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Sample records for restored carolina bay

  1. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology; Wike, L.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Dietsch, B.M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  2. Restoration of Lost Lake, recovery of an impacted Carolina Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.; Gladden, J.B.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Rogers, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Lost Lake is one of approximately 200 Carolina bays found on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Until 1984 Lost Lake was contaminated by heavy metals and solvents overflowing from a nearby settling basin. Up to 12 inches of surface soil and all vegetation was removed from the bay as part of a RCRA removal action. A plan for restoration was initiated in 1989 and implemented in 1990 and 1991. Extensive planning led to defined objectives, strategies, treatments, and monitoring programs allowing successful restoration of Lost Lake. The primary goal of the project was to restore the wetland ecosystem after a hazardous waste clean up operation. An additional goal was to study the progress of the project and the success of the restoration activity. Several strategy considerations were necessary in the restoration plan. The removal of existing organic soils had to have compensation, a treatment scheme for planting and the extent of manipulation of the substrate had to be considered, monitoring decisions had to be made, and the decision whether or not to actively control the hydrology of the restored system

  3. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  4. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  5. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  6. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Final Report 2000-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher

    2007-12-15

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report.

  7. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Status Report II 2000-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher

    2006-07-13

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report. Post restoration monitoring will continue through 2005. A final report to the Mitigation Bank Review Team will be submitted in mid-2006.

  8. Bat Response To Carolina Bays and Wetland Restoration in the Southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer M. Menzel; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards

    2005-01-01

    Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist...

  9. Modeling the climatic and subsurface stratigraphy controls on the hydrology of a Carolina Bay wetland in South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy J. Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    Restoring depressional wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays on the Atlantic Coastal Plains requires a clear understanding of the hydrologic processes and water balances. The objectives of this paper are to (1) test a distributed forest hydrology model, FLATWOODS, for a Carolina bay wetland system using seven years of...

  10. Modeling the climatic and subsurface stratigraphy controls on the hydrology of a Carolina bay wetland in South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy J. Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    Restoring depressional wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays on the Atlantic Coastal Plains requires a clear understanding of the hydrologic processes and water balances. The objectives of this paper are to (1) test a distributed forest hydrology model, FLATWOODS, for a Carolina bay wetland system using seven years of...

  11. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalles, J.F. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA)); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Physiological ecology of SRS Carolina bay phytoplankton communities: Effects of nutrient changes and CO2 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.B.

    1992-11-01

    Impacts of land-use activities on wetland ecosystems are important issues for environmental planners, conservation groups, and government agencies. The progress report of this project at DOE's Savannah River Site focused on two specific objectives: determination of the effects of nutrient enrichment (fertilizing during wetlands restoration) on phytoplankton communities and comparison of phytoplankton community dynamics during the current extended hydroperiod for Carolina Bays with patterns in previous drier years

  13. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic re

  14. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  15. Thatcher Bay, Washington, Nearshore Restoration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breems, Joel; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Grossman, Eric E.; Elliott, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The San Juan Archipelago, located at the confluence of the Puget Sound, the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington State, and the Straits of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, provides essential nearshore habitat for diverse salmonid, forage fish, and bird populations. With 408 miles of coastline, the San Juan Islands provide a significant portion of the available nearshore habitat for the greater Puget Sound and are an essential part of the regional efforts to restore Puget Sound (Puget Sound Shared Strategy 2005). The nearshore areas of the San Juan Islands provide a critical link between the terrestrial and marine environments. For this reason the focus on restoration and conservation of nearshore habitat in the San Juan Islands is of paramount importance. Wood-waste was a common by-product of historical lumber-milling operations. To date, relatively little attention has been given to the impact of historical lumber-milling operations in the San Juan Archipelago. Thatcher Bay, on Blakely Island, located near the east edge of the archipelago, is presented here as a case study on the restoration potential for a wood-waste contaminated nearshore area. Case study components include (1) a brief discussion of the history of milling operations. (2) an estimate of the location and amount of the current distribution of wood-waste at the site, (3) a preliminary examination of the impacts of wood-waste on benthic flora and fauna at the site, and (4) the presentation of several restoration alternatives for the site. The history of milling activity in Thatcher Bay began in 1879 with the construction of a mill in the southeastern part of the bay. Milling activity continued for more than 60 years, until the mill closed in 1942. Currently, the primary evidence of the historical milling operations is the presence of approximately 5,000 yd3 of wood-waste contaminated sediments. The distribution and thickness of residual wood-waste at the site was determined by using sediment

