomic output is the need to screen often thousands of trees for features of interest, particularly robust clades of specific taxa, as evidence of monophyletic relationship and/or reticulated evolution. Here we present PhySortR, a fast, flexible R package for classifying phylogenetic trees. Unlike existing utilities, PhySortR allows for identification of both exclusive and non-exclusive clades uniting the target taxa based on tip labels (i.e., leaves) on a tree, with customisable options to assess clades within the context of the whole tree. Using simulated and empirical datasets, we demonstrate the potential and scalability of PhySortR in analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees without a priori assumption of tree-rooting, and in yielding readily interpretable trees that unambiguously satisfy the query. PhySortR is a command-line tool that is freely available and easily automatable.

  19. A new algorithm to construct phylogenetic networks from trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J

    2014-03-06

    Developing appropriate methods for constructing phylogenetic networks from tree sets is an important problem, and much research is currently being undertaken in this area. BIMLR is an algorithm that constructs phylogenetic networks from tree sets. The algorithm can construct a much simpler network than other available methods. Here, we introduce an improved version of the BIMLR algorithm, QuickCass. QuickCass changes the selection strategy of the labels of leaves below the reticulate nodes, i.e., the nodes with an indegree of at least 2 in BIMLR. We show that QuickCass can construct simpler phylogenetic networks than BIMLR. Furthermore, we show that QuickCass is a polynomial-time algorithm when the output network that is constructed by QuickCass is binary.

  20. Fast Construction of Near Parsimonious Hybridization Networks for Multiple Phylogenetic Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Sajad; Wu, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization networks represent plausible evolutionary histories of species that are affected by reticulate evolutionary processes. An established computational problem on hybridization networks is constructing the most parsimonious hybridization network such that each of the given phylogenetic trees (called gene trees) is "displayed" in the network. There have been several previous approaches, including an exact method and several heuristics, for this NP-hard problem. However, the exact method is only applicable to a limited range of data, and heuristic methods can be less accurate and also slow sometimes. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm for constructing near parsimonious networks for multiple binary gene trees. This method is more efficient for large numbers of gene trees than previous heuristics. This new method also produces more parsimonious results on many simulated datasets as well as a real biological dataset than a previous method. We also show that our method produces topologically more accurate networks for many datasets.

  1. Analysis on complex structure stability under different bar angle with BIM technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiongjue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sun Valley, the landmark building of World Expo in Shanghai, which has free surface with single-layer reticulated shell structure, is a typical complex structure. CAD/CAM integrated information system to design is used for the complex structure; however, it is a very rigorous process to be used widely. The relevant technology of the Sun Valley is not open to the public at present, so we try to use BIM technology to model the Sun Valley, including architecture modelling and structure analysis. By analysis of the Sun Valley structure using this method, it is proved that the problems in modelling may be solved by writing some script codes in Rhino software and the stability of the model can also be analyzed. The new approach is viable and effective in combination with different softwares such as Rhino, Revit, and Midas in solution of the complex shaped surfaces’ structure for modelling and calculation.

  2. Modelling of the concentration-time relationship based on global diffusion-charge transfer parameters in a flow-by reactor with a 3D electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, J.L. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Quimica, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, A.P. 55-534, C.P. 09340, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Sosa, E. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Investigacion en Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central 152, C.P. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Carreno, G. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Facultad de Ingenieria en Geomatica e Hidraulica, Av. Juarez 77, C.P. 36000, Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico); Ponce-de-Leon, C. [Electrochemical Engineering Group, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: capla@soton.ac.uk; Oropeza, M.T. [Centro de Graduados e Investigacion del Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Blvd. Industrial, s/n, C.P. 22500, Tijuana B.C. (Mexico)

    2006-05-25

    A concentration versus time relationship model based on the isothermal diffusion-charge transfer mechanism was developed for a flow-by reactor with a three-dimensional (3D) reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) electrode. The relationship was based on the effectiveness factor ({eta}) which lead to the simulation of the concentration decay at different electrode polarisation conditions, i.e. -0.1, -0.3 and -0.59 V versus SCE; the charge transfer process was used for the former and mix and a mass transport control was used for the latter. Charge transfer and mass transport parameters were estimated from experimental data using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Linear Voltammetry (LV) techniques, respectively.

  3. Films deposited from reactive sputtering of aluminum acetylacetonate under low energy ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglin, Felipe Augusto Darriba; Prado, Eduardo Silva; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano, E-mail: elidiane@sorocaba.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Plasmas Tecnologicos; Caseli, Luciano [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas; Silva, Tiago Fiorini da; Tabacniks, Manfredo Harri [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2017-07-15

    Films were deposited from aluminum acetylacetonate (Al(acac)3 ) using a methodology involving reactive sputtering and low energy ion bombardment. The plasma was generated by the application of radiofrequency power to the powder containing electrode and simultaneously, negative pulses were supplied to the electrode where the substrates were attached. It was investigated the effect of the duty cycle of the pulses (Δ) on the properties of the coatings. Association of ion bombardment to the deposition process increased film thickness, structure reticulation and organic content. Ions from the deposition environment were implanted at the film-air interface or underneath it. Morphology and topography were altered depending on Δ. Considering the enhancement of Δ, it affected the flux of ions reaching the depositing interface and then the deposition rate, H content, crosslinking degree and surface microstructure. Alumina groups were detected in the infrared spectra, whereas the precipitation of amorphous alumina was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. (author)

  4. Use of pyrrole black in zinc-halogen batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengoli, G.; Musiani, M.M.; Tomat, R.; Valcher, S.; Pletcher, D.

    1985-09-01

    The storage of Br/sub 2//Br/sup -/ and I/sub 2//I/sup -/ couples in a conducting polymer matrix, polypyrrole coated on a reticulated vitreous carbon disc, is described and the application of these positive electrodes in zinc-halogen model batteries is discussed. The cell based on the polypyrrole bromine adduct shows the higher open circuit voltage which, however, depends on the state of charge. Such cells self discharge thus limiting their usefulness. In the case of the iodine cell the self discharge is due to loss of iodine from the polymer to the bulk solution, but with the bromine cell the cause is oxidative bromination and depolymerization of the polypyrrole. 22 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Canthyporus reebae sp. nov. from the Itremo and Andringitra mountains of central eastern Madagascar (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Michaël; Ramahandrison, Andriamirado T

    2017-06-01

    Canthyporus reebae sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Itremo mountain range and from the Andringitra massif in central eastern Madagascar. The new species is the second one of the genus Canthyporus Zimmermann, 1919 to be recorded from Madagascar, the other being C. pauliani Guignot, 1951, so far endemic to the northern massif of Tsaratanana. The habitus and male and female reproductive structures of the new species are illustrated. Canthyporus reebae sp. nov. differs from C. pauliani notably by larger size, less parallel-sided and more evenly convex habitus, paler pronotum, more weakly impressed body surface reticulation, and a different shape of the median lobe of aedeagus. Differences with similar C. hottentottus-group species from mainland Africa are also discussed. Data on habitat preferences of C. reebae sp. nov. and a distribution map of Malagasy Canthyporus are presented and discussed.

  6. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos. 7: The Porcellanasteridae (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) including material collected at Great Meteor East, during Discovery cruise 156

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.; Muirhead, A.

    1986-07-01

    The reproductive biology of Porcellanaster ceruleus, Hyphalaster inermis and Styrachaster horridus is described. P. ceruleus was collected as part of the time series study in the rockall Trough, N.E. Atlantic. This species had a maximum size of 7.0mm arm radius although maximum size known is 36.0mm arm radius. Relatively few eggs are produced and in these samples grow to a maximum size of 230μm. There was no evidence of reproductive seasonality. In Hyphalaster inermis and Styrachaster horridus the eggs grow to 600μm diameter. At this size the cytoplasm is reticulate and filled with neutral fat whilst the periphery is an amorphous layer. Development of the testes in all three species appears typical of deep-sea asteroids. (author)

  7. Taxonomic evaluation using pollen grain sculpture and seed coat characters of 11 taxa of genus Hibiscus (Malvaceae in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. El-Kholy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grain morphology and seed coat characters of 11 cultivars belonging to two species of genus Hibiscus (Family Malvaceae namely H. esculentus, H. abelmoschus and H. sabdariffa were investigated. This study was carried out using light microscope (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Pollen morphology of this genus is fairly uniform. Generally radially symmetrical apolar, mostly spheroidal, pantoporate. Seed exomorphic characters revealed four types of ornamentations; reticulate, ocealate, foveolate and ruminate. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE was employed to characterize those taxa. Thirty-one bands of seed protein profiles have been constructed from the gel. The produced dendrograms that were analyzed by STATISCA program using UPGMA clustering method showed a close affinity among the seven H. esculentus cultivars and the four H. sabdariffa cultivars.

  8. Reversible patterning of spherical shells through constrained buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthelot, J.; Brun, P.-T.; Jiménez, F. López; Reis, P. M.

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in active soft structures envision the large deformations resulting from mechanical instabilities as routes for functional shape morphing. Numerous such examples exist for filamentary and plate systems. However, examples with double-curved shells are rarer, with progress hampered by challenges in fabrication and the complexities involved in analyzing their underlying geometrical nonlinearities. We show that on-demand patterning of hemispherical shells can be achieved through constrained buckling. Their postbuckling response is stabilized by an inner rigid mandrel. Through a combination of experiments, simulations, and scaling analyses, our investigation focuses on the nucleation and evolution of the buckling patterns into a reticulated network of sharp ridges. The geometry of the system, namely, the shell radius and the gap between the shell and the mandrel, is found to be the primary ingredient to set the surface morphology. This prominence of geometry suggests a robust, scalable, and tunable mechanism for reversible shape morphing of elastic shells.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of the mechanical strength of titanium/composite bonding using laser-generated shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducousso, M.; Bardy, S.; Rouchausse, Y.; Bergara, T.; Jenson, F.; Berthe, L.; Videau, L.; Cuvillier, N.

    2018-03-01

    Intense acoustic shock waves were applied to evaluate the mechanical strength of structural epoxy bonds between a TA6V4 titanium alloy and a 3D woven carbon/epoxy composite material. Two bond types with different mechanical strengths were obtained from two different adhesive reticulations, at 50% and 90% of conversion, resulting in longitudinal static strengths of 10 and 39 MPa and transverse strengths of 15 and 35 MPa, respectively. The GPa shock waves were generated using ns-scale intense laser pulses and reaction principles to a confined plasma expansion. Simulations taking into account the laser-matter interaction, plasma relaxation, and non-linear shock wave propagation were conducted to aid interpretation of the experiments. Good correlations were obtained between the experiments and the simulation and between different measurement methods of the mechanical strength (normalized tests vs laser-generated shock waves). Such results open the door toward certification of structural bonding.

  10. Fluence behavior of polyethylene films irradiated with high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, Eddy Segura; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e

    1999-01-01

    Polymers are viscoelastic materials at all temperatures, so that mechanical loads induce time dependable deformations. The recovery of these deformations, on load release, take some time and it is not always recovered completely. The main objective of this work was to analyse the creep behavior of electron irradiated polyethylene films. From the experimental results, it was sated that polyethylene creeps less with an increase on irradiation dose and also that creep recovery in this material increases with doses but it is not complete. This behavior can be attributed to the crosslinking effect witch stabilize elements of the molecular structure of the polyethylene, thus reducing their mobility and so inhibiting the creep mechanism. The partial creep recovery could be also attributed to the reticulation effect and to the polyethylene plastic behavior. Additional information on the creep behavior was obtained by fitting the experimental data with exponential functions and evaluating the mathematical parameters with a modified Kelvin-Voigt mechanical model. (author)

  11. Dicty_cDB: SLA529 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLA529 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13922-1 SLA529F (Link... to Original site) SLA529F 670 - - - - - - Show SLA529 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLA529 (Link to dic...1247( FM992688 |pid:none) Candida dubliniensis CD36 chrom... 35 2.6 EU565733_1( EU565733 |pid:none) Uncult...009385_2728( AP009385 |pid:none) Burkholderia multivorans ATCC 1... 33 5.8 AM260479_1383( AM260479 |pid:none...letal 8.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system 4.0 %: endoplasmic reticul

  12. Dicty_cDB: SSC534 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSC534 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13922-1 SSC534Z (Link... to Original site) - - SSC534Z 711 - - - - Show SSC534 Library SS (Link to library) Clone ID SSC534 (Link to dic... 1.3 FM992688_1247( FM992688 |pid:none) Candida dubliniensis CD36 chrom... 35 3.0 EU565733_1( EU565733 |pid:none) Unculture... 20.0 %: nuclear 16.0 %: vesicles of secretory system 12.0 %: mitochondrial 8.0 %: Golgi 8.0 %: endoplasmic reticul...kholderia multivorans ATCC 1... 33 6.6 AM260479_1383( AM260479 |pid:none) Ralstonia e

  13. Estrategic prospecting for the network of weather observers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulgarin Calle, David Esteban; Jimenez, Jose Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The Network of Weather Observers (RedOTA) is a reticulate system with technical and social nodes that interact to produce and share information about the weather and, to support cultural and educational dynamics, on these issues. This article describes the process of formulating a development strategy to bring the network to grow and, improving the quality of environmental information. First there is an account of the history to this initiative. Then is the definition of the ethical and operational principles underlying the network, and the description of its main actors. Finally, we present the collective exercise of strategic exploration, the definition of the action plans, the indicators to assess performance and some conclusions about the possibilities of RedOTA in the social and natural environment of the Aburra Valley.

  14. [Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Ivan Petrovich Pavlov: does complementarity exist between their theories?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozo, Jairo A; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Few authors have compared the life and work of Cajal and Pavlov and they refer normally to their coincidence at the XIV Medicine International Congress of Madrid in 1903. To describe the theoretical models of both authors and to explain the possible complementarities between the works of Cajal and Pavlov. We describe the principal bases of the 'neuron theory' of Cajal, compared to the 'reticulated theory', the principal results of Cajal's investigations and the contributions he made to the concept of plasticity. We describe the 'Pavlov's conditional reflections theory', its principal postulates, pavlovians laws and the typology of the nervous system according to Pavlov. The works of Cajal and Pavlov can be understood as complementary under Wallon's proposal and in the frame of the 'strategic epistemology', where the advance of the science is achieved from different but complementary strategies that help each other to construct stronger theoretical models.

  15. Influence of additives for concrete on the containment of radio-elements and strength under radiation of 'cement' matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pholvichith epouse Lezane, Ammala

    1994-01-01

    In order to improve the durability of cement-based materials used for the storage of radioactive wastes, fluidizers are generally introduced into these materials during their preparation. Thus, Naphtalene Sulfonate Formaldehyde (NSF) and Melamine Sulfonate Formaldehyde (MSF) are used as fluidizers in concrete which therefore presents good rheological properties when fresh, and a high compactness when hardened. This research study aims at investigating what happens to the fluidizer in a hardened cement paste, how this fluidizer affects the durability (mechanical strength, porosity, apparent diffusion coefficient) of a cement paste in absence of irradiation, what is the behaviour of these organic compounds under irradiation (reticulation or degradation, nature of radiolysis gases), how these organic compounds affects the durability (dimension, porosity, mechanical strength) of a cement paste under cobalt 60 gamma radiation, and how apparent solubilities of the different isotopes vary in cement water in presence of these organic compounds [fr

  16. Biochemical properties of bioplastics made from wheat gliadins cross-linked with cinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, M Pau; Gómez-Estaca, Joaquín; Gavara, Rafael; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2011-12-28

    The aim of this work has been to study the modification of gliadin films with cinnamaldehyde as a potential cross-linker agent. The molecular weight profile and cross-linking density showed that cinnamaldehyde increased reticulation in the resulting films. The participation of free amino groups of the protein in the newly created entanglements could be a possible mechanism of connection between the polypeptidic chains. The combination of a Schiff base and a Michael addition is a feasible approach to understanding this mechanism. The protein solubility in different media pointed to lower participation by both noncovalent and disulfide bonds in stabilizing the structure of the cross-linked films. The new covalent bonds formed by the cinnamaldehyde treatment hampered water absorption and weight loss, leading to more water-resistant matrices which had not disintegrated after 5 months. The properties of this novel bioplastic could be modified to suit the intended application by using cinnamaldehyde, a naturally occurring compound.

