WorldWideScience

Sample records for restraint test plates

  1. Effect of mechanical restraint on weldability of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel thick plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serizawa, Hisashi, E-mail: serizawa@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nakamura, Shinichiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suite, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Manabu; Kawahito, Yousuke [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakita, Shirane, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Katayama, Seiji [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    As one of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, the weldability of thick F82H plate was experimentally examined using new heat sources in order to minimize the total heat input energy in comparison with TIG welding. A full penetration of 32 mm thick plate could be produced as a combination of a 12 mm deep first layer generated by a 10 kW fiber laser beam and upper layers deposited by a plasma MIG hybrid welding with Ar + 2%O shielding gas. Also, the effect of mechanical restraint on the weldability under EB welding of thick F82H plate was studied by using FEM to select an appropriate specimen size for the basic test. The appropriate and minimum size for the basic test of weldability under EB welding of 90 mm thick plate might be 200 mm in length and 400 mm in width where the welding length should be about 180 mm.

  2. Frontal Sled Tests Comparing Rear and Forward Facing Child Restraints with 1–3 Year Old Dummies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, C. P.; Crandall, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads. PMID:18184491

  3. Frontal sled tests comparing rear and forward facing child restraints with 1-3 year old dummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads.

  4. Experimental research of error restraint for dynamic interferometer in optical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Linna; Yu, Yingjie

    2015-02-01

    Phase shifting interferometry is commonly used in precision optical surface measurement, but which possesses some limitation because of the sensitivity to environment. Therefore, it is hardly used in optical testing in the workshop environment. Thus, the instantaneous interferometry is a good choice because of the insensitive to vibration. This paper will describe an instantaneous interferometry utilizing spatial carrier and Fourier transform, and discuss the accuracy of the interferometer for optical testing when phase-shifting interferometry is unable to realize the precision measurement. With a lot of experiments, some problems were analyzed, including the relationships between the measurement accuracy and systematic error, vibration, temperature, the test surface cleanliness and so on. The discussed work of error restraint can provide a reference for the instantaneous interferometry applications.

  5. Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Kirk R.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

  6. Effect of restraint stress on nociceptive responses in rats: role of the histaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibironke, G F; Mordi, N E

    2011-12-20

    Stress induced analgesia (SIA) is well known, but the reverse phenomenon, hyperalgesia is poorly documented. This study investigated the role of the histaminergic system in restraint stress hyperalgesia in rats, using thermal stimulation method (hot plate and tail flick tests). Paw licking and tail withdrawal latencies were taken before and after restraint for about one hour. Significant decreases (p<0.05) were obtained in these latencies after the restraint in both tests. Administration of H1 and H2 receptor blockers, chlorpheniramine and cimetidine respectively 30 mins before the restraint still resulted in significant reductions (p<0.05) in these latencies, connoting the persistence of hyperalgesia, showing that histamine H1 and H2 receptors did not participate in the mechanism of restraint stress hyperalgesia. We therefore suggest a histaminergic independent mechanism for restraint stress induced hyperalgesia.

  7. Orion Boiler Plate Airdrop Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Ricardo A.; Evans, Carol T.

    2013-01-01

    On the 29th of February 2012 the Orion Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project attempted to perform an airdrop test of a boilerplate test article for the second time. The first attempt (Cluster Development Test 2, July 2008) to deliver a similar boilerplate from a C-17 using the Low Velocity Air Drop (LVAD) technique resulted in the programmer parachute failing to properly inflate, the test article failing to achieve the desired test initiation conditions, and the test article a total loss. This paper will pick up where the CDT-2 failure investigation left off, describing the test technique that was adopted, and outline the modeling that was performed to gain confidence that the second attempt would be successful. The second boiler plate test (Cluster Development Test 3-3) was indeed a complete success and has subsequently been repeated several times, allowing the CPAS project to proceed with the full scale system level development testing required to integrate the hardware to the first Entry Flight Test vehicle as well as go into the Critical Design Review with minimum risk and a mature design.

  8. 76 FR 13620 - Opportunity to Partner; Testing of Patient Compartment Seating and Restraints to Proposed Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... capabilities and level of proposed participation to Jim Green at JGreen@cdc.gov . Letters of interest must be... manufacture, rental of appropriate test manikins, instrumentation related to the litter, manikin, and sled... redesign and manufacture for phase 2 and 3 testing would be borne by the manufacturer partner(s). Each...

  9. The design, fabrication and delivery of a manipulator foot restraint mockup for space telescope development testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) is a subsystem of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) which plays a major role in servicing the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in orbit. Flight drawings were used to construct the MFR to guarantee that the mockup components were functionally equivalent to the flight MFR. Material surface finishes and tolerances that were compatible to the Neutral Buoyance Simulator (NBS) environment were used. Recommendation for improvements are discussed.

  10. Tests of a Novel Design of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, B; Freund, B; Neubüser, C; Onel, Y; Repond, J; Schlereth, J; Xia, L

    2015-01-01

    A novel design of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), using only a single resistive plate, is being proposed. Based on this design, two large size prototype chambers were constructed and were tested with cosmic rays and in particle beams. The tests confirmed the viability of this new approach. In addition to showing an improved single-particle response compared to the traditional 2-plate design, the novel chambers also prove to be suitable for calorimetric applications.

  11. Quantitative tests for plate tectonics on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaula, W. M.; Phillips, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative comparisons are made between the characteristics of plate tectonics on the earth and those which are possible on Venus. Considerations of the factors influencing rise height and relating the decrease in rise height to plate velocity indicate that the rate of topographic dropoff from spreading centers should be about half that on earth due to greater rock-fluid density contrast and lower temperature differential between the surface and interior. Statistical analyses of Pioneer Venus radar altimetry data and global earth elevation data is used to identify 21,000 km of ridge on Venus and 33,000 km on earth, and reveal Venus ridges to have a less well-defined mode in crest heights and a greater concavity than earth ridges. Comparison of the Venus results with the spreading rates and associated heat flow on earth reveals plate creation rates on Venus to be 0.7 sq km/year or less and indicates that not more than 15% of Venus's energy is delivered to the surface by plate tectonics, in contrast to values of 2.9 sq km a year and 70% for earth.

  12. C6 plate puncture testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangoethem, Douglas J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cordova, Theresa Elena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reu, Phillip L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-04-01

    There are numerous scenarios where critical systems could be subject to penetration by projectiles or fixed objects (e.g., collision, natural disaster, act of terrorism, etc.). It is desired to use computational models to examine these scenarios and make risk-informed decisions; however, modeling of material failure is an active area of research, and new models must be validated with experimental data. The purpose of this report is to document the experimental work performed from FY07 through FY08 on the Campaign Six Plate Puncture project. The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data on the puncture and penetration of metal plates for use in model validation. Of particular interest is the PLH failure model also known as the multilinear line segment model. A significant amount of data that will be useful for the verification and validation of computational models of ductile failure were collected during this project were collected and documented herein; however, much more work remains to be performed, collecting additional experimental data that will further the task of model verification.

  13. Chronic exercise prevents repeated restraint stress-provoked enhancement of immobility in forced swimming test in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Jang-Kyu; Leem, Yea-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    We assessed whether chronic treadmill exercise attenuated the depressive phenotype induced by restraint stress in ovariectomized mice (OVX). Immobility of OVX in the forced swimming test was comparable to that of sham mice (CON) regardless of the postoperative time. Immobility was also no difference between restrained mice (exposure to periodic restraint for 21 days; RST) and control mice (CON) on post-exposure 2nd and 9th day, but not 15th day. In contrast, the immobility of ovariectomized mice with repeated stress (OVX + RST) was profoundly enhanced compared to ovariectomized mice-alone (OVX), and this effect was reversed by chronic exercise (19 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks; OVX + RST + Ex) or fluoxetine administration (20 mg/kg, OVX + RST + Flu). In parallel with behavioral data, the immunoreactivity of Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) in OVX was significantly decreased by repeated stress. However, the reduced numbers of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells in OVX + RST were restored in response to chronic exercise (OVX + RST + Ex) and fluoxetine (OVX + RST + Flu). In addition, the expression pattern of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV) was similar to that of the hippocampal proliferation and neurogenesis markers (Ki-67 and DCX, respectively). These results suggest that menopausal depression may be induced by an interaction between repeated stress and low hormone levels, rather than a deficit in ovarian secretion alone, which can be improved by chronic exercise.

  14. Noninvasive prenatal testing for fetal aneuploidy: clinical assessment and a plea for restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Mary E; Rose, Nancy C; Benn, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The recent introduction of clinical tests to detect fetal aneuploidy by analysis of cell-free DNA in maternal plasma represents a tremendous advance in prenatal diagnosis and the culmination of many years of effort by researchers in the field. The development of noninvasive prenatal testing for clinical application by commercial industry has allowed much faster introduction into clinical care, yet also presents some challenges regarding education of patients and health care providers struggling to keep up with developments in this rapidly evolving area. It is important that health care providers recognize that the test is not diagnostic; rather, it represents a highly sensitive and specific screening test that should be expected to result in some false-positive and false-negative diagnoses. Although currently being integrated in some settings as a primary screening test for women at high risk of fetal aneuploidy, from a population perspective, a better option for noninvasive prenatal testing may be as a second-tier test for those patients who screen positive by conventional aneuploidy screening. How noninvasive prenatal testing will ultimately fit with the current prenatal testing algorithms remains to be determined. True cost-utility analyses will be needed to determine the actual clinical efficacy of this approach in the general prenatal population.

  15. Characterization of Rubbers from Spherical Punch - Plate Indentation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Carmen Ciornei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubber plates with different compositions and hardness were tested by continuous indentation, using a spherical punch and hysteretic phenomenon was evidenced. The experimental data interpolation with polynomial functions is accurate and permits estimation of the lost work during loading cycles. The interpolation by power law functions is more convenient by using less parameters and having a form accepted in literature. From the rubbers tested, two were considered to present good damping properties.

  16. Mechanical restraint in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jesper; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Sestoft, Dorte Maria;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine how potential mechanical restraint preventive factors in hospitals are associated with the frequency of mechanical restraint episodes. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study employed a retrospective association design, and linear regression was used to assess the associations. FINDING...

  17. Physical Restraint in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Peterson, Reece L.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on educating children in the least restrictive environment has resulted in the use of physical restraint procedures across all educational placement settings, including public schools. Since its initial use, restraint has been controversial. Professionals who use physical restraint claim that it is necessary to safely manage…

  18. Color-discrimination threshold determination using pseudoisochromatic test plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiva eJurasevska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We produced a set of pseudoisochromatic plates for determining individual color-difference thresholds to assess test performance and test properties, and analyzed the results. We report a high test validity and classification ability for the deficiency type and severity level (comparable to that of the fourth edition of the Hardy–Rand–Rittler (HRR test. We discuss changes of the acceptable chromatic shifts from the protan and deutan confusion lines along the CIE xy diagram, and the high correlation of individual color-difference thresholds and the red–green discrimination index. Color vision was tested using an Oculus HMC anomaloscope, a Farnsworth D15, and an HRR test on 273 schoolchildren, and 57 other subjects with previously diagnosed red–green color-vision deficiency.

  19. 76 FR 13621 - Opportunity to Partner; Testing of Patient Litters and Patient Restraints to Proposed Test Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... participation to Jim Green at JGreen@cdc.gov . Letters of interest must be received by April 25, 2011... manufacture, rental of appropriate test manikins, instrumentation related to the litter, manikin, and sled... redesign and manufacture for phase 2 and 3 testing would be borne by the manufacturer partner(s). Each...

  20. Development of an Integrated Test Bench for Automotive Occupant Restraint System%汽车乘员约束系统综合试验台的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白中浩; 徐正; 颜强; 张前斌

    2013-01-01

    Based on regulations both at home and abroad for the strength test of automotive seats and safety belt anchorage, an integrated test bench for occupant restraint system is developed, with which the tests of seat stiffness , safety belt anchorage strength and the performance of head-rest can be conducted. A FE model of the master frame of test bench is built and its strength is analyzed with software ANSYS. The control system of test bench is developed by using virtual instrument technology, and the strength test of seats assembly and safety belt anchorage are performed on the test bench. The results demonstrate that the test bed developed can meet the requirements of relevant test regulations and can be used for the research and development of automotive occupant restraint system.%基于国内外汽车座椅和安全带固定点强度试验法规,开发了可同时进行座椅刚度、安全带固定点强度测试和头枕性能等测试的乘员约束系统综合试验台.采用ANSYS软件建立了试验台主台架的有限元模型对主台架进行强度分析;应用虚拟仪器技术开发了该试验台的控制系统,并利用该试验台进行了座椅总成静强度试验和安全带固定点强度试验.结果表明,该试验台能满足相关试验法规的要求,可用于对乘员约束系统的研究和开发.

  1. Endurance test for mini-plate fuel rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Heung June; Yang, Sun Kyu; Park, Jong Man; Kim, Chang Kyu; Ryu, Jeong Soo

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for mini-plate fuel rig which were designed by KAERI and fabricated by Daewoo Precision Co. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow velocity across the fuel rig corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 6.78 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the fuel rig ranges from 14 to 19 Hz. RMZ (Root Mean Square) displacement for the fuel rig is less than 7 {mu}m, and the maximum displacement is less than 20 {mu}m. Based on the endurance rest results, the appreciable fretting wear for the fuel rig is not observed but the small amount of wear was observed at the interface region between the mini-plates and upper housing cap as well as at the slot regions of a bottom endplate interfacing with the bottom guide arms. (author). 4 refs., 10 tabs., 33 figs.

  2. [Physical restraint and procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vyvere, A; Dumont, C

    2013-09-01

    The widespread practice of physical restraint of the elderly has used in most case in order to protect elders against injuries after falls or to manage behaviour agitation during delirium for example. However, "protect" isn't correct because of the adverse effects have been reported as falls increase, pressures sores, depression, aggression and death. In fact, efficacy of restraints for safeguarding patients from injury has not been demonstrated clinically. This paper reviews the current medico-legal knowledge regarding physical restraint use in this frail population and suggests some considerations about ethical practice and procedure evaluation.

  3. An adjustable parallel-plate capacitor instrument—Test of the theoretical capacitance formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Beau; Baker, Emily; Farwell, Austin; Foster, Harrison; Gao, Xiaohan; Gruber, Benjamin; Jones, Erica; Vu, Dennis; Xu, Sonya; Ye, Jingbo

    2016-09-01

    We describe an adjustable parallel-plate capacitor apparatus designed for use in an undergraduate laboratory that permits precise variation of plate separation distances and overlap area. Two experiments are performed with the device to test the ideal capacitor formula derived from Gauss's Law. After correcting for edge effects and minor plate tilt, the device yields capacitance values within 3% of theoretical values.

  4. Tests of the Aversive Summation Hypothesis in Rats: Effects of Restraint Stress on Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast and Extinction in the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Leonardo A.; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A.; Cardenas-Poveda, D. Carolina; McLinden, Kristina A.; Glueck, Amanda C.; Gutierrez, German; Lamprea, Marisol R.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    The present research explored the effects of restraint stress on two situations involving incentive downshift: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and extinction of escape behavior in the Barnes maze. First, Experiment 1 confirmed that the restraint stress procedure used in these experiments increased levels of circulating…

  5. Physical restraint and procedure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van de Vyvere, A; Dumont, C

    2013-01-01

    The widespread practice of physical restraint of the elderly has used in most case in order to protect elders against injuries after falls or to manage behaviour agitation during delirium for example...

  6. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    ’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through......Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  7. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...... the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature...

  8. Is plate tectonis withstanding the test of time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Shields

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the theory of plate tectonics was first proposed thirty years ago, some problems have arisen in its practical application. These call into question its fundamental assumptions of horizontal plate motion, hotspot fixity, true polar wander, Panthalassa, and the Earth’s constant size while leaving seafloor spreading and subduction intact. A rapidity expanding earth solves these problems and privides an alternative viewpoint worth reconsidering.

  9. A novel hot-plate test sensitive to hyperalgesic stimuli and non-opioid analgesics

    OpenAIRE

    T.R. Lavich; Cordeiro, R S B; Silva,P.M.R.; M.A. Martins

    2005-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the classical constant-temperature hot-plate test is insensitive to cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In the current study, we developed a variant of the hot-plate test procedure (modified hot-plate (MHP) test) to measure inflammatory nociception in freely moving rats and mice. Following left and right hind paw stimulation with a phlogogen and vehicle, respectively, the animals were placed individually on a hot-plate surface at 51ºC and the withdrawal latency for each paw ...

  10. Ridge-spotting: A new test for Pacific absolute plate motion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Paul; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-06-01

    Relative plate motions provide high-resolution descriptions of motions of plates relative to other plates. Yet geodynamically, motions of plates relative to the mantle are required since such motions can be attributed to forces (e.g., slab pull and ridge push) acting upon the plates. Various reference frames have been proposed, such as the hot spot reference frame, to link plate motions to a mantle framework. Unfortunately, both accuracy and precision of absolute plate motion models lag behind those of relative plate motion models. Consequently, it is paramount to use relative plate motions in improving our understanding of absolute plate motions. A new technique called "ridge-spotting" combines absolute and relative plate motions and examines the viability of proposed absolute plate motion models. We test the method on six published Pacific absolute plate motions models, including fixed and moving hot spot models as well as a geodynamically derived model. Ridge-spotting reconstructs the Pacific-Farallon and Pacific-Antarctica ridge systems over the last 80 Myr. All six absolute plate motion models predict large amounts of northward migration and monotonic clockwise rotation for the Pacific-Farallon ridge. A geodynamic implication of our ridge migration predictions is that the suggestion that the Pacific-Farallon ridge may have been pinned by a large mantle upwelling is not supported. Unexpected or erratic ridge behaviors may be tied to limitations in the models themselves or (for Indo-Atlantic models) discrepancies in the plate circuits used to project models into the Pacific realm. Ridge-spotting is promising and will be extended to include more plates and other ocean basins.

  11. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  12. Special Purpose Crew Restraints for Teleoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina; Norris, Lena

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), and long duration space missions being planned for the moon and Mars, humans will be living and working in microgravity over increasingly long periods of time. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility, and access to the activity area. These challenges can result in prolonged periods of unnatural postures for the crew, ultimately causing pain, injury, and loss of productivity. Determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment is crucial to mission success. While a number of general purpose restraints have been used on ISS (handrails, foot loops), experience has shown that these general purpose restraints may not be optimal, or even acceptable for some tasks that have unique requirements. For example, some onboard activities require extreme stability (e.g., glovebox microsurgery), and others involve the use of arm, torso and foot movements in order to perform the task (e-g. robotic teleoperation); standard restraint systems will not work in these situations. The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (WAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center began evaluations of crew restraints for these special situations by looking at NASAs Robonaut. Developed by the Robot Systems Technology Branch, Robonaut is a humanoid robot that can be remotely operated through a tetepresence control system by an operator. It was designed to perform work in hazardous environments (e.g., Extra Vehicular Activities). A Robonaut restraint was designed, modeled for the population, and ultimately tested onboard the KC-135 microgravity aircraft. While in microgravity, participants were asked to get in and out of the restraint from different locations, perform maximum reach exercises, and finally to teleoperate Robonaut while in the restraint. The sessions were videotaped

  13. Test Method for High β Particle Emission Rate of 63Ni Source Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Li-feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of measurement difficulties of β particle emission rate of Ni-63 source plate used for Ni-63 betavoltaic battery, a relative test method of scintillation current method was erected according to the measurement principle of scintillation detector.β particle emission rate of homemade Ni-63 source plate was tested by the method, and the test results were analysed and evaluated, it was initially thought that scintillation current method was a feasible way of testing β particle emission rate of Ni-63 source plate with high β particle emission rate.

  14. 75 FR 67233 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Head Restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Positions b. Leadtime for Small Vehicle Manufacturers c. Static Lockout of Active Head Restraints During.... Petitions for Rulemaking a. Discomfort Metric for Non-Use Position and Relaxation Requirement for Gap b... of Active Head Restraints During Backset Retention Testing 1. NHTSA Agrees To Specify the Fixation...

  15. The Physical Restraint Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Joseph K.

    2000-01-01

    Professional and government committees are examining use of physical restraints with troubled youth as a result of reports of problems with its use. Examples of what is being done to improve practice standards in area of crisis intervention include limiting how often restrictive procedures can be use; stating the technique must never negatively…

  16. Seat belt restraint system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, A.; Matsuhiro, D.

    1972-01-01

    Shoulder-harness and lap-belt restraint system was designed to be worn by individuals of widely different sizes and to permit normal body motion except under sudden deceleration. System is divided into two basic assemblies, lap belt and torso or shoulder harness. Inertia-activated reels immediately lock when seat experiences sudden deceleration.

  17. Nonstructural seismic restraint guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, D.M.; Czapinski, R.H.; Firneno, M.J.; Feemster, H.C.; Fornaciari, N.R.; Hillaire, R.G.; Kinzel, R.L.; Kirk, D.; McMahon, T.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Nonstructural Seismic Restraint Guidelines provide general information about how to secure or restrain items (such as material, equipment, furniture, and tools) in order to prevent injury and property, environmental, or programmatic damage during or following an earthquake. All SNL sites may experience earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 or higher on the Richter scale. Therefore, these guidelines are written for all SNL sites.

  18. Methods for testing Zernike phase plates and a report on silicon-based phase plates with reduced charging and improved ageing characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Michael; Meng, Xing; Hsieh, Chyongere; Roussie, James; Striemer, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Imaging with Zernike phase plates is increasingly being used in cryo-TEM tomography and cryo-EM single-particle applications. However, rapid ageing of the phase plates, together with the cost and effort in producing them, present serious obstacles to widespread adoption. We are experimenting with phase plates based on silicon chips that have thin windows; such phase plates could be mass-produced and made available at moderate cost. The windows are coated with conductive layers to reduce charging, and this considerably extends the useful life of the phase plates compared to traditional pure-carbon phase plates. However, a compromise must be reached between robustness and transmission through the phase-plate film. Details are given on testing phase-plate performance by means of imaging an amorphous thin film and evaluating the power spectra of the images.

  19. Antidepressant-like activity of sildenafil following acute and subchronic treatment in the forced swim test in mice: effects of restraint stress and monoamine depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Pieróg, Mateusz; Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Wyska, Elżbieta; Wlaź, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    Sildenafil is a highly effective oral agent for the treatment of erectile dysfunction of multiple etiologies. Although in clinical practice sildenafil is often used in depressed patients, its influence on the pathophysiology of depression remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like activity following acute and subchronic treatment with sildenafil in naïve mice as well as in mice with reserpine- and restraint stress-induced depressive-like behavior. Since corticosterone is released in response to acute stress, we also aimed to assess the influence of sildenafil on serum corticosterone level in non-stressed and stressed animals. The antidepressant activity of sildenafil was assessed in the forced swim test. Corticosterone serum level was determined by using ELISA method, while brain and serum sildenafil level via HPLC method. Sildenafil administered acutely exerted an antidepressant-like effect. Subchronic (14 days) administration of sildenafil resulted only in a weak antidepressant-like effect when evaluated 24 h after the last dose. Acute but not subchronic sildenafil administration reversed the reserpine- and stress-induced immobility in the forced swim test. The lack of effects of sildenafil after subchronic treatment could have been related to its complete elimination from the brain within 24 h from the last injection. Interestingly, acute administration of sildenafil produced a marked increase in serum corticosterone level in both non-stressed and stressed animals. Sildenafil exerts differential effects in the forced swim test after acute and subchronic administration. Further studies on the antidepressant activity of sildenafil are required.

  20. Cosmic ray tests of large area Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    An, S; Kim, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A; Zuyeuski, R

    2007-01-01

    We have built Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) with six gas gaps and an active area of . The signals are generated on 2.5 cm wide copper pickup strips; these are read out at each end thus allowing the position of the hit along the strip to be obtained from the time difference. Using three of these chambers we have set up a cosmic tracking system in a similar manner as planned for the Extreme Energy Events (EEE) project. The details of the set-up are presented in this paper. In addition we discuss the time and position resolution of these MRPCs measured using cosmic rays.

  1. Brownian motion of a charged test particle in vacuum between two conducting plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongwei; Chen, Jun

    2004-12-01

    The Brownian motion of a charged test particle caused by quantum electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations between two perfectly conducting plates is examined and the mean squared fluctuations in the velocity and position of the test particle are calculated. Our results show that the Brownian motion in the direction normal to the plates is reinforced in comparison to that in the single plate case. The effective temperature associated with this normal Brownian motion could be three times as large as that in the single plate case. However, the negative dispersions for the velocity and position in the longitudinal directions, which could be interpreted as reducing the quantum uncertainties of the particle, acquire positive corrections due to the presence of the second plate, and are thus weakened.

  2. Brownian motion of a charged test particle in vacuum between two conducting plates

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, H; Yu, Hongwei; Chen, Jun

    2004-01-01

    The Brownian motion of a charged test particle caused by quantum electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations between two perfectly conducting plates is examined and the mean squared fluctuations in the velocity and position of the test particle are calculated. Our results show that the Brownian motion in the direction normal to the plates is reinforced in comparison to that in the single-plate case. The effective temperature associated with this normal Brownian motion could be three times as large as that in the single-plate case. However, the negative dispersions for the velocity and position in the longitudinal directions, which could be interpreted as reducing the quantum uncertainties of the particle, acquire positive corrections due to the presence of the second plate, and are thus weakened.

  3. Evaluating the Effects of Restraint Systems on 4WD Testing Methodologies: A Collaborative Effort between the NVFEL and ANL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testing vehicles for emissions and fuel economy has traditionally been conducted with a single-axle chassis dynamometer. The 2006 SAE All Wheel Drive Symposium cited four wheel drive (4WD) and all wheel drive (AWD) sales as climbing from 20% toward 30% of a motor vehicle mar...

  4. 78 FR 33132 - Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test... Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test Reactors.'' This guide... plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements used in research and test reactors (RTRs). ADDRESSES: Please...

  5. Individualized music--a different approach to the restraint issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janelli, Linda M; Kanski, Genevieve W; Wu, Yow-Wu Bill

    2002-01-01

    Rehabilitation nurses who work with geriatric patients are concerned about reliance on physical restraints, as are all nurses. Controversy exists as to the benefits and risks, as well as the ethical and legal consequences, of their use. Nurses are ambivalent about using restraints, believing that they affect patients' freedom, self-respect, and self-reliance; they also often believe that there are no appropriate alternatives. This pilot study explored the use of music as a potential alternative to using physical restraints with hospitalized patients. The research question was: Will patients have more positive behaviors, as measured by the Restraint Music Response Instrument (RMRI), while out of restraints and listening to preferred music compared with the patients not listening to music who are out of restraints while being observed? Forty medical-surgical patients participated in the study and were randomized into either the experimental group (music) or the control group (no music). The mean age of the 21 males and 19 females was 76.6 years (range 56-94). A t test for equality of means was used to determine if there were differences in the number of positive and negative behaviors in the preintervention, intervention, and postintervention phases between the two groups. There was a significant difference (p < .01) in behaviors during the intervention phase. Patients who listened to preferred music had more positive behaviors while out of restraints than patients who were out of restraints but not exposed to music.

  6. Guarded Flat Plate Cryogenic Test Apparatus and Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Johnson, Wesley L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A test apparatus for thermal energy measurement of disk-shaped test specimens has a cold mass assembly locatable within a sealable chamber with a guard vessel having a guard chamber to receive a liquid fluid and a bottom surface to contact a cold side of a test specimen, and a test vessel having a test chamber to receive a liquid fluid and encompassed on one side by a center portion of the bottom surface shared with the guard vessel. A lateral wall assembly of the test vessel is closed by a vessel top, the lateral wall assembly comprising an outer wall and an inner wall having opposing surfaces that define a thermal break including a condensable vapor pocket to inhibit heat transfer through the lateral wall from the guard vessel to the test vessel. A warm boundary temperature surface is in thermal communication with a lower surface of the test specimen.

  7. Comparative evaluation of Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, mallein test, and some conventional serological tests for diagnosis of equine glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naureen, Abeera; Saqib, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulan; Hussain, Muhammad H; Asi, Muhammad N

    2007-07-01

    The Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT) was evaluated for the diagnosis of equine glanders, and its diagnostic efficiency was compared with that of mallein and other serological tests, including indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), complement fixation test (CFT), and modified counter immunoelectrophoresis test (mCIET). Sera from 70 naturally infected culture-positive, 96 potentially exposed cohorts, and 110 healthy equines were tested. All tests but mCIET showed 100% specificity when testing the sera from glanders-negative equines. The calculated sensitivities of RBT, IHAT, CFT, mCIET, and mallein test when testing culture-positive equines were 90.0, 97.1, 91.4, 81.4, and 75.7%, respectively. The RBT was significantly (P glandered and nonglandered animals, the highest agreement (0.987) was found between RBT and CFT followed by RBT and IHAT (0.940), RBT and mallein test (0.871), and RBT and mCIET (0.852). Because the RBT is simpler and rapid to perform, the inclusion of the test as a supplementary test for the diagnosis of glanders in field conditions is recommended.

  8. Results of fracture mechanics tests on PNC SUS 304 plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.; Blackburn, L.D.

    1985-08-01

    PNC provided SUS 304 plate to be irradiated in FFTF at about 400/sup 0/C to a target fluence of 5 x 10/sup 21/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). The actual irradiation included two basically different exposure levels to assure that information would be available for the exposure of interest. After irradiation, tensile properties, fatigue-crack growth rates and J-integral fracture toughness response were determined. These same properties were also measured for the unirradiated material so radiation damage effects could be characterized. This report presents the results of this program. It is expected that these results would be applicable for detailed fracture analysis of reactor components. Recent advances in elastic-plastic fracture mechanics enable reasonably accurate predictions of failure conditions for flawed stainless steel components. Extensive research has focused on the development of J-integral-based engineering approach for assessing the load carrying capacity of low-strength, high-toughness structural materials. Furthermore, Kanninen, et al., have demonstrated that J-integral concepts can accurately predict the fracture response for full-scale cracked structures manufactured from Type 304 stainless steel.

  9. Development of nondestructive testing techniques for plated-through holes in multilayer printed circuit boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, P. L.; Mcmurtrey, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a nondestructive test with the capability to interrogate plated-through holes as small as 0.51 millimeters inside diameter is discussed. The system can detect defects such as holes, voids, cracks, and thin spots that reduce the current carrying capability of plates-through interconnects by 20 percent or more. Efforts were directed toward the design and fabrication of magnetic circuitry mutual coupling probes and to evaluate the effectiveness of these devices for detecting in multilayer board plated-through holes.

  10. Assembly and tests of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) for the CMS barrel detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Gabriella Pugliese, Bari

    2006-01-01

    The pictures 1-3 show some assembly steps of Resistive Plate Chambers in Bari and their tests with cosmic rays (4-6: moving RPC to the test towers; 7-8 cosmic tests). Pictures 9-10 show assembly and tests in Sofia, 11 shows RPC coupling with drift tubes at ISR and 12-13 tests at the CMS site at CERN.

  11. Focusing on media body ideal images triggers food intake among restrained eaters: a test of restraint theory and the elaboration likelihood model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2014-04-01

    Although research consistently shows that images of thin women in the media (media body ideals) affect women negatively (e.g., increased weight dissatisfaction and food intake), this effect is less clear among restrained eaters. The majority of experiments demonstrate that restrained eaters - identified with the Restraint Scale - consume more food than do other participants after viewing media body ideal images; whereas a minority of experiments suggest that such images trigger restrained eaters' dietary restraint. Weight satisfaction and mood results are just as variable. One reason for these inconsistent results might be that different methods of image exposure (e.g., slideshow vs. film) afford varying levels of attention. Therefore, we manipulated attention levels and measured participants' weight satisfaction and food intake. We based our hypotheses on the elaboration likelihood model and on restraint theory. We hypothesised that advertent (i.e., processing the images via central routes of persuasion) and inadvertent (i.e., processing the images via peripheral routes of persuasion) exposure would trigger differing degrees of weight dissatisfaction and dietary disinhibition among restrained eaters (cf. restraint theory). Participants (N = 174) were assigned to one of four conditions: advertent or inadvertent exposure to media or control images. The dependent variables were measured in a supposedly unrelated study. Although restrained eaters' weight satisfaction was not significantly affected by either media exposure condition, advertent (but not inadvertent) media exposure triggered restrained eaters' eating. These results suggest that teaching restrained eaters how to pay less attention to media body ideal images might be an effective strategy in media-literary interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A reciprocating pin-on-plate test-rig for studying friction materials for holding brakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Drago, Nicola; Klit, Peder

    2014-01-01

    -on-plate test-rig for studying the evolution of wear by monitoring the pin height reduction using Eddy-current proximity sensors is presented. Moreover, a new mechanism for recording the friction force is suggested. Apart from the design of the test-rig, friction force and wear rate measurements for two...

  13. Designing and evaluating a persuasive child restraint television commercial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ioni; Ho, Bonnie; Lennon, Alexia

    2016-01-01

    Relatively high rates of child restraint inappropriate use and misuse and faults in the installation of restraints have suggested a crucial need for public education messages to raise parental awareness of the need to use restraints correctly. This project involved the devising and pilot testing of message concepts, filming of a television advertisement (the TVC), and the evaluation of the TVC. This article focuses specifically upon the evaluation of the TVC. The development and evaluation of the TVC were guided by an extended theory of planned behavior that included the standard constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control as well as the additional constructs of group norms and descriptive norms. The study also explored the extent to which parents with low and high intentions to self-check restraints differed on salient beliefs regarding the behavior. An online survey of parents (N = 384) was conducted where parents were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 161), and therefore viewed the advertisement within the survey, or the control group (n = 223), and therefore did not view the advertisement. Following a one-off exposure to the TVC, the results indicated that, although not a significant difference, parents in the intervention group reported stronger intentions (M = 4.43, SD = 0.74) to self-check restraints than parents in the control group (M = 4.18, SD = 0.86). In addition, parents in the intervention group (M = 4.59, SD = 0.47) reported significantly higher levels of perceived behavioral control than parents in the control group (M = 4.40, SD = 0.73). The regression results revealed that, for parents in the intervention group, attitudes and group norms were significant predictors of parental intentions to self-check their child restraint. Finally, the exploratory analyses of parental beliefs suggested that those parents with low intentions to self-check child restraints were significantly more likely than

  14. Social Behavior and Physical Restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmar, Steven; Wilson, Holly

    1989-01-01

    Examined whether physical restraints are related to decreased social behavior among nursing home residents. Data collected from 112 nursing home residents suggest that low social performance puts resident at risk of being restrained, but more frequently use of restraint hampers resident's performance of social behavior. (Author/NB)

  15. Functions for patch test in finite element analysis of the Mindlin plate and the thin cylindrical shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Current patch test for Mindlin plate element only satisfies the zero shear deformation condition.The patch test of non-zero constant shear for Mindlin plate problem cannot be performed.For shell element, the patch test does not even exist.Based on the theory of enhanced patch test proposed by Chen W J (2006),the authors proposed the enhanced patch test function for Mindlin plate and thin cylindrical shell elements.This enhanced patch test function can be used to assess the convergence of the Mindlin plate and cylindrical thin shell elements.

  16. Deaths due to physical restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzlanovich, Andrea M; Schöpfer, Jutta; Keil, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Physical restraint is used primarily for patients at risk of falling, those with motor unrest and agitated behavior, and those who manifest an intention of doing harm to themselves or are at risk of suicide. The use of freedom-restraining measures (FRM), and, in particular, the use of physical restraints against the patient's will, can be a serious intrusion of basic human rights and, as such, an act of violence against the patient. The improper use of physical restraints can cause injuries of varying severity, which can sometimes be fatal. We analyzed all cases of death under physical restraint that were recorded in the autopsy reports of the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Munich from 1997 to 2010. Among the 27 353 autopsies conducted over the period of the study, there were 26 cases of death while the individual was physically restrained. Three of these cases involved patients who died of natural causes while restrained, and one was a suicide. The remaining 22 deaths were caused solely by physical restraint; all of them occurred in patients under nursing care who were not continuously observed. The immediate cause of death was strangulation (11 cases), chest compression (8 cases), or dangling in the head-down position (3 cases). In 19 of these 22 patients, the restraints were incorrectly fastened, including two cases in which improvised non-standard restraints were used. One nursing-home patient died because of an abdominal restraint even though it had been correctly applied: She was mobile enough to slip through the restraint till it compressed her neck, and then unable to extricate herself from it, so that she died of strangulation. To prevent such deaths, we recommend from a forensic medical standpoint that all possible alternatives to FRM should be used instead. If direct-contact restraints are truly necessary, they must be applied as recommended and the restrained person must be closely observed.

  17. Innovative design of composite structures: Design, manufacturing, and testing of plates utilizing curvilinear fiber trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, M. W.; Rust, R. J.; Waters, W. A., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    As a means of improving structural design, the concept of fabricating flat plates containing holes by incorporating curvilinear fiber trajectories to transmit loads around the hole is studied. In the present discussion this concept is viewed from a structural level, where access holes, windows, doors, and other openings are of significant size. This is opposed to holes sized for mechanical fasteners. Instead of cutting the important load-bearing fibers at the hole edge, as a conventional straightline design does, the curvilinear design preserves the load-bearing fibers by orienting them in smooth trajectories around the holes, their loading not ending abruptly at the hole edge. Though the concept of curvilinear fiber trajectories has been studied before, attempts to manufacture and test such plates have been limited. This report describes a cooperative effort between Cincinnati Milacron Inc., NASA Langley Research Center, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to design, manufacture, and test plates using the curvilinear fiber trajectory concept. The paper discusses details of the plate design, details of the manufacturing, and a summary of results from testing the plates with inplane compressive buckling loads and tensile loads. Comparisons between the curvilinear and conventional straightline fiber designs based on measurements and observation are made. Failure modes, failure loads, strains, deflections, and other key responses are compared.

  18. High Velocity Tensile Test for Thin Plate Specimen with One Bar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Masaaki

    In order to design thin-walled impact-resistant structure, for example, an automotive body, dynamic behavior of thin plate is essential. So far, except for laminated composite materials, high velocity tensile test of thin plate specimen did not attract impact researchers' and engineers' attention very much. In this paper, the previous thin plate specimen assembly for the one bar method was improved. The one bar method has been utilized for cylindrical specimens of various solid materials and is known as an effective high velocity tensile testing technique. Unfortunately, the previous assembly introduced a tremendous initial peak on stress-strain curves, even for aluminum alloys. With a new specimen assembly, stress-strain curves for IF (Interstitial-atom Free) steel and 7075-T6 aluminum alloy obtained by the one bar method were almost equivalent to those obtained by the tensile version of the split Hopkinson pressure bar method.

  19. Industrial Test of High Strength Steel Plates Free Boron Q890D Used for Engineering Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruifeng; Liu, Zetian; Gao, Jun

    The chemistry composition, process parameters and the test results of Q890D free boron high strength steel plate used for engineering machinery was studied. The 16 40 mm thickness steel plates with good mechanical properties that was yield strength of 930 970 MPa, tensile strength of 978 1017 MPa, elongation of 13.5 15%, the average impact energy value of more than 100 J were developed by improving steel purity, adopting the reasonable controlled rolling and cooling process, using reasonable off-line quenching and tempering process. The test plates have good crack resistance in 60 °C preheat temperature condition because of that there are no any cracks in the surfaces, cross-section and roots of welding joints.

  20. Wheelchair integrated occupant restraints: feasibility in frontal impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanRoosmalen, L; Bertocci, G E; Ha, D; Karg, P

    2001-12-01

    Individuals often use their wheelchair as a motor vehicle seat when traveling in motor vehicles. The current use of fixed vehicle-mounted wheelchair occupant restraint systems (FWORSs) often results in poor belt fit and discomfort. Additionally, satisfaction, usability and usage rate of FWORSs during transit use are often low. The automotive industry has shown improved occupant restraint usage, belt fit and injury protection when integrating the upper torso and pelvic restraint in a motor vehicle seat. This study compared occupant injury measures of a FWORS to a concept wheelchair integrated restraint system (WIRS) using a 20g frontal sled impact test with a 30 mph change in velocity. Neck loads, neck moments, head, pelvis and chest acceleration, sternum compression and knee and head excursion data were recorded from the wheelchair seated 50th percentile male hybrid III anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD). The WIRS resulted in a lower head injury criteria (HIC) value, lower sternum compression and a lower upper-torso restraint load than the FWORS. Compared with the FWORS, increased head, knee and wheelchair excursions and higher neck loads and moments were measured in the WIRS test. Both restraint scenario injury parameters were complied with occupant injury criteria based on General Motors Injury Assessment Reference Values (GM-IARVs) and occupant kinematic requirements defined by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) voluntary standard, J2249. A higher motion criteria index was calculated for the WIRS scenario and a comparable combined injury criteria index was calculated for both restraint scenarios. The sled impact test showed WIRS concept feasibility, facilitating further development by industrial manufacturers who might further want to pursue this restraint principle to increase wheelchair occupant safety and comfort during transport in motor vehicles.

  1. Digitizer of astronomical plates at Shanghai Astronomical Observatory and its performance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong; Zhao, Jian-Hai; Tang, Zheng-Hong; Shang, Zheng-Jun

    2017-02-01

    Before CCD detectors were widely employed in observational astronomy, the main method of detection was the use of glass astrophotographic plates. Astronomical plates have been used to record information on the position and activity of celestial bodies for more than 100 years. There are about 30 000 astronomical plates in China, and the digitization of astronomical plates is of great significance for permanent preservation and to make full use of these valuable observation data. A digitizer with high precision and high measuring speed is a key piece of equipment for carrying out the task of digitizing these astronomical plates. A digitizer for glass astrophotographic plates was developed jointly by Shanghai Astronomical Observatory and Nishimura Co., Ltd of Japan. The digitizer’s hardware was manufactured by Nishimura Co., Ltd, and the performance test, error corrections as well as image processing of the digitizer were carried out by Shanghai Astronomical Observatory. The main structure and working mode of the digitizer are introduced in this paper. A performance test shows that brightness uniformity of illumination within the measuring area is better than 0.15%, the repeatability of digitized positions is better than 0.2 µm and the repeatability of digitized brightness is better than 0.01 instrumental magnitude. The systematic factors affecting digitized positions, such as lens distortion, the actual optical resolution, non-linearity of guide rails, non-uniformity of linear motors in the mobile platform, deviation of the image mosaic, and non-orthogonality between the direction of scanning and camera linear array, are calibrated and evaluated. Based on an astronomical plate with a size of 300mm × 300mm, which was digitized at different angles, the conversion residuals of positions of common stars on different images were investigated. The results show that the standard deviations of the residuals are better than 0.9 µm and the residual distribution is almost

  2. 32 CFR 636.34 - Restraint systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Restraint systems. 636.34 Section 636.34 National... Restraint systems. (a) Restraint systems (seat belts) will be worn by all operators and passengers of U.S. Government vehicles on or off the installations. (b) Restraint systems will be worn by all civilian personnel...

  3. Beam test results on double-gap resistive plate chambers proposed for CMS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbrescia, M.; Bruno, G.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Lamanna, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Gianini, G.; Ratti, S. P.; Vitulo, P.

    Resistive Plate Chambers were tested in a muon and pion beam to study the performances at different running conditions. Results on a first chamber built without the linseed oil treatment of the bakelite surfaces are presented together with an evaluation of the local effects due to the spacers. These results are extrapolated to the conditions expected at LHC.

  4. Beam Test Results on Resistive Plate Chambers for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, Marcello; Calaeo, A; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lammana, G; Loddo, Flavio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; Natali, Sergio; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Puglise, G; Ranieri, Riccardo; Ratti, Sergio P; Romano, Francesco; Vitulo, Paolo

    1998-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers were tested in a muon and a pion beam to study the performances at different running conditions. Results on a first chamber built without the linseed oil treatment of the bakelite surfaces are presented together with an evaluation of the local effects dut to spacers. These results are extrapolated to the conditions expected at LHC.

  5. 77 FR 16868 - Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test Reactors,'' is temporarily identified... verifying the quality of plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements used in research and test reactors (RTRs...

  6. Performance test of a plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young-Sang; Bae, Jin-Ho; Kim, Hoe-Woong; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    A plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor that uses the A0-mode leaky Lamb waves has been developed for under-sodium viewing of the reactor core and in-vessel structures in the sodiumcooled fast reactor. A new ultrasonic waveguide sensor that has beryllium (Be) and nickel (Ni) coating layers on its surfaces is proposed for the enhancement of the ultrasonic beam radiation and wetting capabilities in sodium. The sodium test facility with a glove box system and a sodium test loop has been designed and constructed to carry out the performance test of the developed ultrasonic waveguide sensor in a sodium environment. A 1.7 m long ultrasonic waveguide sensor with beryllium and nickel coating layers was designed and manufactured. The performance tests were carried out to evaluate the ultrasonic beam radiation characteristics and C-scan imaging resolution of the plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium.

  7. Deaths due to physical restraint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berzlanovich, Andrea M; Schöpfer, Jutta; Keil, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Physical restraint is used primarily for patients at risk of falling, those with motor unrest and agitated behavior, and those who manifest an intention of doing harm to themselves or are at risk of suicide...

  8. A novel hot-plate test sensitive to hyperalgesic stimuli and non-opioid analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Lavich

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the classical constant-temperature hot-plate test is insensitive to cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In the current study, we developed a variant of the hot-plate test procedure (modified hot-plate (MHP test to measure inflammatory nociception in freely moving rats and mice. Following left and right hind paw stimulation with a phlogogen and vehicle, respectively, the animals were placed individually on a hot-plate surface at 51ºC and the withdrawal latency for each paw was determined simultaneously in measurements performed at 15, 60, 180, and 360 min post-challenge. Plantar stimulation of rats (250 and 500 µg/paw and mice (125-500 µg/paw with carrageenan led to a rapid hyperalgesic response of the ipsilateral paw that reached a plateau from 15 to 360 min after challenge. Pretreatment with indomethacin (4 mg/kg, ip inhibited the phenomenon at all the times analyzed. Similarly, plantar stimulation of rats and mice with prostaglandin E2 (0.5 and 1 µg/paw also resulted in rapid hyperalgesia which was first detected 15 min post-challenge. Finally, we observed that the MHP test was more sensitive than the classical Hargreaves' test, being able to detect about 4- and 10-fold lower doses of prostaglandin E2 and carrageenan, respectively. In conclusion, the MHP test is a simple and sensitive method for detecting peripheral hyperalgesia and analgesia in rats and mice. This test represents a low-cost alternative for the study of inflammatory pain in freely moving animals.

  9. A novel hot-plate test sensitive to hyperalgesic stimuli and non-opioid analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavich, T R; Cordeiro, R S B; Silva, P M R; Martins, M A

    2005-03-01

    It is widely accepted that the classical constant-temperature hot-plate test is insensitive to cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In the current study, we developed a variant of the hot-plate test procedure (modified hot-plate (MHP) test) to measure inflammatory nociception in freely moving rats and mice. Following left and right hind paw stimulation with a phlogogen and vehicle, respectively, the animals were placed individually on a hot-plate surface at 51 degrees C and the withdrawal latency for each paw was determined simultaneously in measurements performed at 15, 60, 180, and 360 min post-challenge. Plantar stimulation of rats (250 and 500 microg/paw) and mice (125-500 microg/paw) with carrageenan led to a rapid hyperalgesic response of the ipsilateral paw that reached a plateau from 15 to 360 min after challenge. Pretreatment with indomethacin (4 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the phenomenon at all the times analyzed. Similarly, plantar stimulation of rats and mice with prostaglandin E2 (0.5 and 1 microg/paw) also resulted in rapid hyperalgesia which was first detected 15 min post-challenge. Finally, we observed that the MHP test was more sensitive than the classical Hargreaves' test, being able to detect about 4- and 10-fold lower doses of prostaglandin E2 and carrageenan, respectively. In conclusion, the MHP test is a simple and sensitive method for detecting peripheral hyperalgesia and analgesia in rats and mice. This test represents a low-cost alternative for the study of inflammatory pain in freely moving animals.

  10. Measuring dietary restraint status: Comparisons between the Dietary Intent Scale and the Restraint Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Boyce

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of young women’s self-reported dietary restraint status is complex. Compared to Herman and Polivy’s commonly utilized Restraint Scale (RS, Stice’s Dietary Intent Scale (DIS is less understood. Because the DIS is becoming a popular research tool, it is important to understand how this scale compares to more traditional measures of restraint. We conducted two correlational studies (Study 1 N = 110; Study 2 N = 216 to ascertain the similarities and the differences between the DIS and - as a comparison measure - the well-researched RS. We explored how the two scales were related to several body image variables (e.g., thin-ideal internalization; with a range of self-regulatory variables (e.g., dispositional self-control; with observed food intake during a taste test; and with 18-month weight change (Study 2 only. Participants were female University students and were not selected for dieting or disordered eating. Unlike RS scores, DIS scores were not significantly correlated with the majority of variables tapping into unsuccessful self-regulation. However, our data also highlighted similarities between the two restraint scales (e.g., association with 18-month weight-loss and demonstrated that not only were participants’ DIS scores un-related to unsuccessful self-regulatory variables, neither were they related to the variables tapping into successful self-regulation.

  11. Plate coil thermal test bench for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) carousel cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeEllen; Murga, Gaizka; Montijo, Guillermo; Hauth, David

    2014-08-01

    Analyses have shown that even a white-painted enclosure requires active exterior skin-cooling systems to mitigate dome seeing which is driven by thermal nonuniformities that change the refractive index of the air. For the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) Enclosure, this active surface temperature control will take the form of a system of water cooled plate coils integrated into the enclosure cladding system. The main objective of this system is to maintain the surface temperature of the enclosure as close as possible to, but always below, local ambient temperature in order to mitigate this effect. The results of analyses using a multi-layer cladding temperature model were applied to predict the behavior of the plate coil cladding system and ultimately, with safety margins incorporated into the resulting design thermal loads, the detailed designs. Construction drawings and specifications have been produced. Based on these designs and prior to procurement of the system components, a test system was constructed in order to measure actual system behavior. The data collected during seasonal test runs at the DKIST construction site on Haleakalā are used to validate and/or refine the design models and construction documents as appropriate. The test fixture was also used to compare competing hardware, software, components, control strategies, and configurations. This paper outlines the design, construction, test protocols, and results obtained of the plate coil thermal test bench for the DKIST carousel cooling system.

  12. Testing the Corrosion Behaviour of Plated Aluminum Strips for Heat Exchangers Operating in the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Marek; Opyrchał, Mieczysław; Kłyszewski, Andrzej; Żelechowski, Janusz

    The automotive industry uses heat exchangers made of aluminum alloys. The radiators for an engine cooling system comprise elements (tubes) in which the coolant flows. These elements are made of AlMn alloys (e.g. AlMn or AlMnCu), while ribs are made from the sheet metal plated with AlSi alloys. While in service, the heat exchangers are exposed to harsh weather conditions, hence the need to ensure that the individual elements of the design are adequately protected from corrosion. One of the ways to obtain this protection is by modification of the chemical composition of aluminum alloys used in the manufacture of radiators. In this study, corrosion tests were carried out to characterise the investigated materials in terms of their corrosive behavior. The experiments included measurements of corrosion potential, testing of corrosion resistance in neutral salt spray, and electrochemical studies of selected plated AlMn alloy strips with different chemical composition.

  13. Ensemble models of proteins and protein domains based on distance distribution restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    Conformational ensembles of intrinsically disordered peptide chains are not fully determined by experimental observations. Uncertainty due to lack of experimental restraints and due to intrinsic disorder can be distinguished if distance distributions restraints are available. Such restraints can be obtained from pulsed dipolar electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy applied to pairs of spin labels. Here, we introduce a Monte Carlo approach for generating conformational ensembles that are consistent with a set of distance distribution restraints, backbone dihedral angle statistics in known protein structures, and optionally, secondary structure propensities or membrane immersion depths. The approach is tested with simulated restraints for a terminal and an internal loop and for a protein with 69 residues by using sets of sparse restraints for underlying well-defined conformations and for published ensembles of a premolten globule-like and a coil-like intrinsically disordered protein.

  14. Standardized solar simulator tests of flat plate solar collectors. 1: Soltex collector with two transparent covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F.

    1975-01-01

    A Soltex flat plate solar collector was tested with a solar simulator for inlet temperatures of 77 to 201 F, flux levels of 240 and 350 Btu/hr-sq ft, a collant flow rate of 10.5 lb/hr sq ft, and incident angles of 0 deg, 41.5 deg, and 65.2 deg. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle.

  15. Direct tests of micro channel plates as the active element of a new shower maximum detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronzhin, A., E-mail: ronzhin@fnal.gov [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Los, S.; Ramberg, E. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Apresyan, A.; Xie, S.; Spiropulu, M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kim, H. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We continue the study of micro channel plates (MCP) as the active element of a shower maximum (SM) detector. We present below test beam results obtained with MCPs detecting directly secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. The MCP efficiency to shower particles is close to 100%. The time resolution obtained for this new type of the SM detector is at the level of 40 ps.

  16. Application of patch test in meshless analysis of continuously non-homogeneous piezoelectric circular plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staňák P.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proposed paper presents application of the patch test for meshless analysis of piezoelectric circular plate with functionally graded material properties. Functionally graded materials (FGM are the special class of composite materials with continuous variation of volume fraction of constituents in predominant direction. Patch test analysis is an important tool in numerical methods for addressing the convergence. Meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG method together with moving least-squares (MLS approximation scheme is applied in the analysis. No finite elements are required for approximation or integration of unknown quantities. Circular plate is considered as a 3-D axisymmetric piezoelectric solid. Considering the axial symmetry, the problem is reduced to a 2-dimensinal one. Displacement and electric potential fields are prescribed on the outer boundaries in order to reach the state of constant stress field inside the considered plate as required by the patch test and the governing equations. Values of prescribed mechanical and electrical fields must be determined in order to comply with applied FGM gradation rule. Convergence study is performed to assess the considered meshless approach and several conclusions are finally presented.

