WorldWideScience

Sample records for rethinking trust deborah

  1. Rethinking trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2009-06-01

    Will we ever learn? We'd barely recovered from Enron and WorldCom before we faced the subprime mortgage meltdown and more scandals that shook our trust in businesspeople. Which raises the question: Do we trust too much? In this article, Stanford professor and social psychologist Kramer explores the reasons we trust so easily--and, often, so unwisely. He explains that genetics and childhood learning make us predisposed to trust and that it's been a good survival mechanism. That said, our willingness to trust makes us vulnerable. Our sense of trust kicks in on remarkably simple cues, such as when people look like us or are part of our social group. We also rely on third parties to verify the character of others, sometimes to our detriment (as the victims of Bernard Madoff learned). Add in our illusions of invulnerability and our tendencies to see what we want to see and to overestimate our own judgment, and the bottom line is that we're often easily fooled. We need to develop tempered trust. For those who trust too much, that means reading cues better; for the distrustful, it means developing more receptive behaviors. Everyone should start with small acts of trust that encourage reciprocity and build up. Having a hedge against potential abuses also helps. Hollywood scriptwriters, for instance, register their treatments with the Writers Guild of America to prevent their ideas from being stolen by the executives they pitch. To attract the right relationships, people must strongly signal their own honesty, proactively allay concerns, and, if their trust is abused, retaliate. Trusting individuals in certain roles, which essentially means trusting the system that selects and trains them, also works but isn't foolproof. And don't count on due diligence alone for protection; constant vigilance is needed to make sure the landscape hasn't changed.

  2. Interview with Deborah Nolan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Nolan, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Deborah Nolan is Professor of Statistics and holds the Zaffaroni Family Chair in Undergraduate Education at the University of California-Berkeley, where she has also served as Associate Dean of Mathematical and Physical Sciences. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics. This interview…

  3. Rethinking Diplomatic Transformation Through Social Theories of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles

    In the 2012 Martin Wight Memorial Lecture, Nicholas Wheeler explored how trust might be built between political leaders, drawing primarily on how the interpersonal relationship between Reagan and Gorbachev changed the diplomatic relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. This pa...... and interpersonal level,' this paper suggests that investigations of diplomatic transformation through trustbuilding must include both international and societal components and examines the issues that must be considered to build a larger theory of state trust.......In the 2012 Martin Wight Memorial Lecture, Nicholas Wheeler explored how trust might be built between political leaders, drawing primarily on how the interpersonal relationship between Reagan and Gorbachev changed the diplomatic relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union...

  4. Re-thinking accountability: trust versus confidence in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, K; Marshall, M; Harrison, S

    2004-04-01

    In seeking to prevent a reoccurrence of scandals such as that involving cardiac surgery in Bristol, the UK government has adopted a model of regulation that uses rules and surveillance as a way of both improving the quality of care delivered and increasing confidence in healthcare institutions. However, this approach may actually act to reduce confidence and trust while also reducing the moral motivation of practitioners. Accountability in health care is discussed, and it is suggested that openness about the difficult dilemmas that arise when practitioners have a duty to be accountable to more than one audience may be an alternative means of restoring trust. A greater emphasis on the sharing of information between individual health professionals and their patients would increase trust and would allow patients to hold their doctors to account for the quality of care they receive. Concentrating more on developing trust by the sharing of information and less on the futile search for complete confidence in systems and rules may improve the quality of care delivered while also nurturing the moral motivation of professionals upon which the delivery of high quality health care depends.

  5. Corner Office Interview: Gates Foundation's Deborah Jacobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    U.S. libraries gave the world a top talent when Deborah Jacobs left her transformational role as City Librarian of Seattle in 2008 to head the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Global Libraries program, the international sibling to the U.S. Libraries program. The initiative fosters national-scale projects with grantees in transitioning countries…

  6. Meet EPA Chemical Engineer Deborah Luecken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Luecken is a research scientist who develops descriptions of the chemistry that occurs in the atmosphere to form ozone and other air pollutants. She works with a group developing a computer model that can predict how air pollution is formed

  7. Factors shaping interactions among community health workers in rural Ethiopia: rethinking workplace trust and teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Michelle M; Stephenson, Rob; Hadley, Craig; Sibley, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, a shortage of skilled health workers has prompted a shift toward community-based health workers taking on greater responsibility in the provision of select maternal and newborn health services. Research in mid- and high-income settings suggests that coworker collaboration increases productivity and performance. A major gap in this research, however, is the exploration of factors that influence teamwork among diverse community health worker cadres in rural, low-resource settings. The purpose of this study is to examine how sociodemographic and structural factors shape teamwork among community-based maternal and newborn health workers in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with health extension workers, community health development agents, and traditional birth attendants in 3 districts of the West Gojam Zone in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Communities were randomly selected from Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP) sites; health worker participants were recruited using a snowball sampling strategy. Fractional logit modeling and average marginal effects analyses were carried out to identify the influential factors for frequency of work interactions with each cadre. One hundred and ninety-four health workers participated in the study. A core set of factors-trust in coworkers, gender, and cadre-were influential for teamwork across groups. Greater geographic distance and perception of self-interested motivations were barriers to interactions with health extension workers, while greater food insecurity (a proxy for wealth) was associated with increased interactions with traditional birth attendants. Interventions that promote trust and gender sensitivity and improve perceptions of health worker motivations may help bridge the gap in health services delivery between low- and high-resource settings. Inter-cadre training may be one mechanism to increase trust and respect among diverse health workers, thereby increasing

  8. Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Söllner, Matthias; Benbasat, Izak; Gefen, David; Leimeister, Jan Marco; Pavlou, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Trust is the enabler of social interaction. Although the origins of research on trust traditionally lie outside the Information Systems (IS) domain, the importance of trust for IS research rapidly grew in the late 1990s, and it is still growing with the increasing ubiquity and advancement of technology in organizations, virtual teams, online markets, and user-technology interactions. Theoretically, the central role of trust is tied to the growing social change that Information and Communicati...

  9. Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Fojtů, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    This rigorous thesis is focused on a status of trust in an application practise in a Czech legislation with a context of historical aspects of institutes similar to trusts as well as actual legislation. The thesis includes also analyses of more difficult provisions concerning the trust, including economic impacts representing accounting and tax consequences. Also comparison with established modifications trusts in Europe and their possible utilization of the Czech point of view of the settlor...

  10. Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Bentham, R

    2016-01-01

    Rachel Bentham's 'Let All Tongues Flower' won her many new admirers for its 'openness to form' and 'strong yet subtle feminine sensibility'. It was also a Top 3 selling book on Amazon Kindle Women's Poetry. Here, in her new book 'Trust', she shows she is equally at home with the increasingly popular haiku form - using both classic 5-7-5 and free form haiku, she gives us more treasured and crafted glimpses into her 'unhindered and mostly joyful life'.

  11. Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Carro, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    Il lavoro eseguito ha per oggetto il trust, istituto, come noto, estraneo alla nostra cultura giuridica, tipico dei sistemi di common law, riconosciuto e regolato dalla Convenzione dell’ Aja, firmata il 1°luglio 1985, ratificata in Italia con L. 16 ottobre 1989, n. 364, ed entrata in vigore il 1° giugno 1992. La ricerca svolta ha, in primo luogo, esaminato la fattispecie, con un approccio comparatistico, analizzando, nella prima parte, il contenuto e la controversa natura giuridica della c...

  12. Control, Trust, and Rethinking Traditional Roles: Critical Elements in Creating a Mutually Beneficial University-School Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewison, Mitzi; Holliday, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Describes a partnership between a university graduate student and the principal and teachers of a traditional elementary school who collaborated to engage in study group sessions, keep professional journals, and read and discuss research articles on writing instruction. The paper addresses issues of building trust, equalizing power, and…

  13. A Reflective Conversation with Deborah Ruf, President of Talentigniter, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Ruf, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article is an interview with award-winning author and gifted children consultant, Deborah Ruf, PhD. In the interview, Ruf emphasizes the importance of parental planning for gifted children's growth and development. She speaks to children's social, emotional, and cognitive abilities and needs as factors in developing a balanced plan.…

  14. Rethinking Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    These three papers were presented at a symposium on rethinking diversity in human resource development (HRD) moderated by Neal Chalofsky at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Diversity: A Double-Edged Sword" (Sally F. Angus) presents the notion of work force diversity through two differing perspectives in order to…

  15. Deborah Tannen: He Said, She Said--Gender, Language, & Communication [and] Deborah Tannen: In Depth. Part 2. [Videotapes and Teaching Guide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    These curriculum-related materials include two videotapes and a 36-page teaching guide. The first videotape, "Deborah Tannen: He Said, She Said," with a running time of 50 minutes discusses: boys and girls, status and connection, directness and indirectness, public talk and private talk, ritual opposition, and conversational style, and a…

  16. “Get those voices at the table!”: Interview with Deborah Stone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.A.C. van Ostaijen (Mark); S.S. Jhagroe (Shivant)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Deborah Stone’s work on political reasoning, storytelling and metaphors has been a longstanding contribution to the development of public administration, political and policy sciences. In her book Policy Paradox and Political Reason published in 1988, she

  17. Rethinking schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, Thomas R

    2010-11-11

    How will we view schizophrenia in 2030? Schizophrenia today is a chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder that affects about one per cent of the world's population. After a century of studying schizophrenia, the cause of the disorder remains unknown. Treatments, especially pharmacological treatments, have been in wide use for nearly half a century, yet there is little evidence that these treatments have substantially improved outcomes for most people with schizophrenia. These current unsatisfactory outcomes may change as we approach schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder with psychosis as a late, potentially preventable stage of the illness. This 'rethinking' of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is profoundly different from the way we have seen this illness for the past century, yields new hope for prevention and cure over the next two decades.

  18. Rethinking Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Despite more than half a century of psychological research on creativity we are still far from a clear understanding of the creative process, its antecedents and consequences and, most of all, the ways in which we can effectively support creativity. This is primarily due to a narrow focus...... on creative individuals isolated from culture and society. Rethinking Creativity proposes a fundamental review of this position and argues that creativity is not only a psychological but a sociocultural phenomenon. This edited volume aims to relocate creativity from inside individual minds to the material......, symbolic and social world of culture. It brings together eminent social and cultural psychologists who study dynamic, transformative and emergent phenomena, and invites them to conceptualise creativity in ways that depart from mainstream definitions and theoretical models existing in past and present...

  19. The Relationship between School Climate, Trust, Enabling Structures, and Perceived School Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerson, Deborah R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of Deborah R. Mayerson was to assess the relative impact of climate, trust, and bureaucratic structure upon teachers' perceptions of organizational effectiveness. An existing data set compiled by Nancy Casella (2006) for her dissertation was analyzed. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of a random sample of 220 public school…

  20. Rethinking image indexing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2017-01-01

    Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785......Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785...

  1. Trust Trust Me (The Additivity)

    OpenAIRE

    Mano , Ken; Sakurada , Hideki; Tsukada , Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Part 4: Trust Metrics; International audience; We present a mathematical formulation of a trust metric using a quality and quantity pair. Under a certain assumption, we regard trust as an additive value and define the soundness of a trust computation as not to exceed the total sum. Moreover, we point out the importance of not only soundness of each computed trust but also the stability of the trust computation procedure against changes in trust value assignment. In this setting, we define tru...

  2. An empirical assessment of the short-term impacts of a reading of Deborah Zoe Laufer's drama Informed Consent on attitudes and intentions to participate in genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Erin; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Cheek-O'Donnell, Sydney; Wong, Bob; Case, Gretchen A; Johnson, Erin; Matheson, Trent; Wilson, Alena; Robinson, Nicole R; Rawlings, Jared; Horejsi, Brooke; Lopez, Ana Maria; Byington, Carrie L

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the short-term impact of the play "Informed Consent" by Deborah Zoe Laufer (a fictionalized look at the controversy over specimens collected from the Havasupai Tribe for diabetes research in 1989) on perceptions of trust, willingness to donate biospecimens, and attitudes toward harm and privacy among the medical and undergraduate students, faculty, and the public in the Intermountain West. Surveys were administered before and after a staged reading of the play by professional actors. Survey items included the short form Trust in Medical Researchers, and single-item questions about group identity, ethics of genetic testing in children, and willingness to donate biospecimens. In addition, respondents were given the option to answer open-ended questions through e-mail. Out of the 481 who attended the play, 421 completed both the pre and post surveys, and 166 participants completed open-ended questions online approximately 1 week after the play. Across all participants, there were significant declines for trust in medical researchers and for the survey item "is it ethical for investigators to test children for adult onset diseases" (p < .001 for both) following the play. There was a significant increase in agreement to improve group identity protections (p < .001) and there were no differences on willingness to donate biospecimens to research (p = .777). Qualitative data provided extensive contextual data supporting these perspectives. This is one of the first studies to document short-term impacts of a theatrical performance on both attitudes and behavioral intentions toward research ethics and clinical research participation. Future research should continue to explore the impact of theatrical performances among public and investigators on the ethical issues and complexities in clinical research.

  3. Measuring Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward Ludwig; Laibson, David I.; Scheinkman, Jose A.; Soutter, Christine L.

    2000-01-01

    We combine two experiments and a survey to measure trust and trustworthiness—two key components of social capital. Standard attitudinal survey questions about trust predict trustworthy behavior in our experiments much better than they predict trusting behavior. Trusting behavior in the experiments is predicted by past trusting behavior outside of the experiments. When individuals are closer socially, both trust and trustworthiness rise. Trustworthiness declines when partners are of differen...

  4. Twenty Years of Tannen: An Extensive Bibliography of the Writings of Deborah F. Tannen, 1976-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullum, Linda, Comp.; And Others

    This unannotated bibliography features 99 listings of books and articles on, among other topics, language, linguistics, conversation, and gender, all written by the influential sociolinguist, Deborah Tannen. It also offers 10 listings of works co-authored or co-edited by Tannen. Although the bibliography focuses on written works published in…

  5. Numerical simulation of a viscoelastic flow through a concentric annular with BSD scheme, influence of the Deborah number; Simulacao numerica do escoamento laminar de fluido viscoelastico PTT (Phan-Thien-Tanner) em tubo anular concentrico - influencia do numero de Deborah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambros, Alder C.; Vitorassi, Pedro H.; Franco, Admilson T.; Morales, Rigoberto E.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Matins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Engenharia de Perfuracao

    2008-07-01

    The success of oil well drilling process depends on the correct prediction of the velocities and stresses fields inside the gap between the drill string and the rock formation. Using CFD is possible to predict the behavior of the drilling fluid flow along the annular space, from the bottom to the top of the well. Commonly the drilling fluid is modeled as a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. An alternative is to employ a non-linear viscoelastic model, like the one developed by Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT). In the present work the PTT constitutive equation is used to model the drilling fluid flow along the annular space. Thus, this work investigates the influence of the Deborah number on the laminar flow pattern through the numerical solution of the equations formed by the coupled velocity-pressure-stress fields. The results are analyzed and validated against the analytical solution for the fully developed annular pipe flow. The relation between the Deborah number (De) and the entry length is investigated, along with the influence of high values of Deborah number on the friction factor, stress and velocity fields. (author)

  6. [Review of Talking voices: Repetition, dialogue, and imagery in conversational discourse. 2nd edition. By Deborah Tannen

    OpenAIRE

    Dingemanse, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reviews the book, Talking voices: Repetition, dialogue, and imagery in conversational discourse. 2nd edition by Deborah Tannen. This book is the same as the 1989 original except for an added introduction. This introduction situates TV in the context of intertextuality and gives a survey of relevant research since the book first appeared. The strength of the book lies in its insightful analysis of the auditory side of conversation. Yet talking voices have always been embedded in richly context...

  7. Rethinking Education and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    In "Rethinking Education and Poverty," William G. Tierney brings together scholars from around the world to examine the complex relationship between poverty and education in the twenty first century. International in scope, this book assembles the best contemporary thinking about how education can mediate class and improve the lives of…

  8. Ericksen number and Deborah number cascade predictions of a model for liquid crystalline polymers for simple shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D. Harley; Leal, L. Gary; García-Cervera, Carlos J.; Ceniceros, Hector D.

    2007-02-01

    We consider the behavior of the Doi-Marrucci-Greco (DMG) model for nematic liquid crystalline polymers in planar shear flow. We found the DMG model to exhibit dynamics in both qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental observations reported by Larson and Mead [Liq. Cryst. 15, 151 (1993)] for the Ericksen number and Deborah number cascades. For increasing shear rates within the Ericksen number cascade, the DMG model displays three distinct regimes: stable simple shear, stable roll cells, and irregular structure accompanied by disclination formation. In accordance with experimental observations, the model predicts both ±1 and ±1/2 disclinations. Although ±1 defects form via the ridge-splitting mechanism first identified by Feng, Tao, and Leal [J. Fluid Mech. 449, 179 (2001)], a new mechanism is identified for the formation of ±1/2 defects. Within the Deborah number cascade, with increasing Deborah number, the DMG model exhibits a streamwise banded texture, in the absence of disclinations and roll cells, followed by a monodomain wherein the mean orientation lies within the shear plane throughout the domain.

  9. Do professional boundaries limit trust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Elizabeth; Hennessy, Julia; Abbott, Max; Hughes, Frances

    2018-02-01

    The present study uses stories of mental health support workers talking about their relationship with clients to wonder about how trust might be limited by the professional boundaries of nursing. The writing arose out of an appreciative inquiry study looking at the role of mental health support workers. Participants talked about how they worked with their clients. As researchers, we were struck by the depth of trust that was built between worker and client. We have brought a phenomenological lens to wonder about the nature of trust, as shown in the data. The original research sought to identify what was working well for mental health support workers. The present study brings a phenomenological interpretive approach to four stories from the discovery phase of the study, with our thinking informed by Heidegger and van Manen. Interviews were conducted with 26 mental health support workers and six stakeholders in 2012-2103. For this paper, we drew from those transcripts stories of three mental health support workers and one stakeholder. Through a process of talking together, writing, and rewriting, we wondered about the meaning within these stories, with a strong focus on how trust was enacted. We saw that mental health support workers in this study, by not carrying the boundaries of being 'professional', seemed free to grow a stronger relationship of trust which was therapeutic. We ask: Is it time to rethink how professional boundaries limit the level of trust achieved with clients to the detriment of impactful care? © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. Review Article: Inventing Historical Myths—Deborah S. Cornelius. Hungary in World War II. Caught in the Cauldron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pastor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the validity of Deborah S. Cornelius’s claims which she presents in her recently published book on interwar and World War II Hungary. These exonerate the revisionist, anti-Semitic and war-time policies of the Horthy regime. The monograph also presents the Hungarian leaders in an undeservedly positive light. The author of the review demonstrates that Cornelius’s representation of the past was accomplished by the selective reading of primary and secondary sources. Cornelius also commits too many factual errors in order to justify some of her assertions.

  11. Deborah Cadbury, Princes at War: The British Royal Family’s Private Battle in the Second World War

    OpenAIRE

    Baldoli, Claudia; Petrella, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Le vicende della famiglia reale inglese durante la Seconda guerra mondiale sono al centro del libro di Deborah Cadbury, scrittrice di storia pluripremiata e per trent’anni producer della BBC. Il suo lavoro parte dalla crisi che condusse nel 1936 all’abdicazione di Edoardo VIII, che rinunciò al trono per sposare Wallis Simpson, e si snoda negli anni della crescente minaccia nazista in Europa. Il fratello minore Albert, che divenne re con il nome di Giorgio VI, pur afflitto dalla balbuzie e da ...

  12. Rethinking e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    “Technology alone does not deliver educational success. It only becomes valuable in education if learners and teachers can do something useful with it” (E-Learning: The Partnership Challenge, 2001, p. 24). This quotation could be used as a bon mot for this chapter. Our main goal is to rethink e-learning...... by shifting the focus of attention from learning resources (learning objects) to learning activities, which also implies a refocusing of the pedagogical discussion of the learning process.Firstly, we try to identify why e-learning has not been able to deliver the educational results as expected five years ago...

  13. Trust matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lise Rosendal

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a contribution to the debate about health service utilisation and the role of trust in fostering demand for health services in sub-Saharan Africa. It is framed as a narrative literature review based on a thematic analysis of nine empirical, qualitative studies. For the purposes...... of this article trust is defined as a voluntary course of action, which involves the optimistic expectation that the trustee will do no harm to the trustor and is increasingly perceived as an important influence on health system functioning. The article looks at trust issues in interpersonal, intergroup...... and institutional situations. The findings of the review point to four elements that are important for trust to develop in health sector relationships: the sensitive use of discretionary power by health workers, perceived empathy by patients of the health workers, the quality of medical care and workplace...

  14. Hablando se entiende la gente,¿o no?.Comunicación intergéneros según Deborah Tannen

    OpenAIRE

    Valero Valero, Dori

    2001-01-01

    Setenes Jornades de Foment de la Investigació de la FCHS (Any 2001-2002) La lingüista norteamericana, Deborah TANNEN, ha llevado a cabo grandes esfuerzos en la investigación de la comunicación humana, centrándose, fundamentalmente, en las diferencias conversacionales (estilos de conversación) existentes entre mujeres y hombres. En HABLANDO SE ENTIENDE LA GENTE, ¿O NO?. Comunicación intergéneros según Deborah Tannen, pretendemos repasar los aspectos más significativos de estos e...

  15. Rethinking Project Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per

    2012-01-01

    . The chapter argues for a rethinking process due to pervasiveness and complexity in the contemporary project environment where rethinking is needed in order to stay competitive. The suggested approach for the rethinking project management is a framing process where body of ideas is established......Projects are everywhere across different sectors, industries and countries. Project management is no longer a sub-discipline of engineering and other rather technical disciplines but is also used for many other purposes. Even though practice has changed dramatically over the years, the models...... and methodologies for project management has been fairly static and has therefore received substantial criticism for a lack of relevance to practice. Several scholars have therefore started to think more widely about projects and project management conceptualized as rethinking project management. However this theme...

  16. Can we trust robots?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Can we trust robots? Responding to the literature on trust and e-trust, this paper asks if the question of trust is applicable to robots, discusses different approaches to trust, and analyses some preconditions for trust. In the course of the paper a phenomenological-social approach to trust is

  17. From Stereotypes of Gender Difference to Stereotypes of Theory: A Response to Hayley Davis' Review of Deborah Tannen's "Gender and Discourse."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerian, Keli

    1997-01-01

    Responding to Hayley Davis' view of gender in discourse, asserts that she misinterprets Deborah Tannen as claiming that all men are well-intentioned and misunderstood, and that this misinterpretation is a theme appearing throughout Davis' review of Tannen's collection of essays, "Gender and Discourse". (29 references) (CK)

  18. Rethinking the mathematics curriculum

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyles, Celia; Woodhouse, Geoffrey

    1998-01-01

    At a time when political interest in mathematics education is at its highest, this book demonstrates that the issues are far from straightforward. A wide range of international contributors address such questions as: What is mathematics, and what is it for? What skills does mathematics education need to provide as technology advances? What are the implications for teacher education? What can we learn from past attempts to change the mathematics curriculum? Rethinking the Mathematics Curriculum offers stimulating discussions, showing much is to be learnt from the differences in culture, national expectations, and political restraints revealed in the book. This accessible book will be of particular interest to policy makers, curriculum developers, educators, researchers and employers as well as the general reader.

  19. Rethinking the Enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Elkana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this introductory statement, given at the beginning of the Aboagora symposium in Turku in August 2011, Yehuda Elkana highlights the need, in accordance with the title of the conference, to rethink rather than unthink the Enlightenment. Indeed, the Enlightenment remained an unfinished project, but one should never forget that this era formed the basis for the greatest and most important creation of knowledge in all areas for 300 years. Over the last 100 or more years, however, cracks have started to appear in this edifice, Elkana argues: researchers have started to realise that one cannot really distinguish the rational from the irrational and that being contextual does not necessarily mean being relativist.

  20. Rethinking Sexual Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane

    2017-04-01

    Over the last two decades sexuality has emerged as a key theme in debates about citizenship, leading to the development of the concept of sexual citizenship. This article reviews this literature and identifies four main areas of critical framing: work that contests the significance of sexuality to citizenship; critiques that focus on the possibilities and limitations of mobilising the language of citizenship in sexual politics; analyses of sexual citizenship in relation to nationalisms and border making; and literature that critically examines western constructions of sexuality and sexual politics underpinning understandings of sexual citizenship. In order to progress the field theoretically, the article seeks to extend critiques of sexual citizenship focusing on two key aspects of its construction: the sexual citizen-subject and spaces of sexual citizenship. It argues for a critical rethink that encompasses a de-centring of a 'western-centric' focus in order to advance understandings of how sexual citizenship operates both in the Global North and South.

  1. Rethinking macroeconomic policies for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayyar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has created an opportunity to rethink macroeconomics for development. Such rethinking is both necessary and desirable. It is essential to redefine macroeconomic objectives so that the emphasis is on fostering employment creation and supporting economic growth instead of the focus on price stability alone. It is just as important to rethink macroeconomic policies which cannot simply be used for the management of inflation and the elimination of macroeconomic imbalances, since fiscal and monetary policies are powerful and versatile instruments in the pursuit of development objectives. In doing so, it is essential to the overcome the constraints embedded in orthodox economic thinking and recognize the constraints implicit in the politics of ideology and interests.

  2. Trusted Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Torbensen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    remote access via IP-based devices such as smartphones. The Trusted Domain platform fits existing legacy technologies by managing their interoperability and access controls, and it seeks to avoid the security issues of relying on third-party servers outside the home. It is a distributed system...... of wireless standards, limited resources of embedded systems, etc. Taking these challenges into account, we present a Trusted Domain home automation platform, which dynamically and securely connects heterogeneous networks of Short-Range Wireless devices via simple non-expert user. interactions, and allows......In the digital age of home automation and with the proliferation of mobile Internet access, the intelligent home and its devices should be accessible at any time from anywhere. There are many challenges such as security, privacy, ease of configuration, incompatible legacy devices, a wealth...

  3. Trusted Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; PIERSON, LYNDON G.; WITZKE, EDWARD L.

    1999-01-01

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  4. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  5. La fotografía de moda y la puesta en escena a través de la obra de Deborah Turbeville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Guerrero González-Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre moda y fotografía ha sido desde siempre muy estrecha y fructífera. Dado que la moda es un producto comercial, debe ser presentada al público, tiene que comunicarse y venderse. En este sentido, las fotogra-fías de moda son muy efectivas porque establecen una comunicación inmediata con el espectador. Sin embargo, el fotógrafo de moda no sólo crea imágenes bellas para vender. A través de sus relatos, el fotógrafo sugiere y hace soñar, propone para hacer sentir y para transmitir una sensación. A la hora de crear un determinado ambiente, la fotografía de moda entra en relación y bebe de otras artes, como la pintura, la arquitectura, el teatro o el cine. Éste es el caso de la fotógrafa que nos ocupa, Deborah Turbeville. Partiendo de este contexto, el presente artículo estudiará y analizará la fotografía de moda realizada por Deborah Turbeville, recientemente fallecida a los ochenta y un años de edad. A lo largo de su dilatada carrera, la mencionada fotógrafa fue capaz de crear su propia visión, a través de unas puestas en escena llenas de poesía y misterio. El principal objetivo será tratar de establecer la concepción personal de la fotografía de moda en Deborah Turbeville y detectar, así mismo, cuáles son los elementos que subyacen en sus imágenes, además de la idea de elegancia y de belleza imperecedera. Se tratarán de establecer las analogías entre las imágenes de Deborah Turbeville y la fotografía pictorialista. La metodología se basa en la localización y recopilación de fuentes documentales. Dentro de las fuentes primarias, se estudian las obras publicadas hasta la fecha con las imágenes de Deborah Turbeville, especialmente la última publicación, Deborah Turbeville: The Fashion Pictures, Rizzoli, 2011. 

  6. Rethink Your Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Phyllis; Patton-Ku, Dana; Fidler, Cheri; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2017-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are linked to obesity; hospitals are a priority setting to reduce intake. This article describes the development, implementation, and results of a focused intervention to reduce SSB sales within a hospital setting. After a formative research process, Rethink Your Drink was launched at a children's hospital in San Diego. The initiative consisted of an educational intervention using the stoplight system to categorize beverages as red, yellow, or green based on sugar content. Beverage sales data were collected for 3 months prior, during the 12-month intervention, and for 4 months after the intervention ended. Monthly red beverage sales decreased from an average of 56% during baseline to 32% at the end of the data collection period (p sales increased from an average of 12.2% during baseline to 38% at the end of the data collection period (p Sales revenue for all drinks remained constant. The intervention resulted in a decrease in SSB sales and an increase in sales of healthier beverage choices. Such interventions can play an important role in obesity prevention and may be more feasible for smaller hospitals with limited resources.

  7. Rethinking language in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton; Shankey, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we invite a rethinking of traditional perspectives of language in autism. We advocate a theoretical reappraisal that offers a corrective to the dominant and largely tacitly held view that language, in its essence, is a referential system and a reflection of the individual's cognition. Drawing on scholarship in Conversation Analysis and linguistic anthropology, we present a multidimensional view of language, showing how it also functions as interactional accomplishment, social action, and mode of experience. From such a multidimensional perspective, we revisit data presented by other researchers that include instances of prototypical features of autistic speech, giving them a somewhat different-at times complementary, at times alternative-interpretation. In doing so, we demonstrate that there is much at stake in the view of language that we as researchers bring to our analysis of autistic speech. Ultimately, we argue that adopting a multidimensional view of language has wide ranging implications, deepening our understanding of autism's core features and developmental trajectory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Rethinking headache chronification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P; Smitherman, Todd A; Penzien, Donald B; Lipton, Richard B; Houle, Timothy T

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this series is to examine several threats to the interpretation of headache chronification studies that arise from methodological issues. The study of headache chronification has extensively used longitudinal designs with 2 or more measurement occasions. Unfortunately, application of these designs, when combined with the common practice of extreme score selection as well as the extant challenges in measuring headache frequency rates (eg, unreliability, regression to the mean), induces substantive threats to accurate interpretation of findings. Partitioning the amount of observed variance in rates of chronification and remission attributable to regression artifacts is a critical yet previously overlooked step to learning more about headache as a potentially progressive disease. In this series on rethinking headache chronification, we provide an overview of methodological issues in this area (this paper), highlight the influence of rounding error on estimates of headache frequency (second paper), examine the influence of random error and regression artifacts on estimates of chronification and remission (third paper), and consider future directions for this line of research (fourth paper). © 2013 American Headache Society.

  9. Rethinking Sexual Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades sexuality has emerged as a key theme in debates about citizenship, leading to the development of the concept of sexual citizenship. This article reviews this literature and identifies four main areas of critical framing: work that contests the significance of sexuality to citizenship; critiques that focus on the possibilities and limitations of mobilising the language of citizenship in sexual politics; analyses of sexual citizenship in relation to nationalisms and border making; and literature that critically examines western constructions of sexuality and sexual politics underpinning understandings of sexual citizenship. In order to progress the field theoretically, the article seeks to extend critiques of sexual citizenship focusing on two key aspects of its construction: the sexual citizen-subject and spaces of sexual citizenship. It argues for a critical rethink that encompasses a de-centring of a ‘western-centric’ focus in order to advance understandings of how sexual citizenship operates both in the Global North and South. PMID:28490816

  10. Rethinking Permissioned Blockchains

    OpenAIRE

    Vukolic, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Current blockchain platforms, especially the recent permissioned systems, have architectural limitations: smart contracts run sequentially, all node executes all smart contracts, consensus protocols are hard-coded, the trust model is static and not exible, and non-determinism in smart-contract execution poses serious problems. Overcoming these limitations is critical for improving both functional properties of blockchains, such as con dentiality and consistency, as well as their non-functiona...

  11. The Re-Think Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The Re-Think Tree is a simple framework to help individuals assess and improve their behaviors related to environmental issues. The branches of the tree in order of priority are refuse, reduce, re-use, and recycle. Roots of the tree include such things as public opinion, education, and watchdog groups. (KS)

  12. Rethinking Popular Culture and Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who…

  13. Equilibrium Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Anderlini; Daniele Terlizzese

    2009-01-01

    We build a simple model of trust as an equilibrium phenomenon, departing from standard "selfish" preferences in a minimal way. Agents who are on the receiving end of an other to transact can choose whether to cheat and take away the entire surplus, taking into account a "cost of cheating." The latter has an idiosyncratic component (an agent's type), and a socially determined one. The smaller the mass of agents who cheat, the larger the cost of cheating suffered by those who cheat. Depending o...

  14. Enacting Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Small and removed from the Spanish mainland, the Enclave of Ceuta has always depended\\ud on flows of goods and labour out of the Moroccan hinterland, with individuals from\\ud different ethnic and religious groups forming informal, flexible and personal economic\\ud bonds based on mutual ‘confianza’ (trust). Since its entry into the European Union in 1986,\\ud the Spanish government has erected a border-wall around the enclave, and introduced new\\ud migration policies branding many informal work...

  15. Trusting the state, trusting each other?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Dinesen, Peter Thisted

    2016-01-01

    Trust in state institutions is a prominent explanation of social trust. However, previous—mainly cross-sectional—analyses provide limited causal evidence regarding the relationship between institutional trust and social trust and it is thus essentially unknown whether an observed relationship...... reflects reverse causality (social trust forming institutional trust), or both forms of trust reflecting deep-seated dispositions (common confounding). Against the backdrop of the shortcomings of previous cross-sectional analyses, this paper utilizes two Danish panel surveys containing measures of both...... types of trust for the same individuals surveyed at multiple points in time over a long time-span (up to 18 years) to address the potentially reverse and/or spurious relationship. Using individual fixed effects and cross-lagged panel models, the results provide strong evidence of trust in state...