  17. A telescope with augmented reality functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qichao; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Qiwei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    This study introduces a telescope with virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) functions. In this telescope, information on the micro-display screen is integrated to the reticule of telescope through a beam splitter and is then received by the observer. The design and analysis of telescope optical system with AR and VR ability is accomplished and the opto-mechanical structure is designed. Finally, a proof-of-concept prototype is fabricated and demonstrated. The telescope has an exit pupil diameter of 6 mm at an eye relief of 19 mm, 6° field of view, 5 to 8 times visual magnification , and a 30° field of view of the virtual image.

  18. Applications of radionuclides in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1955-01-01

    After a brief recall of a few concepts (mass number, charge and beams properties) and the description of used detectors (ionization chamber, Geiger-Mueller counter, scintillation counters), some radionuclides applications are described. In a first part, the well-developed applications are presented in three distinct groups: continuous applications such as β and γ gauges (determination hydrogen content of an hydrocarbon and content of an emulsion; discharge of static electricity), discontinuous applications such as radiography and autoradiography, wear or manufacture problems (distribution of a fungicide on tobacco) and finally, applications in research laboratories such as diffusion, exchange and solubility. It also describes the applications which are still in development such as the action of beams on matter (reticulation and degradation of polymers, monomers polymerisation, cold sterilization). In conclusion, few advices on the opportunity of such applications and the choice of the radionuclides are given. (M.P.)

  19. A new method of functionalized multi walled carbon nanotubes by natural oil for microorganism cells detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Adawiya J.; Marzoog, Thorria R.; Hadi, Iman H.; Jameel, Zainab N.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, new surfactants for Functionalization of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (F-MWCNTs) with functional groups have been developed by using walnut oil, to improve their surface activity (solubility) and a create free reticules (functional groups) on it. MWCNTs were functionalized with walnut oil via ultra-sonication technique at 25°C for 1h with no drastic fragmentation of MWCNTs. Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and have been employed for the characterizations and analysis. In addition, the antibacterial activity of functionalized MWCNTs against Gram negative. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria are examined.

  20. Applications of radionuclides in industry; Applications des radioelements a l'industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    After a brief recall of a few concepts (mass number, charge and beams properties) and the description of used detectors (ionization chamber, Geiger-Mueller counter, scintillation counters), some radionuclides applications are described. In a first part, the well-developed applications are presented in three distinct groups: continuous applications such as {beta} and {gamma} gauges (determination hydrogen content of an hydrocarbon and content of an emulsion; discharge of static electricity), discontinuous applications such as radiography and autoradiography, wear or manufacture problems (distribution of a fungicide on tobacco) and finally, applications in research laboratories such as diffusion, exchange and solubility. It also describes the applications which are still in development such as the action of beams on matter (reticulation and degradation of polymers, monomers polymerisation, cold sterilization). In conclusion, few advices on the opportunity of such applications and the choice of the radionuclides are given. (M.P.)

  1. Reconstruction of certain phylogenetic networks from their tree-average distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    Trees are commonly utilized to describe the evolutionary history of a collection of biological species, in which case the trees are called phylogenetic trees. Often these are reconstructed from data by making use of distances between extant species corresponding to the leaves of the tree. Because of increased recognition of the possibility of hybridization events, more attention is being given to the use of phylogenetic networks that are not necessarily trees. This paper describes the reconstruction of certain such networks from the tree-average distances between the leaves. For a certain class of phylogenetic networks, a polynomial-time method is presented to reconstruct the network from the tree-average distances. The method is proved to work if there is a single reticulation cycle.

  2. A continental-wide perspective: the genepool of nuclear encoded ribosomal DNA and single-copy gene sequences in North American Boechera (Brassicaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Kiefer

    Full Text Available 74 of the currently accepted 111 taxa of the North American genus Boechera (Brassicaceae were subject to pyhlogenetic reconstruction and network analysis. The dataset comprised 911 accessions for which ITS sequences were analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses yielded largely unresolved trees. Together with the network analysis confirming this result this can be interpreted as an indication for multiple, independent, and rapid diversification events. Network analyses were superimposed with datasets describing i geographical distribution, ii taxonomy, iii reproductive mode, and iv distribution history based on phylogeographic evidence. Our results provide first direct evidence for enormous reticulate evolution in the entire genus and give further insights into the evolutionary history of this complex genus on a continental scale. In addition two novel single-copy gene markers, orthologues of the Arabidopsis thaliana genes At2g25920 and At3g18900, were analyzed for subsets of taxa and confirmed the findings obtained through the ITS data.

  3. Physical and chemical characterization of titanium-alginate samples for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morani, L.M.; Ribeiro, A.A.; Oliveira, M.V. de; Dantas, F.M.L., E-mail: marize.varella@int.gov.b [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leao, M.H.M.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The sol-gel technique combined with powder metallurgy may be an alternative to produce titanium parts for bioengineering, with the advantage of eliminating the powder compaction step, which may introduce defects. The present work introduces a system consisted of titanium powder and sodium alginate suspension, which undergoes reticulation in contact with a calcium salt solution, obtaining titanium/calcium alginate hydrogel with granule morphology. The characterization of the raw materials and granules of calcium alginate and titanium/calcium alginate was performed by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The granules topography was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy/EDS. Titanium and sodium alginate chemical composition were adequate for use as raw materials, showing that the methodology used is suitable for processing titanium samples for further consolidation by sintering, in order to produce titanium parts. (author)

  4. Polyether matrices for lithium generators; Matrices polyethers pour generateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloin, F; Sanchez, J Y [Laboratoire d` Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, 38 - Saint-Martin-d` Heres (France)

    1997-12-31

    The use of solvating polymers of polyether type is an interesting solution for the manufacturing of high capacity lithium batteries with lithium metal anodes and which can operate at T > 50 deg. C. These operating conditions are perfectly compatible with electric-powered vehicle and stationary battery applications. In order to improve the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes, new aprotic and amorphous polyether lattices have been synthesized having a good conductivity but also good thermal, mechanical and electrochemical stabilities. Two type of 3-D polyether lattices obtained by reticulation of linear pre-polymers have been selected as host polymers: unsaturated poly-condensate and unsaturated co-polyethers. (J.S.) 18 refs.

  5. The nucleus of differentiated root plant cells: modifications induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lingua

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The nuclei of plant cells show marked differences in chromatin organisation, related to their DNA content, which ranges from the type with large strands of condensed chromatin (reticulate or chromonematic nuclei to one with mostly decondensed chromatin (chromocentric or diffuse nuclei. A loosening of the chromatin structure generally occurs in actively metabolising cells, such as differentiating and secretory cells, in relation to their high transcriptional activity. Endoreduplication may occur, especially in plants with a small genome, which increases the availability of nuclear templates, the synthesis of DNA, and probably regulates gene expression. Here we describe structural and quantitative changes of the chromatin and their relationship with transcription that occur in differentiated cells following an increase of their metabolism. The nuclei of root cortical cells of three plants with different 2C DNA content (Allium porrum, Pisum sativum and Lycopersicon esculentm and their modifications induced by arbuscular mycorrhization, which strongly increase the metabolic activity of colonised cells, are taken as examples.

  6. A new species of the Pristimantis orestes group (Amphibia: Strabomantidae) from the high Andes of Ecuador, Reserva Mazar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayasamin, Juan M; Arteaga, Alejandro F

    2013-02-21

    We describe a new Pristimantis from La Libertad and Rumiloma, Reserva Mazar, Andes of Southeastern Ecuador, at elevations between 2895-3415 m. This species is assigned to the P. orestes group, from whose members it differs by its small body size (adult males ≤ 18.1 mm; adult females ≤ 23.7 mm), usually reticulated ventral pattern, and visible tympanum. The vocalization of the new species consists of a series of calls; each call is composed by a pulsed, non-modulated note in frequency, and with a dominant frequency of 3122-3171 Hz. A molecular phylogeny based on a fragment of the mitochondrial gene 12S shows that the new species is sister to Pristimantis simonbolivari.

  7. Electrochemical Behavior of TiO2 Nanoparticle Doped WO3 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarna R. Bathe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin films by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique have been studied on fluorine tin doped (FTO and glass substrate. XRD shows amorphous nature for undoped and anatase phase of TiO2 having (101 plane for nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin film. SEM shows microfibrous reticulated porous network for WO3 with 600 nm fiber diameter and nanocrystalline having size 40 nm for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film. TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film shows ~95% reversibility due to may be attributed to nanocrystalline nature of the film, which helpful for charge insertion and deinsertion process. The diffusion coefficient for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 film is less than undoped WO3.

  8. Bipolar zinc/oxygen battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schlatter, C [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A bipolar electrically rechargeable Zn/O{sub 2} battery has been developed. Reticulated copper foam served as substrate for the zinc deposit on the anodic side, and La{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3}-catalyzed bifunctional oxygen electrodes were used on the cathodic side of the cells. The 100 cm{sup 2} unit cell had an open circuit voltage of 1,4 V(O{sub 2}) in moderately alkaline electrolyte. The open circuit voltage and the peak power measured for a stack containing seven cells were ca. 10V and 90W, respectively. The current-potential behaviour was determined as a function of the number of bipolar cells, and the maximum discharge capacity was determined at different discharge rates. (author) 4 figs., 1 ref.

  9. Toward the Relevance of Platelet Subpopulations for Transfusion Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Handtke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Circulating platelets consist of subpopulations with different age, maturation state and size. In this review, we address the association between platelet size and platelet function and summarize the current knowledge on platelet subpopulations including reticulated platelets, procoagulant platelets and platelets exposing signals to mediate their clearance. Thereby, we emphasize the impact of platelet turnover as an important condition for platelet production in vivo. Understanding of the features that characterize platelet subpopulations is very relevant for the methods of platelet concentrate production, which may enrich or deplete particular platelet subpopulations. Moreover, the concept of platelet size being associated with platelet function may be attractive for transfusion medicine as it holds the perspective to separate platelet subpopulations with specific functional capabilities.

  10. Pollen morphology of the family crassulaceae from pakistan and kashmir and its taxonomic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasir, M.; Perveen, A.; Sarwar, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 28 species representing 9 genera viz., Bryophyllum, Kalanchoe, Pseudosedum, Rhodiola, Rosularia, Hylotelephium, Sedum, Tillaea and Orostachys of the family Crassulaceae from Pakistan has been studied by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, sub-oblate to oblate-spheroidal, or prolate-spheroidal to subprolate often prolate and tricolporate. Tectum mostly striate-rugulate or sub-psilate rarely reticulate-rugulate. Significant variation is found in shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis these characters family has been divided into three pollen types' viz., Rhodiola sinuata-type, Rosularia viguieri-type and Sedum hispanicum-type. Numerical analysis of based on pollen characters of 28 species was also carried out to determine the phylogenetic relationships of various genera and the species of the family Crassulaceae. (author)

  11. A Climatic Classification for Citrus Winter Survival in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Bo Huang

    1991-05-01

    The citrus tree is susceptible to frost damage. Winter injury to citrus from freezing weather is the major meteorological problem in the northern pail of citrus growing regions in China. Based on meteorological data collected at 120 stations in southern China and on the extent of citrus freezing injury, five climatic regions for citrus winter survival in China were developed. They were: 1) no citrus tree injury. 2) light injury to mandarins (citrus reticulate) or moderate injury to oranges (citrus sinensis), 3) moderate injury to mandarins or heavy injury to oranges, 4) heavy injury to mandarins, and 5) impossible citrus tree growth. This citrus climatic classification was an attempt to provide guidelines for regulation of citrus production, to effectively utilize land and climatic resources, to chose suitable citrus varieties, and to develop methods to prevent injury by freezing.

  12. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  13. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L [Albuquerque, NM; Williams, Brian E [Pacoima, CA; Benander, Robert E [Pacoima, CA

    2011-03-01

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  14. Non-destructive testing of ceramic materials using mid-infrared ultrashort-pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S. C.; Qi, Hong; An, X. Y.; Ren, Y. T.; Qiao, Y. B.; Ruan, Liming M.

    2018-04-01

    The non-destructive testing (NDT) of ceramic materials using mid-infrared ultrashort-pulse laser is investigated in this study. The discrete ordinate method is applied to solve the transient radiative transfer equation in 2D semitransparent medium and the emerging radiative intensity on boundary serves as input for the inverse analysis. The sequential quadratic programming algorithm is employed as the inverse technique to optimize objective function, in which the gradient of objective function with respect to reconstruction parameters is calculated using the adjoint model. Two reticulated porous ceramics including partially stabilized zirconia and oxide-bonded silicon carbide are tested. The retrieval results show that the main characteristics of defects such as optical properties, geometric shapes and positions can be accurately reconstructed by the present model. The proposed technique is effective and robust in NDT of ceramics even with measurement errors.

  15. [Achilles tendon xanthoma imaging on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila; Santos, Eduardo Henrique Sena; Tucunduva, Tatiana Cardoso de Mello; Ferrari, Antonio J L; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa

    2015-01-01

    The Achilles tendon xanthoma is a rare disease and has a high association with primary hyperlipidemia. An early diagnosis is essential to start treatment and change the disease course. Imaging exams can enhance diagnosis. This study reports the case of a 60-year-old man having painless nodules on his elbows and Achilles tendons without typical gout crisis, followed in the microcrystalline disease clinic of Unifesp for diagnostic workup. Laboratory tests obtained showed dyslipidemia. The ultrasound (US) showed a diffuse Achilles tendon thickening with hypoechoic areas. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a diffuse tendon thickening with intermediate signal areas, and a reticulate pattern within. Imaging studies showed relevant aspects to diagnose a xanthoma, thus helping in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. A Molecular Phylogeny of Living Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Polina; Johnson, Warren E.; Roos, Christian; Seuánez, Hector N.; Horvath, Julie E.; Moreira, Miguel A. M.; Kessing, Bailey; Pontius, Joan; Roelke, Melody; Rumpler, Yves; Schneider, Maria Paula C.; Silva, Artur; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Comparative genomic analyses of primates offer considerable potential to define and understand the processes that mold, shape, and transform the human genome. However, primate taxonomy is both complex and controversial, with marginal unifying consensus of the evolutionary hierarchy of extant primate species. Here we provide new genomic sequence (∼8 Mb) from 186 primates representing 61 (∼90%) of the described genera, and we include outgroup species from Dermoptera, Scandentia, and Lagomorpha. The resultant phylogeny is exceptionally robust and illuminates events in primate evolution from ancient to recent, clarifying numerous taxonomic controversies and providing new data on human evolution. Ongoing speciation, reticulate evolution, ancient relic lineages, unequal rates of evolution, and disparate distributions of insertions/deletions among the reconstructed primate lineages are uncovered. Our resolution of the primate phylogeny provides an essential evolutionary framework with far-reaching applications including: human selection and adaptation, global emergence of zoonotic diseases, mammalian comparative genomics, primate taxonomy, and conservation of endangered species. PMID:21436896

  17. A molecular phylogeny of living primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Perelman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative genomic analyses of primates offer considerable potential to define and understand the processes that mold, shape, and transform the human genome. However, primate taxonomy is both complex and controversial, with marginal unifying consensus of the evolutionary hierarchy of extant primate species. Here we provide new genomic sequence (~8 Mb from 186 primates representing 61 (~90% of the described genera, and we include outgroup species from Dermoptera, Scandentia, and Lagomorpha. The resultant phylogeny is exceptionally robust and illuminates events in primate evolution from ancient to recent, clarifying numerous taxonomic controversies and providing new data on human evolution. Ongoing speciation, reticulate evolution, ancient relic lineages, unequal rates of evolution, and disparate distributions of insertions/deletions among the reconstructed primate lineages are uncovered. Our resolution of the primate phylogeny provides an essential evolutionary framework with far-reaching applications including: human selection and adaptation, global emergence of zoonotic diseases, mammalian comparative genomics, primate taxonomy, and conservation of endangered species.