  16. A conceptual hydrologic model for a forested Carolina bay depressional wetland on the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Timothy J. Callahan; Ge Sun; Carl C. Trettin; Masato Miwa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how climate influences the hydrology of an ephemeral depressional wetland. Surface water and groundwater elevation data were collected for 7 years in a Coastal Plain watershed in South Carolina USA containing depressional wetlands, known as Carolina bays. Rainfall and temperature data were compared with water-table well and piezometer data in and...

  17. Arbovirus circulation, temporal distribution, and abundance of mosquito species in two Carolina bay habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, D I; Wozniak, A; Tolson, M W; Turner, P E

    2005-01-01

    Carolina bays, a type of geomorphic feature, may be important in the ecology of mosquito vectors in South Carolina. Their hydrology varies from wetland habitats with marked flooding/drying regimes to permanently flooded spring-fed lakes. Moreover, they possess characteristics that contribute to the support of a particularly abundant and diverse invertebrate fauna. Although it has been estimated that 2,700+ bays exist in South Carolina, approximately 97% have been altered; Heritage Preserve (SBHP) and Woods Bay State Park (WBSP), from June 1997 to July 1998 to determine mosquito temporal distribution, species composition, and the occurrence of arbovirus activity. The largest mosquito collection was obtained at WBSP (n = 31,172) representing 25 species followed by SBHP (n = 3,940) with 24 species. Anopheles crucians complex were the most common species encountered in both bays. Two virus isolates were obtained from SBHP in 1997: Keystone (KEY) virus from Ochlerotatus atlanticus-tormentor and Cache Valley (CV) virus from Oc. canadensis canadensis. Twenty-nine (29) arbovirus-positive pools were obtained from WBSP: 28 in 1997 and one in 1998. KEY virus was isolated from three pools of Oc. atlanticus-tormentor and Tensaw (TEN) virus was isolated from two pools of An. crucians complex; 10 isolates could not be identified with the sera available. Additionally, 14 pools of An. crucians complex tested positive for Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus antigen. These represent the first record of KEY and CV viruses in South Carolina. Our data indicate the presence of high mosquito density and diversity in both Carolina bay habitats, which may be influenced, in part, by seasonal changes in their hydroperiods. The study of mosquito and arbovirus ecology in Carolina Bay habitats could provide more information on the transmission dynamics of arboviruses and its impact on human and animal arboviral disease occurrence in South Carolina.

  18. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  19. Potential risk to wood storks (Mycteria americana) from mercury in Carolina Bay fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brant, H.A.; Jagoe, C.H.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Bryan, A.L.; Gariboldi, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Fish mercury levels from some Carolina bays pose risk to wood stork. - Carolina bays are freshwater wetlands that serve as important feeding habitats for the endangered wood stork (Mycteria americana). Water levels in these bays fluctuate greatly and tend to be acidic and rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), factors that favor mercury (Hg) methylation and bioaccumulation in fish. To assess potential risks to wood storks consuming mercury contaminated fish in bays, we sampled fish from 10 bays on the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, an area with documented use by wood storks. Whole body mercury concentrations in 258 fishes of three species (Erimyzon sucetta, Acantharchus pomotis and Esox americanus) commonly consumed by wood storks were determined. Risk factors for nestlings and free-ranging adults were calculated using published no and lowest observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC and LOAEC) values for birds. Fish from higher trophic levels and those from wetlands with relatively shallow maximum depths and fluctuating water levels were more likely to exceed NOAEC and LOAEC values. Calculation of exposure rates of nestling wood storks indicated they are at highest risk during the first 10 days of the nestling period. These calculations suggest that there is potential concern for wood storks foraging in relatively shallow bays with fluctuating water levels, even though there is no obvious local source of mercury to these wetlands