  17. Standard Test Method for Mechanical Hydrogen Embrittlement Evaluation of Plating/Coating Processes and Service Environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes mechanical test methods and defines acceptance criteria for coating and plating processes that can cause hydrogen embrittlement in steels. Subsequent exposure to chemicals encountered in service environments, such as fluids, cleaning treatments or maintenance chemicals that come in contact with the plated/coated or bare surface of the steel, can also be evaluated. 1.2 This test method is not intended to measure the relative susceptibility of different steels. The relative susceptibility of different materials to hydrogen embrittlement may be determined in accordance with Test Method F1459 and Test Method F1624. 1.3 This test method specifies the use of air melted AISI E4340 steel per SAE AMS-S-5000 (formerly MIL-S-5000) heat treated to 260 – 280 ksi (pounds per square inch x 1000) as the baseline. This combination of alloy and heat treat level has been used for many years and a large database has been accumulated in the aerospace industry on its specific response to exposure...

  18. Lithospheric deformation in the Africa-Iberia plate boundary: Improved neotectonic modeling testing a basal-driven Alboran plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neres, M.; Carafa, M. M. C.; Fernandes, R. M. S.; Matias, L.; Duarte, J. C.; Barba, S.; Terrinha, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present an improved neotectonic numerical model of the complex NW Africa-SW Eurasia plate boundary segment that runs from west to east along the Gloria Fault up to the northern Algerian margin. We model the surface velocity field and the ongoing lithospheric deformation using the most recent version of the thin-shell code SHELLS and updated lithospheric model and fault map of the region. To check the presence versus the absence of an independently driven Alboran domain, we develop two alternative plate models: one does not include an Alboran plate; another includes it and determines the basal shear tractions necessary to drive it with known velocities. We also compare two alternative sets of Africa-Eurasia velocity boundary conditions, corresponding to geodetic and geological-scale averages of plate motion. Finally, we perform an extensive parametric study of fault friction coefficient, trench resistance, and velocities imposed in Alboran nodes. The final run comprises 5240 experiments, each scored to geodetic velocities (estimated for 250 stations and here provided), stress direction data, and seismic strain rates. The model with the least discrepancy to the data includes the Alboran plate driven by a basal WSW directed shear traction, slightly oblique to the westward direction of Alboran motion. We provide estimates of long-term strain rates and slip rates for the modeled faults, which can be useful for further hazard studies. Our results support that a mechanism additional to the Africa-Eurasia convergence is required to drive the Alboran domain, which can be related to subduction processes occurring within the mantle.

  19. Reliability and Lifetime Prediction of Remote Phosphor Plates in Solid-State Lighting Applications Using Accelerated Degradation Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.; Van Driel, W.D.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology, based on accelerated degradation testing, is developed to predict the lifetime of remote phosphor plates used in solid-state lighting (SSL) applications. Both thermal stress and light intensity are used to accelerate degradation reaction in remote phosphor plates. A reliability model,

  20. Can ultrasound of plantar plate have normal appearance with a positive drawer test?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Eloy de Avila [Affiliated Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), São Paulo (Brazil); Mann, Tania Szejnfeld [Medical Assistant of Medicine and Surgery of the Foot and Ankle Group, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Puchnick, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.ddi@epm.br [Professor and Coordinator of Educational and Research Support, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Tertulino, Franklin de Freitas [Postgraduate Physician, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Cannato, Camila Testoni [Resident Physician, Department of Surgery, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Nery, Caio [Associate Professor, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Corrêa [Associate Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •We evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound to identify and measure the plantar plate. •We correlate ultrasound findings with those of physical examination and MRI. •Ultrasound and MRI measures of plantar plate were positively correlated. •Ultrasound is efficient in identifying and measuring plantar plate. •Ultrasound may complement physical examination. •Young asymptomatic subjects can present a grade I positive drawer test. -- Abstract: Objectives: The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the reliability of ultrasound (US) examination in the identification and measurement of the metatarsophalangeal plantar plate (MTP-PP) in asymptomatic subjects and (2) to establish the correlation of US findings with those of physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), once it is an important tool in the evaluation of the instability syndrome of the second and third rays. Materials and Methods: US examinations of the second and third MTP-PPs were performed in eight asymptomatic volunteers, totaling 32 MTP joints, by three examiners with different levels of experience in musculoskeletal US. Plantar plate dimensions, integrity and echogenicity, the presence of ruptures, and confidence level in terms of structure identification were determined using conventional US. Vascular flow was assessed using power Doppler. US data were correlated with data from physical examination and MRI. Results: MTP-PPs were ultrasonographically identified in 100% of cases, always showing homogeneous hyperechoic features and no detectable vascular flow on power Doppler, with 100% certainty in identification for all examiners. There was excellent US inter-observer agreement for longitudinal measures of second and third toe MTP-PPs and for transverse measures of the second toe MTP-PP. The MTP drawer test was positive for grade 1 MTP instability in 34.4% of joints with normal US results. Transverse MTP-PP measures were significantly higher in individuals with positive

  1. A test of present-day plate geometries for northeast Asia and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demets, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Alternative geometries for the present-day configuration of plate boundaries in northeast Asia and Japan are tested using NUVEL-1 and 256 horizontal earthquake slip vectors from the Japan and northern Kuril trenches. Statistical analysis of the slip vectors is used to determine whether the North American, Eurasian, or Okhotsk plate overlies the trench. Along the northern Kuril trench, slip vectors are well-fit by the NUVEL-1 Pacific-North America Euler pole, but are poorly fit by the Pacific-Eurasia Euler pole. Results for the Japan trench are less conclusive, but suggest that much of Honshu and Hokkaido are also part of the North American plate. The simplest geometry consistent with the trench slip vectors is a geometry in which the North American plate extends south to 41 deg N, and possibly includes northern Honshu and southern Hokkaido. Although these results imply that the diffuse seismicity that connects the Lena River delta to Sakhalin Island and the eastern Sea of Japan records motion between Eurasia and North America, onshore geologic and seismic data define an additional belt of seismicity in Siberia that cannot be explained with this geometry. Assuming that these two seismic belts constitute evidence for an Okhotsk block, two published kinematic models for motion of the Okhotsk block are tested. The first model, which predicts motion of up to 15 mm/yr relative to North America, is rejected because Kuril and Japan trench slip vectors are fit more poorly than for the simpler geometry described above. The second model gives a good fit to the trench slip vectors, but only if Okhotsk-North America motion is slower than 5 mm/yr.

  2. Deliverable 4.6: Data of the guided ditching tests for permanent deformation (aluminium and composite plates)

    OpenAIRE

    Iafrati, Alessandro; Olivieri, Flavio; Santos, Victor Hugo; Grizzi, Silvano; Fortunati, Marco; Ortolani, Fabrizio; Mauro, Luca

    2014-01-01

    In the present report the data of the guided ditching tests of the plates which were expected to undergo permanent deformations are presented and discussed briefly. Before going into the details of the data, some aspects of the experimental setup which were specific for tests on the deformable plates are provided. The last section is devoted to the presentation of the data of the DASSAULT specimen tested at the high speed ditching facility.

  3. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  4. Pilot Experimental Tests on Punching Shear Strength of Flat Plates Reinforced with Stirrups Punching Shear Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Flat plates are favor structure systems usually used in parking garages and high-rise buildings due to its simplicity for construction. However, flat plates have some inherent structural problems, due to high shear stress surrounding the supporting columns which cause a catastrophic brittle type of failure called "Punching Shear Failure". Several solutions are used to avoid punching shear failure, including the use of drop panels or punching shear reinforcement. The latter is being a more sophisticated solution from the structural ductility, the architectural and the economical point of view. This study aims at investigating the effect of stirrups as shear reinforcement in enhancing the punching strength of interior slab-column connections. A total of four full-scale interior slab-column connections were tested up to failure. All slabs had a side length of 1700 mm and 160 mm thickness with 200 mm x 200 mm square column. The test parameters were the presence of shear reinforcement and stirrups concentration around the supporting column. The test results showed that the distribution of stirrups over the critical punching shear zone was an efficient solution to enhance not only the punching shear capacity but also the ductility of the connection. Furthermore, the concentrating of stirrups shear reinforcement in the vicinity of the column for the tested slabs increases the punching shear capacity by 13 % compared to the uniform distribution at same amount of shear reinforcement.

  5. Uncertainty of pin height measurement for the determination of wear in pin-on-plate test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drago, Nicola; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Poulios, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    machine (CMM), achieving an expanded measurement uncertainty (k = 2) better than 1 mm. A simple dedicated fixture adaptable to workshop environment was developed and its metrological capability investigated, estimating an average uncertainty of measurement in the order of 5 mm (k = 2). Fixture......The paper concerns measurement of pin height for the determination of wear in a pin-on-plate (POP) or pin-on-disc (POD) test, where a pin is mounted on a holder that can be fixed on the test rig and removed for measurements. The amount of wear is assessed as difference of pin height before...... and after the test, using the distance between holder plane and pin friction plane as measurand. A series of measurements were performed in connection with POP testing of different friction material pins mounted on an aluminium holder. Pin height measurements were carried out on a coordinate measuring...

  6. Anxiolytic-like effects of restraint during the dark cycle in adolescent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yuki; Ago, Yukio; Tanaka, Tatsunori; Hasebe, Shigeru; Toratani, Yui; Onaka, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2015-05-01

    Stress during developmental stage may cause psychological morbidities, and then the studies on stress are important in adolescent rodents. Restraint is used as a common stressor in rodents and the effects of restraint during the light cycle have been studied, but those of restraint during the dark cycle have not. The present study examined the effects of restraint during the light and dark cycles on anxiety behaviors in adolescent mice. Restraint for 3h during either the light or dark cycle impaired memory function in the fear conditioning test, but did not affect locomotor activity. In the elevated plus-maze test, restraint during the dark cycle reduced anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Repeated exposure to a 3-h period dark cycle restraint for 2 weeks had a similar anxiolytic-like effect. In contrast, restraint for 3h during the light cycle produced anxiety behavior in adolescent, but not adult, mice. The light cycle stress increased plasma corticosterone levels, and elevated c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, basolateral amygdala and dentate gyrus, and enhanced serotonin turnover in the hippocampus and striatum, while the dark cycle stress did not. There was no difference in the stress-mediated reduction in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time between dark and light cycle restraint. These findings suggest that the anxiolytic effect of dark cycle restraint is mediated by corticosterone, serotonin or γ-aminobutyric acid-independent mechanisms, although the anxiogenic effect of light cycle restraint is associated with changes in plasma corticosterone levels and serotonin turnover in specific brain regions.

  7. Test and characterization of multigap resistive plate chambers for the EEE project

    CERN Document Server

    Bossini, E

    2016-01-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project is based on the deployment of cosmic-ray telescopes in Italian high schools with the active contribution of students and teachers. Each telescope is made by three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers readout by strips. With around 50 telescopes already built and others under construction, specific systems to test and characterize the chambers are needed. In this article I will present a flexible and software-configurable solution to perform chamber efficiency studies with a set of scintillators and hardware to automatically scan detector strips to identify electrical issues. Both systems can provide accurate information but at the same time they can be easily operated by students.

  8. Test and characterization of multigap resistive plate chambers for the EEE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossini, E.; EEE Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project is based on the deployment of cosmic-ray telescopes in Italian high schools with the active contribution of students and teachers. Each telescope is made by three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers readout by strips. With around 50 telescopes already built and others under construction, specific systems to test and characterize the chambers are needed. In this article I will present a flexible and software-configurable solution to perform chamber efficiency studies with a set of scintillators and hardware to automatically scan detector strips to identify electrical issues. Both systems can provide accurate information but at the same time they can be easily operated by students.

  9. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Souce for System-Level Testing of Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of an improved vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source used for characterizing and calibrating remote optical sensors, in situ, throughout their testing period. The original flat plate radiometric source was developed for use by the VIIRS instrument during the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). Following this effort, the FPI has had significant upgrades in order to improve both the radiometric throughput and uniformity. Results of the VIIRS testing with the reconfigured FPI are reported and discussed.

  10. Characterization tests of a new parallel plate ionization chamber for use in electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonato, Fernanda B. C.; Sakuraba, Roberto K.; da Cruz, José Carlos; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2014-11-01

    Linear accelerators with electron beams are used in several Brazilian hospitals. Consequently, there is an increasing demand for parallel-plate ionization chambers, to be utilized for dosimetry of electron beams. In Brazil, the commercial ionization chambers utilized are imported. The ionization chambers have usually a simple construction, using different materials and geometries. A homemade ionization chamber was developed to be used in electron beams of linear accelerator. The ionization chamber body is made of acrylic and the collecting electrode is painted with graphite powder mixed with nail polish. Several tests were applied, and the results showed values better than the limits established by the international recommendations, except for the polarity effect test, but the response of the developed ionization chamber, for this test, is similar in relation to the response of other commercial ionization chambers from the literature.

  11. Fabrication and testing of U-7Mo monolithic plate fuel with Zircaloy cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, E. E.; Robinson, A. B.; Porter, D. L.; Wachs, D. M.; Finlay, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Nuclear fuel designs are being developed to replace highly enriched fuel used in research and test reactors with fuels of low enrichment. In the most challenging cases, U-(7-10 wt%)Mo monolithic plate fuels are proposed. One of the considered designs includes aluminum-alloy cladding, which provides some challenges in fabrication and fuel/cladding interaction during service. Zircaloy cladding, specifically Zry-4, was investigated as an alternative cladding, and development of a fabrication method was performed by researchers with the Comisión Nacionalde Energia Atómica (CNEA) in Argentina, resulting in test fuel plates (Zry-4 clad U-7Mo) which were subsequently tested in the Advanced Test Reactor in Idaho. Because Zry-4 and U-(7-10)Mo have similar high-temperature mechanical properties, fabrication was simplified in that the fuel foil and cladding could be co-rolled and bonded. The challenge was to prevent a thermal-expansion mismatch, which could destroy the fuel/cladding bond before complete bonding was achieved; the solution was to prevent the composites from cooling significantly during or between roll passes. The final product performed very well in-reactor, showing good bonding, very little fuel/cladding interaction-either from fabrication or in-reactor testing-and little swelling, especially no detectable heterogeneous bubble formation at the fuel/cladding interface tested to a fission density of up to 2.7E+21 (average) fissions/cm3, 3.8E+21 (peak).

  12. Determining the fibrillar orientation of bast fibres with polarized light microscopy: the modified Herzog test (red plate test) explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, E; Holst, B

    2013-11-01

    The identification of bast fibre samples, in particular, bast fibres used in textiles, is an important issue in archaeology, criminology and other scientific fields. One of the characteristic features of bast fibres is their fibrillar orientation, referred to as Z- or S twist (or alternatively right- and left-handed fibres). An empirical test for determining the fibrillar orientation using polarized light microscopy has been known in the community for many years. It is referred to as the modified Herzog test or red plate test. The test has the reputation for never producing false results, but also for occasionally not working. However, so far, no proper justification has been provided in the literature that the 'no false results' assumption is really correct and it has also not been clear up till now, why the method sometimes does not work. In this paper, we present an analytical model for the modified Herzog test, which explains why the test never gives a false result. We also provide an explanation for why the Herzog test sometimes does not work: According to our model, the Herzog test will not work if none of the three distinct layers in the secondary cell wall is significantly thicker than the others.

  13. Determining the fibrillar orientation of bast fibres with polarized light microscopy: the modified Herzog test (red plate test) explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAUGAN, E; HOLST, B

    2013-01-01

    The identification of bast fibre samples, in particular, bast fibres used in textiles, is an important issue in archaeology, criminology and other scientific fields. One of the characteristic features of bast fibres is their fibrillar orientation, referred to as Z- or S twist (or alternatively right- and left-handed fibres). An empirical test for determining the fibrillar orientation using polarized light microscopy has been known in the community for many years. It is referred to as the modified Herzog test or red plate test. The test has the reputation for never producing false results, but also for occasionally not working. However, so far, no proper justification has been provided in the literature that the ‘no false results’ assumption is really correct and it has also not been clear up till now, why the method sometimes does not work. In this paper, we present an analytical model for the modified Herzog test, which explains why the test never gives a false result. We also provide an explanation for why the Herzog test sometimes does not work: According to our model, the Herzog test will not work if none of the three distinct layers in the secondary cell wall is significantly thicker than the others. PMID:24020614

  14. Design, construction and testing of a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, R E

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector. From the literature search, information was gathered concerning the basic components of the collector, the different processes and materials that can be used in the construction of these components, and their advantages and disadvantages. The literature search also revealed a method used to measure the performance of the collector in terms of efficiency and heat output. Design considerations were then listed for each of the major components as well as the collector as a single unit. Then, each component was designed, taking into consideration the final assembly of the completed unit. Detailed designs were required for the absorber plate and the box and frame assembly because of their complexity in construction and assembly. Once the components were designed, the construction details were arranged in a logical sequence, again considering the final assembly of the unit. The collector was then carefully constructed and assembled following the design details. After the solar collector was assembled completely, tests were made, data were obtained and recorded, and a collector performance curve was developed.

  15. An Intelligent Tap Test as AN Inspection Tool for Corrosion in Chequer Plate Floors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. M.; Smith, J. W.

    2002-11-01

    The "coin-tap" test has the ability to indicate damage in a structural element due to a localized change of stiffness or damping. The change in vibration signature may be detected by ear or more precisely by measurement of the dynamic contact force. A method for discriminating between measurements made on sound and damaged structures is presented. An unsupervised neural network algorithm is used for recognizing the differences between contact force patterns. The method is used for non-destructive inspection of corrosion damage to steel chequer plate floors in industrial buildings. It is shown that the intelligent tap test is a useful and practical diagnostic tool for detecting localized damage in structures.

  16. Effect of physical restraint on glucose tolerance in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Yasufumi; Yoshioka, Naoya; Kanazawa, Kanpei; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi; Horikawa, Tadahiro; Hayashi, Toshiaki

    2013-06-01

    Physiologic stress has been demonstrated to impair glucose tolerance. Glucose tolerance tests were performed using six cynomolgus monkeys. Chair-restrained subjects elicited higher elevations of plasma glucose and cortisol compared with squeezing device-restrained subjects. The responses to a glucose challenge are altered by different restraint procedures.

  17. Evaluation of glycerin as preserving agent of chicken serum for plate agglutination test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES de Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum is widely used for the purpose of monitoring and diagnosis support for most of poultry diseases. In the case of the serum plate agglutination test (SPA, commonly used to detect antibodies for Salmonella Pullorum (SP, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS, serum cannot be frozen because it may result in false positive. Without freezing, serum can last only for a few days. In this experiment, glycerin was evaluated as a serum preservering agent. About 50 samples for each disease and analyzed by SPA test previously were separated. Glycerin was added to serum from commercial chickens, with and without antibodies for SP, MG and MS, in the proportion of 1:1 (serum:glycerin and kept at refrigerated conditions (2 to 8 ºC. For four years they were tested by the SPA, initially weekly, afterward monthly and then annually. The results show that serum with glycerin give consistent and valid results according to the kind of antibodies present for the period tested. Sera that glycerin was not added to, the results were valid only for the first week. From the second week on, microbial growth affected the test results of the sera without glycerin. Our investigation shows that glycerin can be used to preserve chicken serum for SPA under refrigerated conditions. It is an easy, simple and cheap procedure that can extend serum shelf life, useful mainly for control sera.

  18. Evaluation of protective ensemble thermal characteristics through sweating hot plate, sweating thermal manikin, and human tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Powell, Jeffery B; Roberge, Raymond J; Shepherd, Angie; Coca, Aitor

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive capability of fabric Total Heat Loss (THL) values on thermal stress that Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) ensemble wearers may encounter while performing work. A series of three tests, consisting of the Sweating Hot Plate (SHP) test on two sample fabrics and the Sweating Thermal Manikin (STM) and human performance tests on two single-layer encapsulating ensembles (fabric/ensemble A = low THL and B = high THL), was conducted to compare THL values between SHP and STM methods along with human thermophysiological responses to wearing the ensembles. In human testing, ten male subjects performed a treadmill exercise at 4.8 km and 3% incline for 60 min in two environmental conditions (mild = 22°C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and hot/humid = 35°C, 65% RH). The thermal and evaporative resistances were significantly higher on a fabric level as measured in the SHP test than on the ensemble level as measured in the STM test. Consequently the THL values were also significantly different for both fabric types (SHP vs. STM: 191.3 vs. 81.5 W/m(2) in fabric/ensemble A, and 909.3 vs. 149.9 W/m(2) in fabric/ensemble B (p values are significantly different from the actual THL potential of the PPE ensemble tested on STM, (2) physiological benefits from wearing a more breathable PPE ensemble may not be feasible with incremental THL values (SHP test) less than approximately 150-200 W·m(2), and (3) the effects of thermal environments on a level of heat stress in PPE ensemble wearers are greater than ensemble thermal characteristics.

  19. Simple solutions to false results with plate/slide agglutination tests in diagnosis of infectious diseases of man and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Hari Mohan; Chothe, Shubhada; Kaur, Paviter

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a new Superagglutination test for serodiagnosis of infectious diseases. It differs from conventional plate/slide agglutination tests (PAT/SAT) by three additional steps: prior staining of serum antibody by adding a dye and addition of diluted biotinylated antiglobulin and avidin in sequence after mixing the antigen with the test serum. The new steps circumvent the problems of false positive and false negative results of PAT/SAT. In serodiagnosis of brucellosis, Superagglutination test had higher positive predictive value and specificity than Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) and higher negative predictive value and sensitivity than RBPT, STAT, ELISA and Complement Fixation Test (CFT).•Superagglutination is a simple, accurate and economic screening test for infections.•More specificity, sensitivity, positive & negative predictive value than RBPT, STAT.•More sensitivity, negative predictive value than ELISA and Complement Fixation Test.

  20. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apresyan, A.; Los, S.; Pena, C.; Presutti, F.; Ronzhin, A.; Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S.

    2016-08-01

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. A method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.

  1. Testing micro-channel plate detectors for the particle identification upgrade of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo Garcia, L

    2012-01-01

    The TORCH, Time of internally Reflected Cherenkov Light, is proposed for the high luminosity upgrade of the LHCb experiment. The detector combines Time-of-Flight and Cherenkov techniques to achieve positive pi/K/p separation on a >= 3 sigma level in the momentum range below 10 GeV/c. The required time resolution is <= 50 ps for single photon signal. In a preliminary R\\&D phase, we have shown that already commercially available micro-channel plate tubes with 8 x 8 channels fulfil the requirements. Timing properties of the tubes have been investigated with a pulsed laser diode in single photon regime. Key results from these laboratory tests are reported. An excellent timing resolution of <40 ps is achieved with an efficiency of similar to 90\\%. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apresyan, A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Los, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Pena, C.; Presutti, F. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Ronzhin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-21

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. A method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.

  3. Conclusions and recommendations for the testing of flat-plate solar collector thermal performance and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksman, D.; Thomas, W. C.

    1984-12-01

    The results of studies, by the National Bureau of Standards, of the reliability and durability of eight different types of flat plate solar collectors representative of equipment available in 1977 are reported. The installations were made in four sites believed to typify various U.S. climates. The stability of the thermal performance and material properties was tracked, and measured again after moving the units inside for exposure to artificial sunlight. The stagnation measurement techniques employed to evaluate the collectors were judged adequate, provided the tests are made on-site and out of doors. It is noted that the instrumentation used to gather sufficient data for valid analyses may experience performance decrements due to the necessarily long monitoring intervals, i.e., several years.

  4. Lip twitch restraint on rebound tonometry in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Caldart de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of the upper lip twitch restraint on intraocular pressure (IOP of healthy horses. In this study, forty five Criollo horses, aged between two to 20 years (male or female were evaluated with rebound tonometer, with and without upper lip twitch restraint. A previous ophthalmic examination was performed with Schirmer tear test, fluorescein test, slit lamp biomicroscopy and direct ophthalmoscopy in all horses. Only healthy animals with no ocular findings were used. The order of the IOP measurements (with or without twitch and order of the eye (right or left were randomized. Three measurements of each eye were made and the mean was calculated. Head position was kept above the heart level and no pressure was made over eyelids. At least 10 minutes passed between the evaluations of the same horse. Measurements were made between 3:30 and 5:30pm to avoid circadian fluctuation of intraocular pressure. Statistical analysis was performed with SAS 9.2 software. A Split plot factorial design was used where horses were considered blocks. The mean intraocular pressure values obtained with lip twitch restraint (34.68±6.47mmHg were significantly higher (P<0.05 than those obtained without (29.35±4.08mmHg. There was no relevant statistical difference between right and left eyes. The restraint of horses with upper lip twitch increased equine intraocular pressure measured with the rebound tonometry.

  5. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy - A flat-plate copper collector with parallel mylar striping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are reported for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in a solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  6. A pulse-shaping technique to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials subjected to plate-impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquin, Pascal; Zinszner, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their significant hardness and compressive strengths, ceramic materials are widely employed for use with protective systems subjected to high-velocity impact loadings. Therefore, their mechanical behaviour along with damage mechanisms need to be significantly investigated as a function of loading rates. However, the classical plate-impact testing procedures produce shock loadings in the brittle sample material which cause unrealistic levels of loading rates. Additionally, high-pulsed power techniques and/or functionally graded materials used as flyer plates to smooth the loading pulse remain costly, and are generally difficult to implement. In this study, a shockless plate-impact technique based on the use of either a wavy-machined flyer plate or buffer plate that can be produced by chip-forming is proposed. A series of numerical simulations using an explicit transient dynamic finite-element code have been performed to design and validate the experimental testing configuration. The calculations, conducted in two-dimensional (2D) plane-strain or in 2D axisymmetric modes, prove that the `wavy' contact surface will produce a pulse-shaping effect, whereas the buffer plate will produce a homogenizing effect of the stress field along the transverse direction of the sample. In addition, `wavy-shape' geometries of different sizes provide an easy way to change the level of loading rate and rise time in an experimentally tested ceramic specimen. Finally, when a shockless compression loading method is applied to the sample, a Lagrangian analysis of data is made possible by considering an assemblage of ceramic plates of different thicknesses in the target, so the axial stress-strain response of the brittle sample material can be provided. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  7. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-11-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  8. Evaluation of Electroless-Nickel Plated Polypropylene under Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Ajibola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The electroless-nickel composite (ENC consisting of bright metallic electroless-nickel (EN and dull electroless-nickel-phosphorus (EN-P were deposited on the polypropylene (PP substrate from the sodium hypophosphite baths. The ENC plated specimens were subjected to abrasive wear-adhesion test of 1750, 3500, 7000 and 14000 cycles; thermal cycle-adhesion tests, and tensile strength and creep tests. The deposition of ENC influenced the strength and creep strain properties of the PP. The maximum stress σ of 118 (MPa was obtained from EN-PP specimen at strain  of 0.1 mm/mm as compared with the PP having stress σ of 36 (MPa at strain  of 0.07 mm/mm before failure The surface appearances and microstructures of ENC film on PP substrates were examined under the higher resolution metallurgical microscope with digital camera and microscopic camera. The composition of ENC film was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses (Jeol JSM-7600F Field Emission SEM/EDX, The micrographs and spectra lines data generated were used to interpret the results.

  9. Bearing Capacity of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE Reinforced Sand Using Plate Load Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Aly K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here is a study to examine the improvement in bearing capacity of coastal sand of Trivandrum, Kerala, India using high density polyethylene (HDPE /woven fabric as reinforcement in discrete layers. The bearing capacity was evaluated using plate load test. The effect of reinforcement configurations like sheet reinforcement (sanded with adhesive, with adhesive and sheet alone and strip reinforcement (single and grid pattern are investigated. The test parameters chosen for the present study are, depth of topmost layer of reinforcement layer below footing, compacted density and number of layers of reinforcement etc. From the tests, it has been observed that sheet reinforcement is more effective than sheet sanded with adhesive and strip reinforcements. It is found that the synthetic adhesive gives no binding action at the interface of the reinforcement and soil. But it is to be noted that the sheet with adhesive dried has a marked influence on the bearing capacity especially at lower densities. The strip reinforcements in single pattern is considered to be a favorable choice for minimum reinforcement. The strip reinforcement in single or grid pattern gives sufficient improvement in strength.

  10. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  11. The economic cost of using restraint and the value added by restraint reduction or elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Janice; Goldstein, Robert

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate the economic cost of using restraint on one adolescent inpatient service and to examine the effect of an initiative to reduce or eliminate the use of restraint after it was implemented. A detailed process-task analysis of mechanical, physical, and medication-based restraint was conducted in accordance with state and federal restraint requirements. Facility restraint data were collected, verified, and analyzed. A model was developed to determine the cost and duration of an average episode for each type of restraint. Staff time allocated to restraint activities and medication costs were computed. Calculation of the cost of restraint was restricted to staff and medication costs. Aggregate costs of restraint use and staff-related costs for one full year before the restraint reduction initiative (FY 2000) and one full year after the initiative (FY 2003) were calculated. Outcome, discharge, and recidivism data were analyzed. A comparison of the FY 2000 data with the FY 2003 data showed that the adolescent inpatient service's aggregate use of restraint decreased from 3,991 episodes to 373 episodes (91 percent), which was associated with a reduction in the cost of restraint from $1,446,740 to $117,036 (a 92 percent reduction). In addition, sick time, staff turnover and replacement costs, workers' compensation, injuries to adolescents and staff, and recidivism decreased. Adolescent Global Assessment of Functioning scores at discharge significantly improved. Implementation of a restraint reduction initiative was associated with a reduction in the use of restraint, staff time devoted to restraint, and staff-related costs. This shift appears to have contributed to better outcomes for adolescents, fewer injuries to adolescents and staff, and lower staff turnover. The initiative may have enhanced adolescent treatment and work conditions for staff.

  12. Paramagnetism-Based Restraints for Xplor-NIH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banci, Lucia; Bertini, Ivano, E-mail: ivanobertini@cerm.unifi.it; Cavallaro, Gabriele; Giachetti, Andrea [University of Florence, CERM and Department of Chemistry (Italy); Luchinat, Claudio; Parigi, Giacomo [University of Florence, CERM and Department of Agricultural Biotechnology (Italy)

    2004-03-15

    Modules that use paramagnetism-based NMR restraints have been developed and integrated in the well known program for solution structure determination Xplor-NIH; the complete set of such modules is called PARArestraints for Xplor-NIH. Paramagnetism-based restraints are paramagnetic relaxation enhancements, pseudocontact shifts, residual dipolar couplings due to metal and overall magnetic anisotropy, and cross correlation between Curie relaxation and nuclear-nuclear dipolar relaxation. The complete program has been tested by back-calculating NOEs and paramagnetism-based restraints from the X-ray structure of cytochrome c{sub 553} from B. pasteurii. Furthermore, the same experimental restraints previously used to determine the solution structure of cytochrome c{sub 553} itself, of cytochrome b{sub 5}, and of calbindin D{sub 9k} with the program PARAMAGNETIC DYANA, have been used for structure calculations by using PARArestraints for Xplor-NIH. The agreement between the two programs is quite satisfactory and validates both protocols.

  13. The study of fix composite panel and steel plates on testing stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Wachna, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the practical possibilities of strength verification analysis of composite materials used in the manufacture of selected components of railway wagons are presented. Real laboratory stand for measurements in a scale controlled by PLC controller were made. The study of different types of connections of composite materials with sheet metal is presented. In one of the chapter of this paper principles construction of testing stand with pneumatic cylinder were presented. Mainly checking of displacements and stresses generated on the sheet as a result of pneumatic actuators load for composite boards was carried out. The use of the controller with operating panel allows to easy programming testing cycle. The user can define the force generated by the actuator by change of air pressure in cylinder. Additionally the location of acting cylinders and their jump can be changed by operator. The examination of the volume displacements was done by displacement sensor, and the tensile strain gauge. All parameters are written in CatmanEasy - data acquisition software. This article presents the study of stresses and displacements in the composite plates joined with sheet metal, in summary of this article, the authors compare the obtained results with the computer simulation results in the article: "Simulation of stresses in an innovative combination of composite with sheet".

  14. A study of ground-structure interaction in dynamic plate load testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzina, Bojan B.; Nintcheu Fata, Sylvain

    2002-10-01

    A mathematical treatment is presented for the forced vertical vibration of a padded annular footing on a layered viscoelastic half-space. On assuming a depth-independent stress distribution for the interfacial buffer, the set of triple integral equations stemming from the problem is reduced to a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. The solution method, which is tailored to capture the stress concentrations beneath footing edges, is highlighted. To cater to small-scale geophysical applications, the model is used to investigate the near-field effects of ground-loading system interaction in dynamic geotechnical and pavement testing. Numerical results indicate that the uniform-pressure assumption for the contact load between the composite disc and the ground which is customary in dynamic plate load testing may lead to significant errors in the diagnosis of subsurface soil and pavement conditions. Beyond its direct application to non-intrusive site characterization, the proposed solution can be used in the seismic analysis of a variety of structures involving annular foundation geometries.

  15. Analysis and seismic tests of composite shear walls with CFST columns and steel plate deep beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Jianwei; Xu, Fangfang

    2013-12-01

    A composite shear wall concept based on concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns and steel plate (SP) deep beams is proposed and examined in this study. The new wall is composed of three different energy dissipation elements: CFST columns; SP deep beams; and reinforced concrete (RC) strips. The RC strips are intended to allow the core structural elements — the CFST columns and SP deep beams — to work as a single structure to consume energy. Six specimens of different configurations were tested under cyclic loading. The resulting data are analyzed herein. In addition, numerical simulations of the stress and damage processes for each specimen were carried out, and simulations were completed for a range of location and span-height ratio variations for the SP beams. The simulations show good agreement with the test results. The core structure exhibits a ductile yielding mechanism characteristic of strong column-weak beam structures, hysteretic curves are plump and the composite shear wall exhibits several seismic defense lines. The deformation of the shear wall specimens with encased CFST column and SP deep beam design appears to be closer to that of entire shear walls. Establishing optimal design parameters for the configuration of SP deep beams is pivotal to the best seismic behavior of the wall. The new composite shear wall is therefore suitable for use in the seismic design of building structures.

  16. Improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source for system-level testing of remote optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance. Keywords: Calibration, radiometry, remote sensing, source.

  17. Dietary restraint moderates the effects of food exposure on women's body and weight satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Nicole; Roefs, Anne; Lattimore, Paul; Fett, Anne-Kathrin; Jansen, Anita

    2008-11-01

    The influence of dietary restraint and food exposure on body satisfaction was tested. Body and weight satisfaction were measured before and after exposure to either high- or low-caloric food, without actual eating. Independent of caloric condition, higher dietary restraint was associated with a decrease in body satisfaction after food exposure. With regard to weight satisfaction, however, the association between higher dietary restraint and decreased weight satisfaction was specific for the high-caloric condition. Thus, the actual eating of food is not necessary for decreased body and weight satisfaction to occur, suggesting an exposure-induced activation of dysfunctional cognitions in restrained eaters.

  18. HV Test of the CTS Edgeless Silicon Detector in Vacuum and Close to a Grounded Plate

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Vladimir; Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2007-01-01

    The TOTEM Roman Pot Silicon sensors will be operated in vacuum to minimise the mechanical stress of the thin metal window which separates the detector package from the ultra high vacuum of the beam. To approach the beam axis as close as possible the detectors will be mounted with their edge at a distance of the order 100 - 200 um from the thin metal window. As the detectors will be run in overdepletion mode to allow the full charge collection within the shaping time of the readout electronics, there will be a potential drop of more than 100 V across their edge. Moreover this potential drop might need to be further increased with the accumulated radiation dose. The main goals of the tests described in this note are: - Characterisation of the voltage-current characteristics when the detector edge is in the direct vicinity of a grounded metal plate which simulates the above mentioned vacuum window; - Demonstration of the detector operation in vacuum at different pressures.

  19. Testing Absolute Plate Reference Frames and the Implications for the Generation of Geodynamic Mantle Heterogeneity Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, G. E.; Bunge, H.; Schuberth, B. S.; Müller, D.; Talsma, A.; Moder, C.

    2010-12-01

    Several absolute reference frames for Cretaceous-Tertiary plate tectonic reconstructions have been proposed over the last decade. They include reference frames based on hotspot tracks displaying age progression, and assuming either fixed or moving hotspots, as well as palaeomagnetically-based reference frames, a subduction reference frame and hybrid reference frames. All these alternative reference frames imply a particular history of the location of subduction zones through time, the associated subduction history, and the evolution of mantle heterogeneity via the mixing of subducted slab material with the mantle. Therefore it is possible to evaluate the observed distribution of subducted slab material in the mantle versus that predicted by a forward geodynamic model in which the plate kinematic history given by a particular absolute plate is coupled with a mantle convection model. We present a comparison of five alternative absolute plate motion models in terms of their consequences for global deep mantle structure by utilizing the 3-D spherical finite element mantle convection code TERRA, coupled with the global plate tectonic reconstruction software GPlates. We impose global palaeo-plate boundaries and plate velocities back to 140 Ma as surface boundary conditions for each absolute rotation model and forward model the associated subduction history. The correlation of seismic tomography with the predicted present-day mantle structure from each of plate models is then assessed using well-imaged slabs. We will present and discuss a comparison of geodynamically predicted mantle heterogeneity and seismic tomography to infer the robustness of each absolute reference frame through time, thus providing additional constraints for the integration of plate tectonics and mantle dynamics.

  20. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibody by ELISA and serum plate agglutination test of laying chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zulfekar Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG is important avian pathogen responsible for chronic respiratory disease of chicken and turkeys, which result in large economic loss for the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were determination of seroprevalence of MG antibody of commercial layer chicken at laying period in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 563 blood samples were collected randomly from selected commercial layer chickens at laying period during the period from July to December, 2013. Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA and serum plate agglutination (SPA test were performed to detect the presence of antibodies against MG. Results: Of 563 samples, 64.47% and 56.13% showed an overall prevalence of MG antibodies in iELISA and SPA test respectively. Prevalence of MG was recorded the highest (69.63% at 50-55 weeks of age compared with lowest (53.26% at 56-61 weeks of age (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.05 effect of breed were observed in the seroprevalence of MG infection in layer birds in the present study. The overall, 68.77%, 63.74% and 59.37% prevalence were found respectively in sonali, ISA Brown and White leg horn. The prevalence of MG antibodies was the highest (70.13% in December followed by November (68%, October (65.67%, August (63.46%, September (58.54% and July (51.78% month. The seroprevalence of MG antibodies was higher (69.63% in most of the large flocks and lower (56.82% in small flocks. Conclusion: Therefore, might be suggested that the commercial layer farms should be routinely checked to monitor MG infection and the reactor birds should be culled since MG organism has the potential to transmit vertically. The correlation between MG antibody in month and flock size was not significant (p=0.359 and p=0.868, respectively.

  1. Reducing physical restraint use in alcohol withdrawal patients: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainier, Nicole C

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol withdrawal patients experience symptoms ranging from mild anxiety and disorientation to severe agitation and hallucinations. The most critical of these patients are treated in intensive care units. Physical restraints are often required to maintain patient safety until symptoms resolve. The use of physical restraints is contradictory to nursing values and is unsupported by evidenced-based literature. A literature review was conducted to see what, if any, alternatives have been tested to improve patient care for this complicated patient population.

  2. Development of a Titanium Plate for Mandibular Angle Fractures with a Bone Defect in the Lower Border: Finite Element Analysis and Mechanical Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rangel Goulart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to develop a plate to treat mandibular angle fractures using the finite element method and mechanical testing. Material and Methods: A three-dimensional model of a fractured mandible was generated using Rhinoceros 4.0 software. The models were exported to ANSYS®, in which a static application of displacement (3 mm was performed in the first molar region. Three groups were assessed according to the method of internal fixation (2 mm system: two non-locking plates; two locking plates and a new design locking plate. The computational model was transferred to an in vitro experiment with polyurethane mandibles. Each group contained five samples and was subjected to a linear loading test in a universal testing machine. Results: A balanced distribution of stress was associated with the new plate design. This plate modified the mechanical behavior of the fractured region, with less displacement between the fractured segments. In the mechanical test, the group with two locking plates exhibited greater resistance to the 3 mm displacement, with a statistically significant difference when compared with the new plate group (ANOVA, P = 0.016. Conclusions: The new plate exhibited a more balanced distribution of stress. However, the group with two locking plates exhibited greater mechanical resistance.

  3. ISOFIX型儿童座椅正面碰撞台车试验的有限元仿真%FE Simulation of Frontal Crash Sled Test with ISOFIX Child Restraint System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡佳; 水野幸治

    2011-01-01

    A finite element (FE) model for ISOFIX child restraint system (CRS) is developed and by using the FE model for Hybrid Ⅲ 3-year-old child dummy, a FE model for the frontal crash sled test with ISOFIX CRS is set up. Based on the model a simulation is performed and the results of sled test and its simulation are compared in terms of kinematic behavior, head, chest and pelvis accelerations, and injury values of the dummy. Then the effectiveness of a top-tether force limiter is evaluated with FE model. It is found that the results of FE simulation agree well with that of sled test, and the injury values of the dummy are all below injury indicators. With a top-tether force limiter applied, the head forward displacement, though increases, is still far below its indicator value,while all other injury values reduce to different extents.%建立了ISOFIX型儿童座椅的有限元模型,并应用HybridⅢ3岁儿童假人有限元模型,建立了ISOFIX型儿童座椅正面碰撞台车试验的有限元模型,进行了仿真,对比分析了台车试验与有限元仿真的假人动态举动,头部、胸部和髋部的合成加速度波形及假人伤害值.接着用有限元模型对儿童座椅上拉带限力效果进行了评价.结果表明,有限元模型仿真结果与试验结果基本吻合,假人伤害值均在法规指标值以内.上拉带限力虽使头部最大前向移动量有所增加,但仍远小于指标值,且其他伤害值都有不同程度的降低.

  4. The Study of Analgesic Effects of Leonurus cardiaca L. in Mice by Formalin, Tail Flick and Hot Plate Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee-Asl, Masoume; Sabour, Mandana; Nikoui, Vahid; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Bakhtiarian, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Leonurus cardiaca, commonly known as motherwort, is a member of the Lamiaceae family. It has a number of interesting biological activities, for example, sedative and hypotensive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of alcoholic extract of aerial part of Leonurus cardiaca on nociceptive response using formalin, tail flick, and hot plate tests in mice. The acute treatment of mice with an ethanolic extract at doses of 500 and 250 mg/kg by intraperitoneal administration produced a significant antinociceptive in the first and second phases of formalin test, respectively. The hot plate and tail flick tests showed an increase in the antinociceptive effect at dose 500 mg/kg. These results suggest that Leonurus cardiaca possesses central and peripheral antinociceptive actions.

  5. Standard Test Method for Water Penetration of Flat Plate Solar Collectors by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the resistance of flat plate solar collectors to water penetration when water is applied to their outer surfaces with a static air pressure at the outer surface higher than the pressure at the interior of the collector. 1.2 This test method is applicable to any flat plate solar collector. 1.3 The proper use of this test method requires a knowledge of the principles of pressure and deflection measurement. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary information is contained in Section 6.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFICACY OF ROSE BENGAL PLATE TEST (I{BPT AND SERUM AGGLUTINATION TEST (SAT FOR DETECTING THE INCIDENE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN BUFFALOES (Bubolus bubolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ali Zahid, Ishtiaq Ahmad and Umer Hayat

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT were applied for the diagnosis of brucellosis in 240 buffaloes maintained at organized livestock farms in Punjab, to measure their comparative efficacy. Based on RBPT and SAT, 11.25 (n=27 and 10.42 percent (n=25 buffaloes were found seropositive, 11.67 (n 28 and 4.58 percent (n= 11 animals showed doubtful results, while 77.08 (n= 185 and 85 percept (n= 204 animals were found seronegative, respectively. Rose Bengal Plate Test detected higher percentages of seropositive, doubtful and seronegative cases than those detected by Serum Agglutination Test, which showed lower percentages or seropositive, doubtful and seronegative cases. This study indicated that SAT is more sensitive and reliable diagnostic test for the detection of Brucella aborlus, antibodies in buffaloes.

  7. DEM analyses of the whole failure process of shallow foundation in plate load test on dense sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Jiang, M. J.; Li, T.; Chen, S. L.

    2015-09-01

    Shallow foundations are widely used in civil engineering practice, but the instability mechanism is still unclear yet. Previously, the Finite Element Method (FEM) was commonly used to analyze the failure process of shallow foundations, but it meets difficulty in properly simulating the whole failure process of shallow foundation on the strain-softening material. Hence, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is employed in this paper to study the instability mechanism of the shallow foundation via numerical plate load test with focus on the microscopic features evolution during vertical loading. In the simulation, an amplified gravity was applied to a dense granular ground to reproduce a gravity stress state at a large scale. Then, a plate was put on the granular ground to simulate the plate load test. Deformation pattern, particle velocity and distribution of void ratio in the ground were examined to illustrate the microscopic features in the whole failure process of the granular ground. The results show that: 1) There are a marked peak value and a settlement softening branch in the stress-settlement relationship. 2) The grids close to the edge of the plate are peculiarly extended and twisted. 3) Four particle motion patterns were observed in the velocity fields and the percentage of each motion pattern changes during loading. 4) The void ratio field varies during loading, and the distinguishing interface tends to be similar to Terzaghi's shear failure surface.

  8. Three-contrast, metal test pattern (Snellen E-plate) in evaluation of imaging techniques in clinical chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, H.

    A metal test pattern based on a minified Snellen-type E-plate was evaluated in testing six imaging techniques for chest radiography. The device consisted of three contrast zones and it was attached to the patient's back over the right lung during chest radiography. The values for visual detectability of the E-figures were compared with the film scores obtained by grading the radiographs with respect to visibility of diagnostically important anatomic details. The test plate proved to be a simple, quick and reproducible tool for testing several imaging techniques at the same time. The E-plate results were similar to those of the visual grading analysis in most respects. A few discrepancies existed, which were probably due to the inability of the test pattern to fully consider the effect of motion unsharpness and varying scattering conditions within the human thorax, as well as to great differences in roentgen ray absorption properties between Au and tissues. (orig.).

  9. Evaluation of plate type fuel elements by eddy current test method; Avaliacao de combustiveis nucleares tipo placa pelo metodo de correntes parasitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frade, Rangel Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Plate type fuel elements are used in MTR research nuclear reactors. The fuel plates are manufactured by assembling a briquette containing the fissile material inserted in a frame, with metal plates in both sides of the set, to act as a cladding. This set is rolled under controlled conditions in order to obtain the fuel plate. In Brazil, this type of fuel is manufactured by IPEN and used in the IEA-R1 reactor. After fabrication of three batches of fuel plates, 24 plates, one of them is taken, in order to verify the thickness of the cladding. For this purpose, the plate is sectioned and the thickness measurements are carried out by using optical microscopy. This procedure implies in damage of the plate, with the consequent cost. Besides, the process of sample preparation for optical microscopy analysis is time consuming, it is necessary an infrastructure for handling radioactive materials and there is a generation of radioactive residues during the process. The objective of this study was verify the applicability of eddy current test method for nondestructive measurement of cladding thickness in plate type nuclear fuels, enabling the inspection of all manufactured fuel plates. For this purpose, reference standards, representative of the cladding of the fuel plates, were manufactured using thermomechanical processing conditions similar to those used for plates manufacturing. Due to no availability of fuel plates for performing the experiments, the presence of the plate’s core was simulated using materials with different electrical conductivities, fixed to the thickness reference standards. Probes of eddy current testing were designed and manufactured. They showed high sensitivity to thickness variations, being able to separate small thickness changes. The sensitivity was higher in tests performed on the reference standards and samples without the presence of the materials simulating the core. For examination of the cladding with influence of materials simulating the

  10. Poor compliance with child safety restraint use while travelling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fallon, R

    2011-02-01

    Road traffic accidents are a leading cause of death of children. It is the law that all children should be appropriately secured when traveling in vehicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental conformity with these regulations and to test if advice given at a Paediatric outpatient clinic could improve compliance. Two groups were assigned, an intervention group (parents given an information leaflet and a clear explanation about appropriate restraints for their children) and a non-intervention group (received no information). They were contacted again after 2 months and asked regarding compliance. A total of 394 children from 186 families were initially given the questionnaire. Nearly one third of children (29.2%) were not using any restraint while travelling rising to 35.3% on follow up. This study concluded that once off parental education made negligible difference to an already inconsistent and haphazard approach to compliance with safety regulations.

  11. Detection of plating defects using ultrasonic and eddy current test methods; Nachweis von Plattierungsfehlern mit Ultraschall- und Wirbelstromverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waidele, H.; Knoch, P. [MPA, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); Gersinska, R. [BfS Salzgitter (Germany); Brenner, W.; Seidenkranz, T. [TUeV Sued (Germany); Csapo, G.; Just, T. [TUeV Nord (Germany); Weiss, R. [IzfP Saarbruecken (Germany); Rathgeb, W. [IntelligeNDT, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The validity of ultrasonic and eddy current testing of austenitic platings of reactor pressure vessels was investigated in the context of a project funded by the Federal Radiation Protection Office (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz). In the first phase, test specimens with natural defects were fabricated at MPA Stuttgart; in the second phase, plating defects were introduced in a MPA large-size vessel. Measurements showed that most plating defects will be detected by standard ultrasonic testing. The highest accuracy was achieved by a combination of ultrasonic and eddy current testing. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen eines vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz gefoerderten Vorhabens wurde die Aussagefaehigkeit von Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefungen an austenitischen Plattierungen von Reaktordruckbehaeltern untersucht. In der ersten Phase des Vorhabens wurden an der MPA Stuttgart Testkoerper mit natuerlichen Fehlern im Plattierungsbereich gefertigt, in einer zweiten Phase wurden Plattierungsfehler in den MPA-Grossbehaelter eingebracht. Die Messungen haben gezeigt, dass die meisten Plattierungsfehler mit Ultraschall-Standardprueftechniken nachweisbar sind, wobei die groesste Aussagekraft bei einer Kombination von Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefung gegeben ist. (orig.)

  12. Displacement analysis of a bend plate test with mechanical loading and laser heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, P.S.

    1997-09-01

    The surface displacment of a steel plate caused by a permanent deformation as a result of local yielding was modeled by a finite element analysis. The local yielding occurs when a small area of the plate is heated by a laser beam. The calculated displacments are in good agreement with the preliminary experimental data obtained using a bend specimen with laser heating at the University of Alabama at Huntsville. It has been shown computuationally and optically that the relative displacments are less than 1mm near the laser heated area of the specimen. The results demonstrate that the experimental approach is a feasible technique for determining the residual stress under multiaxial stress field.

  13. Further thoughts on the process of restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, G

    2006-02-01

    The physical restraint of a disturbed person is a subject constant of psychiatry and is a challenge that particularly faces nurses working in acute inpatient settings. While other approaches to psychiatric treatment have been discarded (e.g. punishment, blood letting, trepanation, deep insulin therapy and so on) or evolved into new treatments (the use of medication), the act of physical restraint has remained largely unmodified. Given the ubiquity of physical restraint in psychiatry, particularly as a nursing procedure, the absence of a sustained body of research is notable. This essay examines some of the historical underpinnings of the use of restraint in psychiatry brought into sharp focus by the David Bennett Inquiry Report (2003) and the National Institute of Clinical Effective (NICE) guidelines (2005) on the management of violence.

  14. Development of eddy current testing probe for thick-walled metal plate and quantitative evaluation of cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, K; Uchimoto, T; Takagi, T

    2003-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the crack detection of thick-walled non-magnetic metal plates by eddy current testing, which is difficult because of Kelvin skin effect generally. The purpose of this research is the development of an new eddy current testing probe for cracks in thick-walled plates and crack shapes quantitative evaluation. The probe was designed, based on the numerical computation using 3D fast eddy current code. The advantages of this new probe are strong eddy current on the back of specimens and gentle decrement of eddy current in the thickness direction. Through experiments, we confirmed that this probe can detect the back artificial defect with 0.5 mm thickness on IN-CONEL 718 specimen with 7.0 mm thickness. Reconstruction of crack shapes was performed based on the experimental results with the inverse problem code developed by authors. The length and depth of reconstructed defects approximately agree with those of real crack. (author)

  15. Standarized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A steel flat-plate collector with two transparent covers and a proprietary coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator are given. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperature and flux level.

  16. Synthesis of Rh/Macro-Porous Alumina Over Micro-Channel Plate and Its Catalytic Activity Tests for Diesel Reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Yeon Baek; Kim, Yong Sul; Park, No-Kuk; Lee, Tae Jin

    2015-11-01

    Macro-porous Al2O3 as the catalytic support material was synthesized using colloidal polystyrene spheres over a micro-channel plate. The colloidal polystyrene spheres were used as a template for the production of an ordered macro porous material using an alumina nitrate solution as the precursor for Al2O3. The close-packed colloidal crystal array template method was applied to the formulation of ordered macro-porous Al2O3 used as a catalytic support material over a micro-channel plate. The solvent in the mixture solution, which also contained the colloidal polystyrene solution, aluminum nitrate solution and the precursor of the catalytic active materials (Rh), was evaporated in a vacuum oven at 50 degrees C. The ordered polystyrene spheres and aluminum salt of the solid state were deposited over a micro channel plate, and macro-porous Al2O3 was formed after calcination at 600 degrees C to remove the polystyrene spheres. The catalytic activity of the Rh/macro-porous alumina supported over the micro-channel plate was tested for diesel reforming.