  18. Integration of molecular machines into supramolecular materials: actuation between equilibrium polymers and crystal-like gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Giacomo; Goujon, Antoine; Moulin, Emilie; Rawiso, Michel; Giuseppone, Nicolas; Buhler, Eric

    2017-11-30

    In this article, the dynamic structure of complex supramolecular polymers composed of bistable [c2]daisy chain rotaxanes as molecular machines that are linked by ureidopyrimidinones (Upy) as recognition moieties was studied. pH actuation of the integrated mechanically active rotaxanes controls the contraction/extension of the polymer chains as well as their physical reticulation. Small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering were used to study in-depth the nanostructure of the contracted and extended polymer aggregates in toluene solution. The supramolecular polymers comprising contracted nanomachines were found to be equilibrium polymers with a mass that is concentration dependent in dilute and semidilute regimes. Surprisingly, the extended polymers form a gel network with a crystal-like internal structure that is independent of concentration and reminiscent of a pearl-necklace network.

  19. Innovative Fly Ash Geopolymer-Epoxy Composites: Preparation, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Roviello

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and characterization of composite materials based on geopolymers obtained from fly ash and epoxy resins are reported for the first time. These materials have been prepared through a synthetic method based on the concurrent reticulation of the organic and inorganic components that allows the formation of hydrogen bonding between the phases, ensuring a very high compatibility between them. These new composites show significantly improved mechanical properties if compared to neat geopolymers with the same composition and comparable performances in respect to analogous geopolymer-based composites obtained starting from more expensive raw material such as metakaolin. The positive combination of an easy synthetic approach with the use of industrial by-products has allowed producing novel low cost aluminosilicate binders that, thanks to their thixotropicity and good adhesion against materials commonly used in building constructions, could be used within the field of sustainable building.

  20. Flow-through 3D biofuel cell anode for NAD{sup +}-dependent enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, Rosalba A.; Lau, Carolin; Garcia, Kristen E. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Center for Emerging Energy Technologies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Atanassov, Plamen, E-mail: plamen@unm.ed [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Center for Emerging Energy Technologies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    NAD{sup +}-dependent enzymes require the presence of catalysts for cofactor regeneration in order to be employed in enzymatic biofuel cells. Poly-(methylene green) catalysts have proven to help the oxidation reaction of NADH allowing for the use of such enzymes in electrocatalytic oxidation reactions. In this paper we present the development of 3D anode based on NAD{sup +}-dependent malate dehydrogenase. The 3D material chosen was reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) which was modified with poly-(MG) for NADH oxidation and it also accommodated the porous immobilization matrix for MDH consisting of MWCNTs embedded in chitosan; allowing for mass transport of the substrate to the electrode. Scanning electron microscopy was used in order to characterize the poly-(MG)-modified RVC, and electrochemical evaluation of the anode was performed.

  1. Flow-through 3D biofuel cell anode for NAD+-dependent enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, Rosalba A.; Lau, Carolin; Garcia, Kristen E.; Atanassov, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    NAD + -dependent enzymes require the presence of catalysts for cofactor regeneration in order to be employed in enzymatic biofuel cells. Poly-(methylene green) catalysts have proven to help the oxidation reaction of NADH allowing for the use of such enzymes in electrocatalytic oxidation reactions. In this paper we present the development of 3D anode based on NAD + -dependent malate dehydrogenase. The 3D material chosen was reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) which was modified with poly-(MG) for NADH oxidation and it also accommodated the porous immobilization matrix for MDH consisting of MWCNTs embedded in chitosan; allowing for mass transport of the substrate to the electrode. Scanning electron microscopy was used in order to characterize the poly-(MG)-modified RVC, and electrochemical evaluation of the anode was performed.

  2. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis): high-resolution computed tomography findings; Pneumonite por hipersensibilidade (alveolite alergica extrinseca): achados na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Jose Guiomar de; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br; Escuissato, Dante L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Nobre, Luiz Felipe [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Irion, Klaus L. [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Pavilhao Pereira Filho. Servico de Radiologia

    2003-12-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is an immunologic disease of the lungs caused by inhaled chemicals or organics allergens. A lymphocytic inflammatory response in the peripheral airways and surrounding interstitial tissue occurs. In this study the high-resolution computed tomography findings of 13 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis were analyzed and discussed. The most frequent high-resolution computed tomography findings were: ground-glass opacities (92.3%), centrilobular nodules (38.4%) and air trapping (38.4%). Other findings included bronchiectasis (23.1%), consolidation (23.1%), crazy paving (7.7%), parenchymal bands (15.4%), linear opacities (7.7%), architectural distortion (7.7%), tracheal dilatation (7.7%), intralobular reticulate (7.7%), honeycombing (7.7%), emphysema (7.7%) and atelectasis (7.7%). In two of the 13 patients there was fibrosis (architectural distortion and honeycombing), which represents the chronic phase of the disease. (author)

  3. Ultra Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams With Tunable Physicochemical Properties for Treatment of intracranial Aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, Pooja [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a rapidly emerging class of smart materials that can be stored in a deformed temporary shape, and can actively return to their original shape upon application of an external stimulus such as heat, pH or light. This behavior is particularly advantageous for minimally invasive biomedical applications comprising embolic/regenerative scaffolds, as it enables a transcatheter delivery of the device to the target site. The focus of this work was to exploit this shape memory behavior of polyurethanes, and develop an efficient embolic SMP foam device for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms.In summary, this work reports a novel family of ultra low density polymer foams which can be delivered via a minimally invasive surgery to the aneurysm site, actuated in a controlled manner to efficiently embolize the aneurysm while promoting physiological fluid/blood flow through the reticulated/open porous structure, and eventually biodegrade leading to complete healing of the vasculature.

  4. Heterarchies: Reconciling Networks and Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Graeme S

    2016-08-01

    Social-ecological systems research suffers from a disconnect between hierarchical (top-down or bottom-up) and network (peer-to-peer) analyses. The concept of the heterarchy unifies these perspectives in a single framework. Here, I review the history and application of 'heterarchy' in neuroscience, ecology, archaeology, multiagent control systems, business and organisational studies, and politics. Recognising complex system architecture as a continuum along vertical and lateral axes ('flat versus hierarchical' and 'individual versus networked') suggests four basic types of heterarchy: reticulated, polycentric, pyramidal, and individualistic. Each has different implications for system functioning and resilience. Systems can also shift predictably and abruptly between architectures. Heterarchies suggest new ways of contextualising and generalising from case studies and new methods for analysing complex structure-function relations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Productivity changes in the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushdi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The study reveals that the total factor productivity in the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria (GFCV) continued to increase throughout the study period except for a brief period between 1983-84 and 1984-85 which was mainly the result of the decline in the industrial demand for gas and a decelerated growth rate in residential demand. The productivity gains were found to be highly sensitive to the rates of depreciation and discount rates assumed. The estimated terms of trade suggest that the increase in gas prices was lower that the increase in the aggregate input prices the GFCV paid, particularly to capital and labour. However, while the price index of reticulated gas increased to 2.17, the purchase price declined to 0.96 over the study period. The productivity gains by GFCV seem to have been shared with its customers. (Author)

  6. Development of highly open polyhedral networks from vitreous carbon for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güiza-Argüello, V.; Bayona-Becerra, M.; Cruz-Orellana, S.; Córdoba-Tuta, E.

    2017-01-01

    Highly open polyhedral networks were fabricated using an economical and environmentally friendly template route. Recycled cellulose foams were impregnated with a sucrose resin and then pyrolyzed in order to produce reticulated vitreous carbon foams with morphological features that closely resemble trabecular bone. Also, cell sizes ~1mm were achieved, a trait that will allow the mechanical reinforcement of such scaffolds using a biomaterial coating without compromising the pore size that favors osteoblast cell infiltration and growth (200-500µm). Moreover, initial studies showed that carbonization conditions have an effect on the mechanical properties of the synthesized foams and, therefore, such process parameters could be further evaluated towards the enhancement of the mechanical resistance of the scaffolds. The materials developed here are visualized as the porous component of a synthetic bone graft with features that could help overcome the current limitations associated with the medical treatments used for bone defect repair.

  7. Proton MRI in the evaluation of pulmonary sarcoidosis: Comparison to chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jonathan H.; Little, Brent P.; Forssen, Anna V.; Yong, Jin; Nambu, Atsushi; Kazlouski, Demitry; Puderbach, Michael; Biederer, Juergen; Lynch, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of proton MRI of the lung in sarcoidosis patients and the agreement between the imaging appearance of pulmonary sarcoidosis on MRI and CT. Materials and methods: Chest CT scans and dedicated pulmonary MRI scans (including HASTE, VIBE, and TrueFISP sequences) were performed within 90 days of each other in 29 patients. The scans were scored for gross parenchymal opacification, reticulation, nodules, and masses using a 3-point lobar scale. Total and subset scores for corresponding MRI and CT scans were compared using the Spearman correlation test, Bland–Altman plots, and Cohen's quadratic-weighted kappa analysis. MRI scores were compared to CT by lobe and disease category, using percentage agreement, Spearman rank correlation, and Cohen's quadratic-weighted kappa. Results: The mean (±s.d.) time between MRI and CT scans was 33 ± 32 days. There was substantial correlation and agreement between total disease scoring on MRI and CT with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.774 (p < 0.0001) and a Cohen's weighted kappa score of 0.646. Correlation and agreement were highest for gross parenchymal opacification (0.695, 0.528) and reticulation (0.609, 0.445), and lowest in the setting of nodules (0.501, 0.305). Agreement testing was not performed for mass scores due to low prevalence. Upper lobe scoring on MRI and CT demonstrated greater agreement compared to the lower lobes (average difference in Cohen's weighted kappa score of 0.112). Conclusion: There is substantial correlation and agreement between MRI and CT in the scoring of pulmonary sarcoidosis, though MRI evaluation in the upper lobes may be more accurate than in the lower lobes

  8. Evolution of the macroscopic properties of two epoxy resins during ageing under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignoud, L.

    2001-11-01

    In this study, the thermomechanical properties of two epoxy resins (DGEBA/TETA and DGEBA/DDM systems) are analysed as a function of the irradiation dose. The maximum conversion and reticulation is obtained by post-curing treatment. Irradiation by electrons results in a decrease of the glass transition temperature and of the elastic modulus in the rubbery region. These results can be interpreted invoking a destruction of the crosslinks and chains breaks within the resin. The Arrhenius diagrams obtained for the various doses shows that the cooperative mobility associated with the α relaxation becomes faster after the irradiation. On the contrary, more local mobility corresponding to the γ relaxation is also modified, but in a lesser extent. The stress-strain curves are also discussed. In uniaxial compression test, the plastic flow stress σ p decreases when the irradiation dose increases and this effect can largely be accounted for by a variation of T g . Post-irradiative effects are studied in inert atmosphere. Reticulation increases when the material is heated to a higher temperature than its T g . This effect suggest the presence of radical formed during irradiation. For DGEBA/TETA system, glass transition temperature T g shifts towards lowest temperatures. This shift increases the molecular mobility and enhances the physical ageing process at the ambient temperature. The results are well described by the quasi point defects theory. Direct effect of irradiation and physical ageing evolve with the scale parameter t 0 . This parameter characterizes the gap (in time and/or temperature) between the principal relaxation and simplest ones. By connecting t 0 to the amount of irradiation, it is possible to predict the modifications of the behaviour and to predict these evolutions for various amounts. (author)

  9. Examination of Sarcocystis spp. of giant snakes from Australia and Southeast Asia confirms presence of a known pathogen - Sarcocystis nesbitti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Wassermann

    Full Text Available We examined Sarcocystis spp. in giant snakes from the Indo-Australian Archipelago and Australia using a combination of morphological (size of sporocyst and molecular analyses. We amplified by PCR nuclear 18S rDNA from single sporocysts in order to detect mixed infections and unequivocally assign the retrieved sequences to the corresponding parasite stage. Sarcocystis infection was generally high across the study area, with 78 (68% of 115 examined pythons being infected by one or more Sarcocystis spp. Among 18 randomly chosen, sporocyst-positive samples (11 from Southeast Asia, 7 from Northern Australia the only Sarcocystis species detected in Southeast Asian snakes was S. singaporensis (in reticulated pythons, which was absent from all Australian samples. We distinguished three different Sarcocystis spp. in the Australian sample set; two were excreted by scrub pythons and one by the spotted python. The sequence of the latter is an undescribed species phylogenetically related to S. lacertae. Of the two Sarcocystis species found in scrub pythons, one showed an 18S rRNA gene sequence similar to S. zamani, which is described from Australia for the first time. The second sequence was identical/similar to that of S. nesbitti, a known human pathogen that was held responsible for outbreaks of disease among tourists in Malaysia. The potential presence of S. nesbitti in Australia challenges the current hypothesis of a snake-primate life cycle, and would have implications for human health in the region. Further molecular and biological characterizations are required to confirm species identity and determine whether or not the Australian isolate has the same zoonotic potential as its Malaysian counterpart. Finally, the absence of S. nesbitti in samples from reticulated pythons (which were reported to be definitive hosts, coupled with our phylogenetic analyses, suggest that alternative snake hosts may be responsible for transmitting this parasite in Malaysia.

  10. Obtaining new composite biomaterials by means of mineralization of methacrylate hydrogels using the reaction–diffusion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, Yousof [Department of Physical Chemistry II, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); González-Sánchez, M. Isabel [Department of Physical Chemistry, School of Industrial Engineering, Castilla-La Mancha University, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Hawkins, Karl [Centre of Nanohealth, Institute of Life Sciences, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Rubio-Retama, Jorge [Department of Physical Chemistry II, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valero, Edelmira [Department of Physical Chemistry, School of Industrial Engineering, Castilla-La Mancha University, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Perni, Stefano [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF103NB (United Kingdom); Department of Biological Engineering, MA Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Prokopovich, Polina [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF103NB (United Kingdom); Institute of Medical Engineering and Medical Physics, School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Department of Biological Engineering, MA Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); López-Cabarcos, Enrique, E-mail: cabarcos@farm.ucm.es [Department of Physical Chemistry II, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    The present paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a new polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction–diffusion method. The scaffold of this biomaterial was a hydrogel constituted by biocompatible polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEM) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEM), which were cross-linked with N-N’-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS). The cross-linking content of the hydrogels was varied from 0.25% to 15% (w/w). The gels were used as matrix where two reactants (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} and CaCl{sub 2}) diffused from both ends of the gel and upon encountering produced calcium phosphate crystals that precipitated within the polymer matrix forming bands. The shape of the crystals was tuned by modifying the matrix porosity in such a way that when the polymer matrix was slightly reticulated the diffusion reaction produced round calcium phosphate microcrystals, whilst when the polymer matrix was highly reticulated the reaction yielded flat calcium phosphate crystals. Selected area electron diffraction performed on the nanocrystals that constitute the microcrystals showed that they were formed by Brushite (CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O). This new composite material could be useful in medical and dentistry applications such as bone regeneration, bone repair or tissue engineering. - Highlights: • New polymeric biomaterial mineralized with calcium phosphate using the reaction-diffusion method.-Growing of brushite nanocrystals within a polymeric matrix. • Mineralization by reaction diffusion method controls the crystal growth within gels.