  20. Relationships between precipitation and surface water chemistry in three Carolina bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monegue, R.L.; Jagoe, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Carolina Bays are shallow freshwater wetlands, the only naturally occurring lentic systems on the southeastern coastal plain. Bays are breeding sites for many amphibian species, but data on precipitation/surface water relationships and long-term chemical trends are lacking. Such data are essential to interpret major fluctuations in amphibian populations. Surface water and bulk precipitation were sampled bi-weekly for over two years at three bays along a 25 km transect on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Precipitation chemistry was similar at all sites; average pH was 4.56, and the major ions were H + (30.8 % of total), and SO 4 (50.3% of total). H + was positively correlated with SO 4 , suggesting the importance of anthropogenic acids to precipitation chemistry. All three bays, Rainbow Bay (RB), Thunder Bay (TB), and Ellenton Bay (EB), contained soft (specific conductivity 5--90 microS/cm), acidic water (pH 4.0--5.9) with DOM from 4--40 mg/L. The major cation for RB, TB, and EB, respectively, was: Mg (30.8 % of total); Na (27% of total); and Ca (34.2% of total). DOM was the major anion for all bays, and SO 4 represented 13 to 28 % of total anions. H + was not correlated to DOM or SO, in RB; H + was positively correlated to DOM and SO 4 in TB, and negatively correlated to DOM and SO 4 in EB. Different biogeochemical processes probably control pH and other chemical variables in each bay. While surface water H + was not directly correlated with precipitation H + , NO 3 , or SO 4 , precipitation and shallow groundwater are dominant water sources for these bays. Atmospheric inputs of anthropogenic acids and other chemicals are important factors influencing bay chemistry

  1. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Water Quality Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of the Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve...

  2. Microbial diversity in restored wetlands of San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2013-12-09

    Wetland ecosystems may serve as either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases. This delicate carbon balance is influenced by the activity of belowground microbial communities that return carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Wetland restoration efforts in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region may help to reverse land subsidence and possibly increase carbon storage in soils. However, the effects of wetland restoration on microbial communities, which mediate soil metabolic activity and carbon cycling, are poorly studied. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors which shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities in a suite of restored and historic wetlands in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of the wetland soil microbial communities along biogeochemical and wetland age gradients. Our results show relationships among geochemical gradients, availability of electron acceptors, and microbial community composition. Our study provides the first genomic glimpse into microbial populations in natural and restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay-Delta region and provides a valuable benchmark for future studies.

  3. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.A.; Gardiner, W.W.; Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The navigational channels of Winyah Bay, Georgetown Harbor, South Carolina require dredging to enable normal shipping traffic to use these areas. Before dredging, environmental assessments must be conducted to determine the suitability of this dredged sediment for unconfined, open-water disposal. The Charleston, South Carolina District Office of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requested that the Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) collect sediment samples and conduct the required physical/chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations as required in the 1991 Implementation Manual. This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the Entrance Channel and Inner Harbor sediments proposed disposal in the ocean

  4. 76 FR 70480 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National Wildlife...), intend to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary Restoration... any one of the following methods. Email: [email protected] . Please include ``Otay Estuary NOI'' in the...

  5. The Pen Branch Project: Restoration of a Forested Wetland in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Eric A. Nelson; Ronald E. Bonar; Neil C. Dulohery; David Gartner

    1998-01-01

    The Pen Branch Project is a program to restore a forested riparian wetland that has been subject to thermal disturbance caused by nuclear reactor operations at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), an 80,200-hectare nuclear facility located in South Carolina. Various levels of thermal discharges to streams located across the US. have occurred...