  17. Requirements and testing methods for surfaces of metallic bipolar plates for low-temperature PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendras, P.; Lötsch, K.; von Unwerth, T.

    2017-03-01

    To reduce emissions and to substitute combustion engines automotive manufacturers, legislature and first users aspire hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Up to now the focus of research was set on ensuring functionality and increasing durability of fuel cell components. Therefore, expensive materials were used. Contemporary research and development try to substitute these substances by more cost-effective material combinations. The bipolar plate is a key component with the greatest influence on volume and mass of a fuel cell stack and they have to meet complex requirements. They support bending sensitive components of stack, spread reactants over active cell area and form the electrical contact to another cell. Furthermore, bipolar plates dissipate heat of reaction and separate one cell gastight from the other. Consequently, they need a low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) to the gas diffusion layer, high flexural strength, good thermal conductivity and a high durability. To reduce costs stainless steel is a favoured material for bipolar plates in automotive applications. Steel is characterized by good electrical and thermal conductivity but the acid environment requires a high chemical durability against corrosion as well. On the one hand formation of a passivating oxide layer increasing ICR should be inhibited. On the other hand pitting corrosion leading to increased permeation rate may not occur. Therefore, a suitable substrate lamination combination is wanted. In this study material testing methods for bipolar plates are considered.

  18. Real-world adjustments of driver seat and head restraint in Saab 9-3 vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anna; Pipkorn, Linda; Kullgren, Anders; Svensson, Mats

    2017-05-19

    Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), commonly denoted whiplash injury, is a worldwide problem. These injuries occur at relatively low changes of velocity (typically Saab Active Head Restraint (SAHR) being one of the most prominent. The SAHR-which is height adjustable-is mounted to a pressure plate in the seatback by means of a spring-resisted link mechanism.  Nevertheless, studies have shown that seats equipped with reactive head restraints (such as the SAHR) have a very high injury-reducing effect for males (∼60-70%) but very low or no reduction effect for females. One influencing factor could be the position of the head restraint relative to the head, because a number of studies have reported that adjustable head restraints often are incorrectly positioned by drivers.  The aim was to investigate how female and male Saab drivers adjust the seat in the car they drive the most. The seated positions of drivers in stationary conditions have been investigated in a total of 76 volunteers (34 females, 42 males) who participated in the study. Inclusion criteria incorporated driving a Saab 9-3 on a regularly basis. The majority of the volunteers (89%) adjusted the head restraint to any of the 3 uppermost positions and as many as 59% in the top position.  The average vertical distance between the top of the head and the top of the head restraint (offset) increase linearly with increasing statures, from an average of -26 mm (head below the head restraint) for small females to an average of 82 mm (head above the head restraint) for large males. On average, the offset was 23 mm for females, which is within a satisfactory range and in accordance with recommendations; the corresponding value for males was 72 mm.  The backset tended to be shorter among female volunteers (on average 27 mm) compared to the male volunteers (on average 44 mm). Moreover, the backset tended to increase with increasing statures. Incorrect adjustment of the head restraint cannot explain

  19. Effect of physical restraint reduction on older patients' hospital length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Timothy; Bai, Xue; Chui, Maria Y P; Lai, Claudia K Y; Ho, Daniel W H; Ho, Florence K Y; Woo, Jean

    2012-09-01

    Physical restraints are often used to prevent falls and to secure medical devices in older people in hospitals. Restraint reduction has been advocated on the grounds that physical restraints have negative psychological effects and are not effective in preventing falls. The potential effect of restraint reduction on length of hospital stay (LOS) has not been investigated. This study was undertaken to compare the average length of stay of older patients in a convalescent medical ward setting before and after a restraint reduction program. This is a retrospective study. A convalescent hospital in Hong Kong. This study included 2000 patient episodes. The use of physical restraint, LOS, and clinical outcomes of randomly selected patient episodes in the year before and after the implementation of a restraint reduction program were compared. The clinical outcomes included Modified Functional Ambulatory Categories and modified Barthel index. Subgroup analysis was performed on those with confusion as defined by dementia diagnosis, low abbreviated mental test score, or abnormal mental domain of Norton Score. A total of 958 and 988 patient episodes admitted to 10 medical wards in a convalescent hospital in 2007 and 2009 were examined. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of patients in the 2 years. With the implementation of the restraint reduction scheme, the rate of physical restraint use declined significantly from 13.3% in 2007 to 4.1% in 2009 for all patients. The average LOS of patients was significantly lower in the year after the implementation of restraint reduction (19.5 ± 20.7 versus 16.8 ± 13.4 days in 2007 and 2009 respectively, P < .001). On subgroup analysis, the reduction in LOS was significant in the cognitively impaired patients (23.0 ± 26.5 to 17.8 ± 15.0 days in 2007 and 2009 respectively, P < .001), but not in the cognitively normal patients. There were no significant differences between the 2 years in the incidence of

  20. Occupant restraint in the rear seat: ATD responses to standard and pre-tensioning, force-limiting belt restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason; Michaelson, Jarett; Kent, Richard; Kuppa, Shashi; Bostrom, Ola

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that restrained occupants over the age of 50 in frontal crashes have a higher risk of injury in the rear seat than in the front, and have hypothesized that the incorporation of technology such as belt pre-tensioning and force limiting preferentially in the front seat is at least partially responsible for this trend. This study investigates the potential benefits and trade-offs of seat belt pretensioners and force-limiters in the rear seat using a series of frontal impact sled tests at two speeds (48 km/h and 29 km/h DeltaV) with a buck representing the interior of the reat seat occupant compartment of a contemporary mid-sized sedan. Four different dummies were tested: the Hybrid III six year old (in a booster seat, H3 6YO), the Hybrid III 5(th) percentile female (H3 AF05), the Hybrid III 50(th) percentile male (H3 AM50), and the THOR-NT. The restraints consisted of either a standard three point belt, or a 3-point belt with a retractor pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter (FL+PT). Each test condition was repeated in triplicate. The FL+PT restraints (compared to the standard restraints) resulted in a significant (p < or = 0.05) decrease in peak internal chest deflection for each of the Hybrid III dummies at both test speeds (48 km/h: 29% decrease for H3 6YO, 38% decrease for H3 AF05, 30% decrease for H3 AM50), and for the THOR-NT at a DeltaV of 29 km/h. At 48 km/h, the FL+PT restraint qualitatively decreased the average peak internal chest deflection of the THOR-NT, however this decrease was not statistically significant (p=0.06). Furthermore, the FL+PT system allowed little or no increase in forward head excursion, and improved whole-body kinematics for all dummies by restricting pelvic excursion and slightly increasing torso pitch. The results suggest that the FL+PT system studied here may provide injury-reducing benefit to rear seat occupants in moderate to high severity frontal crashes, although more study is needed to evaluate

  1. Occupant Restraint in the Rear Seat: ATD Responses to Standard and Pre-tensioning, Force-Limiting Belt Restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason; Michaelson, Jarett; Kent, Richard; Kuppa, Shashi; Bostrom, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that restrained occupants over the age of 50 in frontal crashes have a higher risk of injury in the rear seat than in the front, and have hypothesized that the incorporation of technology such as belt pre-tensioning and force limiting preferentially in the front seat is at least partially responsible for this trend. This study investigates the potential benefits and trade-offs of seat belt pretensioners and force-limiters in the rear seat using a series of frontal impact sled tests at two speeds (48 km/h and 29 km/h ΔV) with a buck representing the interior of the reat seat occupant compartment of a contemporary mid-sized sedan. Four different dummies were tested: the Hybrid III six year old (in a booster seat, H3 6YO), the Hybrid III 5th percentile female (H3 AF05), the Hybrid III 50th percentile male (H3 AM50), and the THOR-NT. The restraints consisted of either a standard three point belt, or a 3-point belt with a retractor pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter (FL+PT). Each test condition was repeated in triplicate. The FL+PT restraints (compared to the standard restraints) resulted in a significant (p≤0.05) decrease in peak internal chest deflection for each of the Hybrid III dummies at both test speeds (48 km/h: 29% decrease for H3 6YO, 38% decrease for H3 AF05, 30% decrease for H3 AM50), and for the THOR-NT at a ΔV of 29 km/h. At 48 km/h, the FL+PT restraint qualitatively decreased the average peak internal chest deflection of the THOR-NT, however this decrease was not statistically significant (p=0.06). Furthermore, the FL+PT system allowed little or no increase in forward head excursion, and improved whole-body kinematics for all dummies by restricting pelvic excursion and slightly increasing torso pitch. The results suggest that the FL+PT system studied here may provide injury-reducing benefit to rear seat occupants in moderate to high severity frontal crashes, although more study is needed to evaluate these restraints

  2. Test of a four-gap resistive plate chamber with cosmic muons and high-rate gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.K.; Shin, S.S.; Hong, B.; Jhang, G.; Jeong, M.S.; Jo, M.; Cho, S.W.; Joo, E.; Kim, C.; Kim, H.C. [Department of Physics and Korea Detector Laboratory, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.S., E-mail: kslee0421@korea.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Korea Detector Laboratory, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S.K.; Lim, J.K.; Moon, D.H.; Shim, H.H.; Sim, K.S. [Department of Physics and Korea Detector Laboratory, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-11

    We report a new development of a phenolic four-gap resistive plate chamber (RPC) for use as a high-rate particle trigger in high-energy physics experiments. In the current study, a prototype RPC equipped with four 1-mm-thick gaps made from high-pressure-laminated (HPL) resistive plates has been designed and built. The current detector R and D aims to reduce the probability of radiation-induced degradation of the core detector components of the RPCs, the gas gaps, as well as to improve the detection rate capability. The detector characteristics of the four-gap RPC were obtained though a series of tests with cosmic muons and gamma rays and were compared with those of the typical 2-mm thick double-gap RPCs currently used in the CMS experiment at the LHC and in the PHENIX experiment at the RHIC.

  3. Restraint of fatigue crack growth by wedge effects of fine particles

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, I; Kotani, N

    2000-01-01

    Presents some experimental results which demonstrate restraint of fatigue crack growth in an Al-Mg alloy by wedge effects of fine particles. Fatigue test specimens were machined from a JIS A5083P-O Al-Mg alloy plate of 5 mm thickness and an EDM starter notch was introduced to each specimen. Three kinds of fine particles were prepared as the materials to be wedged into the fatigue cracks, i.e. magnetic particles and two kinds of alumina particles having different mean particle sizes of 47.3 mu m and 15.2 mu m. Particles of each kind were suspended in an oil to form a paste, which was applied on the specimen surface covering the notch zone prior to the fatigue tests. In order to make some fracture mechanics approaches, in situ observations of fatigue cracks were performed for the two cases using a CCD microscope, with a magnification of *1000. The crack length and the crack opening displacement (COD) at the notch root, delta , were measured. The crack retardation effect continues almost through the entire lifet...

  4. Roadside observation of child passenger restraint use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Bruce

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite legislation and research evidence supporting the use of childhood vehicle restraints, motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of injury, death and disability among Canadian children. Methods: Working in collaboration with trained car seat specialists and police officers, roadside checks were conducted to observe correct use of child restraints. Results: Of the 1323 child vehicle restraints inspected, 99.6% of the children were restrained, 91% were in the correct seat, and 48% of restraints were correctly installed. The seat/restraint types most used incorrectly used were booster seats (31% and seat belts (53%. The majority of incorrectly installed or fitted seats (55% were forward facing. Common errors in installation and fit included the seat not being secured tightly enough to the vehicle, incorrect tether strap use, the harness not being tight enough, and/or the chest clip being in the wrong place. Conclusions: The greatest proportion of incorrect seat use was among those children who transitioned to a seat belt too soon. The greatest proportion of installation and fit errors were among forward facing seats. Researchers recommend: 1 targeting parents with older children (ages 3 and above regarding transitioning too soon from forward facing seats to booster seats, and from booster seats to seat belts; 2 targeting parents with younger children regarding correct installation of rear facing and forward facing seats; 3 collaborating with police officers to review the most common errors and encourage observation at roadside checks; and 4 creating community awareness by way of roadside checks.

  5. Acute Cold / Restraint Stress in Castrated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether castration altered osmotically stimulated vasopressin (VP release and urinary volume and what is the role of endocrine-stress axis in this process.Materials and methods: Totally 108 mice were studied in two main groups of castrated (n=78 and control (n=30. Each group was extracted by acute cold stress (4◦C for 2h/day, restraint stress (by syringes 60cc 2h/day and cold/restraint stress. The castrated group was treated in sub groups of testosterone, control (sesame oil as vehicle of testosterone. Propranolol as blocker of sympathetic nervous system was given to both groups of castrated mice and main control.Results: Our results showed that, there is interactions between testosterone and sympathetic nervous system on vasopressin, because urine volume was decreased only in testoctomized mice with cold/restraint and cold stress (P<0.001; propranolol as the antagonist of sympathetic nervous system could block and increase urine volume in castrated mice. This increased volume of urine was due to acute cold stress, not restraint stress (p<0.001. The role of testosterone, noradrenalin (NA and Vasopressin (VP in the acute cold stress is confirmed, because testosterone could return the effect of decreased urine volume in control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the effect of cold/restraint stress on urinary volume in castrated mice shows that there is interaction between sex hormone (testosterone, vasopressin and adrenergic systems.

  6. Test and Numerical Analysis for Penetration Residual Velocity of Bullet Considering Failure Strain Uncertainty of Composite Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Myungseok; Lee, Minhyung [Sejong Univ., Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The ballistic performance data of composite materials is distributed due to material inhomogeneity. In this paper, the uncertainty in residual velocity is obtained experimentally, and a method of predicting it is established numerically for the high-speed impact of a bullet into laminated composites. First, the failure strain distribution was obtained by conducting a tensile test using 10 specimens. Next, a ballistic impact test was carried out for the impact of a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP) bullet with 4ply ([0/90]s) and 8ply ([0/90/0/90]s) glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) plates. Eighteen shots were made at the same impact velocity and the residual velocities were obtained. Finally, simulations were conducted to predict the residual velocities by using the failure strain distributions that were obtained from the tensile test. For this simulation, two impact velocities were chosen at 411.7m/s (4ply) and 592.5m/s (8ply). The simulation results show that the predicted residual velocities are in close agreement with test results. Additionally, the modeling of a composite plate with layered solid elements requires less calculation time than modeling with solid elements.

  7. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, J.R. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Charpy-V (C{sub V}) notch ductility and tension test properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated (I), 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated + 454{degree}C (850{degree}F)-168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} and 4.18 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1. 05 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The materials (specimens) were supplied by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company and represented high and low nickel content plates and a high nickel, high copper content weld deposit prototypical of the Yankee-Rowe reactor vessel. The promise of the IAR method for extending the fluence tolerance of radiation-sensitive steels and welds is clearly shown by the results. The annealing treatment produced full C{sub V} upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the C{sub V} 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The C{sub V} transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity was exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. Its high phosphorus content is believed to be responsible. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared.

  8. Development of three dimensional Eulerian numerical procedure toward plate-mantle simulation: accuracy test by the fluid rope coiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, M.; Kameyama, M.; Kageyama, A.

    2007-12-01

    Reproducing a realistic plate tectonics with mantle convection simulation is one of the greatest challenges in computational geophysics. We have developed a three dimensional Eulerian numerical procedure toward plate-mantle simulation, which includes a finite deformation of the plate in the mantle convection. Our method, combined with CIP-CSLR (Constrained Interpolation Profile method-Conservative Semi-Lagrangian advection scheme with Rational function) and ACuTE method, enables us to solve advection and force balance equations even with a large and sharp viscosity jump, which marks the interface between the plates and surrounding upper mantle materials. One of the typical phenomena represented by our method is a fluid rope coiling event, where a stream of viscous fluid is poured onto the bottom plane from a certain height. This coiling motion is due to delicate balances between bending, twisting and stretching motions of fluid rope. In the framework of the Eulerian scheme, the fluid rope and surrounding air are treated as a viscosity profile which differs by several orders of magnitude. Our method solves the complex force balances of the fluid rope and air, by a multigrid iteration technique of ACuTE algorithm. In addition, the CIP-CSLR advection scheme allows us to obtain a deforming shape of the fluid rope, as a low diffusive solution in the Eulerian frame of reference. In this presentation, we will show the simulation result of the fluid rope coiling as an accuracy test for our simulation scheme, by comparing with the simplified numerical solution for thin viscous jet.

  9. Experimental testing of various heat transfer structures in a flat plate thermal energy storage unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maike; Fiß, Michael; Klemm, Torsten

    2016-05-01

    For solar process heat applications with steam as the working fluid and varying application parameters, a novel latent heat storage concept has been developed using an adaptation of a flat plate heat exchanger as the storage concept. Since the pressure level in these applications usually does not exceed 30 bar, an adaptation with storage material chambers arranged between heat transfer medium chambers is possible. Phase change materials are used as the storage medium, so that the isothermal evaporation of steam during discharging of the storage is paired with the isothermal solidification of the storage material. Heat transfer structures can be inserted into the chambers to adjust the power level for a given application. By combining the required number of flat plate heat exchanger compartments and inserting the appropriate heat transfer structure, the design can easily be adjusted for the required power level and capacity for a specific application. Within this work, the technical feasibility of this concept is proven. The dependence of the operating characteristics on the geometry of the heat exchanger is identified. A focus is on varying the power density by integrating conductive heat structures in the PCM.

  10. Synergistic interaction of gabapentin with tiagabine in the hot-plate test in mice: an isobolographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Kołacz, Agnieszka; Wojda, Ewa; Czuczwar, Mirosław; Przesmycki, Krzysztof; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining the analgesic effect of gabapentin and tiagabine, two antiepileptic drugs that were administered alone and in combination at a fixed ratio of 1:1, in the acute thermal pain model (hot-plate test) in mice. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the dose-response relationships between logarithms of antiepileptic drug doses and their resultant maximum possible antinociceptive effects in the mouse hot-plate test. From linear equations, we calculated doses that increased the antinociceptive effect by 50% (ED(50) values) for gabapentin, tiagabine and their combination. The type of interaction between gabapentin and tiagabine was assessed using the isobolographic analysis. Results indicated that both antiepileptic drugs produced the definite antinociceptive effect, and the experimentally derived ED(50) values for gabapentin and tiagabine, when applied alone, were 504.4 mg/kg and 5.67 mg/kg, respectively. With isobolography, the experimentally derived ED(50 mix) value for the fixed ratio combination of 1:1 was 139.31 mg/kg and significantly differed from the theoretically calculated ED(50 add) value, which was 255.04 mg/kg (p < 0.05), indicating the synergistic interaction between gabapentin and tiagabine in the hot-plate test in mice. In conclusion, the combination of tiagabine with gabapentin at a fixed ratio of 1:1 exerted a synergistic interaction in the mouse model of nociceptive pain. If the results from this study could be extrapolated to clinical settings, the combination of tiagabine with gabapentin might be beneficial for pain relief in humans.

  11. Performance testing of a long-strip two-end readout multi-gap resistive plate chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Bin; WANG Yi; LUO Ming; LI Yuan-Jing; CHENG Jian-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) is a new generation of gas detector with good tim-ing and spacial resolution, whose technique is widely applied in some recent high energy (nuclear) physics experiments. In this letter, we report a long-strip two-end readout MRPC and its test beam performance. The measurements show that the long-strip performs a transmission line characteristic and the impedance is independent of the length of strip. The MRPC module we developed is presented to gain a timing resolution of~80 ps and a spacial resolution of ~6.4 mm. The possible application of the MRPC is also discussed.

  12. Motivating drivers to correctly adjust head restraints: assessing effectiveness of three different interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fockler, S K; Vavrik, J; Kristiansen, L

    1998-11-01

    Three types of driver educational strategies were tested to determine the most effective approach for motivating drivers to adjust their head restraints to the correct vertical position: (1) a human interactive personal contact with a member of an ICBC-trained head restraint adjustment team, (2) a passive video presentation of the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment, and (3) an interactive three-dimensional kinetic model showing the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment. An experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. A different educational treatment was used in each of three lanes of a vehicle emissions testing facility, with a fourth lane with no intervention serving as a control group. Observational and self-reported data were obtained from a total of 1,974 vehicles entering and exiting the facility. The human intervention led to significantly more drivers actually adjusting their head restraints immediately after the intervention than the passive video or interactive kinetic model approaches, which were both no different from the control group. The human intervention was recommended as the most effective and was implemented successfully on a limited basis during 3 months of 1995 and again during 3 months of 1996.

  13. Antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine in the hot-plate test in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestehave, Sara; Munro, Gordon; Pedersen, Tina Brønnum; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-09-27

    Researchers performing experiments on animals should always strive towards the refinement of experiments, minimization of stress and provision of better animal welfare. An adequate analgesic strategy is important to improve post-operative recovery and welfare in laboratory rats and mice. In addition, it is desirable to provide post-operative analgesia using methods that are minimally invasive and stressful. This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of orally administered buprenorphine ingested in Nutella® in comparison with subcutaneous buprenorphine administration. By exposing the animal to a thermal stimulus using a hot plate, significant antinociceptive effects of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine administered in Nutella® were demonstrated. This was evident at doses of 1.0 mg/kg 60 and 120 min post administration (P Nutella® in a 10-fold higher dose, as well as approximately 60 min earlier, than with the more commonly employed subcutaneous route of administration.

  14. Topography of Venus and earth - A test for the presence of plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Yuter, S. E.; Solomon, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons of earth and Venus topography by use of Pioneer/Venus radar altimetry are examined. Approximately 93% of the Venus surface has been mapped with a horizontal resolution of 200 km and a vertical resolution of 200 m. Tectonic troughs have been indicated in plains regions which cover 65% of Venus, and hypsometric comparisons between the two planets' elevation distributions revealed that while the earth has a bimodal height distribution, Venus displays a unimodal configuration, with 60% of the planet surface within 500 m of the modal planet radius. The effects of mapping the earth at the same resolution as the Venus observations were explored. Continents and oceans were apparent, and although folded mountains appeared as high spots, no indications of tectonic activity were discernible. A NASA Venus Orbiting Imaging radar is outlined, which is designed to detect volcanoes, folded mountain ranges, craters, and faults, and thereby allow definition of possible plate-tectonic activity on Venus.

  15. Topography of Venus and earth - A test for the presence of plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.; Yuter, S. E.; Solomon, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons of earth and Venus topography by use of Pioneer/Venus radar altimetry are examined. Approximately 93% of the Venus surface has been mapped with a horizontal resolution of 200 km and a vertical resolution of 200 m. Tectonic troughs have been indicated in plains regions which cover 65% of Venus, and hypsometric comparisons between the two planets' elevation distributions revealed that while the earth has a bimodal height distribution, Venus displays a unimodal configuration, with 60% of the planet surface within 500 m of the modal planet radius. The effects of mapping the earth at the same resolution as the Venus observations were explored. Continents and oceans were apparent, and although folded mountains appeared as high spots, no indications of tectonic activity were discernible. A NASA Venus Orbiting Imaging radar is outlined, which is designed to detect volcanoes, folded mountain ranges, craters, and faults, and thereby allow definition of possible plate-tectonic activity on Venus.

  16. Physical Restraint Initiation in Nursing Homes and Subsequent Resident Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…

  17. Ligamentous and capsular restraints to experimental posterior elbow joint dislocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Søren R; Olsen, Bo S; Jensen, Steen L

    2003-01-01

    Pathological external forearm rotation (PEFR) relates to posterolateral elbow joint instability, and is considered a possible requisite step in a simple posterior elbow joint dislocation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capsuloligamentous restraint to PEFR. In all, 18 elbow joint...... specimens were examined in a joint analysis system developed for experimental elbow dislocation. Sequential cutting of capsule and ligaments followed by stability testing provided specific data relating to each capsuloligamentous structure. The primary stabilizers against PEFR in the extended elbow were...

  18. Freedom from restraint: consequences of reducing physical restraints in the management of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C; Mitchell-Pedersen, L; Fingerote, E; Edmund, L

    1989-01-01

    Physical restraint is commonly used in the management of elderly people in North American hospitals and nursing homes. Between December 1981 and March 1982 the Department of Geriatric Medicine, St. Boniface General Hospital, Winnipeg, changed its practice regarding the use of such restraints. In the fiscal year 1980-81 the rate of application of physical restraints was 52 per 1000 patient-days and the frequency of falls 7 per 1000 patient-days. By 1986-87 the figures were 0.3 and 8.7 per 1000 patient-days respectively; the increase in falls was not clinically significant. During the study period there was a 40% reduction in the use of chemical restraints (psychotropic drugs other than hypnotic and antidepressant agents). Here we record how this change in practice occurred and persisted. PMID:2776096

  19. On Restraint of and Supervision over Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG YUNHU

    2007-01-01

    @@ Power is the nucleus of social and political life. Effective restraint on and supervision over the operation of power is the fundamental way of preventing corruption of power, which at the same time constitutes an important indication to democracy and its development in a given country.

  20. PDBStat: a universal restraint converter and restraint analysis software package for protein NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejero, Roberto [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States); Snyder, David [William Paterson University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Mao, Binchen; Aramini, James M.; Montelione, Gaetano T., E-mail: guy@cabm.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The heterogeneous array of software tools used in the process of protein NMR structure determination presents organizational challenges in the structure determination and validation processes, and creates a learning curve that limits the broader use of protein NMR in biology. These challenges, including accurate use of data in different data formats required by software carrying out similar tasks, continue to confound the efforts of novices and experts alike. These important issues need to be addressed robustly in order to standardize protein NMR structure determination and validation. PDBStat is a C/C++ computer program originally developed as a universal coordinate and protein NMR restraint converter. Its primary function is to provide a user-friendly tool for interconverting between protein coordinate and protein NMR restraint data formats. It also provides an integrated set of computational methods for protein NMR restraint analysis and structure quality assessment, relabeling of prochiral atoms with correct IUPAC names, as well as multiple methods for analysis of the consistency of atomic positions indicated by their convergence across a protein NMR ensemble. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the PDBStat software, and highlight some of its valuable computational capabilities. As an example, we demonstrate the use of the PDBStat restraint converter for restrained CS-Rosetta structure generation calculations, and compare the resulting protein NMR structure models with those generated from the same NMR restraint data using more traditional structure determination methods. These results demonstrate the value of a universal restraint converter in allowing the use of multiple structure generation methods with the same restraint data for consensus analysis of protein NMR structures and the underlying restraint data.

  1. Analysis of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin method with optimal test functions for the Reissner-Mindlin plate bending model

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) method with optimal test functions when applied to solve the Reissner-Mindlin model of plate bending. We prove that the hybrid variational formulation underlying the DPG method is well-posed (stable) with a thickness-dependent constant in a norm encompassing the L2-norms of the bending moment, the shear force, the transverse deflection and the rotation vector. We then construct a numerical solution scheme based on quadrilateral scalar and vector finite elements of degree p. We show that for affine meshes the discretization inherits the stability of the continuous formulation provided that the optimal test functions are approximated by polynomials of degree p+3. We prove a theoretical error estimate in terms of the mesh size h and polynomial degree p and demonstrate numerical convergence on affine as well as non-affine mesh sequences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Success importance and urge magnitude as determinants of cardiovascular response to a behavioral restraint challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agtarap, Stephanie D; Wright, Rex A; Mlynski, Christopher; Hammad, Rawan; Blackledge, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Decades of research have investigated a conceptual analysis concerned with determinants and cardiovascular correlates of effort in people confronted with performance challenges, that is, opportunities to alter some course of events by acting. One suggestion is that effort and associated cardiovascular responses should be determined jointly by the difficulty of meeting a challenge and the importance of doing so. The present experiment tested this in a context involving behavioral restraint, that is, effortful resistance against a behavioral impulse or urge. Participants were presented a mildly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty low) or a strongly evocative violent film clip (restraint difficulty high) with instructions to refrain from showing any facial response. Success was made more or less important through coordinated manipulations of outcome expectancy, ego-involvement and social evaluation. As expected, SBP responses assessed during the work period were proportional to clip evocativeness - i.e., the difficulty of the restraint challenge - when importance was high, but low regardless of clip evocativeness when importance was low. Findings conceptually replicate previous cardiovascular results and support extension of the guiding analysis to the behavioral restraint realm.

  3. In Vitro Dissolution Tests of Plutonium and Americium Containing Contamination Originating From ZPPR Fuel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William F. Bauer; Brian K. Schuetz; Gary M. Huestis; Thomas B. Lints; Brian K. Harris; R. Duane Ball; Gracy Elias

    2012-09-01

    Assessing the extent of internal dose is of concern whenever workers are exposed to airborne radionuclides or other contaminants. Internal dose determinations depend upon a reasonable estimate of the expected biological half-life of the contaminants in the respiratory tract. One issue with refractory elements is determining the dissolution rate of the element. Actinides such as plutonium (Pu) and Americium (Am) tend to be very refractory and can have biological half-lives of tens of years. In the event of an exposure, the dissolution rates of the radionuclides of interest needs to be assessed in order to assign the proper internal dose estimates. During the November 2011 incident at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) involving a ZPPR fuel plate, air filters in a constant air monitor (CAM) and a giraffe filter apparatus captured airborne particulate matter. These filters were used in dissolution rate experiments to determine the apparent dissolution half-life of Pu and Am in simulated biological fluids. This report describes these experiments and the results. The dissolution rates were found to follow a three term exponential decay equation. Differences were noted depending upon the nature of the biological fluid simulant. Overall, greater than 95% of the Pu and 93% of the Am were in a very slow dissolving component with dissolution half-lives of over 10 years.

  4. Invited article: a test-facility for large-area microchannel plate detector assemblies using a pulsed sub-picosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard; Chollet, Matthieu; Elagin, Andrey; Oberla, Eric; Vostrikov, Alexander; Wetstein, Matthew; Obaid, Razib; Webster, Preston

    2013-06-01

    The Large Area Picosecond Photodetector Collaboration is developing large-area fast photodetectors with time resolution tests on bare 8 in.-square MCP plates or into a smaller chamber for tests on 33-mm circular substrates. We present the experimental setup, detector calibration, data acquisition, analysis tools, and typical results demonstrating the performance of the test facility.

  5. The Structure Characteristics and Diagnostic Test of Supplemental Restraint System on BENZ Car%奔驰轿车辅助防护系统的结构特点与诊断测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒华; 董宏国; 张煜; 刘磊

    2001-01-01

    The supplemental restraint system on BENZ car is composed of safety air bag system and safety belt retractor system.This paper introduces the structure characteristics,working principle and control circuit and expounds the fault code reading and delating methods.%奔驰轿车装备的辅助防护系统由安全气囊系统和座椅安全带收紧系统2部分组成,介绍了其结构特点、工作原理及控制电路,阐述了读取与清除故障代码的诊断测试方法。

  6. Physical Restraint in Critical Care Settings: Will They Go Away?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mion, Lorraine C.

    2015-01-01

    The critical care setting is perhaps the last major health care setting in which physical restraint remains a common, and oftentimes unquestioned, practice. This is despite the numerous regulations and accrediting standards that have limited or even eliminated practitioners’ use of physical restraints in other health care settings. The decision to use physical restraint in the care of critically ill patients can be complex and is influenced by characteristics of the patient, the practitioner, and the environment. What do we know about physical restraint practice in critical care settings, and what steps must we take if we are, indeed, to become “restraint-free” environments? PMID:19064141

  7. Reenactment of circumstances in deaths related to restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Ronald L

    2004-09-01

    Reenactment of the circumstances in deaths associated with restraint, utilizing participants and witnesses while memories are fresh, may help death investigators more accurately determine the cause of death. Two recent deaths in Ventura County that occurred during restraint are discussed. Within a day of the autopsies the restrainers agreed to participate in reenactments of the restraint process, utilizing live volunteers as subjects. They allowed videotaping. Deaths associated with restraint often have nonspecific autopsy findings. Timely reenactment of the circumstances of deaths associated with restraint can help death investigators more accurately determine the probable cause of death in these difficult cases.

  8. Different subtypes of impulsivity differentiate uncontrolled eating and dietary restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Margaret A; Morgan, Michael J; Yeomans, Martin R

    2013-10-01

    The current study explored the relationship between three subtypes of impulsivity (Reflection Impulsivity, Impulsive Choice, and Impulsive Action) and measures of uncontrolled eating (TFEQ-D) and restraint (TFEQ-R). Eighty women classified as scoring higher or lower on TFEQ-D and TFEQ-R completed the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT20), Delay Discounting Task (DDT), a Go No Go task, Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), and the Barrett Impulsivity Scale-11 (BIS-11). To test whether these relationships were affected by enforced controls overeating, half of the participants fasted the night before and ate breakfast in the laboratory before testing and half had no such control. Women scoring higher on the TFEQ-D were significantly more impulsive on the MFFT20 and BIS-11 overall but not on DDT, Go No Go or BART. Women scoring higher on TFEQ-R were significantly less impulsive on the Go No Go task but did not differ on other measures. The eating manipulation modulated responses on the BART and BIS-11 non-planning scale depending on TFEQ-D classification. These results confirm recent data that high scores on TFEQ-D are related to impulsivity, but imply this relates more to Reflection Impulsivity rather than Impulsive Choice or Action. In contrast restrained eating was associated with better inhibitory control. Taken together, these results suggest that subtypes of impulsivity further differentiate uncontrolled eating and restraint, and suggest that a poor ability to reflect on decisions may underlie some aspects of overeating.

  9. Robustness Improvement of ARA Kevlar Holddown Restraint Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, E.; Koning, J.; Konink, T.

    2013-09-01

    Dutch Space has developed a Hold Down and Release System based on Kevlar Restraint cables and Thermal Knife release in the early nineties of the previous century. The system has been qualified for application in the company's solar array families ARA and FRED for GEO, LEO, MEO and scientific deep space missions comprising solar panel stacks ranging from 2 to 6 panels. Beside solar arrays, derivatives of the HDRS have been used for antenna, cooler and experiment cover hold down and release. Over 500 HDRS units have performed with 100% success in space.Today's missions do not differ much in nominal conditions but more extreme failure modes are specified resulting in more extreme temperatures. The restraint cables, which are exposed directly to these limits of the thermal environment, have been upgraded to cope with the new requirements. An extended life time acceleration test program has been defined and executed to demonstrate their robustness.The qualified upper temperature of the system, the most critical one concerning loads, has been increased from 105°C to 125°C.The paper will describe problems experienced at high temperatures, the new design, supporting engineering tests, the measurement of tension distribution in the cables with Raman spectroscopy, and the accelerated test program and its results.Kevlar cables according to this new design are now baseline for solar arrays of the ESA programs Sentinel- 1, Sentinel-2, Galileo FOC, EarthCARE and Aeolus.

  10. Plasma cortisol levels in captive wild felines after chemical restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Nogueira

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight Panthera onca (Po, 13 Felis concolor (Fc, 7 Felis yagouaroundi (Fy, 7 Felis tigrina (Ft and 5 Felis pardalis (Fp specimens from São Paulo State zoos were used. All animals were restrained with darts containing 10 mg/kg ketamine and 1 mg/kg xylazine. Venous blood samples were collected as soon as possible (within 15-20 min and serum was frozen until the time for cortisol quantification. Cortisol was determined using a solid phase radioimmunoassay with an intra-assay coefficient of 8.51%. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's multiple comparisons test, and the one-sample t-test, with the level of significance set at P<0.05. Data are reported as means ± SEM. Cortisol levels differed among the captive felines: Po = 166 ± 33a, Fc = 670 ± 118b, Fy = 480 ± 83b, Ft = 237 ± 42ab, Fp = 97 ± 12a nmol/l (values followed by different superscript letters were significantly different (P<0.001. Since most of the veterinary procedures on these species involve chemical restraint, these results show the necessity of preventive measures in order to minimize the effect of restraint stress on more susceptible species

  11. Physical restraint usage at a teaching hospital: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton-Gooden, Antoinette; Dawkins, Pauline E; Bennett, Joanna

    2015-02-01

    This mixed method study examines the prevalence of restraint usage; perception of nurses and doctors about the practice and whether they were trained to apply physical restraints. The physical restraint prevalence tools were used to observe 172 adult patients and conduct 47 chart audits in the medical-surgical wards and a psychiatric unit in November 2011. Focus group discussions with nurses and doctors were conducted. Quantitative data were analyzed using the SPSS and focus group discussions thematically analyzed. The prevalence of physical restraints between the medical-surgical wards was 75%. Nurses and medical doctors were not formally trained to apply restraint, and had learnt from peer observation. They expressed sadness, guilt, and fear when restraints are used and identified that inadequate institutional support existed. Restraint usage was high, and nurses and doctors experienced moral dilemma when they perceived that lack of formal training and inadequate institutional support may contribute to patient injury. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. How Farm Animals React and Perceive Stressful Situations Such As Handling, Restraint, and Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple Grandin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An animal that has been carefully acclimated to handling may willingly re-enter a restrainer. Another animal may have an intense agitated behavioral reaction or refuse to re-enter the handling facility. Physiological measures of stress such as cortisol may be very low in the animal that re-enters willingly and higher in animals that actively resist restraint. Carefully acclimating young animals to handling and restraint can help improve both productivity and welfare by reducing fear stress. Some of the topics covered in this review are: How an animal perceives handling and restraint, the detrimental effects of a sudden novel event, descriptions of temperament and aversion tests and the importance of good stockmanship.

  13. Two-Dimensional Mapping of the Calculated Fission Power for the Full-Size Fuel Plate Experiment Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G. S.; Lillo, M. A.

    2009-08-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administrations (NNSA) Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program assigned to the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) the responsibility of developing and demonstrating high uranium density research reactor fuel forms to enable the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) in research and test reactors around the world. A series of full-size fuel plate experiments have been proposed for irradiation testing in the center flux trap (CFT) position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These full-size fuel plate tests are designated as the AFIP tests. The AFIP nominal fuel zone is rectangular in shape having a designed length of 21.5-in (54.61-cm), width of 1.6-in (4.064-cm), and uniform thickness of 0.014-in (0.03556-cm). This gives a nominal fuel zone volume of 0.482 in3 (7.89 cm3) per fuel plate. The AFIP test assembly has two test positions. Each test position is designed to hold 2 full-size plates, for a total of 4 full-size plates per test assembly. The AFIP test plates will be irradiated at a peak surface heat flux of about 350 W/cm2 and discharged at a peak U-235 burn-up of about 70 at.%. Based on limited irradiation testing of the monolithic (U-10Mo) fuel form, it is desirable to keep the peak fuel temperature below 250°C to achieve this, it will be necessary to keep plate heat fluxes below 500 W/cm2. Due to the heavy U-235 loading and a plate width of 1.6-in (4.064-cm), the neutron self-shielding will increase the local-to-average-ratio (L2AR) fission power near the sides of the fuel plates. To demonstrate that the AFIP experiment will meet the ATR safety requirements, a very detailed 2-dimensional (2D) Y-Z fission power profile was evaluated in order to best predict the fuel plate temperature distribution. The ability to accurately predict fuel plate power and burnup are essential to both the design of the AFIP tests as well as evaluation of the irradiated fuel performance. To support this need, a detailed MCNP Y

  14. First joint test beam of CMS Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    Paolo Giacomelli

    2001-01-01

    The first full size muon drift tube chamber ever built for the CMS barrel with the final cell design (constructed at CIEMAT, Madrid) was succesfully tested with a muon beam in September 2001 at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN. For the first time also both muon detectors for the CMS barrel (DT + RPC) were coupled together. The results of this test were fully succesful and confirmed the excellent performance of both detectors together in a radiation environment.

  15. Tests and Evaluation of Upgraded Flat-Plate and Waffle-Slab Floor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    tested in the LBLG. The LBLG (Figure 2.J9) is a large, three-dimensional device designed pri- marily to test underground protective structures...34 Report AIWL-TR-74-102, Octo- ber 1974, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. Mex . 9. M. E. Criswell; "Strength and Behavior of...35th St. Commander, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, AFSC Chicago, Ill. 60616 ATTN: SUL, Technical Library Kirtland Air Force Base, N. Mex . 87117 Director

  16. Investigation of Thermal Performance of Flat Plate and Evacuated Tubular Solar Collectors According to a New Dynamic Test Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Wang, Zhifeng; Fan, Jianhua;

    2012-01-01

    obtain fluid thermal capacitance in data processing. Then theoretical analysis and experimental verification are carried out to investigate influencing factors of obtaining accurate and stable second order term. A flat plate and ETC solar collector are compared using both the new dynamic method......A new dynamic test method is introduced. This so called improved transfer function method features on two new collector parameters. One is time term which can indicate solar collector's inner heat transfer ability and the other is a second order term of collector mean fluid temperature which can...... and a standard method. The results show that the improved function method can accurately and robustly estimate these two kinds of solar collectors....

  17. Defect Localization Capabilities of a Global Detection Scheme: Spatial Pattern Recognition Using Full-field Vibration Test Data in Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeb, A. F.; Prabhu, M.; Arnold, S. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a conceptually simple approach, based on the notion of defect energy in material space has been developed and extensively studied (from the theoretical and computational standpoints). The present study focuses on its evaluation from the viewpoint of damage localization capabilities in case of two-dimensional plates; i.e., spatial pattern recognition on surfaces. To this end, two different experimental modal test results are utilized; i.e., (1) conventional modal testing using (white noise) excitation and accelerometer-type sensors and (2) pattern recognition using Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), a full field method capable of analyzing the mechanical vibration of complex structures. Unlike the conventional modal testing technique (using contacting accelerometers), these emerging ESPI technologies operate in a non-contacting mode, can be used even under hazardous conditions with minimal or no presence of noise and can simultaneously provide measurements for both translations and rotations. Results obtained have clearly demonstrated the robustness and versatility of the global NDE scheme developed. The vectorial character of the indices used, which enabled the extraction of distinct patterns for localizing damages proved very useful. In the context of the targeted pattern recognition paradigm, two algorithms were developed for the interrogation of test measurements; i.e., intensity contour maps for the damaged index, and the associated defect energy vector field plots.

  18. Striving for Balance Between Caring and Restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Julie Y; Larsen, Dorte; Brødsgaard, Anne

    2016-01-01

    with 14 young adults were conducted. RESULTS: The essence of the phenomenon of having a parent with multiple sclerosis was synthesized into 'Striving for balance between caring and restraint' from two themes 'caring' and 'restraint' and eight subthemes. Participants' experiences of caring for parents...... that one of the greatest challenges of having a parent with multiple sclerosis is achieving a balance between caring for others and asserting one's own desires. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Health care professionals can support the family by encouraging family members to participate in consultations...... and to assist the parents in providing information about multiple sclerosis and its symptoms to the children. Parents might need assistance in applying for help with domestic chores or referrals to support groups for their children or other family members. This article is protected by copyright. All rights...

  19. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy-a flat-plate collector with a single-tube serpentine flow distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficienty is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  20. Development and psychometric properties of the Smoking Restraint Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Grant A; Ferguson, Stuart G; Palmer, Matthew A; Shiffman, Saul

    2016-03-01

    Restraint is a component of self-control that focuses on the deliberate reduction of an undesired behavior and is theorized to play a role in smoking reduction and cessation. However, there exists no instrument to assess smoking restraint. This research aimed to develop the Smoking Restraint Questionnaire (SRQ) to meet this need. Participants were 406 smokers (48% female; 52.2% nondaily) with a mean age of 38.83 years (SD = 12.05). They completed a baseline questionnaire designed to assess smoking restraint. They also completed 21 days of ecological momentary assessment (EMA), during which they recorded each cigarette smoked and answered questions related to planned restraint every morning, and restraint attempts every evening. The 4-item questionnaire of smoking restraint was found to fit a single factor (root mean square error of approximation = .038, comparative fit index = .99, Tucker-Lewis index = .99), and the resulting composite was reliable (composite reliability = 0.74). The questionnaire contains items that assess the setting of weekly restraint goals and attempts at not lighting up when tempted to smoke. Participant SRQ scores positively correlated with EMA data on plans to restrain (p < .001) and frequency of restraint attempts (p < .001). These correlations suggest that the SRQ has good predictive validity in relation to the intention and behaviors of smoking reduction. The SRQ is promising as a measure of smoking restraint and may enable further research and insights into smoking reduction and cessation.

  1. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  2. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  3. Laboratory Test for Measurement of Adhesion Strength of Spray Ice to Coated Flat Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    became trapped within the ice. After the by test group 612 during icing due to nozzle freezeup sprayer was turned off, the unfrozen water became and the...indicated if and when nozzle freezeup occurred. Short and the push block increased as the block moved for- duration peaks in the nozzle temperature occurred...either nozzle freezeup and conse- bond strength of each sample. Notice, in Figure 2 1. the quent efforts to thaw, the application of more insulation

  4. Critical assessment of precracked specimen configuration and experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    A research program was conducted to critically assess the effects of precracked specimen configuration, stress intensity solutions, compliance relationships and other experimental test variables for stress corrosion testing of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate. Modified compact and double beam wedge-loaded specimens were tested and analyzed to determine the threshold stress intensity factor and stress corrosion crack growth rate. Stress intensity solutions and experimentally determined compliance relationships were developed and compared with other solutions available in the literature. Crack growth data suggests that more effective crack length measurement techniques are necessary to better characterize stress corrosion crack growth. Final load determined by specimen reloading and by compliance did not correlate well, and was considered a major source of interlaboratory variability. Test duration must be determined systematically, accounting for crack length measurement resolution, time for crack arrest, and experimental interferences. This work was conducted as part of a round robin program sponsored by ASTM committees G1.06 and E24.04 to develop a standard test method for stress corrosion testing using precracked specimens.

  5. The effects of sex and hormonal status on restraint-stress-induced working memory impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Avis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restraint stress has been shown to elicit numerous effects on hippocampal function and neuronal morphology, as well as to induce dendritic remodeling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. However, the effects of acute restraint stress on PFC cognitive function have not been investigated, despite substantial evidence that the PFC malfunctions in many stress-related disorders. Methods The present study examined the effects of restraint stress on PFC function in both male rats and cycling female rats in either the proestrus (high estrogen or estrus (low estrogen phase of the estrus cycle. Animals were restrained for 60 or 120 minutes and then tested on spatial delayed alternation, a PFC-mediated task. Performance after stress was compared to performance on a different day under no-stress conditions, and analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Sixty minutes of restraint impaired only females in proestrus, while 120 minutes of restraint produced significant impairments in all animals. Increases in task completion times did not affect performance. Conclusion These results demonstrate an interaction between hormonal status and cognitive response to stress in female rats, with high estrogen levels being associated with amplified sensitivity to stress. This effect has been previously observed after administration of a pharmacological stressor (the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG7142, and results from both studies may be relevant to the increased prevalence of stress-related disorders, such as major depressive disorder, in cycling women. Overall, the results show that restraint stress has important effects on the cognitive functions of the PFC, and that hormonal influences in the PFC are an important area for future research.

  6. Improving Working Conditions for Astronauts: An Electronic Personal Restraint System for Use in Microgravity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Tait

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While in microgravity, astronauts are preoccupied with physical restraint, which takes attention away from the maintenance task or scientific experiment at hand. This may directly lead to safety concerns and increased time for extravehicular activity, as well as potentially inhibit or corrupt data collection. A primary concern is the time it takes to manipulate the current restraint system. The portable foot restraint currently in use by NASA employs a series of pins in order to engage the system or release in an emergency. This requires considerable time for the user to detach, and there is an increased risk of entanglement. If restraint operating time could be reduced by 50%, the astronaut’s assigned experiment time could be increased an average of 100 minutes per mission. Another problem identified by NASA included the inability of the current system to release the user upon failure. Research and design was conducted following the Six-Sigma DMEDI project architecture, and a new form of restraint to replace the existing system was proposed. The research team first studied the customer requirements and relevant standards set by NASA, and with this information they began drafting designs for a solution. This project utilized electromagnetism to restrain a user in microgravity. The proposed system was capable of being manipulated quickly, failing in a manner that released the user, and being electronically controlled. This active electronic control was a new concept in restraint systems, as it enabled an astronaut to effectively “walk” along a surface while remaining restrained to it. With the design prototype and a limited budget, a rudimentary test assembly was built by the team, and most of NASA’s specifications were met. With recommendations from NASA, the research team concluded by developing potential material and design solutions that can be explored in the future by Purdue University or other parties.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Turkish intern nurses regarding physical restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagozoglu, Serife; Ozden, Dilek; Yildiz, Fatma Tok

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices of intern nurses who completed the nursing internship program on the use of physical restraints. This research was conducted using descriptive and cross-sectional research design. The study sample comprises 91 fourth-grade students who took an integrated curriculum and completed the nursing internship program. The data were collected with the Demographic Characteristics Questionnaire and the Levels of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Staff Regarding Physical Restraints Questionnaire. For the assessment of the data, percentages, the arithmetic mean, and t test were used. The findings indicated that, of the intern nurses, 95.6% observed the use of physical restraints during their education, and 69.2% applied physical restraints. The mean knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the nurses for physical restraint were 9.38 ± 1.19 (0-11 points), 34.70 ± 5.62 (12-48 points), and 37.95 ± 2.32 (14-42 points), respectively. Intern nurses' knowledge about how to use physical restraints was at a very good level; they displayed positive attitudes, and they used their knowledge and attitudes in their practices to a great extent. Although there are studies on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of nurses working in the fields of elderly care, rehabilitation, and psychiatry in acute care units, there are no studies investigating intern nurses and other nursing students. However, intern nurses about to begin their careers should make accurate decisions regarding the use of physical restrains if they are to ensure patient safety and to fulfill this application effectively in their professional lives.

  8. Simulation analysis of impact tests of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs against aircraft impact and its validation with experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.sadiq@pnra.org [Center for Nuclear Safety (CNS), Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA), PO Box 1912, Islamabad (Pakistan); Xiu Yun, Zhu, E-mail: lyzhuxiuyun@163.com [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center (NSC), Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Beijing (China); Rong, Pan, E-mail: panrong@chinansc.cn [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center (NSC), Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Beijing (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Simulation analysis is carried out with two constitutive concrete models. • Winfrith model can better simulate nonlinear response of concrete than CSCM model. • Performance of steel plate concrete is better than reinforced concrete. • Thickness of safety related structures can be reduced by adopting steel plates. • Analysis results, mainly concrete material models should be validated. - Abstract: The steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete structures are used in nuclear power plants for protection against impact of an aircraft. In order to compare the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs panels, simulation analysis of 1/7.5 scale model impact tests is carried out by using finite element code ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The damage modes of all finite element models, velocity time history curves of the aircraft engine and damage to aircraft model are compared with the impact test results of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slab panels. The results indicate that finite element simulation results correlate well with the experimental results especially for constitutive winfrith concrete model. Also, the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete slab panels is better than reinforced concrete slab panels, particularly the rear face steel plate is very effective in preventing the perforation and scabbing of concrete than conventional reinforced concrete structures. In this way, the thickness of steel plate reinforced concrete structures can be reduced in important structures like nuclear power plants against impact of aircraft. It also demonstrates the methodology to validate the analysis procedure with experimental and analytical studies. It may be effectively employed to predict the precise response of safety related structures against aircraft impact.

  9. Some tests of flat plate photovoltaic module cell temperatures in simulated field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. S.; Rathod, M. S.; Paslaski, J.

    1981-01-01

    The nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important characteristic. Typically, the power output of a PV module decreases 0.5% per deg C rise in cell temperature. Several tests were run with artificial sun and wind to study the parametric dependencies of cell temperature on wind speed and direction and ambient temperature. It was found that the cell temperature is extremely sensitive to wind speed, moderately so to wind direction and rather insensitive to ambient temperature. Several suggestions are made to obtain data more typical of field conditions.

  10. Assessment of the Resistance of a Polymethylmethacrylate (Pmma Dynamic Compression Plate (DCP Prototype Tested on Osteotomized Canine Femurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Cardona R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Femur fractures are the most frequent long bone fractures in small animals. Due to the femur’s anatomical position, it is difficult to immobilize, and therefore internal fixations are very useful. Dynamic compression plates (DCP provide high stability, are durable, minimize fragment movement and promote primary healing of the bone. Advantages of this treatment include anatomical reconstruction, early mobility and carrying capacity of the affected limb. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA is an acrylic resin that has proved very useful in bone tumor treatment, cranial deformation prosthesis, percutaneous vertebroplasty and testicular prosthesis in animals. The purpose of this study was to manufacture DCP-PMMA and test its resistance to the different forces present in a fracture. Forty-eight (48 3.5MM x 4-hole DCP were made from an alginate mold. Six (6 femurs were obtained from canine cadavers zeighing from 10 to 20 kg, which underwent osteotomy simulating an oblique fracture. The plates were subsequently positioned in the osteotomized bones to submit them to the various forces involved in a fracture. The DCP-PMMA resisted a torque force of 2.83 newton/metres and a compression and flexion force of 0.21 kilonewton. The obtained resistance of the DCP-PMMA was an average of 20 kg per force. The results of this study show that it is possible to make a DCP-PMMA 3.5 mm x 4-hole, the resistance of which is of 20 kg against the three applied forces, and that it can be used to stabilize long bone fractures subjected to a pressure of less than 20 kg.