  11. A four-disulphide-bridged toxin, with high affinity towards voltage-gated K+ channels, isolated from Heterometrus spinnifer (Scorpionidae) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, B; Romi-Lebrun, R; Martin-Eauclaire, M F; Yasuda, A; Ishiguro, M; Oyama, Y; Pongs, O; Nakajima, T

    1997-11-15

    A new toxin, named HsTX1, has been identified in the venom of Heterometrus spinnifer (Scorpionidae), on the basis of its ability to block the rat Kv1.3 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. HsTX1 has been purified and characterized as a 34-residue peptide reticulated by four disulphide bridges. HsTX1 shares 53% and 59% sequence identity with Pandinus imperator toxin1 (Pi1) and maurotoxin, two recently isolated four-disulphide-bridged toxins, whereas it is only 32-47% identical with the other scorpion K+ channel toxins, reticulated by three disulphide bridges. The amidated and carboxylated forms of HsTX1 were synthesized chemically, and identity between the natural and the synthetic amidated peptides was proved by mass spectrometry, co-elution on C18 HPLC and blocking activity on the rat Kv1.3 channels. The disulphide bridge pattern was studied by (1) limited reduction-alkylation at acidic pH and (2) enzymic cleavage on an immobilized trypsin cartridge, both followed by mass and sequence analyses. Three of the disulphide bonds are connected as in the three-disulphide-bridged scorpion toxins, and the two extra half-cystine residues of HsTX1 are cross-linked, as in Pi1. These results, together with those of CD analysis, suggest that HsTX1 probably adopts the same general folding as all scorpion K+ channel toxins. HsTX1 is a potent inhibitor of the rat Kv1.3 channels (IC50 approx. 12 pM). HsTX1 does not compete with 125I-apamin for binding to its receptor site on rat brain synaptosomal membranes, but competes efficiently with 125I-kaliotoxin for binding to the voltage-gated K+ channels on the same preparation (IC50 approx. 1 pM).

  12. Maternal mRNAs of PEM and macho 1, the ascidian muscle determinant, associate and move with a rough endoplasmic reticulum network in the egg cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardet, Christian; Nishida, Hiroki; Prodon, Francois; Sawada, Kaichiro

    2003-12-01

    Localization of maternal mRNAs in the egg cortex is an essential feature of polarity in embryos of Drosophila, Xenopus and ascidians. In ascidians, maternal mRNAs such as macho 1, a determinant of primary muscle-cell fate, belong to a class of postplasmic RNAs that are located along the animal-vegetal gradient in the egg cortex. Between fertilization and cleavage, these postplasmic RNAs relocate in two main phases. They further concentrate and segregate in small posterior blastomeres into a cortical structure, the centrosome-attracting body (CAB), which is responsible for unequal cleavages. By using high-resolution, fluorescent, in situ hybridization in eggs, zygotes and embryos of Halocynthia roretzi, we showed that macho 1 and HrPEM are localized on a reticulated structure situated within 2 mum of the surface of the unfertilized egg, and within 8 mum of the surface the vegetal region and then posterior region of the zygote. By isolating cortices from eggs and zygotes we demonstrated that this reticulated structure is a network of cortical rough endoplasmic reticulum (cER) that is tethered to the plasma membrane. The postplasmic RNAs macho 1 and HrPEM were located on the cER network and could be detached from it. We also show that macho 1 and HrPEM accumulated in the CAB and the cER network. We propose that these postplasmic RNAs relocalized after fertilization by following the microfilament- and microtubule-driven translocations of the cER network to the poles of the zygote. We also suggest that the RNAs segregate and concentrate in posterior blastomeres through compaction of the cER to form the CAB. A multimedia BioClip 'Polarity inside the egg cortex' tells the story and can be downloaded at www.bioclips.com/bioclip.html

  13. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Nicole; Dumrese, Claudia; Ziegler, Urs; Schifferli, Andrea; Kaiser, Carmen; Pospischil, Andreas

    2010-07-27

    Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in Vero cells was established. Infected cultures were investigated by immunofluorescence (IF), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and re-infection experiments. By IF, Chlamydia-infected cells showed normal inclusions after 39 hpi. Dual infections with Chlamydia abortus revealed a heterogenous mix of inclusion types including small inclusions consisting of aberrant bodies (ABs), medium-sized inclusions consisting of ABs and reticulate bodies and normal inclusions. Only aberrant inclusions were observable in dual infection experiments with Chlamydia pecorum and PEDV. TEM examinations of mixed infections with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing reticulate-like, pleomorphic ABs, which were up to 2 microm in diameter. No re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs) was detected. In re-infection experiments, co-infected cells produced fewer EBs than monoinfected cells. In the present study we confirm that PEDV co-infection alters the developmental cycle of member species of the family Chlamydiaceae, in a similar manner to other well-described persistence induction methods. Interestingly, this effect appears to be partially species-specific as Chlamydia pecorum appears more sensitive to PEDV co-infection than Chlamydia abortus, as evidenced by TEM and IF observations of a homogenous population of aberrant inclusions in PEDV - Chlamydia pecorum co-infections.

  14. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Carmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in Vero cells was established. Results Infected cultures were investigated by immunofluorescence (IF, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and re-infection experiments. By IF, Chlamydia-infected cells showed normal inclusions after 39 hpi. Dual infections with Chlamydia abortus revealed a heterogenous mix of inclusion types including small inclusions consisting of aberrant bodies (ABs, medium-sized inclusions consisting of ABs and reticulate bodies and normal inclusions. Only aberrant inclusions were observable in dual infection experiments with Chlamydia pecorum and PEDV. TEM examinations of mixed infections with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing reticulate-like, pleomorphic ABs, which were up to 2 μm in diameter. No re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs was detected. In re-infection experiments, co-infected cells produced fewer EBs than monoinfected cells. Conclusions In the present study we confirm that PEDV co-infection alters the developmental cycle of member species of the family Chlamydiaceae, in a similar manner to other well-described persistence induction methods. Interestingly, this effect appears to be partially species-specific as Chlamydia pecorum appears more sensitive to PEDV co-infection than Chlamydia abortus, as evidenced by TEM and IF observations of a homogenous population of aberrant inclusions in PEDV - Chlamydia pecorum co-infections.

  15. Examination of Sarcocystis spp. of giant snakes from Australia and Southeast Asia confirms presence of a known pathogen - Sarcocystis nesbitti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Marion; Raisch, Lisa; Lyons, Jessica Ann; Natusch, Daniel James Deans; Richter, Sarah; Wirth, Mareike; Preeprem, Piyarat; Khoprasert, Yuvaluk; Ginting, Sulaiman; Mackenstedt, Ute; Jäkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We examined Sarcocystis spp. in giant snakes from the Indo-Australian Archipelago and Australia using a combination of morphological (size of sporocyst) and molecular analyses. We amplified by PCR nuclear 18S rDNA from single sporocysts in order to detect mixed infections and unequivocally assign the retrieved sequences to the corresponding parasite stage. Sarcocystis infection was generally high across the study area, with 78 (68%) of 115 examined pythons being infected by one or more Sarcocystis spp. Among 18 randomly chosen, sporocyst-positive samples (11 from Southeast Asia, 7 from Northern Australia) the only Sarcocystis species detected in Southeast Asian snakes was S. singaporensis (in reticulated pythons), which was absent from all Australian samples. We distinguished three different Sarcocystis spp. in the Australian sample set; two were excreted by scrub pythons and one by the spotted python. The sequence of the latter is an undescribed species phylogenetically related to S. lacertae. Of the two Sarcocystis species found in scrub pythons, one showed an 18S rRNA gene sequence similar to S. zamani, which is described from Australia for the first time. The second sequence was identical/similar to that of S. nesbitti, a known human pathogen that was held responsible for outbreaks of disease among tourists in Malaysia. The potential presence of S. nesbitti in Australia challenges the current hypothesis of a snake-primate life cycle, and would have implications for human health in the region. Further molecular and biological characterizations are required to confirm species identity and determine whether or not the Australian isolate has the same zoonotic potential as its Malaysian counterpart. Finally, the absence of S. nesbitti in samples from reticulated pythons (which were reported to be definitive hosts), coupled with our phylogenetic analyses, suggest that alternative snake hosts may be responsible for transmitting this parasite in Malaysia.

  16. Rearrangement moves on rooted phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambette, Philippe; van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Lafond, Manuel; Pardi, Fabio; Scornavacca, Celine

    2017-08-01

    Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is usually done by local search heuristics that explore the space of the possible tree topologies via simple rearrangements of their structure. Tree rearrangement heuristics have been used in combination with practically all optimization criteria in use, from maximum likelihood and parsimony to distance-based principles, and in a Bayesian context. Their basic components are rearrangement moves that specify all possible ways of generating alternative phylogenies from a given one, and whose fundamental property is to be able to transform, by repeated application, any phylogeny into any other phylogeny. Despite their long tradition in tree-based phylogenetics, very little research has gone into studying similar rearrangement operations for phylogenetic network-that is, phylogenies explicitly representing scenarios that include reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, population admixture, and recombination. To fill this gap, we propose "horizontal" moves that ensure that every network of a certain complexity can be reached from any other network of the same complexity, and "vertical" moves that ensure reachability between networks of different complexities. When applied to phylogenetic trees, our horizontal moves-named rNNI and rSPR-reduce to the best-known moves on rooted phylogenetic trees, nearest-neighbor interchange and rooted subtree pruning and regrafting. Besides a number of reachability results-separating the contributions of horizontal and vertical moves-we prove that rNNI moves are local versions of rSPR moves, and provide bounds on the sizes of the rNNI neighborhoods. The paper focuses on the most biologically meaningful versions of phylogenetic networks, where edges are oriented and reticulation events clearly identified. Moreover, our rearrangement moves are robust to the fact that networks with higher complexity usually allow a better fit with the data. Our goal is to provide a solid basis for

  17. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: Histologic correlation with high-resolution CT in 29 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumikawa, Hiromitsu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan)], E-mail: h-sumikawa@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan); Department of Medical Physics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan); Ichikado, Kazuya [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital, 5-3-1 Tikami, Kumamoto 861-4193 (Japan); Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Tosei General Hospital, 160 Nishioiwake-cho, Seto City, Aichi (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume 830-0011 (Japan); Yanagawa, Masahiro; Inoue, Atsuo; Mihara, Naoki; Honda, Osamu; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Hironobu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan); Colby, Thomas V. [Department of Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Purpose: To determine the pathological correlation with various high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in cases with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), paying special attention to pathological subgroups. Material and methods: The study involved 29 patients diagnosed with NSIP by surgical lung biopsy. A total of 54 specimens were obtained and grouped according to Katzenstein's classification (groups 1-3) for NSIP. Two observers then evaluated the HRCT findings for every biopsy site and classified the findings according to the main pattern evident into the following four radiologic pattern groups: A, ground-glass attenuation and fine reticulation; B, ground-glass and coarse reticulation; C, consolidation and D, ground-glass attenuation and consolidation. Results: The pathological pattern was NSIP group 1 in 6 patients, group 2 in 22 and group 3 in 25, while 1 specimen was normal. The main HRCT pattern was pattern A in 15 specimens, B in 8, C in 9 and D in 21. Although there were no significant correlation between HRCT patterns and histological subgroups (Chi-square test, p = 0.07), pattern C was more frequently seen in group 2 (7 of 9) and pattern A was more common in group 3 (11 of 15). HRCT pattern A corresponded pathologically to areas of thickened alveolar septa with temporal uniformity. Pattern B correlated with areas with airspace enlargement/emphysema or dilation of small airways superimposed on thickened alveolar septa. Pattern C was pathologically associated with areas of severe thickened alveolar septa, mucin stasis in the small airways and intraluminal organization. Conclusion: The pathological backgrounds of the same CT findings in patients with NSIP varied among all pathological subgroups. Areas of ground-glass attenuation and air-space consolidation did not always correspond to reversible pathological findings.

  18. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis versus exogenous lipoid pneumonia showing crazy-paving pattern: Comparison of their clinical features and high-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hei Kyung; Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, and Inst. of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National Univ. Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: cmpark@radiol.snu.ac.kr

    2010-05-15

    Background: Although pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP) require different treatment strategies, both manifest as a crazy-paving pattern on CT and often have similar clinical manifestations and radiologic features. Purpose: To investigate the clinical features and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of PAP and ELP showing the crazy-paving pattern. Material and Methods: The clinical features and HRCT findings of eight patients with pathologically proven PAP and six patients with pathologically proven ELP showing the crazy-paving pattern were retrospectively evaluated. Two radiologists analyzed the HRCT findings of PAP and ELP in consensus in terms of the presence, severity, and extent of illdefined centrilobular nodules, consolidations, ground-glass opacities (GGOs), reticulations, and the crazy-paving pattern. Results: With respect to the clinical features of these two diseases, all patients with ELP were retrospectively found to have a history of oil ingestion. In terms of the HRCT findings, ill-defined centrilobular nodules were seen in five of six patients (83%) with ELP, whereas they were not present in any patient with PAP (P=0.003). Consolidation was also more frequently present in patients with ELP (83%) than in those with PAP (11%), which was statistically different (P=0.0265). In terms of the severity and extent, the crazy-paving pattern and reticulations on HRCT were significantly more extensive and severe in patients with PAP than in those with ELP. Conclusion: PAP and ELP with the crazy-paving pattern have several distinctive characteristics with respect to their HRCT findings as well as history of oil ingestion, and can therefore be distinguished from one another

  19. Rearrangement moves on rooted phylogenetic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gambette

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is usually done by local search heuristics that explore the space of the possible tree topologies via simple rearrangements of their structure. Tree rearrangement heuristics have been used in combination with practically all optimization criteria in use, from maximum likelihood and parsimony to distance-based principles, and in a Bayesian context. Their basic components are rearrangement moves that specify all possible ways of generating alternative phylogenies from a given one, and whose fundamental property is to be able to transform, by repeated application, any phylogeny into any other phylogeny. Despite their long tradition in tree-based phylogenetics, very little research has gone into studying similar rearrangement operations for phylogenetic network-that is, phylogenies explicitly representing scenarios that include reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, population admixture, and recombination. To fill this gap, we propose "horizontal" moves that ensure that every network of a certain complexity can be reached from any other network of the same complexity, and "vertical" moves that ensure reachability between networks of different complexities. When applied to phylogenetic trees, our horizontal moves-named rNNI and rSPR-reduce to the best-known moves on rooted phylogenetic trees, nearest-neighbor interchange and rooted subtree pruning and regrafting. Besides a number of reachability results-separating the contributions of horizontal and vertical moves-we prove that rNNI moves are local versions of rSPR moves, and provide bounds on the sizes of the rNNI neighborhoods. The paper focuses on the most biologically meaningful versions of phylogenetic networks, where edges are oriented and reticulation events clearly identified. Moreover, our rearrangement moves are robust to the fact that networks with higher complexity usually allow a better fit with the data. Our goal is to provide

  20. Changing Names with Changed Address: Integrated Taxonomy and Species Delimitation in the Holarctic Colymbetes paykulli Group (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus K Drotz

    Full Text Available Species delimitation of geographically isolated forms is a long-standing problem in less studied insect groups. Often taxonomic decisions are based directly on morphologic variation, and lack a discussion regarding sample size and the efficiency of migration barriers or dispersal/migration capacity of the studied species. These problems are here exemplified in a water beetle complex from the Bering Sea region that separates North America from Eurasia. Only a few sampled specimens occur from this particular area and they are mostly found in museum and private collections. Here we utilize the theory of integrated taxonomy to discuss the speciation of the Holarctic Colymbetes paykulli water beetle complex, which historically has included up to five species of which today only two are recognized. Three delimitation methods are used; landmark based morphometry of body shape, variation in reticulation patterns of the pronotum exo-skeleton and sequence variation of the partial mitochondrial gene Cyt b. Our conclusion is that the Palearctic and Nearctic populations of C. paykulli are given the status of separate species, based on the fact that all methods showed significant separation between populations. As a consequence the name of the Palearctic species is C. paykulli Erichson and the Nearctic species should be known as C. longulus LeConte. There is no clear support for delineation between Palearctic and Nearctic populations of C. dahuricus based on mtDNA. However, significant difference in size and reticulation patterns from the two regions is shown. The combined conclusion is that the C. dahuricus complex needs a more thorough investigation to fully disentangle its taxonomic status. Therefore it is here still regarded as a Holarctic species. This study highlights the importance to study several diagnosable characters that has the potential to discriminate evolutionary lineage during speciation.