  6. Flock sizes and sex ratios of canvasbacks in Chesapeake Bay and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Derleth, E.L.; Link, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution, size, and sex ratios of flocks of wintering canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) is fundamental to understanding the species' winter ecology and providing guidelines for management. Consequently, in winter 1986-87, we conducted 4 monthly aerial photographic surveys to investigate temporal changes in distribution, size, and sex ratios of canvasback flocks in traditional wintering areas of Chesapeake Bay and coastal North Carolina. Surveys yielded 35mm imagery of 194,664 canvasbacks in 842 flocks. Models revealed monthly patterns of flock size in North Carolina and Virginia, but no pattern of change in Maryland. A stepwise analysis of flock size and sex ratio fit a common positive slope (increasing proportion male) for all state-month datasets, except for North Carolina in February where the slope was larger (P lt 0.001). State and month effects on intercepts were significant (P lt 0.001) and confirmed a previously identified latitudinal gradient in sex ratio in the survey region. There was no relationship between flock purity (% canvasbacks vs. other species) and flock size except in North Carolina in January, February, and March when flock purity was related to flock size. Contrasting characteristics in North Carolina with regard to flock size (larger flocks) and flock purity suggested that proximate factors were reinforcing flocking behavior and possibly species fidelity there. Of possible factors, the need to locate foraging sites within this large, open-water environment was hypothesized to be of primary importance. Comparison of January 1981 and 1987 sex ratios indicated no change in Maryland, but lower (P lt 0.05) canvasback sex ratios (proportion male) in Virginia and North Carolina.

  7. Predator removal enhances waterbird restoration in Chesapeake Bay (Maryland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R. Michael; McGowan, Peter C.; Reese, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This report represents an update to an earlier report(Erwin et al. 2007a) on wildlife restoration on the largest dredge material island project in the United States underway in Talbot County, Maryland (Figure 1) in the mid–Chesapeake Bay region, referred to as the Paul Sarbanes Ecosystem Restoration Project at Poplar Island (www.nab.usace.army.mil/projects/Maryland/PoplarIsland/documents.html). An important component of this largescale restoration effort focused on water birds, as many of these species have undergone significant declines in the Chesapeake region over the past 30 years (Erwin et al. 2007b). The priority waterbird species include common terns (Sterna hirundo), least terns (S. antillarum), snowy egrets (Egretta thula), and ospreys (Pandion haliaetus). Although significant numbers of common terns (more than 800 pairs in 2003), least terns (62 pairs in 2003), snowy egrets (50 or more pairs by 2005), and ospreys (7 to 10 pairs) have nested on Poplar Island since early 2000, tern productivity especially had been strongly limited by a combination of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) predation. Fox trapping began in 2004, and four were removed that year; no more evidence of fox presence was found in 2005 or subsequently. The owls proved to be more problematic.

  8. Large-Scale Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Chesapeake Bay: Status Report, 2003-2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Deborah J; Bergstrom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    ...) in the Chesapeake Bay region. The effort employed an agricultural approach to restore under-water grasses by using seeds to produce new plants and mechanical equipment to plant seeds and harvest...

  9. Restoration Potential of Ruppia Maritima and Potamogeton Perfoliatus by Seed in the Mid-Chesapeake Bay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ailstock, Steve

    2004-01-01

    ... in the mesohaline reaches of the mid-Chesapeake Bay. Once reproductive potential by seed is defined for healthy populations of these species, their life cycles can be evaluated to identify nondestructive methods of harvesting seeds for restoration projects...

  10. Large-Scale Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Chesapeake Bay: Status Report, 2003-2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Deborah J; Bergstrom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Chesapeake Bay Office began a comprehensive research effort to restore submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV...

  11. Using Seeds to Propagate and Restore Vallisneria americana Michaux (Wild Celery) in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    the capacity of the plants to elongate so that the leaves can reach closer to the water surface to gather adequate light for photosynthesis . When...transplant eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Chesapeake Bay and the Virginia Coastal Bays, In Proc. Conf. Seagrass Restoration: Success, Failure, and

  12. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1997 • 1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve System...