  11. The Effect of a Restraint Reduction Program on Physical Restraint Rates in Rehabilitation Settings in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia K. Y. Lai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In view of the adverse effects of using restraints, studies examining the use of restraint reduction programs (RRPs are needed. Objectives. To investigate the effect of an RRP on the reduction of physical restraint rates in rehabilitation hospitals. Methods. A prospective quasi-experimental clinical trial was conducted. Demographic data, medical and health-related information on recruited patients from two rehabilitation hospitals, as well as facility data on restraint rates were collected. Results. The increase in the restraint rate in the control site was 4.3 times greater than that in the intervention site. Changes in the restraint mode, from continuous to intermittent, and the type of restraint used were found between the pre- and postintervention periods in both the control site and the intervention site. Discussion. Compared with that in the control site, the RRP in the intervention site helped arrest any increase in the restraint rate although it had no effect on physical restraint reduction. The shift of restraint mode from continuous to intermittent in the intervention site was one of the positive outcomes of the RRP.

  12. Testing of Ni-plated ferritic steel interconnect in SOFC stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.A.; Dinesen, A.R.; Korcakova, L.

    2006-01-01

    Stack tests were run at 850 °C for periods from 80 hours to 1,150 hours to develop contacting procedures and at the same time evaluate the performance of a 5 μm electroplated nickel coating on a ferritic Fe22Cr interconnect. The metallic nickel coating reacted relatively quickly during the initial...... heating to 1,030 °C. During this time, 20–70 μm thick surface layers of austenitic steel were formed, which were covered by a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the anode side and by a layer of mixed Cr-Fe-Ni-spinels over a 1–4 μm chromia layer on the cathode side. The microstructure and composition...

  13. Status of the NASA-Lewis flat-plate collector tests with a solar simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1974-01-01

    Simulator test results of 15 collector types are reported. Collectors are given performance ratings according to their use for pool heating, hot water, absorption A/C or heating and solar Rankine machines. Collectors found to be good performers in the above categories, except for pool heating, were a black nickel coated, 2 glass collector, and a black paint 2 glass collector containing a mylar honeycomb. For pool heating, a black paint, one glass collector was found to be the best performer. Collector performance parameters of 5 collector types were determined to aid in explaining the factors that govern performance. The two factors that had the greatest effect on collector performance were the collector heat loss and the coating absorptivity.

  14. Physical Restraint Procedures for Managing Challenging Behaviours Presented by Mentally Retarded Adults and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John

    1996-01-01

    The literature on the use of physical restraint with adults and children with mental retardation is reviewed, including person-to-person restraint, mechanical devices, and voluntary self-restraint. Conclusions regarding outcomes of contingent and noncontingent restraint, maintenance, reinforcing effects of restraint, and risk of injury are…

  15. Staff resistance to restraint reduction: identifying & overcoming barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Staci Silver

    2007-05-01

    Professional organizations, regulating agencies, and hospital administrators have taken a strong stance on restraint reduction policies. When implementing a restraint reduction initiative, it is important to identify the barriers to restraint reduction, such as concern for personal safety, lack of knowledge about and practice using alternate de-escalation skills, and fear of disrupting the therapeutic milieu by using a variety of de-escalation methods. Education aimed to reduce the use of restraints needs to do more than simply provide information. It is important to acknowledge the emotional response of the nursing staff and the culture of the current practice. A variety of educational strategies, including role-playing, and case studies will help identify attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that are congruent with reducing the use of restraints. If the ultimate goal of restraint reduction is philosophical change, it will eventually lead to a new culture of practice.

  16. Geo-energy Test Beds: part of the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael; Schofield, David; Luton, Christopher; Haslinger, Florian; Henninges, Jan; Giardini, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    For 2020, the EU has committed to cutting its greenhouse gas emissions to 20% below 1990 levels and further cuts are being decided for 2050. This commitment is one of the headline targets of the Europe 2020 growth strategy and is being implemented through binding legislation. This decarbonisation of the EU economy is one dimension of an overall EU energy and climate framework that is mutually interlinked with the need to ensure energy security, promote a fully integrated energy market, promote energy efficiency and promote research innovation and competitiveness. Power generation will have to take a particularly large part in emissions reductions (-54 to -68% by 2030 and -93 to -99% by 2050), mainly by focussing on increasing surface renewables (wind, tidal and solar) but also on carbon capture and storage on fossil fuel and biofuel power plants, shale gas, nuclear and geothermal power. All the above generation technologies share common geological challenges around containment, safety and environmental sustainability. In a densely populated continent, this means that high levels of subsurface management are needed to fully realise the energy potential. In response to this need, across Europe, public and private sector funded, experimental test and monitoring facilities and infrastructures (Geo-energy Test Beds, GETB) are being developed. These GETB investigate the processes, technology and practices that facilitate the sustainable exploitation of Geo-energy resources and are of intense interest to the public and regulators alike. The vision of EPOS IP Work Package 17 (wp17) is to promote research and innovation in Geo-energy that reflects core European energy priorities through provision of virtual access to data and protocols and trans-national access to GETB experiments. This will be achieved through provision of access to continuous strategic observations, promotion of the integrated use of data and models from European GETB, development of underpinning research

  17. Biocompatibility Analyses of Al₂O₃-Treated Titanium Plates Tested with Osteocyte and Fibroblast Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smargiassi, Alberto; Bertacchini, Jessika; Checchi, Marta; Cavani, Francesco; Ferretti, Marzia; Palumbo, Carla

    2017-06-16

    Osseointegration of a titanium implant is still an issue in dental/orthopedic implants durable over time. The good integration of these implants is mainly due to their surface and topography. We obtained an innovative titanium surface by shooting different-in-size particles of Al₂O₃ against the titanium scaffolds which seems to be ideal for bone integration. To corroborate that, we used two different cell lines: MLO-Y4 (murine osteocytes) and 293 (human fibroblasts) and tested the titanium scaffolds untreated and treated (i.e., Al₂O₃ shot-peened titanium surfaces). Distribution, density, and expression of adhesion molecules (fibronectin and vitronectin) were evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal microscope (CM). DAPI and fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies were used to highlight nuclei, fibronectin, and vitronectin, under CM; cell distribution was analyzed after gold-palladium sputtering of samples by SEM. The engineered biomaterial surfaces showed under SEM irregular morphology displaying variously-shaped spicules. Both SEM and CM observations showed better outcome in terms of cell adhesion and distribution in treated titanium surfaces with respect to the untreated ones. The results obtained clearly showed that this kind of surface-treated titanium, used to manufacture devices for dental implantology: (i) is very suitable for cell colonization, essential prerequisite for the best osseointegration, and (ii) represents an excellent solution for the development of further engineered implants with the target to obtain recovery of stable dental function over time.

  18. Psychiatric Nurses' Perceptions about Physical Restraint; A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidooni Moghadam, Malek; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Pazargadi, Mehrnoosh

    2014-01-01

    The use of physical restraint as an intervention in the care of psychiatric patients dates back to the beginning of psychiatry. Although it is a challenging question, it is still one of the common procedures in psychiatry. Considering that very little research has been done in Iran in relation to physical restraint, this qualitative study aimed to investigate the experiences of  nurses working in psychiatric wards regarding physical restraint. This qualitative study was done on 14 nurses working in the psychiatric hospitals of Ahvaz city, southern Iran, during 2011-2012. The participants were selected by purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection, which were continued until data saturation and emergence of themes. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories emerged: (1) Restraint as a multi-purpose procedure, (2) Processing of physical restraint, (3) Restraint as a challenging subject and (4) The effects of restraint on the spectrum. Each category has several different sub-categories. The participants described using physical restraint as one of the main strategies to control psychiatric patients, and despite having negative consequences, it is extensively used. Given the risks and challenges of using physical restraint, nursing education should find alternative methods.

  19. Nurses' perceptions and practice of physical restraint in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Li, Chen; Gu, Yan; He, Yanan

    2015-09-01

    There is controversy concerning the use of physical restraint. Despite this controversy, some nurses still consider the application of physical restraint unavoidable for some of their clients. Identify the perceptions and practice of physical restraint in China. This was a descriptive study that combined qualitative interviews with a quantitative cross-sectional survey. A total of 18 nurses were interviewed and 330 nurses were surveyed. Approval of the study was obtained from the hospital ethics committee. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the director of nursing. Participants were assured that their participation is voluntary. Physical restraint was commonly used to protect patients' safety. Naturally, intensive care unit nurses used physical restraint much more frequently than general medical/surgical ward nurses (p < 0.01). In addition, night shift nurses tended to use physical restraint more frequently. Nursing managers should be aware of the role nurses play in the use of physical restraint. In-service training regarding the proper use of physical restraint should be strengthened and nurse staffing levels should be improved in order to minimize the use of physical restraint in China. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Assessment of a 96-Well Plate Assay of Quantitative Drug Susceptibility Testing for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Zheng, Yang; Zhao, Bing; van den Hof, Susan; Cobelens, Frank; Zhao, YanLin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of the Sensitire MYCOTB MIC Plate (MYCOTB) which could measure the twelve anti-tuberculosis drugs susceptibility on one 96-wells plate. Methods A total of 140 MDR-TB strains and 60 non-MDR strains were sub-cultured and 193 strains were finally tested for drug resistance using MYCOTB and agar proportion method (APM) and another 7 strains failed of subculture. The drugs included ofloxacin (Ofx), moxifloxacin (Mfx), rifampin (RFP), amikacin (Am), rifabutin (Rfb), para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), ethionamide (Eth), isoniazid (INH), kanamycin (Km), ethambutol (EMB), streptomycin (Sm), and cycloserine(Cs). The categorical agreement, conditional agreement, sensitivity and specificity of MYCOTB were assessed in comparison with APM. For strains with inconsistent results between MYCOTB and APM, the drug resistance related gene fragments were amplified and sequenced: gyrA for Ofx and Mfx; rpoB for RFP and Rfb; embB for EMB; rpsl for Sm; katG and the promoter region of inhA for INH, ethA and the promoter region of inhA for Eth. The sequence results were compared with results of MYCOTB and APM to analyze the consistency between sequence results and MYCOTB or APM. Results The categorical agreement between two methods for each drug ranged from 88.6% to 100%. It was the lowest for INH (88.6%). The sensitivity and specificity of MYCOTB ranged from 71.4% to 100% and 84.3% to 100%, respectively. The sensitivity was lowest for Cs(71.4%), EMB at 10μg/ml (80.0%) and INH at 10.0μg/ml (84.6%). The specificity was lowest for Rfb (84.3%). Overall discordance between the two phenotypic methods was observed for 96 strains, of which 63 (65.6%) were found susceptible with APM and resistant with MYCOTB and the remaining 33(34.4%) strains were resistant by APM and susceptible with MYCOTB. 34/52 (65.4%) sequenced APM susceptible and MYCOTB resistant(APM-S/MYCOTB-R) strains had mutations or insertions in the amplified regions. 20/30 (66.7%) sequenced APM

  1. Design of High Frequency Induction Plate Forming Test-Bed%高频感应弯板成形试验台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守法; 范平

    2012-01-01

    Specific to the present situation of the lack of high frequency induction plate forming experimental equipment at home and abroad, a high frequency induction plate forming test梑ed was designed to conduct high frequency induction plate forming test,which will be helpful to study the law of the high frequency induction plate forming.The finite element analysis for tine plate forming model was conducted with Ansys software and the plate forming test was also completed on the test-bed under the scam parameters After comparing the bending angle curves of the finite element analysis with the experimental,it is observed that the two bending angle curves are basically the same to each other and the bending angle error between the simulation and the test is kss than 12.1%.%针对国内外高频感应弯板成形试验设备缺乏现状,设计了弯板成形试验台,用于进行高频感应弯板成形试验,进而有助于研究高频感应弯板成形规律.利用Ansys软件对弯板成形模型进行了有限元分析,并利用试验台进行了相同参数下板料成形试验,将有限元分析得到的折弯角度曲线与试验得到的实际折弯角度曲线进行了对比,结果表明:有限元分析得到的板料折弯角度曲线与试验得到的板料折弯角度曲线基本相同,二者折弯角度偏差小于12.1%.

  2. The restraint bias: how the illusion of self-restraint promotes impulsive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordgren, L.F.; van Harreveld, F.; van der Pligt, J.

    2009-01-01

    Four studies examined how impulse-control beliefs—beliefs regarding one's ability to regulate visceral impulses, such as hunger, drug craving, and sexual arousal—influence the self-control process. The findings provide evidence for a restraint bias: a tendency for people to overestimate their capaci

  3. Multi-channel, probe colorimeter for use with the micr-ELISA test, which makes use of disposable flat-bottom microhemagglutination plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, C H; Blanchflower, W J

    1979-04-01

    We describe a multiprobe colorimeter that permits the reading of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in situ, by use of microhemagglutination plates. The use of dipping probes eliminates interference from meniscus effects and air-bubble entrapment. Detailed validation tests have been done and potential sources of inaccuracy identified.

  4. Human Modeling Evaluations in Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cynthia; Wheaton, Aneice; Hancock, Lorraine; Beierle, Jason; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide long-term missions which will enable the astronauts to live and work, as well as, conduct research in a microgravity environment. The dominant factor in space affecting the crew is "weightlessness" which creates a challenge for establishing workstation microgravity design requirements. The crewmembers will work at various workstations such as Human Research Facility (HRF), Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG). Since the crew will spend considerable amount of time at these workstations, it is critical that ergonomic design requirements are integral part of design and development effort. In order to achieve this goal, the Space Human Factors Laboratory in the Johnson Space Center Flight Crew Support Division has been tasked to conduct integrated evaluations of workstations and associated crew restraints. Thus, a two-phase approach was used: 1) ground and microgravity evaluations of the physical dimensions and layout of the workstation components, and 2) human modeling analyses of the user interface. Computer-based human modeling evaluations were an important part of the approach throughout the design and development process. Human modeling during the conceptual design phase included crew reach and accessibility of individual equipment, as well as, crew restraint needs. During later design phases, human modeling has been used in conjunction with ground reviews and microgravity evaluations of the mock-ups in order to verify the human factors requirements. (Specific examples will be discussed.) This two-phase approach was the most efficient method to determine ergonomic design characteristics for workstations and restraints. The real-time evaluations provided a hands-on implementation in a microgravity environment. On the other hand, only a limited number of participants could be tested. The human modeling evaluations provided a more detailed analysis of the setup. The issues identified

  5. Microstructural Characterization of a Mg Matrix U-Mo Dispersion Fuel Plate Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor to High Fission Density: SEM Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Miller, Brandon D.; Gan, Jian; Robinson, Adam B.; Medvedev, Pavel G.; Madden, James W.; Moore, Glenn A.

    2016-06-01

    Low-enriched (U-235 reactors. In most cases, fuel plates with Al or Al-Si alloy matrices have been tested in the Advanced Test Reactor to support this development. In addition, fuel plates with Mg as the matrix have also been tested. The benefit of using Mg as the matrix is that it potentially will not chemically interact with the U-Mo fuel particles during fabrication or irradiation, whereas with Al and Al-Si alloys such interactions will occur. Fuel plate R9R010 is a Mg matrix fuel plate that was aggressively irradiated in ATR. This fuel plate was irradiated as part of the RERTR-8 experiment at high temperature, high fission rate, and high power, up to high fission density. This paper describes the results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of an irradiated fuel plate using polished samples and those produced with a focused ion beam. A follow-up paper will discuss the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Using SEM, it was observed that even at very aggressive irradiation conditions, negligible chemical interaction occurred between the irradiated U-7Mo fuel particles and Mg matrix; no interconnection of fission gas bubbles from fuel particle to fuel particle was observed; the interconnected fission gas bubbles that were observed in the irradiated U-7Mo particles resulted in some transport of solid fission products to the U-7Mo/Mg interface; the presence of microstructural pathways in some U-9.1 Mo particles that could allow for transport of fission gases did not result in the apparent presence of large porosity at the U-7Mo/Mg interface; and, the Mg-Al interaction layers that were present at the Mg matrix/Al 6061 cladding interface exhibited good radiation stability, i.e. no large pores.

  6. Manual restraint and common compound administration routes in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machholz, Elton; Mulder, Guy; Ruiz, Casimira; Corning, Brian F; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R

    2012-09-26

    Being able to safely and effectively restrain mice and rats is an important part of conducting research. Working confidently and humanely with mice and rats requires a basic competency in handling and restraint methods. This article will present the basic principles required to safely handle animals. One-handed, two-handed, and restraint with specially designed restraint objects will be illustrated. Often, another part of the research or testing use of animals is the effective administration of compounds to mice and rats. Although there are a large number of possible administration routes (limited only by the size and organs of the animal), most are not used regularly in research. This video will illustrate several of the more common routes, including intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, and oral gavage. The goal of this article is to expose a viewer unfamiliar with these techniques to basic restraint and substance administration routes. This video does not replace required hands-on training at your facility, but is meant to augment and supplement that training.

  7. Charge-density analysis of 1-nitroindoline: refinement quality using free R factors and restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarychta, Bartosz; Zaleski, Jacek; Kyzioł, Janusz; Daszkiewicz, Zdzisław; Jelsch, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Nitramines and related N-nitro compounds have attracted significant attention owing to their use in rocket fuel and as explosives. The charge density of 1-nitroindoline was determined experimentally and from theoretical calculations. Electron-density refinements were performed using the multipolar atom formalism. In order to design the ideal restraint strategy for the charge-density parameters, R-free analyses were performed involving a series of comprehensive refinements. Different weights were applied to the charge-density restraints, namely the similarity between chemically equivalent atoms and local symmetry. Additionally, isotropic thermal motion and an anisotropic model calculated by rigid-body analysis were tested on H atoms. The restraint weights which resulted in the lowest values of the averaged R-free factors and the anisotropic H-atom model were considered to yield the best charge density and were used in the final refinement. The derived experimental charge density along with intra- and intermolecular interactions was analysed and compared with theoretical calculations, notably with respect to the symmetry of multipole parameters. A comparison of different refinements suggests that the appropriate weighting scheme applied to charge-density restraints can reduce the observed artefacts. The topological bond orders of the molecule were calculated.

  8. Development of an Inflatable Head/Neck Restraint System for Ejection Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-28

    Tolerances for Cerebral Concussion From Head Impact and Whiplash in Primates, J. Biomechanics 4:13-21, 1971. 3. Schulman, M. and Hendler E.; Restraint of...in a future NAVAIRDEVCEN report. Plans have been made to conduct these tests in the near future after the fabrication of test models is completed. D E...systems, such as those in automobile air bag systems, can inflate large volume bladders within 0.05 sec after re- ceiving the initiation input signal

  9. Mechanical and pharmacological restraints in acute psychiatric wards--why and how are they used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutzen, Maria; Bjørkly, Stål; Eidhammer, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Steinar; Helen Mjøsund, Nina; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Sandvik, Leiv; Friis, Svein

    2013-08-30

    Restraint use has been reported to be common in acute psychiatry, but empirical research is scarce concerning why and how restraints are used. This study analysed data from patients' first episodes of restraint in three acute psychiatric wards during a 2-year study period. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors for type and duration of restraint. The distribution of restraint categories for the 371 restrained patients was as follows: mechanical restraint, 47.2%; mechanical and pharmacological restraint together, 35.3%; and pharmacological restraint, 17.5%. The most commonly reported reason for restraint was assault (occurred or imminent). It increased the likelihood of resulting in concomitant pharmacological restraint. Female patients had shorter duration of mechanical restraint than men. Age above 49 and female gender increased the likelihood of pharmacological versus mechanical restraint, whereas being restrained due to assault weakened this association. Episodes with mechanical restraint and coinciding pharmacological restraint lasted longer than mechanical restraint used separately, and were less common among patients with a personality disorder. Diagnoses, age and reason for restraint independently increased the likelihood for being subjected to specific types of restraint. Female gender predicted type of restraint and duration of episodes.

  10. Quantification of biofilm in microtiter plates: overview of testing conditions and practical recommendations for assessment of biofilm production by staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanović, Srdjan; Vuković, Dragana; Hola, Veronika; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Djukić, Slobodanka; Cirković, Ivana; Ruzicka, Filip

    2007-08-01

    The details of all steps involved in the quantification of biofilm formation in microtiter plates are described. The presented protocol incorporates information on assessment of biofilm production by staphylococci, gained both by direct experience as well as by analysis of methods for assaying biofilm production. The obtained results should simplify quantification of biofilm formation in microtiter plates, and make it more reliable and comparable among different laboratories.

  11. The Effects of Physical Restraint on Self-Injurious Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Brief (one minute) response contingent physical restraint was shown in two experiments with a 16-year-old profoundly retarded institutionalized girl to be more effective in controlling self-injurious behavior (SIB) than three minute physical restraint, which in the first study produced an increase in SIB. (CL)

  12. Child restraint system for children in cars - CREST results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, M.; Cassan, F.; Trosseille, X.

    2001-01-01

    Child restraint systems (CRS) for cars are intended to protect children in the case of a car accident. Unfortunately their effectiveness is still too low: in the range 30-50% when it would be expected to be much higher. The low effectiveness of child restraint systems can partly be explained for the

  13. High School Students' Publication Rights and Prior Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, John L.; Trauth, Denise M.

    1981-01-01

    Federal court decisions on high school students' publication rights in the Second, Fourth, Fifth, and Seventh Circuits reveal substantial disagreement about school officials' power of prior restraint over student publications. The courts' opinions range from approval of broad powers of prior restraint to denial of any power. (Author/RW)

  14. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following physical restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, S B; Jensen, T N; Bolwig, T

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe a case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following the use of physical restraint in a patient with a diagnosis of acute delusional psychotic disorder. METHOD: A new case report of DVT and PE associated with prolonged physical restraint is presented...

  15. Child restraint system for children in cars - CREST results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, M.; Cassan, F.; Trosseille, X.

    2001-01-01

    Child restraint systems (CRS) for cars are intended to protect children in the case of a car accident. Unfortunately their effectiveness is still too low: in the range 30-50% when it would be expected to be much higher. The low effectiveness of child restraint systems can partly be explained for the

  16. 30 CFR 56.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 56.9301 Section 56.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.9301 Dump site restraints. Berms, bumper blocks, safety hooks, or similar impeding devices...

  17. 28 CFR 570.44 - Supervision and restraint requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision and restraint requirements... PROGRAMS AND RELEASE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Escorted Trips § 570.44 Supervision and restraint requirements. Inmates under escort will be within the constant and immediate visual supervision of escorting staff...

  18. Dietary restraint moderates genetic risk for binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E; Burt, S Alexandra; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Klump, Kelly L

    2011-02-01

    Dietary restraint is a prospective risk factor for the development of binge eating and bulimia nervosa. Although many women engage in dietary restraint, relatively few develop binge eating. Dietary restraint may increase susceptibility for binge eating only in individuals who are at genetic risk. Specifically, dietary restraint may be a behavioral exposure factor that activates genetic predispositions for binge eating. We investigated this possibility in 1,678 young adolescent and adult same-sex female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study and the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Twin moderation models were used to examine whether levels of dietary restraint moderate genetic and environmental influences on binge eating. Results indicated that genetic and nonshared environmental factors for binge eating increased at higher levels of dietary restraint. These effects were present after controlling for age, body mass index, and genetic and environmental overlap among dietary restraint and binge eating. Results suggest that dietary restraint may be most important for individuals at genetic risk for binge eating and that the combination of these factors could enhance individual differences in risk for binge eating.

  19. Quantitative computed tomography as a test of endurance for evaluation of bony plates; Utilizacao da tomografia computadorizada quantitativa como teste de resistencia para avaliacao de placas osseas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Filho, E.V.; Costa, L.A.V.S.; Oliveira, D.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Freitas, P.M.C. [Escola de Veterinaria - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, M.W.; Costa, F.S. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the radiodensity of bony plates. The CT scans provided information regarding radiodensity of bony plates and allowed to verify the uniformity of bone mineral density in their scope. The proposed methodology should be considered as another tool for determining the resistance of these biomaterials. (author)

  20. Physical restraint in a therapeutic setting; a necessary evil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Elizabeth; Prosser, Helen; Riley, David; Whittington, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Physical restraint of people experiencing mental health problems is a coercive and traumatic procedure which is only legally permitted if it is proportionate to the risk presented. This study sought to examine the decision-making processes used by mental health staff involved in a series of restraint episodes in an acute care setting. Thirty nurses were interviewed either individually or in focus groups to elicit their views on restraint and experience in specific incidents. Four factors which influenced the decision to restrain were identified: contextual demands; lack of alternatives; the escalatory effects of restraint itself; and perceptions of risk. While some of these factors are amenable to change through improvements in practice, training and organisational culture, nurses viewed restraint as a necessary evil, justified on the basis of the unpredictable nature of mental illness and the environment in which they worked. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ameliorative potential of sodium cromoglycate and diethyldithiocarbamic acid in restraint stress-induced behavioral alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Rajneet K; Jaggi, Amteshwar S; Singh, Nirmal

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of sodium cromoglycate and diethyldithiocarbamic acid in acute stress-induced behavioral alterations in rats subjected to restraint stress. The rats were placed in the restrainer (5.5 cm in diameter and 18 cm in length) for 3.5 h. Restraint stress-induced behavioral alterations were assessed using the hole-board, social interactions and open field tests. Restraint stress resulted in a decrease in the frequency of head dips, rearing in the hole board, line crossings and rearings in the open field, and an increase in avoidance behaviors in the social interaction tests. Sodium cromoglycate (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, ip), a mast cell stabilizer, and diethyldithiocarbamic acid (75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, ip), a selective NF-κB inhibitor, were employed to modulate restraint stress-induced behavioral changes. The administration of sodium cromoglycate and diethyldithiocarbamic acid significantly attenuated the restraint stress-induced behavioral changes. The noted beneficial effects of sodium cromoglycate and diethyldithiocarbamic acid may possibly be attributed to mast cell stabilization and inhibition of NF-κB activity, respectively.

  2. The capsular ligaments provide more hip rotational restraint than the acetabular labrum and the ligamentum teres : an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Arkel, R J; Amis, A A; Cobb, J P; Jeffers, J R T

    2015-04-01

    In this in vitro study of the hip joint we examined which soft tissues act as primary and secondary passive rotational restraints when the hip joint is functionally loaded. A total of nine cadaveric left hips were mounted in a testing rig that allowed the application of forces, torques and rotations in all six degrees of freedom. The hip was rotated throughout a complete range of movement (ROM) and the contributions of the iliofemoral (medial and lateral arms), pubofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments and the ligamentum teres to rotational restraint was determined by resecting a ligament and measuring the reduced torque required to achieve the same angular position as before resection. The contribution from the acetabular labrum was also measured. Each of the capsular ligaments acted as the primary hip rotation restraint somewhere within the complete ROM, and the ligamentum teres acted as a secondary restraint in high flexion, adduction and external rotation. The iliofemoral lateral arm and the ischiofemoral ligaments were primary restraints in two-thirds of the positions tested. Appreciation of the importance of these structures in preventing excessive hip rotation and subsequent impingement/instability may be relevant for surgeons undertaking both hip joint preserving surgery and hip arthroplasty.

  3. Protecting children: a survey of caregivers’ knowledge of Georgia’s child restraint laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Strasser

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheryl Strasser1, Laurie Whorton2, Amanda J Walpole3, Sarah Beddington11Institute of Public Health, Partnership for Urban Health Research, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2WellStar Corporate and Community Health, Marietta, GA, USA; 3Cobb and Douglas Public Health, Marietta, GA, USAIntroduction: The leading cause of injury and death among children in the United States is motor vehicle crashes. Even though restraint laws are in place and public awareness campaigns and educational interventions have increased, many children are still improperly restrained or not restrained at all. When correctly used, child restraints significantly reduce risk of injury or death.Methods: The purpose of the study was to elicit caregiver baseline knowledge of car seat installation and regulation before receiving car seat education from certified technicians at Inspection Station events. Inspection Station is a program whereby staff assists parents in correctly positioning car seats in participants’ vehicles. Over an 8-week period, Safe Kids Cobb County Car Seat Technicians distributed a 16-item survey, with 10 knowledge-based questions and six demographic questions to Inspection Station participants. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted to assess relationships between participant age, ethnicity, and gender with overall knowledge scores. Regression analysis was run to determine the association between participant education level and total child restraint knowledge.Results: One hundred sixty-nine surveys were completed. Participant knowledge of vehicular child restraint ranged from 0% to 90% on all items. Only 29.6% of caregivers understood the proper tightness of the harness system. Less than half of the caregivers (43.8% were aware of the Georgia law requiring children aged 6 years and younger to be in some type of child restraint. Only 43.2% of caregivers surveyed knew that children need to ride in a rear-facing child restraint until 1

  4. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  5. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K

    2014-01-01

    -plate, and the formalin tests. The effects of co-administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, and the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were also investigated. Oxotremorine and epibatidine induced a significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effect...... in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests, respectively. The effects of oxotremorine and epibatidine were blocked by atropine and mecamylamine, respectively. In all three nociceptive tests, naloxone in combination with oxotremorine or epibatidine enhanced the antinociceptive effects of the drugs....... The present study demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors produces antinociceptive effects in the naked-mole rat. The reversal effect of atropine and mecamylamine suggests that this effect is mediated by cholinergic receptors. As naloxone increases the antinociceptive effects...

  6. Approach to Deep Plate Loading Test of Self-reaction Force Method%自反力法深层平板载荷试验探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓伟; 林泽耿; 刘炳凯

    2014-01-01

    This article took a project of Guangdong as an example, introduced the technique of deep plate loading test of self-reaction force method in detail,and compared with the traditional method of deep plate loading test,and finally,problems that need to pay attention to deep plate loading test of self-reaction force method were put forward from the processing technology at the bottom of testing hole,keeping test hole straight,keeping stability of hole wall,and so on.%以广东某工程为例,详细介绍采用自反力法进行深层平板载荷试验测试技术,并将该方法与传统法深层平板载荷试验进行比较,最后从测试孔的孔底处理技术、测孔保直、孔壁稳定等方面提出采用自反力法进行深层平板载荷试验需要注意的问题。

  7. Multipurpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Ortiz, M. R.; Hua, L.; Sinnott, P.; Webb, L.

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a crew will be living and working in microgravity, interfacing with their physical environment. Without optimum restraints and mobility aids (R&MA' s), the crewmembers may be handicapped for perfonning some of the on-orbit tasks. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity area and may cause prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Thus, determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment are crucial to astronauts' well-being and productivity. The purpose of this project is to develop requirements and guidelines, and conceptual designs, for an ergonomically designed multi-purpose crew restraint. In order to achieve this goal, the project would involve development of functional and human factors requirements, design concept prototype development, analytical and computer modeling evaluations of concepts, two sets of micro gravity evaluations and preparation of an implementation plan. It is anticipated that developing functional and design requirements for a multi-purpose restraint would facilitate development of ergonomically designed restraints to accommodate the off-nominal but repetitive tasks, and minimize the performance degradation due to lack of optimum setup for onboard task performance. In addition, development of an ergonomically designed restraint concept prototype would allow verification and validation of the requirements defined. To date, we have identified "unique" tasks and areas of need, determine characteristics of "ideal" restraints, and solicit ideas for restraint and mobility aid concepts. Focus group meetings with representatives from training, safety, crew, human factors, engineering, payload developers, and analog environment representatives were key to assist in the development of a restraint

  8. Comparison of Buffered, Acidified Plate Antigen to Standard Serologic Tests for the Detection of Serum Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Elk (Cervus canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, P Ryan; Edwards, William H; Hennager, Steven G; Block, Jean F; Yates, Angela M; Ebel, Eric; Knopp, Douglas J; Fuentes-Sanchez, Antonio; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Kientz, Rebecca L; Simunich, Marilyn

    2015-07-01

    Brucellosis (caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus) is a zoonotic disease endemic in wild elk (Cervus canadensis) of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, US. Because livestock and humans working with elk or livestock are at risk, validated tests to detect the B. abortus antibody in elk are needed. Using the κ-statistic, we evaluated the buffered, acidified plate antigen (BAPA) assay for agreement with the results of the four serologic tests (card test [card], complement fixation test [CF], rivanol precipitation plate agglutination test [RIV], standard plate agglutination test [SPT]) that are approved by the US Department of Agriculture for the detection of the B. abortus antibody in elk. From 2006 to 2010, serum samples collected from elk within B. abortus-endemic areas (n = 604) and nonendemic areas (n = 707) and from elk culture-positive for B. abortus (n = 36) were split and blind tested by four elk serum diagnostic laboratories. κ-Values showed a high degree of agreement for the card (0.876), RIV (0.84), and CF (0.774) test pairings and moderate agreement for the SPT (0.578). Sensitivities for the BAPA, card, RIV, CF, and SPT were 0.859, 0.839, 0.899, 1.00, and 0.813, whereas specificities were 0.986, 0.993, 0.986, 0.98, and 0.968, respectively. The positive predictive values and the negative predictive values were calculated for 2.6%, 8.8%, and 16.2% prevalence levels. These findings suggest the BAPA test is a suitable screening test for the B. abortus antibodies in elk.

  9. Effect of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum treatment on restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Atish K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A stressful stimulus is a crucial determinant of health and disease. Antidepressants are used to manage stress and their related effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum in restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in mice. Methods Animals were immobilized for a period of 6 hr. St. John's Wort (50 and 100 mg/kg was administered 30 minutes before the animals were subjecting to acute immobilized stress. Various behavioral tests parameters for anxiety, locomotor activity and nociceptive threshold were assessed followed by biochemical assessments (malondialdehyde level, glutathione, catalase, nitrite and protein subsequently. Results 6-hr acute restraint stress caused severe anxiety like behavior, antinociception and impaired locomotor activity as compared to unstressed animals. Biochemical analyses revealed an increase in malondialdehyde, nitrites concentration, depletion of reduced glutathione and catalase activity as compared to unstressed animal brain. Five days St. John's Wort treatment in a dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg significantly attenuated restraint stress-induced behavioral (improved locomotor activity, reduced tail flick latency and antianxiety like effect and oxidative damage as compared to control (restraint stress. Conclusion Present study highlights the modest activity of St. John's Wort against acute restraint stress induced modification.

  10. Psychiatric Nurses' Attitude and Practice toward Physical Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amal Sobhy

    2017-02-01

    This study was to assess psychiatric nurses' attitude and practice toward physical restraint among mentally ill patients. A descriptive research design was used to achieve the study objective. The present study was carried out in three specialized governmental mental hospitals and two psychiatric wards in general hospital. A convenient purposive sample of 96 nurses who were working in the previously mentioned setting was included. The tool used for data collection was the Self-Administered Structured Questionnaire; it included three parts: The first comprised items concerned with demographic characteristics of the nurses, the second comprised 10 item measuring nurses' attitudes toward physical restraint, and the third was used to assess nurses' practices regarding use of physical restraint. There were insignificant differences between attitudes and practices in relation to nurses' sex, level of education, years of experience and work place. Moreover, a positive significant correlation was found between nurses' total attitude scores, and practices regarding use of physical restraint. Psychiatric nurses have positive attitude and adequate practice toward using physical restraints as an alternative management for psychiatric patients. It is important for psychiatric nurses to acknowledge that physical restraints should be implemented as the last resort. The study recommended that it is important for psychiatric nurses to acknowledge that physical restraints should be implemented as the last resort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical restraint in the ICU: does it prevent device removal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, A; Corbella, D; Iapichino, E; Di Bernardo, V; Leonardi, A; Di Nicolantonio, R; Buschbeck, C; Boegli, L; Pagnamenta, A; Malacrida, R

    2015-10-01

    Physical restraint is frequently used in the intensive care setting but little is known regarding its clinical scenario and effectiveness in preventing adverse events (AEs), defined as device removal. We carried out a prospective observational study in three Intensive Care Units on 120 adult high-risk patients. The effectiveness of physical restraint was evaluated using the propensity score methodology in order to obtain comparable groups. Physical restraint was applied in 1371 of 3256 (43%) nurse shifts accounting for 120 patients. Substantial agitation, the nurse's judgement of insufficient sedation and sedative drug reduction were positively associated with physical restraint, whereas the presence of analgesics at admission, increased disease gravity and the treating hospital as the most substantial variable showed a negative association. Eighty-six AEs were observed in 44 patients. Quiet (SAS=1-4), unrestrained patients accounted for 40 cases, and agitated (SAS≥5) but physically restrained patients for 17 cases. The presence of any type of physical restraint had a protective effect against any type of AE (OR=0.28; CI 0.16-0.51). The observed AEs showed a limited impact on the patients' course of illness. No physical harm related to physical restraint was reported. Physical restraint efficiently averts AEs. Its application is mainly driven by local habits. Typically, the almost recovered, apparently calm and hence unrestrained patient is at greatest risk for undesirable device removal. The control/interpretation of the patient's analgo-sedation might be inappropriate.

  12. The capsular ligaments provide more hip rotational restraint than the acetabular labrum and the ligamentum teres

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study of the hip joint we examined which soft tissues act as primary and secondary passive rotational restraints when the hip joint is functionally loaded. A total of nine cadaveric left hips were mounted in a testing rig that allowed the application of forces, torques and rotations in all six degrees of freedom. The hip was rotated throughout a complete range of movement (ROM) and the contributions of the iliofemoral (medial and lateral arms), pubofemoral and ischiofemoral l...

  13. Social appearance anxiety and dietary restraint as mediators between perfectionism and binge eating: A six month three wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosof, Leigh C; Levinson, Cheri A

    2017-01-01

    Binge eating is related to perfectionism and restrained eating. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are not well understood. It is possible that social anxiety, specifically social appearance anxiety (i.e., the fear of overall appearance evaluation), influences the relationship between binge eating, perfectionism, and dietary restraint. In the current study (N = 300 women), we tested the relationship between dietary restraint, social appearance anxiety, concern over mistakes (a component of perfectionism), and binge eating in prospective data (three time points: at baseline, at two month, and at six month follow up). We found that social appearance anxiety, dietary restraint, and concern over mistakes each predicted binge eating at baseline. Only social appearance anxiety prospectively predicted binge eating when accounting for all variables. Further, in the tested model, social appearance anxiety mediated the relationship between concern over mistakes and binge eating across six months. On the contrary, dietary restraint did not mediate the relationship between concern over mistakes and binge eating in the tested model. The finding that social appearance anxiety served as a mediator between concern over mistakes and binge eating, but that dietary restraint did not, implies that social appearance anxiety may be a more salient prospective predictor of binge eating than dietary restraint. Intervening on social appearance anxiety may be important in the treatment and prevention of binge eating.

  14. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masanori, E-mail: ando.masanori@jaea.go.jp; Takaya, Shigeru, E-mail: takaya.shigeru@jaea.go.jp

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  15. Physical Restraint of People with Intellectual Disability: A Review of Implementation Reduction and Elimination Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, James K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This review describes procedures to reduce and eliminate physical restraint of people with intellectual disability. One approach is to assess antecedent conditions associated with restraint and change them so that they no longer produce restraint-provoking behaviour. A second approach is to decrease the duration of restraint by…

  16. 78 FR 55629 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Inflatable Three-Point Restraint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... restraints are standard in the automotive industry, the use of an inflatable restraint system is novel for... potential for head and torso injury. The inflatable restraint behaves in a manner similar to an automotive... should not increase the risk already associated with fire. Therefore, the inflatable restraint should be...

  17. Myricetin Attenuates Depressant-Like Behavior in Mice Subjected to Repeated Restraint Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zegang Ma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that oxidative stress may be implicated in chronic stress-induced depression. Several flavonoids with anti-oxidative effects have been proved to be anti-depressive. Myricetin is a well-defined flavonoid with the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective properties. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects of chronic administration of myricetin on depressant-like behaviors in mice subjected to repeated restraint (4 h/day for 21 days. Our results showed that myricetin administration specifically reduced the immobility time in mice exposed to chronic stress, as tested in both forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Myricetin treatment improved activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX in the hippocampus of stressed mice. In addition, myricetin treatment decreased plasma corticosterone levels of those mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. The effects of myricetin on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in hippocampus were also investigated. The results revealed that myricetin normalized the decreased BDNF levels in mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. These findings provided more evidence that chronic administration of myricetin improves helpless behaviors. The protective effects of myricetin might be partially mediated by an influence on BDNF levels and might be attributed to myricetin-mediated anti-oxidative stress in the hippocampus.

  18. Self-restraint as positive reinforcement for self-injurious behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R G; Lerman, D C; Iwata, B A

    1996-01-01

    Many individuals who engage in self-injurious behavior (SIB) also exhibit self-restraint. We compared rates of SIB exhibited by a 32-year-old woman diagnosed with profound retardation across conditions in which access to restraint was (a) continuously available, (b) presented as a consequence for SIB, or (c) unavailable. Rates of SIB increased when access to restraint was contingent upon SIB and decreased when restraint was unavailable, suggesting that self-restraint functioned as positive reinforcement for SIB.

  19. Predictors of physical restraint in a psychiatric emergency setting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hadi, Fatemeh; Khosravi, Termeh; Shariat, Seyed Vahid; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Considering the negative consequences of using physical restraints, we conducted this study to identify patients who are more frequently restrained in a psychiatric emergency ward as an initial step...

  20. Pilot Hartsfield in sleep restraint tethered to forward middeck lockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Hartsfield demonstrates the sleeping accomodations onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. The sleep restraint is located in the middeck area of the spacecraft and is tethered to forward middeck lockers.

  1. Dietary restraint and self-regulation in eating behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, F; Pratt, M; Wardle, J

    2012-01-01

    .... This review discusses evidence from the dietary restraint literature and from studies of self-regulation processes to examine how far self-imposed control around food can be seen as beneficial...

  2. Belt restraint reduction in nursing homes: design of a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rossum Erik

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of physical restraints still is common practice in the nursing home care. Since physical restraints have been shown to be an ineffective and sometimes even hazardous measure, interventions are needed to reduce their usage. Several attempts have been made to reduce the use of physical restraints. Most studies used educational approaches and introduced a nurse specialist as a consultant. However, the success rate of these interventions has been inconsistent. We developed a new multi-component intervention (EXBELT comprising an educational intervention for nursing home staff in combination with a policy change (belt use is prohibited by the nursing home management, availability of a nurse specialist and nursing home manager as consultants, and availability of alternative interventions. The first aim of this study is to further develop and test the effectiveness of EXBELT on belt restraint reduction in Dutch psychogeriatric nursing homes. However, the reduction of belts should not result in an increase of other restrictive restraints (such as a chair with locked tray table or psychoactive drug use. The overall aim is an effective and feasible intervention that can be employed on a large scale in Dutch nursing homes. Methods and design Effects of EXBELT will be studied in a quasi-experimental longitudinal study design. Alongside the effect evaluation, a process evaluation will be carried out in order to further develop EXBELT. Data regarding age, gender, use of physical restraints, the number of falls and fall related injuries, psychoactive drug use, and the use of alternative interventions will be collected at baseline and after four and eight months of follow-up. Data regarding the process evaluation will be gathered in a period of eight months between baseline and the last measurement. Furthermore, changing attitudes will become an important addition to the educational part of EXBELT. Discussion A quasi

  3. Tests of new physics from precise measurements of the Casimir pressure between two gold-coated plates

    CERN Document Server

    Decca, R S; Klimchitskaya, G L; Krause, D E; López, D; Mostepanenko, V M

    2007-01-01

    A micromechanical torsion oscillator has been used to strengthen the limits on new Yukawa forces by determining the Casimir pressure between two gold-coated plates. By significantly reducing the random errors and obtaining the electronic parameters of the gold coatings, we were able to conclusively exclude the predictions of large thermal effects below 1 $\\mu$m and strengthen the constraints on Yukawa corrections to Newtonian gravity in the interaction range from 29.5 nm to 86 nm.

  4. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States); Hawthorne, J.R. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States); Rochau, G.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The Charpy-V (C{sub v}) notch ductility and tensile properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288 C (550 F) irradiated (I), 288 C (550 F) irradiated + 454 C (850 F) - 168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288 C (550 F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} and 4.18 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1.05 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The annealing treatment produced full C{sub v} upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the C{sub v} 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The C{sub v} transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity were exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared.

  5. Physical restraint use and older patients' length of hospital stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Ip, Isaac N; Woo, Jean; Chui, Maria Y P; Ho, Florence K Y

    2014-01-01

    In both acute care and residential care settings, physical restraints are frequently used in the management of patients, older people in particular. Recently, the negative outcomes of physical restraint use have often been reported, but very limited research effort has been made to examine whether such nursing practice have any adverse effects on patients' length of stay (LOS) in hospitals. The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical restraint use on older patients during hospitalization and their LOS. Medical records of 910 older patients aged 60 years and above admitted to one of the Hong Kong public hospitals in 2007 were randomly selected and recorded during July to September 2011. The recorded items included patients' general health status, physical and cognitive function, the use of physical restraints, and patients' LOS. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to analyze the data. The results indicated that older patients' general health status, physical, and cognitive function were important factors affecting their LOS. Independent of these factors, the physical restraint use was still significantly predictive of longer LOS, and these two blocks of variables together served as an effective model in predicting older patients' LOS in the hospital. Since physical restraint use has been found to be predictive of longer hospital stay, physical restraints should be used with more caution and the use of it should be reduced on older patients in the hospital caring setting. All relevant health care staff should be aware of the negative effects of physical restraint use and should reduce the use of it in hospital caring and nursing home settings.

  6. Restraint use law enforcement intervention in Latino communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechter, Judy; Uhlhorn, Susan B

    2011-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for U.S. Latinos aged 1 to 35 years. Restraint use is an effective means of prevention of motor vehicle crash injury. Effective interventions to raise restraint use include the following: legislation, law enforcement, education, and equipment distribution. The effects of law enforcement interventions in Latino immigrant communities are understudied. We measured the community-level effect of a combined intervention that included warnings and citations phase enforcement in Latino communities. We designed and implemented in two of three Latino-majority communities a multicomponent intervention consisting of a community awareness campaign, restraint use education with equipment distribution, and a two-staged law enforcement intervention. Restraint use observations were conducted in all three communities at baseline, after the warnings phase and again after the citations phase of the intervention were completed. The combined intervention of community awareness, education, child passenger restraint distribution, and law enforcement focused on educational traffic stops with incentives and warnings was associated with a significant increase in both driver and child passenger restraint use in one intervention community, but only driver restraint increased to a level of significance in the other intervention community; significant increase was also noted among nonintervention drivers. The citations phase of the intervention did not result in a significant increase in restraint use and was complicated by interruptions due to unlicensed drivers. The combined effort of community awareness, education, equipment distribution and law enforcement intervention that included incentives and warnings may be effective at increasing seat belt use in Latino communities without the need for citations.

  7. The Test and Study of RPC Capping Plate Bearing Capacity and Crack Resistance%RPC盖板承载力与抗裂性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄旭毅; 吴伟

    2013-01-01

      以京沪高速铁路三标段曲阜 RPC 混凝土盖板厂为依托,介绍 WDW -10型微机监测高强道板抗弯承载力试验机的开发和设计情况,并对 RPC 盖板承载力与抗裂性进行试验研究。%  The paper briefs the development and the design of the type WDW – 10 microcomputer - moni-tored high strength side walk slab bending resistant bearing capacity tester by relying on Qufu RPC Cap -ping Plate Precast Factory for the Bid 3 section of the Beijing - Shanghai High Speed Railway .Both test and study of RPC capping plate bearing capacity and crack resistance have been performed .

  8. Influence of omega-3 fatty acid status on the way rats adapt to chronic restraint stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hennebelle

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are important for several neuronal and cognitive functions. Altered omega-3 fatty acid status has been implicated in reduced resistance to stress and mood disorders. We therefore evaluated the effects of repeated restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days on adult rats fed omega-3 deficient, control or omega-3 enriched diets from conception. We measured body weight, plasma corticosterone and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptors and correlated these data with emotional and depression-like behaviour assessed by their open-field (OF activity, anxiety in the elevated-plus maze (EPM, the sucrose preference test and the startle response. We also determined their plasma and brain membrane lipid profiles by gas chromatography. Repeated restraint stress caused rats fed a control diet to lose weight. Their plasma corticosterone increased and they showed moderate behavioural changes, with increases only in grooming (OF test and entries into the open arms (EPM. Rats fed the omega-3 enriched diet had a lower stress-induced weight loss and plasma corticosterone peak, and reduced grooming. Rats chronically lacking omega-3 fatty acid exhibited an increased startle response, a stress-induced decrease in locomotor activity and exaggerated grooming. The brain omega-3 fatty acids increased as the dietary omega-3 fatty acids increased; diets containing preformed long-chain omega-3 fatty acid were better than diets containing the precursor alpha-linolenic acid. However, the restraint stress reduced the amounts of omega-3 incorporated. These data showed that the response to chronic restraint stress was modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid supply, a dietary deficiency was deleterious while enrichment protecting against stress.

  9. Environmental Enrichment Blunts Ethanol Consumption after Restraint Stress in C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianno, Priscila; Abrahao, Karina Possa

    2017-01-01

    Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE) affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h) or continuous (24 h) EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress) to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a two-bottle choice drinking-in-the-dark paradigm for 15 days (20% ethanol and water, 2 h/day, acquisition phase). Control mice were housed under standard conditions (SC). In the first experiment, one group of mice was housed under EE conditions 24 h/day (EE24h). In the second experiment, the exposure to EE was reduced to 3 h/day (EE3h). After the acquisition phase, the animals were deprived of ethanol for 6 days, followed by 2 h ethanol access once a week. Animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM) during ethanol withdrawal. During the last 2 weeks, the mice were exposed to 24 h ethanol access. A 1-h restraint stress test was performed immediately before the last ethanol exposure. EE24h but not EE3h increased anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal compared to controls. Neither EE24h nor EE3h affected ethanol consumption during the 2 h weekly exposure periods. However, EE24h and EE3h mice that were exposed to acute restraint stress consumed less ethanol than controls during a 24 h ethanol access. These results showed that EE reduces alcohol intake after an acute restraint stress. PMID:28107511

  10. Psychiatric patients' perception of physical restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugger, G; Gleiss, A; Baldinger, P; Strnad, A; Kasper, S; Frey, R

    2016-03-01

    To investigate psychiatric patients' subjective perception during and after belt fixation. All patients who were involuntarily admitted and physically restrained at a psychiatric intensive care unit within an 18-month study period were analysed. Ratings were obtained at four visits when questioning was possible. Within a heterogeneous diagnostic sample of 47 patients, only 12 patients were eligible to participate during belt fixation. After cessation of fixation, eight patients lacked any memory of restraint, while 36 could be questioned. Visual analogue scale median scores indicated powerlessness and depressiveness rather than anxiety and aggression. Patients' acceptance of the coercive measure was significantly higher (P = 0.003), while patients' memory was significantly lower than expected (P < 0.001). About 50% of the patients documented high perceived coercion, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) could be supposed in a quarter of the restrained individuals. Subjective perceptions concerning fixation showed no significant changes over time. Results showed high interindividual variability. Visual analogue scale revealed that belt fixation seemed to be forgotten or accepted in the majority of patients, probably due to psychiatric intensive care, psychopharmacological treatment and clinical improvements. The responses of a quarter of the patients assessed before discharge may be in accordance with symptoms of PTSD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Food craving, dietary restraint and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A J; Weaver, C F; Blundell, J E

    1991-12-01

    A common assumption is that dieting causes food cravings, probably as a result of food energy deprivation. This issue was investigated in a two-phase study. In phase one, 206 women completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire and a food craving scale. A correlational analysis showed food craving to be only weakly related to dietary restraint, but highly and significantly correlated with external eating, emotional eating and susceptibility to hunger. In phase two, ten women who regularly experienced food cravings and ten who rarely craved food kept prospective records of their food intake, daily mood and food craving episodes. There were few differences in eating behaviour, although the cravers tended to consume slightly more daily energy than the non-cravers. The cravers had higher ratings of boredom and anxiety during the day, and dysphoric mood was prominent prior to the cravings themselves. Food deprivation does not appear to be a necessary condition for food cravings to occur. Rather, food cravings are closely associated with mood, in particular as an antecedent to craving and also as a consequence of craving.

  12. Plate Penetration Tests of the 2000 lb Bomb G. P. (Low Drag) Type EX-11, Mod 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-04-07

    ly. lÄmt%,sfi?r’ noch in« t .-J prcviflti» impact*. ’ --r^^*g^<----y • - ^’ jfe*V_. T>c •’•I .1 Bi^.-„ Ijtitttli ’bnUusr.-Otirjr- V -fe...plate • fe~ Thickness at impact __ . # OBLIQUITY ~’£0*~ MIL UL1M: U0/h, Impact-dimensions [9"_X £ɛ - TENETKÄT1ÖN ~ * flaking

  13. 侵彻多层钢靶板过载测试技术%Overload Testing Technology of Penetrating Multi-Layer Steel Target Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美云; 王敬斌; 王丹; 石庚辰

    2016-01-01

    针对在弹丸侵彻钢靶板过程中高过载带来的问题,研究了一种能够抗高冲击作用的弹丸侵彻多层钢靶板过载测试装置。该装置采用灌封、多层材料组合缓冲以及二次电源的措施,能保证测试装置抗高冲击作用和可靠工作。对弹丸侵彻多层钢靶板的过载特性进行了测试,结果表明所研究的测试装置能够可靠获取与记录弹丸穿过各层靶板时的加速度。%This paper presented a testing device with the ability of resisting high shock while penetrating multi-layer steel target plate to guarantee the high overload problem with plate process in the projectile penetrating steel target. Combined with potting technology, multi-layer shock absorb materials and secondary electrical power source,the device shows resistance to high shock and the ability of reliable working.Experiments on overload characteristic further proved that the device can collect and store the acceleration of penetrating multi-layer target plate with high reliability.

  14. An investigation of the typical corrosion parameters used to test polymer electrolyte fuel cell bipolar plate coatings, with titanium nitride coated stainless steel as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, A.; Kongstein, O. E.; Hamilton, P. J.; Oedegaard, A.; Svenum, I. H.; Cooke, K.