  16. Learning to Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2005-01-01

    Trust is full of puzzle and paradox.Trust is both rational and emotional. Trust can go beyond calculative self-interest, but has its limits.People may want to trust, while they may also feel threatened by it.If trust is not in place prior to a relationship, on the basis of institutions, prior

  17. Rethinking Educational Evaluation for Quality Educational Outcomes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rethinking Educational Evaluation for Quality Educational Outcomes. ... Educational Evaluation (EE) provides information for action by offering invaluable knowledge in terms of theoretical and practical ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  18. Trust us Trust Thorp Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, John

    1995-01-01

    The history of the nuclear industry in the UK has been dominated by Sellafield reprocessing site in west Cumbria. The site, formerly owned by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority was transferred to the newly-formed British Nuclear Fuels plc in 1971. Although trade union representation existed at Sellafield before the emergence of BNFL, it is only after this date that collective trade union activity began to emerge. In 1977, after a long running dispute with management about the issue of radiation dose uptake, the workforce went on strike, forcing the management to question their previous 'need to know' attitude and to improve industrial relations. In 1984, it was recognised that the lobbying influence of trade unions within politics, and especially the Labour party could be used to greater effect to challenge potentially -damaging influence of anti-nuclear campaigners. The National Campaign for the Nuclear Industry (NCNI) was born, combining nine industrial and non-industrial trade unions within the nuclear industry. Its task during the last ten years has been to put forward the interests of its members collectively and to secure the, role of nuclear power. within a balanced energy policy in the political arena. In dome so, it has gained a credible voice within both the trade union movement and the Labour party. The new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) received strong support from the NCNI during its construction and commissioning phases. When it became clear that the anti-nuclear lobby had gained the upper hand and were beginning to seriously delay the necessary legal instruments required to start the plant, the power of collective action was once again recognised, and the TRUST US campaign was born. The campaign was run and organised by a clerks committee and fronted by the Trade Unions at Sellafield., and turned out to be one of the most successful] trade union campaigns in recent history. The first task involved getting, the entire workforce on

  19. Introduction to "Rethinking Business History in Modern China"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hsin Yeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this special issue of Cross-Currents, the contributing authors look at how business linked China and the world from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, and how Chinese and foreign companies interacted with one another, as well as with political power, long before today. Some authors concentrate on material connections, including shipping, banking, the building of railroads, the spread of the motion picture industry, international treaties, and the formation of knowledge, while others investigate the role of business culture and how entrepreneurship and networks of trust crossed borders. Both of these aspects are set against the backdrop of simultaneous Chinese state-building efforts that became evident in the state creation of a national market and the formation of political borders. All of the authors collected here draw on case studies of individual entrepreneurs or companies, just as they draw on the new historical and theoretical scholarship summarized above to fill out the picture of China’s economic development within global processes. As the contributions to this issue demonstrate, rethinking Chinese business history also forces us to rethink Chinese urban history more generally... The new pictures of business practice presented here entail a remapping of the spatial dynamics of such activities and thereby a new understanding of the making of urban China...

  20. Rethinking the Space for Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What happens to people’s sense of belonging when globalization meets with proclaimed regional identities resting heavily on conceptions of religion and ethnicity? Who are the actors stressing cultural heritage and authenticity as tools for self-understanding? In Rethinking the Space for Religion...... as a political and cultural argument. The approach makes a nuanced and fresh survey for researchers and other initiated readers to engage in....

  1. Towards rethinking Project portfolio management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian; Svejvig, Per

    the last five years. Utilizing the theoretical lens proposed by Svejvig and Andersen (2015), we apply two complementary analytical perspectives to classify and analyze the stocks. One perspective, denoted as classical project management (CPM), highlights key characteristics of conventional research....... A second perspective, denoted as rethinking project management (RPM), highlights characteristics of progressive research. Not surprisingly, characteristics from CPM are very dominant in the stock of most cited publications of all years — instrumentality and controllability in particular. In the newest...

  2. Trust in Scientific Publishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummels, Harry; Roosendaal, Hans E.

    2001-01-01

    Trust is an important phenomenon to reduce organisational complexity and uncertainty. In the literature many types of trust are distinguished. An important framework to understand the variety and development of trust in organisations is provided by Zucker. She distinguishes three types of trust:

  3. Trust and Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordum, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The concept and phenomenon of trust and its relation to leadership has recently come into focus. What role does trust play? Can trust be created strategically? Questions like these are often raised. How we conceive of and conceptualize trust is not as often discussed. Among those conceptualizations...... flexibility of form for example, the idea that one with leadership tools can consciously bring forth trust. In the conclusion, the question about trust communication is addressed. In this section I argue that trust is positively value-laden, becausesincerity is a functional and pragmatic condition...

  4. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper focuses on the leadership challenge of balancing trust and control. The relation between trust and control has for a long time been a puzzling issue for management researchers. In the paper I first show that there has been a dramatic change in the way the relation between trust...... and control has been conceptualized in trust research. While the relation between trust and control earlier was conceptualized as a more or less stable balance between trust and control, more recent research conceptualizes the relation between trust and control more as a dynamical process that involves...... an ongoing process of balancing the relation between trust and control. Second, taking the departure in the recent conceptualization of the balance between trust and control as an interactive process I discuss the challenges for management in handling this more subtle balancing of trust and control...

  5. Trust in vehicle technology

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Guy, H.; Stanton, Neville, A.; Salmon, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Driver trust has potentially important implications for how vehicle technology is used and interacted with. In this paper it will be seen how driver trust functions and how it can be understood and manipulated by insightful vehicle design. It will review the theoretical literature to define steps that can be taken establish trust in vehicle technology in the first place, maintain trust in the long term, and even re-establish trust that has been lost along the way. The implication throughout i...

  6. Building trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Meriel

    1995-01-01

    'Activate' is the energy magazine for secondary schools and is part of the Education Programme which is managed on behalf of the British Nuclear Industry Forum by AEA Technology. activate is the flagship communication device between the British Nuclear Industry Forum's Education Programme and secondary schools in the UK. It was developed from a previous publication, Nuclear Bulletin. There is a need for the nuclear industry to build trust with teachers and students in the UK, where for a long time, everything that the industry has said, written or printed has been disregarded by school teachers as propaganda. Over the last few years the industry has put in a great deal of effort to position itself as a provider of educationally sound and socially acceptable information. 'Activate' was an evolution of this idea and there was a hole in the market for a lively, activity and article based magazine that could be used in the classroom. The target audience is principally teachers of science, mathematics and geography, but also includes teachers of art,, English and history with students of between 11 and 18. The results were very positive in that teachers appreciated the colourful and lively nature of activate and they felt that it provided information and opinions in an un biased and non-propagandist way. Their comments about layout, number of activities style of presentation were taken into account and during the summer of 1994 activate was remodelled ready for re launch in September. The feedback so far is good with more teachers signing up every week to receive their own free copy

  7. Rethinking political correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Robin J; Meyerson, Debra E; Davidson, Martin N

    2006-09-01

    Legal and cultural changes over the past 40 years ushered unprecedented numbers of women and people of color into companies' professional ranks. Laws now protect these traditionally underrepresented groups from blatant forms of discrimination in hiring and promotion. Meanwhile, political correctness has reset the standards for civility and respect in people's day-to-day interactions. Despite this obvious progress, the authors' research has shown that political correctness is a double-edged sword. While it has helped many employees feel unlimited by their race, gender, or religion,the PC rule book can hinder people's ability to develop effective relationships across race, gender, and religious lines. Companies need to equip workers with skills--not rules--for building these relationships. The authors offer the following five principles for healthy resolution of the tensions that commonly arise over difference: Pause to short-circuit the emotion and reflect; connect with others, affirming the importance of relationships; question yourself to identify blind spots and discover what makes you defensive; get genuine support that helps you gain a broader perspective; and shift your mind-set from one that says, "You need to change," to one that asks, "What can I change?" When people treat their cultural differences--and related conflicts and tensions--as opportunities to gain a more accurate view of themselves, one another, and the situation, trust builds and relationships become stronger. Leaders should put aside the PC rule book and instead model and encourage risk taking in the service of building the organization's relational capacity. The benefits will reverberate through every dimension of the company's work.

  8. Calculativeness and trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Williamson’s characterisation of calculativeness as inimical to trust contradicts most sociological trust research. However, a similar argument is found within trust phenomenology. This paper re-investigates Williamson’s argument from the perspective of Løgstrup’s phenomenological theory of trust....... Contrary to Williamson, however, Løgstrup’s contention is that trust, not calculativeness, is the default attitude and only when suspicion is awoken does trust falter. The paper argues that while Williamson’s distinction between calculativeness and trust is supported by phenomenology, the analysis needs...... to take actual subjective experience into consideration. It points out that, first, Løgstrup places trust alongside calculativeness as a different mode of engaging in social interaction, rather conceiving of trust as a state or the outcome of a decision-making process. Secondly, the analysis must take...

  9. Dimensions of trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Georg Simmel is the seminal author on trust within sociology, but though inspired by Simmel, subsequent studies of intersubjective trust have failed to address Simmel’s suggestion that trust is as differentiated as the social relations of which it is part. Rather, trust has been studied within...... limited sets of exchange or work relations. This article revisits Simmel’s concept of trust as social form in order to investigate this differentiation. From an interview study, the differentiation and limits of trust are analysed within different types of social relations. Trust is found to vary greatly...... in scope and mode influenced by the intersecting dimensions of relations, objects and situations. Furthermore, trust exists between an outer threshold of expected deceit and an inner threshold of confident reliance. The findings from the qualitative study contribute new knowledge on the diversity of trust...

  10. The Danish Agenda for Rethinking Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Grex, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the similarities and differences between the Danish Re-thinking Project Management initiative named Project Half Double (PHD) and the rethinking project man-agement (RPM) research stream. The paper furthermore discusses how PHD and RPM can inspire...... ideas and local implementations. Findings – RPM and PHD share a focus on value creation, social processes, learning and complexity while PHD also focuses on lean thinking, agile thinking, front-end loading and leadership, which are largely topics beyond the RPM research stream. Originality...... a foundation for further development of both rethinking project management and Project Half Double....

  11. The Danish Agenda for Rethinking Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Grex, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the similarities and differences between the Danish Re-thinking Project Management initiative named Project Half Double (PHD) and the rethinking project man-agement (RPM) research stream. The paper furthermore discusses how PHD and RPM can inspire...... a foundation for further development of both rethinking project management and Project Half Double....... each other in research and practice. Design/methodology/approach – This is an empirical paper based on collaborative research between in-dustry and researchers. PHD has developed principles and practices driven by industry consisting of 10 leading stars and the impact, leadership and flow (ILF) method...

  12. Overview of royalty trusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panarites, P.

    1996-01-01

    The nature of royalty trusts as a means of financing exploration, development, production, and refining of oil sand and heavy oil to produce competitively marketable petroleum products, was reviewed. Attributes of the two distinct classes of royalty trusts - reflexive class and the fundamental class royalty trusts - and the considerations underlying each one, were summarized. The overall conclusion was that the future performance of conventional oil and gas royalty trusts (reflexive class) will depend heavily on interest rate levels and management's ability to complete acquisitions financed with new trust unit issues. Fundamental class royalty trusts also offer long term pure exposure to the underlying business, in addition to yield

  13. Looking for Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    Trust and surveillance are often seen as opposites. Trust is regularly characterized as the glue that holds society together, while surveillance is seen as corrosive. However, in Scandinavia high levels of trust and surveillance coexist. It is therefore interesting to investigate...... if there is a connection between these phenomena and ask what is the role of trust in the spread of surveillance in Scandinavia? The aim of this paper is: 1) to investigate the role of trust in the history of the Danish DNA database and 2) to experiment with Actor-Network-Theory (ANT) as an ap-proach in studies of trust....

  14. Rethinking Interaction in Creative Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter

    The use of digital tools has become central in many creative practices. However, research into the design and use of such tools has thus far fallen in between the disciplinary cracks between HCI and Creativity Research. In this position paper, I offer a brief overview of our work on exploring...... and developing digital tools for collaborative creative work that integrates approaches and insights from these two disciplines. On this basis, I offer two theoretical perspectives for discussion at the the Rethinking Interactions workshop: shearing layers, building on studies of architecure in use [Brand 1994...

  15. Trust arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelman, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    cycle has a complex of general machine building technologies which permit, if necessary, to organize in a very short period, production of non-traditional articles and avoid limitation of working places. This is well proved by the experience of 'Elemash', where in connection with the decrease of demand for nuclear fuel after the accident in Chernobyl, different products are now produced, equipment for dairy industry, tubular, heating elements, hard-alloy tooling for metal cutting and mining industries, a variety of domestic appliances. This peculiar 'conversion' permitted not only preserve the staff but provide employment of youth. We concentrate our attention on one more social side of activity of our enterprise, more of a few in the town having stable interior and exterior market for its products; this is very important in the period of newly-born market economy in Russia. Annual turnover of 'Elemash', only for export of nuclear fuel, is more tan 200 million dollars. It is natural that the majority of this sum comes as taxes to the municipal budget, where it is used for developing social infrastructure of the town (culture, port, health protection education, i.e. for the welfare of the population). Evaluating te general reaction of the population and public, which was discovered as a result of communicating in the Centre with thousands of inhabitants of the town we can state that it is quite favourable and our task is to strengthen the trust to the enterprise in the future. (author)

  16. Balancing Trust and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2010-01-01

    of balancing trust and control becomes an issue that deserve ongoing attention. This paper adds to the discussion on the relation between trust and control by showing that the process perspective reframes the problem of balancing trust and control. More generally, by demonstrating the importance of the process......The purpose of this paper is to show that conceptualizing trust and control as interactively related processes, as opposed to more static conceptualizations of the two concepts and the relations between them, adds importantly towards understanding the challenges involved in balancing of trust...... on trust and control made the problem of finding a balance between trust and control a once and for all decision the process perspective introduced here implies that balancing trust and control is an ongoing process of balancing and rebalancing. The implication for management is that the problem...

  17. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  18. Fording Canadian Coal Trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popowich, J.; Millos, R. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This is the first of five slide/overhead presentations presented at the Fording Canadian Coal Trust and Tech Cominco Ltd. investor day and mine tour. The Fording Canadian Coal Trust is described. The Trust's assets comprise six Elk Valley metallurgical coal mines and six wollastonite operations (in the NYCO Group). Trust structure, corporate responsibility, organizational structure, reserves and resources, management philosophy, operating strategies, steel market dynamics, coal market, production expansion, sales and distribution are outlined. 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Trust and controlling

    OpenAIRE

    Bieńkowska Agnieszka; Zabłocka-Kluczka Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the trust within and towards an organisation in the context of implementation of controlling therein. In this context the essence of trust and its importance in organisation management was presented, as well as trust in the contemporary management methods and concepts. Controlling as a trust-building factor inside an organisation was pointed out. Especially controlling and control were described. Moreover management by considering deviations in controll...

  20. Trust Drives Internet Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    This paper estimates the effect of trust on internet use by studying the general population as well as second generation immigrants in 29 European countries with ancestry in 87 nations. There is a significant positive effect of trust on internet use. The positive trust effect is not universal...

  1. The productivity of trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Méon, Pierre-Guillaume

    This paper returns to one of the early questions of the literature on social trust, whether trust affects total factor productivity (TFP). Using both development and growth accounting, we find strong evidence of a causal effect of trust on the level and growth of TFP. Using a three-stage least...

  2. Trust Management V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    from 42 submissions. The papers feature both theoretical research and real-world case studies from academia, business and government focusing on areas such as: trust models, social and behavioral aspects of trust, trust in networks, mobile systems and cloud computation, privacy, reputation systems...

  3. [Crises of trust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Thai-Form; Tseng, Hsing-Chau

    2006-02-01

    Extensive media coverage is warning of a crisis of trust that has emerged as a serious issue in our society. This article explores the meaning of "crisis," concepts of crisis management, mechanisms for building trust, and the underlying significance of trust and distrust. Evidence is adduced to testify to the erosion of trust and factors in our society that reflect the potential for crises of trust. Organizational decision makers, including hospital managers, are urged to identify and reflect upon weaknesses in their organizations in order that remedial action can be taken to preempt such crises.

  4. Social Trust and Fractionalization:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes a closer look at the importance of fractionalization for the creation of social trust. It first argues that the determinants of trust can be divided into two categories: those affecting individuals' trust radii and those affecting social polarization. A series of estimates using...... a much larger country sample than in previous literature confirms that fractionalization in the form of income inequality and political diversity adversely affects social trust while ethnic diversity does not. However, these effects differ systematically across countries, questioning standard...... interpretations of the influence of fractionalization on trust....

  5. Rethinking mobilities: is tourism dying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present essay-review explores the conceptual limitations of mobility as an all encompassing theory, which explains why thousand of citizens are unable to make tourism worldwide. Imagining tourism as a massindustry not only rests on a great fallacy but also ignores the effects of last financial crisis in global economies. Only less 1% of total population in the world has the necessary resources to vacation abroad. We need to rethink  mobilities in terms of the great asymmetries caused by capitalism, where behaviour of few  ones is ideologically presented as the guiding values to follow. Like chivalry in Middle Age, mobility and tourism are privileges for global mobile elite alone.

  6. Terrorism, Trust and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2017-01-01

    How does terrorism affect social trust and tourism? The rising number of terrorist attacks in Western Europe has caused safety problems not only for local citizens but also for tourists. In fact, terrorists challenge the formal violence monopoly of the state thus creating a sense of anarchy...... and distrust. Social trust is about trusting strangers, so when less predictable behaviour occurs in, a given country, people become more careful as they tend to trust most other people less. An interesting case for future research is Scandinavia as the level of terrorism is still low and, at the same time......, Scandinavia can record most social trust in the world meaning a competitive advantage when attracting tourists. Arguably, a double dividend is created from fighting terrorism, namely more social trust accumulated and more tourists attracted. Future research should therefore try to further test our model...

  7. Trust in Strategic Alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of trust in strategic alliances. Adopting a co-evolutionary approach, I developed a framework to show how trust, conceptualised in different forms, plays distinct roles at various evolutionary stages of the alliance relationship....... Emphasising the multi-dimensional and dynamic role of trust, the framework illustrates how initial levels of a particular type of trust may co-evolve with the alliance and influence subsequent phases of the relationship – either on its own or in combination with other types or dimensions of trust....... The theoretical distinction between trust as antecedent, moderator and outcome during the evolution of the alliance relationship leads to research questions that may guide future empirical research....

  8. Trust and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    the behavior or attitudes of others). LIST SUB-AREAS IN PORTFOLIO: Science of Reliance • Trust in Autonomous Systems/ Autonomy – identify the...error •Humans have trust biases (Lyons & Stokes, 2012) •Little is known about how human trust principles apply to autonomy /robotics...for the model in western context (Colquitt et al., 2007) • Some evidence that benevolence is favored by collectivist culture (Branzei et al., 2007

  9. Governance, Trust, and Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Schrøter Joensen, Juanna; Weihe, Guðrið

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries le...

  10. Trust and Social Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Y. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Internet commerce has transformed the marketing of goods and services. The separation between point of sale and seller, and the presence of geographically dispersed sellers who do not engage in repeated transactions with the same customers challenge traditional mechanisms for building the trust required for commercial exchanges. In this changing environment, legal rules and institutions play a diminished role in building trust. Instead, new systems and methods are emerging to foster trust in ...

  11. Suspicion, Trust, and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-08

    Pool (IPIP; Goldberg et al., 2006; 87). A sample item is “I trust others.” Each propensity to trust item was assessed on a 7-point scale from 1...1754-6 Goldberg , L. R., Johnson, J. A., Eber, H. W., Hogan, R., Ashton, M. C., Cloninger, C. R., & Gough, H. C. (2006). The International...trust decision. When examining software inspections, Porter, et al. [6] identified one of the causes of variation in the outcome of the inspection

  12. A question of trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Trust lies at the heart of modern science. As scientists, we trust that the papers we read are honest and correct as far as the data, results, techniques and theories in them are concerned. We trust that our colleagues and collaborators are acting properly and ethically - and not being devious, secretive or sloppy. But perhaps even more important is the public's trust in science. After all, much research is funded by taxpayers, who, quite rightly, want to know that the work will not harm them and, preferably, do them some good.

  13. Trust Discovery in Online Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, John

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to discover interpersonal trust in online communities. Two novel trust models are built to explain interpersonal trust in online communities drawing theories and models from multiple relevant areas, including organizational trust models, trust in virtual settings, speech act theory, identity theory, and common bond theory. In…

  14. Avenues of Rethinking CSR in development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Sameer Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    ’. The developmental implication is based on the governance structures triggering CSR in each context. We need to differentiate between strong and weak states and understand the ways that (lack of) states can influence CSR in developing countries. "Responsible business practices" are explored as useful among......The chapter addresses flaws of the CSR literature and seeks to rethink the concept in relation to developing countries. Two avenues for rethinking CSR in developing countries are outlined; a) a governance approach, and b) an application of the term ‘responsible business practices...

  15. A Matter of Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jill Harrison; Connolly, Christine; Lee, Abda; Fairley, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    Educators at a turnaround school in Boston describe how they built a foundation for achievement gains by building and safeguarding relational trust among staff. The school, Henry Grew Elementary, focused in particular on fostering educators' readiness to trust, clarifying roles, and solidifying routines to support connection and risk-taking.

  16. Trust in regulatory regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, Frédérique; Verhoest, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Within political and administrative sciences generally, trust as a concept is contested, especially in the field of regulatory governance. This groundbreaking book is the first to systematically explore the role and dynamics of trust within regulatory regimes. Conceptualizing, mapping and analyzing

  17. Being pragmatic about trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickel, P.J.; Faulkner, P.; Simpson, T.

    2017-01-01

    Trust remains an ambiguous and contested concept. A way to help settle some of the disagreements about it is to appeal to an Explanatory Constraint, according to which trust should (a) be explained as the outcome of central concerns or interests of the relevant actors, and (b) explain the emergence

  18. Towards trusted tradelanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, Joris; Hofman, W.; Zomer, G.; Tan, Yao-Hua; Scholl, H. J.; Glassey, O.; Janssen, M.

    Customs administrations are exploring system-based approaches to regulatory supervision, taking the entire set of controls in a process into account. In addition to Trusted Traders, which are recognized by a certification process, customs are considering to identify so called Trusted Trade Lanes:

  19. Neither Trust nor Distrust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the politicised notions of trust and social cohesion in urban spaces through a focus on practices of everyday relations in a mixed neighbourhood. Quantitative studies maintain that ethnically diverse neighbourhoods lack in trust and solidarity. However, the very meaning an...

  20. Trust and controlling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieńkowska Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to discuss the trust within and towards an organisation in the context of implementation of controlling therein. In this context the essence of trust and its importance in organisation management was presented, as well as trust in the contemporary management methods and concepts. Controlling as a trust-building factor inside an organisation was pointed out. Especially controlling and control were described. Moreover management by considering deviations in controlling and the teamwork in controlling were described. The role of controlling in process of trust-building to an organisation was presented. Establishing relations with the environment and systems of measurement of organisation’s achievements were presented, too.

  1. Trust, trustworthiness and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Trust is an essential component of good healthcare. If patients trust their physicians, then the relationship between them can be a richer and more meaningful one. The patient is more likely to feel confident and able to disclose symptoms, helping diagnosis and future care. If public health and community workers are trusted, not only is it likely that their work will be easier, in that their actions will be respected and accepted, but their advice will also be sought spontaneously. Trust, can, therefore, be thought of as something that is of benefit to all: healthcare workers, individuals and communities. Trust is, generally, something to be prized and we need to do anything we can to strengthen it.

  2. The Determinants of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    , in particular emphasizing the role of social trust. This is in turn defined as the confidence people have that strangers, i.e. fellow citizens on whom they have no specific information, will not take advantage of them (Uslaner, 2002; Bjørnskov, 2006). Using the answers to the World Values Survey question “In...... general, do you think that most people can be trusted?”, the by now quite substantial literature has found that social trust is associated with a set of different macroeconomic outcomes: economic growth, the rule of law and overall quality of governance, corruption, education, the extent of violent crime...... and subjective well-being are all influenced by the propensity of people within any nation to trust each other. The questions are therefore where trust comes from and whether or not it can be affected by public policy. The answers to these questions seem to divide researchers into two camps: the optimists...

  3. Beyond the Spectrum: Rethinking Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The "spectrum" has become the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing autism, with fundamental consequences for notions of disability, diversity, and normality. In this article, we draw on ethnographic research with autistic communities to explore how the notion of the autism spectrum has become a focus of explicit identification, reflection, and contestation. To further this inquiry, we place these debates into conversation with earlier debates regarding another spectrum—the Kinsey Scale, a "spectrum" for conceptualizing sexual orientation that first appeared in 1948 but has been critiqued since the 1970s. How might responses to the Kinsey Scale (like the Klein Grid contribute to rethinking the autism spectrum? This is a question about the cultural and political implications of metaphors and conceptual models. It is of broad importance because the spectrum metaphor is being extended to a range of conditions beyond autism itself. Our goal is thus to build on insights from sexuality studies as well as the insights of autistic persons, advocates, and researchers who wish to forestall the naturalization of "the spectrum." In doing so, we seek to contribute to a discussion of what alternative frameworks might bring to questions of social justice, ability, and human flourishing.

  4. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.

  5. RETHINKING AN AFRICAN ETHICAL SYSTEM: BETWEEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... paper, to rethink an aspect of African Philosophy Morality (ethics), ancient and modern, among the Tiv of the lower Benue valley in Nigeria. This shall be done in the light of what has changed and what has remained unchanged, and the effects of the change on Tiv social system. (Humanities Review: 2002 2(1): 134-147) ...

  6. Autonomy, Trust, and Respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This article seeks to explore and analyze the relationship between autonomy and trust, and to show how these findings could be relevant to medical ethics. First, I will argue that the way in which so-called "relational autonomy theories" tie the notions of autonomy and trust together is not entirely satisfying Then, I will introduce the so-called Encapsulated Interest Account as developed by Russell Hardin. This will bring out the importance of the reasons for trust. What good reasons do we have for trusting someone? I will criticize Hardin's business model as insufficiently robust, especially in the context of health care, and then turn to another source of trust, namely, love. It may seem that trust-through-love is much better suited for the vulnerability that is often involved in health care, but I will also show that it has its own deficiencies. Good health care should therefore pay attention to both models of trust, and I will offer some tentative remarks on how to do this. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Trust vs. Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The three social phenomena -- norms, trust, and crisis -- are in this paper combined into one model that illustrates their function and relationship. Crisis is seen as a reaction to serious violations of expectations that leave people disoriented, insecure about situational norms, and unable...... to judge whom to trust. One logical solution to a crisis is to rebuild a shared understanding of the norms involved in any given context. Banking is used as a case. Central concepts are borrowed from Niklas Luhmann Trust (1968), Alf Ross Directives and Norms (1967), and Arthur G. Neal National Trauma...

  8. Trust vs. Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Mogensen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The three social phenomena -- norms, trust, and crisis -- are in this paper combined into one model that illustrates their function and relationship. Crisis is seen as a reaction to serious violations of expectations that leave people disoriented, insecure about situational norms, and unable to judge whom to trust. One logical solution to a crisis is to rebuild a shared understanding of the norms involved in any given context. Banking is used as a case. Central concepts are borrowed from Niklas Luhmann Trust (1968, Alf Ross Directives and Norms (1967, and Arthur G. Neal National Trauma & Collective Memory (1998.

  9. Trust and Credit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    The present paper is an answer to the question, how did trust and credit emerge. The systems of trust and credit reduce the environmental and contextual complexities in which trust and credit are embedded. The paper analyses the forms of this reduction in a number of stages in the evolution...... of history from the present risk of modern systems back to early modernity, the Reformation and the high medieval Revolutions in law, organization and theology. It is not a history of economics, but a history of the conditions of some communication codes used in economic systems....

  10. Trust repertoires for collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Lars

    This case study analyses the role of trust in a public private innovation network that involved a private consultancy company as a facilitator. We know that collaboration is a important for innovation, and that collaboration across organizational boundaries is not a trivial issue. But we know very...... little about how such processes develop and how trust, understood as “confident positive expectations” (Lewicki et al. 1998) to collaborative activities, arises out of collaboration. The paper contributes by showing how trust and collaboration are intertwined. The main finding is that a facilitator can...

  11. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a trust game. If trustees are anonymous, outcomes are poor: trustees are not trustworthy, and trustors do not trust. If trustees are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples but is still at only a third of the first...... best. Adding more information by granting trustors access to all trustees' complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  12. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...

  13. Trust and Estate Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2012-01-01

    looks at the ways professionals participate in the creation of stratification regimes. Trust and estate planners do this by sheltering their clients' assets from taxation, thereby preserving private wealth for future generations. Using tools such as trusts, offshore banks, and shell corporations......, these professionals keep a significant portion of the world’s private wealth beyond the reach of the state. Trust and estate planning thus contributes to creating and maintaining socioeconomic inequality on a global scale. The significance of the profession has grown as wealth itself has become more fungible...

  14. Quantifying and Qualifying Trust: Spectral Decomposition of Trust Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Degano, Pierpaolo; Etalle, Sandro; Guttman, Joshua

    In a previous FAST paper, I presented a quantitative model of the process of trust building, and showed that trust is accumulated like wealth: the rich get richer. This explained the pervasive phenomenon of adverse selection of trust certificates, as well as the fragility of trust networks in

  15. Education and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Sven; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Dawes, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    One of the clearest results in previous studies on social trust is the robust positive relationship with educational attainment. The most common interpretation is that education has a causal effect on social trust. The theoretical argument and empirical results in this article suggest a different...... interpretation. We argue that common preadult factors such as cognitive abilities and personality traits rooted in genes and early-life family environment may confound the relationship between educational attainment and social trust. We provide new evidence on this question by utilizing the quasi......-experiment of twinning. By looking at the relationship between education and social trust within monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs, we are able to avoid potential confounders rooted in genetic factors and common environmental influences because the monozygotic twins share both. The results suggest that when controlling...

  16. Balancing trust and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm-Jørgensen, Marie; Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Reventlow, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about how strategies of retaining patients are acted out by general practitioners (GPs) in the clinical encounter. With this study, we apply Grimens’ (2009) analytical connection between trust and power to explore how trust and power appear in preventive health checks...... of clinical encounters. Results: From the empirical data, we identified three dimensions of respect: respect for the patient’s autonomy, respect for professional authority and respect as a mutual exchange. A balance of respect influenced trust in the relationship between GP and patients and the transfer...... of power in the encounter. The GPs articulated that a balance was needed in preventive health checks in order to establish trust and thus retain the patient in the clinic. One way this balance of respect was carried out was with the use of humour. Conclusions: To retain patients without formal education...

  17. A formalization of computational trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güven - Ozcelebi, C.; Holenderski, M.J.; Ozcelebi, T.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2018-01-01

    Computational trust aims to quantify trust and is studied by many disciplines including computer science, social sciences and business science. We propose a formal computational trust model, including its parameters and operations on these parameters, as well as a step by step guide to compute trust

  18. Assess and enhance public trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Winter; James Absher; Alan Watson

    2007-01-01

    Trust is a form of social capital, facilitating effective land management, communication and collaboration. Although trust in the Forest Service is at least moderately high for most publics, evidence of a lack of trust and outright distrust has been found in some communities. However, the amount, types, and conditions of trust necessary for effective management to...

  19. Trust and virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles; Thorseth, May

    2011-01-01

    We collect diverse philosophical analyses of the issues and problems clustering around trust online with specific attention to establishing trust in virtual environments. The book moves forward important discussions of how virtual worlds and virtuality are to be defined and understood; the role o...... by virtuality, such as virtual child pornography. The introduction further develops a philosophical anthropology, rooted in Kantian ethics, phenomenology, virtue ethics, and feminist perspectives, that grounds a specific approach to ethical issues in virtual environments....

  20. Social relationships and trust

    OpenAIRE

    Binzel, Christine; Fehr, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    While social relationships play an important role for individuals to cope with missing market institutions, they also limit individuals' range of trading partners. This paper aims at understanding the determinants of trust at various social distances when information asymmetries are present. Among participants from an informal housing area in Cairo we find that the increase in trust following a reduction in social distance comes from the fact that trustors are much more inclined to follow the...

  1. Trust is other people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckner, Naemi; Werner, Katharina; Subasi, Özge

    concerning the interaction with strangers through the platform. Putting trust in an online sharing community seems to be the biggest obstacle that influences whether people draw away rather than move closer together and start collaborating in the sharing community. Here, we report on the main issues...... involving other participants in the hope to find appropriate ways to create trustful sharing environments that reassure potential participants rather than play into their fears....

  2. Trusted Computing Technologies, Intel Trusted Execution Technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guise, Max Joseph; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We describe the current state-of-the-art in Trusted Computing Technologies - focusing mainly on Intel's Trusted Execution Technology (TXT). This document is based on existing documentation and tests of two existing TXT-based systems: Intel's Trusted Boot and Invisible Things Lab's Qubes OS. We describe what features are lacking in current implementations, describe what a mature system could provide, and present a list of developments to watch. Critical systems perform operation-critical computations on high importance data. In such systems, the inputs, computation steps, and outputs may be highly sensitive. Sensitive components must be protected from both unauthorized release, and unauthorized alteration: Unauthorized users should not access the sensitive input and sensitive output data, nor be able to alter them; the computation contains intermediate data with the same requirements, and executes algorithms that the unauthorized should not be able to know or alter. Due to various system requirements, such critical systems are frequently built from commercial hardware, employ commercial software, and require network access. These hardware, software, and network system components increase the risk that sensitive input data, computation, and output data may be compromised.

  3. Computationally Modeling Interpersonal Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Joo eLee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a computational model capable of predicting—above human accuracy—the degree of trust a person has toward their novel partner by observing the trust-related nonverbal cues expressed in their social interaction. We summarize our prior work, in which we identify nonverbal cues that signal untrustworthy behavior and also demonstrate the human mind’s readiness to interpret those cues to assess the trustworthiness of a social robot. We demonstrate that domain knowledge gained from our prior work using human-subjects experiments, when incorporated into the feature engineering process, permits a computational model to outperform both human predictions and a baseline model built in naivete' of this domain knowledge. We then present the construction of hidden Markov models to incorporate temporal relationships among the trust-related nonverbal cues. By interpreting the resulting learned structure, we observe that models built to emulate different levels of trust exhibit different sequences of nonverbal cues. From this observation, we derived sequence-based temporal features that further improve the accuracy of our computational model. Our multi-step research process presented in this paper combines the strength of experimental manipulation and machine learning to not only design a computational trust model but also to further our understanding of the dynamics of interpersonal trust.

  4. Trust, values and false consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Jeffrey V.; Giuliano, Paola; Guiso, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Trust beliefs are heterogeneous across individuals and, at the same time, persistent across generations. We investigate one mechanism yielding these dual patterns: false consensus. In the context of a trust game experiment, we show that individuals extrapolate from their own type when forming trust beliefs about the same pool of potential partners – i.e., more (less) trustworthy individuals form more optimistic (pessimistic) trust beliefs - and that this tendency continues to color trust beli...

  5. A general definition of trust

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hara, Kieron

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a definition and conceptual analysis of trust is given in terms of trustworthiness. Its focus will be as wide as possible, and will not be restricted to any particular type of trust. The aim is to show the key parameters that enable us to investigate and understand trust, thereby facilitating the development of systems, institutions and technologies to support, model or mimic trust. The paper will also show the strong connection between trust and trustworthiness, showing how the...

  6. Do you trust? Whom do you trust? When do you trust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, C.C.P.; Keren, G.; Thye, S.R.; Lawler, E.J.; Macy, M.W.; Walker, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    We try to provide a broader view on the factors that infiuence the decision to trust and honor trust. Using the "Trust Game" as our experimental paradigm, we consider three classes offactors that may he related to trust issues. The first one considers individual differences with regard to the

  7. A Model of Trusted Measurement Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Zhili; Wang Zhihao; Dai Liang; Zhu Xiaoqin

    2017-01-01

    A model of Trusted Measurement supporting behavior measurement based on trusted connection architecture (TCA) with three entities and three levels is proposed, and a frame to illustrate the model is given. The model synthesizes three trusted measurement dimensions including trusted identity, trusted status and trusted behavior, satisfies the essential requirements of trusted measurement, and unified the TCA with three entities and three levels.