  1. Data reduction, radial velocities and stellar parameters from spectra in the very low signal-to-noise domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolta, Luca

    2013-10-01

    Large astronomical facilities usually provide data reduction pipeline designed to deliver ready-to-use scientific data, and too often as- tronomers are relying on this to avoid the most difficult part of an astronomer job Standard data reduction pipelines however are usu- ally designed and tested to have good performance on data with av- erage Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) data, and the issues that are related with the reduction of data in the very low SNR domain are not taken int account properly. As a result, informations in data with low SNR are not optimally exploited. During the last decade our group has collected thousands of spec- tra using the GIRAFFE spectrograph at Very Large Telescope (Chile) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) to determine the ge- ometrical distance and dynamical state of several Galactic Globular Clusters but ultimately the analysis has been hampered by system- atics in data reduction, calibration and radial velocity measurements. Moreover these data has never been exploited to get other informa- tions like temperature and metallicity of stars, because considered too noisy for these kind of analyses. In this thesis we focus our attention on data reduction and analysis of spectra with very low SNR. The dataset we analyze in this thesis comprises 7250 spectra for 2771 stars of the Globular Cluster M 4 (NGC 6121) in the wavelength region 5145-5360Å obtained with GIRAFFE. Stars from the upper Red Giant Branch down to the Main Sequence have been observed in very different conditions, including nights close to full moon, and reaching SNR - 10 for many spectra in the dataset. We will first review the basic steps of data reduction and spec- tral extraction, adapting techniques well tested in other field (like photometry) but still under-developed in spectroscopy. We improve the wavelength dispersion solution and the correction of radial veloc- ity shift between day-time calibrations and science observations by following a completely

  2. Wildlife Population Dynamics in Human-Dominated Landscapes under Community-Based Conservation: The Example of Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Ogutu

    Full Text Available Wildlife conservation is facing numerous and mounting challenges on private and communal lands in Africa, including in Kenya. We analyze the population dynamics of 44 common wildlife species in relation to rainfall variation in the Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy (NWC, located in the Nakuru-Naivasha region of Kenya, based on ground total counts carried out twice each year from March 1996 to May 2015. Rainfall in the region was quasi-periodic with cycle periods dependent on the rainfall component and varying from 2.8 years for the dry season to 10.9 years for the wet season. These oscillations are associated with frequent severe droughts and food scarcity for herbivores. The trends for the 44 wildlife species showed five general patterns during 1996-2015. 1 Steinbuck, bushbuck, hartebeest and greater kudu numbers declined persistently and significantly throughout 1996-2015 and thus merit the greatest conservation attention. 2 Klipspringer, mongoose, oribi, porcupine, cheetah, leopard, ostrich and Sykes monkey numbers also decreased noticeably but not significantly between 1996 and 2015. 3 Dik dik, eland, African hare, Jackal, duiker, hippo and Thomson's gazelle numbers first increased and then declined between 1996 and 2015 but only significantly for duiker and hippo. 4 Aardvark, serval cat, colobus monkey, bat-eared fox, reedbuck, hyena and baboon numbers first declined and then increased but only the increases in reedbuck and baboon numbers were significant. 5 Grant's gazelle, Grevy's zebra, lion, spring hare, Burchell's zebra, bushpig, white rhino, rock hyrax, topi, oryx, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe, and wildebeest numbers increased consistently between 1996 and 2015. The increase was significant only for rock hyrax, topi, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe and wildebeest. 6 Impala, buffalo, warthog, and waterbuck, numbers increased significantly and then seemed to level off between 1996 and 2015. The aggregate biomass of primates and

  3. Planetary Nebulae and their parent stellar populations. Tracing the mass assembly of M87 and Intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Longobardi, Alessia; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2016-08-01

    The diffuse extended outer regions of galaxies are hard to study because they are faint, with typical surface brightness of 1% of the dark night sky. We can tackle this problem by using resolved star tracers which remain visible at large distances from the galaxy centers. This article describes the use of Planetary Nebulae as tracers and the calibration of their properties as indicators of the star formation history, mean age and metallicity of the parent stars in the Milky Way and Local Group galaxies. We then report on the results from a deep, extended, planetary nebulae survey in a 0.5 deg2 region centered on the brightest cluster galaxy NGC 4486 (M87) in the Virgo cluster core, carried out with SuprimeCam@Subaru and FLAMES-GIRAFFE@VLT. Two planetary nebulae populations are identified out to 150 kpc distance from the center of M87. One population is associated with the M87 halo and the second one with the intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core. They have different line-of-sight velocity and spatial distributions, as well as different planetary nebulae specific frequencies and luminosity functions. The intracluster planetary nebulae in the surveyed region correspond to a luminosity of four times the luminosity of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The M87 halo planetary nebulae trace an older, more metal-rich, parent stellar population. A substructure detected in the projected phase-space of the line-of-sight velocity vs. major axis distance for the M87 halo planetary nebulae provides evidence for the recent accretion event of a satellite galaxy with luminosity twice that of M33. The satellite stars were tidally stripped about 1 Gyr ago, and reached apocenter at a major axis distance of 60-90 kpc from the center of M87. The M87 halo is still growing significantly at the distances where the substructure is detected.

  4. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  5. Testing the effects of perimeter fencing and elephant exclosures on lion predation patterns in a Kenyan wildlife conservancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis-Desormeaux, Marc; Davidson, Zeke; Pratt, Laura; Mwololo, Mary; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2016-01-01

    The use of fences to segregate wildlife can change predator and prey behaviour. Predators can learn to incorporate fencing into their hunting strategies and prey can learn to avoid foraging near fences. A twelve-strand electric predator-proof fence surrounds our study site. There are also porous one-strand electric fences used to create exclosures where elephant (and giraffe) cannot enter in order to protect blocs of browse vegetation for two critically endangered species, the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and the Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi). The denser vegetation in these exclosures attracts both browsing prey and ambush predators. In this study we examined if lion predation patterns differed near the perimeter fencing and inside the elephant exclosures by mapping the location of kills. We used a spatial analysis to compare the predation patterns near the perimeter fencing and inside the exclosures to predation in the rest of the conservancy. Predation was not over-represented near the perimeter fence but the pattern of predation near the fence suggests that fences may be a contributing factor to predation success. Overall, we found that predation was over-represented inside and within 50 m of the exclosures. However, by examining individual exclosures in greater detail using a hot spot analysis, we found that only a few exclosures contained lion predation hot spots. Although some exclosures provide good hunting grounds for lions, we concluded that exclosures did not necessarily create prey-traps per se and that managers could continue to use this type of exclusionary fencing to protect stands of dense vegetation.

  6. Seasonal diet and prey preference of the African lion in a waterhole-driven semi-arid savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Zeke; Valeix, Marion; Van Kesteren, Freya; Loveridge, Andrew J; Hunt, Jane E; Murindagomo, Felix; Macdonald, David W

    2013-01-01

    Large carnivores inhabiting ecosystems with heterogeneously distributed environmental resources with strong seasonal variations frequently employ opportunistic foraging strategies, often typified by seasonal switches in diet. In semi-arid ecosystems, herbivore distribution is generally more homogeneous in the wet season, when surface water is abundant, than in the dry season when only permanent sources remain. Here, we investigate the seasonal contribution of the different herbivore species, prey preference and distribution of kills (i.e. feeding locations) of African lions in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, a semi-arid African savanna structured by artificial waterholes. We used data from 245 kills and 74 faecal samples. Buffalo consistently emerged as the most frequently utilised prey in all seasons by both male (56%) and female (33%) lions, contributing the most to lion dietary biomass. Jacobs' index also revealed that buffalo was the most intensively selected species throughout the year. For female lions, kudu and to a lesser extent the group "medium Bovidae" are the most important secondary prey. This study revealed seasonal patterns in secondary prey consumption by female lions partly based on prey ecology with browsers, such as giraffe and kudu, mainly consumed in the early dry season, and grazers, such as zebra and suids, contributing more to female diet in the late dry season. Further, it revealed the opportunistic hunting behaviour of lions for prey as diverse as elephants and mice, with elephants taken mostly as juveniles at the end of the dry season during droughts. Jacobs' index finally revealed a very strong preference for kills within 2 km from a waterhole for all prey species, except small antelopes, in all seasons. This suggested that surface-water resources form passive traps and contribute to the structuring of lion foraging behaviour.

  7. Testing the effects of perimeter fencing and elephant exclosures on lion predation patterns in a Kenyan wildlife conservancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Dupuis-Desormeaux

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of fences to segregate wildlife can change predator and prey behaviour. Predators can learn to incorporate fencing into their hunting strategies and prey can learn to avoid foraging near fences. A twelve-strand electric predator-proof fence surrounds our study site. There are also porous one-strand electric fences used to create exclosures where elephant (and giraffe cannot enter in order to protect blocs of browse vegetation for two critically endangered species, the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis and the Grevy’s zebra (Equus grevyi. The denser vegetation in these exclosures attracts both browsing prey and ambush predators. In this study we examined if lion predation patterns differed near the perimeter fencing and inside the elephant exclosures by mapping the location of kills. We used a spatial analysis to compare the predation patterns near the perimeter fencing and inside the exclosures to predation in the rest of the conservancy. Predation was not over-represented near the perimeter fence but the pattern of predation near the fence suggests that fences may be a contributing factor to predation success. Overall, we found that predation was over-represented inside and within 50 m of the exclosures. However, by examining individual exclosures in greater detail using a hot spot analysis, we found that only a few exclosures contained lion predation hot spots. Although some exclosures provide good hunting grounds for lions, we concluded that exclosures did not necessarily create prey-traps per se and that managers could continue to use this type of exclusionary fencing to protect stands of dense vegetation.

  8. Seasonal diet and prey preference of the African lion in a waterhole-driven semi-arid savanna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeke Davidson

    Full Text Available Large carnivores inhabiting ecosystems with heterogeneously distributed environmental resources with strong seasonal variations frequently employ opportunistic foraging strategies, often typified by seasonal switches in diet. In semi-arid ecosystems, herbivore distribution is generally more homogeneous in the wet season, when surface water is abundant, than in the dry season when only permanent sources remain. Here, we investigate the seasonal contribution of the different herbivore species, prey preference and distribution of kills (i.e. feeding locations of African lions in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, a semi-arid African savanna structured by artificial waterholes. We used data from 245 kills and 74 faecal samples. Buffalo consistently emerged as the most frequently utilised prey in all seasons by both male (56% and female (33% lions, contributing the most to lion dietary biomass. Jacobs' index also revealed that buffalo was the most intensively selected species throughout the year. For female lions, kudu and to a lesser extent the group "medium Bovidae" are the most important secondary prey. This study revealed seasonal patterns in secondary prey consumption by female lions partly based on prey ecology with browsers, such as giraffe and kudu, mainly consumed in the early dry season, and grazers, such as zebra and suids, contributing more to female diet in the late dry season. Further, it revealed the opportunistic hunting behaviour of lions for prey as diverse as elephants and mice, with elephants taken mostly as juveniles at the end of the dry season during droughts. Jacobs' index finally revealed a very strong preference for kills within 2 km from a waterhole for all prey species, except small antelopes, in all seasons. This suggested that surface-water resources form passive traps and contribute to the structuring of lion foraging behaviour.

  9. Seasonal patterns of mixed species groups in large East African mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kiffner

    Full Text Available Mixed mammal species groups are common in East African savannah ecosystems. Yet, it is largely unknown if co-occurrences of large mammals result from random processes or social preferences and if interspecific associations are consistent across ecosystems and seasons. Because species may exchange important information and services, understanding patterns and drivers of heterospecific interactions is crucial for advancing animal and community ecology. We recorded 5403 single and multi-species clusters in the Serengeti-Ngorongoro and Tarangire-Manyara ecosystems during dry and wet seasons and used social network analyses to detect patterns of species associations. We found statistically significant associations between multiple species and association patterns differed spatially and seasonally. Consistently, wildebeest and zebras preferred being associated with other species, whereas carnivores, African elephants, Maasai giraffes and Kirk's dik-diks avoided being in mixed groups. During the dry season, we found that the betweenness (a measure of importance in the flow of information or disease of species did not differ from a random expectation based on species abundance. In contrast, in the wet season, we found that these patterns were not simply explained by variations in abundances, suggesting that heterospecific associations were actively formed. These seasonal differences in observed patterns suggest that interspecific associations may be driven by resource overlap when resources are limited and by resource partitioning or anti-predator advantages when resources are abundant. We discuss potential mechanisms that could drive seasonal variation in the cost-benefit tradeoffs that underpin the formation of mixed-species groups.

  10. Mass Transport: Circulatory System with Emphasis on Nonendothermic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Dane A; Burggren, Warren W; Reiber, Carl L; Altimiras, Jordi; Rodnick, Kenneth J

    2016-12-06

    Mass transport can be generally defined as movement of material matter. The circulatory system then is a biological example given its role in the movement in transporting gases, nutrients, wastes, and chemical signals. Comparative physiology has a long history of providing new insights and advancing our understanding of circulatory mass transport across a wide array of circulatory systems. Here we focus on circulatory function of nonmodel species. Invertebrates possess diverse convection systems; that at the most complex generate pressures and perform at a level comparable to vertebrates. Many invertebrates actively modulate cardiovascular function using neuronal, neurohormonal, and skeletal muscle activity. In vertebrates, our understanding of cardiac morphology, cardiomyocyte function, and contractile protein regulation by Ca2+ highlights a high degree of conservation, but differences between species exist and are coupled to variable environments and body temperatures. Key regulators of vertebrate cardiac function and systemic blood pressure include the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and ventricular filling. Further chemical factors regulating cardiovascular function include adenosine, natriuretic peptides, arginine vasotocin, endothelin 1, bradykinin, histamine, nitric oxide, and hydrogen sulfide, to name but a few. Diverse vascular morphologies and the regulation of blood flow in the coronary and cerebral circulations are also apparent in nonmammalian species. Dynamic adjustments of cardiovascular function are associated with exercise on land, flying at high altitude, prolonged dives by marine mammals, and unique morphology, such as the giraffe. Future studies should address limits of gas exchange and convective transport, the evolution of high arterial pressure across diverse taxa, and the importance of the cardiovascular system adaptations to extreme environments. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:17-66, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John

  11. A selective deficit in imageable concepts: A window to the organization of the conceptual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviah eGvion

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nissim, a 64 years old Hebrew-speaking man who sustained an ischemic infarct in the left occipital lobe, exhibited an intriguing pattern. He could hold a deep and fluent conversation about abstract and complex issues, such as the social risks in unemployment, but failed to retrieve imageable words such as ball, spoon, carrot, or giraffe. A detailed study of the words he could and could not retrieve, in tasks of picture naming, tactile naming, and naming to definition indicated that whereas he was able to retrieve abstract words, he had severe difficulties when trying to retrieve imageable words. The same dissociation also applied for proper names – he could retrieve names of people who have no visual image attached to their representation (such as the son of the biblical Abraham, but could not name people who had a visual image (such as his own son, or Barack Obama. When he tried to produce imageable words, he mainly produced perseverations and empty speech, and some semantic paraphasias. He did not produce perseverations when he tried to retrieve abstract words. This suggests that perseverations may occur when the phonological-production system produces a word without proper activation in the semantic lexicon. Nissim evinced a similar dissociation in comprehension – he could understand abstract words and sentences but failed to understand sentences with imageable words, and to match spoken imageable words to pictures or to semantically related imageable words. He was able to understand proverbs with imageable literal meaning but abstract figurative meaning. His comprehension was impaired also in tasks of semantic associations of pictures, pointing to a conceptual, rather than lexical source of the deficit. His visual perception as well as his phonological input and output lexicons and buffers (assessed by auditory lexical decision, word and sentence repetition, and writing to dictation were intact, supporting a selective conceptual system