    2015-07-01

    Stainless steel bipolar plates (BPP) for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have good manufacturability, durability and low costs, but inadequate corrosion resistance and elevated interfacial contact resistance (ICR) in the fuel cell environment. Thin film coatings of titanium nitride (TiN) of 1 μm in thickness, were deposited by means of physical vapour deposition (PVD) process on to stainless steel (SS) 316L substrates and were evaluated, in a series of tests, for their level of corrosion protection and ICR. In the ex-situ corrosion tests, variables such as applied potential, experimental duration and pH of the sulphate electrolyte at 80 °C were altered. The ICR values were found to increase after exposure to greater applied potentials and electrolytes of a higher pH. In terms of experimental duration, the ICR increased most rapidly at the beginning of each experiment. It was also found that the oxidation of TiN was accelerated after exposure to electrolytes of a higher pH. When coated BPPs were incorporated into an accelerated fuel cell test, the degradation of the fuel cell cathode resembled the plates that were tested at the highest anodic potential (1.4 VSHE).

  15. Contrasting effects of diazepam and repeated restraint stress on latent inhibition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, Raymond; Marcello, Stefania; Andersen, Jacob Sparre; Pani, Luca

    2007-11-02

    The effects on latent inhibition (LI; a delay in conditioning when a CS has been pre-exposed without consequences) of repeated restraint stress and the anxiolytic drug diazepam were examined in C57BL/6 mice to know whether previous aversive events or anxiolysis are factors determining the expression of LI. The LI model was optimized for this strain particularly sensitive to stress (using both the CER and the conditioned freezing procedures) and characterized with typical (haloperidol) and atypical (clozapine and olanzapine) antipsychotic drugs administered either during the conditioning or the pre-exposure phases. An acute challenge with amphetamine, a dopamine releaser, was done to verify the enhancement of hyperactivity in C57BL/6 mice after the restraint stress sensitization. At all doses tested, diazepam decreased latent inhibition when administered during the pre-exposure phase (similarly to atypical antipsychotic drugs). Repeated restraint stress enhanced LI by blocking the CS-induced freezing in pre-exposed mice. In contrast, pre-treatment with diazepam before pre-exposure allowed the expression of CS-induced freezing in stressed mice pre-exposed to the tone. It is suggested that stress and anxiolytic drugs can have opposite effects on attention or perseveration processes during learning of conflicting contingency responses.

  16. An aerator for brain slice experiments in individual cell culture plate wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, David M; Hauser, Caitlin A; Minnehan, Caitlin E; Meitzen, John

    2014-12-30

    Ex vivo acute living brain slices are a broadly employed and powerful experimental preparation. Most new technology regarding this tissue has involved the chamber used when performing electrophysiological experiments. Alternatively we instead focus on the creation of a simple, versatile aerator designed to allow maintenance and manipulation of acute brain slices and potentially other tissue in a multi-well cell culture plate. Here we present an easily manufactured aerator designed to fit into a 24-well cell culture plate. It features a nylon mesh and a single microhole to enable gas delivery without compromising tissue stability. The aerator is designed to be individually controlled, allowing both high throughput and single well experiments. The aerator was validated by testing material leach, dissolved oxygen delivery, brain slice viability and neuronal electrophysiology. Example experiments are also presented, including a test of whether β1-adrenergic receptor activation regulates gene expression in ex vivo dorsal striatum using qPCR. Key differences include enhanced control over gas delivery to individual wells containing brain slices, decreased necessary volume, a sample restraint to reduce movement artifacts, the potential to be sterilized, the avoidance of materials that absorb water and small biological molecules, minimal production costs, and increased experimental throughput. This new aerator is of high utility and will be useful for experiments involving brain slices and other potentially tissue samples in 24-well cell culture plates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  18. Extraction of distance restraints from pure shift NOE experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltschnee, Lukas; Knoll, Kevin; Schmidts, Volker; Adams, Ralph W.; Nilsson, Mathias; Morris, Gareth A.; Thiele, Christina M.

    2016-10-01

    NMR techniques incorporating pure shift methods to improve signal resolution have recently attracted much attention, owing to their potential use in studies of increasingly complex molecular systems. Extraction of frequencies from these simplified spectra enables easier structure determination, but only a few of the methods presented provide structural parameters derived from signal integral measurements. In particular, for quantification of the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) it is highly desirable to utilize pure shift techniques where signal overlap normally prevents accurate signal integration, to enable measurement of a larger number of interatomic distances. However, robust methods for the measurement of interatomic distances using the recently developed pure shift techniques have not been reported to date. In this work we discuss some of the factors determining the accuracy of measurements of signal integrals in interferogram-based Zangger-Sterk (ZS) pure shift NMR experiments. The ZS broadband homodecoupling technique is used in different experiments designed for quantitative NOE determination from pure shift spectra. It is shown that the techniques studied can be used for quantitative extraction of NOE-derived distance restraints, as exemplified for the test case of strychnine.

  19. Design and Study on Sled Collision Test of Children Occupant Restraint System%儿童乘员约束系统台车碰撞试验设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白中浩; 王玉龙; 卢静

    2014-01-01

    In order to satisfy the acceleration interval requirements when a dynamic performance test of CRS was conducted,a method of reproducing crash acceleration using thin walled circular tubes with different lengths,diameters and wall thicknesses was introduced.A finite element model of sled and energy absorption tube was established by LS DYNA.The combination of parameters of tubes satisfying frontal or rear crash acceleration interval requirements were abtained by simulation a-nalysis based on the established model and sled collision test were conducted to verify effectiveness and accuracy of the model.Then the head and chest injury mechanism of Q6 children dummy was ana-lyzed and the head center trajectory was got through the pixel analysis.Finally,the improvement sug-gestions were introduced.%为满足 GB 27887-2011规定的儿童乘员用约束系统动态性能试验的台车加速度区间要求,提出组合不同长度、壁厚、直径的圆形薄壁吸能管来实现台车碰撞试验波形的方法。采用 LS-DYNA 软件建立台车和吸能管的有限元模型,并通过该模型获得能复现法规要求的前后碰撞加速度区间的吸能管组合参数,经台车碰撞试验验证其有效性和精确性。对碰撞过程中 Q6儿童假人头部和胸部动态响应进行了致伤机理分析,同时基于像素分析法提取了假人头部质心位置的运动轨迹,最后通过分析试验结果,对该新型儿童约束系统提出了改进意见。

  20. 'ILRT' integrated leak reason test of the primary restraint of the reactor; 'ILRT' prueba de razon de fuga integrada de la contencion primaria del reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera C, G. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Mantenimiento, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: ghc98646@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-01

    that indicated in the Technical Specifications of the CLV. Its will be indicate in the development of this work which are the important points for the success of the ILRT tests, as well as the problem during its execution and the results that have taken us to enlarge the test period, with the affectations in the secondary variables of cost and recharge times. (Author)

  1. The Use of Physical Restraint in Norwegian Adult Psychiatric Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Background. The use of coercion within the psychiatric services is problematic and raises a range of ethical, legal, and clinical questions. "Physical restraint" is an emergency procedure used in psychiatric hospitals to control patients that pose an imminent physical danger. We wished to review the literature published in scientific peer-reviewed journals describing studies on the use of physical restraint in Norway, in order to identify the current state of knowledge and directions for future research. Design. The databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for studies relating to physical restraint (including holding) in Norwegian psychiatric hospitals, supplemented with hand searches. Results. 28 studies were included. Most of the studies were on rates of restraint, but there were also some studies on perceptions of patients and staff, case studies, and ethnographic studies. There was only one intervention study. There are differences in use between wards and institutions, which in part may be explained by differences in patient populations. Staff appear to be less negative to the use of restraint than patients. Conclusions. The studies that were identified were primarily concerned with rates of use and with patients' and staff's perspectives. More interventional studies are needed to move the field forward.

  2. RESTRAINTS AND PATIENTS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zartaloudi A.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aggression management and means of control in psychiatric settings is an international issue. Many studies in mental health literature are related to the appearance and the causes of violence and the use of control procedures, such as seclusion and restraint, from mental health professionals in order to control and suppress aggressive and violent behavior. AIM: The purpose of this study is to present the restraints used to control the behaviour of mentally ill patients, the relationship between aggressive behavior and mental disorders and the historical background concerning the use of restrictive measures. METHOD: A critical review of this body of literature was carried out. Evidence was collected through Medline database. RESULTS: Two restraint techniques are used in order to cope with patients who could cause harm to themselves or their environment, physical restraint and seclusion. These restrictive measures are used through centuries in order to suppress violent behaviour of mental patients. CONCLUSION: Involuntary treatment and restraint are used when patients loose control of their behavior. In fact it is difficult to achieve a balance between ensuring patients’ rights and needs and preventing them from harming themselves or the others.

  3. Interest of retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy in selected cases of descending perineum syndrome with positive anti-sagging test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beco Jacques

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levator plate sagging (LPS, usually called descending perineum syndrome, is one of the main defects encountered in perineology. This defect is classically associated with colo-proctologic functional troubles (dyschesia and anal incontinence but can also induce perineodynia, gynaecological and lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods A retrospective case series of nine female patients (mean age: 44.3 underwent an isolated retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy (RLPM to treat symptomatic LPS confirmed by rectal examination and/or Perineocaliper®. An anti-sagging test (support of the posterior perineum must significantly improve the symptoms that were resistant to conservative treatment. The effect of the procedure on the symptoms of the 3 axes of the perineum (urological, colo-proctologic and gynecological and on perineodynia was evaluated during a follow up consultation more than 9 months after surgery. The effect of RLPM on the position of the anal margin and on the levator plate angle was studied using rectal examination, Perineocaliper® and retro-anal ultrasound. Results Before surgery, anti-sagging tests were positive for dyschesia, urinary urgency and pain. After a mean follow-up of 16.1 months, RLPM resolved or improved 2/2 cases of stress urinary incontinence, 3/5 of urinary urgency, 3/4 of dysuria, 3/3 of anal incontinence, 7/8 of dyschesia, 3/4 of cystocele, 4/5 of rectocele, 5/8 of dyspareunia and 6/7 of perineodynia. Rectal examination showed a complete suppression of sagging in 4 patients and an improvement in the 5 others. The mean reduction of perineal descent was 1.08 cm (extremes: 0–1.5. Using retro-anal ultrasound of the levator plate, the mean reduction of sagging was 12.67 degrees (extremes: 1 – 21. Conclusion Anti-sagging tests can be used before surgery to simulate the effect of RLPM. This surgical procedure seems to improve stress urinary incontinence, frequency, nocturia, urgency, dysuria, anal

  4. [Spanish adaptation and validation of the Perception of Restraint Use Questionnaire (PRUQ) on the use of physical restraints on the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña López, E; Estévez-Guerra, G J; Núñez González, E; Calvo Francés, F; Penelo, E

    2016-04-29

    To adapt and to validate in a Spanish population the Perception of Restraint Use Questionnaire (PRUQ), which assesses the importance that professionals give to the use of physical restraints when caring for older adults. After a process of forward-back translation and linguistic adaptation, a Spanish version of the original questionnaire was obtained. A descriptive cross-sectional multicenter study was then carried out. Based on non-probability sampling, 20 centers from three Spanish regions were selected; 830 professionals agreed to participate. 15 of the 17 items of the original questionnaire were translated literally and two required minor modifications.All were considered acceptable by an expert panel(content validity index of 0.89); a pilot study confirmed the adequate feasibility of the questionnaire. The principal components analysis identified three dimensions that explained 66.2% of variance. The confirmatory factor analysis of this tridimensional model showed an acceptable fit [CFI = 0.936; RMSEA = 0.080], being factor loadings and factor correlations statistically significant (p<0.001). The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) for the total score was 0.92 and the test-retest reliability (ICCa) was 0.87 (95%CI: 0.78 to 0.92) over an interval of three weeks. The Spanish version of the PRUQ shows good psychometric characteristics and is adapted to the cultural context of this country. It may be considered a useful tool to assess in which situations professionals consider the use of physical restraints most necessary, helping to design training activities aimed at rationalizing its application.

  5. Vibration Analysis of Annular Sector Plates under Different Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical framework is developed for the vibration analysis of annular sector plates with general elastic restraints along each edge of plates. Regardless of boundary conditions, the displacement solution is invariably expressed as a new form of trigonometric expansion with accelerated convergence. The expansion coefficients are treated as the generalized coordinates and determined using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. This work allows a capability of modeling annular sector plates under a variety of boundary conditions and changing the boundary conditions as easily as modifying the material properties or dimensions of the plates. Of equal importance, the proposed approach is universally applicable to annular sector plates of any inclusion angles up to 2π. The reliability and accuracy of the current method are adequately validated through numerical examples.

  6. Restraint stress enhances alcohol intake in adolescent female rats but reduces alcohol intake in adolescent male and adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille-Bille, Aranza; Ferreyra, Ana; Sciangula, Martina; Chiner, Florencia; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2017-08-14

    Adolescents may be more sensitive to stress-induced alcohol drinking than adults, which would explain the higher prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in late adolescence than in adulthood. The present study analyzed the impact of restraint stress on the initiation of alcohol intake across 2 weeks of intermittent, two-bottle choice intake in male and female adolescent rats and adult female rats. Restraint stress significantly increased alcohol intake and preference in female adolescent rats but decreased alcohol intake and preference in male adolescent and female adult rats. The effects of restraint stress on alcohol intake were mitigated in adolescent females following administration of the κ opioid receptor antagonist norbinaltorphimine. Adolescent but not adult female rats that were subjected to restraint stress spent more time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze. Female adolescents exposed to stress also exhibited greater risk-taking behaviors in a concentric square field test compared with non-stressed controls. These results indicate age- and sex-related differences in the sensitivity to alcohol-stress interactions that may facilitate the initiation of alcohol use in female adolescents. The facilitatory effect of stress on alcohol intake was related to greater exploratory and risk-taking behaviors in young females after stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. License plate detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, Michael; Klopovsky, Yuri; Silinskis, Normunds

    2013-12-01

    A novel algorithm for vehicle license plates localization is proposed. The algorithm is based on pixel intensity transition gradient analysis. Near to 2500 natural-scene gray-level vehicle images of different backgrounds and ambient illumination was tested. The best set of algorithm's parameters produces detection rate up to 0.94. Taking into account abnormal camera location during our tests and therefore geometrical distortion and troubles from trees this result could be considered as passable. Correlation between source data, such as license Plate dimensions and texture, cameras location and others, and parameters of algorithm were also defined.

  8. [Medical-legal issues of physical and pharmacological restraint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Guija, Julio A; Ortega-Monasterio, Leopoldo

    2014-03-01

    The use of physical and pharmacological restraint is controversial but is currently accepted as inevitable. It is indicated for controlling behavioral disorders and psychomotor agitation that put patients and third parties at risk. Its indication should be medical, and we should opt for the least restrictive measure. Restraints represent a possible infringement of patients' fundamental rights and require understanding and strict respect for the medical-legal precepts by physicians and other practitioners involved in its application. This article reviews the current legal framework, as well as the medical-legal premises and aspects of applying restraints, with the objective of ensuring maximum respect for patients' rights and the appropriate legal safety in the activity of practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Applying the digital-image-correlation technique to measure the deformation of an old building’s column retrofitted with steel plate in an in situ pushover test

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shih-Heng Tung; Ming-Hsiang Shih; Wen-Pei Sung

    2014-06-01

    An in situ pushover test is carried out on an old building of Guan-Miao elementary school in south Taiwan. Columns of this building are seismically retrofitted with steel plate. The DIC (digital-image-correlation) technique is used to measure the deformation of the retrofitted column. The result shows that the DIC technique can be successfully applied to measure the relative displacement of the column. Additionally, thismethod leads to the measurement of relative displacements formany points on the column simultaneously. Hence, the column deformation curve, rotation and curvature can be determined using interpolation method. The resulting curvaturediagram reveals that the phenomenon of plastic hinge occurs at about 2% storey drift ratio, and that the DIC technique can be applied to measure column deformation in a full scale in situ test.

  10. Multiregional evaluation of the SimPlate heterotrophic plate count method compared to the standard plate count agar pour plate method in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R W; Osborne, K; Barnes, G; Jolliff, C; Zamani, D; Roll, B; Stillings, A; Herzog, D; Cannon, S; Loveland, S

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0. 95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  11. Multiregional Evaluation of the SimPlate Heterotrophic Plate Count Method Compared to the Standard Plate Count Agar Pour Plate Method in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, R. Wayne; Osborne, Karen; Barnes, Gary; Jolliff, Carol; Zamani, Dianna; Roll, Bruce; Stillings, Amy; Herzog, David; Cannon, Shelly; Loveland, Scott

    2000-01-01

    A new SimPlate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine) was compared with the pour plate method at 35°C for 48 h. Six laboratories tested a total of 632 water samples. The SimPlate HPC method was found to be equivalent to the pour plate method by regression analysis (r = 0.95; y = 0.99X + 0.06).

  12. Internal stress in children and parental attitude to dental treatment with passive restraint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsuchihashi, Natsumi; Uehara, Naoko; Takagi, Yuzo; Miwa, Zenzo; Sugimoto, Kumiko

    2012-01-01

      PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the internal stress in uncooperative children treated under passive restraint and the changes of it in later treatments under cooperative condition with no need of restraint...

  13. Internal stress in children and parental attitude to dental treatment with passive restraint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsuchihashi, Natsumi; Uehara, Naoko; Takagi, Yuzo; Miwa, Zenzo; Sugimoto, Kumiko

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the internal stress in uncooperative children treated under passive restraint and the changes of it in later treatments under cooperative condition with no need of restraint...

  14. Fatal thromboembolism following physical restraint in a patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Rossana; Lazzaro, Antonella; Catanese, Miriam; Mandarelli, Gabriele; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Fatal thromboembolism during physical restraint in patients suffering from psychotic disorders is a very rare occurrence. In the case we present here, the criteria used in forensic pathology for the age determination of venous thrombi are applied to a case of pulmonary embolism in a patient suffering from schizophrenia who died after physical restraint. The possible association between conventional antipsychotic drugs and deep venous thrombosis, followed by pulmonary embolism, in a man with no predisposing risk factors, as well as the question concerning the appropriateness of medical care, are discussed.

  15. Nurses' and physicians' educational needs in seclusion and restraint practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontio, Raija; Välimäki, Maritta; Putkonen, Hanna; Cocoman, Angela; Turpeinen, Saija; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Joffe, Grigori

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to explore nurses' (N= 22) and physicians' (N= 5) educational needs in the context of their perceived seclusion and restraint-related mode of action and need for support. The data were collected by focus group (N= 4) interviews and analyzed with inductive content analysis. Participants recognized a need for on-ward and problem-based education and infrastructural and managerial support. The declared high ethical principles were not in accordance with the participants' reliance on manpower and the high seclusion and restraint rates. Future educational programs should bring together written clinical guidelines, education on ethical and legal issues, and the staff's support aspect.

  16. Characterization of pediatric wheelchair kinematics and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system loading during rear impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Karg, Patricia; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    This study characterizes pediatric wheelchair kinematic responses and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) loading during rear impact. It also examines the kinematic and loading effects of wheelchair headrest inclusion in rear impact. In two separate rear-impact test scenarios, identical WC19-compliant manual pediatric wheelchairs were tested using a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to evaluate wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading. Three wheelchairs included no headrests, and three were equipped with slightly modified wheelchair-mounted headrests. Surrogate WTORS properly secured the wheelchairs; three-point occupant restraints properly restrained the ATD. All tests used a 26km/h, 11g rear-impact test pulse. Headrest presence affected wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading; headrest-equipped wheelchairs had greater mean seatback deflections, mean peak front and rear tiedown loads and decreased mean lap belt loads. Rear-impact tiedown loads differed from previously measured loads in frontal impact, with comparable tiedown load levels reversed in frontal and rear impacts. The front tiedowns in rear impact had the highest mean peak loads despite lower rear-impact severity. These outcomes have implications for wheelchair and tiedown design, highlighting the need for all four tiedowns to have an equally robust design, and have implications in the development of rear-impact wheelchair transportation safety standards.

  17. Calculation of cracking moment of wind-proof plate and test study%防风板开裂弯矩计算及试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元; 王起才; 郭健; 赵鹏

    2013-01-01

    The property of the cross section influences the cracking moment of the wind-shield plate, which further determines the loading scheme of the static loading test. The paper started the research with the help of the existing calculation method and computational theory,and with a reference to the force-bearing features of the plate and relevant schematic diagram of calculation,a formula for the calculation of cracking moment was eventually concluded. A comparison of the experimental values and calculation values indicates that the formula arrived is of high accuracy and its in-situ application produced effective result.%为了确定防风板静载试验的加载方案,需根据防风板截面特性计算开裂弯矩。本文立足已有开裂弯矩计算方法及计算理论,通过分析防风板的受力特点,根据恰当的应力计算图式,推导了防风板的开裂弯矩计算公式。试验值与计算值对比结果表明,用本文公式计算的开裂弯矩具有可靠的精确度,现场试验的应用效果良好。

  18. Investigation and performance tests of a new parallel plate ionization chamber with double sensitive volume for measuring diagnostic X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, B.; Zamani Zeinali, H.; Soltani, J.; Negarestani, A.; Shahvar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Medical diagnostic equipment, like diagnostic radiology and mammography require a dosimeter with high accuracy for dosimetry of the diagnostic X-ray beam. Ionization chambers are suitable instruments for dosimetry of diagnostic-range X-ray beams because of their appropriate response and high reliability. This work introduces the design and fabrication of a new parallel plate ionization chamber with a PMMA body, graphite-coated PMMA windows (0.5 mm thick) and a graphite-foil central electrode (0.1 mm thick, 0.7 g/cm3 dense). This design improves upon the response characteristics of existing designs through the specific choice of materials as well as the appropriate size and arrangement of the ionization chamber components. The results of performance tests conducted at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry laboratory in Karaj-Iran demonstrated the short and long-term stability, the low leakage current, the low directional dependence, and the high ion collection efficiency of the design. Furthermore, the FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations confirmed the low effect of central electrode on this new ionization chamber response. The response characteristics of the parallel plate ionization chamber presented in this work makes the instrument suitable for use as a standard dosimeter in laboratories.

  19. Investigation and performance tests of a new parallel plate ionization chamber with double sensitive volume for measuring diagnostic X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, B., E-mail: babak_sharifi88@yahoo.com [Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zamani Zeinali, H. [Application of Radiation Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltani, J.; Negarestani, A. [Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahvar, A. [Application of Radiation Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-11

    Medical diagnostic equipment, like diagnostic radiology and mammography require a dosimeter with high accuracy for dosimetry of the diagnostic X-ray beam. Ionization chambers are suitable instruments for dosimetry of diagnostic-range X-ray beams because of their appropriate response and high reliability. This work introduces the design and fabrication of a new parallel plate ionization chamber with a PMMA body, graphite-coated PMMA windows (0.5 mm thick) and a graphite-foil central electrode (0.1 mm thick, 0.7 g/cm{sup 3} dense). This design improves upon the response characteristics of existing designs through the specific choice of materials as well as the appropriate size and arrangement of the ionization chamber components. The results of performance tests conducted at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry laboratory in Karaj-Iran demonstrated the short and long-term stability, the low leakage current, the low directional dependence, and the high ion collection efficiency of the design. Furthermore, the FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations confirmed the low effect of central electrode on this new ionization chamber response. The response characteristics of the parallel plate ionization chamber presented in this work makes the instrument suitable for use as a standard dosimeter in laboratories.

  20. Use of Physical Restraints in Dutch Intensive Care Units: A Prospective Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, A.W. van der; Peelen, L.M.; Raijmakers, R.J.; Vroegop, R.L.; Bakker, D.F.; Tekatli, H.; Boogaard, M.H.W.A. van den; Slooter, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates that harmful effects are associated with the use of physical restraint. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the use of physical restraint in intensive care units. Prevalence, adherence to protocols, and correlates of the use of physical restraint were determined.

  1. Public Policy on Physical Restraint of Children with Disabilities in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, James K.; Schwilk, Christopher; Mitruski, Megan

    2006-01-01

    The US Constitution, federal and state legislatures, courts, and regulations permit physical restraint for both therapeutic (i.e., behavior change) and risk prevention purposes. Although most venues limit restraint as punishment, no government entity prohibits use of physical restraint as a response to imminent danger. This paper provides a…

  2. The Social Validation of Three Physical Restraint Procedures: A Comparison of Young People and Professional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Andrew A.; Sturmey, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Forty-one special education professionals and classroom aides, 47 residential care staff, and 74 high school students rated the treatment acceptability of three forms of physical restraint. A chair method of restraint was rated as more acceptable than other floor restraint methods by all three groups. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  3. A Theoretical Analysis of Potential Extinction Properties of Behavior-Specific Manual Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio; Thomas, Melvin; Martin, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper will examine possible extinction properties of behavior-specific manual restraint. It will analyze the possibility of extinction being produced via restraint with respect to the target behavior's possible environmental functions. The theoretical analysis will involve the analysis of behavioral properties of restraint during two temporal…

  4. An Analysis of the Restraint Event and Its Behavioral Effects on Clients and Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert J.; Timbers, Gary D.

    2002-01-01

    Programs serving troubled youth continuously struggle with the issue of using physical restraints and other coercive interventions. This paper revisits the issues and motivations surrounding restraint use. It offers an analytic perspective on the physical restraint cycle and the factors that tend to support its recurrence. (JDM)

  5. Public Policy on Physical Restraint of Children with Disabilities in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, James K.; Schwilk, Christopher; Mitruski, Megan

    2006-01-01

    The US Constitution, federal and state legislatures, courts, and regulations permit physical restraint for both therapeutic (i.e., behavior change) and risk prevention purposes. Although most venues limit restraint as punishment, no government entity prohibits use of physical restraint as a response to imminent danger. This paper provides a…

  6. Sensitization of restraint-induced corticosterone secretion after chronic restraint in rats: Involvement of 5-HT7 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    García-Iglesias, Brenda B.; Mendoza-Garrido, María E; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Noyola-Díaz, Martha; Terrón, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. We examined the effect of chronic restraint stress (CRS; 20 min/day) as compared to control (CTRL) conditions for 14 days, on: 1) restraint-induced ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) secretion in rats pretreated with vehicle or SB-656104 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist); 2) 5-HT7 receptor-like immunoreactivity (5-HT7-LI) and protein in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and adrenal glands (AG); 3...

  7. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF BURIED BEND WITH THRUST RESTRAINT IN LIQUEFYING GROUND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Toshinori; Sawada, Yutaka; Mohri, Yoshiyuki; Ling, Hoe I.

    In this study, a shaking table test was carried out in order to discuss the dynamic behavior for the bend of pressure pipeline with a concrete block and thrust restraints using geogrids or gravels in liquefying ground. As a result, it was revealed that the concrete block was largely moved and the relative displacement between the bend and the adjacent pipe became large. On the other hand, it was proved that geogrids and gravels were very effective for the lateral resistance in liquefying ground. In addition, the relative displacement was small because of the same difference between the bend and the adjacent pipe.

  8. Administration of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 improves behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical aberrations caused by chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S; Wang, T; Hu, X; Luo, J; Li, W; Wu, X; Duan, Y; Jin, F

    2015-12-03

    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Chronic stress can cause behavioral, cognitive, biochemical, and gut microbiota aberrations. Gut bacteria can communicate with the host through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (which mainly includes the immune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways) to influence brain and behavior. It is hypothesized that administration of probiotics can improve chronic-stress-induced depression. In order to examine this hypothesis, the chronic restraint stress depression model was established in this study. Adult specific pathogen free (SPF) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 21 days of restraint stress followed by behavioral testing (including the sucrose preference test (SPT), elevated-plus maze test, open-field test (OFT), object recognition test (ORT), and object placement test (OPT)) and biochemical analysis. Supplemental Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 was provided every day during stress until the end of experiment, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (CIT) served as a positive control. Results showed that L. helveticus NS8 improved chronic restraint stress-induced behavioral (anxiety and depression) and cognitive dysfunction, showing an effect similar to and better than that of CIT. L. helveticus NS8 also resulted in lower plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, higher plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, restored hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and more hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression than in chronic stress rats. Taken together, these results indicate an anti-depressant effect of L. helveticus NS8 in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress depression and that this effect could be due to the microbiota-gut-brain axis. They also suggest the therapeutic potential of L. helveticus NS8 in stress-related and possibly other

  9. Head excursion of restrained human volunteers and hybrid III dummies in steady state rollover tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Edward; Hare, Barry; Hughes, Raymond; Lewis, Lance; Iiyama, Hiroshi; Curzon, Anne; Cooper, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    Seatbelts provide substantial benefits in rollover crashes, yet occupants still receive head and neck injuries from contacting the vehicle roof interior when the roof exterior strikes the ground. Prior research has evaluated rollover restraint performance utilizing anthropomorphic test devices (dummies), but little dynamic testing has been done with human volunteers to learn how they move during rollovers. In this study, the vertical excursion of the head of restrained dummies and human subjects was measured in a vehicle being rotated about its longitudinal roll axis at roll rates from 180-to-360 deg/sec and under static inversion conditions. The vehicle's restraint design was the commonly used 3-point seatbelt with continuous loop webbing and a sliding latch plate. This paper presents an analysis of the observed occupant motion and provides a comparison of dummy and human motion under similar test conditions. Thirty-five tests (eighteen static and seventeen dynamic) were completed using two different sizes of dummies and human subjects in both near and far-side roll directions. The research indicates that far-side rollovers cause the restrained test subjects to have greater head excursion than near-side rollovers, and that static inversion testing underestimates head excursion for far-side occupants. Human vertical head excursion of up to 200 mm was found at a roll rate of 220 deg/sec. Humans exhibit greater variability in head excursion in comparison to dummies. Transfer of seatbelt webbing through the latch plate did not correlate directly with differences in head excursion.

  10. INL HIP Plate Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. H. Park; C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue

    2010-02-01

    This document outlines the process used to bond monolithic fuel plates by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). This method was developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. These foils have been used in a number of irradiation experiments in support of the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program.

  11. [Pulmonary embolism in an acute manic patient following physical restraint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsoul, S; De Backer, L; Schrijvers, D

    2014-01-01

    Immobilisation is a risk factor for the development of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. We present a case-study in which a patient developed a pulmonary embolism after being immobilised after a short period while subjected to physical restraint. We discuss the risk factors involved and stress the need for research into the prevention of such incidents.

  12. The Use of Physical Restraint in Norwegian Adult Psychiatric Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Wynn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of coercion within the psychiatric services is problematic and raises a range of ethical, legal, and clinical questions. “Physical restraint” is an emergency procedure used in psychiatric hospitals to control patients that pose an imminent physical danger. We wished to review the literature published in scientific peer-reviewed journals describing studies on the use of physical restraint in Norway, in order to identify the current state of knowledge and directions for future research. Design. The databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for studies relating to physical restraint (including holding in Norwegian psychiatric hospitals, supplemented with hand searches. Results. 28 studies were included. Most of the studies were on rates of restraint, but there were also some studies on perceptions of patients and staff, case studies, and ethnographic studies. There was only one intervention study. There are differences in use between wards and institutions, which in part may be explained by differences in patient populations. Staff appear to be less negative to the use of restraint than patients. Conclusions. The studies that were identified were primarily concerned with rates of use and with patients’ and staff’s perspectives. More interventional studies are needed to move the field forward.

  13. The Cost of Prior Restraint: "U. S. v. The Progressive."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, John; Dyer, Carolyn Stewart

    Increased litigation and rising litigation costs threaten the future of newspapers and magazines. A case study was conducted to determine the costs and effects of "United States v. 'The Progressive,'" a prior restraint case over the publication in 1979 of an article on the hydrogen bomb. "The Progressive," which operates at a deficit, spent almost…

  14. Safety restraint systems in heavy truck rollover scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats, P.M.A.; Coo, P.J.A. de

    2003-01-01

    Safety restraint systems have been widely applied in the passenger car industry. The heavy truck industry has followed along, integrating the seat belts in the seat system. The effectiveness of seat belts, in particular in rollover scenarios, was studied for a number of heavy truck rollover scenario

  15. Development of a validated aircraft child restraint model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pipino, M.; Mugnai, A.; DeWeese, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies conducted at the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute have shown that when used in aircraft, automotive Child Restraint Devices (CRDs) do not always provide the level of safety desired. Various factors that contribute to poor performance, such as seat belt anchor location, cushion stiffness, and

  16. 76 FR 10637 - Consumer Information; Program for Child Restraint Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Program (CREP) B. Consumers Union C. EuroNCAP D. Japan NCAP (JNCAP) E. New Program for the Assessment of... restraint's Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price. To ensure recommended CRS satisfy the proposed fit... centers, recreation centers, and restaurants in five fast food chains, it determined that 99 percent of...

  17. Restraints in daily care for people with moderate intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, A.P.S.; Hermsen, Maaike; Embregts, P.J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Self-determination is an important factor in improving the quality of life of people with moderate intellectual disabilities. A focus on self-determination implies that restraints on the freedom of people with intellectual disabilities should be decreased. In addition, according to the D

  18. Restraints in daily care for people with moderate intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, A.P.S.; Hermsen, Maaike; Embregts, P.J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Self-determination is an important factor in improving the quality of life of people with moderate intellectual disabilities. A focus on self-determination implies that restraints on the freedom of people with intellectual disabilities should be decreased. In addition, according to the

  19. Restraint stress and social defeat: What they have in common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Simone Cristina; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2015-07-01

    Bob Blanchard was a great inspiration for our studies on the neural basis of social defense. In the present study, we compared the hypothalamic pattern of activation between social defeat and restraint stress. As important stress situations, both defeated and immobilized animals displayed a substantial increase in Fos in the parvicellular part of the paraventricular nucleus,mostly in the region that contains the CRH neurons. In addition, socially defeated animals, but not restrained animals, recruited elements of the medial hypothalamic conspecific-responsive circuit, a region also engaged in other forms of social behavior. Of particular interest, both defeated and immobilized animals presented a robust increase in Fos expression in specific regions of the lateral hypothalamic area (i.e., juxtaparaventricular and juxtadorsomedial regions) likely to convey septo-hippocampal information encoding the environmental boundary restriction observed in both forms of stress, and in the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus which seems to work as a key player for the expression of, at least, part of the behavioral responses during both restraint and social defeat. These results indicate interesting commonalities between social defeat and restraint stress, suggesting, for the first time, a septo-hippocampal–hypothalamic path likely to respond to the environmental boundary restriction that may act as common stressor component for both types of stress. Moreover, the comparison of the neural circuits mediating physical restraint and social defense revealed a possible path for encoding the entrapment component during social confrontation.

  20. Restraint use and seating position among children in motor vehicles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and disability in children in both developed and developing countries and account for ... 100 000 population. This is double the global rate and 26% higher .... and there is no significant variation by gender, 'race', age or grade.5 In an invisible survey (the .... education and advocacy for child passenger and driver restraint in.

  1. [Physical restraint use in critical care units. Perceptions of patients and their families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Ciriza Amatriain, A I; Nicolás Olmedo, A; Goñi Viguria, R; Regaira Martínez, E; Margall Coscojuela, M A; Asiain Erro, M C

    2012-01-01

    The use of physical restraints in Intensive Care Units (ICU) is common although little is known about patients' and relatives' perceptions of this use. 1) To analyze the prevalence and use of physical restraints in a general adult ICU; 2) to know the perceptions of patients who experienced use of physical restraints and; 3) to know the perceptions of relatives of patients who used physical restraints. This descriptive study, which used both quantitative and qualitative methods, was carried out in an adult ICU. For the first objective, all the patients (101) who had used any kind of physical restraint were analysed. For the second and third objectives, 30 patients and 30 relatives were interviewed using the guidelines of Strumpf & Evans as modified by Hardin (1993). All interviews were recorded, fully transcribed and then submitted to a language content analysis using the method of Hsieh & Shannon. The only physical restraint used was the wrist restraint with a prevalence of 43.47%. Seventy-two percent of patients wore the restraint ≤12h and 28%>12h. Analysis of the patient interviews revealed 4 main themes: acceptance of the restraint conditioned by beliefs and information provided; feelings and sensations caused by the use of the restraint; alternatives proposed and future repercussions. Three themes emerged from the interviews with relatives: impressions caused by the use of the restrictions; reasons for accepting or rejecting them; alternatives to the use of restraints. Most patients used physical restraints for a short period of time and only the wrist restraint was used. Patients using physical restraints and their relatives expressed a wide range of feelings and sensations, with no negative future repercussions. In general, they agreed with the use of restraints although more precise information would lead to greater acceptance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Test beam results of micro channel plates in 'ionisation mode' for the detection of single charged particle and electromagnetic showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnyakov, A.; Barnyakov, M. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, pr. Akademika Lavrentieva, 11, Novosibirsk, (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, str. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, (Russian Federation); Brianza, L.; Ghezzi, A.; Gotti, C.; Govoni, P.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Pigazzini, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Trevisani, N. [Universita di Milano Bicocca and INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca,, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126, Milano, (Italy); Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Gelli, S.; Jorda Lope, C.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Pernie, L.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F. [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' and INFN, Sezione di Roma1, P.le A. Moro 1, I-00044 Rome, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    IMCP is an R and D project aimed at the exploitation of secondary emission of electrons from the surface of microchannel plates (MCP) for fast timing of showers in high rate environments. The usage of MCPs in 'ionisation' mode has long been proposed and is used extensively in ion time-of-flight mass spectrometers. What has not been investigated in depth is their use to detect the ionizing component of showers. The fast time resolution of MCPs exceeds anything that has been previously used in calorimeters, and, if exploited effectively, could aid in the event reconstruction at high luminosities. Results from tests with electrons with energies up to 150 GeV of MCP devices with different characteristics will be presented, in particular detection efficiency and time resolution. (authors)

  3. The effects of diazepam on the behavioral structure of the rat's response to pain in the hot-plate test: anxiolysis vs. pain modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, Maurizio; Sorbera, Filippina; Santangelo, Andrea; Crescimanno, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, by means of quantitative and multivariate analyses, the effects of diazepam on the behavioral structure of the rat's response to pain in the hot-plate test as well as whether such changes are associated with drug-induced effects on anxiety and/or nociception. To this purpose, ten groups of male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline, diazepam (0.25, 0.5 and 2 mg/kg), FG-7142 (1, 4 and 8 mg/kg) or morphine (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg). The mean number and mean latency to first appearance were calculated for each behavioral component. In addition, multivariate cluster and adjusted residual analyses based on the elaboration of transition matrices were performed. Three main behavioral categories were identified: exploratory (walking, sniffing), primary noxious-evoked (hind paw licking, front paw licking, shaking/stamping) and escape (climbing, jumping). Although no significant modifications in the latencies of the primary noxious-evoked components were induced by treatment with diazepam or FG-7142, significant effects were provoked by morphine treatment. Multivariate analyses showed that diazepam-induced anxiolysis redirected the rat's behavior toward a more purposeful and effective escape strategy. In contrast, the high level of anxiety induced by FG-7142 caused the behavioral structure to become disorganized and not purposefully oriented. Changes in the organization of behavioral components were observed in morphine-treated animals and mainly consisted of modifications in the primary noxious-evoked and escape components. The findings suggest that the effects of diazepam on the structure of the rat's response to pain in the hot-plate test are more likely attributable to anxiolysis than pain modulation.

  4. Effects of Elastic Edge Restraints and Initial Prestress on the Buckling Response of Compression-Loaded Composite Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Riddick, Jaret C.; Thornburgh, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    A parametric study of the effects of test-fixture-induced initial prestress and elastic edge restraints on the prebuckling and buckling responses of a compression-loaded, quasi-isotropic curved panel is presented. The numerical results were obtained by using a geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis code with high-fidelity models. The results presented show that a wide range of prebuckling and buckling behavior can be obtained by varying parameters that represent circumferential loaded-edge restraint and rotational unloaded-edge restraint provided by a test fixture and that represent the mismatch in specimen and test-fixture radii of curvature. For a certain range of parameters, the panels exhibit substantial nonlinear prebuckling deformations that yield buckling loads nearly twice the corresponding buckling load predicted by a traditional linear bifurcation buckling analysis for shallow curved panels. In contrast, the results show another range of parameters exist for which the nonlinear prebuckling deformations either do not exist or are relatively benign, and the panels exhibit buckling loads that are nearly equal to the corresponding linear bifurcation buckling load. Overall, the results should also be of particular interest to scientists, engineers, and designers involved in simulating flight-hardware boundary conditions in structural verification and certification tests, involved in validating structural analysis tools, and interested in tailoring buckling performance.

  5. 砂浆板冲击破坏试验研究%Damage tests for a cement mortar plate under shock load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾培英; 邓昌; 章道生; 汤雷; 王建

    2015-01-01

    通过锤击、均匀冲击荷载试验,采用逐级递增循环冲击加载方式,研究冲击荷载下砂浆板的破坏特征及冲击力、冲击能与最大加速度响应间关系。试验表明,二种冲击作用均使砂浆板跨中区域出现贯穿裂缝,呈脆性劈裂破坏形态,均匀冲击作用下破坏位置与跨中有一定偏移;锤击力时程经历主冲击、次冲击、卸载三阶段,加速度响应随锤击力增加而增加,裂缝贯穿后冲击力、加速度响应大幅减小;均匀冲击下加速度有二组响应区,响应随冲击能增加而增加,当冲击能达一定程度时响应大幅减小;继续增加冲击能,响应又会增加,并较快发生劈裂破坏,响应大幅减小;支座螺栓松动能缓冲部分冲击作用。%Hammering and uniform shock tests of a cement mortar plate were conducled.The opposite sides of the plate were elastic supports.Through cyclic shocks with amplitude increasing,the failure features,the relationship between shock force and acceleration response,and the relationship between impact energy and acceleration response of the plate were studied.The results showed that a transverse crack nearby the midspan of the plate appears,its failure state is brittle splitting;the location of failure offsets the midspan under uniform shock;time history curves of the hammering force include three stages of major shock,secondary shock and unloading;the acceleration response of the plate increases with increase in the hammering force,however,the hammering force and acceleration response decrease obviously after the transverse crack appears;there are two groups of acceleration response regions under uniform shock;the acceleration response increases with increase in impact energy;once impact energy reaches a certain level,the acceleration response decreases obviously;if impact energy continuously increases,the acceleration response increases again,brittle splitting failure occurs

  6. Standard performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 3-7/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes, and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  7. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 5 5/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  8. Sensitization of restraint-induced corticosterone secretion after chronic restraint in rats: Involvement of 5-HT7 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, Brenda B.; Mendoza-Garrido, María E.; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Noyola-Díaz, Martha; Terrón, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. We examined the effect of chronic restraint stress (CRS; 20 min/day) as compared to control (CTRL) conditions for 14 days, on: 1) restraint-induced ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) secretion in rats pretreated with vehicle or SB-656104 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist); 2) 5-HT7 receptor-like immunoreactivity (5-HT7-LI) and protein in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and adrenal glands (AG); 3) baseline levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in PVN and AG; and 4) 5-HT-like immunoreactivity (5-HT-LI) in AG and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) protein in PVN and AG. On day 15, animals were subdivided into Treatment and No treatment groups. Treatment animals received an i.p. injection of vehicle or SB-656104; No Treatment animals received no injection. Sixty min later, Treatment animals were either decapitated with no further stress (0 min) or submitted to acute restraint (10, 30, 60 or 120 min); hormone serum levels were measured. No Treatment animals were employed for the rest of measurements. CRS decreased body weight gain and increased adrenal weight. In CTRL animals, acute restraint increased ACTH and CORT secretion in a time of restraint-dependent manner; both responses were inhibited by SB-656104. Exposure to CRS abolished ACTH but magnified CORT responses to restraint as compared to CTRL conditions; SB-656104 had no effect on ACTH levels but significantly inhibited sensitized CORT responses. In CTRL animals, 5-HT7-LI was detected in magnocellular and parvocellular subdivisions of PVN and sparsely in adrenal cortex. Exposure to CRS decreased 5-HT7-LI and protein in the PVN, but increased 5-HT7-LI in the adrenal cortex and protein in whole AG. Higher 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels were detected in PVN and AG from CRS animals but 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio increased in AG only. Finally, whereas 5-HT-LI was sparsely observed in the adrenal cortex

  9. Evidence-Based Practice Guideline: Changing the Practice of Physical Restraint Use in Acute Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Helen W; Leach, Kathy M; Butcher, Howard K

    2016-02-01

    Physical restraints continue to be used in acute care settings, despite the challenges and calls to reduce this practice. The current guideline on restraint use is updated with evidence that includes critical care settings and issues related to restraint use in acute care units. Nurses play a significant role in the use of restraints. Factors such as nurse's knowledge and patient characteristics combined with the culture and resources in health care facilities influence the practice of physical restraint use. Nurses can identify patients at high risk for restraint use; assess the potential causes of unsafe behaviors; and target interventions in the areas of physiological, psychological, and environmental approaches to address those unsafe behaviors. Members of the interdisciplinary team can provide additional consultation, and institutions can provide resources and education and implement monitoring processes and quality improvement practices to help reduce the practice of physical restraint use. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(2), 17-26.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Effects of dietary restraint and body mass index on the relative reinforcing value of snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Lumb, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the independent and interactive association between dietary restraint, body mass index (BMI) and the relative reinforcing value of food. Four hundred and three introductory psychology students completed questionnaires assessing age, gender, BMI, hunger, smoking status, nicotine dependence, dietary restraint, hedonic ratings for snack food and fruits and vegetables and the relative reinforcing value of snack food and fruits and vegetables. In the overall sample, results indicated a dietary restraint x BMI interaction after controlling for age, hunger, nicotine dependence, and hedonics. However, when regression models were separated by gender, the BMI x restraint interaction emerged only for females and not for males. Findings suggest that BMI moderates the relationship between dietary restraint and snack food reinforcement in females only, such that restraint and snack food reinforcement are inversely correlated in females with lower BMI, but restraint is positively correlated with snack food reinforcement in females with higher BMI. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Comparison of the SimPlate coliform and Escherichia coli test with Petrifilm, three-tube MPN, and VRBA + MUG methods for enumerating coliforms and E. coli in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D E; Irving, R L; Naqui, A

    1998-04-01

    SimPlate for coliforms and Escherichia coli (CEc) is a new method for the detection and quantification of coliforms and E. coli in food. Internal validation of the method was carried out at IDEXX Laboratories (Westbrook, ME) with 180 food samples representing a variety of different food matrices and compared against three-tube MPN (most probable number), VRBA (violet red bile agar) + MUG, and Petrifilm (E. coli count) methods. SimPlate CEc was highly correlated with each of these methods for the quantification of coliform bacteria (r > or = 0.90). An insignificant number of food samples were found to contain E. coli; therefore, no meaningful correlation data could be generated. Four hundred forty-four additional food samples were tested at five collaborating laboratories for the presence of coliforms E. coli using SimPlate CEc and either VRBA + MUG or Petrifilm (E. coli count). Regression analysis of data from SimPlate for CEc versus Petrifilm E. coli count plates generated correlation coefficients (r) of at least 0.89 for total coliforms and at least 0.90 for generic E. coli. Correlation coefficients between SimPlate for CEc and VRBA + MUG data were at least 0.90 for coliforms and at least 0.86 for E. coli. SimPlate for CEc demonstrated better recovery of E. coli than Petrifilm when high populations of bacteria were present. E. coli was not detected in 20 or 50 (40%) raw milk samples tested by the Petrifilm method due to the presence of interfering coliform and noncoliform bacteria. It is concluded that SimPlate for CEc is a suitable alternative for determining numbers of coliform bacteria and E. coli in food.

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  13. A restraint molecular dynamics and simulated annealing approach for protein homology modeling utilizing mean angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer Till

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed the program PERMOL for semi-automated homology modeling of proteins. It is based on restrained molecular dynamics using a simulated annealing protocol in torsion angle space. As main restraints defining the optimal local geometry of the structure weighted mean dihedral angles and their standard deviations are used which are calculated with an algorithm described earlier by Döker et al. (1999, BBRC, 257, 348–350. The overall long-range contacts are established via a small number of distance restraints between atoms involved in hydrogen bonds and backbone atoms of conserved residues. Employing the restraints generated by PERMOL three-dimensional structures are obtained using standard molecular dynamics programs such as DYANA or CNS. Results To test this modeling approach it has been used for predicting the structure of the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein HPr from E. coli and the structure of the human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (Ppar γ. The divergence between the modeled HPr and the previously determined X-ray structure was comparable to the divergence between the X-ray structure and the published NMR structure. The modeled structure of Ppar γ was also very close to the previously solved X-ray structure with an RMSD of 0.262 nm for the backbone atoms. Conclusion In summary, we present a new method for homology modeling capable of producing high-quality structure models. An advantage of the method is that it can be used in combination with incomplete NMR data to obtain reasonable structure models in accordance with the experimental data.

  14. Spanish Picture Vocabulary Test. Prueba Ilustrada de vocabulario Espanol. An Adaptation of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Manual [and] Plates. Research Project 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Florence D.; And Others

    The Spanish Picture Vocabulary Test was designed to provide a Spanish-language translation of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test which would be suitable for Spanish-speaking Puerto Rican school-children in New York City. The 300 stimulus words were translated according to a consensus of linguists and persons of Puerto Rican descent, and were…

  15. Comparison of Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination, Standard tube agglutination and Indirect ELISA tests for detection of Brucella antibodies in Cows and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ghodasara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 serum samples (107 cows, 73 buffaloes from cases of abortion and various reproductive disorders were collected for detection of Brucella antibody by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT, Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and indirect- ELISA (i-ELISA. The overall prevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.21%, 16.00% and 24.30% in cows 9.59%, 12.33% and 26.03% in buffaloes respectively. Overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in cases of abortion, R.O.P. by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.32%, 16.04% and 32.08% respectively. When three serological tests were compared, seropositivity was found highest by i-ELISA (25%, followed by STAT (14.45% and RBPT (10.56%. The results shows higher prevalence of brucellosis in cases of abortion and R.O.P., while at lower level from various reproductive disorders as detected serologically indicating endemicity of the infection in villages around Anand city, Gujarat. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 61-64

  16. Biocompatibility Analyses of Al2O3-Treated Titanium Plates Tested with Osteocyte and Fibroblast Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Smargiassi, Alberto; Bertacchini, Jessika; Checchi, Marta; Cavani, Francesco; Ferretti, Marzia; Palumbo, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Osseointegration of a titanium implant is still an issue in dental/orthopedic implants durable over time. The good integration of these implants is mainly due to their surface and topography. We obtained an innovative titanium surface by shooting different-in-size particles of Al2O3 against the titanium scaffolds which seems to be ideal for bone integration. To corroborate that, we used two different cell lines: MLO-Y4 (murine osteocytes) and 293 (human fibroblasts) and tested the titanium sc...

  17. Initial Testing for the Recommendation of Improved Gas Metal Arc Welding Procedures for HY-80 Steel Plate Butt Joints at Norfolk Naval Shipyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    FOR THE RECOMMENDATION OF IMPROVED GAS METAL ARC WELDING PROCEDURES FOR HY-80 STEEL PLATE BUTT JOINTS AT NORFOLK NAVAL SHIPYARD by Veronika J...FOR THE RECOMMENDATION OF IMPROVED GAS METAL ARC WELDING PROCEDURES FOR HY-80 STEEL PLATE BUTT JOINTS AT NORFOLK NAVAL SHIPYARD 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...gas metal arc welding, submarine, hull cut, butt joint, weld, shielding gas, HY-80 steel , plate 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 53 16. PRICE CODE 17

  18. Evaluation of the limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotter, Susan L.; Wood, Roger; McWeeny, David J.

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjuction with a Gram negative bacteria (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15°C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment and during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeasts and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds.