  8. Rethink! prototyping transdisciplinary concepts of prototyping

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Emilia; Stark, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the authors describe the findings derived from interaction and cooperation between scientific actors employing diverse practices. They reflect on distinct prototyping concepts and examine the transformation of development culture in their fusion to hybrid approaches and solutions. The products of tomorrow are going to be multifunctional, interactive systems – and already are to some degree today. Collaboration across multiple disciplines is the only way to grasp their complexity in design concepts. This underscores the importance of reconsidering the prototyping process for the development of these systems, particularly in transdisciplinary research teams. “Rethinking Prototyping – new hybrid concepts for prototyping” was a transdisciplinary project that took up this challenge. The aim of this programmatic rethinking was to come up with a general concept of prototyping by combining innovative prototyping concepts, which had been researched and developed in three sub-projects: “Hybrid P...

  9. Rethinking Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Munive

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the special issue on DDR and ‘Armed Non-Statutory Actors’ (ANSAs which we prefer to the less precise label of Armed Non-State Actors. The understanding that disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR programs are essential in helping to prevent the recurrence of war in post-conflict situations is at the heart of current peacebuilding practice and the academic literature on peacekeeping and stabilization. But the changing strategic context of DDR programs and in particular the proliferation of ANSAs presents new challenges, the responses to which have been characterized as ‘second generation’ DDR. The changing context poses new questions and forces us to rethink assumptions and templates of DDR as the concept is blurred and expanded. The question is if it makes sense to hold on to the concept or whether the assumptions associated with it will get in the way of rethinking templates for violence reduction in the future.

  10. Trust transitivity in social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Richters

    Full Text Available Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected "fringe" nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its "fringe" peers.

  11. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  12. Rethinking Information Systems in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony

    2014-01-01

    This section of Information Polity consists of papers presented during the workshop “Rethinking Information Systems in the Public Sector: Bridging Academia and Public Service”. The workshop was held on 8 June 2014 in Tel Aviv, Israel, in conjunction with the European Conference on Information...... Systems (ECIS 2014), and it is part of the activities of the Special Interest Group for eGovernment (SIGeGov) of the Association for Information Systems (AIS)....

  13. Gap analysis: rethinking the conceptual foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, Gary O.; Franck, Raymond; Huynh, Tom; Lewis, Ira A.

    2007-01-01

    Acquisition research (Graduate School of Business & Public Policy) Gap Analysis is widely regarded as a useful tool to facilitate commercial and defense system acquisitions. This paper is a rethinking of the theoretical foundations and systematics of Gap Analysis with practical extensions to illustrate its utility and limitations. It also provides a new perspective on those theoretical foundations from the perspectives of systems and value engineering. The growing sophistication and comple...

  14. A Chinese sky trust?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Mark [Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)]. E-mail: brenner@econs.umass.edu; Riddle, Matthew [Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)]. E-mail: mriddle@econs.umass.edu; Boyce, James K. [Political Economy Research Institute and Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States)]. E-mail: boyce@econs.umass.edu

    2007-03-15

    The introduction of carbon charges on the use of fossil fuels in China would have a progressive impact on income distribution. This outcome, which contrasts to the regressive distributional impact found in most studies of carbon charges in industrialized countries, is driven primarily by differences between urban and rural expenditure patterns. If carbon revenues were recycled on an equal per capita basis via a 'sky trust,' the progressive impact would be further enhanced: low-income (mainly rural) households would receive more in sky-trust dividends than they pay in carbon charges, and high-income (mainly urban) households would pay more than they receive in dividends. Thus a Chinese sky trust would contribute to both lower fossil fuel consumption and greater income equality.

  15. Impact Through Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.

    of its rulings and legal mandates in national judiciaries and legal systems? This question is crucial if we understand that national courts are the key decentralised enforcers of the European Union (EU) law responsible for ensuring the effectiveness of EU law and the rulings and mandates imposed...... by the Court. EU scholars have already offered several legalist and institutionalist responses to why national courts participate in this process of legal integration in the EU and, most importantly, why the follow the mandates and rulings from the CJEU. This chapter innovates in this regard by introducing...... trust between judges as a new mechanism for enhancing the cooperation and compliance by national courts with the CJEU jurisprudence and EU legal mandates. The chapter describes the conditions under which national judges trust the CJEU to identify how the Court can promote trust in its role as a supreme...

  16. Trusts and Financialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    the global spread of financialization: by privileging the rentier–investor within the 15 world economy; by perpetuating a distinctively Anglo-American approach to finance internationally; and by increasing the autonomy of finance vis-a-vis the nation-state. This study shares the primarily descriptive......This article identifies trusts as a legal structure associated with the global spread of financialization. Although trusts originated in Medieval England, they have acquired a new significance in contemporary finance by virtue of their advantages in terms of 10 profit maximization and capital...... and conceptual intent of Krippner’s work on financialization, but extends it in two ways: by comparing trusts to the better- known corporate form of organizing financial activity, and by showing how private 20 capital is implicated in the financialized economy alongside corporate wealth....

  17. Trust in Diverse Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lisbeth

    , maintaining team cohesiveness in multicultural teams to collaborate effectively presents a number of challenges. The present study employs the concept of trust to explore influences on team collaboration in high performing teams. The study is based on observation of teams in seven multinational corporations...... and interviews with managers from the US, Europe, China and Japan. The study presents a conceptual framework - a ‘trust buffer’ – which enables analysis and exemplification of the dynamics and challenges of teams as drivers of change. Each team has strategically important tasks, unique capacities and deal...... with change in particular ways: Each team is analyzed in relation to its global (HQ) mandate, local (national) stakeholders and organizational context. It is found that communication energy, resources and team mandate underscore the sense of trust in high performing teams. Diversity is understood...

  18. A Chinese sky trust?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, Mark; Riddle, Matthew; Boyce, James K.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of carbon charges on the use of fossil fuels in China would have a progressive impact on income distribution. This outcome, which contrasts to the regressive distributional impact found in most studies of carbon charges in industrialized countries, is driven primarily by differences between urban and rural expenditure patterns. If carbon revenues were recycled on an equal per capita basis via a 'sky trust,' the progressive impact would be further enhanced: low-income (mainly rural) households would receive more in sky-trust dividends than they pay in carbon charges, and high-income (mainly urban) households would pay more than they receive in dividends. Thus a Chinese sky trust would contribute to both lower fossil fuel consumption and greater income equality

  19. Trust Models in Ubiquitous Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Krukow, Karl; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2008-01-01

    We recapture some of the arguments for trust-based technologies in ubiquitous computing, followed by a brief survey of some of the models of trust that have been introduced in this respect. Based on this, we argue for the need of more formal and foundational trust models.......We recapture some of the arguments for trust-based technologies in ubiquitous computing, followed by a brief survey of some of the models of trust that have been introduced in this respect. Based on this, we argue for the need of more formal and foundational trust models....

  20. Trusted cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Krcmar, Helmut; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    This book documents the scientific results of the projects related to the Trusted Cloud Program, covering fundamental aspects of trust, security, and quality of service for cloud-based services and applications. These results aim to allow trustworthy IT applications in the cloud by providing a reliable and secure technical and legal framework. In this domain, business models, legislative circumstances, technical possibilities, and realizable security are closely interwoven and thus are addressed jointly. The book is organized in four parts on "Security and Privacy", "Software Engineering and

  1. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a stylized market for experience goods. If interaction is anonymous, such markets perform poorly: sellers are not trustworthy, and buyers do not trust sellers. If sellers are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples...... but is still at only a third of the first best. Adding more information by granting buyers access to all sellers’ complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  2. Time and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    current Africa strategies as part of a long history of a variety of stakeholders on the African continent. I argue that trust and lack of trust based on long term relations influence choices on aid distribution made by African and partner countries. The analysis is based on a reading of OECD statistics...... on aid distribution in combination with select interviews with stakeholders in foreign aid, and archival findings on the historical presence of Japanese, Chinese, Indian, European, and North American people on the African continent. By looking at the impact of historical networks on ODA distribution...

  3. Trust in Anonymity Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Hamadou, Sardaouna; Yang, Mu

    Anonymity is a security property of paramount importance, as we move steadily towards a wired, online community. Its import touches upon subjects as different as eGovernance, eBusiness and eLeisure, as well as personal freedom of speech in authoritarian societies. Trust metrics are used in anonymity networks to support and enhance reliability in the absence of verifiable identities, and a variety of security attacks currently focus on degrading a user's trustworthiness in the eyes of the other users. In this paper, we analyse the privacy guarantees of the Crowds anonymity protocol, with and without onion forwarding, for standard and adaptive attacks against the trust level of honest users.

  4. Banking system trust, bank trust, and bank loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esterik-Plasmeijer, P.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test a model of banking system trust as an antecedent of bank trust and bank loyalty. Six determinants of trust and loyalty are included: competence, stability, integrity, customer orientation, transparency, and value congruence. The study provides insights

  5. Understanding Trust in Financial Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Although the financial crisis has elevated the interest for factors such as consumer financial healthiness, broad-scope trust, financial knowledge, and consumer relationship satisfaction, no existing model describes how these factors may influence consumer financial relationship trust...... healthiness, broad-scope trust, knowledge, and satisfaction positively affect narrow-scope trust in financial services. Furthermore, it is found that broad-scope trust negatively moderates the relationships between financial healthiness and narrow-scope trust and between satisfaction and narrow-scope trust....... This research extends prior research by developing a conceptual framework explaining how these constructs affect consumers' trust in their financial service provider. Based on two surveys comprising 764 pension consumers and 892 mortgage consumers, respectively, the results of this study indicate that financial...

  6. The Process of Trust Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren; Højland, Jeppe

    in management among employees. Trust is found to be higher among employees interacting regularly with managers, as in the project coordination group. It is found that personal relations are very important for the development of trust. The success of the project may be explained by the involvement of an ‘elite...... and discuss with colleagues from other departments and develop personal knowledge of each other....... by high trust and co-operation? In this paper we explore the process of trust development during an organisational change project in a Danish SME by looking at two kinds of trust relations: employee trust in management and trust relations among employees. We find substantial differences in trust...

  7. Trust metrics in information fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Trust is an important concept for machine intelligence and is not consistent across many applications. In this paper, we seek to understand trust from a variety of factors: humans, sensors, communications, intelligence processing algorithms and human-machine displays of information. In modeling the various aspects of trust, we provide an example from machine intelligence that supports the various attributes of measuring trust such as sensor accuracy, communication timeliness, machine processing confidence, and display throughput to convey the various attributes that support user acceptance of machine intelligence results. The example used is fusing video and text whereby an analyst needs trust information in the identified imagery track. We use the proportional conflict redistribution rule as an information fusion technique that handles conflicting data from trusted and mistrusted sources. The discussion of the many forms of trust explored in the paper seeks to provide a systems-level design perspective for information fusion trust quantification.

  8. Trust and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinig, John

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses the tension between trust, as an expression of interpersonal commitment, and critical thinking, which includes a demand for reasons. It explores the importance of each for individual flourishing, and then seeks to establish some ways in which they intersect, drawing on ideas of authority and trustworthiness. It argues that…

  9. Researching trust in Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    As the use of collaborative online encyclopedias such as Wikipedia grows, so does the need for research on how users evaluate its credibility. In this paper we compare three experimental approaches to study trust in Wikipedia, namely think aloud, eye-tracking, and online questionnaires. The

  10. Know what you trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiessens, F.; den Hartog, Jeremy; Etalle, Sandro; Degano, P.; Guttman, J. D.; Martinelli, F.

    2009-01-01

    In Decentralized Trust Management (DTM) authorization decisions are made by multiple principals who can also delegate decisions to each other. Therefore, a policy change of one principal will often affect who gets authorized by another principal. In such a system of influenceable authorization a

  11. Initial Formation of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schärfe, Henrik; Dougerthery, Elizabeth Ann

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of how touch may be used as a way of inducing trust in the meeting with a teloperated android, the Geminoid-DK. The use of hapics with Gestalt-based 'Balance Theory' is used as a persuasive desing of the interaction between human and robot. Balance theory includes...

  12. Trust-distrust Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jukka, Minna; Blomqvist, Kirsimarja; Li, Peter Ping

    2017-01-01

    notion of "guanxi" as personal ties. In contrast, the Finnish managers' view of trustworthiness was more associated with depersonalized organizational attributes. They emphasized the dimension of integrity, especially promise-keeping. In addition, tentative signs of trust ambivalence, as a balance...... opposites constitute a duality to be managed from the perspective of yin-yang balancing....

  13. Trust in agile teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Fransgård, Mette; Skalkam, Signe

    2012-01-01

    actions influenced this. We see two important lessons from the analysis. First the agile practices of daily Scrum and self organizing team can empower DSD teams to manage their own development of trust and thereby alleviate the obstacles of DSD. Second if management fails to support the development...

  14. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical...

  15. Constitutional Verbosity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Voigt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A common argument in the trust literature is that high-trust cultures allow efficient commercial contracts to be shorter, covering fewer contingencies. We take this idea to the topic of social contracts. Specifically, we ask whether social trust affects the length and detail of constitutions. Cross......-country estimates suggest that national trust levels are indeed robustly and negatively associated with the length of countries’ constitutions....

  16. Trust It or Trash It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trust It or Trash It? About | Contact | Español Tab 1 Tab 2 What is Trust It or Trash It? This is a tool ... be true, it may be. (See the second “Trust it” statement above). Click on each element below ...

  17. Creating trust through narrative strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbay, SM; Leenders, RTAJ

    In the rational model of trust, an actor's level of trust is a function of the expected gain and loss involved. As a consequence, if A can influence the gain and loss perceived by B, A can influence B's level of trust. In this article we study how A can do this through the strategic use of

  18. Incremental Trust in Grid Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkløv, Michael Hvalsøe; Sharp, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative simulation study of some incremental trust and reputation algorithms for handling behavioural trust in large distributed systems. Two types of reputation algorithm (based on discrete and Bayesian evaluation of ratings) and two ways of combining direct trust and ...... of Grid computing systems....

  19. Creating trust through narrative strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbay, SM; Leenders, RTAJ

    2003-01-01

    In the rational model of trust, an actor's level of trust is a function of the expected gain and loss involved. As a consequence, if A can influence the gain and loss perceived by B, A can influence B's level of trust. In this article we study how A can do this through the strategic use of

  20. Trusting Relationships in International Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles; Ruzicka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    How can trusting relationships be identified in international politics? The recent wave of scholarship on trust in International Relations answers this question by looking for one or the combination of three indicators – the incidence of cooperation; discourses expressing trust; or the calculated...

  1. Social Capital, Institutions and Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relations between social capital, institutions and trust.These concepts are full of ambiguity and confusion.This paper attempts to dissolve some of the confusion, by distinguishing trust and control, and analyzing institutional and relational conditions of trust.It presents a

  2. Trust models in ubiquitous computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukow, Karl; Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2008-10-28

    We recapture some of the arguments for trust-based technologies in ubiquitous computing, followed by a brief survey of some of the models of trust that have been introduced in this respect. Based on this, we argue for the need of more formal and foundational trust models.

  3. Modelling biased human trust dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, M.; Jaffry, S.W.; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Within human trust related behaviour, according to the literature from the domains of Psychology and Social Sciences often non-rational behaviour can be observed. Current trust models that have been developed typically do not incorporate non-rational elements in the trust formation

  4. Trust, Endangerment and Divine Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mikkel Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Faith is trusting God in the midst of endangerment. Yet, human experience of excessive suffering has challenged any spontaneous trust in God. In this article, I reconsider the idea of faith as trust in God, adding an emphasis on the divine vulnerability in the incarnation, and I develop a more...

  5. The Condition for Generous Trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obayashi Shinya

    Full Text Available Trust has been considered the "cement" of a society and is much studied in sociology and other social sciences. Most studies, however, have neglected one important aspect of trust: it involves an act of forgiving and showing tolerance toward another's failure. In this study, we refer to this concept as "generous trust" and examine the conditions under which generous trust becomes a more viable option when compared to other types of trust. We investigate two settings. First, we introduce two types of uncertainties: uncertainty as to whether trustees have the intention to cooperate, and uncertainty as to whether trustees have enough competence to accomplish the entrusted tasks. Second, we examine the manner in which trust functions in a broader social context, one that involves matching and commitment processes. Since we expect generosity or forgiveness to work differently in the matching and commitment processes, we must differentiate trust strategies into generous trust in the matching process and that in the commitment process. Our analytical strategy is two-fold. First, we analyze the "modified" trust game that incorporates the two types of uncertainties without the matching process. This simplified setting enables us to derive mathematical results using game theory, thereby giving basic insight into the trust mechanism. Second, we investigate socially embedded trust relationships in contexts involving the matching and commitment processes, using agent-based simulation. Results show that uncertainty about partner's intention and competence makes generous trust a viable option. In contrast, too much uncertainty undermines the possibility of generous trust. Furthermore, a strategy that is too generous cannot stand alone. Generosity should be accompanied with moderate punishment. As for socially embedded trust relationships, generosity functions differently in the matching process versus the commitment process. Indeed, these two types of generous

  6. Four Essential Practices for Building Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Julie Peterson; Harris, Sandra; Edmonson, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The presence of trust can enhance an organization's efforts to fulfill its mission, and the lack of trust can constrict those efforts. The authors offer four essential guidelines to help school leaders communicate in a way that builds trust. Build trust by understanding trust. Trusted leaders demonstrate care, character, and competence in their…

  7. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Xin

    Full Text Available As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  8. Trust and Sensemaking in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Lars; Jagd, Søren; Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    The literature on trust and the literature on sensemaking constitute two separate streams of literature that are both seen as highly relevant to understanding organisational processes in modern complex high-trust organisations. However, though a few studies have argued for the relevance of linkin...... help furthering the understanding of trust processes in organizations. The variety of links between sensemaking and trust processes is illustrated by the intertwining of trust and four processes of sensemaking: arguing, expecting, committing and manipulation identified by Karl Weick....

  9. Modeling trust context in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Adali, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    We make complex decisions every day, requiring trust in many different entities for different reasons. These decisions are not made by combining many isolated trust evaluations. Many interlocking factors play a role, each dynamically impacting the others.? In this brief, 'trust context' is defined as the system level description of how the trust evaluation process unfolds.Networks today are part of almost all human activity, supporting and shaping it. Applications increasingly incorporate new interdependencies and new trust contexts. Social networks connect people and organizations throughout

  10. Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners’ benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals’ homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people’s increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  11. HMM-based Trust Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ElSalamouny, Ehab; Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic trust has been adopted as an approach to taking security sensitive decisions in modern global computing environments. Existing probabilistic trust frameworks either assume fixed behaviour for the principals or incorporate the notion of ‘decay' as an ad hoc approach to cope...... with their dynamic behaviour. Using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) for both modelling and approximating the behaviours of principals, we introduce the HMM-based trust model as a new approach to evaluating trust in systems exhibiting dynamic behaviour. This model avoids the fixed behaviour assumption which is considered...... the major limitation of existing Beta trust model. We show the consistency of the HMM-based trust model and contrast it against the well known Beta trust model with the decay principle in terms of the estimation precision....

  12. Rethinking Research for Genetically Modified (GM) Food

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-Ling; Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests a rethinking of the existing research about Genetically Modified (GM) food. Since the first batch of GM food was commercialised in the UK market, GM food rapidly received and lost media attention in the UK. Disagreement on GM food policy between the US and the EU has also drawn scholarly attention to this issue. Much research has been carried out intending to understand people-s views about GM food and the shaping of these views. This paper was based o...

  13. Rethinking the economics of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damian, Michel

    2012-05-01

    The paper makes a case for rethinking the economics of climate change. It questions the way the problem was conventionally framed and solved through top-down international cooperation and carbon emission permits, taxes and pricing. The paper argues that the on-going industrial and energy transition reflects a paradigmatic shift as compared to neoclassical environmental economics that has framed climate policy since the Rio conference in 1992. On a normative basis, the paper maintains that a carbon tax should not follow a Pigovian rationale. To be feasible such a tax should be of a Marshallian nature, i.e. earmarked, and rather modest at the beginning. (author)

  14. Problems of judiciary trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic of the article is problem of trust in judiciary as a most important part of legal system. For all empirical researches so far have shown very law degree of this trust many authors were searching for the causes of this phenomenon. Among multifold causes some are special worth while to be mentioned here: historical inheritance, political pressures, delaying of judiciary decisions, respect of the laws, transferring of responsibility from political power to the judiciary, public comments of judiciary decisions, media pressures, efficiency of judiciary and police. Among inner factors author pays attention to competency of judges, modes of penal policy, modes of judges’ entitlement, problems of communication, involvement into criminal and corruptional affairs, etc.

  15. Trust and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeff, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why are the Scandinavian countries in the European Union significantly richer than South-ern/Eastern European countries? We try to answer this question from an empirical social capital perspective. In particular, we are interested in the interplay of social trust as a positive and corruption...... capital by applying a path model that accounts for Granger-like causal effects. Our empirical results, referring to a sample of up to 25 EU countries, show that corruption might harm poor European countries but is not able to affect social trust. However, corruption in itself means that resources end up...... in the wrong places and not in socioeconomically optimal investments. There is, therefore, a direct damaging effect of corruption on wealth. This implies that economic actors have to invest higher transaction and control costs which will bind resources to non-productive purposes and thus destroy economic...

  16. Trust in Internet Election

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Ronquillo, Lorena; Schürmann, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the Decryption and Counting Ceremony held in conjunction with the internet voting trial on election day in the Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development of Norway in 2013. We examine the organizers' ambition of making the decryption and counting of electronic votes...... public in order to sustain trust in internet voting. We introduce a pragmatic approach to trust that emphasises the inseparability of truth from witnessing it. Based on this and on a description of how the event was made observable and how the complexities in the counting process were disclosed, we...... discuss what we term economy of truth from the perspective of the IT community involved in the ceremony. We claim that broadening the economy of truth by including more explicitly social and political perspectives in the ceremony, and in internet elections in general, and how witnessing is brought about...

  17. Free Riding or Trust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Nilsson, Jerker

    2011-01-01

    It is often observed that members have little interest in monitoring their cooperatives. One explanation is that the members are free-riders, hoping that others will perform the task. Another explanation is that the weak member interest is a consequence of members having trust in the leadership....... These competing explanations refer to the theory of collective action and the social capital paradigm, respectively, and may be linked to the classical Gesellschaft and Gemeinschaft concepts. Hence, one may expect free-rider behavior when conditions of Gesellschaft exist and trustful behavior when Gemeinschaft...... conditions rule. These propositions get support from five studies of members’ readership of their cooperatives’ annual reports. In large and heterogeneous memberships there is free-riding behavior, which explains the members’ low interest in governing their cooperatives. To a limited extent a membership may...

  18. Trust in Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Yakel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ISO 16363:2012, Space Data and Information Transfer Systems - Audit and Certification of Trustworthy Digital Repositories (ISO TRAC, outlines actions a repository can take to be considered trustworthy, but research examining whether the repository’s designated community of users associates such actions with trustworthiness has been limited. Drawing from this ISO document and the management and information systems literatures, this paper discusses findings from interviews with 66 archaeologists and quantitative social scientists. We found similarities and differences across the disciplines and among the social scientists. Both disciplinary communities associated trust with a repository’s transparency. However, archaeologists mentioned guarantees of preservation and sustainability more frequently than the social scientists, who talked about institutional reputation. Repository processes were also linked to trust, with archaeologists more frequently citing metadata issues and social scientists discussing data selection and cleaning processes. Among the social scientists, novices mentioned the influence of colleagues on their trust in repositories almost twice as much as the experts. We discuss the implications our findings have for identifying trustworthy repositories and how they extend the models presented in the management and information systems literatures.

  19. Rethinking resistance : revolt and violence in African history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    This collective volume reinterprets the genre of resistance studies, introduces recent conceptual perspectives and considers examples of African (civil) wars and insurgent movements. Contributions: Rethinking resistance in African history, an introduction, by Klaas van Walraven and Jon Abbink. Part

  20. Rethinking Game Based Learning: applying pedagogical standards to educational games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Birgit; Kelle, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Schmitz, B., & Kelle, S. (2010, 1-6 February). Rethinking Game Based Learning: applying pedagogical standards to educational games. Presentation at JTEL Winter School 2010 on Advanced Learning Technologies, Innsbruck, Austria.

  1. Re-thinking instructional strategies for enhancing gender equity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-thinking instructional strategies for enhancing gender equity in learning ... instructional mode on the cognitive achievement of boys and girls in primary science. ... Results revealed no statistically significant difference in the achievement of ...

  2. Book Review: J. Kelly. Rethinking Industrial Relations: Mobilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review: J. Kelly. Rethinking Industrial Relations: Mobilization, Collectivism and Long Waves. K. Moody. Workers in a Lean World: Unions in the International Economy. B. Nissen. Which Direction for Organized Labour? Essays on Organizing, Outreach and Internal Transformation.

  3. Rethinking Volks V Robinson: The Implications of Applying a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rethinking Volks V Robinson: The Implications of Applying a "Contextaulised Choice Model" to Prospective South African Domestic Partnerships Legislation. ... is enacted. Keywords: Life partnership; domestic partnership; Domestic Partnerships Bill; choice argument; contextualised choice model; reciprocal duty of support.

  4. Ethnic diversity and knowledge synergies: Rethinking the interrelations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    desire to see ethnical diversity as productive. Theoretical reviews and empirical research have indicated that the link between diversity and knowledge synergy cannot be taken for granted. This article argues that some theoretical rethinking of managerial strategies toward cultural diversity...

  5. Rethinking I-94: Minnesota DOT: A TPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report highlights key recommendations and noteworthy practices identified at Rethinking I-94: MnDOT Peer Exchange held on August 15-16, 2017 in St. Paul, Minnesota. This event was sponsored by the Transportation Planning Capacity Building ...

  6. Developing Trusting Relationships Through Communication

    OpenAIRE

    YOKOYAMA, Izumi; OBARA, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the formation of trusting relationships between people through communication. To foster trusting relationships, individuals should disclose private and personal information. However, disclosing such information has both costs and benefits; therefore, both parties must decide on the optimal level of self-disclosure based on a variety of factors, such as the existing level of relationship and the benefits of deepening the trust level. We construct an economics model th...

  7. Trust for intelligent recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuiyan, Touhid

    2013-01-01

    Recommender systems are one of the recent inventions to deal with the ever-growing information overload in relation to the selection of goods and services in a global economy. Collaborative Filtering (CF) is one of the most popular techniques in recommender systems. The CF recommends items to a target user based on the preferences of a set of similar users known as the neighbors, generated from a database made up of the preferences of past users. In the absence of these ratings, trust between the users could be used to choose the neighbor for recommendation making. Better recommendations can b

  8. Pricing and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    -competitive (monopolistic) markets. We then introduce a regulated intermediate price above the oligopoly price and below the monopoly price. The effect in monopolies is more or less in line with standard intuition. As price falls volume increases and so does quality, such that overall efficiency is raised by 50%. However......We experimentally examine the effects of flexible and fixed prices in markets for experience goods in which demand is driven by trust. With flexible prices, we observe low prices and high quality in competitive (oligopolistic) markets, and high prices coupled with low quality in non...

  9. Trust and Social Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Yamagishi , Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Extended Abstracts for Keynote Speakers; International audience; One of the strongest expression of generalized distrust – i.e., distrust of human nature in general – can be found in a Japanese proverb, “Its best to regard everyone as a thief” (hito wo mitara dorobo to omoe). An expression of the other extreme, generalized trust, can also be found in another Japanese proverb, “you will never meet a devil as you walk through the social world” (wataru seken ni oni ha nai). I asked about...

  10. Designing High-Trust Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The specific problem considered in this paper is what are the key issues to consider for managers involved in designing high-trust organizations, a design problem still not properly explored. This paper intends to take the first step in filling this lacuna. In the paper, I first present...... the existing management and research literature on building high-trust organizations. Then I explore Alan Fox’s (1974) analysis of low-trust vs. high-trust dynamics which, I argue, may serve as a theoretically stronger basis for understanding the issues management have to consider when designing hightrust...... organizations...

  11. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust.......Mass mediated risk communication can contribute to perceptions of threats and fear of “others” and/or to perceptions of trust in fellow citizens and society to overcome problems. This paper outlines a cross-disciplinary holistic framework for research in mediated trust building during an acute...

  12. Attack-Resistant Trust Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levien, Raph

    The Internet is an amazingly powerful tool for connecting people together, unmatched in human history. Yet, with that power comes great potential for spam and abuse. Trust metrics are an attempt to compute the set of which people are trustworthy and which are likely attackers. This chapter presents two specific trust metrics developed and deployed on the Advogato Website, which is a community blog for free software developers. This real-world experience demonstrates that the trust metrics fulfilled their goals, but that for good results, it is important to match the assumptions of the abstract trust metric computation to the real-world implementation.

  13. Trust as a Critical Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordum, Anders

    2004-01-01

    In this articlei I will argue that trust is a fundamental and critical concept because trust is the direct or transcendental constitutive ground of most social phenomena, as well as applicable as an operational method in critical theory. There are two different but overlapping positions on trust I...... address in this article. One is the standpoint we find in business strategy, that trust is naïve to show, and control or contracts are presumed better. In the strategy game the idealistic good guys seems to lose (Arrow 1974), (Williamson 1975). The other position is the position taken by systems theory...

  14. Consumer Trust in Information Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Love

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Trust is essential to understanding public reaction to innovative issues. This research focuses on trust in information sources by explicating the construct of trust and testing a comprehensive model on several information sources about genetically modified foods. Results from a survey of 369 participants reveal the significance of projecting competence and the role of the environment in which a target public receives information. Perceptions of regulatory, social, business, and technical environments affect how likely individuals are to follow advice from institutions like the Food and Drug Administration and the news media. Future research should incorporate knowledge levels and personal relevance as variables likely to influence trusting relationships.

  15. Forms, Sources and Processes of Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter reviews some key points in the analysis of trust, based on Nooteboom (2002)i.The following questions are addressed.What can we have trust in?What is the relation between trust and control?What are the sources of trust? And what are its limits?By what process is trust built up and broken

  16. Generalized Trust and Trust in Institutions in Confucian Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines generalized trust and trust in institutions in Confucian Asia, covering six countries namely, China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam, and one dependent region, Hong Kong. Using data from the 2006 AsiaBarometer Survey, our study affirms the reliability and validity of using a two-item scale to measure…

  17. TrustBuilder2: A Reconfigurable Framework for Trust Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adam J.; Winslett, Marianne; Perano, Kenneth J.

    To date, research in trust negotiation has focused mainly on the theoretical aspects of the trust negotiation process, and the development of proof of concept implementations. These theoretical works and proofs of concept have been quite successful from a research perspective, and thus researchers must now begin to address the systems constraints that act as barriers to the deployment of these systems. To this end, we present TrustBuilder2, a fully-configurable and extensible framework for prototyping and evaluating trust negotiation systems. TrustBuilder2 leverages a plug-in based architecture, extensible data type hierarchy, and flexible communication protocol to provide a framework within which numerous trust negotiation protocols and system configurations can be quantitatively analyzed. In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of TrustBuilder2, study its performance, examine the costs associated with flexible authorization systems, and leverage this knowledge to identify potential topics for future research, as well as a novel method for attacking trust negotiation systems.

  18. 'Trust my doctor, trust my pancreas': trust as an emergent quality of social practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Simon

    2015-06-11

    Growing attention is being paid to the importance of trust, and its corollaries such as mistrust and distrust, in health service and the central place they have in assessments of quality of care. Although initially focussing on doctor-patient relationships, more recent literature has broadened its remit to include trust held in more abstract entities, such as organisations and institutions. There has consequently been growing interest to develop rigorous and universal measures of trust. Drawing on illustrative ethnographic material from observational research in a UK diabetes clinic, this paper supports an approach that foregrounds social practice and resists conceiving trust as solely a psychological state that can be divorced from its context. Beyond exploring the less-than-conscious nature of trust, the interpretations attend to the extent to which trust practices are distributed across a range of actors. Data from clinical encounters reveal the extent to which matters of trust can emerge from the relationships between people, and sometimes people and things, as a result of a wide range of pragmatic concerns, and hence can usefully be conceived of as an extended property of a situation rather than a person. Trust is rarely explicitly articulated, but remains a subtle feature of experience that is frequently ineffable. A practice approach highlights some of the problems with adopting a general psychological or intellectualist conception of trust. In particular, assuming it is a sufficiently stable internal state that can be stored or measured not only transforms a diffuse and often ephemeral quality into a durable thing, but ultimately presents it as a generic state that has meaning independent of the specific relationships and context that achieve it. Emphasising the context-specific nature of trust practices does not dismiss the potential of matters of trust, when they emerge, to be transposed to other contexts. But it does highlight how, on each occasion

  19. The Need to Trust and to Trust More Wisely in Academe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Where trust is an issue, there is no trust. Trust in diverse organizations has never been lower. A shadow of doubt stalks one's every decision to trust collegially and institutionally. Still, colleagues sense intuitively that institutions cannot function optimally without a bedrock level of trust. In academic life, trust is a form of social…

  20. 26 CFR 26.2654-1 - Certain trusts treated as separate trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trusts under local law, treatment of a single trust as separate trusts under this paragraph (a)(1) does... applicable state law, then each resulting trust is treated as a separate trust for purposes of Chapter 13... Internal Revenue Code, if those portions are not treated as separate trusts under local law. Also...

  1. Rethinking Value in the Bio-economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Current debates in science and technology studies emphasize that the bio-economy—or, the articulation of capitalism and biotechnology—is built on notions of commodity production, commodification, and materiality, emphasizing that it is possible to derive value from body parts, molecular and cellular tissues, biological processes, and so on. What is missing from these perspectives, however, is consideration of the political-economic actors, knowledges, and practices involved in the creation and management of value. As part of a rethinking of value in the bio-economy, this article analyzes three key political-economic processes: financialization, capitalization, and assetization. In doing so, it argues that value is managed as part of a series of valuation practices, it is not inherent in biological materialities. PMID:28458406

  2. International trust and public diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    National leaders struggle to communicate in ways that are perceived as trustworthy by citizens of other nations because trust is linked to efficiency, business opportunities, and political influence. In this article, four recent public diplomacy activities are analyzed from a trust...

  3. Towards trusted trade-lanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.; Hofman, W.; Zomer, G.; Tan, Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    Customs administrations are exploring system-based approaches to regulatory supervision, taking the entire set of controls in a process into account. In addition to Trusted Traders, which are recognized by a certification process, customs are considering to identify so called Trusted Trade Lanes:

  4. Research of Trust Chain of Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjiao; Tian, Xiuxia

    Trust chain is one of the key technologies in designing secure operating system based on TC technology. Constructions of trust chain and trust models are analyzed. Future works in these directions are discussed.