  12. Physical and computational fluid dynamics models for the hemodynamics of the artiodactyl carotid rete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Haley D; Bourke, Jason

    2015-12-07

    In the mammalian order Artiodactyla, the majority of arterial blood entering the intracranial cavity is supplied by a large arterial meshwork called the carotid rete. This vascular structure functionally replaces the internal carotid artery. Extensive experimentation has demonstrated that the artiodactyl carotid rete drives one of the most effective selective brain cooling mechanisms among terrestrial vertebrates. Less well understood is the impact that the unique morphology of the carotid rete may have on the hemodynamics of blood flow to the cerebrum. It has been hypothesized that, relative to the tubular internal carotid arteries of most other vertebrates, the highly convoluted morphology of the carotid rete may increase resistance to flow during extreme changes in cerebral blood pressure, essentially protecting the brain by acting as a resistor. We test this hypothesis by employing simple and complex physical models to a 3D surface rendering of the carotid rete of the domestic goat, Capra hircus. First, we modeled the potential for increased resistance across the carotid rete using an electrical circuit analog. The extensive branching of the rete equates to a parallel circuit that is bound in series by single tubular arteries, both upstream and downstream. This method calculated a near-zero increase in resistance across the rete. Because basic equations do not incorporate drag, shear-stress, and turbulence, we used computational fluid dynamics to simulate the impact of these computationally intensive factors on resistance. Ultimately, both simple and complex models demonstrated negligible changes in resistance and blood pressure across the arterial meshwork. We further tested the resistive potential of the carotid rete by simulating blood pressures known to occur in giraffes. Based on these models, we found resistance (and blood pressure mitigation as a whole) to be an unlikely function for the artiodactyl carotid rete. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Atmospheric Parameters and Metallicities for 2191 Stars in the Globular Cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolta, Luca; Sneden, Christopher; Piotto, Giampaolo; Milone, Antonino P.; Bedin, Luigi R.; Nascimbeni, Valerio

    2014-02-01

    We report new metallicities for stars of Galactic globular cluster M4 using the largest number of stars ever observed at high spectral resolution in any cluster. We analyzed 7250 spectra for 2771 cluster stars gathered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. These medium-resolution spectra cover a small wavelength range, and often have very low signal-to-noise ratios. We approached this data set by reconsidering the whole method of abundance analysis of large stellar samples from beginning to end. We developed a new algorithm that automatically determines the atmospheric parameters of a star. Nearly all of the data preparation steps for spectroscopic analyses are processed on the syntheses, not the observed spectra. For 322 red giant branch (RGB) stars with V 14.7, we obtain lang[Fe/H]rang = -1.16 (σ = 0.09) after fixing the microturbulent velocity. These values are consistent with previous studies that have performed detailed analyses of brighter RGB stars at higher spectroscopic resolution and wavelength coverage. It is not clear if the small mean metallicity difference between brighter and fainter M4 members is real or is the result of the low signal-to-noise characteristics of the fainter stars. The strength of our approach is shown by recovering a metallicity close to a single value for more than 2000 stars, using a data set that is non-optimal for atmospheric analyses. This technique is particularly suitable for noisy data taken in difficult observing conditions.

  14. Atmospheric parameters and metallicities for 2191 stars in the globular cluster M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavolta, Luca; Piotto, Giampaolo; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Sneden, Christopher; Milone, Antonino P.; Bedin, Luigi R.

    2014-01-01

    We report new metallicities for stars of Galactic globular cluster M4 using the largest number of stars ever observed at high spectral resolution in any cluster. We analyzed 7250 spectra for 2771 cluster stars gathered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. These medium-resolution spectra cover a small wavelength range, and often have very low signal-to-noise ratios. We approached this data set by reconsidering the whole method of abundance analysis of large stellar samples from beginning to end. We developed a new algorithm that automatically determines the atmospheric parameters of a star. Nearly all of the data preparation steps for spectroscopic analyses are processed on the syntheses, not the observed spectra. For 322 red giant branch (RGB) stars with V ≤ 14.7, we obtain a nearly constant metallicity, ([Fe/H]) = –1.07 (σ = 0.02). No difference in the metallicity at the level of 0.01 dex is observed between the two RGB sequences identified by Monelli et al. For 1869 subgiant and main-sequence stars with V > 14.7, we obtain ([Fe/H]) = –1.16 (σ = 0.09) after fixing the microturbulent velocity. These values are consistent with previous studies that have performed detailed analyses of brighter RGB stars at higher spectroscopic resolution and wavelength coverage. It is not clear if the small mean metallicity difference between brighter and fainter M4 members is real or is the result of the low signal-to-noise characteristics of the fainter stars. The strength of our approach is shown by recovering a metallicity close to a single value for more than 2000 stars, using a data set that is non-optimal for atmospheric analyses. This technique is particularly suitable for noisy data taken in difficult observing conditions

  15. Atmospheric parameters and metallicities for 2191 stars in the globular cluster M4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malavolta, Luca; Piotto, Giampaolo; Nascimbeni, Valerio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Milone, Antonino P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bedin, Luigi R., E-mail: luca.malavolta@unipd.it, E-mail: giampaolo.piotto@unipd.it, E-mail: valerio.nascimbeni@unipd.it, E-mail: luigi.bedin@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: milone@mso.anu.edu.au [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-01

    We report new metallicities for stars of Galactic globular cluster M4 using the largest number of stars ever observed at high spectral resolution in any cluster. We analyzed 7250 spectra for 2771 cluster stars gathered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. These medium-resolution spectra cover a small wavelength range, and often have very low signal-to-noise ratios. We approached this data set by reconsidering the whole method of abundance analysis of large stellar samples from beginning to end. We developed a new algorithm that automatically determines the atmospheric parameters of a star. Nearly all of the data preparation steps for spectroscopic analyses are processed on the syntheses, not the observed spectra. For 322 red giant branch (RGB) stars with V ≤ 14.7, we obtain a nearly constant metallicity, ([Fe/H]) = –1.07 (σ = 0.02). No difference in the metallicity at the level of 0.01 dex is observed between the two RGB sequences identified by Monelli et al. For 1869 subgiant and main-sequence stars with V > 14.7, we obtain ([Fe/H]) = –1.16 (σ = 0.09) after fixing the microturbulent velocity. These values are consistent with previous studies that have performed detailed analyses of brighter RGB stars at higher spectroscopic resolution and wavelength coverage. It is not clear if the small mean metallicity difference between brighter and fainter M4 members is real or is the result of the low signal-to-noise characteristics of the fainter stars. The strength of our approach is shown by recovering a metallicity close to a single value for more than 2000 stars, using a data set that is non-optimal for atmospheric analyses. This technique is particularly suitable for noisy data taken in difficult observing conditions.

  16. Common functional correlates of head-strike behavior in the pachycephalosaur Stegoceras validum (Ornithischia, Dinosauria and combative artiodactyls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Snively

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pachycephalosaurs were bipedal herbivorous dinosaurs with bony domes on their heads, suggestive of head-butting as seen in bighorn sheep and musk oxen. Previous biomechanical studies indicate potential for pachycephalosaur head-butting, but bone histology appears to contradict the behavior in young and old individuals. Comparing pachycephalosaurs with fighting artiodactyls tests for common correlates of head-butting in their cranial structure and mechanics. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Computed tomographic (CT scans and physical sectioning revealed internal cranial structure of ten artiodactyls and pachycephalosaurs Stegoceras validum and Prenocephale prenes. Finite element analyses (FEA, incorporating bone and keratin tissue types, determined cranial stress and strain from simulated head impacts. Recursive partition analysis quantified strengths of correlation between functional morphology and actual or hypothesized behavior. Strong head-strike correlates include a dome-like cephalic morphology, neurovascular canals exiting onto the cranium surface, large neck muscle attachments, and dense cortical bone above a sparse cancellous layer in line with the force of impact. The head-butting duiker Cephalophus leucogaster is the closest morphological analog to Stegoceras, with a smaller yet similarly rounded dome. Crania of the duiker, pachycephalosaurs, and bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis share stratification of thick cortical and cancellous layers. Stegoceras, Cephalophus, and musk ox crania experience lower stress and higher safety factors for a given impact force than giraffe, pronghorn, or the non-combative llama. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Anatomy, biomechanics, and statistical correlation suggest that some pachycephalosaurs were as competent at head-to-head impacts as extant analogs displaying such combat. Large-scale comparisons and recursive partitioning can greatly refine inference of behavioral capability for fossil animals.

  17. Diets and environments of late Cenozoic mammals in the Qaidam Basin, Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunfu; Wang, Yang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Deng, Tao; Tseng, Zhijie J.; Takeuchi, Gary T.; Xie, Gangpu; Xu, Yingfeng

    2012-06-01

    The timing history and driving mechanisms of C4 expansion and Tibetan uplift are hotly debated issues. Paleoenvironmental evidence from within the Tibetan Plateau is essential to help resolve these issues. Here we report results of stable C and O isotope analyses of tooth enamel samples from a variety of late Cenozoic mammals, including deer, giraffe, horse, rhino, and elephant, from the Qaidam Basin in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The enamel-δ13C values are diets and only a few individuals (besides the exceptional rhino CD0722) may have consumed some C4 plants. Based on geological evidence, however, the Qaidam Basin was probably warmer and more humid during the late Miocene and early Pliocene than today. Thus, these δ13C values likely indicate that many individuals had significant dietary intakes of C4 plants, and the Qaidam Basin had more C4 plants in the late Miocene and early Pliocene than today. Moreover, the Qaidam Basin likely had much denser vegetation at those times in order to support such large mammals as rhinos and elephants. While the δ18O values did not increase monotonously with time, the range of variation seems to have increased considerably since the early Pliocene, indicating increased aridification in the basin. The mean δ18O values of large mammals and those reconstructed for local meteoric waters display a significant negative shift in the late Miocene, consistent with the marine δ18O record which shows a cooling trend in the same period. Taken together, the isotope data suggest a warmer, wetter, and perhaps lower Qaidam Basin during the late Miocene and early Pliocene. Increased aridification after the early Pliocene is likely due to a combined effect of regional tectonism, which resulted in a more effective barrier preventing moisture from the Indian Ocean or Bay of Bengal from reaching the basin, and global cooling.

  18. Influence of aesthetic appreciation of wildlife species on attitudes towards their conservation in Kenyan agropastoralist communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Roque de Pinho

    Full Text Available The influence of human aesthetic appreciation of animal species on public attitudes towards their conservation and related decision-making has been studied in industrialized countries but remains underexplored in developing countries. Working in three agropastoralist communities around Amboseli National Park, southern Kenya, we investigated the relative strength of human aesthetic appreciation on local attitudes towards the conservation of wildlife species. Using semi-structured interviewing and free listing (n = 191 as part of a mixed methods approach, we first characterized local aesthetic judgments of wildlife species. With a Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM approach, we then determined the influence of perceiving four species as beautiful on local support for their protection ("rescuing them", and of perceiving four other species as ugly on support for their removal from the area, while controlling for informant personal and household socioeconomic attributes. Perceiving giraffe, gazelles and eland as beautiful is the strongest variable explaining support for rescuing them. Ugliness is the strongest variable influencing support for the removal of buffalo, hyena, and elephant (but not lion. Both our qualitative and quantitative results suggest that perceptions of ugly species could become more positive through direct exposure to those species. We propose that protected areas in developing countries facilitate visitation by local residents to increase their familiarity with species they rarely see or most frequently see in conflict with human interests. Since valuing a species for its beauty requires seeing it, protected areas in developing countries should connect the people who live around them with the animals they protect. Our results also show that aesthetic appreciation of biodiversity is not restricted to the industrialized world.

  19. Influence of aesthetic appreciation of wildlife species on attitudes towards their conservation in Kenyan agropastoralist communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pinho, Joana Roque; Grilo, Clara; Boone, Randall B; Galvin, Kathleen A; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G

    2014-01-01

    The influence of human aesthetic appreciation of animal species on public attitudes towards their conservation and related decision-making has been studied in industrialized countries but remains underexplored in developing countries. Working in three agropastoralist communities around Amboseli National Park, southern Kenya, we investigated the relative strength of human aesthetic appreciation on local attitudes towards the conservation of wildlife species. Using semi-structured interviewing and free listing (n = 191) as part of a mixed methods approach, we first characterized local aesthetic judgments of wildlife species. With a Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) approach, we then determined the influence of perceiving four species as beautiful on local support for their protection ("rescuing them"), and of perceiving four other species as ugly on support for their removal from the area, while controlling for informant personal and household socioeconomic attributes. Perceiving giraffe, gazelles and eland as beautiful is the strongest variable explaining support for rescuing them. Ugliness is the strongest variable influencing support for the removal of buffalo, hyena, and elephant (but not lion). Both our qualitative and quantitative results suggest that perceptions of ugly species could become more positive through direct exposure to those species. We propose that protected areas in developing countries facilitate visitation by local residents to increase their familiarity with species they rarely see or most frequently see in conflict with human interests. Since valuing a species for its beauty requires seeing it, protected areas in developing countries should connect the people who live around them with the animals they protect. Our results also show that aesthetic appreciation of biodiversity is not restricted to the industrialized world.

  20. Detection of spectroscopic binaries in the Gaia-ESO Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Swaelmen, M.; Merle, T.; Van Eck, S.; Jorissen, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Gaia-ESO survey (GES) is a ground-based spectroscopic survey, complementing the Gaia mission, in order to obtain high accuracy radial velocities and chemical abundances for 10^5 stars. Thanks to the numerous spectra collected by the GES, the detection of spectroscopic multiple system candidates (SBn, n ≥ 2) is one of the science case that can be tackled. We developed at IAA (Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique) a novative automatic method to detect multiple components from the cross-correlation function (CCF) of spectra and applied it to the CCFs provided by the GES. Since the bulk of the Milky Way field targets has been observed in both HR10 and HR21 GIRAFFE settings, we are also able to compare the efficiency of our SB detection tool depending on the wavelength range. In particular, we show that HR21 leads to a less efficient detection compared to HR10. The presence of strong and/or saturated lines (Ca II triplet, Mg I line, Paschen lines) in the wavelength domain covered by HR21 hampers the computation of CCFs, which tend to be broadened compared to their HR10 counterpart. The main drawback is that the minimal detectable radial velocity difference is ˜ \\SI{60}km/s for HR21 while it is ˜ \\SI{25}km/s for HR10. A careful design of CCF masks (especially masking Ca triplet lines) can substantially improve the detectability rate of HR21. Since HR21 spectra are quite similar to the one produced by the RVS spectrograph of the Gaia mission, analysis of RVS spectra in the context of spectroscpic binaries can take adavantage of the lessons learned from the GES to maximize the detection rate.