  19. Biocompatibility Analyses of Al2O3-Treated Titanium Plates Tested with Osteocyte and Fibroblast Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smargiassi, Alberto; Bertacchini, Jessika; Checchi, Marta; Cavani, Francesco; Ferretti, Marzia; Palumbo, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Osseointegration of a titanium implant is still an issue in dental/orthopedic implants durable over time. The good integration of these implants is mainly due to their surface and topography. We obtained an innovative titanium surface by shooting different-in-size particles of Al2O3 against the titanium scaffolds which seems to be ideal for bone integration. To corroborate that, we used two different cell lines: MLO-Y4 (murine osteocytes) and 293 (human fibroblasts) and tested the titanium scaffolds untreated and treated (i.e., Al2O3 shot-peened titanium surfaces). Distribution, density, and expression of adhesion molecules (fibronectin and vitronectin) were evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal microscope (CM). DAPI and fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies were used to highlight nuclei, fibronectin, and vitronectin, under CM; cell distribution was analyzed after gold-palladium sputtering of samples by SEM. The engineered biomaterial surfaces showed under SEM irregular morphology displaying variously-shaped spicules. Both SEM and CM observations showed better outcome in terms of cell adhesion and distribution in treated titanium surfaces with respect to the untreated ones. The results obtained clearly showed that this kind of surface-treated titanium, used to manufacture devices for dental implantology: (i) is very suitable for cell colonization, essential prerequisite for the best osseointegration, and (ii) represents an excellent solution for the development of further engineered implants with the target to obtain recovery of stable dental function over time. PMID:28621746

  20. Constraint - Induced Movement Therapy: Determinants and Correlates of Duration of Adherence to Restraint use Among Stroke Survivors with Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinola Olasumbo Sanya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT was developed to improve purposeful movement of the stroke-affected extremity by restrictingthe use of the unaffected extremity. The two main components of CIMT are the training of the more-impaired arm to perform functional tasks, and the restraint of the less-impaired arm. One challenge that the application of CIMT faces is in ensuring adherence to the use of restraint.Purpose: There is a need to determine the factors that may influence adherence, as this would allow CIMT to be delivered more effectively, and prevent situations where unrealistic expectations are placed on stroke–affected individuals.Methods: Thirty stroke survivors with hemiparesis who met the inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited from the physiotherapy out-patient clinics, using a purposive sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on clinical and socio-demographic parameters. The participants were given a restraint and an adherence time log-book, to make a daily record during the period they wore the restraint. The adherence time logbook was collected at the end of every week of the 3-week study. Motor function and functional use of the upper limb were measured using Motricity Index and Motor Activity Log respectively. Data was analysed using mean and standard deviations, independent t-test and Spearman rho; p was significant at 0.05.Results: Gender (p=0.73 and side affected/handedness (p=0.79 had no significant influence on the percentage duration of adherence to restraint use (DARU. The influence of socio-economic status was seen, with the participants of middle socio-economic status adhering for longer duration (p=0.02. Age had weak and no significant correlation with percentage DARU (p=0.55. There was significantly fair correlation between motor function/functional use at any stage (p=0.55 and the corresponding percentage duration of adherence to restraint use, except

  1. Isolation of phages for phage therapy: a comparison of spot tests and efficiency of plating analyses for determination of host range and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan Mirzaei, Mohammadali; Nilsson, Anders S

    2015-01-01

    Phage therapy, treating bacterial infections with bacteriophages, could be a future alternative to antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections. There are, however, several problems to be solved, mainly associated to the biology of phages, the interaction between phages and their bacterial hosts, but also to the vast variation of pathogenic bacteria which implies that large numbers of different phages are going to be needed. All of these phages must under present regulation of medical products undergo extensive clinical testing before they can be applied. It will consequently be of great economic importance that effective and versatile phages are selected and collected into phage libraries, i.e., the selection must be carried out in a way that it results in highly virulent phages with broad host ranges. We have isolated phages using the Escherichia coli reference (ECOR) collection and compared two methods, spot testing and efficiency of plating (EOP), which are frequently used to identify phages suitable for phage therapy. The analyses of the differences between the two methods show that spot tests often overestimate both the overall virulence and the host range and that the results are not correlated to the results of EOP assays. The conclusion is that single dilution spot tests cannot be used for identification and selection of phages to a phage library and should be replaced by EOP assays. The difference between the two methods can be caused by many factors. We have analysed if the differences and lack of correlation could be caused by lysis from without, bacteriocins in the phage lysate, or by the presence of prophages harbouring genes coding for phage resistance systems in the genomes of the bacteria in the ECOR collection.

  2. A national survey of the use of physical restraint in long-term care hospitals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Yumi; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Kawasaki, Maki

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of physical restraints in the long-term care hospitals in Japan and to examine the factors of physical restraint use, including the specific skills/techniques that the staff use to minimise the restraints. Background.  Despite the national efforts to nullify physical restraint, it is still prevalent in long-term care facilities in and out of Japan. More detailed information regarding what affects physical restraint is needed. Cross-sectional mail survey. A questionnaire was sent to a nursing ward manager of the random sample of long-term care facilities in Japan. The average rate of physical restraint was 25·5%. Altogether, 81·0% of the restrained clients were under restraint for more than one month. The most prevalent method of restraint was bilateral bedrails, followed by the use of coveralls and gloves. Factors of restraint were different depending on the type of restraint, suggesting specific approaches are needed for specific type of restraint. Physical restraint is still prevalent in Japanese long-term care hospitals, and nurses need to develop effective intervention approach to redesigning practice related to physical restraints. Specialised intervention approach seems needed depending on the types of restraint. Specific approach should be developed to minimise the physical restraint in long-term care hospitals in Japan. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Electroacupuncture pretreatment exhibits anti-depressive effects by regulating hippocampal proteomics in rats with chronic restraint stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical effect of electroacupuncture on depression is widely recognized. However, the signal transduction pathways and target proteins involved remain unclear. In the present study, rat models of chronic restraint stress were used to explore the mechanism by which electroacupuncture alleviates depression. Rats were randomly divided into control, model, and electroacupuncture groups. Chronic restraint stress was induced in the model and electroacupuncture groups by restraining rats for 28 days. In the electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture pretreatment at Baihui (GV20 and Yintang (GV29 acupoints was performed daily (1 mA, 2 Hz, discontinuous wave, 20 minutes prior to restraint for 28 days. Open field tests and body weight measurements were carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at specific time points. On day 28, the crossing number, rearing number, and body weights of the model group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Behavior test results indicated that rat models of depressive-like symptoms were successfully established by chronic restraint stress combined with solitary raising. On day 28, an isobaric tag for a relative and absolute quantitation-based quantitative proteomic approach was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in hippocampal samples obtained from the model and electroacupuncture groups. The potential function of these differential proteins was predicted through the use of the Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG database. Twenty-seven differential proteins (uncharacteristic proteins expected were selected from the model and electroacupuncture groups. In addition to unknown protein functions, COG are mainly concentrated in general prediction function, mechanism of signal transduction, amino acid transport and metabolism groups. This suggests that electroacupuncture improved depressive-like symptoms by regulating differential proteins, and most of these related

  4. Electroacupuncture pretreatment exhibits anti-depressive effects by regulating hippocampal proteomics in rats with chronic restraint stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo Guo; Xu-hui Zhang; Ya Tu; Tian-wei Guo; Yun-chu Wu; Xue-qin Yang; Lan Sun; Xin-jing Yang; Wen-yue Zhang; Yu Wang

    2015-01-01

    The clinical effect of electroacupuncture on depression is widely recognized. However, the signal transduction pathways and target proteins involved remain unclear. In the present study, rat models of chronic restraint stress were used to explore the mechanism by which electroacupuncture alleviates depression. Rats were randomly divided into control, model, and electroacupuncture groups. Chronic restraint stress was induced in the model and elec-troacupuncture groups by restraining rats for 28 days. In the electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture pretreatment atBaihui (GV20) andYintang (GV29) acupoints was per-formed daily (1 mA, 2 Hz, discontinuous wave, 20 minutes) prior to restraint for 28 days. Open ifeld tests and body weight measurements were carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at speciifc time points. On day 28, the crossing number, rearing number, and body weights of the model group were signiifcantly lower than those in the control group. Behavior test results indicated that rat models of depressive-like symptoms were successfully established by chronic restraint stress combined with solitary raising. On day 28, an isobaric tag for a relative and abso-lute quantitation-based quantitative proteomic approach was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in hippocampal samples obtained from the model and electroacupuncture groups. The potential function of these differential proteins was predicted through the use of the Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) database. Twenty-seven differential pro-teins (uncharacteristic proteins expected) were selected from the model and electroacupuncture groups. In addition to unknown protein functions, COG are mainly concentrated in general prediction function, mechanism of signal transduction, amino acid transport and metabolism groups. This suggests that electroacupuncture improved depressive-like symptoms by regulating differential proteins, and most of these related proteins

  5. Physical restraint and near death of a psychiatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Trygve; Rørvik, Per; Haugslett, Laila; Wynn, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Physical restraint is used as a last resort emergency measure to calm and safeguard agitated and/or aggressive psychiatric patients. This can sometimes cause injuries, and rare fatalities have occurred. One mechanism of injury and death while in physical restraint is that of severe asphyxiation. We present the case of a hospitalized man in his mid-30s, suffering from schizophrenia. The patient was obese. He became aggressive and had to be manually restrained with a "takedown." After having been put in the prone position on the floor with a significant weight load on his body, he lost respiration and consciousness. Subsequently, he was given CPR. He regained consciousness and respiration, while the cyanosis receded in 1-2 min. Psychiatrists and pathologists should be aware that physically restraining a patient in the prone position with a significant weight load on the torso can, in rare cases, lead to asphyxiation. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Coping with budget restraint in a Scandinavian welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different types of households react to experiences of food budget restraint in Denmark. The study applied a mixed method design, based on survey data and on qualitative interviews. The qualitative data source consisted of interviews with 30...... individuals from Danish households with different socio-economic characteristics, who had carried through changes in their everyday food handling practices due to economic restraint. The quantitative data consists of a survey among 1650 members of a household consumer panel provided by the market research...... of strategies are related to different levels of food budget restrictions. Strategies applied to storing and cooking food in more efficient manners were widely practiced across all groups. Strategies which affected eating experiences, such as compromising the tastiness of food and giving up social ties involved...

  7. Physical restraint produces rapid acquisition of the pigeon's key peck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locurto, C. M.; Travers, Tania; Terrace, H. S.; Gibbon, John

    1980-01-01

    The acquisition and maintenance of autoshaped key pecking in pigeons was studied as a function of intertrial interval. At each of six intervals, which ranged from 12 seconds to 384 seconds, four pigeons were physically restrained during training while four other pigeons were not restrained. Restrained subjects acquired key pecking faster and with less intragroup variability at each interval. The effects of restraint were specific to acquisition and were not evident in maintained responding after five postacquisition sessions. PMID:16812175

  8. Automobile restraints for children: a review for clinicians

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Andrew W.

    2002-01-01

    MORE CANADIAN CHILDREN DIE OF ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES than of any other cause. Nonuse and misuse of child restraints is common and leads to preventable severe injuries or deaths. This article, intended for clinicians interested in injury prevention counselling, advocacy, research, and treatment of child occupants in car crashes, reviews current knowledge about child safety seats and discusses controversies related to their use. Children should sit in the back seat of a vehicle and should be pro...

  9. Restraint stress alters neutrophil and macrophage phenotypes during wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymen, Stéphanie D; Rojas, Isolde G; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Fang, Zong Juan; Zhao, Yan; Marucha, Phillip T

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies reported that stress delays wound healing, impairs bacterial clearance, and elevates the risk for opportunistic infection. Neutrophils and macrophages are responsible for the removal of bacteria present at the wound site. The appropriate recruitment and functions of these cells are necessary for efficient bacterial clearance. In our current study we found that restraint stress induced an excessive recruitment of neutrophils extending the inflammatory phase of healing, and the gene expression of neutrophil attracting chemokines MIP-2 and KC. However, restraint stress did not affect macrophage infiltration. Stress decreased the phagocytic abilities of phagocytic cells ex vivo, yet it did not affect superoxide production. The cell surface expression of adhesion molecules CD11b and TLR4 were decreased in peripheral blood monocytes in stressed mice. The phenotype of macrophages present at the wound site was also altered. Gene expression of markers of pro-inflammatory classically activated macrophages, CXCL10 and CCL5, were down-regulated; as were markers associated with wound healing macrophages, CCL22, IGF-1, RELMα; and the regulatory macrophage marker, chemokine CCL1. Restraint stress also induced up-regulation of IL10 gene expression. In summary, our study has shown that restraint stress suppresses the phenotype shift of the macrophage population, as compared to the changes observed during normal wound healing, while the number of macrophages remains constant. We also observed a general suppression of chemokine gene expression. Modulation of the macrophage phenotype could provide a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of wounds under stress conditions in the clinical setting.

  10. Mental Health Nursing, Mechanical Restraint Measures and Patients’ Legal Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Coercive mechanical restraint (MR) in psychiatry constitute the perhaps most important exception from the common health law requirement for involving patients in health care decisions and achieving their informed consent prior to treatment. Coercive measures and particularly MR constitute...... a serious collision with patient autonomy principles, pose a particular challenge to psychiatric patients’ legal rights, and put intensified demands on health professional performance. Legal rights principles require rationale for coercive measure use be thoroughly considered and rigorously documented...

  11. Predictors of physical restraint in a psychiatric emergency setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Fatemeh; Khosravi, Termeh; Shariat, Seyed Vahid; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Considering the negative consequences of using physical restraints, we conducted this study to identify patients who are more frequently restrained in a psychiatric emergency ward as an initial step to limit the use of restraint to the minimum possible. This was a retrospective case control study conducted in Iran Psychiatric Hospital in Tehran, Iran. We reviewed the files of 607 patients who were admitted during a one year period using convenience sampling; of them, 186 were in the restrained group and 421 in the unrestrained group. Surprisingly, no significant difference was found between the restrained and unrestrained groups in demographic characteristics. The patients who were referred because of violence were diagnosed as having methamphetamine induced psychotic disorder or bipolar I disorder in manic 1episode and had a higher odds of being restrained (OR=2.51, OR=1.61, and OR=1.57 respectively). Being restrained was also associated with a longer duration of hospitalization and duration of staying in the emergency ward. Moreover, patients in their first admission were more frequently restrained. Medical and nursing staff should consider special measures for the patients who are at a higher risk for being restrained. More frequent visits and education for both patients and staff may be effective in reducing the number of physical restraints for these groups of patients.

  12. Modulation of Cortical Interhemispheric Interactions by Motor Facilitation or Restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Vidal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortical interhemispheric interactions in motor control are still poorly understood and it is important to clarify how these depend on inhibitory/facilitatory limb movements and motor expertise, as reflected by limb dominance. Here we addressed this problem using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and a task involving dominant/nondominant limb mobilization in the presence/absence of contralateral limb restraint. In this way we could modulate excitation/deactivation of the contralateral hemisphere. Blocks of arm elevation were alternated with absent/present restraint of the contralateral limb in 17 participants. We found the expected activation of contralateral sensorimotor cortex and ipsilateral cerebellum during arm elevation. In addition, only the dominant arm elevation (hold period was accompanied by deactivation of ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex, irrespective of presence/absence of contralateral restraint, although the latter increased deactivation. In contrast, the nondominant limb yielded absent deactivation and reduced area of contralateral activation upon restriction. Our results provide evidence for a difference in cortical communication during motor control (action facilitation/inhibition, depending on the “expertise” of the hemisphere that controls action (dominant versus nondominant. These results have relevant implications for the development of facilitation/inhibition strategies in neurorehabilitation, namely, in stroke, given that fMRI deactivations have recently been shown to reflect decreases in neural responses.

  13. Construct Validation of the Portuguese Version of the Restraint Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AimThe main purpose of this study was to adapt the Restraint Scale (RS to Portuguese and examine its psychometric properties, specifically its construct validity.MethodIn this study, 238 normal-weight adults (82% women; Mean age = 36.6, SD = 15.0 participated in an online survey containing measures of Restraint Scale, Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, and Body Dissatisfaction and Drive for Thinness scales.ResultsExploratory factor analyses corroborated the two-factors structure found in previous studies, in particular when three items without clear factorial assignment and low correlation were excluded. A final two-factors version of the RS containing seven items presented a very good fit to the measurement model and good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 7-items RS in relation to a three-factor model of overeating, dieting and body dissatisfaction measures revealed that the RS was the only restraint measure loading in all three factors.ConclusionThis suggests that the 7-items Portuguese version of the RS has good psychometric properties and unique features that lend it appropriate to identify and study unsuccessful chronic dieters.

  14. The evolution of reproductive restraint through social communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Justin; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2004-07-27

    The evolution of altruistic behavior through group selection is generally viewed as possible in theory but unlikely in reality, because individual selection favoring selfish strategies should act more rapidly than group selection favoring cooperation. Here we demonstrate the evolution of altruism, in the form of conditional reproductive restraint based on an explicitly social mechanism, modulated by intrapopulation communication comprising signal and evolved response, in a spatially distributed predatory/parasitic/pathogenic model system. The predatory species consistently comes to exploit a signal implying overcrowding, individuals constraining their reproduction in response, with a corresponding increase in equilibrium reproduction rate in the absence of signal. This signaled restraint arises in a robust way for a range of model spatial systems; it outcompetes non-signal-based restraint and is not vulnerable to subversion by noncooperating variants. In these systems, communication is used to evaluate population density and regulate reproduction accordingly, consistent with central ideas of Wynne-Edwards [Wynne-Edwards, V. C. (1962) Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behavior (Hafner, New York)], whose claims about the evolutionary importance of group selection helped ignite decades of controversy. This quantitative simulation model shows how the key evolutionary transition from solitary living to sociality can occur. The process described here of cooperation evolving through communication may also help to explain other major evolutionary transitions such as intercellular communication leading to multicellular organisms.

  15. Exploring RNA conformational space under sparse distance restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William R.; Hamilton, Russell S.

    2017-01-01

    We show that the application of a small number of restraints predicted by coevolution analysis can provide a powerful restriction on the conformational freedom of an RNA molecule. The greatest degree of restriction occurs when a contact is predicted between the distal ends of a pair of adjacent stemloops but even with this location additional flexibilities in the molecule can mask the contribution. Multiple cross-links, especially those including a pseudoknot provided the strongest restraint on conformational freedom with the effect being most apparent in topologically simple folds and less so if the fold is more topologically entwined. Little was expected for large structures (over 300 bases) and although a few strong localised restrictions were observed, they contributed little to the restraint of the overall fold. Although contacts predicted using a correlated mutation analysis can provide some powerful restrictions on the conformational freedom of RNA molecules, they are too erratic in their occurrence and distribution to provide a general approach to the problem of RNA 3D structure prediction from sequence. PMID:28281575

  16. Comparison of the compact dry TC method with the standard pour plate method (AOAC official method 966.23) for determining aerobic colony counts in food samples: Performance-tested method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaka, Hidemasa; Mizuochi, Shingo; Teramura, Hajime; Nirazuka, Tadanobu

    2005-01-01

    Compact Dry TC qualifies as a rapid method kit for determining aerobic colony counts in foods. The plates are presterilized and contain culture medium and a cold-soluble gelling agent. The medium is rehydrated by inoculating 1 mL diluted sample into the center of the self-diffusible medium and allowing the solution to diffuse by capillary action. The plates can then be incubated and the colonies counted without any additional steps. The Compact Dry TC method was validated with 5 different raw meats. The performance tests were conducted at 35 degrees and 30 degrees C. In all required performance studies, no apparent differences were observed between the Compact Dry TC method and the Standard Pour Plate method (AOAC Official Method 966.23) for the detection level of aerobic microorganisms. For the accuracy claim (n = 60), a correlation factor of r2(35) = 0.9977 (35 degrees C) and r2(30) = 0.9932 (30 degrees C) could be assigned, as stated in the application for "Performance Tested Method." Quality consistency and storage robustness studies, showed no significant variations in plate count results with different production lots or plates of diverse storage age.

  17. Effect of glutathione on gastric mucosal lesion induced by restraint water-immersion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Li Wan; Chang Liu Wang

    2000-01-01

    AIM To determine the effect of glutathione (GSH) on stress gastric mucosal lesion.METHODS The stress gastric mucosal lesion as produced by restraint water-immersion in rats and gastricmucosal lesion, gastric mucosal GSH content, gastric acid secretion and gastric barrier mucus secretion wereexamined. We also observed the effect of GSH on gastric mucosal lesion and the effect of N-ethylmaleimine(NEM) and indomethacin on GSH protection. Comparisons between two groups were made using the Students t test.RESULTS GSH (100 and 200 mg/kg) intraperitoneally protected against stress gastric mucosal lesion(P0.05). The preinjection of NEM (10 mg/kg, sc.), a sulfhydryl-blocking reagent, or indomethacin(5 mg/kg, im.), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, had no effect on protection of GSH (P>0.05). GSH(100mg/kg) significantly increased secretion of gastric barrier mucus (P0.05).CONCLUSION GSH can inhibit the formation of gastric mucosal lesions induced by restraint water-immersion. The protective effect of GSH was due, in part, to promoting the secretion of gastric barriermucus, but not to suppress the gastric acid secretion. The protection effect of GSH has no relation withgastric mucosal GSH and PGs.

  18. Variation in Behavioral Reactivity Is Associated with Cooperative Restraint Training Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    Training techniques that prepare laboratory animals to participate in testing via cooperation are useful tools that have the potential to benefit animal wellbeing. Understanding how animals systematically vary in their cooperative training trajectories will help trainers to design effective and efficient training programs. In the present report we document an updated method for training rhesus monkeys to cooperatively participate in restraint in a ‘primate chair.’ We trained 14 adult male macaques to raise their head above a yoke and accept yoke closure in an average of 6.36 training days in sessions that lasted an average of 10.52 min. Behavioral observations at 2 time points prior to training (approximately 3 y and 1.3 y prior) were used to quantify behavioral reactivity directed toward humans and toward other macaques. Individual differences in submissive–affiliative reactivity to humans but not reactivity toward other monkeys were related to learning outcomes. Macaques that were more reactive to humans were less willing to participate in training, were less attentive to the trainer, were more reactive during training sessions, and required longer training sessions, longer time to yoke, and more instances of negative reinforcement. These results suggest that rhesus macaques can be trained to cooperate with restraint rapidly and that individual difference data can be used to structure training programs to accommodate variation in animal temperament. PMID:26817979

  19. Predictors of physical restraint use in Canadian intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Elena; Sneyers, Barbara; Rose, Louise; Perreault, Marc M; Williamson, David R; Mehta, Sangeeta; Cook, Deborah J; Lapinsky, Stephanie C; Burry, Lisa

    2014-03-24

    Physical restraint (PR) use in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been associated with higher rates of self-extubation and prolonged ICU length of stay. Our objectives were to describe patterns and predictors of PR use. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective observational study of analgosedation, antipsychotic, neuromuscular blocker, and PR practices in 51 Canadian ICUs. Data were collected prospectively for all mechanically ventilated adults admitted during a two-week period. We tested for patient, treatment, and hospital characteristics that were associated with PR use and number of days of use, using logistic and Poisson regression respectively. PR was used on 374 out of 711 (53%) patients, for a mean number of 4.1 (standard deviation (SD) 4.0) days. Treatment characteristics associated with PR were higher daily benzodiazepine dose (odds ratio (OR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00 to 1.11), higher daily opioid dose (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.06), antipsychotic drugs (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.74 to 5.48), agitation (Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS) >4) (OR 3.73, 95% CI 1.50 to 9.29), and sedation administration method (continuous and bolus versus bolus only) (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.74 to 5.48). Hospital characteristics associated with PR indicated patients were less likely to be restrained in ICUs from university-affiliated hospitals (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.61). Mainly treatment characteristics were associated with more days of PR, including: higher daily benzodiazepine dose (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.07, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.13), daily sedation interruption (IRR 3.44, 95% CI 1.48 to 8.10), antipsychotic drugs (IRR 15.67, 95% CI 6.62 to 37.12), SAS <3 (IRR 2.62, 95% CI 1.08 to 6.35), and any adverse event including accidental device removal (IRR 8.27, 95% CI 2.07 to 33.08). Patient characteristics (age, gender, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, admission category, prior substance abuse, prior psychotropic medication, pre

  20. Metallographic studies of electron beam welded copper plates. EBSD studies of the cross-sections and determination of EBSD reference curves by EB-welded tensile test samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhula, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    This work is part of Posiva's spent nuclear fuel disposal canister sealing development. Posiva has welded series of plate welding experiments at Patria Aviation Facilities. At Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science (TUT DMS) metallographic and electron microscopy studies of electron beam welded copper samples have been carried out. In this report a part of the welding test program is analyzed. The results of the cross-sections of the test welds X436-X440 and X453-X458 are presented here together with the methods used. These two sets of welds were conducted to study the effects of welding speed, annealing temperature and the presence of cosmetic pass. The aim of this study was to estimate the residual stresses present in the EB-welds using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. For this task various EBSD reference curves with tensile test samples were constructed: the recrystallized, substructured and deformed fractions of grains, the occurrence of 1.5 deg C and 2.5 deg C misorientations, the average of mean intra-grain misorientation AMIS, and the hardness could be related to the applied strain. It was found that the hardness was higher if there was a cosmetic pass on the weld. The welding speed and the annealing temperature did not seem to have a noticeable effect on the measured properties. The estimated residual stresses were mainly very low, in the range 27-34 MPa. In the values estimated based on the hardness reference curve, the maximum residual stress was 58.7 MPa (in X455A). (orig.)

  1. Paramagnetic-based NMR restraints lift residual dipolar coupling degeneracy in multidomain detergent-solubilized membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Traaseth, Nathaniel J; Verardi, Raffaello; Gustavsson, Martin; Gao, Jiali; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2011-02-23

    Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) are widely used as orientation-dependent NMR restraints to improve the resolution of the NMR conformational ensemble of biomacromolecules and define the relative orientation of multidomain proteins and protein complexes. However, the interpretation of RDCs is complicated by the intrinsic degeneracy of analytical solutions and protein dynamics that lead to ill-defined orientations of the structural domains (ghost orientations). Here, we illustrate how restraints from paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) experiments lift the orientational ambiguity of multidomain membrane proteins solubilized in detergent micelles. We tested this approach on monomeric phospholamban (PLN), a 52-residue membrane protein, which is composed of two helical domains connected by a flexible loop. We show that the combination of classical solution NMR restraints (NOEs and dihedral angles) with RDC and PRE constraints resolves topological ambiguities, improving the convergence of the PLN structural ensemble and giving the depth of insertion of the protein within the micelle. The combination of RDCs with PREs will be necessary for improving the accuracy and precision of membrane protein conformational ensembles, where three-dimensional structures are dictated by interactions with the membrane-mimicking environment rather than compact tertiary folds common in globular proteins.

  2. Incidence Rate and Patterns of Physical Restraint Use Among Adult Patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Fatemeh; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Wong, Li Ping

    2016-11-16

    Incidence rate and patterns of physical restraint use were examined based on a cross-sectional study in 22 wards of a large teaching hospital in Malaysia. Results indicated that the highest rate of physical restraint (19.7%) was reported from neurology-neurosurgery wards. "Un-cooperative for electroconvulsive therapy" and "trying to pull out catheters" were the most commonly reported reasons to use restraint in psychiatric and non-psychiatric wards, respectively. There were some relationships between patterns of physical restraint in this study. Exploring the incidence rate and patterns of physical restraint is important so that effective strategies can be formulated to minimize using restraint in hospitals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Seismic ACROSS Transmitter Installed at Morimachi above the Subducting Philippine Sea Plate for the Test Monitoring of the Seismogenic Zone of Tokai Earthquake not yet to Occur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitomo, T.; Kumazawa, M.; Masuda, T.; Morita, N.; Torii, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yoshikawa, S.; Katsumata, A.; Yoshida, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Here we report the first seismic monitoring system in active and constant operation for the wave propagation characteristics in tectonic region just above the subducting plate driving the coming catastrophic earthquakes. Developmental works of such a system (ACROSS; acronym for Accurately Controlled, Routinely Operated, Signal System) have been started in 1994 at Nagoya University and since 1996 also at TGC (Tono Geoscience Center) of JAEA promoted by Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquakes (1995 Jan.17, Mj=7.3). The ACROSS is a technology system including theory of signal and data processing based on the brand new concept of measurement methodology of Green function between a signal source and observation site. The works done for first generation system are reported at IWAM04 and in JAEA report (Kumazawa et al.,2007). The Meteorological Research Institute of JMA has started a project of test monitoring of Tokai area in 2004 in corporation with Shizuoka University to realize the practical use of the seismic ACROSS for earthquake prediction researches. The first target was set to Tokai Earthquake not yet to take place. The seismic ACROSS transmitter was designed so as to be appropriate for the sensitive monitoring of the deep active fault zone on the basis of the previous technology elements accumulated so far. The ground coupler (antenna) is a large steel-reinforced concrete block (over 20m3) installed in the basement rocks in order to preserve the stability. Eccentric moment of the rotary transmitter is 82 kgm at maximum, 10 times larger than that of the first generation. Carrier frequency of FM signal for practical use can be from 3.5 to 15 Hz, and the signal phase is accurately controlled by a motor with vector inverter synchronized with GPS clock with a precision of 10-4 radian or better. By referring to the existing structure model in this area (Iidaka et al., 2003), the site of the transmitting station was chosen at Morimachi so as to be appropriate for detecting the

  4. Use of physical restraint: Nurses' knowledge, attitude, intention and practice and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Fatemeh; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Wong, Li Ping

    2017-02-23

    To investigate the knowledge, attitude, intention and practice of nurses towards physical restraint and factors influencing these variables. A literature review showed a lack of studies focused on the intention of nurses regarding physical restraint throughout the world. Considering that very little research on physical restraint use has been carried out in Malaysia, assessment of nurses' knowledge, attitude, intention and practice is necessary before developing a minimising programme in hospitals. A cross-sectional study was used. A questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, intention and practice was completed by all nurses (n = 309) in twelve wards of a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Moderate knowledge and attitude with strong intention to use physical restraint were found among the nurses. Less than half of nurses considered alternatives to physical restraint and most of them did not understand the reasons for the physical restraint. Nurses' academic qualification, read any information source during past year and nurses' work unit showed a significant association with nurses' knowledge. Multiple linear regression analysis found knowledge, attitude and intention were significantly associated with nurses' practice to use physical restraint. This study showed some important misunderstandings of nurses about using physical restraint and strong intention regarding using physical restraint. Findings of this study serve as a supporting reason for importance of educating nurses about the use of physical restraint. Exploring the knowledge, attitude, intention and current practice of nurses towards physical restraint is important so that an effective strategy can be formulated to minimise the use of physical restraints in hospitals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The detrimental effects of physical restraint as a consequence for inappropriate classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, S K; Ellis, J

    2001-01-01

    Functional analyses produced inconclusive results regarding variables that maintained problem behavior for 2 students with developmental disabilities. Procedures were modified to include a contingent physical restraint condition based on in-class observations. Results indicated that tinder conditions in which physical restraint (i.e., basket-hold timeout) was applied contingent on problem behavior, rates of these behaviors increased across sessions for both subjects. Implications for the use of physical restraint in the classroom are discussed. PMID:11800190

  6. Nursing Staff Views of Barriers to Physical Restraint Reduction in Nursing Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hi Kong, RN, PhD

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study provide a valuable basis for developing restraint reduction education programs. Korean national leaders and nursing homes should develop and employ practice guidelines regarding restraints, support nursing staff to follow the guidelines, provide more practical and professional education, employ alternative equipment, use a multidisciplinary team approach, and engage volunteers in care support as well as employ more nursing staff to achieve restraint-free care.

  7. The detrimental effects of physical restraint as a consequence for inappropriate classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, S K; Ellis, J

    2001-01-01

    Functional analyses produced inconclusive results regarding variables that maintained problem behavior for 2 students with developmental disabilities. Procedures were modified to include a contingent physical restraint condition based on in-class observations. Results indicated that tinder conditions in which physical restraint (i.e., basket-hold timeout) was applied contingent on problem behavior, rates of these behaviors increased across sessions for both subjects. Implications for the use of physical restraint in the classroom are discussed.

  8. Keep it together: restraints in crystallographic refinement of macromolecule–ligand complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Roberto A.; Tucker, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    A short introduction is provided to the concept of restraints in macromolecular crystallographic refinement. A typical ligand restraint-generation process is then described, covering types of input, the methodology and the mechanics behind the software in general terms, how this has evolved over recent years and what to look for in the output. Finally, the currently available restraint-generation software is compared, concluding with some thoughts for the future. PMID:28177305

  9. Collaborative guarded-hot-plate tests between the Laboratoire national de métrologie et d’essais and the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Robert R.; Guthrie, William F.; Hay, Bruno; Koenen, Alain

    2017-02-01

    A collaborative study to compare the long-term measurement performance between guarded-hot-plate facilities at the Laboratoire national de métrologie et d’essais (LNE) in France and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the United States is presented. Thermal conductivity data were compiled from three international comparisons organized from 1997 to 2014. Measurements were conducted in accordance with standardized test methods (ISO 8302 or ASTM C 177) over a temperature range from 280 K to 320 K. Nine thermal insulating materials (either mineral fiber or expanded polystyrene) were examined covering broad ranges of bulk densities (13 kg · m-3-200 kg · m-3) and thicknesses (13 mm-70 mm). A different set of specimens was utilized for each comparison. Results of this study indicate that, over a 17 year interval, the majority of test data from LNE and NIST agreed to within  ±1.0%, or less, for mineral fiber materials and to within  ±0.5%, or less, for expanded polystyrene. The long-term variability limit of 1% between the two laboratories is in good agreement with their current measurement uncertainties. Regression coefficients and their standard uncertainties for a straight-line model relating thermal conductivity to temperature from 280 K to 320 K were computed by material and laboratory. Graphical analysis of the data and corresponding fits exhibit consistent behavior by material type between the two laboratories. Sources of measurement variability are addressed.

  10. Simulation, construction and testing of a two-cylinder solar Stirling engine powered by a flat-plate solar collector without regenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakolpour, Ali Reza; Zomorodian, Ali [Department of Mechanics of Farm Machinery Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran); Akbar Golneshan, Ali [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran)

    2008-01-15

    In this research, a gamma-type, low-temperature differential (LTD) solar Stirling engine with two cylinders was modeled, constructed and primarily tested. A flat-plate solar collector was employed as an in-built heat source, thus the system design was based on a temperature difference of 80{sup o}C. The principles of thermodynamics as well as Schmidt theory were adapted to use for modeling the engine. To simulate the system some computer programs were written to analyze the models and the optimized parameters of the engine design were determined. The optimized compression ratio was computed to be 12.5 for solar application according to the mean collector temperature of 100{sup o}C and sink temperature of 20{sup o}C. The corresponding theoretical efficiency of the engine for the mentioned designed parameters was calculated to be 0.012 for zero regenerator efficiency. Proposed engine dimensions are as follows: power piston stroke 0.044 m, power piston diameter 0.13 m, displacer stroke 0.055 m and the displacer diameter 0.41 m. Finally, the engine was tested. The results indicated that at mean collector temperature of 110{sup o}C and sink temperature of 25{sup o}C, the engine produced a maximum brake power of 0.27 W at 14 rpm. The mean engine speed was about 30 rpm at solar radiation intensity of 900 W/m{sup 2} and without load. The indicated power was computed to be 1.2 W at 30 rpm. (author)

  11. Biomechanics of seat belt restraint system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Hock, Davis

    2004-01-01

    Seat belt system restrains and protects occupants in motor vehicle crashes and any slack in seat belt system induces additional loading on occupant. Signs of belt loading are more obvious in high-speed frontal collisions with heavy occupants. However subtle changes may occur at low speeds or with low forces from occupants during rollovers. In certain cases, the seat belt webbing is twisted and loaded by the occupant. The loading of webbing induces an observable fold/crimp on the seat belt. The purpose of the study is to biomechanically evaluate the force required to produce such marks using an anthropometric physical test dummy. Two tests were conducted to determine the amount of force required to put an observable fold/crimp in a shoulder belt. A head form designed by Voight Hodgson was used to represent the neck which interacted with the belt. The force was applied with a pneumatic pull ram (central hydraulic 89182 N) and the force was measured with a 44,000 N transducer load cell (DSM-10K). Results indicate that the force of over 1,000 N produced a fold or crimp in the belt.

  12. Physical restraint deaths in a 13-year national cohort of nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenger, Emma; Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Bugeja, Lyndal; Kennedy, Briohny

    2017-07-01

    this paper aims to investigate the nature and extent of physical restraint deaths reported to Coroners in Australia over a 13-year period. the study comprised a retrospective cohort study of residents dwelling in accredited nursing homes in Australia whose deaths were reported to the Coroners between 1 July 2000 and 30 June 2013 and was attributed to physical restraint. five deaths in nursing home residents due to physical restraint were reported in Australia over a 13-year period. The median age of residents was 83 years; all residents had impaired mobility and had restraints applied for falls prevention. Neck compression and entrapment by the restraints was the mechanism of harm in all cases, resulting in restraint asphyxia and mechanical asphyxia, respectively. this national study confirms that the use of physical restraint does cause fatalities, although rare. Further research is still needed to identify which alternatives strategies to restraint are most effective, and to examine the reporting system for physical restraint-related deaths.

  13. Thin plate neotectonic models of the Australian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, D. R.

    2004-10-01

    Thin plate finite element models of the neotectonic deformation of the Australian plate have been calculated in order to estimate the stress and strain rate within the plate, specifically concentrating on the Australian continent. The model includes plate-bounding faults, an anelastic brittle-ductile layered rheology and the option of laterally varying elevation and heat flow. The results of the models are compared to (1) the velocity of geodetic benchmarks on the Australian plate, (2) the spreading rate of the mid-oceanic ridges along the Australian plate's margins, (3) the direction of the maximum horizontal principal stress, (4) the stress regime within the plate, and (5) the crustal thickness estimated from the depth to the base of Mohorovicic discontinuity's transition zone. A variety of models are tested with a wide range of input parameters. The model with the smallest misfit with observations predicts that the strain rate for most of the Australian continent is approximately 10-17 s-1. This model has a slightly lower strain rate in the central Australia and is higher off the northern coast of Australia than for the rest of the continent. Strain rates of this magnitude would be difficult to observe from geodetic or geologic data for most parts of Australia but would be enough to generate much of the seismicity that has been observed over the last century.

  14. Aceh Free Pasung: Releasing the mentally ill from physical restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puteh, Ibrahim; Marthoenis, M; Minas, Harry

    2011-05-14

    Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill (called pasung in Indonesia) is common in Aceh. In early 2010, the local government initiated a program called Aceh Free Pasung 2010. The main goal of the program is to release the mentally ill in the province from restraint and to provide appropriate medical treatment and care. The aim of the paper is to report the findings of a preliminary investigation of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who have been admitted to the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital, where people who had been restrained or confined in the community are being admitted for psychiatric treatment and, where necessary, physical rehabilitation, as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Fifty-nine of former ex-pasung patients were examined. The majority (88.1%) of the patients were male, aged 18 to 68 years. The duration of pasung varied from a few days to 20 years, with a mean duration of 4.0 years. The reasons for applying pasung are many, with concerns about dangerousness being most common. The great majority (89.8%) had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The development of a community mental health system and the introduction of a health insurance system in Aceh (together with the national health insurance scheme for the poor) has enabled access to free hospital treatment for people with severe mental disorders, including those who have been in pasung. The demographic and clinical characteristics of this group of ex-pasung patients are broadly similar to those reported in previous studies. The Aceh Free Pasung program is an important mental health and human rights initiative that can serve to inform similar efforts in other parts of Indonesia and other low and middle-income countries where restraint and confinement of the mentally ill is receiving insufficient attention.

  15. Numerical simulation about the effect of fixture on the welding stress and distortion of thin aluminum plate joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effect of welding jig on the welding stress and buckling distortion of thin aluminum plate joints was simulated by finite element method (FEM). The results show that the restraint distance and the heat conduction ability of the fixture do have essential effects on the residual stress and distortion. The residual compressive stress and distortion will be increasing with the increase of the restraint distance, while the residual compressive stress and distortion will be decreasing with the increase of the heat conduction ability of the fixture.

  16. Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control of Plate Vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Manu Sharma; Singh, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, fuzzy logic is meshed with sliding mode control, in order to control vibrations of a cantilevered plate. Test plate is instrumented with a piezoelectric sensor patch and a piezoelectric actuator patch. Finite element method is used to obtain mathematical model of the test plate. A design approach of a sliding mode controller for linear systems with mismatched time-varying uncertainties is used in this paper. It is found that chattering around the sliding surface in the sliding ...

  17. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-05-15

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements.

  18. Staff perceptions of barriers to physical restraint-reduction in long-term care: a meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eun-Hi; Choi, Heeseung; Evans, Lois K

    2017-01-01

    To critically review the existing qualitative studies to identify, from the perspective of staff, the barriers to physical restraint reduction in long-term geriatric care facilities. Despite the adverse physical and psychosocial effects, physical restraints are still used frequently in many geriatric long-term care facilities around the world. There is, however, no study that synthesises the existing qualitative literature regarding the barriers to the restraint reduction from the perspective of facility staff. The metastudy research process guided this qualitative synthesis. Five electronic databases were searched, and ten studies were included in this metastudy. Five themes were identified through metasynthesis of the findings: concern about and responsibility for safety, unclear and inconsistent definitions of restraint and restraint-free care, difficulties in the transition from acceptance to removal, noninvolvement in decision-making to remove restraint and insufficient resources and education. A concept analysis of physical restraint is sorely needed, and future studies should explore the prevalence of restraint, the effects of education for staff and family on restraint reduction, and success stories related to restraint-free care. More research is needed regarding the restraint reduction effectiveness and cost issues. Physical restraints, commonly used in many geriatric long-term care facilities, result in many negative effects and ethical issues. To achieve success in reducing physical restraint use, governmental policies and long-term care institutions should underpin staff efforts with legal, educational and practical support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Short-term effects of an educational intervention on physical restraint use: a cluster randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizing, Anna R; Hamers, Jan PH; Gulpers, Math JM; Berger, Martijn PF

    2006-01-01

    Background Physical restraints are still frequently used in nursing home residents despite growing evidence for the ineffectiveness and negative consequences of these methods. Therefore, reduction in the use of physical restraints in psycho-geriatric nursing home residents is very important. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of an educational intervention on the use of physical restraints in psycho-geriatric nursing home residents. Methods A cluster randomized trial was applied to 5 psycho-geriatric nursing home wards (n = 167 residents with dementia). The wards were assigned at random to either educational intervention (3 wards) or control status (2 wards). The restraint status was observed and residents' characteristics, such as cognitive status, were determined by using the Minimum Data Set (MDS) at baseline and 1 month after intervention. Results Restraint use did not change significantly over time in the experimental group (55%–56%), compared to a significant increased use (P < 0.05) in the control group (56%–70%). The mean restraint intensity and mean multiple restraint use in residents increased in the control group but no changes were shown in the experimental group. Logistic regression analysis showed that residents in the control group were more likely to experience increased restraint use than residents in the experimental group. Conclusion An educational programme for nurses combined with consultation with a nurse specialist did not decrease the use of physical restraints in psycho-geriatric nursing home residents in the short term. However, the residents in the control group experienced more restraint use during the study period compared to the residents in the experimental group. Whether the intervention will reduce restraint use in the long term could not be inferred from these results. Further research is necessary to gain insight into the long-term effects of this educational intervention. PMID:17067376

  20. Nursing Skill Mix, Nurse Staffing Level, and Physical Restraint Use in US Hospitals: a Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggs, Vincent S; Olds, Danielle M; Cramer, Emily; Shorr, Ronald I

    2017-01-01

    Although it is plausible that nurse staffing is associated with use of physical restraints in hospitals, this has not been well established. This may be due to limitations in previous cross-sectional analyses lacking adequate control for unmeasured differences in patient-level variables among nursing units. To conduct a longitudinal study, with units serving as their own control, examining whether nurse staffing relative to a unit's long-term average is associated with restraint use. We analyzed 17 quarters of longitudinal data using mixed logistic regression, modeling quarterly odds of unit restraint use as a function of quarterly staffing relative to the unit's average staffing across study quarters. 3101 medical, surgical, and medical-surgical units in US hospitals participating in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators during 2006-2010. Units had to report at least one quarter with restraint use and one quarter without. We studied two nurse staffing variables: staffing level (total nursing hours per patient day) and nursing skill mix (proportion of nursing hours provided by RNs). Outcomes were any use of restraint, regardless of reason, and use of restraint for fall prevention. Nursing skill mix was inversely correlated with restraint use for fall prevention and for any reason. Compared to average quarters, odds of fall prevention restraint and of any restraint were respectively 16 % (95 % CI: 3-29 %) and 18 % (95 % CI: 8-29 %) higher for quarters with very low skill mix. In this longitudinal study there was a strong negative correlation between nursing skill mix and physical restraint use. Ensuring that skill mix is consistently adequate should reduce use of restraint.

  1. Effects of acute restraint stress on different components of memory as assessed by object-recognition and object-location tasks in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Fan, Ya-Xin; Wang, Wei; Tang, Yi-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    Studies on how acute stress and the stress-related hormones affect learning and memory have yielded inconsistent findings, which might be due to some variables such as the properties of stressors, the nature of memory, the protocols for behavioral tasks and the characteristics of the subjects. However, the impacts of acute stress on different memory components have not been clearly demonstrated within one single experiment. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of 1-h restraint stress and the stress-induced plasma corticosterone elevation on memory acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval in mice, using object-recognition task (ORT) and object-location task (OLT) with a 4-h or 24-h intertrial interval (ITI). The results showed that, regardless of ITI, the recognition memory retrieval was significantly disrupted by acute restraint stress exposure, which started 75 min before the test session of both ORT and OLT. Acute restraint stress performed immediately after memory acquisition interrupted the consolidation of short-term recognition memories (4-h ITI) into long-term ones (24-h ITI). Moreover, the disrupted memory retrieval or consolidation was strongly related to the stress-induced plasma corticosterone elevation in a negative manner. These preliminary results clarified that acute restraint stress differently impacts three memory components, and the enhanced plasma corticosterone level under stressful situation plays critical roles in the information processing of memory under the stressful situation.

  2. Experimental Research on Tank Exhaust' s Thermal Restraint Based on Thermoelectric Generation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕小平; 周国印; 刘晓; 李义军

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at the high temperature of tank' s exhaust, the principle of applying thermoelectric generation technology to tank thermal restraint was analyzed. Its application experiments were conducted to test the exhaust temperature under dif- ferent rotating speeds, The experiment results show that the thermoelectric generator can output sufficient electric energy to drive fans; the external surface temperature'of radiator is reduced by over 65.0% compared with exhaust surface due to the combination effect of thermoelectric conversion, fan cooling and heat radiation ; the exhaust surface temperature rise caused by increase of the engine' s rotating speed results in the increases of the temperature difference of the thermoelectric genera- tor's cold and hot sides, the fan's driving voltage and heat convection, thus, the effect of fan's cooling is more obvious than that of the temperature rise caused by exhaust.

  3. Metatraits of the Big Five differentially predict engagement and restraint of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Jacob B; Deyoung, Colin G; Peterson, Jordan B

    2009-08-01

    Although initially believed to contain orthogonal dimensions, the Big Five personality taxonomy appears to have a replicable higher-order structure, with the metatrait of Plasticity reflecting the shared variance between Extraversion and Openness/Intellect, and the metatrait of Stability reflecting the shared variance among Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. These higher order traits have been theorized to relate to individual differences in the functioning of the dopamine and serotonin systems, respectively. As dopamine is associated with exploration and incentive-related action, and serotonin with satiety and constraint, this neuropharmacological trait theory has behavioral implications, which we tested in 307 adults by examining the association of a large number of behavioral acts with multi-informant reports of the metatraits. The frequencies of acts were consistently positively correlated with Plasticity and negatively correlated with Stability. At the broadest level of description, variation in human personality appears to reflect engagement and restraint of behavior.

  4. Ultrasonic and eddy current testing of austenitic platings of reactor pressure vessels - qualification according the ENIQ method; Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefung austenitischer Plattierungen von Reaktorbehaeltern - Qualifizierung nach der Methode von ENIQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Just, T.; Csapo, G. [TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH and Co. KG, Hamburg (Germany); Brenner, W. [TUeV Sueddeutschland-ET, Mannheim (Germany); Waidele, H. [MPA, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In the context of the research project SR2318, which received funds from the Federal Radiation Protection Office (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) and the BMU, the accuracy of eddy current and ultrasonic tests of austenitic platings on reactor pressure vessels was investigated. The results were evaluated with a view to qualification of combined ultrasonic and eddy current tests of platings and base materials on the one hand; on the other hand, a standard test procedure according to the ENIQ method (European Network of Inspection Qualification) is proposed which can serve as a basis for qualification of test procedures. Summarizing suggestions are made for updating the KTA 3201.4 regulation for recurrent inspections of platings. The results of research project SR 2351 are considered. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz bzw. des BMU gefoerderten Untersuchungsvorhabens SR2318 wurde die Aussagefaehigkeit von Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefungen an austenitischen Plattierungen von Reaktordruckbehaeltern untersucht. Die im Untersuchungsvorhaben erzielten Ergebnisse werden zum einen hinsichtlich der Qualifizierung der Pruefung von Plattierungen und des daran angrenzenden Grundwerkstoffes mittels mechanisierter Ultraschallpruefung in Kombination mit der Wirbelstrompruefung bewertet, und es wird zum anderen beispielhaft ein Muster fuer eine Qualifizierung nach der Methodik von ENIQ (European Network of Inspection Qualification) vorgeschlagen, nach dem kuenftig bei Qualifikationen von Pruefverfahren vorgegangen werden kann. Als Quintessenz werden daraus Vorschlaege zur Ergaenzung der Regel KTA 3201.4 hinsichtlich der wiederkehrenden Pruefungen (WKP) von Plattierungsbereichen formuliert. Dabei sind die Ergebnisse des Untersuchungsvorhabens SR 2351 einbezogen worden. (orig.)

  5. Using Seclusion Timeout and Physical Restraint: An Analysis of State Policy, Research, and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozalski, Michael E.; Yell, Mitchell L.; Boreson, Lynn A.

    2006-01-01

    Seclusion timeout and physical restraint are aversive procedures designed to reduce or eliminate students' serious problem behavior. Using these procedures with students in special education has become commonplace in the last decade. Nevertheless, both seclusion timeout and physical restraint procedures have been, and continue to be, quite…

  6. CCBD's Position Summary on Physical Restraint & Seclusion Procedures in School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Reece; Albrecht, Susan; Johns, Bev

    2009-01-01

    This document is a summary of policy recommendations from two longer and more detailed documents available from the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD) regarding the use of physical restraint and seclusion procedures in schools. These recommendations include: (1) CCBD believes that physical restraint or seclusion procedures…

  7. Suppression of Pica by Overcorrection and Physical Restraint: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Bakker, Leon W.

    1984-01-01

    Each occurrence of pica (ingestion of inedible objects) in two profoundly retarded adults was followed by either overcorrection or physical restraint. Although both procedures reduced the occurrence of pica and had a similar effect on collateral behaviors, physical restraint was clinically more effective in terms of immediate response reduction.…

  8. Clinical decision making on the use of physical restraint in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqian Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical restraint is a common nursing intervention in intensive care units and nurses often use it to ensure patients' safety and to prevent unexpected accidents. However, existing literature indicated that the use of physical restraint is a complex one because of inadequate rationales, the negative physical and emotional effects on patients, but the lack of perceived alternatives. This paper is aimed to interpret the clinical decision-making theories related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units in order to facilitate our understanding on the use of physical restraint and to evaluate the quality of decisions made by nurses. By reviewing the literature, intuition and heuristics are the main decision-making strategies related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units because the rapid and reflexive nature of intuition and heuristics allow nurses to have a rapid response to urgent and emergent cases. However, it is problematic if nurses simply count their decision-making on experience rather than incorporate research evidence into clinical practice because of inadequate evidence to support the use of physical restraint. Besides that, such a rapid response may lead nurses to make decisions without adequate assessment and thinking and therefore biases and errors may be generated. Therefore, despite the importance of intuition and heuristics in decision-making in acute settings on the use of physical restraint, it is recommended that nurses should incorporate research evidence with their experience to make decisions and adequate assessment before implementing physical restraint is also necessary.

  9. Physical Restraint of Students with Behavior Disorders in Day Treatment and Residential Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogt, Julie B.; George, Michael P.; Kern, Lee; White, George P.; George, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored administrators' attitudes about the use of physical restraint in their school settings. Administrators of day treatment and residential programs for elementary students with emotional and behavioral disorders in the Mid-Atlantic states were surveyed on their attitudes toward, and the use of, physical restraint within their…

  10. CCBD's Position Summary on the Use of Physical Restraint Procedures in School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Reece; Albrecht, Susan; Johns, Bev

    2009-01-01

    This document provides policy recommendations of the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders regarding the use of physical restraint procedures in schools. It includes (a) an introduction, (b) a declaration of principles, and (c) recommendations regarding the use of physical restraint in school settings. Explanation or elaboration of…

  11. Physical Restraint in Residential Childcare: The Experiences of Young People and Residential Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckley, Laura; Kendrick, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    There have long been concerns about the use of physical restraint in residential care. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study that explores the experiences of children, young people and residential workers of physical restraint. The research identifies the dilemmas and ambiguities for both staff and young people, and…

  12. Effects of Physical Restraint on the Behavior of Hyperactive Mentally Retarded Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Each instance of out-of-seat behavior of four hyperactive moderately/severely mentally retarded eight and nine year olds resulted in return to seat followed by 15-second physical restraint. Out-of-seat behavior of all four Ss increased during two implementations of the restraint contingency compared to levels during alternative baseline periods.…

  13. Prior Restraint in High School: Does It Violate Students' First Amendment Rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trager, Robert E.

    The Supreme Court of the United States has issued three significant rulings on the question of prior restraint by government officials of material to be published in print media. Each time it ruled that only in exceptional circumstances will prior restraint be permitted. Lower federal courst have not taken the same view regarding prior restraint…

  14. The Association for Behavior Analysis International Position Statement on Restraint and Seclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Bailey, Jon S.; Dorsey, Michael F.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Lennox, David; Riordan, Mary M.; Spreat, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A task force authorized by the Executive Council of the Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) generated the statement below concerning the techniques called "restraint" and "seclusion." Members of the task force independently reviewed the scientific literature concerning restraint and seclusion and agreed unanimously to the…

  15. 28 CFR 552.26 - Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents. 552.26 Section 552.26 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS... § 552.26 Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents. (a) In immediate...