  5. Organizational trust or beyond appearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dromereschi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available People and organizations to whom I am giving life to have an enormous need to trust and be trustworthy. Trust represents a fragile asset who needs to be invested in, which is difficult to obtain and takes time to obtain it, but which can be easily broken. Paradoxically, it is a universal trade currency, world-widely understood and appreciated. The relations based on trust are those which determine a company to grow and create a competitive advantage. Trust generates trust. It is the one that inspires and motivates, requires the preservation of a certain set of values, mainly sincerity, fairness, perseverance and a real preoccupation for meeting the needs of other people.

  6. Trusted computing strengthens cloud authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazizadeh, Eghbal; Zamani, Mazdak; Ab Manan, Jamalul-lail; Alizadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model.

  7. Trusted Computing Strengthens Cloud Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eghbal Ghazizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM. Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model.

  8. Trusted Computing Strengthens Cloud Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model. PMID:24701149

  9. Trust and the sociology of the professions.

    OpenAIRE

    Groenewegen, P.P.

    2006-01-01

    There is a fast-growing literature on trust in health care, especially interpersonal trust, reflecting the growing awareness in both the research and policy communities of the importance of trust. At a general level, trust as part of the broader concept of social capital is related to people's health and well-being. Trust within provider-patient relations is important for its non-specific treatment effects. Finally, trust is also important for the snooth functioning of societal institutions.(...

  10. Obtaining corporate information from NHS foundation trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Valerie; Endacott, Ruth; Sheaff, Rod; Jones, Ray

    Foundation trusts have boards of directors that are responsible for the day-to-day running of the organisation, planning services and developing strategy. Unlike non-foundation trusts and primary care trusts (PCTs), foundation trusts are not obliged to hold directors' board meetings in public. This article describes the online availability and accessibility of the minutes of such meetings in a number of foundation trusts, non-foundation trusts and PCTs. The implications for transparency in the NHS are also discussed.

  11. Cancer patients’ trust in their oncologist

    OpenAIRE

    Hillen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we aimed to unravel cancer patients’ trust in their oncologist. We investigated patients’ explanations of trust in-depth, and developed an oncology-specific questionnaire to assess trust. Using the resulting Trust in Oncologist Scale, we experimentally established the influence of oncologist communication on trust. Specifically, patients report stronger trust if the oncologist expresses medical competence, communicates in an open and honest manner, and conveys involvement and c...

  12. Never trust a croup…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickinson, Andrew; Minhas, Jatinder Singh; Bhalla, Minak; Anwuzia-Iwegbu, Charles; Chapman, John

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year-old girl presented to the James Paget University Hospitals Trust with croup-like symptoms and was later discharged with dexamethasone syrup. The patient re-presented 6 h later following maternal concern with signs of acute respiratory distress. After a period of clinical stability, she acutely decompensated without any prior signs of a life-threatening deterioration. She was managed using nebulised epinephrine and showed signs of clinical improvement. Although improvement persisted, the child showed signs of exhaustion following the preceding events and was later intubed with an endotracheal tube and transferred to the paediatric intensive care unit at Addenbrooke’s University Hospital, Cambridge. Endotracheal aspiration later grew parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus and Staphylococcus aureus and the patient was diagnosed with the exceptionally rare life threatening complications of croup, bacterial tracheitis. The patient was discharged from intensive care 7 days later and has since made a full recovery. PMID:22689599

  13. A matter of trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Kærgård, Niels

    2013-01-01

    production are found not to have no significant causual effect on actual behaviour, whereas concern for artificial additives and low price sensitivity have. Even when differences in time varying attitudes have been controlled for there is still a rather large heterogeneity in the organic purchasing behaviour...... in 2002 and again in 2007. The results point towards that the most efficient way of increasing organic consumption seems to be to continuously increasing the trust in the organic label and/or to document the positive health effects of organic food by e.g. focussing on measurable things such as a lower...... frequency of findings of pesticide residues in organic foods compared to conventional foods....

  14. A Matter of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Hartley, Jannie Møller; Wittchen, Maria Bendix

    ; Hindman, 2005), we find that the Danish news media tried to distance themselves from the journalists involved in the scandals and describe them as ‘bad apples’ (Cecil, 2002). But, in both scandals, we also find that the Danish news media went to great lengths to investigate the accusations, document......In 2015 two major journalistic scandals hit the Danish news media. One was a plagiarism scandal in which a freelance foreign correspondent was found to have plagiarized parts of the stories she had filed from other international news media. The other scandal involved a sports journalist who...... was found to have invented a large number of the sources that were quoted in his stories and had made up false co-bylines. In a time of diminishing trust in the news media (Blach-Ørsten & Burkal, 2013; Reuters, 2016) these scandals represented a significant and acute credibility problem for the news media...

  15. Towards Trust Engineering for Opportunistic Cloud Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The systematic review methodology has been employed to review trust related studies in cloud computing. It was observed that trusted computing technologies and reputation based approaches are the main approaches to trust engineering in cloud computing. Also, trusted third party approaches...... and the deployment model play a significant role in enhancing trust between service providers and consumers. It was observed that the concept of trust is used loosely without any formal specification in cloud computing discussions and trust engineering in general. As a first step towards addressing this problem, we...... have contextualized the formal trust specification in multi-agent environments for cloud computing....

  16. Trust management in cloud services

    CERN Document Server

    Noor, Talal H; Bouguettaya, Athman

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the design and implementation of Cloud Armor, a novel approach for credibility-based trust management and automatic discovery of cloud services in distributed and highly dynamic environments. This book also helps cloud users to understand the difficulties of establishing trust in cloud computing and the best criteria for selecting a service cloud. The techniques have been validated by a prototype system implementation and experimental studies using a collection of real world trust feedbacks on cloud services.The authors present the design and implementation of a novel pro

  17. Trust and New Communication Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    2010-01-01

    I approach philosophical analyses of the phenomenon of trust vis-à-vis online communication, beginning with an overview from within the framework of computer-mediated communication (CMC) of concerns and paradigmatic failures of trust in the history of online communication. I turn to more directly...... the perspective of virtue ethics and phenomenological approaches to how we know and navigate the world as embodied beings - I then take up three major arguments in recent work in favor of the possibilities of trust online, followed by three vicious circles that run counter to more optimistic views. I close...

  18. In the CJEU Judges Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    . A theory is offered in the article, which links national judges' trust in the CJEU to their corporatist identification and profile, to their attitudes towards the EU, and to their beliefs about the CJEU's ability to provide decisions that: 1) offer a clear guidance on European Union law, and 2......This article aims to highlight the relevance of judicial trust in international courts, focusing on national judges' trust in the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). EU scholars have put a great deal of effort into explaining how legal and political factors affect the use of preliminary...

  19. Rethinking Participation and Re-enacting Its Dilemmas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit; Stephensen, Jan Løhmann

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 the Danish city of Aarhus was appointed European Capital of Culture for 2017. The appointment was based on an ambitious programme that – under the headline Rethink – tried to set an agenda of societal transformation, mainly by seeking to increase the impact of art and culture, and to enha......In 2012 the Danish city of Aarhus was appointed European Capital of Culture for 2017. The appointment was based on an ambitious programme that – under the headline Rethink – tried to set an agenda of societal transformation, mainly by seeking to increase the impact of art and culture...... Rethink project. Informed by theoretical distinctions between different forms of participation, and the diverse interests invested in participatory processes, we investigate how the young cultural entrepreneurs and the artistic administrators of Aarhus 2017 separately, in conjunction, and sometimes even...

  20. Trusted counsellor retires

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    His astute counsel, knowing smile and distinguished eloquence will be missed by many. With a pang of regret, the man himself admits that 'CERN was like a drug for me'. Last week, Jean-Daniel Mandica retired, after 40 years of loyal service. He was the trusted counsellor of every Director of the Administration and Director-General for eighteen years, from 1986 to 2003. Head of the planning unit for the Directorate and the Administration from 1986 to 1996, he was then named Head of the Directorate Services Unit in 1996, a position he held until the end of 2003. Throughout that time, he conducted key tasks for the Organization, such as restructuring the Administration and carrying out audits. His role in the creation of Microcosm and his commitment to CERN's participation in the Universal Exposition at Seville in 1992 contributed in no small part to the spread of the Laboratory's fame. Jean-Daniel Mandica's incomparable knowledge of the Administration, sense of diplomacy and great ability to listen made him a v...

  1. TEE-Based Trusted Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier; Bonnet, Philippe

    Today, it is safe to assume that any program or data can be compromised, if they are not protected by hardware within a secure area. Systems based on crypto-processors (e.g., a trusted platform module, a smart card or a hardware security module) rely on the properties of tamper resistant hardware...... to establish a tight security parameter around a reduced set of predefined functionalities. Such systems are very secure, but they impose strong constraints on the functionalities, the connectivity or the resources available within the secure area. They have not proven versatile enough to provide mainstream...... trusted storage for personal data. We believe that this role can be taken over by systems equipped with Trusted Execution Environments (TEE), such as ARM’s TrustZone. Indeed, even if TEEs provide weaker security guarantees than crypto-processors, they already provide a secure area on many personal devices...

  2. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    We argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, thus ignoring substantial variation in actual exposure to ethnic......, whereas the effect vanishes in larger contextual units. This supports the conjecture that interethnic exposure underlies the negative relationship between ethnic diversity in residential contexts and social trust....... diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context—where interethnic exposure is inevitable—affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each individual...

  3. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2018-01-01

    Due to its wide-ranging implications for social cohesion in diversifying Western countries, the question of the potential negative consequences of ethnic diversity for social trust is arguably the most contentious question in the literature on social trust. In this chapter we critically review...... the empirical evidence for a negative relationship between contextual ethnic diversity (measured locally within countries) and social trust. We cautiously conclude that there are indications of a negative relationship, although with important variations across study characteristics including national setting......, context unit analyzed, and conditioning on moderating influences. Building on the review, we highlight a number of paths for theoretical and methodological advances, which we argue would advance the literature on the relationship between ethnic diversity and social trust....

  4. To Trust or Not to Trust? What Drives Public Trust in Science in Social Media Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwong, Y. L.; Oliver, C.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The erosion of public trust in science is a serious concern today. This climate of distrust has real consequences, from the anti-vaccination movement to climate change denials. The age of social media promises opportunities for improved interactivity between scientists and the public, which experts hope will help improve public confidence in science. However, evidence linking social media engagement and public attitude towards science is scarce. Our study aimed to help fill this gap. We examined Twitter engagement and its impact on public trust in science, focusing on two related science issues: space science and climate change. Our datasets comprised of 10,000 randomly sampled tweets over a month's period in 2016. We used human annotation and machine learning to analyse the tweets. Results revealed the level of distrust was significantly higher in the climate change tweets. However, in the climate change network, people who engaged with science personalities trust science more than those who did not. This difference in trust levels was not present in the space science network. There the two clusters of people displayed similar levels of trust in science. Additionally, we used machine learning to predict the trust labels of tweets and conducted feature analysis to find the properties of trust-inspiring tweets. Our supervised learning algorithm was able to predict trust in science in our sample tweets with 84% accuracy. The strongest predictors of trust in science (as conveyed by tweets) were similarity, presence of URL and authenticity. Contrast this with the findings of our previous study investigating the features of highly engaging space science related social media messages, authenticity is the only feature that also inspires trust. This indicates that what works to promote engagement (e.g. `retweets', `Likes') does not necessarily build trust in science. Social media science communication is not as simple as `we engage, therefore they trust'. We suggest that

  5. Trust, Behavior, and High School Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Lisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on student trust and to examine the relationship between student trust, behavior, and academic outcomes in high school. It asks, first, does trust have a positive effect on high school outcomes? Second, does trust influence student behavior, exerting an indirect effect on…

  6. Trust and the sociology of the professions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.

    2006-01-01

    There is a fast-growing literature on trust in health care, especially interpersonal trust, reflecting the growing awareness in both the research and policy communities of the importance of trust. At a general level, trust as part of the broader concept of social capital is related to people's

  7. The Complex Relationship between Cyberbullying and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieschl, Stephanie; Porsch, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Theoretically, there are strong arguments for a relationship between cyberbullying and trust. On the one hand, trust is built on experiences; thus, experiences of malevolence such as cyberbullying might contribute to low trust. On the other hand, high trust may lead to risky online behavior such as self-disclosures that could increase the risk of…

  8. 26 CFR 301.7701-4 - Trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... remediation trust if the organization is organized under state law as a trust; the primary purpose of the... federal, state, or local environmental laws; all contributors to the trust have (at the time of... federal, state, or local environmental laws for environmental remediation of the waste site; and the trust...

  9. 12 CFR 7.2022 - Voting trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices § 7.2022 Voting trusts. The shareholders of a national bank may establish a voting trust under the applicable law of a state selected by the participants and designated in the trust agreement, provided the... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting trusts. 7.2022 Section 7.2022 Banks and...

  10. Metadata trust in a personal video recorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Trust is the belief or confidence in someone that their recommendations will work for you, i.e. that you will like the TV-programs (or other content) that they recommend. Many systems incorporate some notion of trust. Trust is more than similarity in taste, which makes trust a broader concept than

  11. Cancer patients’ trust in their oncologist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we aimed to unravel cancer patients’ trust in their oncologist. We investigated patients’ explanations of trust in-depth, and developed an oncology-specific questionnaire to assess trust. Using the resulting Trust in Oncologist Scale, we experimentally established the influence of

  12. [Trust in the care relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureau, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    A relationship of trust is an expression often used by caregivers, to such an extent that it almost seems self-evident. It is nevertheless important to give some thought to this aspect in order to construct a reliable, authentic and ethical care relationship. Indeed, trust is not automatic. It requires reciprocity, a deliberate choice on the part of the caregiver and the patient. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Trust and Privacy in Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Peter; Kalra, Dipak

    This paper considers issues of trust and privacy in healthcare around increased data-sharing through Electronic Health Records (EHRs). It uses a model structured around different aspects of trust in the healthcare organisation’s reasons for greater data-sharing and their ability to execute EHR projects, particularly any associated confidentiality controls. It reflects the individual’s personal circumstances and attitude to use of health records.

  14. Trust Revision for Conflicting Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    strategy is to first revise a priori trust assignments as a function of the degree of conflict, before the evidence is fused. This paper focuses on the...practical trust transitivity seems to be idiosyncratic for humans and animals, with no true analogue among non- living forms (and in the physical world ...visiting a foreign country Alice is looking for a restaurant where the locals go, because she would like to avoid places overrun by tourists. She meets a

  15. Online Consumer Trust: Trends in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Bauman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the literature review of studies published in 2004-2014 (Web 2.0 period in the area of consumer online trust. Based on the content analysis of 138 papers, this study highlights three major research themes: (1 trust models, (2 technological, and (3 social factors impacting online trust. It also explores topics in each major theme found in direct studies of online consumer trust. Since this literature review uses the concept-centric approach, it points out not only the major trends in research but also three understudied areas: (1 green trust, (2 trust recovery, and (3 the role of ethics in developing online trust.

  16. The Relationship between Teamwork and Organizational Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musab Işık

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. In the implementation section the data from the survey of 250 workers is employed in call centers in Erzurum by using relevant statistical methods. Consequently, it is found that there is a positive and significant relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. Thus, the hypothesis of the study is supported as it was expected. Besides, it is found that there are positive and significant relationships between communication, openness to innovation, participation-trust in teamwork and organizational trust, trust in management, trust in co-workers, and trust in workplace.

  17. Trust and Online Reputation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Ming; Ramachandran, Deepak

    Web 2.0 technologies provide organizations with unprecedented opportunities to expand and solidify relationships with their customers, partners, and employees—while empowering firms to define entirely new business models focused on sharing information in online collaborative environments. Yet, in and of themselves, these technologies cannot ensure productive online interactions. Leading enterprises that are experimenting with social networks and online communities are already discovering this fact and along with it, the importance of establishing trust as the foundation for online collaboration and transactions. Just as today's consumers must feel secure to bank, exchange personal information and purchase products and services online; participants in Web 2.0 initiatives will only accept the higher levels of risk and exposure inherent in e-commerce and Web collaboration in an environment of trust. Indeed, only by attending to the need to cultivate online trust with customers, partners and employees will enterprises ever fully exploit the expanded business potential posed by Web 2.0. But developing online trust is no easy feat. While various preliminary attempts have occurred, no definitive model for establishing or measuring it has yet been established. To that end, nGenera has identified three, distinct dimensions of online trust: reputation (quantitative-based); relationship (qualitative-based) and process (system-based). When considered together, they form a valuable model for understanding online trust and a toolbox for cultivating it to support Web 2.0 initiatives.

  18. Trust is a must: What is involved in trusting those who manage forest fires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Liljeblad; Bill Borrie; Alan Watson

    2010-01-01

    Trust is a complicated emotion. In the past, many social scientists have studied trust. They discovered that trust involves a number of beliefs and emotions. The scientists in this study were interested in learning more about trust. They believed that forest managers can do a better job if people trust them to do what is best for citizens and the environment (figure 1...

  19. An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krukow, Karl Kristian

    2005-01-01

    In the trust-structure model of trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships with other principals in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for trust policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics...... ensures that for any collection of trust policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well......-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language...

  20. 5G: rethink mobile communications for 2020+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih-Lin, I; Han, Shuangfeng; Xu, Zhikun; Sun, Qi; Pan, Zhengang

    2016-03-06

    The 5G network is anticipated to meet the challenging requirements of mobile traffic in the 2020s, which are characterized by super high data rate, low latency, high mobility, high energy efficiency and high traffic density. This paper provides an overview of China Mobile's 5G vision and potential solutions. Three key characteristics of 5G are analysed, i.e. super fast, soft and green. The main 5G R&D themes are further elaborated, which include five fundamental rethinkings of the traditional design methodologies. The 5G network design considerations are also discussed, with cloud radio access network, ultra-dense network, software defined network and network function virtualization examined as key potential solutions towards a green and soft 5G network. The paradigm shift to user-centric network operation from the traditional cell-centric operation is also investigated, where the decoupled downlink and uplink, control and data, and adaptive multiple connections provide sufficient means to achieve a user-centric 5G network with 'no more cells'. The software defined air interface is investigated under a uniform framework and can adaptively adapt the parameters to well satisfy various requirements in different 5G scenarios. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Basic Concepts for rethinking environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Ladron de Guevara, Francisco Jose; Valencia Cuellar, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review of the fundamental concepts from which environmental problems have been explained and solved during the last decades. Environment is understood as an encounter between nature and culture that is a social construct that reflects the interaction between human beings and the biophysical space in which they live. On the other hand, development is conceived as the ability that societies have to develop their potentialities, being a notion of a totalizing and ethical political nature, which incorporates the biophysical and social heritage of a certain society. Regarding the concept of culture, it must be said that it is built upon the basis that this is an adaptive strategy of the human species. Finally, the relationships between the concepts of culture, environment and development are studied in order to formulate a new perspective for rethinking the environmental issue, so that, in turn, it could be used to redirect survival strategies that human beings currently apply in their interaction with the environment.

  2. Rethinking tourism: Bali’s failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamdevi, M.; Bott, H.

    2018-03-01

    Bali is famous as the tourist destination in the world. Ironically, most of the people of Bali thought that tourism in Bali is a failure. The negative impact showed on modernization in South Bali, including Denpasar, Kuta, and Ubud. Cultural imperialism has shifted local culture in many aspects, especially the traditional houses and buildings. The climax of this problem is the development of Benoa Bay Reclamation, where the sacred location for the traditional ceremony will be built for new tourism development that offers pleasure and leisure. This raised hard protest from the people of Bali. They are also afraid that the Balinese cultural and natural environment will vanish. On the other hand, some movement of sustainable tourism in North Bali, that ran by the local community has also arisen. What is tourism? Is it only for pleasure and leisure only? This research will discuss the rethinking of tourism definition with Bali as a reflection case. The purpose of this paper is to find its right definition with qualitative methodology. A more sustainable tourism that more on local context would be a research result.

  3. Living on Borrowed Time: Rethinking Temporality, Self, Nihilism, and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy; Komatsu, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    Seeking to contribute to recent attempts to rethink the deepest foundations of the field, this paper offers news ways of contemplating time, specifically its relations to self, nihilism, and schooling. We briefly review how some leading Western thinkers have contemplated time before detailing Japanese scholars who have offered divergent, original,…

  4. Re-thinking clinical research training in residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer O'Brien

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that medical educators should critically re-think our programs to develop resident researchers. If it is worthwhile to require original research projects during residency, then we must consider the priorities of local settings to best serve the public interest.

  5. The African Mind and Globalization: Rethinking the Causes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Mind and Globalization: Rethinking the Causes of Africa's ... which has become “the new bride” in building socio-economic, socio-cultural and ... Africa, the once touted “cradle of civilisation”, and indeed, the forerunner of science ...

  6. Academic and Career Development: Rethinking Advising for Asian American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne M.; Huynh, Jill

    2017-01-01

    Academic and career development for Asian American students is complicated by cultural influences, interdependence with family, and racial stereotyping. This chapter highlights research, theory, and practice to help educators rethink traditional advising approaches to more appropriately work with Asian American students as they navigate their…

  7. Intimate Distance: Rethinking the Unthought God in Christianity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kate, L. ten

    2008-01-01

    The work of the French philosopher Jean-Luc Nancy shares with the thinkers of the ‘theological turn in phenomenology’ the programmatic desire to place the ‘theological’, in the broad sense of rethinking the religious traditions in our secular time, back on the agenda of critical thought. Like those

  8. Objectivity and Subjectivity: an Argument for Rethinking the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectivity and Subjectivity: an Argument for Rethinking the Philosophy Syllabus. ... South African Journal of Philosophy ... The aftermath of the rise of modern physics has been a picture of reality as alienated from our commonly experienced sense of purposes, aims, and intentions as defining our everyday lives, what we ...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.354 - What is a trust evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that the functions are performed in accordance with trust standards as defined by Federal law. Trust... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a trust evaluation? 1000.354 Section 1000.354... Trust Evaluation Review Annual Trust Evaluations § 1000.354 What is a trust evaluation? A trust...

  10. Social trust and ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadd, E. [Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The linkages that exist between the environmental risks associated with nuclear energy production (both perceived and real) and the myriad of social and political issues and processes that influence social trust are a current issue in literature, but are not well explored, particularly for the Canadian context. This paper will examine one particular issue and its relationship with social trust: ionizing radiation and public health. Social trust is defined for this paper as including interpersonal trust, but having a much broader focus, extending to public trust in governments, institutions, corporations, and the power elite, and across whole societies. Of particular interest for the nuclear energy issue is how waning social trust may impact the functioning of democratic decision-making processes, particularly those associated with the siting of waste facilities. Social trust is a central issue in the management of environmental risks, particularly those related to high technology; its absence is seen as a major cause of intractable conflict in decisions related to nuclear power generation and waste disposal. Understanding the dynamics of social trust is important if a resolution is to be found to the nuclear waste management debate in Canada, that is, one that involves broad public, or social, support. For instance, what factors cause distrust to emerge, and when distrust emerges, what authorities do members of affected communities seek out for information and support? This paper begins to examine social trust in relation to human health and ionizing radiation, particularly low dose radiation from radioactive wastes resulting from uranium and radium processing activities in Port Hope, Ontario. These activities date back to the 1930s and are of great concern to community members. This paper looks at some of the roots of public concern, for example, scientific uncertainty around whether or not human health is compromised by exposure to low dose ionizing radiation

  11. Social trust and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadd, E.

    2002-01-01

    The linkages that exist between the environmental risks associated with nuclear energy production (both perceived and real) and the myriad of social and political issues and processes that influence social trust are a current issue in literature, but are not well explored, particularly for the Canadian context. This paper will examine one particular issue and its relationship with social trust: ionizing radiation and public health. Social trust is defined for this paper as including interpersonal trust, but having a much broader focus, extending to public trust in governments, institutions, corporations, and the power elite, and across whole societies. Of particular interest for the nuclear energy issue is how waning social trust may impact the functioning of democratic decision-making processes, particularly those associated with the siting of waste facilities. Social trust is a central issue in the management of environmental risks, particularly those related to high technology; its absence is seen as a major cause of intractable conflict in decisions related to nuclear power generation and waste disposal. Understanding the dynamics of social trust is important if a resolution is to be found to the nuclear waste management debate in Canada, that is, one that involves broad public, or social, support. For instance, what factors cause distrust to emerge, and when distrust emerges, what authorities do members of affected communities seek out for information and support? This paper begins to examine social trust in relation to human health and ionizing radiation, particularly low dose radiation from radioactive wastes resulting from uranium and radium processing activities in Port Hope, Ontario. These activities date back to the 1930s and are of great concern to community members. This paper looks at some of the roots of public concern, for example, scientific uncertainty around whether or not human health is compromised by exposure to low dose ionizing radiation

  12. International Trust and Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    as described by Brewer, Gross, Aday and Willnat (2004). The paper is based on case studies of five Public Diplomacy activities: Iranian President Hassan Rouhani’s letter in The Washington Post (2013); Denmark’s trust-building effort in Pakistan following the so-called “Muhammad crisis” (from 2010); The British......-level (Iran) or has created a framework for people-to-people relations (Denmark, UK and USA). A backlash was experienced in the case where a foreign state leader patronized the national leader (Russia). In all cases, respect for people in other countries despite differences in culture seems fundamental...... Council’s strategy for trust-building in China (2012); Russian President Vladimir Putin’s letter in The New York Times (2013), and the USA’s trust-building effort in Turkey (from 2006). The best results have been obtained where Public Diplomacy has been linked to successful traditional diplomacy at state...

  13. Trust Management System for Opportunistic Cloud Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We have over the past three years been working on the feasibility of Opportunistic Cloud Services (OCS) for enterprises. OCS is about enterprises strategically contributing and utilizing spare IT resources as cloud services. One of the major challenges that such a platform faces is data security...... and trust management issues. This paper presents a trust management system for OCS platforms. It models the concept of trust and applies it to OCS platforms. The trust model and the trust management system are verified through the simulation of the computation of the trust values with Infrastructure...

  14. Love Thy Neighbor: Bonding versus Bridging Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Odile; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2005-01-01

    We study how trust is generated in society. In a two-sector model, we analyze two communities. In the bonding community people do not trust people outside their regular networks. In the bridging community people choose to trust strangers when they meet them. The hypothesis is that when trust is only bonding, it cannot accumulate. Our theoretical contribution is to show that when trust is only bonding then the economy’s level of trust moves to an unstable equilibrium that may under certain con...

  15. The fair factor in matters of trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren L

    2006-01-01

    Communities are bound together by trust among their members. Trust thrives when a pervasive sense of fairness exists. Evidence suggests that trust has social, professional, and economic value for today's organizations, making it worthy of attention. Matters of trust and justice are important and timely for nurse leaders to consider given the challenge to improve practice settings in a manner that enhances nurse satisfaction. The aim of this article is to make explicit the value in building organizational justice and trust within an organization's nursing community. Nursing leadership strategies are integrated, thus offering practical guidance in creating a culture of justice, making trust explicit, and establishing trustworthiness.

  16. A Trusted Portable Computing Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-wei, Fang; Jun-jun, Wu; Peng-fei, Yu; Xin-fang, Zhang

    A trusted portable computing device and its security mechanism were presented to solve the security issues, such as the attack of virus and Trojan horse, the lost and stolen of storage device, in mobile office. It used smart card to build a trusted portable security base, virtualization to create a secure virtual execution environment, two-factor authentication mechanism to identify legitimate users, and dynamic encryption to protect data privacy. The security environment described in this paper is characteristic of portability, security and reliability. It can meet the security requirement of mobile office.

  17. Trust me, I am Robot!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoyanova, Angelina; Drefeld, Jonas; Tanev, Stoyan

    of the emerging trust relationship is a key component of the use value of the robotic system and of the value proposition of the robotic system producers. The study is based on a qualitative research approach combining the phenomenological research paradigm with a grounded theory building approach based......The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the issues regarding the emergence of trust within the context of the interaction between human patients and medical rehabilitation technology based on robot system solutions. The starting assumption of the analysis is that the articulation...

  18. Maintaining control while delegating trust: Integrity constraints in trust management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, S.; Winsborough, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the use, monitoring, and enforcement of integrity constraints in trust management-style authorization systems. We consider what portions of the policy state must be monitored to detect violations of integrity constraints. Then, we address the fact that not all participants in a

  19. Understandig trust : longitudinal studies on trust dynamics in governance interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Trust is generally perceived as an important concept in governance processes where people cooperate, as it enables people to take risks and deal with uncertainties, and it facilitates cooperation. These characteristics are seen as important in new and alternative ways of implementing public

  20. Learning to trust: trust and attachment in early psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fett, A.J.; Shergill, S.; Korver-Nieberg, N.; Yakub, F.; Gromann, P.; Krabbendam, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Distrust and social dysfunction are characteristic in psychosis and may arise from attachment insecurity, which is elevated in the disorder. The relationship between trust and attachment in the early stages of psychosis is unknown, yet could help to understand interpersonal difficulties

  1. Trust and Distrust in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Joo Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Trust is the key ingredient for sustainable transactions. In the concept of trust, the trustor trusts the trustees. In e-commerce, the trustor is the buyer and the trustees are the intermediaries and the seller. Intermediaries provide the web-based infrastructure that enables buyers and sellers to make transactions. Trust is the buyer’s judgment and comprises two distinct concepts; both trust and distrust reside in the trustor. The purpose of this study was to examine the complicated effects of trust and distrust on a buyer’s purchase intentions. Previous studies have provided theoretical frameworks illustrating co-existent trust and distrust, trust transfers from one to another, and trust in buyer-intermediary-seller relationships. Based on these frameworks, this study (i presented a holistic model that contained the judgment of buyers resulting in trust or distrust in the intermediary and the seller; (ii investigated trust and distrust transfer from the intermediary to the seller, and (iii explored the effects of various antecedents that affect trust and distrust. To validate the proposed model, we employed Partial Least Squares (PLS. A summary of key findings are as follows. First, buyer’s trust in an intermediary positively affected his or her trust in the seller, positively influencing purchase intention. In other words, we found the trust transfer from an intermediary to its seller. Second, distrust in an intermediary directly impacted on the buyer’s perceived risk, negatively influencing his or her purchase intentions. Third, structural assurance and perceived website quality of an intermediary gave a positive impact on buyer’s trust in the intermediary. The results of this study shed light on the necessity of managing both trust and distrust to facilitate sales in e-commerce.

  2. An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krukow, Karl

    2006-01-01

    In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures that for......In the trust-structure framework for trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for such policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics ensures...... that for any collection of policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well......-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language...

  3. Adequate trust avails, mistaken trust matters: on the moral responsibility of doctors as proxies for patients' trust in biobank research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Linus; Helgesson, Gert; Hansson, Mats G; Eriksson, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    In Sweden, most patients are recruited into biobank research by non-researcher doctors. Patients' trust in doctors may therefore be important to their willingness to participate. We suggest a model of trust that makes sense of such transitions of trust between domains and distinguishes adequate trust from mistaken trust. The unique position of doctors implies, we argue, a Kantian imperfect duty to compensate for patients' mistaken trust. There are at least three kinds of mistaken trust, each of which requires a different set of countermeasures. First, trust is mistaken when necessary competence is lacking; the competence must be developed or the illusion dispelled. Second, trust is irrational whenever the patient is mistaken about his actual reasons for trusting. Care must therefore be taken to support the patient's reasoning and moral agency. Third, some patients inappropriately trust doctors to recommend only research that will benefit them directly. Such trust should be counteracted by nurturing a culture where patients expect to be asked occasionally to contribute to the common good. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Online health information - what can you trust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000869.htm Online health information - what can you trust? To use the sharing features on this page, ... the difference? To find health information you can trust, you have to know where and how to ...

  5. Trust Mines: Legal Documents and Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legal Documents and Settlements related to the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mines Region including the Phase 1 Settlement Agreement and Environmental Response Trust Agreement, Phase 2 Settlement Agreement Removal Site Evaluation (RSE) Trust Agreement.

  6. Trust and Dialogue in the Army Profession

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, III, James M

    2008-01-01

    .... Trust involves the expectation that the object of trust will behave in a favorable manner, and includes the willingness of a person to be vulnerable to the actions of another based on this expectation...

  7. An Outline of Interpersonal Trust and Distrust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2015-01-01

    The article is part of the dialogue "Intentional Trust in Uganda" with anthropologist Lotte Meinert......The article is part of the dialogue "Intentional Trust in Uganda" with anthropologist Lotte Meinert...

  8. Trust Networks on the Semantic Web

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golbeck, Jennifer; Parisa, Bijan; Hendler, James

    2006-01-01

    The so-called "Web of Trust" is one of the ultimate goals of the Semantic Web. Research on the topic of trust in this domain has focused largely on digital signatures, certificates, and authentication...

  9. A Calculus for Trust Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    2004-01-01

    principals to policies. We elect to formalise policies using a Datalog-like logic, and to express protocols in the process algebra style. This yields an expressive calculus very suitable for the global computing scenarios, and provides a formalisation of notions such as trust evolution. For ctm we define...

  10. Afgivelse af formue til trusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Rasmus Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Kravet om at en stifter skal have foretaget en "uigenkaldelig og effektiv udskillelse" for at dansk skatteret vil anerkende at der foreligger en trust vurderes. Kravet er senest lagt til grund i SKM 2009.249 SR. Forfatteren opfordrer til, at SKAT i stedet foretager en konkret vurdering af selve...

  11. Description of the Wellcome Trust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Wellcome Trust supports research of the highest quality with the aim of improving human and animal health, and our Strategic Plan provides the framework for how we intend to evolve our support to be even more effective in achieving this aim.

  12. INNOVATION - THE ROLE OF TRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornélia Lazányi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovations and constant change are inevitable parts of our everyday lives. It is not only because advanced technologies are more effective, but mostly because in the 21st century more and more realise that scarce resources – among them the safe and clean environment as such - necessitate a paradigm change and intense innovation. This revolution is easily trackable in the organisational and (supranational policies. However, innovation, and its necessary prerequisites are seldom investigated from the individuals’ point of view. It is easy to understand that inter-organisational trust is inevitable on both the consumers’ and the providers’ (innovators’ side, however, it has to be made clear that an innovative organisation has to create a trusting environment within the company, in order to foster collaboration, the generation of new ideas, creativity and finally innovation. The present paper endeavours to call attention to the notion of trust and its antecedents and consequences in relation to innovations. The aim is to provide assistance in understanding how to develop trust in each other and hence foster further innovations and development.

  13. Social Capital. Trust and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek TITTENBRUN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a critical analysis of the central concept around which the popular construct of social capital is organised, i.e. trust. To this end the views of Fukuyama, the leading exponent of the said concept are considered. As a result, the concept in question is found to be ideologically charged and substantively weak in many respects.

  14. Social Capital. Trust and Ideology

    OpenAIRE

    TITTENBRUN Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The paper offers a critical analysis of the central concept around which the popular construct of social capital is organised, i.e. trust. To this end the views of Fukuyama, the leading exponent of the said concept are considered. As a result, the concept in question is found to be ideologically charged and substantively weak in many respects.