  1. Comparative neuronal morphology of the cerebellar cortex in afrotherians, carnivores, cetartiodactyls, and primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob eJacobs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the basic morphological characteristics of neurons in the cerebellar cortex have been documented in several species, virtually nothing is known about the quantitative morphological characteristics of these neurons across different taxa. To that end, the present study investigated cerebellar neuronal morphology among eight different, large-brained mammalian species comprising a broad phylogenetic range: afrotherians (African elephant, Florida manatee, carnivores (Siberian tiger, clouded leopard, cetartiodactyls (humpback whale, giraffe and primates (human, common chimpanzee. Specifically, several neuron types (e.g., stellate, basket, Lugaro, Golgi, and granule neurons; N = 317 of the cerebellar cortex were stained with a modified rapid Golgi technique and quantified on a computer-assisted microscopy system. There was a 64-fold variation in brain mass across species in our sample (from clouded leopard to the elephant and a 103-fold variation in cerebellar volume. Most dendritic measures tended to increase with cerebellar volume. The cerebellar cortex in these species exhibited the trilaminate pattern common to all mammals. Morphologically, neuron types in the cerebellar cortex were generally consistent with those described in primates (Fox et al., 1967 and rodents (Palay and Chan-Palay, 1974, although there was substantial quantitative variation across species. In particular, Lugaro neurons in the elephant appeared to be disproportionately larger than those in other species. To explore potential quantitative differences in dendritic measures across species, MARSplines analyses were used to evaluate whether species could be differentiated from each other based on dendritic characteristics alone. Results of these analyses indicated that there were significant differences among all species in dendritic measures.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Babesia pecorum sp. nov. from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouglin, Maggy; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; de la Cotte, Nathalie; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Gortázar, Christian; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Bastian, Suzanne; de la Fuente, José; Malandrin, Laurence

    2014-08-26

    The diversity of Babesia species infecting cervids in parts of central and southern Spain was analyzed by collecting blood from farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Babesia sp. was isolated in vitro from two red deer herds in Cádiz and Ciudad Real. The number of Babesia sp. carriers differed between the two herds: 36/77 in Cádiz and 1/35 in Ciudad Real. Hyalomma lusitanicum was the most prevalent tick species identified on the Cádiz farm vegetation and on sampled animals, and is therefore a candidate vector. The molecular characteristics of 21 isolates were determined by complete (8 isolates) or partial (13 isolates) 18S rRNA gene sequencing. The sequences were highly similar (over 99.4% identity) and 6 sequence types were identified at the level of one herd only, demonstrating a rather high genetic diversity. They formed a monophyletic clade, and members of the three main sequence types shared a similar morphology and the same erythrocyte susceptibility pattern. This clade also included Babesia sp. Xinjiang isolated from sheep in China and Babesia sp. identified in giraffe in South Africa, with identities higher than 98.3% and statistically relevant phylogenetic support. None of the biological properties analyzed for both Babesia from red deer and Babesia sp. Xinjiang allowed their differentiation (ability to develop in vitro in erythrocytes from cattle and sheep, as well as in erythrocytes from different cervids, unsuccessful infection of calves). We propose the Babesia isolated from red deer as a new species named B. pecorum. Whether Babesia sp. Xinjiang and the Babesia characterized in South Africa belong to the same species is debated.

  3. The effect of intervertebral cartilage on neutral posture and range of motion in the necks of sauropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Taylor

    Full Text Available The necks of sauropod dinosaurs were a key factor in their evolution. The habitual posture and range of motion of these necks has been controversial, and computer-aided studies have argued for an obligatory sub-horizontal pose. However, such studies are compromised by their failure to take into account the important role of intervertebral cartilage. This cartilage takes very different forms in different animals. Mammals and crocodilians have intervertebral discs, while birds have synovial joints in their necks. The form and thickness of cartilage varies significantly even among closely related taxa. We cannot yet tell whether the neck joints of sauropods more closely resembled those of birds or mammals. Inspection of CT scans showed cartilage:bone ratios of 4.5% for Sauroposeidon and about 20% and 15% for two juvenile Apatosaurus individuals. In extant animals, this ratio varied from 2.59% for the rhea to 24% for a juvenile giraffe. It is not yet possible to disentangle ontogenetic and taxonomic signals, but mammal cartilage is generally three times as thick as that of birds. Our most detailed work, on a turkey, yielded a cartilage:bone ratio of 4.56%. Articular cartilage also added 11% to the length of the turkey's zygapophyseal facets. Simple image manipulation suggests that incorporating 4.56% of neck cartilage into an intervertebral joint of a turkey raises neutral posture by 15°. If this were also true of sauropods, the true neutral pose of the neck would be much higher than has been depicted. An additional 11% of zygapophyseal facet length translates to 11% more range of motion at each joint. More precise quantitative results must await detailed modelling. In summary, including cartilage in our models of sauropod necks shows that they were longer, more elevated and more flexible than previously recognised.

  4. The effect of intervertebral cartilage on neutral posture and range of motion in the necks of sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael P; Wedel, Mathew J

    2013-01-01

    The necks of sauropod dinosaurs were a key factor in their evolution. The habitual posture and range of motion of these necks has been controversial, and computer-aided studies have argued for an obligatory sub-horizontal pose. However, such studies are compromised by their failure to take into account the important role of intervertebral cartilage. This cartilage takes very different forms in different animals. Mammals and crocodilians have intervertebral discs, while birds have synovial joints in their necks. The form and thickness of cartilage varies significantly even among closely related taxa. We cannot yet tell whether the neck joints of sauropods more closely resembled those of birds or mammals. Inspection of CT scans showed cartilage:bone ratios of 4.5% for Sauroposeidon and about 20% and 15% for two juvenile Apatosaurus individuals. In extant animals, this ratio varied from 2.59% for the rhea to 24% for a juvenile giraffe. It is not yet possible to disentangle ontogenetic and taxonomic signals, but mammal cartilage is generally three times as thick as that of birds. Our most detailed work, on a turkey, yielded a cartilage:bone ratio of 4.56%. Articular cartilage also added 11% to the length of the turkey's zygapophyseal facets. Simple image manipulation suggests that incorporating 4.56% of neck cartilage into an intervertebral joint of a turkey raises neutral posture by 15°. If this were also true of sauropods, the true neutral pose of the neck would be much higher than has been depicted. An additional 11% of zygapophyseal facet length translates to 11% more range of motion at each joint. More precise quantitative results must await detailed modelling. In summary, including cartilage in our models of sauropod necks shows that they were longer, more elevated and more flexible than previously recognised.

  5. Hemograma de bovinos (Bos indicus sadios da raça nelore no primeiro mês de vida, criados no estado de São Paulo Hemogram of healthy nelore breed (Bos indicus calf at the first month of life, raised in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Welker Biondo

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se as mudanças nos constituintes do hemograma de bovinos da raça Nelore, 71 machos e 56 fêmeas, no primeiro mês de vida, criados no Estado de São Paulo. Foram utilizadas 127 amostras de sangue de bezerros criados a pasto, divididos em cinco grupos: de 0-3, 3-7, 7-14 , 14-21 e 21-30 dias de idade. Os valores médios encontrados foram: número de hemácias 8,31 ± l,84 x 10(6/ mi l; Volume globular 39 ± 6%; taxa de hemoglobina 12,89 ± 2,04g/dl; Volume Corpuscular Médio 48,19 ± 5,68fl; Concentração de Hemoglobina Corpuscular Média 32,81 ± 1,84; reticulócitos 0,27 ± 0,54% e eritroblastos 214 ± 594/mil; número de leucócitos/mil 10593 ± 3008, neutrófilos bastonetes 97 ± 165; neutrófilos segmentados 4837 ± 2201; linfócitos 5222 ± 1909; eosinófilos 86 ± 139; monócitos 346 ± 221; basófilos 4 ± 24. Os fatores sexuais não apresentaram influência significativa sobre o hemograma, com exceção dos reticulócitos e eritroblastos. Os fatores etários apresentaram influência significativa (p≤0,03 sobre as curvas de regressão do hemograma, com o volume globular, hemácias e hemoglobina diminuindo e o CHCM e reticulócitos aumentando até os 3 a 7 dias, havendo uma inversão desta variação dos sete até os 30 dias. A curva de regressão do percentual de linfócitos aumentou e de neutrófilos diminuiu gradativamente após o nascimento. O encontro destas curvas ocorreu entre o sétimo e o décimo quarto dia de vida.Changes on the hemogram parameters were evaluated for healthy Nelore purebreed bovines at the first month age, with 71 male and 56 female, and raised in São Paulo State, Brazil. For this purpose, 127 samples of blood were collected, and divided in five groups ; 0-3 , 3-7 . 7-14 , 14-21 and 21-30 days of age. The mean values were: erithrocyte counts 8.31± 1.84 x 10(6/ mu l; Package Cell Volume 39 ± 6%: hemoglobin 12.89 ± 2.04g/dl; Mean Corpuscular Volume 48.19 ± 5.68fl; Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin

  6. Palinologia de espécies de Nyctaginaceae Juss. ocorrentes nas restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Palynology of species of Nyctaginaceae Juss. from the restingas of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Albuquerque de Souza

    2010-03-01

    ília.In this study eight taxa of Nyctaginaceae Juss. were investigated for palynological characterization and to contribute to the Pollen Catalog of the Flora of the Rio de Janeiro restingas. The taxa analysed were Boerhavia diffusa L., Bougainvillea glabra Choisy, B. spectabilis Willd., Guapira obtusata (Jacq. Little, G. opposita (Vell. Reitz, G. pernambucencis (Casar. Lund., Leucaster caniflorus (Mart. Choisy and Mirabilis jalapa L. Pollen grains were measured, described and illustrated using light microscopy. Non-acetolysed pollen grains were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy to confirm descriptions of aperture and sexine ornamentation. The pollen grains of Boerhavia are large, apolar, spheroidal, 12-18 porate, sexine spinose; Bougainvillea species have medium-sized pollen grains, isopolar, suboblate, subtriangular ambit, large polar area, 3-colpate, reticulate sexine, muri with spines and lumina with bacula; Guapira species have medium-sized pollen grains, isopolar, prolate spheroidal, subtriangular ambit, large polar area, 3-colpate, colpes with operculum, spinose sexine in G. obtusata and G. pernambucensis, and microreticulated in G. opposita reticulate sexine, except for G. pernambucensis, (granulate sexine; Leucaster caniflorus pollen grains are small, isopolar, prolate spheroidal, subtriangular ambit, small polar area, 3-colpate, reticulate sexine; Mirabilis jalapa has very large pollen grains, apolar, spheroidal, pantoporate (c. 32 pores, sexine spinose. The results show that the pollen of these taxa are rather heterogeneous in shape, aperture attributes and sexine ornamentation which can be used in the taxonomy of the family.

  7. Biaxially stretchable supercapacitors based on the buckled hybrid fiber electrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Weiya; Zhang, Qiang; Luan, Pingshan; Cai, Le; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xiao; Fan, Qingxia; Zhou, Wenbin; Xiao, Zhuojian; Gu, Xiaogang; Chen, Huiliang; Li, Kewei; Xiao, Shiqi; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen

    2015-07-01

    In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the fibers endow the supercapacitor with 100% stretchability along all directions. In addition, the supercapacitor exhibited good transparency, as well as excellent electrochemical properties and stability after being stretched 5000 times.In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the

  8. Clinical and biometrological efficacy of a hyaluronic acid-based mesotherapy product: a randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baspeyras, Martine; Rouvrais, Céline; Liégard, Laetitia; Delalleau, Alexandre; Letellier, Sandrine; Bacle, Irène; Courrech, Laetitia; Murat, Pascale; Mengeaud, Valérie; Schmitt, Anne-Marie

    2013-10-01

    Data demonstrating the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based mesotherapy for skin rejuvenation are scarce. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of non-reticulated HA-based mesotherapy on skin elasticity and complexion radiance. 55 women with cutaneous ageing signs included in the Full Analysis Set (FAS) population blindly received intradermal micro-injections (50 × 0.02 mL) of non-cross-linked HA filler with mannitol (Glytone 1, HA concentration: 14 mg/g) in one cheek and saline physiological solution in the other according to hemifacial randomisation in 3 monthly sessions. Elasticity (E1 and E2 stiffness parameters) and dermis thickness were measured by cutometry and 20 MHz echography, before (D0) treatment and 1 (1M) and 3 months (3M) after the last injection. A trained panel blindly scored skin complexion radiance from standardised and calibrated photographs, using 100 mm analogue scales. In the FAS population, only HA filler significantly decreased E1 at 1M (-10.9 %, p = 0.026) and 3M (-10.5 %, p = 0.035) compared with D0; its effect versus the control tended to be more persistent, with a difference between treatments at 3M close to significance (p = 0.063). E2 also decreased at 1M (-8.2 %, p = 0.027 in the per protocol population, n = 53) and 3M after HA-treatment only. Dermis thickness significantly increased after HA-treatment at 1M (+3.4 %, p = 0.028) and 3M (+4 %, p = 0.008), and after control-treatment at 1M only (+2.5 %, p = 0.015). The HA filler significantly improved complexion radiance at 3M compared with the control (p = 0.012) and for 51 % of subjects, their skin status. Non-reticulated HA-based mesotherapy significantly and sustainably improves skin elasticity and complexion radiance.

  9. E-commerce of freshwater aquarium fishes: potential disseminator of exotic species in Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.3919 E-commerce of freshwater aquarium fishes: potential disseminator of exotic species in Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.3919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lincoln Barroso de Magalhães

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of freshwater aquarium fish species for sale was surveyed from July 2005 to June 2006 in Brazilian electronic commerce and the Orkut website. São Paulo was the leading state regarding virtual shops, auctions on Arremate/Mercado Livre, and hobbyists on Orkut, with 52, 44 and 46%, respectively. The Southeast and South regions led the offer of pest species such as C. carpio, C. auratus and P. reticulate. Among the 207 species for sale, 14 species considered potential pests were identified, contrasting with only one page that warned about the dangers of aquarium dumping. The easy access to fish (especially the potential pest species through e-commerce and Orkut, together with the low total price (unitary value + shipping and handling ranging from US$ 17.67 to 30.39, and fast interstate delivery (two-four days on average confirm the widespread e-commerce accessibility and its high dispersal potential via postal services and home hobbyists trade. It is imperative to enforce the use of warnings or alert messages in e-commerce about the dangers of biological invasions.The availability of freshwater aquarium fish species for sale was surveyed from July 2005 to June 2006 in Brazilian electronic commerce and the Orkut website. São Paulo was the leading state regarding virtual shops, auctions on Arremate/Mercado Livre, and hobbyists on Orkut, with 52, 44 and 46%, respectively. The Southeast and South regions led the offer of pest species such as C. carpio, C. auratus and P. reticulate. Among the 207 species for sale, 14 species considered potential pests were identified, contrasting with only one page that warned about the dangers of aquarium dumping. The easy access to fish (especially the potential pest species through e-commerce and Orkut, together with the low total price (unitary value + shipping and handling ranging from US$ 17.67 to 30.39, and fast interstate delivery (two-four days on average confirm the widespread e

  10. Phylogenetic origin of limes and lemons revealed by cytoplasmic and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The origin of limes and lemons has been a source of conflicting taxonomic opinions. Biochemical studies, numerical taxonomy and recent molecular studies suggested that cultivated Citrus species result from interspecific hybridization between four basic taxa (C. reticulata,C. maxima,C. medica and C. micrantha). However, the origin of most lemons and limes remains controversial or unknown. The aim of this study was to perform extended analyses of the diversity, genetic structure and origin of limes and lemons. The study was based on 133 Citrus accessions. It combined maternal phylogeny studies based on mitochondrial and chloroplastic markers, and nuclear structure analysis based on the evaluation of ploidy level and the use of 123 markers, including 73 basic taxa diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and indel markers. The lime and lemon horticultural group appears to be highly polymorphic, with diploid, triploid and tetraploid varieties, and to result from many independent reticulation events which defined the sub-groups. Maternal phylogeny involves four cytoplasmic types out of the six encountered in the Citrus genus. All lime and lemon accessions were highly heterozygous, with interspecific admixture of two, three and even the four ancestral taxa genomes. Molecular polymorphism between varieties of the same sub-group was very low. Citrus medica contributed to all limes and lemons and was the direct male parent for the main sub-groups in combination with C. micrantha or close papeda species (for C. aurata, C. excelsa, C. macrophylla and C. aurantifolia--'Mexican' lime types of Tanaka's taxa), C. reticulata(for C. limonia, C. karna and C. jambhiri varieties of Tanaka's taxa, including popular citrus rootstocks such as 'Rangpur' lime, 'Volkamer' and 'Rough' lemons), C. aurantium (for C. limetta and C. limon--yellow lemon types--varieties of Tanaka's taxa) or the C. maxima × C. reticulate hybrid (for C. limettioides--'Palestine sweet' lime types--and C

  11. Assessment of environmental DNA for detecting presence of imperiled aquatic amphibian species in isolated wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, Anna; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Barichivich, William J.; Spear, Stephen F.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Glenn, Travis C