  16. Growth and Predictors of Growth Restraint in Moderately Preterm Children Aged 0 to 4 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; de Winter, A.F.; Bos, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe growth in moderately preterm-born children, determine the prevalence of growth restraint at the age of 4, and identify predictors of growth restraint. We hypothesized that growth in moderately preterm-born children differs from growth in term-born children and that growth rest

  17. As time goes by: reasons and characteristics of prolonged episodes of mechanical restraint in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildberg, Frederik A; Fristed, Peter; Makransky, Guido; Moeller, Elsebeth H; Nielsen, Lea D; Bradley, Stephen K

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests the prevalence and duration of mechanical restraint are particularly high among forensic psychiatric inpatients. However, only sparse knowledge exists regarding the reasons for, and characteristics of, prolonged use of mechanical restraint in forensic psychiatry. This study therefore aimed to investigate prolonged episodes of mechanical restraint on forensic psychiatric inpatients. Documentary data from medical records were thematically analyzed. Results show that the reasons for prolonged episodes of mechanical restraint on forensic psychiatric inpatients can be characterized by multiple factors: "confounding" (behaviors associated with psychiatric conditions, substance abuse, medical noncompliance, etc.), "risk" (behaviors posing a risk for violence), and "alliance parameters" (qualities of the staff-patient alliance and the patients' openness to alliance with staff), altogether woven into a mechanical restraint spiral that in itself becomes a reason for prolonged mechanical restraint. The study also shows lack of consistent clinical assessment during periods of restraint. Further investigation is indicated to develop an assessment tool with the capability to reduce time spent in mechanical restraint.

  18. The story behind the Dutch model: the consensual politics of wage restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of wage restraint has a long history in the Netherlands and has been presented as the recipe for economic recovery for many years now. In times of economic (and political) crisis, wage restraint has been the standard response of the Dutch government, often in cooperation with unions and emp

  19. Dieting, Dietary Restraint, and Binge Eating Disorder among Overweight Adolescents in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Murat; Bozan, Nuray; Cigerim, Nevin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among dieting, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and binge eating among overweight adolescent girls. Participants were 743 overweight adolescent girls between 16 and 19 years of age. The mean BMI was 24.9 [+ or -] 0.8 kg/[m[superscript 2] in the low-restraint group and 25.1 [+ or…

  20. Dieting, Dietary Restraint, and Binge Eating Disorder among Overweight Adolescents in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Murat; Bozan, Nuray; Cigerim, Nevin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among dieting, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and binge eating among overweight adolescent girls. Participants were 743 overweight adolescent girls between 16 and 19 years of age. The mean BMI was 24.9 [+ or -] 0.8 kg/[m[superscript 2] in the low-restraint group and 25.1 [+ or…

  1. Suppression of Pica by Overcorrection and Physical Restraint: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Bakker, Leon W.

    1984-01-01

    Each occurrence of pica (ingestion of inedible objects) in two profoundly retarded adults was followed by either overcorrection or physical restraint. Although both procedures reduced the occurrence of pica and had a similar effect on collateral behaviors, physical restraint was clinically more effective in terms of immediate response reduction.…

  2. Short-term effects of an educational intervention on physical restraint use: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulpers Math JM

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical restraints are still frequently used in nursing home residents despite growing evidence for the ineffectiveness and negative consequences of these methods. Therefore, reduction in the use of physical restraints in psycho-geriatric nursing home residents is very important. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of an educational intervention on the use of physical restraints in psycho-geriatric nursing home residents. Methods A cluster randomized trial was applied to 5 psycho-geriatric nursing home wards (n = 167 residents with dementia. The wards were assigned at random to either educational intervention (3 wards or control status (2 wards. The restraint status was observed and residents' characteristics, such as cognitive status, were determined by using the Minimum Data Set (MDS at baseline and 1 month after intervention. Results Restraint use did not change significantly over time in the experimental group (55%–56%, compared to a significant increased use (P Conclusion An educational programme for nurses combined with consultation with a nurse specialist did not decrease the use of physical restraints in psycho-geriatric nursing home residents in the short term. However, the residents in the control group experienced more restraint use during the study period compared to the residents in the experimental group. Whether the intervention will reduce restraint use in the long term could not be inferred from these results. Further research is necessary to gain insight into the long-term effects of this educational intervention.

  3. Effect of restraint stress on depression-like behaviors in rats after transient focal cerebral ischemic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Restraint stress is a typical psychophysiological stressor. Simulating the early passion and difficulty in walking of patients after attack of stroke meets onset features.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of restraint stress on depression-like behaviors in rats after transient focal cerebral ischemic injury, and to investigate the feasibility for its being as modeling method of depression model after stroke.DESIGN: A randomized controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Aerospace Medicine of the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 240 - 270 g, provided by the Experimental Animal Center of the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA were used in the current study.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the Faculty of Aerospace Medicine of the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA between August 2005 and August 2006. ①Experiment intervention: The rats were randomized into middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO) +stress group, simple MCAO group, sham-operation + stress group and simple sham-operation group, with 12 rats in each group.Rats in the first two groups were developed into cerebral ischemia/reperfusion models by suture-occluded method. Rats in the MCAO+stress group were modeled and restraint stress scheme was performed. At week 5 after modeling, the rats were placed in self-made restraining tubes, 2 hours/time, once a day, for 2 successive weeks. The common carotid artery, external and internal carotid arteries of rats in the latter two groups were exposed. The stress way of sham-operation+ stress group was the same as that of MCAO+ stress group. ②The neurological status grading and motor performance evaluation (screen test, rota-rod test and balance beam test) were conducted in rats with simple sham-operation group and MCAO group before, 1st and 28th days after modeling. Depression-like behavior

  4. Comparison of chemical restraint techniques in ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ciboto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical restraint in ostriches is usually required for short-time interventions. Thus, this study established and evaluated intravenous anesthetics formulated from commonly used drugs in order to accomplish total restraint on this species and allow painful procedures to be performed. Thirty male and female ostriches weighing from 40 to 90 kg were randomly distributed into five groups. Animals in Groups I, II and III were given acepromazine (0.25 mg/kg i.m. and those in Groups IV and V were given xylazine (1.0 mg/kg i.m.. The following drugs were administered intravenously 15 to 20 min later: Group I - propofol (4.0 mg/kg, Groups II and IV - ketamine (5.0 mg/kg and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, Groups III and V - tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg. All protocols have produced satisfactory results regarding total containment, muscular relaxation and maintenance of the evaluated parameters within a normal range.

  5. Influence of Polymer Restraint on Ballistic Performanceof Alumina Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.S. Reddy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study has been carried out to evaluate the influence of confinement ofalumina ceramic tiles through polymer restraint, on its ballistic performance. Tiles of 99.5 per centpurity alumina were subjected to ballistic impact against 7.62 mm armour piercing projectiles atvelocities of about 820 m/s. The tiles of size 75 mm x 75 mm x 7 mm were confined on both facesby effectively bonding varying numbers of layers of polymer fabrics. These were then bondedto a 10 mm thick fibre glass laminate as a backing using epoxy resin. High performance polyethyleneand aramid polymer fabrics were used in the current set of experiments for restraining the tiles.Comparative effects of confinement on energy absorption of tiles with varied number of layersof fabrics were evaluated. It was observed that by providing effective confinement to the tile,energy absorption could be doubled with increase in areal density by about 13 per cent.Photographs of the damage and the effects of restraint on improvement in energy absorptionof ceramic tiles are presented and discussed.

  6. Processless offset printing plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Mahović Poljaček

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of platesetters in the offset printing plate making process, imaging of the printing plate became more stable and ensured increase of the printing plate quality. But as the chemical processing of the printing plates still highly influences the plate making process and the graphic reproduction workflow, development of printing plates that do not require chemical processing for offset printing technique has been one of the top interests in graphic technology in the last few years. The main reason for that came from the user experience, where majority of the problems with plate making process could be connected with the chemical processing of the printing plate. Furthermore, increased environmental standards lead to reducing of the chemicals used in the industrial processes. Considering these facts, different types of offset printing plates have been introduced to the market today. This paper presents some of the processless printing plates.

  7. The Nature and Extent of Physical Restraint-Related Deaths in Nursing Homes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenger, Emma N; Ibrahim, Joseph E; Lovell, Janaka Jonathan; Bugeja, Lyndal

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the published research to examine the extent, nature, and risk factors of mortality due to physical restraint use. In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement, this review examined all peer-reviewed studies published in English describing mortality due to physical restraint in nursing home residents. The combined searches yielded 2,016 records of which eight articles were eligible for inclusion. There were 174 deaths due to physical restraint in nursing home residents across the eight studies. Neck compression ( n = 8) was the most common mechanism of harm resulting in death due to mechanical asphyxia. Physical restraint is associated with deaths in nursing home residents. Further research is needed to investigate alternative interventions to restraint use.

  8. Education on physical restraint reduction in dementia care: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, A; Mosel, K; Curren, D; Prendergast, J; Harrington, A; Muir-Cochrane, E

    2013-01-01

    Dementia is a priority area for all countries as populations age and dementia prevalence increases. The use of physical restraint is a possible clinical practice for persons with dementia across settings when behaviours indicate a perceived need. Indeed, this may be the first choice in practice, occurring in part because of lack of education, safety concerns, perceived costs and staffing issues. This article reviews the literature on the issues surrounding, and use of, physical restraint for people with dementia, highlighting the rationales for use and the benefits and barriers to physical restraint. Recommendations include the importance of education and policy to reduce or eliminate physical restraint of persons with dementia to overcome identified barriers at the individual, cultural and organizational levels. An educational programme from the literature review is proposed specific to the reduction or elimination of physical restraint.

  9. Use of physical restraint in nursing homes: clinical‐ethical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmans, C; Milisen, K

    2006-01-01

    This article gives a brief overview of the state of the art concerning physical restraint use among older persons in nursing homes. Within this context we identify some essential values and norms that must be observed in an ethical evaluation of physical restraint. These values and norms provide the ethical foundation for a number of concrete recommendations that could give clinical and ethical support to caregivers when they make decisions about physical restraint. Respect for the autonomy and overall wellbeing of older persons, a proportional assessment of the advantages and disadvantages, a priority focus on the alternatives to physical restraint, individualised care, interdisciplinary decision making, and an institutional policy are the central points that make it possible to deal responsibly with the use of physical restraint for older persons in nursing homes. PMID:16507658

  10. Use of physical restraint in nursing homes: clinical-ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmans, C; Milisen, K

    2006-03-01

    This article gives a brief overview of the state of the art concerning physical restraint use among older persons in nursing homes. Within this context we identify some essential values and norms that must be observed in an ethical evaluation of physical restraint. These values and norms provide the ethical foundation for a number of concrete recommendations that could give clinical and ethical support to caregivers when they make decisions about physical restraint. Respect for the autonomy and overall wellbeing of older persons, a proportional assessment of the advantages and disadvantages, a priority focus on the alternatives to physical restraint, individualised care, interdisciplinary decision making, and an institutional policy are the central points that make it possible to deal responsibly with the use of physical restraint for older persons in nursing homes.

  11. Exploring the use of seclusion and restraint with deaf psychiatric patients: comparisons with hearing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, David R; Landsberger, Sarah A

    2010-12-01

    Archival data of seclusion and restraint events in a group of deaf adults (n = 30) was compared with a random sample of hearing adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) (n = 30) and a random sample of hearing adults without ID (n = 51) admitted to a state hospital from 1998 to 2008. Only 12% of the hearing non-ID group experienced a seclusion or restraint versus 43% of the deaf group. The ID group also showed significantly higher rates of seclusion and restraint than the hearing non-ID group (30 vs. 12%). Patients in the deaf and ID group were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with impulse control disorders (23 and 23%, respectively), which may have contributed to the higher utilization of seclusion and restraint procedures in these groups. Deafness-related cultural and linguistic variables that impact the use of seclusion and restraint are reviewed.

  12. Standard Test Method for Measuring the Curved Beam Strength of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite - (View Full Text) D6416/D6416M-01(2007) Standard Test Method for Two-Dimensional Flexural Properties of Simply Supported Sandwich Composite Plates Subjected to a Distributed Load

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    Standard Test Method for Measuring the Curved Beam Strength of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite - (View Full Text) D6416/D6416M-01(2007) Standard Test Method for Two-Dimensional Flexural Properties of Simply Supported Sandwich Composite Plates Subjected to a Distributed Load

  13. Casting technique and restraint choice influence child safety during transport of body casted children subjected to a simulated frontal MVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Julie; Oliver, Glen; Sybesma, Justin; Walter, Norman; Atkinson, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    Hip spica casts (or body casts) are commonly applied to young pediatric trauma and hip dysplasia patients. The greatest hip stability in the cast is achieved via fixed hip flexion or abduction and fixed knee flexion. Unfortunately, this fixed position causes difficulties in restraining children for transport because the child cannot typically accommodate their body to the child car seat geometry. The objectives of the current study were to identify a range of reasonable seating options for casted children. These positions were then studied in frontal crash tests to identify the relative injury exposure for the different positions. A revised casting technique was also investigated in an effort to address head-to-cast contact identified during the course of the study. The current study assessed the ability for different child seats and the vehicle seat belts to accommodate casted 1-year-old and 3-year-old crash test dummies. The restrained dummies were then subjected to frontal 30-mph crash tests with uncasted dummies serving as a control. In general, traditional child seats were able to accommodate both children; however, the child's body shifted anteriorly in the cast when the belts were tightened. This shift produced concerns for pulmonary function and the potential for elevated pressure on the superior mesenteric artery. This anterior shift of the chest was reduced when the dummies were restrained by a special hip spica child seat or solely by the vehicle seat belts. When considering all restraint types, the addition of the cast increased the majority of the injury metric magnitudes. For the 3-year-old dummy these increases were determined to be related to the casting technique; an alternative technique significantly reduced the injury metrics. This study demonstrates that there are anticipated variable effects on basic physiologic function for body-casted children based on the method of restraint. Restraint modalities which place the child forward facing with

  14. Characteristics of nursing home residents and physical restraint: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Hedi; Hahn, Sabine

    2014-11-01

    To analyse and to summarise factors associated with nursing home residents' characteristics which could lead to physical restraint, and to investigate the consequences of physical restraint use for this population. Even though the application of physical restraint is highly controversial, prevalence rates show that it is a common intervention in nursing homes. Residents' characteristics seem to be important to predict the use of physical restraint. Evidence suggests that restrained nursing home residents may have physical and psychological disadvantages as a consequence of being restrained. A systematic literature research involving the databases PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library was carried out for articles published from January 2005-November 2011. Nine Studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and the quality assessment. Restrained residents had low activities of daily living (ADL) scores and severe cognitive impairment. Residents with low cognitive status and serious mobility impairments were at high risk to be restrained, as well as residents with previous fall and/or fracture. Repeated verbal and physical agitation was found to be positively associated with restraint use. Possible consequences of physical restraint were as follows: lower cognitive and ADL performance, higher walking dependence, furthermore falls, pressure ulcers, urinary and faecal incontinence. This systematic literature review reveals notable resident-related factors for physical restraint use. The consequences of restraint seem to negatively influence residents' physical and psychological well-being. Physical restraint seems to be an important risk factor for residents' further health problems. Resident's characteristics appear to be decisive factors for the use of physical restraint. Nurses need a high level of expertise and competence in evaluating the individual residents' situation and deciding further steps, with

  15. Effect of chronic restraint stress on inhibitory gating in the auditory cortex of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lanlan; Li, Wai; Li, Sibin; Wang, Xuejiao; Qin, Ling

    2017-05-01

    A fundamental adaptive mechanism of auditory function is inhibitory gating (IG), which refers to the attenuation of neural responses to repeated sound stimuli. IG is drastically impaired in individuals with emotional and cognitive impairments (i.e. posttraumatic stress disorder). The objective of this study was to test whether chronic stress impairs the IG of the auditory cortex (AC). We used the standard two-tone stimulus paradigm and examined the parametric qualities of IG in the AC of rats by recording the electrophysiological signals of a single-unit and local field potential (LFP) simultaneously. The main results of this study were that most of the AC neurons showed a weaker response to the second tone than to the first tone, reflecting an IG of the repeated input. A fast negative wave of LFP showed consistent IG across the sampled AC sites, whereas a slow positive wave of LFP had less IG effect. IG was diminished following chronic restraint stress at both, the single-unit and LFP level, due to the increase in response to the second tone. This study provided new evidence that chronic stress disrupts the physiological function of the AC. Lay Summary The effects of chronic stress on IG were investigated by recording both, single-unit spike and LFP activities, in the AC of rats. In normal rats, most of the single-unit and N25 LFP activities in the AC showed an IG effect. IG was diminished following chronic restraint stress at both, the single-unit and LFP level.

  16. Agmatine abolishes restraint stress-induced depressive-like behavior and hippocampal antioxidant imbalance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Andiara E; Bettio, Luis E B; Neis, Vivian B; Santos, Danúbia B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Rosa, Priscila B; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2014-04-01

    Agmatine has been recently emerged as a novel candidate to assist the conventional pharmacotherapy of depression. The acute restraint stress (ARS) is an unavoidable stress situation that may cause depressive-like behavior in rodents. In this study, we investigated the potential antidepressant-like effect of agmatine (10mg/kg, administered acutely by oral route) in the forced swimming test (FST) in non-stressed mice, as well as its ability to abolish the depressive-like behavior and hippocampal antioxidant imbalance induced by ARS. Agmatine reduced the immobility time in the mouse FST (1-100mg/kg) in non-stressed mice. ARS caused an increase in the immobility time in the FST, indicative of a depressive-like behavior, as well as hippocampal lipid peroxidation, and an increase in the activity of hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, reduced catalase (CAT) activity and increased SOD/CAT ratio, an index of pro-oxidative conditions. Agmatine was effective to abolish the depressive-like behavior induced by ARS and to prevent the ARS-induced lipid peroxidation and changes in SOD, GR and CAT activities and in SOD/CAT activity ratio. Hippocampal levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) were not altered by any experimental condition. In conclusion, the present study shows that agmatine was able to abrogate the ARS-induced depressive-like behavior and the associated redox hippocampal imbalance observed in stressed restraint mice, suggesting that its antidepressant-like effect may be dependent on its ability to maintain the pro-/anti-oxidative homeostasis in the hippocampus.

  17. Geometry of rear seats and child restraints compared to child anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilston, Lynne E; Sagar, Nipun

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the geometry of a wide range of restraints (child restraints, booster seats and rear seats) used by children, and how these match their anthropometry, and to determine limitations to restraint size for the population of children using them. The study is motivated by the widespread premature graduation from one restraint type to another, which parents often attribute to children outgrowing their previous restraint. Currently, recommended transitions are based on a small sample of vehicles and children. Outboard rear seat and seat belt geometry (anchorage locations, sash belt angles) from 50 current model vehicles were measured using a custom-developed measuring jig. For 17 child restraints, a 3-dimensional measuring arm was used to measure the geometry of the restraint including interior size and strap slot locations (where relevant). These measurements were compared to anthropometric measurements, to determine the suitability of a given restraint for children of particular ages. The results for the rear seat geometry indicate that all seat cushions were too deep for a child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile until approximately 11.5 years, and half of vehicle seat cushions were too deep for a 15 year old child whose upper leg length is at the 50th percentile. Sash belt geometry was more variable, with approximately a third of vehicles accommodating 6-8 year olds who approximate the shoulder geometry measurements at the 50th percentile. Dedicated child restraints accommodated most children within recommended age groups, with two exceptions. Several high back booster seats were not tall enough for a child whose seated height is at the 50th percentile for 8 year olds (who is still too short for an adult belt according to current guidelines and the results from the rear seat geometry study), and a small number of forward facing restraints and high back boosters were too narrow for children at the upper end of

  18. Aceh Free Pasung: Releasing the mentally ill from physical restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill (called pasung in Indonesia is common in Aceh. In early 2010, the local government initiated a program called Aceh Free Pasung 2010. The main goal of the program is to release the mentally ill in the province from restraint and to provide appropriate medical treatment and care. The aim of the paper is to report the findings of a preliminary investigation of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who have been admitted to the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital, where people who had been restrained or confined in the community are being admitted for psychiatric treatment and, where necessary, physical rehabilitation, as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Results Fifty-nine of former ex-pasung patients were examined. The majority (88.1% of the patients were male, aged 18 to 68 years. The duration of pasung varied from a few days to 20 years, with a mean duration of 4.0 years. The reasons for applying pasung are many, with concerns about dangerousness being most common. The great majority (89.8% had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Discussion The development of a community mental health system and the introduction of a health insurance system in Aceh (together with the national health insurance scheme for the poor has enabled access to free hospital treatment for people with severe mental disorders, including those who have been in pasung. The demographic and clinical characteristics of this group of ex-pasung patients are broadly similar to those reported in previous studies. Conclusions The Aceh Free Pasung program is an important mental health and human rights initiative that can serve to inform similar efforts in other parts of Indonesia and other low and middle-income countries where restraint and confinement of the mentally

  19. Evaluation of korzincalloy prepared by Hohman Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hollingshad, A. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-17

    A commercial vendor, Hohman Plating performed contract engineering work to determine the feasibility of producing pin hole free KorZincAlloy bronze material used for zinc gettering. Samples were tested for Sn plating thickness, heat treatability, and chemistry prior to being subjected to a standardized zinc exposure. The samples absorbed zinc and were examined using visual and scanning electron microscopy. Hohman Plating successfully produced KZA that met the target composition, was pin hole free, and was an effective zinc getter.

  20. Do organisational constraints explain the use of restraint? A comparative ethnographic study from three nursing homes in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øye, Christine; Jacobsen, Frode Fadnes; Mekki, Tone Elin

    2017-07-01

    To investigate (1) what kind of restraint is used in three nursing homes in Norway and (2) how staff use restraint under what organisational conditions. Restraint use in residents living with dementia in nursing homes is controversial, and at odds with fundamental human rights. Restraint is a matter of hindering residents' free movement and will by applying either interactional, physical, medical, surveillance or environmental restraint. Previous research has identified use of restraint related to individual resident characteristics such as agitation, aggressiveness and wandering. This model is embedded in an overall mixed-method education intervention design study called Modelling and evaluating evidence-based continuing education program in dementia care (MEDCED), applying ethnography postintervention to examine the use of restraint in 24 nursing homes in Norway. Based on restraint diversity measured in the trial, ethnographic investigation was carried out in three different nursing homes in Norway over a 10-month period to examine restraint use in relation to organisational constraints. Several forms of restraint were observed; among them, interactional restraint was used most frequently. We identified that use of restraint relates to the characteristics of individual residents, such as agitation, aggressiveness and wandering. However, restraint use should also be explained in relation to organisational conditions such as resident mix, staff culture and available human resources. A fluctuating and dynamic interplay between different individual and contextual factors determines whether restraint is used - or not in particular situations with residents living with dementia. Educational initiatives targeting staff to reduce restraint must be sensitive towards fluctuating organisational constraints. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Histologia da pele da carpa prateada (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix e testes de resistência do couro Histology of silver-plated carp skin (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix and leather resistance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com os objetivos de analisar a histologia da pele e avaliar a influência da técnica de curtimento e da posição da retirada do corpo-de-prova sobre a qualidade da pele de carpa prateada (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix. Vinte e três peixes foram insensibilizados para retirada das peles para curtimento. Amostras referentes a três peixes foram fixadas em formol 10%. Após a inclusão em parafina, foram cortadas com aproximadamente 5 mm de espessura e coradas pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina (HE. Após o curtimento das peles, foram retirados os corpos-de-prova para os testes de resistência. Os testes foram realizados com dinamômetro EMIC, com velocidade de afastamento entre cargas de 100 ± 20 mm/mm, em ambiente climatizado a 23ºC e umidade relativa do ar de 50% por um período de 24 horas. As peles curtidas com sais de cromo apresentaram maior resistência à tração (16,96 N/mm², ao alongamento (51,49% e ao rasgamento progressivo (16,75 N/mm quando comparadas àquelas curtidas sem sais de cromo (tração = 9,12 N/mm², alongamento = 17,48% e rasgamento = 11,36 N/mm. O sentido da retirada dos corpos-de-prova não interferiu nas características de tração, elongação, carga de ruptura, rasgo, força máxima e carga de força. A técnica de curtimento (utilizando ou não sais de cromo influencia a resistência das peles de carpa prateada. A técnica empregando os sais de cromo proporciona maior resistência ao couro.The objectives of this trial were to analyze the skin histology and to evaluate the influence of tanning technique and the direction removal of samples on skin quality of silver-plated carp (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix. Twenty-three fishes were sacrificed and the skin was removed for tanning. Samples of three fishes were settled in formol 10% and, after inclusion in paraffin, the samples were cut with approximately 5 mm of thickness and colored by the hematoxylin-eosin technique (HE. After skin

  2. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Mohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT, microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT, indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001. The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005. The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002. However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014 and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014 was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals.

  3. Automobile restraints for children: a review for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew W

    2002-10-01

    More Canadian children die of road traffic injuries than of any other cause. Nonuse and misuse of child restraints is common and leads to preventable severe injuries or deaths. This article, intended for clinicians interested in injury prevention counselling, advocacy, research, and treatment of child occupants in car crashes, reviews current knowledge about child safety seats and discusses controversies related to their use. Children should sit in the back seat of a vehicle and should be properly restrained in a current age- and size-appropriate device (rear-facing infant seat, child safety seat, booster seat, or lap and shoulder seat belt) that is properly adjusted. The centre rear seat is safer than side positions, but a lap belt alone should be avoided. The age at which children should start sitting in a forward-facing position is controversial. Children should be seated away from air bags. Resources to aid in patient counselling are described.

  4. Cyanine Conformational Restraint in the Far-Red Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Megan S; Götz, Ralph; Franke, Christian; Bowler, Matthew; Kumari, Nikita; Magidson, Valentin; Levitus, Marcia; Loncarek, Jadranka; Sauer, Markus; Schnermann, Martin J

    2017-09-13

    Far-red cyanine fluorophores find extensive use in modern microscopy despite modest quantum yields. To improve the photon output of these molecules, we report a synthetic strategy that blocks the major deactivation pathway: excited-state trans-to-cis polyene rotation. In the key transformation, a protected dialdehyde precursor undergoes a cascade reaction to install the requisite tetracyclic ring system. The resulting molecules exhibit the characteristic features of conformational restraint, including improved fluorescence quantum yield and extended lifetime. Moreover, these compounds recover from hydride reduction with dramatically improved efficiency. These observations enable efficient single-molecule localization microscopy in oxygenated buffer without addition of thiols. Enabled by modern organic synthesis, these studies provide a new class of far-red dyes with promising spectroscopic and chemical properties.

  5. Mental Health Nursing, Mechanical Restraint Measures and Patients’ Legal Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Coercive mechanical restraint (MR) in psychiatry constitute the perhaps most important exception from the common health law requirement for involving patients in health care decisions and achieving their informed consent prior to treatment. Coercive measures and particularly MR constitute...... a serious collision with patient autonomy principles, pose a particular challenge to psychiatric patients’ legal rights, and put intensified demands on health professional performance. Legal rights principles require rationale for coercive measure use be thoroughly considered and rigorously documented......’ rights call for taking notice of patient evaluations. Consequently, if it comes out that psychiatric staff failed to pay appropriate consideration for the patient’s mental state, perspective, and expressions, patient response deviations are to be judicially interpreted in this light potentially rendering...

  6. Mental Health Nursing, Mechanical Restraint Measures and Patients’ Legal Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier

    2016-01-01

    a serious collision with patient autonomy principles, pose a particular challenge to psychiatric patients’ legal rights, and put intensified demands on health professional performance. Legal rights principles require rationale for coercive measure use be thoroughly considered and rigorously documented......Abstract: Coercive mechanical restraint (MR) in psychiatry constitute the perhaps most important exception from the common health law requirement for involving patients in health care decisions and achieving their informed consent prior to treatment. Coercive measures and particularly MR constitute....... This article presents an in-principle Danish Psychiatric Complaint Board decision concerning MR use initiated by untrained staff. The case illustrates that, judicially, weight must be put on the patient perspective on course of happenings and especially when health professional documentation is scant, patients...

  7. Single-Cylinder Engine Tests of Porous Chrome-Plated Cylinder Barrels with Special Bore Coatings for Radial Air-Cooled Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-01-01

    sulphamate solution at room temperature having a hydrogen-ion concentration of 1.5. The cylinder was plated for 2 minutes with a current density of 40...for any metal combination (reference 3), engine friction may be reduced somewhat by the use of a silver overplate as a bearing material on the...Cooled Engines. NACA ARR No. E5L18, 1945. 3. Hoyt, Samuel L.: Metals and Alloys Data Book. Reinhold Pub. Corp., 1943, p. 281. 4. Downing, B. F

  8. Uncertainty evaluation of aerobic plate count by proficiency testing%能力验证菌落总数测定结果不确定度的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海华; 兰茜

    2015-01-01

    目的:对实验室能力验证样品菌落总数进行不确定度评定。方法能力验证菌落总数依据 GB 4789.2-2010《食品安全国家标准食品微生物学检验菌落总数测定》以及能力验证计划参试指导书来进行测定和结果判断,再根据JJF 1059.1-2012《测量不确定度评定与表示》的规定,对测定过程中引入的不确定度分量进行评定,然后采用合成的方法来计算和评定菌落总数的不确定度。结果菌落总数测定结果合成不确定度为0.05042,扩展不确定度为0.1008(以对数计)。结论本研究建立的方法可以对能力验证样品的菌落总数进行不确定度评定,此方法适合于类似检测条件下菌落总数不确定度的评定。%ABSTRACT:Objective To evaluate the uncertainty of aerobic plate count by proficiency testing. Methods Proficiency testing of aerobic plate count was conducted under the direction of GB 4789.2-2010 National food safety standard microbiological examination in food:Aerobic plate count and CFAPA-024 Reference book for microbiological ability verification plan in food. Then, the uncertainty components introduced in the experiment were determined according to JJF1059.1-2012 Evaluation and expression of uncertainty in measurements. Finally, synthetic method was used to calculate and assess the uncertainty of aerobic plate count. Results The combined uncertainty of aerobic plate count was 0.05042, the expanded uncertainty was U(1og)=0.1008. Conclusion The method established in this study can be used in the uncertainty evaluation of aerobic plate count under similar circumstances.

  9. Seclusion room vs. physical restraint in an adolescent inpatient setting: patients' attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnivetsky, Sergey; Shoval, Gal; Leibovich, Vadim; Giner, Lucas; Mitrany, Marsel; Cohen, Dorit; Barzilay, Aliza; Volovick, Louisa; Weizman, Abraham; Zalsman, Gil

    2013-01-01

    The use of physical restraints or a seclusion room for the treatment of adolescents in a psychiatric inpatient setting raises ethical dilemmas. We investigated the attitudes of adolescents towards these two means of confinement. We used a structured questionnaire to collect data on the attitudes of 50 adolescent patients, hospitalized in a closed psychiatric ward, towards the use of physical restraint versus a seclusion room. Seventy per cent of the participants in the study preferred seclusion in the seclusion room over bed restraint, whereas 22% preferred physical restraint. Eighty-two percent described seclusion in the seclusion room as less frightening than restraint. Seventy-four per cent reported that seclusion in the seclusion room improved their mental state to a larger extent than restraint. The inpatient adolescents reported feeling the time they needed to reach a state of calm was shorter when they were confined to the seclusion room than when they were physically restrained (p>.001). The use of a seclusion room may be preferable compared to physical restraint for inpatient adolescents.

  10. Physical Restraint and Antipsychotic Medication Use Among Nursing Home Residents With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foebel, Andrea D; Onder, Graziano; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Lukas, Albert; Denkinger, Michael D; Carfi, Angelo; Vetrano, Davide L; Brandi, Vincenzo; Bernabei, Roberto; Liperoti, Rosa

    2016-02-01

    To explore antipsychotic (AP) medications and physical restraint use and their effects on physical function and cognition in older nursing home residents. This retrospective cohort studied involved 532 residents with dementia from 57 nursing homes participating in the Services and Health for Elderly in Long-Term Care study. Poisson log regression models explored the effect of physical restraint and/or AP medication use on cognitive or functional decline at 6 months. Physical restraint use was associated with a higher risk of both functional and cognitive decline compared with AP medication use alone. These risks were highest among residents receiving both AP medications and physical restraints, suggesting additive effects. Physical restraint use, and even more strongly, concurrent physical restraint and AP medication use, is related to function and cognitive decline in nursing home residents with dementia. Antipsychotic use is cautioned, but these results suggest physical restraint use is potentially more risky. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Free child passenger restraints for patients in an urban pediatric medical home: effects on caregiver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixey, Suzanne; Guse, Clare E; Ngui, Emmanuel

    2009-10-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death in children despite the availability of effective child passenger restraints that reduce morbidity and mortality. Inappropriate restraint is more common in minority and low-income populations. Removing barriers by distributing child passenger restraint systems (CPRS) and providing education has been 1 approach to improve child safety. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of providing no-cost CPRS in combination with targeted education to improve restraint use for low-income, minority, and urban children in a medical home. This prospective, non-randomized, community-based cohort study used a certified car seat technician to provide CPRS and training to the caregivers of 101 children when those caregivers reported not owning the appropriate type of restraint system during the index clinic visit. In the first 3 months of follow-up, caregivers were 2.4 times more likely to report appropriate use of CPRS: relative risk 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7 to 3.5). Reported improvement declined slightly between months 4 and 9. Appropriate restraint significantly improved, yet rates remained suboptimal. Multifactoral approaches are needed to understand why the set of patients studied and other at-risk populations may not use child restraints properly even when given access and information.

  12. Restraint use in motor vehicle crash fatalities in children 0 year to 9 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lois K; Farrell, Caitlin A; Mannix, Rebekah

    2015-09-01

    Despite improvements in child passenger safety legislation and equipment, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) continue to be the leading cause of death in children younger than 10 years. The objective of this study was to describe factors associated with restraint use in fatal MVC in children 0 year to 9 years old. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System, maintained by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, was used to obtain data on MVC fatalities from 2001 to 2010 in children 0 year to 9 years old. The main outcome was restraint use. Demographic information (age, sex, and race) and crash characteristics including vehicle type (sedan, van, truck, sports utility vehicle) and seat position in the vehicle were analyzed with the χ statistic to evaluate these factors for any restraint use compared with no restraint use in MVC fatalities. There were 7,625 MVC fatalities in children 0 year to 9 years old from 2001 to 2010.Among these fatalities, 4,041 (53%) had any restraint use. Front seat passengers accounted for 20.9% (1,595 of 7,625) of the fatalities. Children 0 year to 3 years old had a higher proportion of restraint use than children 4 years to 9 years old (p passenger safety to improve proper restraint use and to decrease MVC fatalities in children. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level II.

  13. Disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use among children aged 1 to 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Michelle L; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L

    2014-02-01

    Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, children who were ≤4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27-6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, κ = 0.74) between parent report of their child's usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children children.

  14. [Therapeutic restraint management in Intensive Care Units: Phenomenological approach to nursing reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Nuevo, M; González-Gil, M T; Solís-Muñoz, M; Láiz-Díez, N; Toraño-Olivera, M J; Carrasco-Rodríguez-Rey, L F; García-González, S; Velasco-Sanz, T R; Martínez-Álvarez, A; Martin-Rivera, B E

    2016-01-01

    To identify nursing experience on physical restraint management in Critical Care Units. To analyse similarities and differences in nursing experience on physical restraint management according to the clinical context that they are involved in. A multicentre phenomenological study was carried out including 14 Critical Care Units in Madrid, classified according to physical restraint use: Common/systematic use, lacking/personalised use, and mixed use. Five focus groups (23 participants were selected following purposeful sampling) were convened, concluding in data saturation. Data analysis was focused on thematic content analysis following Colaizzi's method. Six main themes: Physical restraint meaning in Critical Care Units, safety (self-retreat vital devices), contribution factors, feelings, alternatives, and pending issues. Although some themes are common to the 3 Critical Care Unit types, discourse differences are found as regards to indication, feelings, systematic use of pain and sedation measurement tools. In order to achieve real physical restraint reduction in Critical Care Units, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of restraints use in the specific clinical context. As self-retreat vital devices emerge as central concept, some interventions proposed in other settings could not be effective, requiring alternatives for critical care patients. Discourse variations laid out in the different Critical Care Unit types could highlight key items that determine the use and different attitudes towards physical restraint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  15. Implementation of the Six Core Strategies for Restraint Minimization in a Specialized Mental Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Sanaz; Dawe, Ian C; Stuckey, Melanie I; Klassen, Philip E

    2016-10-01

    Implementation of the Six Core Strategies to Reduce the Use of Seclusion and Restraint (Six Core Strategies) at a recovery-oriented, tertiary level mental health care facility and the resultant changes in mechanical restraint and seclusion incidents are described. Strategies included increased executive participation; enhanced staff knowledge, skills, and attitudes; development of restraint orders and decision support in the electronic medical record to enable informed debriefing and tracking of events; and implementation of initiatives to include service users and their families in the plan of care. Strategies were implemented in a staged manner across 3 years. The total number of mechanical restraint and seclusion incidents decreased by 19.7% from 2011/12 to 2013/14. Concurrently, the average length of a mechanical restraint or seclusion incident decreased 38.9% over the 36-month evaluation period. Implementation of the Six Core Strategies for restraint minimization effectively decreased the number and length of mechanical restraint and seclusion incidents in a specialized mental health care facility. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(10), 32-39.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Reasons Analysis on Laminated Fracture of DH36 Hull Plate During Tensile Test%DH36船板钢拉伸断口分层的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鑫; 郭汉杰; 李宏亮; 吴建中; 刘锦强

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for the laminated fracture tinder tensile test of DH36 hull plate were researched by metallurgical observation and SEM observation. The results show that the main reasons are the aggregation of MnS as well as the martensite and bainite banded structure in the center of plate.%采用金相检验、扫描电镜检验等手段对DH36船板钢拉伸断口分层缺陷进行了分析.结果表明:DH36船板钢拉伸断口分层缺陷主要是由钢板厚度中心条状MnS夹杂和宽大的贝氏体、马氏体带状组织引起的.

  17. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests.

  18. The influence of personal protection equipment, occupant body size, and restraint system on the frontal impact responses of Hybrid III ATDs in tactical vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaseck, Lauren Wood; Orton, Nichole Ritchie; Gruber, Rebekah; Rupp, Jonathan; Scherer, Risa; Reed, Matthew; Hu, Jingwen

    2017-08-18

    Although advanced restraint systems, such as seat belt pretensioners and load limiters, can provide improved occupant protection in crashes, such technologies are currently not utilized in military vehicles. The design and use of military vehicles presents unique challenges to occupant safety-including differences in compartment geometry and occupant clothing and gear-that make direct application of optimal civilian restraint systems to military vehicles inappropriate. For military vehicle environments, finite element (FE) modeling can be used to assess various configurations of restraint systems and determine the optimal configuration that minimizes injury risk to the occupant. The models must, however, be validated against physical tests before implementation. The objective of this study was therefore to provide the data necessary for FE model validation by conducting sled tests using anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). A secondary objective of this test series was to examine the influence of occupant body size (5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 95th percentile male), military gear (helmet/vest/tactical assault panels), seat belt type (3-point and 5-point), and advanced seat belt technologies (pretensioner and load limiter) on occupant kinematics and injury risk in frontal crashes. In total, 20 frontal sled tests were conducted using a custom sled buck that was reconfigurable to represent both the driver and passenger compartments of a light tactical military vehicle. Tests were performed at a delta-V of 30 mph and a peak acceleration of 25 g. The sled tests used the Hybrid III 5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 95th percentile male ATDs outfitted with standard combat boots and advanced combat helmets. In some tests, the ATDs were outfitted with additional military gear, which included an improved outer tactical vest (IOTV), IOTV and squad automatic weapon (SAW) gunner with a tactical assault panel (TAP), or IOTV and rifleman with

  19. Nurses' decision-making in cases of physical restraint: a synthesis of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, Sabine; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Gastmans, Chris

    2012-06-01

      This article is a report of a review that aimed to synthesize the available qualitative evidence on nurses' decision-making in cases of physical restraint.   The use of physical restraint in acute and residential healthcare facilities is a widespread practice in many countries. Decisions about the use of physical restraints are complex and ethically laden. The lack of evidence supporting the use of physical restraints, the negative consequences of restraint for patients, and the low availability of alternatives obviously complicate the decision-making.   Research papers published between January 1990 and January 2010 were identified in Cinahl, Embase, Medline, PsycInfo and Web of Science.   A systematic review was carried out to obtain a meta-synthesis of qualitative evidence. The process of meta-synthesis was supported by the Joanna Briggs Institute's guidelines.   The decision-making of nurses dealing with the use of physical restraints is a complex trajectory primarily focused on safety. However, thoughtful decision-making requires nurses to carefully balance different options and associated ethical values. The decision-making process of nurses is influenced by both nurse- and context-related factors.   This review provides a deeper understanding of nurses' decision-making process on the use of physical restraints. Context- and nurse-related factors can hinder nurses from making an ethical decision on the appropriate use of physical restraints. There is an urgent need to stimulate and educate nurses to arrive at an appropriate decision about the use of physical restraints. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Restraint use in home care: a qualitative study from a nursing perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the growing demand for home care and preliminary evidence suggesting that the use of restraint is common practice in home care, research about restraint use in this setting is scarce. Methods To gain insight into the use of restraints in home care from the perspective of nurses, we conducted a qualitative explorative study. We conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews of 14 nurses from Wit-Gele Kruis, a home-care organization in Flanders, Belgium. Interview transcripts were analyzed using the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven. Results Our findings revealed a lack of clarity among nurses about the concept of restraint in home care. Nurses reported that cognitively impaired older persons, who sometimes lived alone, were restrained or locked up without continuous follow-up. The interviews indicated that the patient’s family played a dominant role in the decision to use restraints. Reasons for using restraints included “providing relief to the family” and “keeping the patient at home as long as possible to avoid admission to a nursing home.” The nurses stated that general practitioners had no clear role in deciding whether to use restraints. Conclusions These findings suggest that the issue of restraint use in home care is even more complex than in long-term residential care settings and acute hospital settings. They raise questions about the ethical and legal responsibilities of home-care providers, nurses, and general practitioners. There is an urgent need for further research to carefully document the use of restraints in home care and to better understand it so that appropriate guidance can be provided to healthcare workers. PMID:24498859

  1. The Alterations of IL-1Beta, IL-6, and TGF-Beta Levels in Hippocampal CA3 Region of Chronic Restraint Stress Rats after Electroacupuncture (EA) Pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Tianwei Guo; Zhuo Guo; Xinjing Yang; Lan Sun; Sihan Wang; A. Yingge; Xiaotian He; Tu Ya

    2014-01-01

    Immunological reactions induced by proinflammatory cytokines have been involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders. Recent studies showed that Electroacupuncture (EA) was able to reduce depressive symptoms; however, the underlying mechanism and its potential targets remain unknown. In the present study, we used a 21-day chronic restraint stress rats as a model to investigate how EA could alleviate depression. Open field test was carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at sel...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. ... vegetables . Now in one of the small sections, put grains and starchy foods. See this list of ...

  3. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... 2016 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal ...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  5. Food guide plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chips or cookies. VEGETABLES: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Vegetables can be raw, fresh, ... as a snack. FRUITS: MAKE HALF OF YOUR PLATE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Fruits can be fresh, canned, ...

  6. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  7. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ... Sleeve Custom jerseys for your Tour de Cure team benefits the cause. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF RESTRAINTS IN THE OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM OF A COLD-FORMED PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Łukowicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the restraints in the optimization problem. This is an important and complicated issue because it requires taking into account a vast range of information related to the design and production. In order to describe the relations of a specific optimization problem, it is essential to adopt appropriate criteria and to collect information on all kinds of restraints, i.e. boundary conditions. The following paper verifies the various restraints and defines three subsets: design assumptions, technological limitations and standard conditions. The provided classification was made with reference to the analysis of the construction applicability of the newly patented cold-formed profile.

  12. [Physical and pharmacological restraints in geriatric and gerontology services and centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Cordero, Primitivo; López Trigo, José Antonio; Maíllo Pedraz, Herminio; Paz Rubio, José María

    2015-01-01

    Physical and pharmacological restraints are a controversial issue in the context of geriatric care due to their moral, ethical, social and legal repercussions and, despite this fact, no specific legislation exists at a national level. The use of restraints is being questioned with growing frequency, as there are studies that demonstrate that restraints do not reduce the number of falls or their consequences, but rather can increase them, cause complications, injuries and potentially fatal accidents. Restraints are not always used rationally, despite compromising a fundamental human right, that is, freedom, protected in the Constitution, as well as values and principles, such as dignity and personal self-esteem. There are centers where restraints are applied to more than 50% of patients, and in some cases without the consent of their legal representatives. On some occasions, restraints are used for attaining organizational or environmental objectives, such as complying with tight schedules, and for reducing or avoiding the supervision of patients who walk erratically and, at times, are used indefinitely. Even greater confusion exists with respect to the emerging concept of chemical or pharmacological restraints, since no conceptual framework exists based on scientific evidence, and with sufficient consensus for guiding healthcare workers. In this context, the Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología (SEGG--Spanish Geriatrics and Gerontology Society), aware of the significance and transcendence of the issue, and in an attempt to preserve and guarantee maximum freedom, dignity and self-esteem, on the one hand, and to ensure the maximum integrity and legal certainty of the persons cared for in geriatric and gerontology services and centers, on the other, decided to create an "Interdisciplinary Committee on Restraints" made up by members from different disciplines and members of SEGG Working Groups or Committees, external health care workers, groups

  13. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  14. Dietary Restraint Partially Mediates the Relationship between Impulsivity and Binge Eating Only in Lean Individuals: The Importance of Accounting for Body Mass in Studies of Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffino, Jaime A.; Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data suggest impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI). Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female) were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal-weight (BMI Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but not with dietary restraint. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors. PMID:27757092

  15. Dietary restraint partially mediates the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating only in lean individuals: The importance of accounting for body mass in studies of restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ashley Coffino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data that suggests impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI. Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal weight (BMI < 25, 65.8%, n = 333 or overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25, 34.2%, n = 173 and completed the restrained eating subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the difficulties with impulse control subscale of the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but dietary restraint was not. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors.

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reset Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing ... en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes. ...

  17. Obliquity along plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-12-01

    Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.

  18. Impact behaviour of stiffened steel plates

    OpenAIRE

    Sølvernes, Sindre Hellem

    2015-01-01

    The impact behavior of stiffened steel plates subjected to impact loading from concentrated loads was studied experimentally and numerically. Both dynamic and quasi-static tests of stiffened steel plates with geometry adopted from a typical external deck area on an offshore platform were conducted. The quasi-static tests were performed to study the relationship between dynamic impact behavior and the corresponding static ones. All tests were carried out in scale 1:4. To allow the executio...

  19. Numerical simulation of side heating for controlling angular distortion in multipass MMAW butt welded plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adinath V Damale; Keshav N Nandurkar

    2015-04-01

    Distortion is a severe problem in weld products.It depends on various process parameters like plate thickness, current, voltage, type of weld joint and restraints put on. If distortion is not properly dealt during welding then the product may become useless from geometric accuracy point of view. In the present study, a 3-D coupled transient thermal analysis model with auxiliary side heating (parallel heating) is developed to control angular distortion. During analysis, parallel heating flames are placed at several locations from weld line in cross direction. A user defined subroutine is used to apply transient heat source and side heating flames. Element birth and death technique is used to simulate the filler material deposition. One side multipass 'V' butt weld configuration is used for this study. A series of observational tests are done with a special experimental fixture using Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMAW) to validate the proposed FEA model. It is found that the angular distortion has decreased from 2 mm to 0.4 mm with change in side heating distance from 50 to 90 mm from the weld line.

  20. RU486 Reverses Emotional Disorders by Influencing Astrocytes and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Chronic Restraint Stress Challenged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liru Dong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the effect of RU486 (mifepristone on emotional disorders in chronic restraint stress-induced rats and to explore the mechanisms of that phenomenon. Methods: For this purpose, 80 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: the normal group (Con group, The Con group members received no treatment, eating and drinking freely, the chronic restraint stress group (CRS group, normal Sprague Dawley rats treated with chronic restraint stress, 6 h/day for 21days, the propylene glycol group (CRS+propylene glycol and the RU486 group (CRS+RU486. RU486 or propylene glycol was administered 30 mins before each CRS procedure. Twenty-four hours after CRS exposure, we investigated the effects of CRS on the anxiety-like behavior using an elevated plus-maze (EPM. To explore the mechanisms of RU486 on anxiety, we measured the expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP and β-subunit of S100 (S100β via immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Apoptosis was demonstrated by flow cytometry. In addition, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress markers, glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP and Cysteine aspartic acid specific protease-12 (Caspase-12, were detected by western blot analysis. Results: Compared to the control group, rats in the CRS and propylene glycol group showed decreased exploratory behavior on the open arms during EPM testing, and these reductions were accompanied by significantly reduced GFAP and S100β expression, increased apoptosis and GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12 expression in the amygdala. However, RU486 increases the exploratory behavior and reverses the changes of GFAP, S100β, GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12 and protects cells against apoptosis. Conclusions: Taken together, these data suggest that exposure to chronic restraint stress decreases the number of astrocytes and induces apoptosis and ER stress in the amygdala, which are possible causes for psychiatric

  1. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.

  2. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  3. Effects of Differential Reinforcement, Physical Restraint and Verbal Reprimand on Stereotyped Body-Rocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, S. P. K.

    1995-01-01

    A boy with severe mental retardation was unresponsive to his environment and spent 80% of his day body-rocking. Stereotyped body-rocking was greatly reduced via differential reinforcement of incompatible responding (DRI), physical restraint, and reprimand. (JDD)

  4. The Use of Physical Restraint in the Treatment of Self-Injury and as Positive Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favell, Judith E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the effects of a treatment package on the self-injurious behavior of three profoundly retarded persons (ages 8-27 years) who appeared to enjoy the physical restraints used to prevent their self-injury. (Author)

  5. Use of psychotropic medication among inpatients during focused efforts in prevention of coercion and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Mikkel; Høgh, Lene; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    and reduced life expectancy. The aim of this study is therefore to quantify the use of psychotropic medication when implementing interventions to reduce coercion and restraint. Methods: Cohort study on patients in risk of agitation and coercion in a psychiatric ward operating without physical restraint......Objective: Department of Psychiatry in Aabenraa participates in a national Danish project supporting efforts to reduce coercion and restraint in psychiatry. Antipsychotic and anxiolytic medicine is widely used among agitated patients, but is also known to contribute to cardio-vascular disease...... the project period. Results: Data collection is carried out during autumn of 2016 and preliminary results will be presented at the meeting in Gothenburg. Conclusions: Data from this study will provide new information to the evaluation of initiatives towards reduction of restraint in psychiatry. It will also...

  6. Examination of ethical dilemmas experienced by adult intensive care unit nurses in physical restraint practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Dizer, Berna; Gümüş, Fatma; Koyuncu, Rukiye

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are more likely to face the dilemma of whether to resort to physical restraints or not and have a hard time making that decision. This is a descriptive study. A total of 55 nurses participated in the research. For data collection, a question form developed by researchers to determine perceptions of ethical dilemmas by nurses in the application of physical restraint was used. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the mean, standard deviation, and maximum and minimum values. The nurses expressed (36.4%) having difficulty in deciding to use physical restraint. Nurses reported that they experience ethical dilemmas mainly in relation to the ethic principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and convenience. We have concluded that majority of nurses working in critical care units apply physical restraint to patients, although they are facing ethical dilemmas concerning harm and benefit principles during the application.

  7. Ethical dilemmas in social work practice with disabled people: the use of physical restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, David

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the use of restraint with disabled adults and children and uses a case study of one particular child to explore issues related to the use of restraint, including the consent of the person subjected to restraint, their human rights, and the balancing of these rights with the need to reduce the risk of harm. The case study involves a young woman who requested to be restrained in a particular way and the challenges this posed to the staff caring for her. The article concludes that in many complex situations there is no clearly right approach to take, and each situation involving restraint must be considered on an individual case-by-case basis.

  8. Theory of Point Contact Restraint and Qualitative Analysis of Robot Grasping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊有伦

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a geometrical representation of robot grasping and a definition of "relative form closure" of point contact restraint based on the concepts of positive linear combination,affine combination,convex combination,etc.in the screw space.The dual equivalence theorem,topological equivalence theorem and algebraic equivalence theorem are derived from the defined restraint cone and freedom cone in the dual screw spaces.A J0-function method of computer-aided grasp planning is implemented more efficiently than other proposed methods.The states of restraint and instantaneous motion of a rigid body grasped by a set of point contacts are specified by the unisense degrees of freedom and unisense degrees of restraint.Finally,a quality measure of robot grasping is provided for the synthesis procedure of relatively form-closed grasp.

  9. Seatbelt and child-restraint use in Kazakhstan: attitudes and behaviours of medical university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugmanova, Zhamilya S; Ussatayeva, Gainel; McNutt, Louise-Anne

    2015-04-01

    Traffic fatalities in Kazakhstan increased from 15 to more than 30 per 100 000 between 2001 and 2006. Mortality remains high compared with developed nations. Safety-restraint laws have been enacted, but little data exist regarding usage of seatbelts, particularly among children and passengers. This cross-sectional study surveyed medical university students about attitudes and behaviours regarding seatbelt and child safety-restraint usage. Seatbelts are widely used in the front seat (81%) but not in the back seat (79% 'never' or 'rarely' use a seatbelt in the back seat). Fewer than half reported 'always' or 'almost always' providing restraint for children under 7 years and 24% reported children secure the seatbelts themselves. Safety in the back seat merits attention. Adults generally do not buckle in the back seat despite a law requiring seatbelt use. Promotion of child safety restraints should be prioritised in prevention education for physicians and the community.