  13. Evidence for natural molecular hydrogen seepage associated with Carolina bays (surficial, ovoid depressions on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Province of the USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonnik, Viacheslav; Beaumont, Valérie; Deville, Eric; Larin, Nikolay; Pillot, Daniel; Farrell, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-01

    A study of soil gases was made in North Carolina (USA) in and around morphological depressions called "Carolina bays." This type of depression is observed over the Atlantic coastal plains of the USA, but their origin remains debated. Significant concentrations of molecular hydrogen (H2) were detected, notably around the bays. These measurements suggest that Carolina bays are the surficial expression of fluid flow pathways for hydrogen gas moving from depth to the surface. The potential mechanisms of H2 production and transport and the geological controls on the fluid migration pathways are discussed, with reference to the hypothesis that Carolina bays are the result of local collapses caused by the alteration of rock along the deep pathways of H2 migrating towards the surface. The present H2 seepages are comparable to those in similar structures previously observed in the East European craton.

  14. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  15. Hydrography and bottom boundary layer dynamics: Influence on inner shelf sediment mobility, Long Bay, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.A.; Leonard, L.A.; Snedden, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the hydrography and bottom boundary-layer dynamics of two typical storm events affecting coastal North Carolina (NC); a hurricane and the passages of two small consecutive extratropical storms during November 2005. Two upward-looking 1200-kHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) were deployed on the inner shelf in northern Long Bay, NC at water depths of less than 15 m. Both instruments profiled the overlying water column in 0.35 in bins beginning at a height of 1.35 in above the bottom (mab). Simultaneous measurements of wind speed and direction, wave and current parameters, and acoustic backscatter were coupled with output from a bottom boundary layer (bbl) model to describe the hydrography and boundary layer conditions during each event. The bbl model also was used to quantify sediment transport in the boundary layer during each storm. Both study sites exhibited similar temporal variations in wave and current magnitude, however, wave heights during the November event were higher than waves associated with the hurricane. Near-bottom mean and subtidal currents, however, were of greater magnitude during the hurricane. Peak depth-integrated suspended sediment transport during the November event exceeded transport associated with the hurricane by 25-70%. Substantial spatial variations in sediment transport existed throughout both events. During both events, along-shelf sediment transport exceeded across-shelf transport and was related to the magnitude and direction of subtidal currents. Given the variations in sediment type across the bay, complex shoreline configuration, and local bathymetry, the sediment transport rates reported here are very site specific. However, the general hydrography associated with the two storms is representative of conditions across northern Long Bay. Since the beaches in the study area undergo frequent renourishment to counter the effects of beach erosion, the results of this study also are relevant to coastal

  16. Trends and habitat associations of waterbirds using the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; Strong, Cheryl; Krause, John; Wang, Yiwei; Takekawa, John Y.

    2018-04-02

    Executive SummaryThe aim of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (hereinafter “Project”) is to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh in San Francisco Bay (SFB). However, hundreds of thousands of waterbirds use these ponds over winter and during fall and spring migration. To ensure that existing waterbird populations are supported while tidal marsh is restored in the Project area, managers plan to enhance the habitat suitability of ponds by adding islands and berms to change pond topography, manipulating water salinity and depth, and selecting appropriate ponds to maintain for birds. To help inform these actions, we used 13 years of monthly (October–April) bird abundance data from Project ponds to (1) assess trends in waterbird abundance since the inception of the Project, and (2) evaluate which pond habitat characteristics were associated with highest abundances of different avian guilds and species. For comparison, we also evaluated waterbird abundance trends in active salt production ponds using 10 years of monthly survey data.We assessed bird guild and species abundance trends through time, and created separate trend curves for Project and salt production ponds using data from every pond that was counted in a year. We divided abundance data into three seasons—fall (October–November), winter (December–February), and spring (March–April). We used the resulting curves to assess which periods had the highest bird abundance and to identify increasing or decreasing trends for each guild and species.

  17. Storm-induced inner-continental shelf circulation and sediment transport: Long Bay, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, John C.; Armstrong, Brandy N.; Sylvester, Charlene S.; Voulgaris, George; Nelson, Tim; Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.