  15. Ombud's Corner: tried and trusted

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    Trust is an essential ingredient in all working relationships. When trust breaks down, conflicts may arise and teams may stop working in harmony. The Ombud is there to help you to find your way out before the point of no return is reached.   Reliability, integrity, expertise and good will: these are the four pillars on which trust is built. Trust between colleagues may break down for many different reasons, including misunderstandings, and the way to restoring the relationship is through working on these four pillars. For instance, if we assume that we do indeed have the expertise to deal with a particular task assigned to us, we may need to improve our reliability by making sure that we meet deadlines and expectations or demonstrate our integrity by acknowledging and accepting accountability for this, all the while showing that we are doing our best to do whatever it takes to achieve the common goals and restore our colleagues’ faith in us. All four of these pillars need to be in...

  16. Income trusts and limited partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toews, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    This author provided a conceptual overview of income trusts and limited partnerships that are designed to pass operating cash flow directly to investors without the imposition of corporate taxes, discussed the evolution of the market, the mechanism used to price income funds, past and present performance of the sector, and made some predictions concerning the sector's future performance. 13 figs

  17. Consumer Trust in E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, Malin; Johansson, Anne-Marie

    2006-01-01

    An often mentioned reason for consumers not purchasing from Internet vendors, is the lack of trust. The lack of physical clues and physical interaction in the online environment make it more difficult to establish trust with the consumers. So, it is important for companies to learn how to manage consumers’ trust in e-commerce. Although, building consumer trust on the Internet is a challenge for online vendors. The purpose with this dissertation was to get a better understanding of consumer t...

  18. Trust and School Life: The Role of Trust for Learning, Teaching, Leading, and Bridging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maele, Dimitri, Ed.; Forsyth, Patrick B., Ed.; Van Houtte, Miek, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This book samples recent and emerging trust research in education including an array of conceptual approaches, measurement innovations, and explored determinants and outcomes of trust. The collection of pathways explores the phenomenon of trust and establishes the significance of trust relationships in school life. It emboldens the claim that…

  19. Racial and Religious Discrimination in Charitable Trusts: A Current Analysis of Constitutional and Trust Law Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Roy M.

    1976-01-01

    The process by which constitutional and trust law have blended together in the charitable trust field is examined. Focus is on whether a settlor can expect racial and religious restrictions in a charitable trust to be allowed, how to deal with them if they are, and what happens to the trust property if they are not. (LBH)

  20. The Trust Project - Symbiotic Human Machine Teams: Social Cueing for Trust and Reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0096 THE TRUST PROJECT - SYMBIOTIC HUMAN-MACHINE TEAMS: SOCIAL CUEING FOR TRUST & RELIANCE Susan Rivers, Monika Lohani, Marissa...30 JUN 2012 – 30 JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE TRUST PROJECT - SYMBIOTIC HUMAN-MACHINE TEAMS: SOCIAL CUEING FOR TRUST & RELIANCE 5a. CONTRACT

  1. A Construção da Polémica da Hegemonia e da Diferença nos Estudos sobre Linguagem e Diferença Sexual (A propósito de You Just Don’t Understand, de Deborah Tannen)

    OpenAIRE

    Keating, Maria Clara

    1994-01-01

    A questão da construção da diferença sexual na linguagem tem vindo a ser objecto de intensas controvérsias, às quais a sociolinguística não é indiferente. Partindo de uma leitura crítica do recente bestseller da norte-americana Deborah Tannen, procede-se a uma avaliação de várias abordagens presentes no debate em curso

  2. Trust, accreditation and Philanthropy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2003-01-01

    Given the increasing numbers of scandals, the awareness among fund-raisers that the public's trust is crucial for the nonprofit sector is growing. This study investigates the relationship between trust and charitable giving. Charitable organizations can increase the public's trust by signaling their

  3. Trust, accreditation, and philanthropy in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Rene H.F.P.

    2003-01-01

    Given the increasing numbers of scandals, the awareness among fund-raisers that the public’s trust is crucial for the nonprofit sector is growing. This study investigates the relationship between trust and charitable giving. Charitable organizations can increase the public’s trust by signaling their

  4. The Role of Trust in Computer Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    technologies and show how many of them concern the placement of trust on human or system agents. We argue that making such assumptions about trust explicit is an essential requirement for the future of system security and argue why the formalisation of computational trust is necessary when we wish to reason...

  5. Public trust: expectancies, beliefs, and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, D.

    2014-01-01

    Most people think of trust as the bonding force between people in romantic, professional, and family relationships. Of growing importance however is public trust: trust in organizations that are not represented by a single person, such as companies, non-profit organizations and governmental

  6. The edge of trust : An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, A.M.; Krueger, J.I.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of interpersonal trust are an essential part of understanding how people think and act in social interactions. Trust enables human beings to form meaningful personal relationships (Simpson, 2007) and engage in mutually profitable social and economic exchanges (Kohn, 2008). Yet, trust is

  7. Does transparent government agencies strengthen trust?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Trust in government has been shown to be volatile in recent years and Internet transparency is seen as a solution to strengthen trust. However, critics argue that transparency will only lead to less trust, and sceptics say that it has no effect at all. This debate on transparency is lacking

  8. Trust and Relationship Building in Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Panagiota; Andreou, Andreas; Kanellis, Panagiotis; Martakos, Drakoulis

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for trust in electronic commerce to build customer relationships focuses on a model drawn from established theoretical work on trust and relationship marketing that highlights differences between traditional and electronic commerce. Considers how trust can be built into virtual environments. (Contains 50 references.)…

  9. Temperament Constructs Related to Betrayal of Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    disintegrate. The interrelatedness between system trust and interpersonal trust has been noted by Durkheim (1933), who predicted a loss of trust in others...and suspicion. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2, 265-279. Durkheim , E. (1933). The division of labor in societ’. New York: Free Press of Glencoe

  10. Trusted Truck(R) II (phase A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Trusted Truck Program was initiated in 2003 as a joint effort by NTRCI, Volvo and UT. The vision of the Trusted Truck program is to develop a secure and "trusted" transport solution from pickup to delivery. The program's objective is to incre...

  11. Trust in initial encounters : a motivational, cognitive theory

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Svein Tvedt

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation I develop a theoretical model on the effects of risk on the formation of trust in the initial stages of a relationship. Risk is proposed to influence trust in two ways: First, risk exerts a direct influence on trust. Risk may decrease trust, increase trust, or increase trust under specific conditions. Second, risk may affect the level of trust indirectly by influencing the effect of social stimuli on the formation of trust. In this second indirect effect of risk, ri...

  12. The Effects of Trust Transference, Mobile Attributes and Enjoyment on Mobile Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Junqueira Giovannini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trust is essential in building relationships. In mobile commerce, as in electronic commerce, trust is even more valuable given the absence of human contact and direct observation of the service provider. Despite the importance of trust for mobile commerce, there has been little academic effort to study the relationships between mobile devices unique components of interactivity and customer trust, or the relationship between offline, online and mobile trust. This study proposes a trust-mediated model for customer attitude and transaction intentions in mobile commerce contexts that incorporates trust transference and unique factors present in mobile commerce. Data were collected in an online survey and analyzed via structural equations modeling. Results suggest that trust transferred from online contexts and ease of use have significant effects on mobile trust formation, while also indicating that mobile trust influences consumers’ attitudes and intentions to purchase using mobile devices.

  13. Toward a generic model of trust for electronic commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, YH; Thoen, W

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a generic model of trust for electronic commerce consisting of two basic components, party trust and control trust, based on the concept that trust in a transaction with another party combines trust in the other parry and trust in the control mechanisms that ensure the successful

  14. Predators and the public trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, Adrian; Chapron, Guillaume; López-Bao, Jose V; Shoemaker, Chase; Goeckner, Apollonia R; Bruskotter, Jeremy T

    2017-02-01

    Many democratic governments recognize a duty to conserve environmental resources, including wild animals, as a public trust for current and future citizens. These public trust principles have informed two centuries of U.S.A. Supreme Court decisions and environmental laws worldwide. Nevertheless numerous populations of large-bodied, mammalian carnivores (predators) were eradicated in the 20th century. Environmental movements and strict legal protections have fostered predator recoveries across the U.S.A. and Europe since the 1970s. Now subnational jurisdictions are regaining management authority from central governments for their predator subpopulations. Will the history of local eradication repeat or will these jurisdictions adopt public trust thinking and their obligation to broad public interests over narrower ones? We review the role of public trust principles in the restoration and preservation of controversial species. In so doing we argue for the essential roles of scientists from many disciplines concerned with biological diversity and its conservation. We look beyond species endangerment to future generations' interests in sustainability, particularly non-consumptive uses. Although our conclusions apply to all wild organisms, we focus on predators because of the particular challenges they pose for government trustees, trust managers, and society. Gray wolves Canis lupus L. deserve particular attention, because detailed information and abundant policy debates across regions have exposed four important challenges for preserving predators in the face of interest group hostility. One challenge is uncertainty and varied interpretations about public trustees' responsibilities for wildlife, which have created a mosaic of policies across jurisdictions. We explore how such mosaics have merits and drawbacks for biodiversity. The other three challenges to conserving wildlife as public trust assets are illuminated by the biology of predators and the interacting

  15. Feet to the Fire: New Orleans Kids Rethink Their Devastated School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, Jane; Burkes, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Kids Rethink New Orleans Schools is an organization of primarily middle school youth that formed after Hurricane Katrina destroyed most of the city's schools. This chapter describes Rethink's first six years of operation, which culminated in school system policy changes and an HBO documentary about the organization's groundbreaking work.

  16. Towards Enhanced Affective Design: Rethinking the Notion of Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SuKyoung; Cho, Youngil

    2017-09-01

    Design disciplines have been contributing to shaping the life of human beings, as well as fostering culture and heritage. Design disciplines and research have been rapidly transforming, and not only objects but also services are target of design. This paper reviews design disciplines towards enhanced affective design, which attributes to intuitive knowledge. It aims at rethinking the notion of design to propose a conceptual framework for integrating user experience into objects that strengthen the form and function based design with pleasing.

  17. Rethinking the Method of Principled Negotiation--1981-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiaki Nomura

    2012-01-01

    Fisher, Ury & Patton's Getting to Yes has established the Seven Elements of Negotiation and shows what a "theory for practitioners" should be. However, the following three points, among others, should be given reconsideration. First, though various authors support the framework of the seven elements, their interrelationship has not been clarified by those authors. Second, the meaning of 5 core concerns and its relationship with the element of interests are not so clear. Rethinking of non-econ...

  18. Rethinking Socialization Research through the Lens of New Materialism

    OpenAIRE

    Höppner, Grit

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, socialization research appears to have suffered the loss of its former capacity to explain the processes of becoming a socialized subject in a social environment. In this article, I review socialization theories taking into account assumptions regarding human subjects and their social environments. I confront them with the idea of rethinking dualisms, ontologies, and agencies addressed by the field of new materialism. I propose a new materialist-inspired socialization theor...

  19. The Process Perspective on Trust in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    Several trust researchers have pointed to the relevance of the process perspective for understanding trust in organizations. In this paper I review the attempts to apply the process perspective in trust research distinguishing between a soft and a strong process perspective. It appears that nearly......’s history? A few examples of studies applying a strong process perspective to trust in organizations is discussed.  Summarising, I argue that the process perspective, in general, may contribute furthering the understanding of the complexities of the development of trust over time and that the strong process...

  20. Analyzing Trust Perceptions in System Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Rose, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    ' perceptions of trust relations influence future actions, and in this way have both negative and positive consequences. We also conclude that Giddens' theories of trust provide a promising insight into the dynamic aspects of trust relations in implementation projects, which go further than trust theories...... a framework based on Giddens´ theory of modernity. The framework theorizes dynamic elements of the evolution of trust, not previously investigated in this context. The data collection involves 4 actors interviewed twice in 2006 and 2007; and the data analysis strategy is content analysis using Nvivo software...

  1. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  2. Economic and Other Determinants of Political Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. DiPietro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Political trust is important for the effective functioning of government. This paper uses cross country regression analysis to see whether three different measures of economic performance matter for political trust. The results lend support to the hypothesis that political trust is influenced by economic growth, the standard of living, and the appropriate use of government spending. In addition, the paper considers two institutional variables, perceived independence of the judiciary and the degree of democracy to assess their effect on political trust. It finds that perceived judicial independence has a positive effect on political trust, but democracy has a negative effect.

  3. The social context of trust relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić Milena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the widest sense, this paper focuses on the problematization (and operationalization of the concept of trust and its social context, with a special emphasis on its multiple meanings, the ways of establishing trust, as well as its functions. After pointing to the various definitions of trust that highlight its cognitive, behavioral, and relational groundings, we proceed to examine the aspects of 'social embeddedness' of trust. In this context, we highlight the structural aspect of trust relations, their institutional embeddedness, mediation through cultural meanings, as well as the wider context of social circumstances and limitations. We place a special emphasis on the concept of 'trust culture', its morphogenesis and functions, as well as the significance of trust culture in the context of diminishing the social uncertainty that arises in the situations when trust is demonstrated. Finally, we point to the social functions of trust on the macro level, the functional substitutes for trust, as well as the relationship between trust and social capital.

  4. Trusting the other or taking a chance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten; Heinskou, Marie Bruvik

    2016-01-01

    Theories of modernity and risk society argue that increasing levels of risk fundamentally alter or lower the level of trust in society. In this article we argue that this assumption is based in a fallacious theoretical link between trust and risk. Rather than calculative assessment of risk...... and specific events, trust directs anticipation towards process. First, we outline dominant approaches to trust as a question of actions and uncertainty of outcomes, arguing that these approaches treat trust and chance as interchangeable, conflating the different socio-temporalities within which risk and trust......, respectively, reside. Secondly, the issue of temporality is traced in Luhmann’s work on trust and it is demonstrated how his dichotomous treatment of social time conflates markedly different temporal experiences. As a solution to this, the article presents the notion of a third temporal mode of the process...

  5. Trust-Based Leadership in the Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Tina Øllgaard; Jagd, Søren

    I spite of the popularity of trust-based leadership in consultancy and popular management writings empirical research on the transformation from traditional top-down to trust-based leadership is still limited. In this paper we study the implementation of a trust-based leadership reform in the City...... of Copenhagen taking place since 2012. We focus on understanding the trust dynamics in this major transformation. We show that the implementation of trust-based leadership should be seen as an emergent process involving a variety of actors within the organization. The case study reveals that the Trust Reform...... indicates that the implementation of a radical management reform involves a complex interplay of trust relations between actors at multiple levels of the organization....

  6. Trust dynamics in a large system implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Rose, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    outcomes, but largely ignored the dynamics of trust relations. Giddens, as part of his study of modernity, theorises trust dynamics in relation to abstract social systems, though without focusing on information systems. We use Giddens’ concepts to investigate evolving trust relationships in a longitudinal......A large information systems implementation (such as Enterprise Resource Planning systems) relies on the trust of its stakeholders to succeed. Such projects impact diverse groups of stakeholders, each with their legitimate interests and expectations. Levels of stakeholder trust can be expected...... case analysis of a large Integrated Hospital System implementation for the Faroe Islands. Trust relationships suffered a serious breakdown, but the project was able to recover and meet its goals. We develop six theoretical propositions theorising the relationship between trust and project outcomes...

  7. The Relationship between Teamwork and Organizational Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musab Isik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. In the implementation section the data from the survey of 250 workers is employed in call centers in Erzurum by using relevant statistical  methods. Consequently, it is found that there is a positive and significant relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. Thus, the hypothesis of the study is supported as it was expected. Besides, it is found that there are positive and significant relationships between communication, openness to innovation, participation-trust in teamwork and organizational trust, trust in management, trust in co-workers, and trust in workplace.

  8. Robot transparency, trust and utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Robert H.; Theodorou, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    As robot reasoning becomes more complex, debugging becomes increasingly hard based solely on observable behaviour, even for robot designers and technical specialists. Similarly, non-specialist users have difficulty creating useful mental models of robot reasoning from observations of robot behaviour. The EPSRC Principles of Robotics mandate that our artefacts should be transparent, but what does this mean in practice, and how does transparency affect both trust and utility? We investigate this relationship in the literature and find it to be complex, particularly in nonindustrial environments where, depending on the application and purpose of the robot, transparency may have a wider range of effects on trust and utility. We outline our programme of research to support our assertion that it is nevertheless possible to create transparent agents that are emotionally engaging despite having a transparent machine nature.

  9. Trust and Traditions in Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    On New Year’s Eve 2013, months of talks on ‘Dealing with the past’, ‘Flags’ and ‘Parades’ ended without agreement on how to move towards a reconciliation of positions in Northern Ireland. The failure of the talks illustrates the importance of culture and (mis)trust in divided societies, where...... politics often pivot around whose culture shall be official and whose subordinated, whose history shall be remembered and whose forgotten (Jordan and Weedon 1995). These struggles are particularly intense in times of transition where traditions, power relations and frames of relevant remembrance...... are reconfigured. Historically, parading traditions have been important cultural carriers of identity in Northern Ireland. (Jarman 1997). Correspondingly, the marching season has been an arena for politico-cultural struggles and resistance, indexing relations of trust between communities, between society...

  10. Online networks destroy social trust

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatini, Fabio; Sarracino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Studies in the social capital literature have documented two stylised facts: first, a decline in measures of social participation has occurred in many OECD countries. Second, and more recently, the success of social networking sites (SNSs) has resulted in a steep rise in online social participation. Our study adds to this body of research by conducting the first empirical assessment of how online networking affects two economically relevant aspects of social capital, i.e. trust and sociabilit...

  11. Parental Divorce and Generalized Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Viitanen, Tarja

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of parental divorce during childhood on generalized trust later on in life using Australian HILDA panel data. The dependent variable is composed of answers to the statement: “Generally speaking, most people can be trusted”. The main explanatory variables include the occurrence of parental divorce for the whole sample and the age at which parents divorced for the sub-sample. The analysis is conducted using random effects ordered probit, correlated random effects ...

  12. BRI: Cyber Trust and Suspicion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-06

    character modulate the neural systems of reward during the trust game.,” Nat. Neurosci., vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1611–1618, 2005. [48] T. Baumgartner, M...experiments. The first experiment focused on collecting mouse data while subjects used an unmanned system simulator, and the second experiment allowed...insider, like any individual, possesses influences, motivations , abilities, beliefs, strengths, and weaknesses. Understanding what drives and

  13. Social Collaborative Filtering by Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Lei, Yu; Liu, Jiming; Li, Wenjie

    2017-08-01

    Recommender systems are used to accurately and actively provide users with potentially interesting information or services. Collaborative filtering is a widely adopted approach to recommendation, but sparse data and cold-start users are often barriers to providing high quality recommendations. To address such issues, we propose a novel method that works to improve the performance of collaborative filtering recommendations by integrating sparse rating data given by users and sparse social trust network among these same users. This is a model-based method that adopts matrix factorization technique that maps users into low-dimensional latent feature spaces in terms of their trust relationship, and aims to more accurately reflect the users reciprocal influence on the formation of their own opinions and to learn better preferential patterns of users for high-quality recommendations. We use four large-scale datasets to show that the proposed method performs much better, especially for cold start users, than state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms for social collaborative filtering based on trust.

  14. Social Trust and Value Similarity: the Relationship between Social Trust and Human Values in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Beilmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current paper is to test whether value similarity may foster social trust in society and whether people have higher levels of social trust when they emphasise the same values that prevail in their country. The relationship between social trust and human values was examined in a sample of 51,308 people across 29 European countries using data from the European Social Survey round 6. Results suggest that value similarity is more important in generating individual level social trust in countries where the overall levels of social trust are higher. There is a stronger positive relationship between value similarity and social trust in Scandinavian countries, which have high social trust levels, while in countries with a low level of social trust, congruity of the personal value structure with the country level value structure tends to decrease the individuals trustfulness

  15. Exploring trust relationships during times of change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Von der Ohe

    2010-10-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different variables such as demographics on trust relationships in South African organisations. Motivation for the study: Anecdotal evidence and preliminary data collected for a national trust indicator seemed to suggest a shift in trust levels in organisations. Research design: A trust questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 307 respondents in all economic sectors. Parametric and nonparametric analyses were used to determine significant differences among economic sectors, job levels and sample periods. Main findings: No significant differences were found for job levels or the different sample periods. However, significant differences were found for the economic sectors and, specifically, between government participants and other sectors for the dimensions of change, team management, organisational trust, information sharing and credibility. Practical implications: In times of change, leadership in organisations need to be aware of the impact on trust levels. It is therefore important that leaders in government focus more on trust-enhancing behaviours needed to repair mistrust in organisations. Contribution: Although the effect of time on trust levels is inconclusive, the clearly differing levels of trust in various economic sectors point to the importance of appropriate and fitting approaches to building trust and not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ attitude.

  16. Trust makers, breakers and brokers: building trust in the Australian food system

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Annabelle; Coveney, John; Henderson, Julie; Meyer, Samantha; Calnan, Michael; Caraher, Martin; Webb, Trevor; Elliott, Anthony; Ward, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of consumer trust in the food supply has previously been identified, and dimensions of consumer trust in food?who they trust and the type of trust that they exhibit?has been explored. However, there is a lack of research about the mechanisms through which consumer trust in the food supply is developed, maintained, broken and repaired. This study seeks to address this gap by exploring if, and how, consumer trust in the food supply is considered by the media, food indu...

  17. Trust and Society: Suggestions for Further Development of Niklas Luhmann's Theory of Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgner, Christian

    2018-05-01

    This paper addresses an apparent gap in the work of Niklas Luhmann. While the issue of trust continues to receive widespread attention in the social sciences, Luhmann's interest in this topic declined following the development of his systems theory. It is argued that this decline does not reflect any diminished relevance of trust for systems theory, but rather that the architectural remodeling of theory cannot easily be applied to the issue of trust. Here, the issue of trust is reconceptualized as a connection medium. This entails a reconstruction of Luhmann's early theory of trust, especially with regard to function and social positioning. In this context, trust can in turn be linked to the concept of medium in Luhmann's late work. As a connection medium, trust mediates between the different levels of sociality-interaction, organization, and society. These theoretical considerations are employed to develop a more applied framework for empirical research, with a brief case study from southern Italy. From this perspective, the idea of trust as society's glue is seen to be overly simplistic. The common ethical understanding that more trust leads to a better society is also questioned on the grounds that social cooperation can also lead to social sclerosis. Finally, risk and trust are shown to accommodate the formation of different cultures of trust. The paper shows how Luhmann's updated version of trust can inspire current research and enhance our understanding of how trust operates in contemporary society. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  18. From the general to the specific: How social trust motivates relational trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Blaine G

    2016-01-01

    When people form beliefs about the trustworthiness of others with respect to particular matters (i.e., when individuals trust), theory suggests that they rely on preexistent cognitive schemas regarding the general cooperativeness of individuals and organizations (i.e., social trust). In spite of prior work, the impact of social trust on relational trust-or what Russell Hardin (2002) calls trust as a three-part relation where actor A trusts actor B with reference to matter Y-is not well established. Four vignette experiments were administered to Amazon.com Mechanical Turk workers (N = 1388 and N = 1419) and to public university undergraduate students (N = 995 and N = 956) in order to investigate the relationship between social trust and relational trust. Measures of general social trust and particular social trust produced statistically equivalent effects that were positively associated with relational trust. Political trust, however, was statistically unrelated to relational trust. These results support the idea that people rely on schemas and stereotypes concerned with the general cooperativeness and helpfulness of others when forming beliefs about another person's trustworthiness with respect to a particular matter at hand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Emergent Trust and Work Life Relationships: How to Approach the Relational Moment of Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Bergljot Eikeland

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available How do we trust? What does the basic mechanism of trust look like? These questions define the starting point for a comparison of the classic ideas of how trust works by Mayer et al. (1995, Möllering’s (2006 re-adaption of Giddens’, Simmel’s, and James’ classic ideas of trust, and a phenomenological approach focusing on “emergent trust.” Introducing the concept of emergent trust, the idea is to suggest a phenomenological approach to studies of trust in work-life relationships in professional organizations, as an alternative to trust as a cognitive attitude, where trust becomes a stable, individual possession. The term “emergent” demonstrates a trust that emerges in meetings between persons, it has an immediate, unconditional quality, and shows itself in situations of life where there is a potential for trust to appear. Trust’s basic relationality makes the person morally responsible for the other. Trust appears between persons, as an event, constituting risk and uncertainty as a natural and positive part of our lives. Still, in larger social settings, the responsibility of trust also disperses on to the work itself, and our wider social networks.

  20. Social trust, interpersonal trust and self-rated health in China: a multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixin; Vlachantoni, Athina; Liu, Xiaoting; Jones, Kelvyn

    2016-11-08

    Trust is important for health at both the individual and societal level. Previous research using Western concepts of trust has shown that a high level of trust in society can positively affect individuals' health; however, it has been found that the concepts and culture of trust in China are different from those in Western countries and research on the relationship between trust and health in China is scarce. The analyses use data from the national scale China General Social Survey (CGSS) on adults aged above 18 in 2005 and 2010. Two concepts of trust ("out-group" and "in-group" trust) are used to examine the relationship between trust and self-rated health in China. Multilevel logistical models are applied, examining the trust at the individual and societal level on individuals' self-rated health. In terms of interpersonal trust, both "out-group" and "in-group" trust are positively associated with good health in 2005 and 2010. At the societal level, the relationships between the two concepts of trust and health are different. In 2005, higher "out-group" social trust (derived from trust in strangers) is positively associated with better health; however, higher "in-group" social trust (derived from trust in most people) is negatively associated with good health in 2010. The cross-level interactions show that lower educated individuals (no education or only primary level), rural residents and those on lower incomes are the most affected groups in societies with higher "out-group" social trust; whereas people with lower levels of educational attainment, a lower income, and those who think that most people can be trusted are the most affected groups in societies with higher "in-group" social trust. High levels of interpersonal trust are of benefit to health. Higher "out-group" social trust is positively associated with better health; while higher "in-group" social trust is negatively associated with good health. Individuals with different levels of educational

  1. The multileveled division of trust labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    at the intersubjective and institutional levels. I argue that confidence in institutions define the playing field of uncertainty in intersubjective relations, thus underpinning both the possibility and scope of intersubjective trust. However, once confidence in the institutional setting is brought into question......The trust concept is inherently linked to institutional issues. Trust, according to contemporary research, may be directed at both people and institutions and the influence of institutions may affect both trust in other people and trust in other institutions. This conceptual stretching takes place...... at the expense of accuracy and may block our understanding of the intricacies of the multiple levels involved in trusting. This paper suggests a conceptual clarification of this issue by employing a phenomenological approach to the perspective of the trustor, differentiating the types of uncertainty involved...

  2. Increasing interpersonal trust through divergent thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eSellaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more cognitive-control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor transfers to another participant (the trustee. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the trustee after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated cognitive states.

  3. The Value of Trust to Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Marcella M

    2014-01-01

    Trust, one of nursing's intangible assets, impacts nurses' ability to form meaningful relationships with patients and this connection positively impacts health outcomes. Linking trust to the fabric of nursing and investing in its measurement will become essential to nursing's valuation and the resulting investment in nursing. Trust, as nursing's core value, should be fostered by nurse educators as they prepare the next generation of nurses. Nurse administrators should connect the trust a patient has for his or her nurse and patient cooperation and honest transparent communication between providers and the patient. Banking trust as a valuable nursing asset will substantiate nursing's marketing and support its worth. Nursing's trustworthiness is an intangible asset that warrants protection, as trust once lost is hard to recapture.

  4. Principals, Trust, and Cultivating Vibrant Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Tschannen-Moran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although principals are ultimately held accountable to student learning in their buildings, the most consistent research results have suggested that their impact on student achievement is largely indirect. Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi proposed four paths through which this indirect influence would flow, and the purpose of this special issue is to examine in greater depth these mediating variables. Among mediating variables, we assert that trust is key. In this paper, we explore the evidence that points to the role that faculty trust in the principal plays in student learning and how principals can cultivate trust by attending to the five facets of trust, as well as the correlates of trust that mediate student learning, including academic press, collective teacher efficacy, and teacher professionalism. We argue that trust plays a role in each of the four paths identified by Leithwood, Patten, and Jantzi. Finally, we explore possible new directions for future research.

  5. Explaining the emergence of social trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Tinggaard Svendsen, Gert; Graeff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    How does social trust emerge in a country? By comparing the cases of Denmark and Germany through six historical phases, we suggest that a plausible explanation is long run political stability. In Denmark, social trust was arguably allowed to accumulate slowly over time and was probably not destro......How does social trust emerge in a country? By comparing the cases of Denmark and Germany through six historical phases, we suggest that a plausible explanation is long run political stability. In Denmark, social trust was arguably allowed to accumulate slowly over time and was probably...... not destroyed up till the universal welfare state of the 20th century. In Germany, however, political instability since the first German state building hampered the emergence and maintenance of social trust, which is why social trust was never allowed to grow in this country....

  6. Rethinking Visual Analytics for Streaming Data Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouser, R. Jordan; Franklin, Lyndsey; Cook, Kris

    2017-01-01

    In the age of data science, the use of interactive information visualization techniques has become increasingly ubiquitous. From online scientific journals to the New York Times graphics desk, the utility of interactive visualization for both storytelling and analysis has become ever more apparent. As these techniques have become more readily accessible, the appeal of combining interactive visualization with computational analysis continues to grow. Arising out of a need for scalable, human-driven analysis, primary objective of visual analytics systems is to capitalize on the complementary strengths of human and machine analysis, using interactive visualization as a medium for communication between the two. These systems leverage developments from the fields of information visualization, computer graphics, machine learning, and human-computer interaction to support insight generation in areas where purely computational analyses fall short. Over the past decade, visual analytics systems have generated remarkable advances in many historically challenging analytical contexts. These include areas such as modeling political systems [Crouser et al. 2012], detecting financial fraud [Chang et al. 2008], and cybersecurity [Harrison et al. 2012]. In each of these contexts, domain expertise and human intuition is a necessary component of the analysis. This intuition is essential to building trust in the analytical products, as well as supporting the translation of evidence into actionable insight. In addition, each of these examples also highlights the need for scalable analysis. In each case, it is infeasible for a human analyst to manually assess the raw information unaided, and the communication overhead to divide the task between a large number of analysts makes simple parallelism intractable. Regardless of the domain, visual analytics tools strive to optimize the allocation of human analytical resources, and to streamline the sensemaking process on data that is massive

  7. Trust, accreditation and Philanthropy in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2003-01-01

    Given the increasing numbers of scandals, the awareness among fund-raisers that the public’s trust is crucial for the nonprofit sector is growing. This study investigates the relationship between trust and charitable giving. Charitable organizations can increase the public’s trust by signaling their trustworthiness. The example of the Netherlands shows how a system of accreditation can be an instrument for signaling trustworthiness to the public. Donors aware of the accreditation system have ...

  8. Trust Factors Affecting Cooperation in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev; Haugbølle, Kim; Bejder, Erik

    2013-01-01

    advisor was carried out. The analysis showed that the ability to be trustful can be developed through the experience of different factors (e.g. control mechanisms, mutual respect, repeated cooperation, shared understanding and communication). Furthermore, the ability to trust other parties depends...... on knowledge of others' skillsets. Interdisciplinary collaboration through education would limit the formation of negative stereotypes and the overall trust level increases, due to more and better knowledge of other disciplines....

  9. Increasing interpersonal trust through divergent thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; de Kwaadsteniet, Erik W.; van de Groep, Suzanne; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more focused/exclusive cognitive control mode by means of a...

  10. Human Nature in the Adaptation of Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Nooteboom, B.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter pleads for more inspiration from human nature, in agent-based modeling.As an illustration of an effort in that direction, it summarizes and discusses an agentbased model of the build-up and adaptation of trust between multiple producers and suppliers.The central question is whether, and under what conditions, trust and loyalty are viable in markets.While the model incorporates some well known behavioural phenomena from the trust literature, more extended modeling of human nature ...

  11. Trust conceptualized as a corporate knowledge asset

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Waymond; Gago Rodríguez, Susana

    2006-01-01

    To most individuals, "trust" can be viewed as a knowledge corporate asset that may add, or rest, value to the company. The role of knowledge in achieving a competitive advantage is becoming and increasingly important management issue in all business and non-business sectors. As such, our Throughput Modeling approach indicates how six different trust behaviors can be guided, how trust decision making can be improved and made defensible, and how special problems facing individuals can be dealt ...

  12. Defining Trust Using Expected Utility Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Trust has been discussed in many social sciences including economics, psychology, and sociology. However, there is no widely accepted definition of trust. Inparticular, there is no definition that can be used for economic analysis. This paper regards trust as expectation and defines it using expected utility theory together with concepts such as betrayal premium. In doing so, it rejects the widely accepted black-and-white view that (un) trustworthy people are always (un)trustworthy. This pape...

  13. Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softky, William; Benford, Criscillia

    2017-09-01

    Today digital sources supply a historically unprecedented component of human sensorimotor data, the consumption of which is correlated with poorly understood maladies such as Internet addiction disorder and Internet gaming disorder. Because both natural and digital sensorimotor data share common mathematical descriptions, one can quantify our informational sensorimotor needs using the signal processing metrics of entropy, noise, dimensionality, continuity, latency, and bandwidth. Such metrics describe in neutral terms the informational diet human brains require to self-calibrate, allowing individuals to maintain trusting relationships. With these metrics, we define the trust humans experience using the mathematical language of computational models, that is, as a primitive statistical algorithm processing finely grained sensorimotor data from neuromechanical interaction. This definition of neuromechanical trust implies that artificial sensorimotor inputs and interactions that attract low-level attention through frequent discontinuities and enhanced coherence will decalibrate a brain's representation of its world over the long term by violating the implicit statistical contract for which self-calibration evolved. Our hypersimplified mathematical understanding of human sensorimotor processing as multiscale, continuous-time vibratory interaction allows equally broad-brush descriptions of failure modes and solutions. For example, we model addiction in general as the result of homeostatic regulation gone awry in novel environments (sign reversal) and digital dependency as a sub-case in which the decalibration caused by digital sensorimotor data spurs yet more consumption of them. We predict that institutions can use these sensorimotor metrics to quantify media richness to improve employee well-being; that dyads and family-size groups will bond and heal best through low-latency, high-resolution multisensory interaction such as shared meals and reciprocated touch; and

  14. Trust-Building in Electronic Markets: Relative Importance and Interaction Effects of Trust-Building Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tams, Stefan

    We examine the relative and complementary effectiveness of trust-building strategies in online environments. While prior research has examined various antecedents to trust, we investigated two trust-building mechanisms more in depth: Web site trust and vendor reputation. We tried to understand the relative effectiveness of these two important mechanisms to provide online businesses with a clear recommendation of how to establish trust in an effective and efficient manner. Drawing from the literature on trust, we proposed vendor reputation to be more effective than Web site trust. Moreover, we examined a potential complementary effect of these mechanisms so as to provide online businesses with a deeper understanding of how to derive superior trust. We hypothesize a small such effect. The study proposes a laboratory experiment to test the model.