  10. Functional genomics of the muscle response to restraint and transport in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, D; Fernandez, X; Pinguet, J; Chambon, C; Letisse, F; Portais, J-C; Wadih-Moussa, Z; Rémignon, H; Molette, C

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, we used global approaches (proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics) to assess the molecular basis of the muscle response to stress in chickens. A restraint test, combined with transport for 2 h (RT test) was chosen as the potentially stressful situation. Chickens (6 wk old) were either nontreated (control chickens) or submitted to the RT test (treated chickens). The RT test induced a 6-fold increase in corticosterone concentrations, suggesting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. The RT test decreased the relative abundance of several hexose phosphates [glucose-1-P (G1P), glucose-6-P (G6P), fructose-6-P (F6P), and mannose-6-P (M6P)] in thigh muscle. In addition, 55 transcripts, among which 39 corresponded to unique annotated genes, were significantly up- (12 genes) or downregulated (27 genes) by treatment. Similarly, 45 proteic spots, among which 29 corresponded to unique annotated proteins, were overexpressed (11 proteins), underexpressed (14 proteins), or only expressed in treated chickens. Integrative analysis of differentially expressed genes and proteins showed that most transcripts and proteins belong to 2 networks whose genes were mainly related with cytoskeleton structure or carbohydrate metabolism. Whereas the decrease in energetic metabolites suggested an activation of glycogenolysis and glycolysis in response to the RT test, the reduced expression of genes and proteins involved in these pathways suggested the opposite. We hypothesized that the prolonged RT test resulted in a repression of glycogenolysis and glycolysis in thigh muscle of chickens. The down-expression of genes and proteins involved in the formation of fiber stress after the RT test suggests a reinforcement of myofibrils in response to stress.

  11. Shaking table test study on shear walls with concrete-filled steel tube columns and embedded steel-plate%钢管混凝土边框内藏钢板剪力墙振动台试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹万林; 王尧鸿; 董宏英; 张建伟

    2011-01-01

    进行了4个钢板剪力墙模型的模拟地震振动台试验,其中2个模型为钢管混凝土边框钢板剪力墙,高宽比分别为1.7和3.2;2个模型为钢管混凝土边框内藏钢板剪力墙,高宽比分别为1.7和3.2.试验中输人Taft地震动,测试了各试件在不同峰值加速度下的时程地震反应和动力特性,分析了剪力墙的破坏特征.研究表明:钢管混凝土边框内藏钢板混凝土剪力墙与钢管混凝土边框钢板剪力墙相比,地震反应明显较小,抗震性能显著提高.%Four steel-plate shear walls were tested on the shaking table. Two of the walls are steel-plate shear walls with concrete-filled steel tube columns and the other two are composite shear walls with concrete-filled steel tube columns and embedded steel-plate. The ratio of height to width is 1.7 and 3.2 respectively. The Taft seismic ground motion was input in the shaking table test. Based on the experiment, dynamic characters, dynamic responses and failure modes of the four specimens in different seismic peak accelerations are contrastively analyzed. The results show that compared with the steel-plate shear walls with concrete-filled steel tube columns, shear walls with concrete-filled steel tube columns and embedded steel-plate have the following characteristics: the dynamic responses are significantly reduced, the seismic behavior is significantly improved.

  12. The Alterations of IL-1Beta, IL-6, and TGF-Beta Levels in Hippocampal CA3 Region of Chronic Restraint Stress Rats after Electroacupuncture (EA Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianwei Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunological reactions induced by proinflammatory cytokines have been involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders. Recent studies showed that Electroacupuncture (EA was able to reduce depressive symptoms; however, the underlying mechanism and its potential targets remain unknown. In the present study, we used a 21-day chronic restraint stress rats as a model to investigate how EA could alleviate depression. Open field test was carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at selected time points. At the end of study, immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed to detect the expressions of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta in hippocampal CA3 region. We found that chronic restraint stress significantly decreased behavioral activities, whereas EA stimulation at points Baihui (GV 20 and Yintang (GV 29 showed protective effect during the test period. In addition, the IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta increased in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress, while EA downregulated the levels of IL-1beta and IL-6. These findings implied that EA pretreatment could alleviate depression through modulating IL-1beta and IL-6 expression levels in hippocampal CA3 region.

  13. The Alterations of IL-1Beta, IL-6, and TGF-Beta Levels in Hippocampal CA3 Region of Chronic Restraint Stress Rats after Electroacupuncture (EA) Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianwei; Guo, Zhuo; Yang, Xinjing; Sun, Lan; Wang, Sihan; Yingge, A; He, Xiaotian; Ya, Tu

    2014-01-01

    Immunological reactions induced by proinflammatory cytokines have been involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders. Recent studies showed that Electroacupuncture (EA) was able to reduce depressive symptoms; however, the underlying mechanism and its potential targets remain unknown. In the present study, we used a 21-day chronic restraint stress rats as a model to investigate how EA could alleviate depression. Open field test was carried out to evaluate the depressive symptoms at selected time points. At the end of study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to detect the expressions of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta in hippocampal CA3 region. We found that chronic restraint stress significantly decreased behavioral activities, whereas EA stimulation at points Baihui (GV 20) and Yintang (GV 29) showed protective effect during the test period. In addition, the IL-1beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta increased in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress, while EA downregulated the levels of IL-1beta and IL-6. These findings implied that EA pretreatment could alleviate depression through modulating IL-1beta and IL-6 expression levels in hippocampal CA3 region.

  14. Descriptive analysis of physical restraint (protective holding) among community living adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, James K; Sperry, James M; Magee, Christine

    2011-06-01

    We analyzed incidence and implementation patterns of physical restraint (PR) among 448 adults with intellectual disability within community-based day habilitation programs and group homes. PR was implemented exclusively as a consequence for self-harming, aggressive, and environmentally disruptive behaviors. Less than 10% of adults received PR and more than 90% of documented restraints occurred as a planned intervention procedure. Several adults accounted for the majority of PR. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. DEFINING SECLUSION AND RESTRAINT: LEGAL AND POLICY DEFINITIONS VERSUS CONSUMER AND CARER PERSPECTIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Cath; McSherry, Bernadette; Brophy, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    The practices of seclusion and restraint may be used in a variety of health settings to control behaviour. Laws and policies that seek to regulate these practices define seclusion and restraint in various ways and there are gaps as to which practices are regulated and in what circumstances. This column provides an overview of consumer and carer perspectives as to what is meant by these practices.

  16. The evolution of the doctrine of restraint of trade in Australia: a law reform perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, John Wei-Ting

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the present state of the common law doctrine of restraint of trade from a law reform perspective. The doctrine was developed in England between the 1600s and mid-1800s and its evolution over the centuries has been a slow and ongoing process. The present state of the doctrine and its application in the Australian jurisdiction presents a challenging set of circumstances due to the difficulties faced by contracting parties when they wish to engage in restraint of trade. ...

  17. Buckling of Euler Columns with a Continuous Elastic Restraint via Homotopy Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Eryılmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM is applied to find the critical buckling load of the Euler columns with continuous elastic restraints. HAM has been successfully applied to many linear and nonlinear, ordinary and partial, differential equations, integral equations, and difference equations. In this study, we presented the application of HAM to the critical buckling loads for Euler columns with five different support cases continuous elastic restraints. The results are compared with the analytic solutions.

  18. Ethics and praxis: alternative strategies to physical restraint and seclusion in a psychiatric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxis, J Carole

    2002-03-01

    This descriptive article highlights a 42-month project in which a comprehensive program revision was implemented in a psychiatric hospital that included numerous alternative strategies to the use of patient restraint and seclusion. The results of this project include a 94% reduction in the rate of restraint and seclusion, development of extensive staff and patient education programs, and comprehensive programmatic alterations consistent with a paradigm shift emphasizing collaboration, empowerment, and ethical clinical practice.

  19. [The objectives of the reform of hospitalisation under restraint in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The law of July 5th, 2011 reforms legislation dating from June 27th, 1990. It adds elements identified as missing from the original text over the course of the years following its application. The systematic intervention of a liberties and detention judge could counterbalance the measures simplifying hospitalisation under restraint. Stricter monitoring of "unwieldy" patients is also included in measures which enable treatment under restraint to be given through outpatient care.

  20. Prenatal noise and restraint stress interact to alter exploratory behavior and balance in juvenile rats, and mixed stress reverses these effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badache, Soumeya; Bouslama, Slim; Brahmia, Oualid; Baïri, Abdel Madjid; Tahraoui, Abdel Krim; Ladjama, Ali

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to investigate in adolescent rats the individual and combined effects of prenatal noise and restraint stress on balance control, exploration, locomotion and anxiety behavior. Three groups of pregnant rats were exposed to daily repeated stress from day 11 to day 19 of pregnancy: 3 min noise (Noise Stress, NS); 10 min restraint (restraint stress, RS); or 3 min noise followed by 10 min restraint (mixed stress, MS). On postnatal days (PND) 44, 45 and 46, four groups of male rats (Control, NS, RS:, MS; 16 rats each), were tested as follows: (1) beam walking (BW), (2) open field (OF) and (3) elevated plus maze (EPM). Our results show that the NS group had significantly impaired balance control, locomotion and both horizontal and vertical exploration (p stress, especially noise, which group had the largest adrenal glands. Overall, contrary to expectation, combined prenatal stressors can interact to increase anxiety level, but diminish alteration of exploration, locomotion and impaired balance control, which were strongly induced by noise stress. Lay summary: Experience of stress in pregnancy can have negative effects on the offspring that are long-lasting. Here, we used laboratory rats to see whether repeated episodes of exposure to loud noise or preventing free movement, alone or together, during pregnancy had different effects on behaviors of the adolescent offspring. Using standard tests, we found the prenatal stresses caused the offspring to be anxious, and not to balance when moving around as well as normal offspring; the degree of impairment depended on the type of stress - loud noise exposure had the greatest effects, but if the stresses were combined the effects were not worse. The results point to the need to aim to avoid stress in pregnant women.

  1. Physical restraint use in institutional care of old people in Sweden in 2000 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellfolk, Tony; Sandman, Per-Olof; Gustafson, Yngve; Karlsson, Stig; Lövheim, Hugo

    2012-07-01

    Physical restraint use is common in institutional care for old people and mainly used to prevent falls, despite the fall-preventive effect of physical restraints being questioned in previous research. The aim of the study was to investigate the use of physical restraints in Sweden in 2000 and 2007. Data were collected from two comparable census surveys conducted in all institutional care units for old people in 2000 (n = 3,669) and 2007 (n = 2,914). Information on residents' characteristics and physical restraint use was collected using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). In 2000 16.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.8%-17.2%) of the residents were restrained compared to 18.2% (95% CI 16.8%-19.6%) in 2007 (p = 0.017). Adjusting for residents' characteristics showed that residents in 2007 were more likely to be physically restrained, relative to the residents in 2000 (odds ratio (OR) 1.031, 95% CI 1.005-1.058, p = 0.017). In 2007 the residents had been restrained longer, and a higher proportion were restrained for unknown reasons. Physical restraint use is still common. Moreover, the findings of this study suggest a small increase (OR 1.031) in the prevalence of physical restraint use from 2000 to 2007 adjusted for residents' characteristics.

  2. [Effects of a physical restraint removal program on older people with dementia in residential care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa, M Ángeles; Granell, Rafael; Fuenmayor, Amadeo; Martínez, Mary

    2016-01-01

    To analyse the results of removing physical restraints from elderly patients with dementia living in nursing homes. This objective is part of a wider process of change in residential care. Quasi-experimental study conducted in two residences from May 2010 to May 2012. Information was collected at 7 time points and longitudinal analyses were performed. After training staff, the physical restraints in El Puig centre were phased out, while in the Conarda centre, restraints were still applied to elderly people. The main variables studied were: falls, psychotropic medication prescriptions, different indicators of mental impairment, and degree of dependence (Norton, NPI, Mini-mental, Tinetti, Barthel). In the El Puig centre all the physical restraints were removed. A slight improvement was seen in the number of falls, and their consequences. The ANOVA showed significant improvements in the centre that removed restraints in prescribing psychotropic medications, cognitive impairment, and behavioural changes. It is shown that removing physical restraints do not cause negative effects as regards the number of falls, and also positively affects the welfare and independence of elderly people (through changes in behaviour and mental impairment). Furthermore, it is demonstrated that this program must be accompanied by the reduction and control of medicines (withdrawal of the number of psychotropic prescriptions). Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk for physical restraint or seclusion in the psychiatric emergency service (PES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott A; Joesch, Jutta M; West, Imara I; Pasic, Jagoda

    2014-01-01

    We describe risk factors associated with patients experiencing physical restraint or seclusion in the psychiatric emergency service (PES). We retrospectively reviewed medical records, nursing logs and quality assurance data for all adult patient encounters in a PES over a 12-month period (June 1, 2011-May 31, 2012). Descriptors included demographic characteristics, diagnoses, laboratory values, and clinician ratings of symptom severity. χ(2) and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Restraint/seclusion occurred in 14% of 5335 patient encounters. The following characteristics were associated with restraint/seclusion: arrival to the PES in restraints; referral not initiated by the patient; arrival between 1900 and 0059 hours; bipolar mania or mixed episode; and clinician rating of severe disruptiveness, psychosis or insight impairment. Severe suicidality and a depression diagnosis were associated with less risk of restraint or seclusion. Acute symptomatology and characteristics of the encounter were more likely to be associated with restraint/seclusion than patient demographics or diagnoses. These findings support recent guidelines for the treatment of agitation and can help clinicians identify patients at risk of behavioral decompensation. © 2014.

  4. Rappertk: a versatile engine for discrete restraint-based conformational sampling of macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmali Anjum M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macromolecular structures are modeled by conformational optimization within experimental and knowledge-based restraints. Discrete restraint-based sampling generates high-quality structures within these restraints and facilitates further refinement in a continuous all-atom energy landscape. This approach has been used successfully for protein loop modeling, comparative modeling and electron density fitting in X-ray crystallography. Results Here we present a software toolkit (Rappertk which generalizes discrete restraint-based sampling for use in structural biology. Modular design and multi-layered architecture enables Rappertk to sample conformations of any macromolecule at many levels of detail and within a variety of experimental restraints. Performance against a Cα-tracing benchmark shows that the efficiency has not suffered despite the overhead required by this flexibility. We demonstrate the toolkit's capabilities by building high-quality β-sheets and by introducing restraint-driven sampling. RNA sampling is demonstrated by rebuilding a protein-RNA interface. Ability to construct arbitrary ligands is used in sampling protein-ligand interfaces within electron density. Finally, secondary structure and shape information derived from EM are combined to generate multiple conformations of a protein consistent with the observed density. Conclusion Through its modular design and ease of use, Rappertk enables exploration of a wide variety of interesting avenues in structural biology. This toolkit, with illustrative examples, is freely available to academic users from http://www-cryst.bioc.cam.ac.uk/~swanand/mysite/rtk/index.html.

  5. Thinness expectancies and restraint in Black and White college women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika M K; Fischer, Sarah

    2013-08-01

    Despite stereotypes to the contrary, women of diverse racial backgrounds, including Black women, experience disordered eating symptoms. While there has been an increase in research comparing disordered eating symptoms across ethnic groups, there remains a dearth of research on the mechanisms of action underlying the development of these symptoms in non-White populations. Thinness expectancies prospectively predict disordered eating symptoms in adolescent girls, but the majority of research on expectancies has been conducted with White samples. Restraint, or self-initiated attempts to restrict food intake, may be precipitated by cognitive factors such as thinness expectancies. In the current study, we followed a sample of Black and White women over one semester of college to assess the influence of thinness expectancies and ethnic identity on restraint. Our sample consisted of 193 college women (93 Black women). We found that White women experienced restraint at higher levels than Black women, but both Black and White women experienced an increase in restraint across the first semester in college. The endorsement of thinness expectancies added significant incremental variance to the prediction of restraint over time, when baseline restraint was included in the model. These effects were not moderated by ethnicity nor ethnic identity. This study adds to the scarce literature on phenomenology of disordered eating in Black women.

  6. Mixed selection. Effects of body images, dietary restraint, and persuasive messages on females' orientations towards chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Hendry, Alana; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-01-01

    Many women experience ambivalent reactions to chocolate: craving it but also wary of its impact on weight and health. Chocolate advertisements often use thin ideal models and previous research indicates that this exacerbates ambivalence. This experiment compared attitudes to, and consumption of, chocolate following exposure to images containing thin or overweight models together with written messages that were either positive or negative about eating chocolate. Participants (all female) were categorised as either low- or high-restraint. Approach, avoidance and guilt motives towards chocolate were measured and the participants had an opportunity to consume chocolate. Exposure to thin ideal models led to higher approach motives and this effect was most marked among the high restraint participants. Avoidance and guilt scores did not vary as a function of model size or message, but there were clear differences between the restraint groups, with the high restraint participants scoring substantially higher than low restraint participants on both of these measures. When the participants were provided with an opportunity to eat some chocolate, those with high restraint who had been exposed to the thin models consumed the most. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Community paediatricians' counseling patterns and knowledge of recommendations relating to child restraint use in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenstein, J; Howard, A; Parkin, P; Khambalia, A; Macarthur, C

    2004-04-01

    Road traffic injury is the leading cause of death among Canadian children and youth. Transport Canada recommends four types of child restraint depending on the size of the child, and recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of recommended restraint use. To determine community paediatricians' knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use in vehicles, and to examine paediatricians' counseling patterns in relation to child passenger safety. A mailed questionnaire survey of all community paediatricians affiliated with the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto was conducted. A 16 item questionnaire gathered information on knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use, general counseling patterns in relation to child passenger safety, and demographic information. In total, 60 community paediatricians in active practice were identified. Of these, 48 (80%) responded to the mailed questionnaire. Almost all paediatricians (92%) correctly identified the recommended weight for transition to a forward-facing car seat, whereas fewer paediatricians (63%) correctly identified the recommended weight for transition to a booster seat from a forward-facing car seat, and only one third of paediatricians correctly identified the recommended weight for transition from a booster seat to a seat belt. Community paediatricians' knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use in vehicles is incomplete. There is a need for such recommendations to be better disseminated to paediatricians and parents so that information on child restraint use is delivered in a clear and consistent manner.

  8. A MATLAB-based eye tracking control system using non-invasive helmet head restraint in the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luna, Paolo; Mohamed Mustafar, Mohamed Faiz Bin; Rainer, Gregor

    2014-09-30

    Tracking eye position is vital for behavioral and neurophysiological investigations in systems and cognitive neuroscience. Infrared camera systems which are now available can be used for eye tracking without the need to surgically implant magnetic search coils. These systems are generally employed using rigid head fixation in monkeys, which maintains the eye in a constant position and facilitates eye tracking. We investigate the use of non-rigid head fixation using a helmet that constrains only general head orientation and allows some freedom of movement. We present a MATLAB software solution to gather and process eye position data, present visual stimuli, interact with various devices, provide experimenter feedback and store data for offline analysis. Our software solution achieves excellent timing performance due to the use of data streaming, instead of the traditionally employed data storage mode for processing analog eye position data. We present behavioral data from two monkeys, demonstrating that adequate performance levels can be achieved on a simple fixation paradigm and show how performance depends on parameters such as fixation window size. Our findings suggest that non-rigid head restraint can be employed for behavioral training and testing on a variety of gaze-dependent visual paradigms, reducing the need for rigid head restraint systems for some applications. While developed for macaque monkey, our system of course can work equally well for applications in human eye tracking where head constraint is undesirable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Zinc and imipramine reverse the depression-like behavior in mice induced by chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qin; Li, Hongxia; Tian, Xue; Shen, Zhilei; Wang, Xiaoli; Mo, Fengfeng; Huang, Junlong; Shen, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a common psychopathological disorders. Studies of depression have indicated that zinc play a role in the depression pathophysiology and treatment. In present study, we examined the effects of zinc and imipramine supplement alone or combination of zinc and imipramine in mice induced by chronic restraint stress (CRS). Moreover, the possible roles of zinc receptor (G protein-coupled receptor 39, GPR39)-related pathway was investigated. Decreased weight and increased corticosterone (CORT) were observed after 3 weeks CRS exposure. It was shown that CRS induced lower serum zinc, higher hippocampal zinc, increased immobility time in tail suspension test and decreased movement distance in spontaneous activity test, which could be normalized by zinc (30 mg/kg) and imipramine (20 mg/kg) supplement alone and combination of zinc (15 mg/kg) and imipramine (5 mg/kg) for 3 weeks after CRS exposure. Moreover, the changes in mRNA expressions of GPR39, cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and n-methytl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) could be reversed by the same treatment mentioned above. These results suggested that zinc dyshomeostasis in serum and hippocampus and depression-like behavior in CRS exposure animals observed in present study could be normalized by zinc and imipramine. The combination of zinc and imipramine in low dose has synergetic effects. The possible mechanism might be correlated to GPR39 receptor-related pathway.

  10. Instruments of RT-2 Experiment onboard CORONASPHOTON and their test and evaluation III: Coded Aperture Mask and Fresnel Zone Plates in RT-2/CZT Payload

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Anuj; Debnath, D; Chakrabarti, Sandip K; Kotoch, T B; Sarkar, R; Yadav, Vipin K; Girish, V; Rao, A R; Bhattacharya, D; 10.1007/s10686-010-9184-3

    2010-01-01

    Imaging in hard X-rays of any astrophysical source with high angular resolution is a challenging job. Shadow-casting technique is one of the most viable options for imaging in hard X-rays. We have used two different types of shadow-casters, namely, Coded Aperture Mask (CAM) and Fresnel Zone Plate (FZP) pair and two types of pixellated solid-state detectors, namely, CZT and CMOS in RT-2/CZT payload, the hard X-ray imaging instrument onboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite. In this paper, we present the results of simulations with different combinations of coders (CAM & FZP) and detectors that are employed in the RT-2/CZT payload. We discuss the possibility of detecting transient Solar flares with good angular resolution for various combinations. Simulated results are compared with laboratory experiments to verify the consistency of the designed configuration.

  11. Microstructural characterization of an irradiated RERTR-6 U-7Mo/AA4043 alloy dispersion fuel plate specimen blister-tested to a final temperature of 500 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Gan, Jian; Miller, Brandon D.; Robinson, Adam B.; Madden, James W.; Ross Finlay, M.; Moore, Glenn; Medvedev, Pavel; Meyer, Mitch

    2017-05-01

    The Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Program, in the past called the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program, is developing low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels for application in research and test reactors. U-Mo alloy dispersion fuel is one type being developed. Blister testing has been performed on different fuel plate samples to determine the margin to failure for fuel plates irradiated to different fission densities. Microstructural characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy on a sample taken from a U-7Mo/AA4043 matrix dispersion fuel plate irradiated in the RERTR-6 experiment that was blister-tested up to a final temperature of 500 °C. The results indicated that two types of grain/cell boundaries were observed in the U-7Mo fuel particles, one with a relatively low Mo content and fission gas bubbles and a second type enriched in Si, due to interdiffusion from the Si-containing matrix, with little evidence of fission gas bubbles. With respect to the behavior of the major fission gas Xe, a significant amount of the Xe was still observed within the U-7Mo fuel particle, along with microns into the AA4043 matrix. For the fuel/matrix interaction layers that form during fabrication and then grow during irradiation, they change from the as-irradiated amorphous structure to one that is crystalline after blister testing. In the AA4043 matrix, the original Si-rich precipitates, which are typically observed in as-irradiated U-Mo dispersion fuel, get consumed due to interdiffusion with the U-7Mo fuel particles during the blister test. Finally, the fission gas bubbles that were originally around 3 nm in diameter and resided on a fission gas superlattice (FGS) in the intragranular regions of as-irradiated U-7Mo fuel grew in size (up to ∼20 nm diameter) during blister testing and, in many areas, are no longer organized as a superlattice.

  12. Anticipatory precrash restraint sensor feasibility study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-08-01

    This report explores feasibility of an anticipatory precrash restraint sensor. The foundation principle is the anticipation mechanism found at a primitive level of biological intelligence and originally formalized by the mathematical biologist Robert Rosen. A system based on formal anticipatory principles should significantly outperform conventional technologies. It offers the prospect of high payoff in prevention of death and injury. Sensors and processes are available to provide a good, fast, and inexpensive description of the present dynamical state of the vehicle to the embedded system model in the anticipation engine. The experimental part of this study found that inexpensive radar in a real-world setting does return useful data on target dynamics. The data produced by a radar system can be converted to target dynamical information by good, fast and inexpensive signal-processing techniques. Not only is the anticipatory sensor feasible, but further development under the sponsorship of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is necessary and desirable. There are a number of possible lines of follow-on investigation. The level of effort and expected benefits of various alternatives are discussed.

  13. Effect of altered 'weight' upon animal tolerance to restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.; Beljan, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of altered weight upon animal tolerance to restraint was determined by simulating various accelerative forces with directed lead weights using restrained and nonrestrained domestic fowl (chickens). Weighting (increased weight) and conterweighting (reduced weight) produced a stressed condition - reduced relative lymphocyte counts, loss of body mass, and/or the development of a disorientation syndrome - in both restrained and nonrestrained (caged only) birds. The animal's tolerance to altered weight appeared to be a function of its body weight. Unrestrained birds were stressed by counterweighting (mean plus or minus standard error) 58.3 plus or minus 41% of their body weight, whereas restrained birds tolerated only 32.2 plus or minus 2.6% reduction in body weight. A training regimen for restrained birds was not effective in improving their tolerance to a reduced weight environment. It was concluded that domestic fowl living in a weightless (space) environment should be restrained minimally and supported by ventrally directed tension equivalent to approximately 50% of their body mass (their weight in a 1 G environment).

  14. Developing countries use music videos to promote teen sexual restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, M

    1991-12-15

    The Center for Communications Programs of the Johns Hopkins University has successfully produced and aired songs and music videos promoting teenage sexual restraint in developing countries. Entertaining music videos convey accurate messages to target audiences more effectively than teachers and doctors are able. In addition to successes in the Philippines and Nigeria, overwhelming success has been met with Wait, a video with Latin American pop start Tatiana and Johnny. A hit in 11 Latin American countries reaching 1 in Mexico, the video received 1 million hour s free air time. Passionate, powerful, and persuasive, these videos have prompted increased contraceptive use in countries where they have been aired. The Center's videos and songs have proved popular and profitable in a competitive market of ideas, earning 3-4 times their production costs. Accordingly, health experts from Johns Hopkins University recognize the potential role of these productions in preventing AIDS and unwanted pregnancies in other settings. Where Baltimore leads the U.S. in teen pregnancies, the Center would like to air soap opera on sexual responsibility. Production costs in the U.S. are, however, 10 times higher than in developing countries. With the collaboration of media executives, significant financial and social rewards could result from such a production.

  15. Scour Protection for Monopile by Concrete Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Skúlason, Magnús

    A test programme has been performed to determine the scour around a monopile for an offshore wind turbine. The foundation is protected against scour with a concrete plate with various designs. The tests should be regarded as pilot tests previous to a detailed investigation. The tests has been...

  16. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  17. A review of the scientific literature related to the adverse impact of physical restraint: gaining a clearer understanding of the physiological factors involved in cases of restraint-related death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Richard; Stirling, Chris; Pandyan, Anand D

    2012-07-01

    Deaths occurring during and/or in close proximity to physical restraint have been attributed to positional asphyxia, a conclusion primarily based on opinion and reviews of case studies. This review sought to identify the current scientific evidence available in regard to the aetiology of adverse events or death occurring during or in close proximity to physical restraint. A systematic search of electronic databases (SPORTDiscus, AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO) for papers published in English, between 1980 and 2011, using keywords that related to restraint, restraint position and cardiovascular function resulted in 11 experimental papers being found for review. The term positional asphyxia as a mechanism for sudden death is poorly understood. The literature shows that restraint position has the ability to impede life-maintaining physiological functions, but that the imposed impediment is not uniform across all restraint positions/techniques. Further research is required to ascertain the risks posed by struggling during restraint for more prolonged periods of time and in different positions using varied techniques of restraint. This research should seek to and rank known or future risk factors of adverse events occurring during restraint, seeking to understand the interactions and if present the cumulative effect of these risk factors. Finally, future research should focus on populations other than apparently healthy male adults.

  18. The impact of restraint reduction meetings on the use of restrictive physical interventions in English residential services for children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveau, R; Leitch, S

    2015-07-01

    The aim was to examine the impact of post restraint reduction meetings upon the frequency and restrictiveness of restraint use in English children's residential services. Attention has been drawn to the misuse, overuse and safety of some techniques used to physically restrain children in residential services. Successful interventions to reduce restraints have been reported, mostly from the USA. Demonstrate a significant overall reduction in both, frequency and restrictiveness of restraints; the greatest percentage decrease in the most restrictive floor restraints. Whilst five services reduced both frequency and restrictiveness, five services showed some increases in frequency and/or restrictiveness of restraints employed. Restraint reduction is most effectively reduced through employing multiple strategies and that post restraint reduction meetings maybe one useful component. Organisations seeking to promote restraint reduction meetings need to allocate sufficient priority and resources to support these. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Results of Simulated Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) on Spectra Restraint Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Benjamin; Hussain, Sarosh; Waller, Jess

    2017-01-01

    Spectra or similar Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric is the likely choice for future structural space suit restraint materials due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, abrasion resistance, and dimensional stability. During long duration space missions, space suits will be subjected to significant amounts of high-energy radiation from several different sources. To insure that pressure garment designs properly account for effects of radiation, it is important to characterize the mechanical changes to structural materials after they have been irradiated. White Sands Test Facility (WSFTF) collaborated with the Crew and Thermal Systems Division at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to irradiate and test various space suit materials by examining their tensile properties through blunt probe puncture testing and single fiber tensile testing after the materials had been dosed at various levels of simulated GCR and SPE Iron and Proton beams at Brookhaven National Laboratories. The dosages were chosen based on a simulation developed by the Structural Engineering Division at JSC for the expected radiation dosages seen by space suit softgoods seen on a Mars reference mission. Spectra fabric tested in the effort saw equivalent dosages at 2x, 10x, and 20x the predicted dose as well as a simulated 50 year exposure to examine the range of effects on the material and examine whether any degradation due to GCR would be present if the suit softgoods were stored in deep space for a long period of time. This paper presents the results of this work and outlines the impact on space suit pressure garment design for long duration deep space missions.

  20. Use of physical restraint in hospital patients: A descriptive study in a tertiary hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalula, Sebastiana Z; Petros, Sabela G

    2016-11-10

    The use of physical restraint in patient management is a common and emotive issue, and has legal and ethical dimensions. To document the prevalence of physical restraint use, patient characteristics associated with physical restraint use, and nurses' and doctors' knowledge and perceptions towards the practice. A cross-sectional study of 572 patients, of whom 132 were physically restrained, was conducted in acute wards of a tertiary hospital. Data were collected on the 132 physically restrained patients. Fifty-nine doctors and 159 nurses completed a specially constructed questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were derived and expressed as numbers and percentages. Prevalence of restraint use was 23% (132/572). The distribution in acute wards was: medical 54.5%; surgical 44.7%; maternity 0.8%; psychiatry none. Mean age (SD) of the restrained patients was 49 years (20.5); 53.8% were male. The commonest types of restraints used were bed rails 93% and wrist belts 12%. Restraints were used largely to protect medical devices and as protection from harm. Less than 15% of the nurses reported having received training and 36% of the doctors reported having received some guidance on the use of restraints. Only a minority of nurses and doctors knew of a hospital policy on restraint use. Documentation on the prescription and indication for the use of restraint was poor. Prevalence of restraint use is high and poorly coordinated. A policy on the use of restraint and comprehensive guidelines should be developed to guide health care practitioners in the management of patients where restraint cannot be avoided.

  1. A study of the effects of current and proposed restraint concepts on the child occupants of vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This research evaluates the performance of automotive child restraint systems (CRS) that conform to international proposals for a universal restraint concept to be adopted by both restraint and vehicle manufacturers. The concept is known as Isofix (International Standards Organisation FIXing), and is intended to ensure optimum compatibility and coupling between vehicle and CRS. In order to quantify the benefits of the proposed Isofix concept it has been necessary to establish the performan...

  2. Use of physical restraint in hospital patients: A descriptive study in a tertiary hospital in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana Z. Kalula

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of physical restraint in patient management is a common and emotive issue, and has legal and ethical dimensions.Objective: To document the prevalence of physical restraint use, patient characteristics associated with physical restraint use, and nurses’ and doctors’ knowledge and perceptions towards the practice.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 572 patients, of whom 132 were physically restrained, was conducted in acute wards of a tertiary hospital. Data were collected on the 132 physically restrained patients. Fifty-nine doctors and 159 nurses completed a specially constructed questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were derived and expressed as numbers and percentages.Results: Prevalence of restraint use was 23% (132/572. The distribution in acute wards was: medical 54.5%; surgical 44.7%; maternity 0.8%; psychiatry none. Mean age (SD of the restrained patients was 49 years (20.5; 53.8% were male. The commonest types of restraints used were bed rails 93% and wrist belts 12%. Restraints were used largely to protect medical devices and as protection from harm. Less than 15% of the nurses reported having received training and 36% of the doctors reported having received some guidance on the use of restraints. Only a minority of nurses and doctors knew of a hospital policy on restraint use. Documentation on the prescription and indication for the use of restraint was poor.Conclusion: Prevalence of restraint use is high and poorly coordinated. A policy on the use of restraint and comprehensive guidelines should be developed to guide health care practitioners in the management of patients where restraint cannot be avoided.

  3. Influence of plate-bone contact on cyclically loaded conically coupled locking plate failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotne, Randi; Bertollo, Nicky; Walsh, William; Dhand, Navneet K; Voss, Katja; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2014-03-01

    The maintenance of friction between locking plates and bone is not essential, so that they can be applied with a gap between the plate and underlying bone. We hypothesised that the presence of a gap under a locking plate with a conical coupling mechanism would reduce fixation stability or allow uncoupling of the locking screws from the plate. Locking plates with two conically coupled locking screws were applied to 6 pairs of adult canine femora. One of each pair had plate to bone contact and the contralateral construct had a 2 mm plate to bone gap. Constructs were cyclically loaded in cantilever bending with 10 percent incremental increases every 1000 cycles at 2 Hz, starting at 250 N. The constructs were fatigued to failure. To evaluate fatigue life of the conical coupling, testing was repeated with aluminium tubing replacing the bone, to eliminate screw-bone cutout failure. The mean sustained loads and cycles to failure in the contact group (420.80, standard error [SE] 14.97 N; 7612.00, SE 574.70 cycles) were significantly greater than in the gap group (337.50, SE 14.97 N; 4252.00, SE 574.70 cycles), (pplate fatigue and breaking, with one construct having elevation of the plate over the screw head. Elevation of locking plates with a conical coupling system by 2 mm from the bone reduced construct fatigue life but did not result in screw head uncoupling from the plate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical restraint: experiences, attitudes and opinions of adult intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Samantha; Hallett, Christine; McHugh, Gretl

    2016-03-01

    Patients within the adult intensive care unit have the potential to develop delirium and agitation. This can result in the patient displaying unwanted behaviours such as attempting to remove the medical devices to which they are attached. Some adult intensive care units within the UK are starting to adopt physical restraint as a method of managing unwanted behaviours. To determine the experiences, attitudes and opinions of adult intensive care nurses in relation to the application of physical restraint. Questionnaire survey. A postal questionnaire was distributed to all nurses (n = 192) within two purposefully selected large adult intensive care units in the UK. Data were collected between November 2012 and February 2013. The questionnaire was completed by 38·9% (n = 75) of the nurses contacted. All believed that physical restraint had a place, with the majority of the view that the reason for its application was to maintain patient safety. Some expressed discomfort about the use of physical restraint. Nurses were happy to discuss the use of restraint with families. There was a perceived need for training and support for nursing staff as well as the need for medical staff to support the decision-making process. Nurses require more support and evidence to base their decision-making upon. They require guidance from professional bodies as well as support from medical colleagues. The findings have limited generalizability as they can only be applied to the units accessed and the response rate was poor. Alternative approaches such as pain management, sleep promotion and the involvement of relatives need to be explored before physical restraint policy can be written. Further research is required into the safety of physical restraint, alternative methods of managing the risk of agitation and identifying predisposing factors to accidental device removal. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  5. Physical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voyer Philippe

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the issues surrounding physical restraint use, it is important to have a method of measurement as valid and reliable as possible. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of physical restraint use a reported by nursing staff and b reviewed from medical and nursing records in nursing home settings, by comparing these methods with direct observation. Methods We sampled eight care units in skilled nursing homes, seven care units in nursing homes and one long-term care unit in a hospital, from eight facilities which included 28 nurses and 377 residents. Physical restraint use was assessed the day following three periods of direct observation by two different means: interview with one or several members of the regular nursing staff, and review of medical and nursing records. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated according to 2-by-2 contingency tables. Differences between the methods were assessed using the phi coefficient. Other information collected included: demographic characteristics, disruptive behaviors, body alignment problems, cognitive and functional skills. Results Compared to direct observation (gold standard, reported restraint use by nursing staff yielded a sensitivity of 87.4% at a specificity of 93.7% (phi = 0.84. When data was reviewed from subjects' medical and nursing records, sensitivity was reduced to 74.8%, and specificity to 86.3% (phi = 0.54. Justifications for restraint use including risk for falls, agitation, body alignment problems and aggressiveness were associated with the use of physical restraints. Conclusions The interview of nursing staff and the review of medical and nursing records are both valid and reliable techniques for measuring physical restraint use among nursing home residents. Higher sensitivity and specificity values were achieved when nursing staff was interviewed as compared to reviewing medical records. This study suggests that the interview of nursing

  6. Physical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Danielle; Voyer, Philippe; Verreault, René; Durand, Pierre J

    2004-01-01

    Background In view of the issues surrounding physical restraint use, it is important to have a method of measurement as valid and reliable as possible. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of physical restraint use a) reported by nursing staff and b) reviewed from medical and nursing records in nursing home settings, by comparing these methods with direct observation. Methods We sampled eight care units in skilled nursing homes, seven care units in nursing homes and one long-term care unit in a hospital, from eight facilities which included 28 nurses and 377 residents. Physical restraint use was assessed the day following three periods of direct observation by two different means: interview with one or several members of the regular nursing staff, and review of medical and nursing records. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated according to 2-by-2 contingency tables. Differences between the methods were assessed using the phi coefficient. Other information collected included: demographic characteristics, disruptive behaviors, body alignment problems, cognitive and functional skills. Results Compared to direct observation (gold standard), reported restraint use by nursing staff yielded a sensitivity of 87.4% at a specificity of 93.7% (phi = 0.84). When data was reviewed from subjects' medical and nursing records, sensitivity was reduced to 74.8%, and specificity to 86.3% (phi = 0.54). Justifications for restraint use including risk for falls, agitation, body alignment problems and aggressiveness were associated with the use of physical restraints. Conclusions The interview of nursing staff and the review of medical and nursing records are both valid and reliable techniques for measuring physical restraint use among nursing home residents. Higher sensitivity and specificity values were achieved when nursing staff was interviewed as compared to reviewing medical records. This study suggests that the interview of nursing staff is a more reliable

  7. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  8. Restraint stress alters immune parameters and induces oxidative stress in the mouse uterus during embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanhui; Dong, Yulan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

    2014-12-01

    The influence of stress on embryo implantation is not well understood. Prior studies have focused on later gestational stages and the long-term impact of stress on immune function. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of restraint stress on the immune parameters and the oxidative states of the uterus during implantation. In this study, pregnant CD1 mice were subjected to restraint stress (4 h/d) on embryonic day 1 (E1) and sacrificed on E3, E5, and E7. Maternal plasma corticosterone (CORT) secretion and implantation sites in the uterus were examined. The uterine (excluding embryos) homogenate and uterine lymphocytes were collected to examine oxidative stress states and associated immune parameters. The results demonstrated that restraint stress increased maternal plasma CORT secretion and reduced the number of implantation sites by 15.3% on E5 and by 26.1% on E7. Moreover, restraint stress decreased the density of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in the endometrium by 22.1-47.9% and increased the density of mast cells in the myometrium by 55.6-76.9%. Restraint stress remarkably decreased the CD3(+)CD4(+) T/CD3(+)CD8(+) T cell ratio (by 26.2-28.9%) and attenuated uterine lymphocyte proliferation and secretion of cytokines. In addition, restraint stress threatened the intracellular equilibrium between oxidants and antioxidants, resulting in decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) (32.2% and 45.7%), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (15.5% and 26.1%), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (18.4% and 18.2%) activities and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) (34.4% and 43.0%) contents on E5 and E7. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that restraint stress causes abnormal implantation and negatively impacts immune parameters in association with oxidative stress in mice.

  9. The use of chemical restraints reduces agitation in patients transported by emergency medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Steve; Peterson, Kari; Cheney, Paul; Froman, Phil; Ernst, Amy; Campbell, Micha

    2012-11-01

    Agitated patients are the primary source of injury to patients and providers during ambulance transport. Our primary hypothesis was that the addition of a chemical restraint agent (midazolam) to a restraint protocol would reduce agitation to a greater extent than a restraint protocol with physical restraint alone. The local emergency medical services restraint protocol (RP) was implemented on October 1, 2006. It included a form for data collection about each restrained patient. On April 1, 2007, chemical restraint (CR) using midazolam in addition to physical restraints was made available through the RP, and paramedics were educated in its use. Transported patients were divided into pre-CR and post-CR. The post-CR group was split into those who received and those who did not receive midazolam. Agitation was measured on a validated agitation behavior scale with a parametric (Rasch) adjustment. There were 96 patients in the pre-CR group and 522 patients in the post-CR group. Forty-three percent of the pre-CR group and 49% of the post-CR group had a decrease in agitation during transport (NS). Of the 522 in the post-CR group, 110 were physically restrained and given midazolam (21%) and 412 were physically restrained without midazolam (79%). There was a significantly greater decrease in agitation scores (-17 ± 21 vs. -7 ± 17) in the subjects receiving midazolam compared to those who did not. If available, CR is used in about 20% of restrained patients. When CR is used, there is a decrease in the subject's agitation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A NEW QUADRILATERAL THIN PLATE ELEMENT BASED ON THE MEMBRANE-PLATE SIMILARITY THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄若煜; 郑长良; 钟万勰; 姚伟岸

    2002-01-01

    A new effective path has been proposed to formulate thin plate element by using the similarity theory between plane elasticity and plate bending. Because of avoiding the difficulty of c1 continuity , the construction of thin plate elements becomes easier. The similarity theory and its applications were discussed more deeply, and a new four nodes, sixteen D. O. F. ( degree of fieedom) thin plate element was presented on the base of the similarity theory. Numerical results for typical problems show that this new element can pass the patch test and has a very good convergence and a high precision.

  11. Finite element analysis of elasto-plastic plate bending problems using transition rectangular plate elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahattin Kanber; O.Yavuz Bozkurt

    2006-01-01

    In this work,the finite element analysis of the elasto-plastic plate bending problems is carried out using transition rectangular plate elements.The shape functions of the transition plate elements are derived based on a practical rule.The transition plate elements are all quadrilateral and can be used to obtain efficient finite element models using minimum number of elements.The mesh convergence rates of the models including the transition elements are compared with the regular element models.To verify the developed elements,simple tests are demonstrated and various elasto-plastic problems are solved.Their results are compared with ANSYS results.

  12. Biomechanical Study of the Fixation Strength of Anteromedial Plating for Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Feng Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Anteromedial plating was superior to anterolateral or posterior plating in all mechanical tests except in AP four-point bending fatigue tests compared to the anterolateral plating group. We can suggest that anteromedial plating is a clinically safe and effective way for humeral shaft fractures.

  13. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain JB-1 reverses restraint stress-induced gut dysmotility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C; Wu, R Y; Wong, A; Stanisz, A M; Yan, R; Min, K K; Pasyk, M; McVey Neufeld, K-A; Karamat, M I; Foster, J A; Bienenstock, J; Forsythe, P; Kunze, W A

    2017-01-01

    Environmental stress affects the gut with dysmotility being a common consequence. Although a variety of microbes or molecules may prevent the dysmotility, none reverse the dysmotility. We have used a 1 hour restraint stress mouse model to test for treatment effects of the neuroactive microbe, L. rhamnosus JB-1(™) . Motility of fluid-filled ex vivo gut segments in a perfusion organ bath was recorded by video and migrating motor complexes measured using spatiotemporal maps of diameter changes. Stress reduced jejunal and increased colonic propagating contractile cluster velocities and frequencies, while increasing contraction amplitudes for both. Luminal application of 10E8 cfu/mL JB-1 restored motor complex variables to unstressed levels within minutes of application. L. salivarius or Na.acetate had no treatment effects, while Na.butyrate partially reversed stress effects on colonic frequency and amplitude. Na.propionate reversed the stress effects for jejunum and colon except on jejunal amplitude. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a potential for certain beneficial microbes as treatment of stress-induced intestinal dysmotility and that the mechanism for restoration of function occurs within the intestine via a rapid drug-like action on the enteric nervous system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of chair restraint on the strength of the tibia in rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, T. M.; Bakulin, A. V.; Rakhmanov, A. S.; Martin, R. B.; Steele, C. R.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effects of the relative inactivity and unloading on the strength of the tibias of monkeys, Macaca mulatta, we used a non-invasive test to measure bending stiffness, or EI (Nm2), a mechanical property. The technique was validated by comparisons of in vivo measurements with standard measures of EI in the same bones post-mortem (r2 = 0.95, P monkeys, 3.0+/-0.7 years and 3.6+/-0.6 kg, revealed EI to be 16% higher in the right than left tibia (4.4+/-1.6 vs. 3.7+/-1.6 Nm2, P monkeys, restrained in chairs for 14 days, showed decreases in EI. There were no changes in EI in two chaired monkeys that lost weight during a 2-week space flight. The factors that account for both the decreases in bone mechanical properties after chair restraint at 1 g and lack of change after microgravity remain to be identified. Metabolic factors associated with body weight changes are suggested by our results.

  15. Antioxidant Effects of Some Drugs on Immobilization Stress Combined with Cold Restraint Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trivic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the effect on antioxidant potential of some commonly used drugs (morphine, tramadol, bromocriptine, haloperidol and azithromycin on immobilization stress (IS combined with cold restraint stress (CRS in the rat. After the drug treatment the animals were kept immobilized in the cold chamber at 4±0.3ºC for 3 hours and then decapitaed and the livers were extracted. The following parameters were determined in the liver homogenate: content of reduced glutathione, activities of catalase, xanthine oxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation intensity. A battery of biochemical assays was used and the resulting data were statistically analyzed. Combined stress exhibited a prooxidative action (increased catalase activity, lowered content of reduced glutathione. Significantly enhanced catalase activity that was observed in all groups compared to the control indicates that the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolite is hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes very rapidly (very high catalase activity, thus hindering formation of OH radicals as the most toxic ROS. None of the tested drugs showed a protective effect on combined IS and CRS. The intensity of lipid peroxidation did not change either in the combined stress or under additional influence of the drugs. Probably, under our experimental conditions, the time was not sufficiently long to observe damage of lipid membrane by ROS.

  16. Attitudes of nurses towards the use of physical restraints in geriatric care: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhler, Ralph; Meyer, Gabriele

    2014-02-01

    To examine nurses' attitudes towards the use of physical restraints in geriatric care. Systematic review and synthesis of qualitative and quantitative studies. The following databases were searched: Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Psyndex, PsychInfo, Social SciSearch, SciSearch, Forum Qualitative Social Research (1/1990 to 8/2013). We performed backward and forward citation tracking to all of the included studies. We included in the present review all qualitative and quantitative studies in English and German that investigated nurses' attitudes towards the use of physical restraints in geriatric care. Two independent reviewers selected the studies for inclusion and assessed the study quality. We performed a thematic synthesis for the qualitative studies and a content analysis of the questionnaires' items as well as a narrative synthesis for the quantitative surveys. We included 31 publications in the review: 20 quantitative surveys, 10 qualitative and 1 mixed-method study. In the qualitative studies, nurses' attitudes towards the use of physical restraints in geriatric care were predominately characterised by negative feelings towards the use of restraints; however, the nurses also described a perceived need for using restraints in clinical practice. This discrepancy led to moral conflicts, and nurses described several strategies for coping with these conflicts when restraints were used. When nurses were in doubt regarding the use of restraints, they decided predominantly in favour of using restraints. The results of the quantitative surveys were inconsistent regarding nurses' feelings towards the use of restraints in geriatric care. Prevention of falls was identified as a primary reason for using restraints. However, the items of the questionnaires focussed primarily on the reasons for the use of restraints rather than on the attitudes of nurses. Despite the lack of evidence regarding the benefits of restraints and the evidence on the adverse effects, nurses often

  17. Vertical Drop Testing and Analysis of the WASP Helicopter Skid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Yvonne T.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2008-01-01

    Human occupant modeling and injury risk assessment have been identified as areas of research for improved prediction of rotorcraft crashworthiness within the NASA Aeronautics Program s Subsonic Rotary Wing Project. As part of this effort, an experimental program was conducted to assess the impact performance of a skid gear for use on the WASP kit-built helicopter, which is marketed by HeloWerks, Inc. of Hampton, Virginia. Test data from a drop test at an impact velocity of 8.4 feet-per-second were used to assess a finite element model of the skid gear test article. This assessment included human occupant analytic models developed for execution in LS-DYNA. The test article consisted of an aluminum skid gear mounted beneath a steel plate. A seating platform was attached to the upper surface of the steel plate, and two 95th percentile Hybrid III male Aerospace Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) were seated on the platform and secured using a four-point restraint system. The goal of the test-analysis correlation is to further the understanding of LS-DYNA ATD occupant models and responses in the vertical (or spinal) direction. By correlating human occupant experimental test data for a purely vertical impact with the LS-DYNA occupant responses, improved confidence in the use of these tools and better understanding of the limitations of the automotive-based occupant models for aerospace application can begin to be developed.

  18. Restraint Stress Intensifies Interstitial K+ Accumulation during Severe Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Christian; Janc, Oliwia A.; Kempkes, Belinda; Callis, Carolina Araya; Flügge, Gabriele; Hülsmann, Swen; Müller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for 3 weeks (6 h/day). In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed rats, basal synaptic function and short-term plasticity at Schaffer collateral/CA1 neuron synapses were unchanged while long-term potentiation was markedly impaired. The spatiotemporal propagation pattern of hypoxia-induced spreading depression episodes was indistinguishable among control and stress slices. However, the duration of the extracellular direct current potential shift was shortened after stress. Moreover, K+ fluxes early during hypoxia were more intense, and the postsynaptic recoveries of interstitial K+ levels and synaptic function were slower. Morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections suggested hippocampal shrinkage in stressed rats, and the number of cells that are immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in the CA1 subfield indicating activation of astrocytes. Western blots showed a marked downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in stressed rats. Yet, resting membrane potentials, input resistance, and K+-induced inward currents in CA1 astrocytes were indistinguishable from controls. These data indicate an intensified interstitial K+ accumulation during hypoxia in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats which seems to arise from a reduced interstitial volume fraction rather than impaired glial K+ buffering. One may speculate that chronic stress aggravates hypoxia-induced pathophysiological processes in the hippocampal network and that this has implications for the ischemic brain. PMID:22470344

  19. Women, sex and marriage. Restraint as a feminine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishwar, M

    1997-01-01

    The expression of sexuality varies in different cultures, and most societies attempt to control sexuality through the institution of marriage. In the West, the availability of cheap, effective contraceptives separated sex from reproduction and promoted the sexual liberation of women. Today, while divorce is common, sexually liberated people nevertheless engage in a form of serial monogamy. Sexual liberation in the West causes women to be exploited by men and creates instability in nuclear families. In India, feminism is tempered by a belief that familial rights have precedence over individual rights. India women practice sexual self-denial after being widowed to protect their children and to gain power and respect in the community. The power of chastity was illustrated by Mahatma Gandhi who marshalled his spiritual forces to fight for independence. The stories of many individual women illustrate how they attain status and prestige through chastity. Other women maintain absolute marital faithfulness as a marital strategy to control wayward husbands. These women deemphasize their roles as wives and emphasize their roles as mothers. The children of such women often recognize their sacrifices and become their strongest allies. On the other hand, examples of women who have chosen sexual freedom show that such a choice places them at the mercy of men, makes them social outcasts, and causes other women to distrust them as competitors for their husbands. In patriarchal societies, women can not win if they try to mimic men's capacity for irresponsible sex. Sexual freedom can only work for women in matrilineal communities that shun marriage in favor of strong ties within a woman's natal family. Indian women rooted in the extended family enjoy the resilience and flexibility attendant upon playing a larger role than simply pleasing men. Opting for sexual restraint can be an effective though costly strategy to achieve the sympathy and support of an extended family when a man is

  20. Body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint influence binge eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Ana; Saldaña, Carmina

    2014-11-01

    As binge eating is a common behavior throughout the general population, we hypothesized that body dissatisfaction would produce binge eating via its prediction of dieting. Six hundred eight individuals were nonrandomly recruited from the community. The mean age and body mass index of participants were 34.76 years (SD, 14.41) and 27.82 kg/m(2) (SD, 9.54), respectively. Participants were asked to complete several self-report questionnaires, which included measures of dieting status, binge eating behavior, body dissatisfaction, overvaluation of weight and shape, and self-esteem. The results showed that dieting was a common behavior; 38.1% of participants reported dieting during the past year. Binge eating during the previous 6 months was reported by 9.9% of the sample and was associated with a higher body mass index as well as more frequent dieting. A model including dieting status, overvaluation of weight and shape, shape satisfaction, and self-esteem showed the best fit for the prediction of binge eating behavior. Moreover, those who dieted and overvalued their weight and shape were 2.01 and 2.31 times more likely, respectively, to binge eat. Structural equation modeling revealed that body dissatisfaction caused dietary restraint, thus triggering binge eating. Both dieting and overvaluation of weight and shape are important risk factors for the development of binge eating disorders. Dieting and binge eating are common behaviors that represent a risk for the development of both excess weight and eating disorders. The structural model proposed in this study could be beneficial in understanding this causal relationship.