    2012-01-01

    Long Bay is a sediment-starved, arcuate embayment located along the US East Coast connecting both South and North Carolina. In this region the rates and pathways of sediment transport are important because they determine the availability of sediments for beach nourishment, seafloor habitat, and navigation. The impact of storms on sediment transport magnitude and direction were investigated during the period October 2003–April 2004 using bottom mounted flow meters, acoustic backscatter sensors and rotary sonars deployed at eight sites offshore of Myrtle Beach, SC, to measure currents, water levels, surface waves, salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentrations, and bedform morphology. Measurements identify that sediment mobility is caused by waves and wind driven currents from three predominant types of storm patterns that pass through this region: (1) cold fronts, (2) warm fronts and (3) low-pressure storms. The passage of a cold front is accompanied by a rapid change in wind direction from primarily northeastward to southwestward. The passage of a warm front is accompanied by an opposite change in wind direction from mainly southwestward to northeastward. Low-pressure systems passing offshore are accompanied by a change in wind direction from southwestward to southeastward as the offshore storm moves from south to north.During the passage of cold fronts more sediment is transported when winds are northeastward and directed onshore than when the winds are directed offshore, creating a net sediment flux to the north–east. Likewise, even though the warm front has an opposite wind pattern, net sediment flux is typically to the north–east due to the larger fetch when the winds are northeastward and directed onshore. During the passage of low-pressure systems strong winds, waves, and currents to the south are sustained creating a net sediment flux southwestward. During the 3-month deployment a total of 8 cold fronts, 10 warm fronts, and 10 low

  18. Geologic framework studies of South Carolina's Long Bay from Little River Inlet to Winyah Bay, 1999-2003: geospatial data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, W.E.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    offshore of the northern South Carolina coast. The digital data presented herein accompany USGS Open-File Reports OFR 2004-1013 and OFR 2005-1345, describing the stratigraphic framework and modern sediment distribution within Long Bay, respectively. Direct on-line links to these publications are available within 'References' on the navigation bar to the left. Additional links to other publications and web sites are also available.

  19. Phase 1 studies summary of major findings of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valoppi, Laura

    2018-04-02

    Executive SummaryThe South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (Project) is one of the largest restoration efforts in the United States. It is located in South San Francisco Bay of California. It is unique not only for its size—more than 15,000 acres—but also for its location adjacent to one of the nation’s largest urban areas, home to more than 4 million people (Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties). The Project is intended to restore and enhance wetlands in South San Francisco Bay while providing for flood management, wildlife-oriented public access, and recreation. Restoration goals of the project are to provide a mosaic of saltmarsh habitat to benefit marsh species and managed ponds to benefit waterbirds, throughout 3 complexes and 54 former salt ponds.Although much is known about the project area, significant uncertainties remain with a project of this geographic and temporal scale of an estimated 50 years to complete the restoration. For example, in order to convert anywhere from 50 to 90 percent of the existing managed ponds to saltmarsh habitat, conservation managers first enhance the habitat of managed ponds in order to increase use by waterbirds, and provide migratory, wintering, and nesting habitat for more than 90 species of waterbirds. Project managers have concluded that the best way to address these uncertainties is to carefully implement the project in phases and learn from the outcome of each phase. The Adaptive Management Plan (AMP) identifies specific restoration targets for multiple aspects of the Project and defines triggers that would necessitate some type of management action if a particular aspect is trending negatively. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) biologist Laura Valoppi served as the project Lead Scientist and oversaw implementation of the AMP in coordination with other members of the Project Management Team (PMT), comprised of representatives from the California State Coastal Conservancy, California Department of Fish and

  20. Development of a Hydrodynamic and Transport model of Bellingham Bay in Support of Nearshore Habitat Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang