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging tool that allows low-impact sampling for aquatic species by isolating DNA from water samples and screening for DNA sequences specific to species of interest. However, researchers have not tested this method in naturally acidic wetlands that provide breeding habitat for a number of imperiled species, including the frosted salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum), reticulated flatwoods salamanders (Ambystoma bishopi), striped newt (Notophthalmus perstriatus), and gopher frog (Lithobates capito). Our objectives for this study were to develop and optimize eDNA survey protocols and assays to complement and enhance capture-based survey methods for these amphibian species. We collected three or more water samples, dipnetted or trapped larval and adult amphibians, and conducted visual encounter surveys for egg masses for target species at 40 sites on 12 different longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) tracts. We used quantitative PCRs to screen eDNA from each site for target species presence. We detected flatwoods salamanders at three sites with eDNA but did not detect them during physical surveys. Based on the sample location we assumed these eDNA detections to indicate the presence of frosted flatwoods salamanders. We did not detect reticulated flatwoods salamanders. We detected striped newts with physical and eDNA surveys at two wetlands. We detected gopher frogs at 12 sites total, three with eDNA alone, two with physical surveys alone, and seven with physical and eDNA surveys. We detected our target species with eDNA at 9 of 11 sites where they were present as indicated from traditional surveys and at six sites where they were not detected with traditional surveys. It was, however, critical to use at least three water samples per site for eDNA. Our results demonstrate eDNA surveys can be a useful complement to traditional survey methods for detecting imperiled pond-breeding amphibians. Environmental DNA may be particularly useful in situations

  12. Correlação entre permeabilidade e resistência mecânica de filtros cerâmicos no sistema Al2O3-SiC Relationship between permeability and mechanical strength of Al2O3-SiC ceramic filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Salvini

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Tem sido crescente o uso de cerâmicas reticulares em processos de refino e purificação de metais fundidos, filtração de gases quentes e combustão catalítica. A aplicação depende da composição química e das propriedades físicas do material (número de poros por polegada linear (ppi, porosidade e diâmetro de poro. Há um consenso de que a melhoria das propriedades dos filamentos resulta em um melhor desempenho mecânico do filtro cerâmico. Entretanto, a análise dos valores de resistência mecânica não pode ser considerada isoladamente, uma vez que para filtros cerâmicos esta tem que estar associada à permeabilidade. Neste trabalho é feita uma análise entre as propriedades fluidodinâmicas e mecânicas de filtros cerâmicos no sistema Al2O3-SiC na faixa de 8 a 90 ppi. Os resultados obtidos permitem considerações tanto no aspecto do processamento cerâmico quanto no modelamento mecânico apresentado na literatura.Reticulate ceramics have been increasingly employed in purification of gases, liquid metals and in catalytic processes. The application area usually depends on the chemical composition and the physical properties (porosity, pore size and pore counting (ppi. In most cases, reticulate ceramics are submitted to compression loads at high temperatures, which makes the durability of these cellular materials be ultimately related to the mechanical quality of the struts. In filtration applications, it is also important the evaluation of fluid dynamic properties of the ceramic, specifically its permeability to fluid flow. In this work, a relationship between mechanical properties and permeability constants of Al2O3-SiC ceramic foam filters with 8 to 90 ppi is presented. Results were associated with the processing technique and with the mechanical modeling presented in the literature.

  13. White plague-like coral disease in remote reefs of the Western Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Sánchez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The health of coral reef communities has been decreasing over the last 50 years, due the negative effects of human activities combined with other natural processes. We present documentation of a White Plague Disease (WPD outbreak in the Serrana Bank, an isolated Western Caribbean atoll with presumably inexistent pollutant inputs from local human settlements. In addition, this study summarizes seven years of observations on diseased corals in the nearby island of San Andrés, which in contrast is one of the most populated islands of the Caribbean. There was a massive coral mortality in the atoll lagoon (14°27’53.24", 80°14’22.27" W, and 12m depth due to WPD on May 4 of 2003. Seventeen species were found dead or largely affected by the disease. The information resulting from GPS and manta-tow transects revealed that approximately 5.8ha of reticulate Montastraea spp. patch reefs were lethally affected by the disease in the atoll. On May 8 of the same year we observed and calculated a mean coral cover of 7.03% (SD± 2.44, a mean diseased coral tissue cover of 5.5% (SD± 1.1 and a 13.4% (SD± 8.05 of recently dead coral covered with a thin filamentous algae layer; approximately 73% of mortalities caused by the disease occurred before the end of the outbreak. A rough estimate of 18.9% in recent coral cover reduction can be attributed to WPD. This represents about 82% of the total coral cover decline since 1995. Semi-enclosed environments such as atoll lagoons and the reticulate patch-reefs of Montastraea spp. seem to be particularly vulnerable to this kind of coral disease, which constitute an alert to increase the monitoring of the same kind of atoll environments. The WPD has been present in the area of the nearby island of San Andrés at a low prevalence level, with sporadic increasing peaks of disease proliferation. The peaks observed during 1999 and 2004 comprised increases of 266% and 355% respectively, suggesting an alarming progression of

  14. Usual interstitial pneumonia and non-specific interstitial pneumonia: serial thin-section CT findings correlated with pulmonary function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeon Joo; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Man Pyo; Chung Myung Jin; Han, Joung Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Colby, Thomas V. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale (United States); Kim, Seon Woo [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    We wanted to demonstrate and compare the serial high-resolution CTs (HRCT) and the pulmonary function test (PFT) findings of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and the non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). The serial HRCT scans and the PFT results were retrospectively analysed and compared for 35 patients having UIP without significant honeycombing (UIP-w/o hc, < 5% of honeycombing at CT), 35 patients having UIP with honeycombing (UIP-w/i hc, {>=} 5% of honeycombing), and 25 patients with NSIP. The mortality rates were also compared. Follow-up CT scans were available in 75 patients (29 UIP-w/o hc patients, 22 UIP-w/i hc patients and 24 NSIP patients) and the follow-up periods ranged from 150 to 2,370 days. The initial and follow-up PFT data were available for 71 patients. On the initial CT, significant differences were present between the UIP-w/i hc patients and both the UIP-w/o hc patients and the NSIP patients in the overall extent, ground-glass opacity (GGO) away from the reticulation, reticulation and honeycombing (all {rho} < 0.05). Improvement was noticed in five (17%) of 29 UIP-w/o hc patients, none of 22 UIP-w/i hc patients, and 9 (37%) of 24 NSIP patients; deterioration was noted in six (21%) UIP-w/o hc patients, two (9%) UIP-w/i hc patients and three (13%) NSIP patients ({rho} 0.044 between UIP-w/o and UIP-w/i hc; {rho} = 0.637 between UIP-w/o hc and NSIP; {rho} = 0.007 between UIP-w/i hc and NSIP). The serial changes of the pulmonary function in the NSIP patients were different from those noted for the UIP-w/i hc and UIP-w/o hc patients ({rho} = 0.440 between UIP-w/o and UIP-w/i hc; {rho} = 0.022 between UIP-w/o hc and NSIP; {rho} =0.003 between UIP-w/i hc and NSIP). Five (14%) of the 35 patients with UIP-w/o hc, 16 (46%) of the 35 patients with UIP-w/i hc and three (12%) of the 25 patients with NSIP died ({rho} = 0.002, comparison for the three groups). On CT, NSIP and UIP-w/o hc patients have similar patterns of parenchymal abnormalities and

  15. A new species of poison-dart frog (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from Manu province, Amazon region of southeastern Peru, with notes on its natural history, bioacoustics, phylogenetics, and recommended conservation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Rojas, Shirley J; Whitworth, Andrew; Villacampa, Jaime; May, Rudolf VON; Gutiérrez, Roberto C; Padial, José M; Chaparro, Juan C

    2017-01-16

    We describe and name a new species of poison-dart frog from the Amazonian slopes of the Andes in Manu Province, Madre de Dios Department, Peru; specifically within the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve and the buffer zone of Manu National Park. Ameerega shihuemoy sp. nov. is supported by a unique combination of characters: black dorsum with cream to light orange dorsolateral lines, blue belly reticulated with black, and the lack of axillary, thigh and calf flash marks. Within Ameerega, it shares the general appearance of A. altamazonica, A. boliviana, A. hahneli, A. ignipedis, A. petersi, A. picta, A. pongoensis, A. pulchripecta, A. simulans, A. smaragdina, and A. yungicola; each possessing a granular black to brown dorsum, a light labial bar, a conspicuous dorsolateral line running from the snout to the groin, and a metallic blue belly and underside of arms and hind limbs. From most of these species it can be distinguished by lacking flash marks on the axillae, thighs, and calves (absent in only A. boliviana and A. smaragdina, most A. petersi, and some A. pongoensis), by having bright cream to orange dorsolateral stripes (white, intense yellow, or green in all other species, with the exception of A. picta), and by its blue belly reticulated with black (bluish white and black in A. boliviana, green and blue with black marbling in A. petersi, and green and blue lacking black marbling in A. smaragdina). Its mating call also shows clear differences to morphologically similar species, with a lower note repetition rate, longer space between calls, and higher fundamental and dominant frequencies. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S mitochondrial rRNA fragment also support the distinctiveness of the new species and suggest that A. shihuemoy is most closely related to Ameerega macero, A. altamazonica, A. rubriventris, and two undescribed species (Ameerega sp. from Porto Walter, Acre, Brazil, and Ameerega sp. from Ivochote, Cusco, Peru). Genetically, the new species is most

  16. Physico-chemical and mechanical modifications of polyethylene and polypropylene by ion implantation, micro-wave plasma, electron beam radiation and gamma ray irradiation; Modifications physico-chimiques et mecaniques du polyethylene et du polypropylene par implantation ionique, plasma micro-ondes, bombardement d`electrons et irradiation gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, J D

    1995-03-29

    A polyolefin surface becomes wettable when treated by micro-wave plasma or low-dose nitrogen ion implantation. A short time argon plasma treatment is sufficient to obtain polarizable peroxides on a polyolefin. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, paramagnetic electronic resonance analyses, peroxides decomposition, wettability measurements and infrared active spectra analyses have shown that oxidized structures obtained from different treatment techniques play an important role in the interpretation of surface chemical properties of the polymer. Micro-wave plasma treatment, and in particular argon plasma treatment, yields more polarizable groups than ion implantation and is interesting for grafting. Hardness and elasticity modulus, measured by nano-indentation on a polyolefin, increase with an appropriate ion implantation dose. A 1.4 x 10{sup 17} ions.cm{sup -2} dose can multiply by 15 the hardness of high molecular weight polyethylene, and by 7 the elasticity modulus for a 30 nm depth. The viscous-plastic to quasi-elastic transition is shown. The thickness of the modified layer is over 300 nm. The study of friction between a metal sphere and a polyethylene cupula shows that ion implantation in the polymer creates a reticulated hard and elastic layer which improves its mechanical properties and reduces the erosion rate. Surface treatments on polymers used as biomaterials allow to adapt the surface properties to specific applications. 107 refs., 66 figs., 19 tabs., 4 annexes.

  17. Solar kerosene from H2O and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furler, P.; Marxer, D.; Scheffe, J.; Reinalda, D.; Geerlings, H.; Falter, C.; Batteiger, V.; Sizmann, A.; Steinfeld, A.

    2017-06-01

    The entire production chain for renewable kerosene obtained directly from sunlight, H2O, and CO2 is experimentally demonstrated. The key component of the production process is a high-temperature solar reactor containing a reticulated porous ceramic (RPC) structure made of ceria, which enables the splitting of H2O and CO2 via a 2-step thermochemical redox cycle. In the 1st reduction step, ceria is endo-thermally reduced using concentrated solar radiation as the energy source of process heat. In the 2nd oxidation step, nonstoichiometric ceria reacts with H2O and CO2 to form H2 and CO - syngas - which is finally converted into kerosene by the Fischer-Tropsch process. The RPC featured dual-scale porosity for enhanced heat and mass transfer: mm-size pores for volumetric radiation absorption during the reduction step and μm-size pores within its struts for fast kinetics during the oxidation step. We report on the engineering design of the solar reactor and the experimental demonstration of over 290 consecutive redox cycles for producing high-quality syngas suitable for the processing of liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

  18. Structural investigations of borosilicate glasses containing MoO{sub 3} by MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caurant, D., E-mail: daniel-caurant@enscp.f [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris, UMR-CNRS 7574, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris (ENSCP, ParisTech), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Majerus, O.; Fadel, E.; Quintas, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris, UMR-CNRS 7574, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris (ENSCP, ParisTech), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Gervais, C. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris, UMR-CNRS 7574, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris (France); Charpentier, T. [CEA, IRAMIS, Service Interdisciplinaire sur les Systemes Moleculaires et Materiaux, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Neuville, D. [Physique des Mineraux et des Magmas, UMR-CNRS 7047, Institut de Physique du Globe, place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France)

    2010-01-01

    High molybdenum concentration in glass compositions may lead to alkali and alkaline-earth molybdates crystallization during melt cooling that must be controlled particularly during the preparation of highly radioactive nuclear glassy waste forms. To understand the effect of molybdenum addition on the structure of a simplified nuclear glass and to know how composition changes can affect molybdates crystallization tendency, the structure of two glass series belonging to the SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO-MoO{sub 3} system was studied by {sup 29}Si, {sup 11}B, {sup 23}Na MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopies by increasing MoO{sub 3} or B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations. Increasing MoO{sub 3} amount induced an increase of the silicate network reticulation but no significant effect was observed on the proportion of BO{sub 4}{sup -} units and on the distribution of Na{sup +} cations in glass structure. By increasing B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration, a strong evolution of the distribution of Na{sup +} cations was observed that could explain the evolution of the nature of molybdate crystals (CaMoO{sub 4} or Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) formed during melt cooling.

  19. Safely Managed Sanitation for All Means Fecal Sludge Management for At Least 1.8 Billion People in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David M; Sumner, Trent A; Brown, Joe M

    2017-03-07

    Although global access to sanitation is increasing, safe management of fecal waste is a rapidly growing challenge in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The goal of this study was to evaluate the current need for fecal sludge management (FSM) in LMICs by region, urban/rural status, and wealth. Recent Demographic and Health Survey data from 58 countries (847 685 surveys) were used to classify households by sanitation facility (facilities needing FSM, sewered facilities, ecological sanitation/other, or no facilities). Onsite piped water infrastructure was quantified to approximate need for wastewater management and downstream treatment. Over all surveyed nations, 63% of households used facilities requiring FSM, totaling approximately 1.8 billion people. Rural areas had similar proportions of toilets requiring FSM as urban areas. FSM needs scaled inversely with wealth: in the poorest quintile, households' sanitation facilities were almost 170 times more likely to require FSM (vs sewerage) than in the richest quintile. About one out of five households needing FSM had onsite piped water infrastructure, indicating domestic or reticulated wastewater infrastructure may be required if lacking for safe management of aqueous waste streams. FSM strategies must be included in future sanitation investment to achieve safe management of fecal wastes and protect public health.

  20. Considerações sobre a eletrogeração de peróxido de hidrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnini Christiane A. R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results that may be used as previous considerations to a hydrogen peroxide electrogeneration process design. A kinetic study of oxygen dissolution in aqueous solution is carried out and rate constants for oxygen dissolution are calculated. Voltammetric experiments on vitreous carbon cathode shown that the low saturation concentration drives the oxygen reduction process to a mass transfer controlled process which exhibits low values of limiting currents. Results have shown that the hydrogen peroxide formation and its decomposition to water are separated by 400 mV on the vitreous carbon surface. Diffusion coefficients for oxygen and hydrogen peroxide are calculated using data taken from Levich and Tafel plots. In a series of bulk electrolysis experiments hydrogen peroxide was electrogenerated at several potential values, and concentration profiles as a function of the electrical charged passed were obtained. Data shown that, since limiting current plateaus are poorly defined onto reticulated vitreous carbon, cathodic efficiency may be a good criterion for choosing the potential value in which hydrogen peroxide electrogeneration should be carried out.