  15. Exploring the Change from Low-Trust to High-Trust Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    what the notion of high-trust organization actually means, and that the change process in the direction of high trust organizations involves not only a quantitative growth in trust, but may involve important qualitative changes in the organization, especially concerning the relations between management......A growing body of literature point to the increasing importance of trust for organizations and for the explicit use of trust as a management tool. The explicit or implicit message in both management literature and research literature on trust as a management tool is that managers should pursue...... projects of personal and organizational change leading to high-trust organizations. In this paper I explore how we may understand this change towards high-trust organizations: What does it mean, what is the content of such a change, and what may be the consequences. I show that it is still rather unclear...

  16. Trust matters: Patients' and providers' accounts of the role of trust in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kahabi Isangula

    Conclusion: The findings suggest that trust in patient-doctor relationship ... Improving trust in the patient - doctor relationship may be one of the important lenses ...... World Bank. (2015) Country and Lending Groups. (Internet). Available at.

  17. Review of Interorganizational Trust Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    mais les résultats de la recherche se sont avérés relativement maigres. Bien que nous ayons trouvé de nombreux modèles de confiance...rooted in common values, including a common concept of moral obligation. This type of trust typically takes a long time to develop, and is the type of...Perspectives on relationship repair and implications (Dirks et al., 2009, p. 72) Attributional theories propose that one party uses information about a

  18. Trust in Client-Vendor Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In an ever more globalized world we are faced with the challenges of collaborating across geographical distance. This article examines how trust is established in an offshore outsourcing engagement of IT operations between a leading Danish media company and an Indian IT-service provider. The find......, by imitating the way they communicate face-to-face, when collaborating virtually....... and organizational boundaries within the field of IT offshore outsourcing. The article concludes that trust is primarily established when the teams are meeting face-to-face and in order to establish trust at a distance they are dependent on technology being readily available and on engaging in active trust building...

  19. NGOs, Trust, and the Accountability Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles; Thrandardottir, Erla

    2017-01-01

    NGOs are undergoing an alleged crisis of trustworthiness. The past decades have seen an increase in both academic and practitioner skepticism, particularly given the transformations many NGOs have undergone in size, professionalism, and political importance. The accountability agenda, which...... on theoretical innovations in trust research to put forward three arguments. First, the proponents of the accountability agenda are implicitly working with a rational model of trust. Second, this model does not reflect important social characteristics of trust between donors and NGOs. Third, this mismatch means...... that the accountability agenda might do more to harm trust in NGOs than to help it....

  20. Playing Attack and Defense with Trusted Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Javier; Bonnet, Philippe; Bouganim, Luc

    2014-01-01

    It is often convenient to assume in a data management platform that one or several computing devices are trusted, specially when the goal is to provide privacy guarantees over personal data. But what does it take for a computing device to be trusted? More specifically, how can a personal device...... provide trusted storage? This is the question we tackle in this demonstration. We describe how secure devices, equipped with a trusted execution environment, differ from general purpose devices. We illustrate with our demonstration scenario, that it is much more difficult to attack a storage service...... running on a secure device, than to attack the same service running on a general purpose device....

  1. On Propagating Interpersonal Trust in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Cai-Nicolas

    The age of information glut has fostered the proliferation of data and documents on the Web, created by man and machine alike. Hence, there is an enormous wealth of minable knowledge that is yet to be extracted, in particular, on the Semantic Web. However, besides understanding information stated by subjects, knowing about their credibility becomes equally crucial. Hence, trust and trust metrics, conceived as computational means to evaluate trust relationships between individuals, come into play. Our major contribution to Semantic Web trust management through this work is twofold. First, we introduce a classification scheme for trust metrics along various axes and discuss advantages and drawbacks of existing approaches for Semantic Web scenarios. Hereby, we devise an advocacy for local group trust metrics, guiding us to the second part, which presents Appleseed, our novel proposal for local group trust computation. Compelling in its simplicity, Appleseed borrows many ideas from spreading activation models in psychology and relates their concepts to trust evaluation in an intuitive fashion. Moreover, we provide extensions for the Appleseed nucleus that make our trust metric handle distrust statements.

  2. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Social capital in the form of generalized trust has been shown to be a determinant of economic growth in a number of studies. Other studies have explored other consequences of trust, such as its effects on governance, corruption, education and investment. This paper connects the two strands...... of literature by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data set is available. The results indicate that trust affects...

  3. Heuritic Trust in IoT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Bipjeet; Tange, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Increasing use of Internet of things in diverse fields has demanding association in security and trust of such services. The trust on the services cannot exist independent. It is greatly depended on the security of system at each layer. In this paper we analyze different existing trust algorithms...... to develop a combined reputation and trust algorithm. This algorithm is developed in view of developing trustworthy services in the agriculture field where the end users are cautious about their sensitive data but keen in trustworthy services to improve the efficiency of the product....

  4. A mobile and portable trusted computing platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepal Surya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mechanism of establishing trust in a computing platform is tightly coupled with the characteristics of a specific machine. This limits the portability and mobility of trust as demanded by many emerging applications that go beyond the organizational boundaries. In order to address this problem, we propose a mobile and portable trusted computing platform in a form of a USB device. First, we describe the design and implementation of the hardware and software architectures of the device. We then demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed device by developing a trusted application.

  5. Explaining the emergence of social trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Graeff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    How does social trust emerge in a country? By comparing the cases of Denmark and Germany through six historical phases, we suggest that a plausible explanation is long run political stability. In Denmark, social trust was arguably allowed to accumulate slowly over time and was probably...... not destroyed up till the universal welfare state of the 20th century. In Germany, however, political instability since the first German state building hampered the emergence and maintenance of social trust, which is why social trust was never allowed to grow in this country....

  6. Application of Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method in Trust Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunan Ma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trust can play an important role for the sharing of resources and information in open network environments. Trust quantification is thus an important issue in dynamic trust management. By considering the fuzziness and uncertainty of trust, in this paper, we propose a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to quantify trust along with a trust quantification algorithm. Simulation results show that the trust quantification algorithm that we propose can effectively quantify trust and the quantified value of an entity's trust is consistent with the behavior of the entity.

  7. Trust in automation: integrating empirical evidence on factors that influence trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Kevin Anthony; Bashir, Masooda

    2015-05-01

    We systematically review recent empirical research on factors that influence trust in automation to present a three-layered trust model that synthesizes existing knowledge. Much of the existing research on factors that guide human-automation interaction is centered around trust, a variable that often determines the willingness of human operators to rely on automation. Studies have utilized a variety of different automated systems in diverse experimental paradigms to identify factors that impact operators' trust. We performed a systematic review of empirical research on trust in automation from January 2002 to June 2013. Papers were deemed eligible only if they reported the results of a human-subjects experiment in which humans interacted with an automated system in order to achieve a goal. Additionally, a relationship between trust (or a trust-related behavior) and another variable had to be measured. All together, 101 total papers, containing 127 eligible studies, were included in the review. Our analysis revealed three layers of variability in human-automation trust (dispositional trust, situational trust, and learned trust), which we organize into a model. We propose design recommendations for creating trustworthy automation and identify environmental conditions that can affect the strength of the relationship between trust and reliance. Future research directions are also discussed for each layer of trust. Our three-layered trust model provides a new lens for conceptualizing the variability of trust in automation. Its structure can be applied to help guide future research and develop training interventions and design procedures that encourage appropriate trust. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  8. Dimensionality of trust: An analysis of the relations between propensity, trustworthiness and trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita Heyns

    2015-05-01

    Research purpose: This study examined the dynamic interplay between trust propensity, trustworthiness beliefs and the decision to trust, as perceived within dyadic workplace relationships. Motivation for the study: No studies, as far as the authors are aware, have ever attempted to use a combination of Mayer and Davis’s well-known assessment of trustworthiness and Gillespie’s measure of behavioural trust within the same study. By including measures of main antecedents and the actual decision to trust in the same study, the multidimensionality of trust can be established more concretely. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey design with a convenience sample (N = 539 was used. The Behavioural Trust Inventory and the Organisational Trust Instrument were administered. Main findings: Results confirmed the distinctness of propensity, trustworthiness and trust as separate main constructs. Trust was strongly associated with trustworthiness beliefs. Trustworthiness beliefs fully mediated the relationship between propensity and trust. The observed relations between propensity and trustworthiness suggest that individuals with a natural predisposition to trust others will be more inclined to perceive a specific trust referent as trustworthy. Practical/managerial implications: Leaders should realise that their attitudes and behaviour have a decisive impact on trust formation processes: if they are being perceived as trustworthy, followers will be likely to respond by engaging in trusting behaviours towards them. Tools to assess followers’ perceptions of the trustworthiness of the leader may provide useful feedback that can guide leaders. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the influence of propensity to trust and trustworthiness on trust of leaders.

  9. Towards Trust-based Cognitive Networks: A Survey of Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    of trust. First, social trust refers to properties derived from social relationships . Examples of social networks are strong social ... relationships such as colleagues or relatives or loose social relationships such as school alumni or friends with common interests [44]. Social trust may...also use social relationships in evaluating the trust metric among group members by employing the concept of social networks. Yu et al. [44] define

  10. Viewpoint : Trust and the sociology of the professions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2006-01-01

    There is a fast-growing literature on trust in health care, especially interpersonal trust, but also public or institutional trust, reflecting the growing awareness in both the research and policy communities of the importance of trust. At a general level, trust as part of the broader concept of

  11. Trust matters: Patients' and providers' accounts of the role of trust in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, trust was considered as potentially contributing to trusted doctors' behaviour changes such as excessive self-pride, faking being busy and sluggishness in care provision as well as increasing their work load. Conclusion: The findings suggest that trust in patient-doctor relationship matters for hypertension care in rural ...

  12. A healthy dose of trust: the relationship between interpersonal trust and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, I.K.; Konijn, E.A.; Righetti, F.; Rusbult, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The positive effects of trust are manifold. Recent research has shown that trust levels may even influence physical health. The current work explores this issue and aims to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the relationship between trust and health in a 5-wave longitudinal data set. Results

  13. Trust and automation: the influence of automation malfunctions and system feedback on operator trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, Stine

    2001-10-01

    Level of operator trust in an automatic system, which is not in accordance with the reliability of the system, might impose serious threats concerning issues of safety, productivity and the well being of the operator. Operator trust is therefore regarded as an important variable in man-machine interaction. The focus of this study was the influence of automatic malfunctions and amount of feedback provided by the automatic system on level of operator trust. The study was conducted in conjunction with the Human Centred Automation 2000-experiment. Two questionnaires attempting to measure operator trust were developed, designed to reflect the dimensions of predictability, dependability and faith. Analysis of the questionnaires demonstrated that they were reliable tools for measurement of operator trust. Factor analysis did not completely confirm the theoretical dimensions of trust, but indicated partial support. Operator trust correlated negatively with workload across situations, and positively with performance in complex situations. The results of the hypotheses tests demonstrated that operator trust gradually decreased after introduction of malfunctions. The effect of different malfunctions was however the opposite of what was expected, with obvious malfunctions reducing trust more than more camouflaged and safety critical malfunctions. Trust in the automatic system in general was lower than trust in specific malfunctioning components. Different interfaces providing different amount of feedback to the operator did not significantly influence level of operator trust. (Author)

  14. Trust and control interrelatedness: New perspectives on the trust-control nexus in organizational relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.C.; Bijlsma-Frankema, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the special issue on New Perspectives on the Trust-Control Nexus in Organizational Relations. Trust and control are interlinked processes commonly seen as key to reach effectiveness in inter- and intraorganizational relations. The relation between trust and control is,

  15. Rethinking Hearing Aid Fitting by Learning From Behavioral Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Benjamin; Petersen, Michael Kai; Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik

    2017-01-01

    users to remotely enhance auditory focus and attenuate background noise to improve speech intelligibility. N=5, participants changed program settings and adjusted volume on their hearing instruments using their smartphones. We found that individual behavioral patterns affected the usage of the devices....... A significant difference between program usage, and weekdays versus weekends, were found. Users not only changed programs to modify aspects of directionality and noise reduction, but also continuously adjusted the volume. Rethinking hearing instruments as devices that adaptively learn behavioral patterns based...

  16. Rethinking Faraday's law for teaching motional electromotive force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; Michelini, Marisa; Santi, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    This study shows physicists' discussions on the meaning of Faraday's law where situations involving extended conductors or moving contact points are particularly troublesome. We raise questions to test students' difficulties in applying Faraday's law in motional electromotive force phenomena. We suggest the benefit of analysing these phenomena when teaching Faraday's law in introductory physics courses at university. We are not implying that Faraday's law should be revised, but we do want to set the stage for careful rethinking regarding the meaning and application of each term of the law as it appears in traditional introductory courses. (paper)

  17. [Towards a theoretical framework for rethinking cultural accessibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, Fernando; Cowes, Valeria González; D'Amore, Eliana

    2014-02-01

    Health services accessibility is a key health policy issue. However, few in-depth studies have addressed it theoretically. Most distinguish between availability, accessibility, and acceptability, or between geographic, financial, administrative, and cultural accessibility. We discuss and analyze the concept of accessibility as conflictive articulation between supply and demand in health. The article addresses the importance of cultural accessibility, rethinking it as a social interface, i.e., a social arena with clashing worldviews (namely, those of physicians and patients). The approach sheds light on the complex processes of grasping, translating, and reshaping knowledge and recommendations within such interaction.

  18. Rethinking learning networks collaborative possibilities for a Deleuzian century

    CERN Document Server

    Kamp, Annelies

    2013-01-01

    In the face of today's complex policy challenges, various forms of 'joining-up' - networking, collaborating, partnering - have become key responses. However, institutions often fail to take advantage of the full benefits that joining-up offers. In this book, the author draws on ethnographic research into learning networks in post compulsory education and training in the state of Victoria, Australia, to explore why this might be the case and presents an argument for rethinking how joining-up works in practice. Throughout the book, Deleuzian concepts are engaged to forge a 'little complicating m

  19. RETHINKING THE GOVERNANCE OF SECURITY: THE PROBLEM OF UNCONSCIOUS CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS SOLAR FORNAZZARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Friesendorf and Daase, both researchers from the Peace Reasearch Institute Frankfurt (PRIF, establish in Rethinking Security Governance the problem of unforeseen consequences that are the result of the implementation of almost any security policy. The results of this book confirm that many, but not all, consequences are problematic, due in part to the fact that the effects of a security policy have become contingent on an infinity of factors that make it highly complex to attribute to what extent success was due or the failure of a particular policy.

  20. Public trust: Struggle and regain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Tadao

    1999-01-01

    The after-effect of Monju and Tokai accidents has been much larger than expected. It struck PNC a fierce blow and the damage did not stop there but extended to the nuclear community at large. As a result, PNC was reformed into a new corporate, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). JNC has been given a new body but its mind must be cultivated so as to be able to regain public trust. This presentation summarizes the struggle to regain public trust in case of Monju. After five and a half years of construction work, Monju began pre-operation tests in May 1991, achieved initial criticality in April 1994 and the first connection to the grid in August 1995, and the accident occurs in December 1995. Until then, there was confidence, perhaps overconfidence, and it was taken for granted that the public was always in favour of 'nuclear'. The struggle to regain the public confidence involved: (1) Improvement of safety measures and emergency management; (2) Cultivation of a new corporate culture; (3) Open information; (4) Public communication (i.e. 'Door-to-door visit', 'Public meeting', 'Come-and-see', Weekly press conference. The struggle may continue for some time

  1. Trusted computing for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Soudris, Dimitrios; Anagnostopoulos, Iraklis

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in trusted computing for embedded systems. It shows how a variety of security and trusted computing problems are addressed currently and what solutions are expected to emerge in the coming years. The discussion focuses on attacks aimed at hardware and software for embedded systems, and the authors describe specific solutions to create security features. Case studies are used to present new techniques designed as industrial security solutions. Coverage includes development of tamper resistant hardware and firmware mechanisms for lightweight embedded devices, as well as those serving as security anchors for embedded platforms required by applications such as smart power grids, smart networked and home appliances, environmental and infrastructure sensor networks, etc. ·         Enables readers to address a variety of security threats to embedded hardware and software; ·         Describes design of secure wireless sensor networks, to address secure authen...

  2. Mining Trust Relationships from Online Social Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhang; Tong Yu

    2012-01-01

    With the growing popularity of online social network,trust plays a more and more important role in connecting people to each other.We rely on our personal trust to accept recommendations,to make purchase decisions and to select transaction partners in the online community.Therefore,how to obtain trust relationships through mining online social networks becomes an important research topic.There are several shortcomings of existing trust mining methods.First,trust is category-dependent.However,most of the methods overlook the category attribute of trust relationships,which leads to low accuracy in trust calculation.Second,since the data in online social networks cannot be understood and processed by machines directly,traditional mining methods require much human effort and are not easily applied to other applications.To solve the above problems,we propose a semantic-based trust reasoning mechanism to mine trust relationships from online social networks automatically.We emphasize the category attribute of pairwise relationships and utilize Semantic Web technologies to build a domain ontology for data communication and knowledge sharing.We exploit role-based and behavior-based reasoning functions to infer implicit trust relationships and category-specific trust relationships.We make use of path expressions to extend reasoning rules so that the mining process can be done directly without much human effort.We perform experiments on real-life data extracted from Epinions.The experimental results verify the effectiveness and wide application use of our proposed method.

  3. An Efficient Dynamic Trust Evaluation Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwang Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trust evaluation is an effective method to detect malicious nodes and ensure security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this paper, an efficient dynamic trust evaluation model (DTEM for WSNs is proposed, which implements accurate, efficient, and dynamic trust evaluation by dynamically adjusting the weights of direct trust and indirect trust and the parameters of the update mechanism. To achieve accurate trust evaluation, the direct trust is calculated considering multitrust including communication trust, data trust, and energy trust with the punishment factor and regulating function. The indirect trust is evaluated conditionally by the trusted recommendations from a third party. Moreover, the integrated trust is measured by assigning dynamic weights for direct trust and indirect trust and combining them. Finally, we propose an update mechanism by a sliding window based on induced ordered weighted averaging operator to enhance flexibility. We can dynamically adapt the parameters and the interactive history windows number according to the actual needs of the network to realize dynamic update of direct trust value. Simulation results indicate that the proposed dynamic trust model is an efficient dynamic and attack-resistant trust evaluation model. Compared with existing approaches, the proposed dynamic trust model performs better in defending multiple malicious attacks.

  4. Does Ideological Education in China Suppress Trust in Religion and Foster Trust in Government?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A major goal of ideological education in China is to promote loyalty to the party-state and to instill atheism among the people. How effective is this ideological education? This article examines the relationship between education and trust in government and trust in religion using data from the 2010 Chinese General Social Survey. We find that education is negatively associated with trust in government, while positively related to trust in religion. Our findings suggest that policies aimed at displacing religion in favor of the Communist ideology have largely failed to shape the public mindset; rather, the more educated, the more people tend to trust religion instead of the government.

  5. SERVANT LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL TRUST: THE MEDIATING EFFECT OF THE LEADER TRUST AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morad Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper aims to clarify the relationship between servant leadership and organizational trust, and tries to demonstrate the mediator role of leader trust and organizational communication in this relationship. The study sample included 258 employees of Guilan province Tax Administration and for sampling we used cluster method. Previous studies have also focused on the positive impact of servant leadership in organizational trust and in this article the results show that there is a significant relationship between servant leadership, organizational trust, leader trust and organizational communication.

  6. Building trusted national identity management systems: Presenting the privacy concern-trust (PCT) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Joseph K.; Olesen, Henning

    This paper discusses the effect of trust and information privacy concerns on citizens’ attitude towards national identity management systems. We introduce the privacyconcerns- trust model, which shows the role of trust in mediating and moderating citizens’ attitude towards identity management...... systems. We adopted a qualitative research approach in our analysis of data that was gathered through a series of interviews and a stakeholder workshop in Ghana. Our findings indicate that, beyond the threshold level of trust, societal information privacy concern is low; hence, trust is high, thereby...

  7. Trust and safety in the coalmining sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, D.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence that a lack of trust is a serious impediment to OHS outcomes. This paper describes a project that investigated trust through an in-depth analysis at a number of mines and across a number of coal mining companies.

  8. The Neurobiology of Trust and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Derek

    2018-01-01

    Are there neurobiological reasons why we are willing to trust other people and why "trust" and moral values such as "care" play a quite pivotal role in our social lives and the judgements we make, including our social interactions and judgements made in the context of schooling? In pursuing this question, this paper largely…

  9. 40 CFR 280.102 - Trust fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trust fund. 280.102 Section 280.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.102 Trust...

  10. Facilitating a just and trusting culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Jill; Kline, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify managerial and organizational characteristics and behaviors that facilitate the fostering of a just and trusting culture within the healthcare system. Two studies were conducted. The initial qualitative one was used to identify themes based on interviews with health care workers that facilitate a just and trusting culture. The quantitative one used a policy-capturing design to determine which factors were most likely to predict outcomes of manager and organizational trust. The factors of violation type (ability vs integrity), providing an explanation or not, blame vs no blame by manager, and blame vs no blame by organization were all significant predictors of perceptions of trust. Limitations to the generalizability of findings included both a small and non-representative sample from one health care region. The present findings can be useful in developing training systems for managers and organizational executive teams for managing medical error events in a manner that will help develop a just and trusting culture. A just and trusting culture should enhance the likelihood of reporting medical errors. Improved reporting, in turn, should enhance patient safety. This is the first field study experimentally manipulating aspects of organizational trust within the health care sector. The use of policy-capturing is a unique feature that sheds light into the decision-making of health care workers as to the efficaciousness of particular managerial and organizational characteristics that impact a just and trusting culture.

  11. Modelling security and trust with Secure Tropos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giorgini, P.; Mouratidis, H.; Zannone, N.; Mouratidis, H.; Giorgini, P.

    2006-01-01

    Although the concepts of security and trust play an important issue in the development of information systems, they have been mainly neglected by software engineering methodologies. In this chapter we present an approach that considers security and trust throughout the software development process.

  12. Physical trust-based persistent authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujita, Masahiro; Jensen, Christian D.; Arimura, Shiori

    2015-01-01

    propose a new type of persistent authentication, called Persistent Authentication Based On physical Trust (PABOT). PABOT uses a context of “physical trust relationship” that is built by visual contact between users, and thus can offer a persistent authentication mechanism with better usability and higher...

  13. Money Can't Buy Me Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jeppe; Robson, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    country partners’ government to support alliances with local, developing country partners. Applying motivation crowding theory to trust processes, we develop theoretical logic explaining how and under what conditions such third-party financial support negatively affects the local partner's trust. Our...

  14. The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Nicolette

    2013-01-01

    The Churchill Trust was established in 1965 to honour the memory of Sir Winston Churchill by awarding overseas research Fellowships known as "Churchill Fellowships". Since its inception, The Churchill Trust has awarded Churchill Fellowships to more than 3,700 Australians who, like Churchill, are innovative, filled with a spirit of…

  15. The Importance of Trust in Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingham, Pauline

    1998-01-01

    Introduces the new concept of trust and how it influences the process of managing the security of an organization operating in an electronic commerce environment. Theoretically, the study aims to develop a framework of trust and security to provide a set of guidelines for secure electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)

  16. Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic-Bebek, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…

  17. New Superintendents: Trust, Networking, and Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Joan; Mitchell, Roxanne M.; Richman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This instrumental case study explored how five newly appointed superintendents identified key stakeholders and built trust and social capital with stakeholders in their districts. Stakeholder, trust, and social capital theory were the lenses that guided this study. We utilized a pragmatic research design and thematic data analysis to interpret our…

  18. Restoring trust in the rule of law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch Ballin, Ernst

    The law as an abstract system of rules establishes the conditions under which people in large societies can live together in peace. This is not because they all have personal trust in each other (which is obviously impossible to establish) but because they trust that living up to the rules is what

  19. Physical pain increases interpersonal trust in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Gao, J; Ma, Y; Zhu, C; Dong, X-W

    2018-01-01

    People behave and interact with others differently when experiencing physical pain. Pain has dramatic effects on one's emotional responses, cognitive functions and social interaction. However, little has been known about whether and how physical pain influences interpersonal trust in social interaction. In the present study, we examined the influence of physical pain on trusting behaviour. A total of 112 healthy participants were recruited and assigned to physical pain condition (induced by Capsaicin) and control condition (with hand cream), respectively. Thirty minutes after pain induction, three decision-making tasks were conducted to measure behaviours in social interaction, including trust and trustworthiness (trust game), non-social risk-taking (risk game) and altruism (dictator game). Results showed that physical pain increased interpersonal trust among females, but not among males. Pain did not influence non-social risk-taking, altruism or trustworthiness, as evaluated by monetary transfers in those tasks. Moreover, the effect of physical pain on interpersonal trust was fully mediated by expectation of monetary profit. These findings demonstrate an effect of pain on interpersonal trust and suggest a reciprocity mechanism that the effect may be driven by self-interest rather than altruistic motivation. The pain effect on trust was evident only in females, implying distinct pain coping strategies used by both genders. The present work highlights the social component of pain and extends our understanding of mutual interactions between pain and social cognition. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  20. Trust in a Time of Increasing Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    . Existing evidence from the Anglo-Saxon countries would suggest that this is the case, whereas evidence from the European continent mainly suggests that no link exists between ethnic diversity and social trust. The empirical analysis uses individual-level data on social trust from several surveys in Denmark...

  1. Going global: Trust research and international relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Jan; Keating, Vincent Charles

    2015-01-01

    In this review article we explore the growing body of literature on the subject of trust in the field of international relations. We argue that the international level represents a unique challenge for trust research. This is so because some of the most pressing problems facing the world today...

  2. Trust as networking knowledge: precedents from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clegg, S.R.; Porras, S.; Crawford, J.

    2004-01-01

    Trust, rather than being simply a resource for establishing collaborative relationships between organizations, is an essential component of their constitution. At base, trust involves interpersonal relations of a specific type. These are relations where there is sufficient probability that a person

  3. Social Trust and the Growth of Schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The paper develops a simple model to examine how social trust might affect the growth of schooling through lowering transaction costs associated with employing educated individuals. In a sample of 52 countries, the paper thereafter provides empirical evidence that trust has led to faster growth...

  4. Social Trust: Croatia 1995-2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berto Šalaj

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author deals with the concept of social trust. It is the author’s view that this concept has been neglected in past political science research in Croatia; consequently, he wishes to present it to the academic and professional political science public, thus creating a basis for its future use. Moreover, through application of a secondary dana analysis the author describes the state of social trust in Croatia. First, he contextualises the concept of social trust with regard to the dominant research approaches in political science; then he points to the distinctiveness of social trust in relation to other types of trust; fi nally, he provides an overview of the most relevant works on the importance and functions of social trust. In the concluding part of the paper, an analysis of the levels of social trust is conducted, revealing that Croatia is a society with markedly low levels of social trust. In the author’s opinion, this could present an obstacle to further political and economic development.

  5. Social Trust and the Growth of Schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    The paper develops a simple model to exemplify how social trust might affect the growth of schooling through lowering transaction costs. In a sample of 52 countries, the paper thereafter provides empirical evidence that trust has indeed led to faster growth of schooling in the period 1960...

  6. Trust in regulatory regimes: scoping the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, F.E.; Verhoest, Koen

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume is the first endeavour to systematically investigate the role of trust in the different relations within regulatory regimes. Trust as a multifaceted concept is contested within public administration and political science in general and especially within the relation between

  7. When can we trust a third party?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Sidorova, N.; Werf, van der J.M.E.M.; Koutny, M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Yakovlev, A.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations often do not want to reveal the way a product is created or a service is delivered. As a consequence, if two organizations want to cooperate, they contact a trusted third party. Each specifies how it wants to communicate with the other party. The trusted third party then needs to

  8. Building Trust in High-Performing Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Soudunsaari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Facilitation of growth is more about good, trustworthy contacts than capital. Trust is a driving force for business creation, and to create a global business you need to build a team that is capable of meeting the challenge. Trust is a key factor in team building and a needed enabler for cooperation. In general, trust building is a slow process, but it can be accelerated with open interaction and good communication skills. The fast-growing and ever-changing nature of global business sets demands for cooperation and team building, especially for startup companies. Trust building needs personal knowledge and regular face-to-face interaction, but it also requires empathy, respect, and genuine listening. Trust increases communication, and rich and open communication is essential for the building of high-performing teams. Other building materials are a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, willingness for cooperation, and supporting and encouraging leadership. This study focuses on trust in high-performing teams. It asks whether it is possible to manage trust and which tools and operation models should be used to speed up the building of trust. In this article, preliminary results from the authors’ research are presented to highlight the importance of sharing critical information and having a high level of communication through constant interaction.

  9. Does Education Lead to Higher Generalized Trust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Rothstein, Bo

    2016-01-01

    to ‘trust others'. We hypothesize that higher levels of education will lead to higher social trust in individuals, given that the context (country or regions within countries) in which they reside has a sufficiently impartial and non-corrupt institutional setting. However, the positive effect of education...

  10. Expectations as a key element in trusting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Apollo; Hansen, Uffe Kjærgaard; Conradsen, Maria Bosse

    Considering the need for a tangible focus for qualitative research on trusting, we propose that expectations to the behavior of others can provide that. By focusing on expectations, researchers can produce narrative descriptions that explains how trusting develops and changes. Then the key theore...

  11. Development of Trust and Reciprocity in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Westenberg, Michiel; van Dijk, Eric; Crone, Eveline A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the development of two types of prosocial behavior, trust and reciprocity, as defined using a game-theoretical task that allows investigation of real-time social interaction, among 4 age groups from 9 to 25 years. By manipulating the possible outcome alternatives, we could distinguish among important determinants of trust and…

  12. Institutional and social trust: Is there a causal relationship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    In the literature on social trust, institutional trust is prominent explanations of why people trust the generalized other. However, while institutional trust is a plausible cause of social trust, it is also likely to be consequences of trust or a consequence of deep-rooted personality traits...... affecting both types of trust. Therefore, conventional analyses using cross-sectional data are ill-suited to determine whether institutional trust actually cause social trust. In contrast to previous analyses, this paper utilizes two Danish panel surveys containing measures of the two types of trust...... as regressors), the results provide strong evidence of trust in state institutions exercising an impact on social trust whereas the evidence for a reverse relationship is mixed....

  13. Trust: the sublime duty in health care leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2010-01-01

    Trust is the essence of human social existence. From the moment of birth, trust is the basic component in any human relationship and interaction. Trust is the Holy Grail for human confidence in others. From human survival to organizational survival, trust is the primordial bond. No organization is more dependent on trust than health care. This article views trust as the most basic fundamental quality for leadership. Trust is a sublime duty of a leader and the leadership of an organization. Leadership sets the culture of trust. Trust is the one quality that is essential for guiding an organization toward serving others. This article addresses trust from many perspectives. Trust is viewed from our subordinates, our peers, our superiors, and the public we serve. This article postulates how trust in an organization is the sublime duty of leadership that unites all human understanding and without it destroys all human relationships.

  14. Rethinking communication in innovation processes: creating space for change in complex systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, C.; Aarts, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper systematically rethinks the role of communication in innovation processes, starting from largely separate theoretical developments in communication science and innovation studies. Literature review forms the basis of the arguments presented. The paper concludes that innovation is a

  15. Rethinking Communication in Innovation Processes: Creating Space for Change in Complex Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, C.; Aarts, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper systematically rethinks the role of communication in innovation processes, starting from largely separate theoretical developments in communication science and innovation studies. Literature review forms the basis of the arguments presented. The paper concludes that innovation is a

  16. Trust and Control in Public Sector Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallentin, Steen; Thygesen, Niels Thyge

    2017-01-01

    to a substitution view when it comes to accounting for public sector reform as structure and process. Also, we propose a widening of the theoretical lens in the form of an emergent view of how trust and control, instead of being beforehand determinable and more or less stable identities, emerge in multiple......This paper provides an analysis of trust-based management reform in the Danish public sector from the point of view of the trust–control nexus. Based on a qualitative case study of home care in the municipality of Copenhagen we argue that a complementary view of trust and control is superior...... and singular ways from multiple events in the organisation. Noticing a dearth of research that explicitly addresses trust issues with regard to public sector management and organisation, the paper is a response to the call for more studies of trust as an institutionally embedded phenomenon....

  17. Does Religiosity Promote or Discourage Social Trust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggren, Niclas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    We look at the effect of religiosity on social trust, defined as the share of a population that thinks that people in general can be trusted. This is important since social trust is related to many desired outcomes, such as growth, education, democratic stability and subjective well...... countries and the U.S. states, measuring religiosity by the share of the population that answers yes to the question "Is religion an important part of your daily life?". Our empirical results, making use of regression analysis whereby we control for other possible determinants of social trust and, by using......-being. The effect of religiosity is theoretically unclear: while all major religions call for behaving well to others, religious groups may primarily trust people in their own groups and distrust others, as well as cause division in the broader population. We make use of new data from the Gallup World Poll for 105...

  18. Beyond Rule; Trust and Power as Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre

    2013-01-01

    Taking an approach that avoids comprehending power and trust as entities to be studied apart, the article insists on elucidating trust and power as they are enacted in their intimate and delicate relationship to each other and to other human and social phenomena of similar importance......, such as knowledge and experience, gift-giving, hope, freedom and agency. To permit us to understand power and trust as interdependent dimensions, the article confronts the notions of power as command, coercion, control and calculation and develops a conception of power as a capacity. This permits us to consider...... trusting as an exercise of power and an anticipatory affect. Trust is a resolve to bear an experienced risk by confiding in the new and unknown....

  19. Making sense of institutional trust in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Lars; Jagd, Søren

    2015-01-01

    and inter-organizational level. We suggest, however, that the actor-dimension of institutional-based trust is an underexplored issue in the literature. Quoting Fligstein, institutional theory needs to explain how ‘some social actors are better at producing desired social outcomes than are others’ (Fligstein......Institutional-based approaches to trust can explain how trust logics can exist in a societal context as compared to logics of distrust. Strong institutions in the form of regulative, normative and cognitive structures can enable and inspire trust-relations among people at the interpersonal......, 1997: 398). While Fligstein refers to actors who engage in ‘robust or local action’ we argue that actors who engage in (robust, local) sensemaking activities are better at (re)producing institutional-based trust. Particularly in situations when institutions are relatively unstable, unfamiliar...

  20. TRUST AND DISTRUST: TWO NECESSARY FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOCIAL TRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO YÁÑEZ GALLARDO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations argue that distrust is the absence of trust and it would be assumed that bothattitudes are independent; that would allow to distinguish between the naïve attitude and the wise attitudein the trust. It has been built a scale to measure the disposition to trust and the relationship has beenexamined among naïve and wise attitude when trusting. The sample was constituted by 575 universitystudents of both sexes, of four faculties and of different years of study. Through a factorial analysis itwas found that trust and distrust correspond to different factors. It was discussed the importance ofincrease an optimal trust in order to develop social abilities and to stimulate the social participation. Itwas questioned the validity of traditional surveys that measure the social trust.

  1. Trust in prescription drug brand websites: website trust cues, attitude toward the website, and behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jisu; Shin, Wonsun

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug brand websites, as a form of DTC advertising, are receiving increasing attention due to the growing number and importance as an ad and a consumer information source. This study examined consumer trust in a DTC website as an important factor influencing consumers' attitude toward the website and behavioral intention. Applying the conceptual framework of website trust, the particular focus of investigation was the effect of the website trust cue factor on consumers' perceived DTC website trust and subsequent attitudinal and behavioral responses. Results show a significant relation between the website trust cue factor and consumers' perceived DTC website trust. Perceived DTC website trust, in turn, was found to be significantly associated with consumers' attitude toward the DTC website and behavioral intention.

  2. Rethinking Study and Management of Agricultural Systems for Policy Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Baumgärtner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a concern that agriculture will no longer be able to meet, on a global scale, the growing demand for food. Facing such a challenge requires new patterns of thinking in the context of complexity and sustainability sciences. This paper, focused on the social dimension of the study and management of agricultural systems, suggests that rethinking the study of agricultural systems entails analyzing them as complex socio-ecological systems, as well as considering the differing thinking patterns of diverse stakeholders. The intersubjective nature of knowledge, as studied by different philosophical schools, needs to be better integrated into the study and management of agricultural systems than it is done so far, forcing us to accept that there are no simplistic solutions, and to seek a better understanding of the social dimension of agriculture. Different agriculture related problems require different policy and institutional approaches. Finally, the intersubjective nature of knowledge asks for the visualization of different framings and the power relations taking place in the decision-making process. Rethinking management of agricultural systems implies that policy making should be shaped by different principles: learning, flexibility, adaptation, scale-matching, participation, diversity enhancement and precaution hold the promise to significantly improve current standard management procedures.

  3. Technology Trust in Internet-Based Interorganizational Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Pauline Ratnasingam; Paul A. Pavlou

    2003-01-01

    Trust in Internet-based Business-to-Business (B2B) e-commerce is an important issue for both practicioners and academicians. Whereas the traditional notion of dyadic interfirm trust primarily focuses on trust in a trading partner firm, trust in e-commerce also implicitly incorporates the notion of trust in the transaction infrastructure and underlying control mechanisms (technology trust), which deals with transaction integrity, authentication, confidentliality, non-repudiation, and best busi...

  4. Book Review: Jessica F Green, Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keremis, Anestis

    2017-01-01

    Book review of "Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance" by Jessica F Green. Princeton,NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2014.215 pp., £16.95 (p/b), ISBN 9780691157597......Book review of "Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance" by Jessica F Green. Princeton,NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2014.215 pp., £16.95 (p/b), ISBN 9780691157597...

  5. Robust Trust in Expert Testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dahlman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The standard of proof in criminal trials should require that the evidence presented by the prosecution is robust. This requirement of robustness says that it must be unlikely that additional information would change the probability that the defendant is guilty. Robustness is difficult for a judge to estimate, as it requires the judge to assess the possible effect of information that the he or she does not have. This article is concerned with expert witnesses and proposes a method for reviewing the robustness of expert testimony. According to the proposed method, the robustness of expert testimony is estimated with regard to competence, motivation, external strength, internal strength and relevance. The danger of trusting non-robust expert testimony is illustrated with an analysis of the Thomas Quick Case, a Swedish legal scandal where a patient at a mental institution was wrongfully convicted for eight murders.

  6. Beyond Trust: Plagiarism and Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart

    2018-03-01

    Academic misconduct distorts the relationship between scientific practice and the knowledge it produces. The relationship between science and the knowledge it produces is, however, not something universally agreed upon. In this paper I will critically discuss the moral status of an act of research misconduct, namely plagiarism, in the context of different epistemological positions. While from a positivist view of science, plagiarism only influences trust in science but not the content of the scientific corpus, from a constructivist point of view both are at stake. Consequently, I argue that discussions of research misconduct and responsible research ought to be explicitly informed by the authors' views on the relationship between science and the knowledge it produces.

  7. Hardware IP security and trust

    CERN Document Server

    Bhunia, Swarup; Tehranipoor, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of current Intellectual Property (IP) based System-on-Chip (SoC) design methodology and highlights how security of IP can be compromised at various stages in the overall SoC design-fabrication-deployment cycle. Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of the security vulnerabilities of different types of IPs. This book would enable readers to overcome these vulnerabilities through an efficient combination of proactive countermeasures and design-for-security solutions, as well as a wide variety of IP security and trust assessment and validation techniques. This book serves as a single-source of reference for system designers and practitioners for designing secure, reliable and trustworthy SoCs.

  8. Trust and the transformation of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, Steve [James Martin Institute for Science and Civilization, Said Business School, Park End Street, Oxford, OX1 1HP (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    The author looks at diverse concepts and roles of trust in the challenge of decarbonising energy systems, drawing on 25 years of personal experience in the fields of energy and environmental policy research. The paper focuses on three issues-public trust in science, institutional trust in making technology choices, and the idea that high-trust societies are more sustainable than those exhibiting low-trust. While trust is a key concept in understanding the public acceptability of technology choices, it is only one of a suite of interrelated concepts that must be addressed, which also includes liability, consent, and fairness. Furthermore, rational distrust among competing institutional world views may be critical in understanding the role of social capital in socioeconomic and technological development. Thus the concept of trust has become a portmanteau, carrying a diverse range of ideas and conditions for sustainable energy systems. The paper concludes with three emphases for decision makers. First, the issue is the energy system, not particular generating technologies. Second, the energy system must be recognized to be as much a social system as it is a technical one. Third, the system requires incorporation of the minimum level of diversity of engineering technologies and social actors to be sustainable. (author)

  9. Patient-physician trust: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, D H; Campbell, B

    1997-02-01

    Patients' trust in their physicians has recently become a focus of concern, largely owing to the rise of managed care, yet the subject remains largely unstudied. We undertook a qualitative research study of patients' self-reported experiences with trust in a physician to gain further understanding of the components of trust in the context of the patient-physician relationship. Twenty-nine patients participants, aged 26 to 72, were recruited from three diverse practice sites. Four focus groups, each lasting 1.5 to 2 hours, were conducted to explore patients' experiences with trust. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded by four readers, using principles of grounded theory. The resulting consensus codes were grouped into seven categories of physician behavior, two of which related primarily to technical competence (thoroughness in evaluation and providing appropriate and effective treatment) and five of which were interpersonal (understanding patient's individual experience, expressing caring, communicating clearly and completely, building partnership/sharing power and honesty/respect for patient). Two additional categories were predisposing factors and structural/staffing factors. Each major category had multiple subcategories. Specific examples from each major category are provided. These nine categories of physician behavior encompassed the trust experiences related by the 29 patients. These categories and the specific examples provided by patients provide insights into the process of trust formation and suggest ways in which physicians could be more effective in building and maintaining trust.

  10. Social capital and trust in providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Melissa M; Hendryx, Michael S

    2003-10-01

    Trust in providers has been in decline in recent decades. This study attempts to identify sources of trust in characteristics of health care systems and the wider community. The design is cross-sectional. Data are from (1) the 1996 Household Survey of the Community Tracking Study, drawn from 24 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; (2) a 1996 multi-city broadcast media marketing database including key social capital indicators; (3) Interstudy; (4) the American Hospital Association; and (5) the American Medical Association. Independent variables include individual socio-demographic variables, HMO enrollment, community-level health sector variables, and social capital. The dependent variable is self-reported trust in physicians. Data are merged from the various sources and analyzed using SUDAAN. Subjects include adults in the Household Survey who responded to the items on trust in physicians (N=17,653). Trust in physicians is independently predicted by community social capital (pSocial capital plays a role in how health care is perceived by citizens, and how health care is delivered by providers. Efforts to build trust and collaboration in a community may improve trust in physicians, health care quality, access, and preserve local health care control.

  11. Recommendation based on trust diffusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinfeng; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Recommender system is emerging as a powerful and popular tool for online information relevant to a given user. The traditional recommendation system suffers from the cold start problem and the data sparsity problem. Many methods have been proposed to solve these problems, but few can achieve satisfactory efficiency. In this paper, we present a method which combines the trust diffusion (DiffTrust) algorithm and the probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF). DiffTrust is first used to study the possible diffusions of trust between various users. It is able to make use of the implicit relationship of the trust network, thus alleviating the data sparsity problem. The probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF) is then employed to combine the users' tastes with their trusted friends' interests. We evaluate the algorithm on Flixster, Moviedata, and Epinions datasets, respectively. The experimental results show that the recommendation based on our proposed DiffTrust + PMF model achieves high performance in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE), Recall, and F Measure.

  12. The Volatile Nature of Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgård, Andreas Pihl; Anhøj, Anne Iversen

    The countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have to varying degrees been struggling in their transition to market economies and democracy. Social trust is often argued to be a crucial lubricant in solving collective action problems and thus building and maintaining well-functioning institut......The countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have to varying degrees been struggling in their transition to market economies and democracy. Social trust is often argued to be a crucial lubricant in solving collective action problems and thus building and maintaining well......-functioning institutions. Therefore building and maintaining social trust seems crucial for the countries in CEE struggling with transition. Existing research on social trust is mainly conducted in a western context, and there is a clear need for research to focus on social trust in CEE - an endeavour which this article...... by the development of public sentiment in a given context. The development of social trust in Croatia and Slovenia thus correlate with factors as the sense of trust and corruption among politicians, public officials and public institutions, the general economic and social development in the country as well...

  13. Hype and public trust in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zubin; Resnik, David B

    2013-06-01

    Social scientists have begun elucidating the variables that influence public trust in science, yet little is known about hype in biotechnology and its effects on public trust. Many scholars claim that hyping biotechnology results in a loss of public trust, and possibly public enthusiasm or support for science, because public expectations of the biotechnological promises will be unmet. We argue for the need for empirical research that examines the relationships between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support. We discuss the complexities in designing empirical studies that provide evidence for a causal link between hype, public trust, and public enthusiasm/support, but also illustrate how this may be remedied. Further empirical research on hype and public trust is needed in order to improve public communication of science and to design evidence-based education on the responsible conduct of research for scientists. We conclude that conceptual arguments made on hype and public trust must be nuanced to reflect our current understanding of this relationship.

  14. Genetic influences are virtually absent for trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A M Van Lange

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, numerous twin studies have revealed moderate to high heritability estimates for individual differences in a wide range of human traits, including cognitive ability, psychiatric disorders, and personality traits. Even factors that are generally believed to be environmental in nature have been shown to be under genetic control, albeit modest. Is such heritability also present in social traits that are conceptualized as causes and consequences of social interactions or in other ways strongly shaped by behavior of other people? Here we examine a population-based sample of 1,012 twins and relatives. We show that the genetic influence on generalized trust in other people (trust-in-others: h2 = 5%, ns, and beliefs regarding other people's trust in the self (trust-in-self: h2 = 13%, ns, is virtually absent. As test-retest reliability for both scales were found to be moderate or high (r = .76 and r = .53, respectively in an independent sample, we conclude that all variance in trust is likely to be accounted for by non-shared environmental influences. We show that, relative to cognitive abilities, psychiatric disorders, and classic personality variables, genetic influences are smaller for trust, and propose that experiences with or observations of the behavior of other people shape trust more strongly than other traits.

  15. Trust and the transformation of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The author looks at diverse concepts and roles of trust in the challenge of decarbonising energy systems, drawing on 25 years of personal experience in the fields of energy and environmental policy research. The paper focuses on three issues-public trust in science, institutional trust in making technology choices, and the idea that high-trust societies are more sustainable than those exhibiting low-trust. While trust is a key concept in understanding the public acceptability of technology choices, it is only one of a suite of interrelated concepts that must be addressed, which also includes liability, consent, and fairness. Furthermore, rational distrust among competing institutional world views may be critical in understanding the role of social capital in socioeconomic and technological development. Thus the concept of trust has become a portmanteau, carrying a diverse range of ideas and conditions for sustainable energy systems. The paper concludes with three emphases for decision makers. First, the issue is the energy system, not particular generating technologies. Second, the energy system must be recognized to be as much a social system as it is a technical one. Third, the system requires incorporation of the minimum level of diversity of engineering technologies and social actors to be sustainable.

  16. Public Trust in Health Information Sharing: A Measure of System Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jodyn E; Jacobson, Peter D; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2018-04-01

    To measure public trust in a health information sharing in a broadly defined health system (system trust), inclusive of health care, public health, and research; to identify individual characteristics that predict system trust; and to consider these findings in the context of national health initiatives (e.g., learning health systems and precision medicine) that will expand the scope of data sharing. Survey data (n = 1,011) were collected in February 2014. We constructed a composite index of four dimensions of system trust-competency, fidelity, integrity, and trustworthiness. The index was used in linear regression evaluating demographic and psychosocial predictors of system trust. Data were collected by GfK Custom using a nationally representative sample and analyzed in Stata 13.0. Our findings suggest the public's trust may not meet the needs of health systems as they enter an era of expanded data sharing. We found that a majority of the U.S. public does not trust the organizations that have health information and share it (i.e., the health system) in one or more dimensions. Together, demographic and psychosocial factors accounted for ~18 percent of the observed variability in system trust. Future research should consider additional predictors of system trust such as knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs to inform policies and practices for health data sharing. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper connects two strands of the literature on social trust by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data...... set is available. The results indicate that trust affects schooling and the rule of law directly. These variables in turn affect the investment rate (schooling) and provide a direct effect (rule of law) on the growth rate. The paper closes with a short discussion of the relevance of the findings....

  18. Swift Trust in Distributed Ad Hoc Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-04

    individus sont perçus. Et les abus de confiance commis pendant la mission ont nui temporairement à la réputation de leurs auteurs , mais ils n’ont...of theory and research argue that trust may emerge in teams even when the development of conventional person-based trust is challenged. 1.3.1 Swift...good deal of theory (and some research) espouses the importance of “swift trust” in environments where conventional trust would otherwise be

  19. Mediated Trust in the Innovation Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    This paper introduces a framework for further studies in the role of mediated trust in the innovation ecosystems. Combining insight from scholars like Etzkowitz, Russel and Nordfors, the concept of innovation ecosystem is described as an extended Triple Helix where media is seen as a fourth strand...... should be considered trustworthy. When receiving the message, the audience will decode the signals. Trust is considered fundamental for mass media if these are to fulfill their normative functions in the innovation ecosystem. However, the concept of trust is not clearly defined in the literature and we...

  20. Corruption, Trust and their Public Sector Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Scott A.; Serritzlew, Søren; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Corruption and trust are two important determinants of the quality of public sectors. Empirical studies in different literatures suggest that corruption and trust have effects on factors such as economic growth, the quality of democratic institutions, life quality, the size and effectiveness....... The aim is to show that these two concepts are highly relevant to each other, and that their interconnections are important to understand the public sector consequences of corruption and trust. By focusing on these concepts, we hope that this special issue can pave the road for further comparative...

  1. Control and trust impact on outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Schmidt, Andreas Strøjer Tynan

    This paper examines the relationships between control, trust and inter-organizational learning in outsourcing relationships, focusing on the question: How do different trust and control strategies affect the sharing and withholding of knowledge between client and vendor? Four studies are conducted......; one, large international client company and three of its vendors. Based on these cases and a literature review, various trust and control strategies are examined, and factors influencing the mutual knowledge interaction are identified. The results show an internal disagreement among managers...

  2. Analysis on trust influencing factors and trust model from multiple perspectives of online Auction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wang

    2017-10-01

    Current reputation models lack the research on online auction trading completely so they cannot entirely reflect the reputation status of users and may cause problems on operability. To evaluate the user trust in online auction correctly, a trust computing model based on multiple influencing factors is established. It aims at overcoming the efficiency of current trust computing methods and the limitations of traditional theoretical trust models. The improved model comprehensively considers the trust degree evaluation factors of three types of participants according to different participation modes of online auctioneers, to improve the accuracy, effectiveness and robustness of the trust degree. The experiments test the efficiency and the performance of our model under different scale of malicious user, under environment like eBay and Sporas model. The experimental results analysis show the model proposed in this paper makes up the deficiency of existing model and it also has better feasibility.

  3. Do Reputation Systems Undermine Trust? Divergent Effects of Enforcement Type on Generalized Trust and Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Ko

    2015-03-01

    Research shows that enforcing cooperation using contracts or tangible sanctions can backfire, undermining people's intrinsic motivation to cooperate: when the enforcement is removed, people are less trusting or trustworthy than when there is no enforcement to begin with. The author examines whether reputation systems have similar consequences for generalized trust and trustworthiness. Using a web-based experiment simulating online market transactions (studies 1 and 2), he shows that reputation systems can reinforce generalized trust and trustworthiness, unlike contractual enforcement or relational enforcement based on repeated interactions. In a survey experiment (study 3), he finds that recalling their eBay feedback scores made participants more trusting and trustworthy. These results are predicated on the diffuse nature of reputational enforcement to reinforce perceptions of trust and trustworthiness. These results have implications for understanding how different forms of governance affect generalized trust and trustworthiness.

  4. DualTrust: A Trust Management Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiden, Wendy M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Trust management techniques must be adapted to the unique needs of the application architectures and problem domains to which they are applied. For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, certain characteristics of the mobile agent ant swarm -- their lightweight, ephemeral nature and indirect communication -- make this adaptation especially challenging. This thesis looks at the trust issues and opportunities in swarm-based autonomic computing systems and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. After analyzing the applicability of trust management research as it has been applied to architectures with similar characteristics, this thesis specifies the required characteristics for trust management mechanisms used to monitor the trustworthiness of entities in a swarm-based autonomic computing system and describes a trust model that meets these requirements.

  5. How Much Do You Trust Me? Learning a Case-Based Model of Inverse Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    metric does not take into account factors of the robot’s behavior that increase trust. The inverse trust metric we use is based on the number of times the...sets contain identical behav- iors. To account for this, the similarity function looks at the overlap between the two sets and ignores behaviors that...155–156 5. Jian, J.Y., Bisantz, A.M., Drury , C.G.: Foundations for an empirically determined scale of trust in automated systems. International

  6. Zero Trust Intrusion Containment for Telemedicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sood, Arun

    2002-01-01

    .... Our objective is the design and analysis of 'zero-trust' Intrusion Tolerant Systems. These are systems built under the extreme assumption that all intrusion detection techniques will eventually fail...

  7. Trust and Coordination in Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    the implementation of handover meetings affected Danish employees' perception of their Indian counterparts in terms of work attitude, competence and reliability - and ultimately how these handover meetings increased the Danish employees' willingness and ability to trust their Indian counterparts. Contemporary...

  8. A Model of Trusted Connection Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to that traditional trusted network connection architecture (TNC has limitations on dynamic network environment and the user behavior support, we develop TCA to propose a trusted connection architecture supporting behavior measurement (TCA-SBM, besides, the structure diagram of network architecture is given. Through introducing user behavior measure elements, TCA-SBM can conduct measurement on the whole network in time dimension periodically, and refine the measurement on network behavior in measure dimension to conduct fine-grained dynamic trusted measurement. As a result, TCA-SBM enhances the TCA’s ability to adapt to the dynamic change of network and makes up the deficiency of trusted computing framework in the network connection.

  9. Trust Management in Open Systems (TMOS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    .... The problem considered in the Trust Management in Open Systems (TMOS) project is management of the exchange of sensitive credentials between strangers for the purpose of property-based authentication and authorization...

  10. 7 CFR 46.46 - Statutory trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER... commission merchant, dealer, or broker, it automatically becomes eligible to participate in the trust...

  11. Trust Ownership of the Tata Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    The Indian Tata Group is one of the largest and most admired business groups in the world. It has 28 listed subsidiaries and more than 80 operating businesses. It has shown strong financial performance and social responsibility for decades. Interestingly, it has a unique ownership structure......: the main holding company Tata Sons Limited is majority-owned by charitable trusts. We examine the governance of this remarkable entity. The Trusts own 66% of Tata Sons, the main holding company of the Group, while members of the founding Tata family are very small minority shareholders. The governance...... structure is characterized by managerial distance between trusts and Group companies. The Trusts are almost exclusively concerned with philanthropy, and according to the Articles of Association of Tata Sons Limited, their governance role is limited to nominating two members to the Selection Committee which...

  12. Supporting collaboration with trust virtual organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, A.; Vullings, E.; Dalziel, J.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter introduces the trust virtual organization as a means of facilitating authentication and authorization for sharing distributed and protected contents and services. It indicates that sharing institutional protected services and deliverables has proven a hurdle since user accounts are

  13. Trust in Co-sourced Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Persson, John Stouby

    2014-01-01

    Software development projects are increasingly geographical distributed with offshoring. Co-sourcing is a highly integrative and cohesive approach, seen successful, to software development offshoring. However, research of how dynamic aspects of trust are shaped in co-sourcing activities is limite...... understanding or personal trust relations. The paper suggests how certain work practices among developers and managers can be explained using a dynamic trust lens based on Abstract Systems, especially dis- and re-embedding mechanisms......Software development projects are increasingly geographical distributed with offshoring. Co-sourcing is a highly integrative and cohesive approach, seen successful, to software development offshoring. However, research of how dynamic aspects of trust are shaped in co-sourcing activities is limited...

  14. Trust management for e-transactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    medium for disseminating information, doing commerce and business. ..... intensity of effect on individual's decision making is subjective. In next section .... that takes into account all the factors in trust formation, enhancement and enforcement.

  15. New challenges to rethink the training of ecuadorian teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sol Villagómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Training ecuadorian teachers has traditionally been linked to public policy and national curricula that have defined the task of teaching, classroom work, and what basic teacher training institutions should prioritize on when it comes to training teachers. Recent years have seen major changes in the educational sector, as well as a revaluation of the teaching trade. New training challenges arise, not only from the teacher's perspective as executor of the curricula, but as a key player in the educational process. We need to rethink the training of teachers to and from a critical reflection and research point-of-view, in order to reflect on the curricula, their own experience, and their relevance in relation to the framework in wich they develop.

  16. Review Essay: Rethinking Gender Justice a Transnational Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Ambivalence” is one reason for feminists to be concerned about Fraser’s new theoretical and political approach. Here Fraser uses Karl Polanyi’s classical book: ’The Great Transformation’ (1944) as inspiration to rethink the character of the present political-economic crisis, social justice...... and the emancipatory potentials of feminism. The ambitious aim of the book is to contribute to feminism’s theoretical and political project in a globalized world. The title:’Fortunes of Feminism’, the prologue and the book’s structure as a drama in three acts all refer to Fraser’s interpretation of the evolution...... in in Justice Interruptus; two articles have only appeared in French It is therefore great to have a collection of some of her best articles, but the question is what gender researchers can learn from this book? To me, the final chapter: ”Between Marketization and Social Protection: Resolving the Feminist...

  17. Rethinking cities in the post-carbon society. Research notebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecutti-Etahiri, Nathalie; Brou, Evane; Riviere, Antoine; Emelianoff, C.; Mor, E.; Chevalier, J.; Boulianne, L.M.; Tabaka, K.; Pichavant, F.; Barbezet, S.; Pezet-Kuhn, M.; Aubree, L.; Bonduelle, A.; Metivier, S.; Dossier, J.; Hain, L.; Pares-Ramos, I.K.; Dupas, S.; Coutard, O.; Rutherford, J.; Gillet, C.; Lange, J.; Ranoux, M.; Noisette, P.; Deseez, G.; Allio, C.; Waisman, H.; Mousel, Michel; Girard, S.; Huber, A.; Thomas, Y.; Dobre, M.; Cordellier, M.; Barbier, C.; Blanc, N.; Sander, A.; Castelain Meunier, C.; Joliton, D.; Leroy, P.; Pour Rou Chottamin, N.; Radanne, P.; Chevrier, S.; Darris, G.; Gauthier, V.; Theile, D.; Souami, T.; Kasdi, I.; Meyer, P.; Artous, A.; Salini, P.; Vanel, S.

    2014-10-01

    This document compiles the different syntheses of the research projects which were used to prepare the synthesis report 'Rethinking cities in the post-carbon society', published in March 2014 by the French Agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe). It allows to browse more precisely the experience of six French cities (Lille, Mulhouse, Tours, Fontainebleau, Plaine Commune et Grenoble) and to go deeper into the governance stakes. This publication also brings together some unpublished sectoral studies about life styles and consumption habits, energy inequalities and poverty, housing etc. Different levels of reading of the document are possible, in order to make it accessible to all readers and to involve all citizens in the post-carbon city culture

  18. Creative learning technologies as a catalyst for rethinking education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    is on exploring how learning with creative technologies can be a catalyst for rethinking education in primary and lower secondary school The mixed methods based research project has involved classes from all schools in one municipality in Denmark in digital creative lab activities The research points...... presents preliminary results from an R&D project on teacher led designs for creative and multimodal learning The focus is on developing designs for learning using creative learning technologies These include digital storytelling with mobile devices and digital animation in hybrid environments The focus......There is a movement towards a new paradigm in the mediatized Scandinavian societies that aims at developing the students' creativity, critical sense and ability to collaborate and communicate, thereby equipping them with necessary media skills and competencies for 21st Century learning This paper...

  19. Climate Change after the International : Rethinking Security, Territory and Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripple, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    What does a politics after the international mean? Many strands of contemporary scholarship converge on the image of the international as obsolete, but strongly diverge on the contours of the kinds of politics that are superseding it. The modern state has been pivotal to the meaning of security, territory and authority - concepts central to the idea of the international - but they do not necessarily have to be tied to the state. This thesis offers a critique of International Relations theory combined with a study of climate change. A departure in 'process philosophy' facilitate a rethinking of security, territory and authority as activities rather than things, as verbs rather than nouns. The author shows that a multiplicity of practices of securitization, territorialization, and authorization are visible in the climate issue. The book goes beyond, and reflects upon, the traditional study of 'International Environmental Politics' as a particular subfield of International Relations

  20. Rethinking Socialization Research through the Lens of New Materialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grit Höppner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, socialization research appears to have suffered the loss of its former capacity to explain the processes of becoming a socialized subject in a social environment. In this article, I review socialization theories taking into account assumptions regarding human subjects and their social environments. I confront them with the idea of rethinking dualisms, ontologies, and agencies addressed by the field of new materialism. I propose a new materialist-inspired socialization theory that assumes that humans, knowledge, and material environments become inseparable parts of (gendered socialization processes in a world of constant change. This approach contributes to socialization theory and methodology because it illustrates precisely how humans and non-humans coproduce socialization in situated material-discursive processes.

  1. On Rethinking Our Classrooms: A Critical Pedagogy View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Samacá Bohórquez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, as its title suggests, introduces some reflections on the importance critical pedagogy as well as awareness-raising practices have in education today, especially in language teacher preparation programs, and how they provide a new opportunity for pre-service teachers to re-think their pedagogical experiences for social transformation. Critical pedagogy (CP as a philosophy of life helps teachers achieve a better understanding of what teaching really entails and raising awareness fosters reflection regarding our practices in educational settings, starting in the language classroom, exploring on the one hand, what pre-service teachers think and perceive about teaching and learning in the context they are involved in, and on the other hand, how those perceptions might influence their educational practices.

  2. Sustainable Refugee Migration: A Rethink towards a Positive Capability Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Husban

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge facing many countries around the world is how to sustainably address the issues of increased numbers of refugee migrants. The refugee migrant “issue” is often heavily political as a high density of migrants in local areas impacts communities (e.g., disrupting local employment, service and culture. Different migrants come with different “baggage” and needs which can be a significant draw on the hosting communities’ resources. This paper argues that sustainable long-term solutions to refugee migrants will require a rethink to the existing dominant models of containment and charity. The paper draws upon insights from a study of a large refugee camp in Jordan over a three-and-a-half-year period, and historical cases of refugee migration. The paper presents a sustainable model that develops long-term capability for the various stakeholder groups.

  3. Rethinking platelet function: thrombocytopenia induced immunodeficiency in critical illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Johansson, Per Ingemar

    2011-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia in critical illness predicts a poor clinical outcome. Apart from its role in microvascular thrombus formation, it is widely anticipated that this association is indirect rather than causal. Emerging evidence however indicates that platelets are also immune competent cells. Like...... per se results in immunodeficiency through loss of platelet-mediated immune functions, and propose that thrombocytopenia induced immunodeficiency in critical illness in part explain the negative predictive value of low or declining platelet count. We propose that rethinking the risks...... of thrombocytopenia to include not only bleeding but also immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation along with the conduct of studies investigating mechanisms contributing to thrombocytopenia induced poor non-hemorrhagic outcome in critical illness, may be means to improve outcome in these patients through...

  4. Trust Matters: Leadership for Successful Schools, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschannen-Moran, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Make your school soar by escalating trust between teachers, students, and families. Trust is an essential element in all healthy relationships, and the relationships that exist in your school are no different. How can your school leaders or teachers cultivate trust? How can your institution maintain trust once it is established? These are the…

  5. Teacher Trust in District Administration: A Promising Line of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Miskell, Ryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We set out in this study to establish a foundation for a line of inquiry around teacher trust in district administration by (1) describing the role of trust in capacity building, (2) conceptualizing trust in district administration, (3) developing a scale to measure teacher trust in district administration, and (4) testing the…

  6. Dynamic Trust Management for Mobile Networks and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Fenye

    2013-01-01

    Trust management in mobile networks is challenging due to dynamically changing network environments and the lack of a centralized trusted authority. In this dissertation research, we "design" and "validate" a class of dynamic trust management protocols for mobile networks, and demonstrate the utility of dynamic trust management…

  7. Collective Trust: Why Schools Can't Improve without It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Patrick B.; Adams, Curt M.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2011-01-01

    The culmination of nearly three decades of research, "Collective Trust" offers new insight and practical knowledge on the social construction of trust for school improvement. The authors argue that "collective trust" is not merely an average trust score for a group, but rather an independent concept with distinctive origins and consequences. The…

  8. Cultural identity and patient trust among older American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Goins, R Turner; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Garroutte, Eva Marie

    2014-03-01

    Patients' trust in healthcare providers and institutions has been identified as a likely contributor to racial-ethnic health disparities. The likely influence of patients' cultural characteristics on trust is widely acknowledged but inadequately explored. To compare levels of patients' trust in primary care provider (interpersonal trust) with trust in healthcare organizations (institutional trust) among older American Indians (AIs), and determine associations with cultural identity. Patient survey administered following primary care visits. Two-hundred and nineteen American Indian patients ≥ 50 years receiving care for a non-acute condition at two clinics operated by the Cherokee Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. Self-reported sociodemographic and cultural characteristics. Trust was measured using three questions about interpersonal trust and one measure of institutional trust; responses ranged from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Finding substantial variation only in institutional trust, we used logistic generalized estimating equations to examine relationships of patient cultural identity with institutional trust. Ninety-five percent of patients reported trusting their individual provider, while only 46 % reported trusting their healthcare institution. Patients who strongly self-identified with an AI cultural identity had significantly lower institutional trust compared to those self-identifying less strongly (OR: 0.6, 95 % CI: 0.4, 0.9). Interpersonal and institutional trust represent distinct dimensions of patients' experience of care that may show important relationships to patients' cultural characteristics. Strategies for addressing low institutional trust may have special relevance for patients who identify strongly with AI culture.

  9. Trust in food: a comparative and institutional analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kjærnes, Unni; Warde, Alan; Harvey, Mark

    2007-01-01

    ... and institutional performance 2.6 Institutionalized relationships of trust 2.7 Determinants of trust in institutionalized arrangements 2.8 Forms of institutionalization and forms of trust in contemporary food markets 18 19 21 23 25 27 29 34 37 3 Enquiring into Trust: Some Methodological Considerations 3.1 The project 3.2 The nature of the comparative inst...

  10. Public trust in health care : Exploring the mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schee, E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how public trust in health care is formed, by studying the mechanisms behind it, addressing the following research question: ‘Which mechanisms explain differences in public trust in health care?’. Public trust in health care is important. Low levels of trust

  11. Trust, conflict and cooperation: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balliet, D.P.; van Lange, P. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Many theories of trust emphasize that trust is most relevant to behavior in situations involving a conflict of interests. However, it is not clear how trust relates to behavior across situations that differ in the degree of conflicting interest: Does trust matter more when the conflict of interest

  12. Toward designing for trust in database automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duez, P. P.; Jamieson, G. A. [Cognitive Engineering Laboratory, Univ. of Toronto, 5 King' s College Rd., Toronto, Ont. M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Appropriate reliance on system automation is imperative for safe and productive work, especially in safety-critical systems. It is unsafe to rely on automation beyond its designed use; conversely, it can be both unproductive and unsafe to manually perform tasks that are better relegated to automated tools. Operator trust in automated tools mediates reliance, and trust appears to affect how operators use technology. As automated agents become more complex, the question of trust in automation is increasingly important. In order to achieve proper use of automation, we must engender an appropriate degree of trust that is sensitive to changes in operating functions and context. In this paper, we present research concerning trust in automation in the domain of automated tools for relational databases. Lee and See have provided models of trust in automation. One model developed by Lee and See identifies three key categories of information about the automation that lie along a continuum of attributional abstraction. Purpose-, process-and performance-related information serve, both individually and through inferences between them, to describe automation in such a way as to engender r properly-calibrated trust. Thus, one can look at information from different levels of attributional abstraction as a general requirements analysis for information key to appropriate trust in automation. The model of information necessary to engender appropriate trust in automation [1] is a general one. Although it describes categories of information, it does not provide insight on how to determine the specific information elements required for a given automated tool. We have applied the Abstraction Hierarchy (AH) to this problem in the domain of relational databases. The AH serves as a formal description of the automation at several levels of abstraction, ranging from a very abstract purpose-oriented description to a more concrete description of the resources involved in the automated process

  13. Toward designing for trust in database automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duez, P. P.; Jamieson, G. A.

    2006-01-01

    Appropriate reliance on system automation is imperative for safe and productive work, especially in safety-critical systems. It is unsafe to rely on automation beyond its designed use; conversely, it can be both unproductive and unsafe to manually perform tasks that are better relegated to automated tools. Operator trust in automated tools mediates reliance, and trust appears to affect how operators use technology. As automated agents become more complex, the question of trust in automation is increasingly important. In order to achieve proper use of automation, we must engender an appropriate degree of trust that is sensitive to changes in operating functions and context. In this paper, we present research concerning trust in automation in the domain of automated tools for relational databases. Lee and See have provided models of trust in automation. One model developed by Lee and See identifies three key categories of information about the automation that lie along a continuum of attributional abstraction. Purpose-, process-and performance-related information serve, both individually and through inferences between them, to describe automation in such a way as to engender r properly-calibrated trust. Thus, one can look at information from different levels of attributional abstraction as a general requirements analysis for information key to appropriate trust in automation. The model of information necessary to engender appropriate trust in automation [1] is a general one. Although it describes categories of information, it does not provide insight on how to determine the specific information elements required for a given automated tool. We have applied the Abstraction Hierarchy (AH) to this problem in the domain of relational databases. The AH serves as a formal description of the automation at several levels of abstraction, ranging from a very abstract purpose-oriented description to a more concrete description of the resources involved in the automated process

  14. Trust Management for Public Key Infrastructures: Implementing the X.509 Trust Broker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Samer Wazan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A Public Key Infrastructure (PKI is considered one of the most important techniques used to propagate trust in authentication over the Internet. This technology is based on a trust model defined by the original X.509 (1988 standard and is composed of three entities: the certification authority (CA, the certificate holder (or subject, and the Relying Party (RP. The CA plays the role of a trusted third party between the certificate holder and the RP. In many use cases, this trust model has worked successfully. However, we argue that the application of this model on the Internet implies that web users need to depend on almost anyone in the world in order to use PKI technology. Thus, we believe that the current TLS system is not fit for purpose and must be revisited as a whole. In response, the latest draft edition of X.509 has proposed a new trust model by adding new entity called the Trust Broker (TB. In this paper, we present an implementation approach that a Trust Broker could follow in order to give RPs trust information about a CA by assessing the quality of its issued certificates. This is related to the quality of the CA’s policies and procedures and its commitment to them. Finally, we present our Trust Broker implementation that demonstrates how RPs can make informed decisions about certificate holders in the context of the global web, without requiring large processing resources themselves.

  15. Do Group Decision Rules Affect Trust? A Laboratory Experiment on Group Decision Rules and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced participation has been prescribed as the way forward for improving democratic decision making while generating positive attributes like trust. Yet we do not know the extent to which rules affect the outcome of decision making. This article investigates how different group decision rules......-hierarchical decision-making procedures enhance trust vis-à-vis other more hierarchical decision-making procedures....... affect group trust by testing three ideal types of decision rules (i.e., a Unilateral rule, a Representative rule and a 'Non-rule') in a laboratory experiment. The article shows significant differences between the three decision rules on trust after deliberation. Interestingly, however, it finds...

  16. The Idea of Dialogue, Trust and Reconciliation in the Pilgrimage of Trust on Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyńska Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the Pilgrimage of Trust on Earth organized by the brothers of Taizé Community as an event building a relationship of dialogue, trust and reconciliation between nations and cultures. The article features an in-depth discussion of the elements of youth meetings and their impact on developing an attitude of dialogue and trust. We will briefly discuss the means used by the brothers to develop a dialogue between people, as well as the methods of spreading the idea of dialogue, trust and solidarity in interpersonal and international relations.

  17. Online trust building through third party trust transfer and third party protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandoko, Wanda; Saleh Abbas, Bahtiar; Budiastuti, Dyah; Kosala, Raymond

    2017-03-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an online trust building mechanism for SME (Small Medium Enterprise). Trust is very important in e-commerce. The nature of online shopping has a greater uncertainty than offline shopping. Seeing as there is an uncertainty that can produce risks, a prospective buyer’s trust is needed. A lot of people’s unwillingness to shop online is caused by their lack of trust toward e-commerce. E-commerce is said to be one of the ways for SME to compete with bigger companies. However, building trust requires immense time and cost. SME with limited resources may experience difficulties in building trust just with their own resources. Base on literature research that needs to be validated in next research, we found that trust can be built through trust transfer from the reputable and well-known trust-mark issuer, and third party protection such as escrow account service and credit card issuer.

  18. Internet Banking Security Strategy: Securing Customer Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Frimpong Twum; Kwaku Ahenkora

    2012-01-01

    Internet banking strategies should enhance customers¡¯ online experiences which are affected by trust and security issues. This study provides perspectives of users and nonusers on internet banking security with a view to understanding trust and security factors in relation to adoption and continuous usage. Perception of internet banking security influenced usage intentions. Nonusers viewed internet banking to be insecure but users perceived it to be secure with perceived ease of use influenc...

  19. Designing Online Marketplaces: Trust and Reputation Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Luca, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Online marketplaces have proliferated over the past decade, creating new markets where none existed. By reducing transaction costs, online marketplaces facilitate transactions that otherwise would not have occurred and enable easier entry of small sellers. One central challenge faced by designers of online marketplaces is how to build enough trust to facilitate transactions between strangers. This paper provides an economist’s toolkit for designing online marketplaces, focusing on trust and r...

  20. BIOS Security Analysis and a Kind of Trusted BIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenliu; Xu, Rongsheng

    The BIOS's security threats to computer system are analyzed and security requirements for firmware BIOS are summarized in this paper. Through discussion about TCG's trust transitivity, a new approach about CRTM implementation based on BIOS is developed. In this paper, we also put forward a new trusted BIOS architecture-UTBIOS which is built on Intel Framework for EFI/UEFI. The trustworthiness of UTBIOS is based on trusted hardware TPM. In UTBIOS, trust encapsulation and trust measurement are used to construct pre-OS trust chain. Performance of trust measurement is also analyzed in the end.

  1. Parochial trust and cooperation across 17 societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel; Liu, James H.

    2017-01-01

    International challenges such as climate change, poverty, and intergroup conflict require countries to cooperate to solve these complex problems. However, the political tide in many countries has shifted inward, with skepticism and reluctance to cooperate with other countries. Thus, cross-societal investigations are needed to test theory about trust and cooperation within and between groups. We conducted an experimental study in 17 countries designed to test several theories that explain why, who, and where people trust and cooperate more with ingroup members, compared with outgroup members. The experiment involved several interactions in the trust game, either as a trustor or trustee. We manipulated partner group membership in the trust game (ingroup, outgroup, or unknown) and if their reputation was at stake during the interaction. In addition to the standard finding that participants trust and cooperate more with ingroup than outgroup members, we obtained findings that reputational concerns play a decisive role for promoting trust and cooperation universally across societies. Furthermore, men discriminated more in favor of their ingroup than women. Individual differences in cooperative preferences, as measured by social value orientation, predicted cooperation with both ingroup and outgroup members. Finally, we did not find support for three theories about the cross-societal conditions that influence the degree of ingroup favoritism observed across societies (e.g., material security, religiosity, and pathogen stress). We discuss the implications for promoting cooperation within and between countries. PMID:29133403

  2. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rethinking School Finance. A Policy Issues Paper Prepared for the Chief State School Officers of the Northwest and Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kenneth H.; And Others

    Ways of rethinking school financial policy issues are examined in this report. This rethinking has evolved from growing recognition of two related principles: school finance as part of public finance; and policy formation as a product of commitments and constraints. Principles of public finance, commitments and constraints are described. Five…

  4. Analysing Trust Transitivity and The Effects of Unknown Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touhid Bhuiyan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trust can be used to improve online automated recommendation within a given domain. Trust transitivity is used to make it successful. But trust transitivity has different interpretations. Trust and trust transitivity; both are the human mental phenomenon and for this reason, there is no such thing as objective transitivity. Trust transitivity and trust fusion both are important elements in computational trust. This paper analyses the parameter dependence problem in trust transitivity and proposes some definitions considering the effects of base rate. In addition, it also proposes belief functions based on subjective logic to analyse trust transitivity of three specified cases with sensitive and insensitive based rate. Then it presents a quantitative analysis of the effects of unknown dependence problem in an interconnected network environment; such Internet.

  5. 25 CFR 15.3 - Who can make a will disposing of trust or restricted land or trust personalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can make a will disposing of trust or restricted land or trust personalty? 15.3 Section 15.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Introduction § 15.3 Who can make a will disposing of trust or restricted land or trust personalty? Any person...

  6. Army Profession: How Effective Leadership Reinforces an Ethos of Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    34 Won-Woo Park and Sangyun Kim, “The Need of Leader-Subordinate Reciprocal Dyadic Trust to Build the Subordinate’s Trust in the...Behavior: Communication and Understanding in Relationships, eds. A. G. Athos and J. J. Gabarro (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1978), 290-303...the trust recommendations were senior Army leader strategic communication programs, trust development in doctrine, and making trust a topic for all

  7. Trust between man and machine in a teleoperation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassonville, I.; Jolly, D.; Desodt, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The work we present deals with the trust of man in a teleoperation system. Trust is important because it is linked to stress which modifies human reliability. We are trying to quantify trust. In this paper, we'll present the theory of trust in relationships, and its extension for a man-machine system. Then, we explain the links between trust and human reliability. Then, we introduce our experimental process and the first results concerning selfconfidence

  8. The Impact of Trust on Job Performance in Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Nešić; Danijela Lalić

    2016-01-01

    In circumstances governed by consistent change in all aspects of business, trust represents a significant factor in the behavioural patterns of organisations. Of great importance for a successful communication in organisations is understanding the levels of trust among staff, employees and their management, and trust in the organisation itself. Trust is a cohesive and motivating factor in work groups. Also, based on trust are identification and commitment to the organisation, as well as the r...

  9. Interpersonal Trust across Six Asia-Pacific Countries: Testing and Extending the ‘High Trust Society’ and ‘Low Trust Society’ Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul R.; Mamerow, Loreen; Meyer, Samantha B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Trust is regarded as a necessary component for the smooth running of society, although societal and political modernising processes have been linked to an increase in mistrust, potentially signalling social and economic problems. Fukuyama developed the notion of ‘high trust’ and ‘low trust’ societies, as a way of understanding trust within different societies. The purpose of this paper is to empirically test and extend Fukuyama’s theory utilising data on interpersonal trust in Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Australia and Thailand. This paper focuses on trust in family, neighbours, strangers, foreigners and people with a different religion. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in 2009–10, with an overall sample of 6331. Analyses of differences in overall levels of trust between countries were undertaken using Chi square analyses. Multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to identify socio-demographic predictors of trust in each country. Results Our data indicate a tripartite trust model: ‘high trust’ in Australia and Hong Kong; ‘medium trust’ in Japan and Taiwan; and ‘low trust’ in South Korea and Thailand. Trust in family and neighbours were very high across all countries, although trust in people with a different religion, trust in strangers and trust in foreigners varied considerably between countries. The regression models found a consistent group of subpopulations with low trust across the countries: people on low incomes, younger people and people with poor self-rated health. The results were conflicting for gender: females had lower trust in Thailand and Hong Kong, although in Australia, males had lower trust in strangers, whereas females had lower trust in foreigners. Conclusion This paper identifies high, medium and low trust societies, in addition to high and low trusting population subgroups. Our analyses extend the seminal work of Fukuyama, providing both corroboration and

  10. Can one trust quantum simulators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauke, Philipp; Cucchietti, Fernando M; Tagliacozzo, Luca; Lewenstein, Maciej; Deutsch, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Various fundamental phenomena of strongly correlated quantum systems such as high-T c superconductivity, the fractional quantum-Hall effect and quark confinement are still awaiting a universally accepted explanation. The main obstacle is the computational complexity of solving even the most simplified theoretical models which are designed to capture the relevant quantum correlations of the many-body system of interest. In his seminal 1982 paper (Feynman 1982 Int. J. Theor. Phys. 21 467), Richard Feynman suggested that such models might be solved by ‘simulation’ with a new type of computer whose constituent parts are effectively governed by a desired quantum many-body dynamics. Measurements on this engineered machine, now known as a ‘quantum simulator,’ would reveal some unknown or difficult to compute properties of a model of interest. We argue that a useful quantum simulator must satisfy four conditions: relevance, controllability, reliability and efficiency. We review the current state of the art of digital and analog quantum simulators. Whereas so far the majority of the focus, both theoretically and experimentally, has been on controllability of relevant models, we emphasize here the need for a careful analysis of reliability and efficiency in the presence of imperfections. We discuss how disorder and noise can impact these conditions, and illustrate our concerns with novel numerical simulations of a paradigmatic example: a disordered quantum spin chain governed by the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. We find that disorder can decrease the reliability of an analog quantum simulator of this model, although large errors in local observables are introduced only for strong levels of disorder. We conclude that the answer to the question ‘Can we trust quantum simulators?’ is … to some extent. (key issues reviews)

  11. Can one trust quantum simulators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Philipp; Cucchietti, Fernando M.; Tagliacozzo, Luca; Deutsch, Ivan; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2012-08-01

    Various fundamental phenomena of strongly correlated quantum systems such as high-Tc superconductivity, the fractional quantum-Hall effect and quark confinement are still awaiting a universally accepted explanation. The main obstacle is the computational complexity of solving even the most simplified theoretical models which are designed to capture the relevant quantum correlations of the many-body system of interest. In his seminal 1982 paper (Feynman 1982 Int. J. Theor. Phys. 21 467), Richard Feynman suggested that such models might be solved by ‘simulation’ with a new type of computer whose constituent parts are effectively governed by a desired quantum many-body dynamics. Measurements on this engineered machine, now known as a ‘quantum simulator,’ would reveal some unknown or difficult to compute properties of a model of interest. We argue that a useful quantum simulator must satisfy four conditions: relevance, controllability, reliability and efficiency. We review the current state of the art of digital and analog quantum simulators. Whereas so far the majority of the focus, both theoretically and experimentally, has been on controllability of relevant models, we emphasize here the need for a careful analysis of reliability and efficiency in the presence of imperfections. We discuss how disorder and noise can impact these conditions, and illustrate our concerns with novel numerical simulations of a paradigmatic example: a disordered quantum spin chain governed by the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. We find that disorder can decrease the reliability of an analog quantum simulator of this model, although large errors in local observables are introduced only for strong levels of disorder. We conclude that the answer to the question ‘Can we trust quantum simulators?’ is … to some extent.

  12. Trust makers, breakers and brokers: building trust in the Australian food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Annabelle; Coveney, John; Henderson, Julie; Meyer, Samantha; Calnan, Michael; Caraher, Martin; Webb, Trevor; Elliott, Anthony; Ward, Paul

    2013-03-15

    The importance of consumer trust in the food supply has previously been identified, and dimensions of consumer trust in food-who they trust and the type of trust that they exhibit-has been explored. However, there is a lack of research about the mechanisms through which consumer trust in the food supply is developed, maintained, broken and repaired. This study seeks to address this gap by exploring if, and how, consumer trust in the food supply is considered by the media, food industry and governments when responding to food scares. The aim of the research is to develop models of trust building that can be implemented following food scares. Semi-structured interviews will be undertaken with media, public relations officials and policy makers in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Participants will be recruited through purposive sampling and will be asked to discuss a hypothetical case study outlining a food incident, and any experiences of specific food scares. Models of trust development, maintenance and repair will be developed from interview data. Comment on these models will be sought from experts in food-related organizations through a Delphi study, where participants will be asked to consider the usefulness of the models. Participants' comments will be used to revise the models until consensus is reached on the suitability and usability of the models. This study will contribute to the literature about systems-based trust, and explore trust as a social and regulatory process. The protocol and results will be of interest and use to the food industry, food regulators, consumer advocate groups, media seeking to report food-related issues and policy makers concerned with public health and consumer health and well-being. This research represents an important contribution to the translation of the theoretical conceptualizations of trust into practical use in the context of food.

  13. 25 CFR 115.815 - How does a tribe request trust funds from a tribal trust account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a tribe request trust funds from a tribal trust account? 115.815 Section 115.815 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS Tribal Accounts Withdrawing Tribal Trust Funds § 115.815 How does a tribe request trust...

  14. Public trust in Dutch health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straten, G F M; Friele, R D; Groenewegen, P P

    2002-07-01

    This article describes the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure different dimensions of public trust in health care in the Netherlands. This instrument is needed because the concept was not well developed, or operationalized in earlier research. The new instrument will be used in a research project to monitor trust and to predict behaviour of people such as consulting "alternative practitioners". The idea for the research was suggested by economic research into public trust. In the study, a phased design was used to overcome the operationalization problem. In the first phase, a qualitative study was conducted; and, in the second, a quantitative study. In the first phase, more than 100 people were interviewed to gain insight into the issues they associated with trust. Eight categories of issues that were derived from the interviews were assumed to be possible dimensions of trust. On the basis of these eight categories and the interviews, a questionnaire was developed that was used in the second phase. In this phase, the questionnaire was sent to 1500 members of a consumer panel; the response was 70 percent. The analysis reveals that six of the eight possible dimensions appear in factor analysis. These dimensions are trust in: the patient-focus of health care providers; macro policies level will have no consequences for patients; expertise of health care providers; quality of care; information supply and communication by care providers and the quality of cooperation. The reliability of most scales is higher than 0.8. The validity of the dimensions is assessed by determining the correlation between the scales on the one hand, and people's experience and a general mark they would assign on the other. We conclude that public trust is a multi-dimensional concept, including not only issues that relate to the patient-doctor relationship, but also issues that relate to health care institutions. The instrument appears to be reliable and valid.

  15. Fairness and Trust in Structured Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina E. Tarnita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Classical economic theory assumes that people are rational and selfish, but behavioral experiments often point to inconsistent behavior, typically attributed to “other regarding preferences.” The Ultimatum Game, used to study fairness, and the Trust Game, used to study trust and trustworthiness, have been two of the most influential and well-studied examples of inconsistent behavior. Recently, evolutionary biologists have attempted to explain the evolution of such preferences using evolutionary game theoretic models. While deterministic evolutionary game theoretic models agree with the classical economics predictions, recent stochastic approaches that include uncertainty and the possibility of mistakes have been successful in accounting for both the evolution of fairness and the evolution of trust. Here I explore the role of population structure by generalizing and expanding these existing results to the case of non-random interactions. This is a natural extension since such interactions do not occur randomly in the daily lives of individuals. I find that, in the limit of weak selection, population structure increases the space of fair strategies that are selected for but it has little-to-no effect on the optimum strategy played in the Ultimatum Game. In the Trust Game, in the limit of weak selection, I find that some amount of trust and trustworthiness can evolve even in a well-mixed population; however, the optimal strategy, although trusting if the return on investment is sufficiently high, is never trustworthy. Population structure biases selection towards strategies that are both trusting and trustworthy trustworthy and reduces the critical return threshold, but, much like in the case of fairness, it does not affect the winning strategy. Further considering the effects of reputation and structure, I find that they act synergistically to promote the evolution of trustworthiness.

  16. Perceptions of trust in physician-managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cregård, Anna; Eriksson, Nomie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the dual role of physician-managers through an examination of perceptions of trust and distrust in physician-managers. The healthcare sector needs physicians to lead. Physicians in part-time managerial positions who continue their medical practice are called part-time physician-managers. This paper explores this dual role through an examination of perceptions of trust and distrust in physician-managers. The study takes a qualitative research approach in which interviews and focus group discussions with physician-managers and nurse-managers provide the empirical data. An analytical model, with the three elements of ability, benevolence and integrity, was used in the analysis of trust and distrust in physician-managers. The respondents (physician-managers and nurse-managers) perceived both an increase and a decrease in physicians' trust in the physician-managers. Because elements of distrust were more numerous and more severe than elements of trust, the physician-managers received negative perceptions of their role. This paper's findings are based on perceptions of perceptions. The physicians were not interviewed on their trust and distrust of physician-managers. The healthcare sector must pay attention to the diverse expectations of the physician-manager role that is based on both managerial and medical logics. Hospital management should provide proper support to physician-managers in their dual role to ensure their willingness to continue to assume managerial responsibilities. The paper takes an original approach in its research into the dual role of physician-managers who work under two conflicting logics: the medical logic and the managerial logic. The focus on perceived trust and distrust in physician-managers is a new perspective on this complicated role.

  17. Trust and Fiduciary Relationships in Education: What Happens When Trust Is Breached?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, Elizabeth Mary

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines trust as a fundamental aspect of fiduciary relationships in education. The specific relationship under examination is that of academic employee and university employer. Both have the value of trust assigned to them as an implicit part of their social and professional contract. The setting is Australia, but the principles apply…

  18. Transparency and trust. An experimental study of online disclosure and trust in government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Transparency has been trumpeted by many as the key to trust in government. The assumption is that if government organisations open up and show the public what decisions are made, how they are made and what the results are, people will automatically have more trust in government. But does

  19. Trust in regulatory relations: how new insights from trust research improve regulation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, F.E.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory oversight is a key feature of public governance. This study argues - based on recent trust research - that the way in which the relation between trust and control is conceptualized in the dominant responsive regulation theory (RRT) may be improved using self determination theory (SDT).

  20. In Public Education Expenditures We Trust: Does Trust Increase Support for Public Education Expenditures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Nurullah; Boyaci, Israfil; Ozcan, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Trust is one crucial prerequisite for the welfare state. However, very few empirical studies exist that help us understand the mechanisms through which trust affects the welfare state. Influencing public support for developing friendly public policies might be one of these mechanisms. In this study, we use unique micro data from 34 countries to…

  1. Trust and memory: organizational strategies, institutional conditions and trust negotiations in specialty clinics for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Renée L

    2008-03-01

    Clinicians aim to establish trust during medical encounters because, without it, health consumers may not seek medical care, consider their diagnoses legitimate, or adhere to treatment regimens. This paper examines the identification and treatment of memory loss within two specialty clinics to understand how cultural dynamics, such as organizational ethos and work practices, influence the social fabric of cognitive evaluations. Ethnographic data suggest important historical and cultural differences in the approaches to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Organizational routines, however, support a common goal, that of moving individuals from "potential patients" to patients, and ultimately research subjects, through establishing trust. Although the processes through which trust is potentially achieved, or the social conditions of trust, were similar at the sites, the object of trust was different. Whereas one clinic encouraged trust in collective medical expertise, the other focused on trust in specific clinicians. These conditions affect the clinical consequences of trust, particularly how and when the diagnosis is delivered, use of the AD label and other terminology, and the level of standardization. The individual consequences include perceptions of patients and depictions of the prognosis. Whether cognitive impairment is viewed as a scientific puzzle to be solved or is seen as a chronic illness significantly shapes the organizational processes of clinical evaluation. Alzheimer's disease, as a cultural object, is a particularly salient exemplar of the clinical negotiation of ambiguous diagnostic categorizations and the unpredictable patient in daily biomedical practice.

  2. In Money we Trust? Trust Repair and the Psychology of Financial Compensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.T.M. Desmet (Pieter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDespite the importance of trust in economic relations, people often engage in behavior that may violate their interaction partner’s trust. Given that transgressions in economic relations often result in distributive harm for the victim (i.e. loss of economic resources), a common approach

  3. ComTrustO: Composite Trust-Based Ontology Framework for Information and Decision Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    11] presents a methodological approach for ontology management allowing development of extensible ontologies and the mapping from ontologies to...ComTrustO: Composite Trust-based Ontology Framework for Information and Decision Fusion Alessandro Oltramari Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh... ontology -based framework for information fusion, as a support system for human decision makers. In particular, we build upon the concept of composite

  4. Rethinking De-Perimeterisation: Problem Analysis And Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cleeff, A.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    For businesses, the traditional security approach is the hard-shell model: an organisation secures all its assets using a fixed security border, trusting the inside, and distrusting the outside. However, as technologies and business processes change, this model looses its attractiveness. In a

  5. Trust in health information websites: A systematic literature review on the antecedents of trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeolib

    2016-06-01

    Health websites are important sources of information for consumers. In choosing websites, trust in websites largely determines which website to access and how to best utilize the information. Thus, it is critical to understand why consumers trust certain websites and distrust others. A systematic literature review was conducted with the goal of identifying the antecedents of trust in health information websites. After four rounds of screening process, 20 articles between 2000 and 2013 were harvested. Factors that determine trust are classified into individual difference antecedents, website-related antecedents, and consumer-to-website interaction-related antecedents. The most frequently studied antecedents were socio-demographics, information quality, appearance, and perceived reputation of the website. Each antecedent of trust are discussed in detail and future research directions are proposed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. NASA's EOSDIS, Trust and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been in operation since August 1994, managing most of NASA's Earth science data from satellites, airborne sensors, filed campaigns and other activities. Having been designated by the Federal Government as a project responsible for production, archiving and distribution of these data through its Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), the Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS) is responsible for EOSDIS, and is legally bound by the Office of Management and Budgets circular A-130, the Federal Records Act. It must follow the regulations of the National Institute of Standards and Technologies (NIST) and National Archive and Records Administration (NARA). It must also follow the NASA Procedural Requirement 7120.5 (NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management). All these ensure that the data centers managed by ESDIS are trustworthy from the point of view of efficient and effective operations as well as preservation of valuable data from NASA's missions. Additional factors contributing to this trust are an extensive set of internal and external reviews throughout the history of EOSDIS starting in the early 1990s. Many of these reviews have involved external groups of scientific and technological experts. Also, independent annual surveys of user satisfaction that measure and publish the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), where EOSDIS has scored consistently high marks since 2004, provide an additional measure of trustworthiness. In addition, through an effort initiated in 2012 at the request of NASA HQ, the ESDIS Project and 10 of 12 DAACs have been certified by the International Council for Science (ICSU) World Data System (WDS) and are members of the ICSUWDS. This presentation addresses questions such as pros and cons of the certification process, key outcomes and next steps regarding certification. Recently, the ICSUWDS and Data Seal of Approval (DSA) organizations

  7. 25 CFR 1000.360 - Is the trust evaluation standard or process different when the trust asset is held in trust for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is the trust evaluation standard or process different when the trust asset is held in trust for an individual Indian or Indian allottee? 1000.360 Section 1000.360 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMEN...

  8. Rethinking priorities: experience of an educational initiative to change attitudes, behaviours and clinical practice in end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Annette; Barros D'Sa, Viv; Hicks, Fiona

    2017-05-08

    To implement the National End of Life Care strategy and enable more people to express and achieve their preferences about care at the end of life, senior clinicians outside palliative medicine need to make it a routine part of their practice. However, it is acknowledged that recognising that people are entering the last phase of their illness is not always straightforward, and having conversations about aims of treatment and planning for future care may not be easy. In order to begin to address these challenges, funding was sought from the Yorkshire and the Humber Strategic Health Authority (SHA), and subsequently Health Education England, Yorkshire and the Humber (HEEYH), to pilot a development programme in 2 acute trusts. 2 palliative medicine consultants shared the trainer role at each site, supporting hospital consultants from a range of specialties, with a GP to give a community perspective. The programme involved individual clinicians identifying their own learning needs and specific issues for end-of-life care in their patients. The group met together monthly in action learning sets to discuss issues in a safe yet challenging environment. Following evaluation using a combination of training needs analyses, feedback questionnaires, audits and service evaluations, it was modified slightly and repiloted in 2 further trusts as 'Rethinking Priorities'. This paper describes the programme and its outcomes, especially in relation to participants' learning, service development and leadership. It also highlights the challenges, including different learning styles, the concept of action learning, obtaining funding and dedicated time, and how to evaluate the effectiveness of a programme. Overall, it suggests that an educational initiative based on clinicians identifying their own learning needs, and using an action learning approach to explore issues with other colleagues, with the addition of some targeted sessions, can result in positive change in knowledge, behaviour

  9. The Impact of Trust on Job Performance in Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Nešić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In circumstances governed by consistent change in all aspects of business, trust represents a significant factor in the behavioural patterns of organisations. Of great importance for a successful communication in organisations is understanding the levels of trust among staff, employees and their management, and trust in the organisation itself. Trust is a cohesive and motivating factor in work groups. Also, based on trust are identification and commitment to the organisation, as well as the relationships of employees. In successful organisations special attention is given to the problems of trust and mistrust. This work considers different theoretical concepts of how trust is created and maintained in organisations, different dimensions of organisational trust, as well as the effects of trust in organisational performance.

  10. Power decreases trust in social exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S

    2015-10-20

    How does lacking vs. possessing power in a social exchange affect people's trust in their exchange partner? An answer to this question has broad implications for a number of exchange settings in which dependence plays an important role. Here, we report on a series of experiments in which we manipulated participants' power position in terms of structural dependence and observed their trust perceptions and behaviors. Over a variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that more powerful actors place less trust in others than less powerful actors do. Our results contradict predictions by rational actor models, which assume that low-power individuals are able to anticipate that a more powerful exchange partner will place little value on the relationship with them, thus tends to behave opportunistically, and consequently cannot be trusted. Conversely, our results support predictions by motivated cognition theory, which posits that low-power individuals want their exchange partner to be trustworthy and then act according to that desire. Mediation analyses show that, consistent with the motivated cognition account, having low power increases individuals' hope and, in turn, their perceptions of their exchange partners' benevolence, which ultimately leads them to trust.

  11. Introduction to Hardware Security and Trust

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Cliff

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of a globalized, horizontal semiconductor business model raises a set of concerns involving the security and trust of the information systems on which modern society is increasingly reliant for mission-critical functionality. Hardware-oriented security and trust issues span a broad range including threats related to the malicious insertion of Trojan circuits designed, e.g.,to act as a ‘kill switch’ to disable a chip, to integrated circuit (IC) piracy,and to attacks designed to extract encryption keys and IP from a chip. This book provides the foundations for understanding hardware security and trust, which have become major concerns for national security over the past decade.  Coverage includes security and trust issues in all types of electronic devices and systems such as ASICs, COTS, FPGAs, microprocessors/DSPs, and embedded systems.  This serves as an invaluable reference to the state-of-the-art research that is of critical significance to the security of,and trust in, modern society�...

  12. Trusted Operations on Sensor Data †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassaan Janjua

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of mobile devices has allowed the development of participatory sensing systems that capture various types of data using the existing or external sensors attached to mobile devices. Gathering data from such anonymous sources requires a mechanism to establish the integrity of sensor readings. In many cases, sensor data need to be preprocessed on the device itself before being uploaded to the target server while ensuring the chain of trust from capture to the delivery of the data. This can be achieved by a framework that provides a means to implement arbitrary operations to be performed on trusted sensor data, while guaranteeing the security and integrity of the data. This paper presents the design and implementation of a framework that allows the capture of trusted sensor data from both external and internal sensors on a mobile phone along with the development of trusted operations on sensor data while providing a mechanism for performing predefined operations on the data such that the chain of trust is maintained. The evaluation shows that the proposed system ensures the security and integrity of sensor data with minimal performance overhead.

  13. Measuring Institutional Trust: Evidence from Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Devon Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Institutional trust is often measured by several items that are analyzed individually or as sum-scores. However, it is difficult to summarize the results of individual-items analyses, whereas sum-scores may be meaningless if the dimensions that the items are assumed to measure are not verified. Although these limitations are circumvented by using factor analysis, response styles may still bias research results. We use data from Guyana to show that a second-order factor model is appropriate for measuring institutional trust. We also demonstrate that response styles can inflate item and factor convergent validity and may either distort regression effects or create completely spurious ones. We therefore recommend using factor models with corrections for response styles in institutional trust research instead of sum-scores and individual-items analyses.

  14. Sino-U.S. Strategic Mutual Trust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Peng; Zhang Yimeng

    2008-01-01

    Relations between China and the U.S. have been relatively stable for nearly seven years, for the first time since the end of the Cold War. Strategic mutual trust, however, is not enough and there is a long way to go before both countries can achieve a permanent strategic stability. Four problems have prevented stability in bilateral relations, namely structural, internal, accidental, and cognitive issues. The goal of building strategic mutual trust still remains distant, and developing a good understanding between each other is the thorniest problem for both countries. Better mutual understanding can lead to an expansion of bilateral relations. China and the U.S. need to increase mutual trust and work towards achieving strategic stability.

  15. Communicating Trust Between Parents and Their Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Ravn, Signe

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how Danish parents and their children communicate trust. Based on Niklas Luhmann’s sociological theory, the article explores new aspects of communication about alcohol-related rules. The analysis shows how the parents emphasize the importance of communicating trust, while...... the adolescents, on the other hand, observe the parents’ communication on the basis of their own, more instrumental, logic. Trust becomes a functional solution to the parents’ paradoxical situation, because it enables them to balance between a democratic family ideal, emphasizing the adolescents’ independence......, while taking care of risk behavior. The article draws on Danish qualitative data comprising 37 focus group interviews with adolescents (14-16 years of age) and six focus group interviews with parents....

  16. Distributed Trust Management for Validating SLA Choreographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Irfan Ul; Alnemr, Rehab; Paschke, Adrian; Schikuta, Erich; Boley, Harold; Meinel, Christoph

    For business workflow automation in a service-enriched environment such as a grid or a cloud, services scattered across heterogeneous Virtual Organizations (VOs) can be aggregated in a producer-consumer manner, building hierarchical structures of added value. In order to preserve the supply chain, the Service Level Agreements (SLAs) corresponding to the underlying choreography of services should also be incrementally aggregated. This cross-VO hierarchical SLA aggregation requires validation, for which a distributed trust system becomes a prerequisite. Elaborating our previous work on rule-based SLA validation, we propose a hybrid distributed trust model. This new model is based on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and reputation-based trust systems. It helps preventing SLA violations by identifying violation-prone services at service selection stage and actively contributes in breach management at the time of penalty enforcement.

  17. Redefining genomic privacy: trust and empowerment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Erlich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fulfilling the promise of the genetic revolution requires the analysis of large datasets containing information from thousands to millions of participants. However, sharing human genomic data requires protecting subjects from potential harm. Current models rely on de-identification techniques in which privacy versus data utility becomes a zero-sum game. Instead, we propose the use of trust-enabling techniques to create a solution in which researchers and participants both win. To do so we introduce three principles that facilitate trust in genetic research and outline one possible framework built upon those principles. Our hope is that such trust-centric frameworks provide a sustainable solution that reconciles genetic privacy with data sharing and facilitates genetic research.

  18. Redefining genomic privacy: trust and empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Yaniv; Williams, James B; Glazer, David; Yocum, Kenneth; Farahany, Nita; Olson, Maynard; Narayanan, Arvind; Stein, Lincoln D; Witkowski, Jan A; Kain, Robert C

    2014-11-01

    Fulfilling the promise of the genetic revolution requires the analysis of large datasets containing information from thousands to millions of participants. However, sharing human genomic data requires protecting subjects from potential harm. Current models rely on de-identification techniques in which privacy versus data utility becomes a zero-sum game. Instead, we propose the use of trust-enabling techniques to create a solution in which researchers and participants both win. To do so we introduce three principles that facilitate trust in genetic research and outline one possible framework built upon those principles. Our hope is that such trust-centric frameworks provide a sustainable solution that reconciles genetic privacy with data sharing and facilitates genetic research.

  19. Modelling Users` Trust in Online Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacob Cătoiu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies (McKnight, Lankton and Tripp, 2011; Liao, Lui and Chen, 2011 have shown the crucial role of trust when choosing to disclose sensitive information online. This is the case of online social networks users, who must disclose a certain amount of personal data in order to gain access to these online services. Taking into account privacy calculus model and the risk/benefit ratio, we propose a model of users’ trust in online social networks with four variables. We have adapted metrics for the purpose of our study and we have assessed their reliability and validity. We use a Partial Least Squares (PLS based structural equation modelling analysis, which validated all our initial assumptions, indicating that our three predictors (privacy concerns, perceived benefits and perceived risks explain 48% of the variation of users’ trust in online social networks, the resulting variable of our study. We also discuss the implications and further research opportunities of our study.

  20. Wireless next generation networks a virtue-based trust model

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief proposes a trust model motivated by virtue epistemology, addressing the need for a more efficient and flexible trust model for wireless next generation networks. This theory of trust simplifies the computation and communication overhead of strictly cognitive-computational models of trust. Both the advantages and the challenges of virtue-based trust models are discussed. This brief offers new research and a general theory of rationality that enables users to interpret trust and reason as complementary mechanisms that guide our rational conduct at two different epistemic level