    2010-04-22

    root mean square error values for surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity time series are 0.11 m, 0.10 m/s, 1.28oC, and 1.91 ppt, respectively. The model was able to reproduce the salinity and temperature stratifications inside Bellingham Bay. Wetting and drying processes in tidal flats in Bellingham Bay, Samish Bay, and Padilla Bay were also successfully simulated. Both model results and observed data indicated that water surface elevations inside Bellingham Bay are highly correlated to tides. Circulation inside the bay is weak and complex and is affected by various forcing mechanisms, including tides, winds, freshwater inflows, and other local forcing factors. The Bellingham Bay model solution was successfully linked to the NOAA oil spill trajectory simulation model “General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME).” Overall, the Bellingham Bay model has been calibrated reasonably well and can be used to provide detailed hydrodynamic information in the bay and adjacent water bodies. While there is room for further improvement with more available data, the calibrated hydrodynamic model provides useful hydrodynamic information in Bellingham Bay and can be used to support sediment transport and water quality modeling as well as assist in the design of nearshore restoration scenarios.

  1. Waterbird egg mercury concentrations in response to wetland restoration in south San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Watts, Trevor C.; Barr, Jarred R.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of 50–90 percent of 15,100 acres of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh habitat in the south San Francisco Bay, California, is planned as part of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. This large-scale habitat restoration may change the bioavailability of methylmercury. The South Bay already is known to have high methylmercury concentrations, with methylmercury concentrations in several waterbirds species more than known toxicity thresholds where avian reproduction is impaired. In this 2013 study, we continued monitoring bird egg mercury concentrations in response to the restoration of the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex to a potential tidal marsh in the future. The restoration of the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex began in autumn 2010, and the Pond A8 Notch was opened 5 feet (one of eight gates) to muted tidal action on June 1, 2011, and then closed in the winter. In autumn 2010, internal levees between Ponds A8, A7, and A5 were breached and water depths were substantially increased by flooding the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex in February 2011. In June 2012, 15 feet (three of eight gates) of the Pond A8 Notch was opened, and then closed in December 2012. In June 2013, 15 feet of the Pond A8 Notch again was opened, and the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex was a relatively deep and large pond with muted tidal action in the summer. This report synthesizes waterbird data from the 2013 breeding season, and combines it with our prior study’s data from 2010 and 2011.

  2. A Case History of the Science and Management Collaboration in Understanding Hypoxia Events in Long Bay, South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Denise; Hernandez, Debra; Libes, Susan; Voulgaris, George; Davis, Braxton; Smith, Erik; Shuford, Rebecca; Porter, Dwayne; Koepfler, Eric; Bennett, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    Communication of knowledge between the scientific and management communities is a difficult process complicated by the distinctive nature of professional career goals of scientists and decision-makers. This article provides a case history highlighting a collaboration between the science and management communities that resulted from a response to a 2004 hypoxia, or low dissolved oxygen, event in Long Bay, off Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. A working group of scientists and decision-makers was established at the time of the event and has continued to interact to develop a firm understanding of the drivers responsible for hypoxia formation in Long Bay. Several factors were found to be important to ensure that these collaborative efforts were productive: (1) genuine interest in collaboratively working across disciplines to examine a problem; (2) commitment by agency leadership, decision-makers, and researchers to create successful communication mechanisms; (3) respect for each others’ perspectives and an understanding how science and management are performed and that they are not mutually exclusive; (4) networking among researchers and decision-makers to ensure appropriate team members are involved in the process; (5) use of decision-maker input in the formulation of research and monitoring projects; and (6) commitment of resources for facilitation to ensure that researchers and decision-makers are communicating effectively.

  3. Imaging 50,000 Oriented Ovoid Depressions Using LiDAR Elevation Data Elucidates the Enigmatic Character of The Carolina Bays: Wind & Wave, Or Cosmic Impact Detritus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davias, M. E.; Harris, T. H. S.

    2017-12-01

    80 years after aerial photography revealed thousands of aligned oval depressions on the USA's Atlantic Coastal Plain, the geomorphology of the "Carolina bays" remains enigmatic. Geologists and astronomers alike hold that invoking a cosmic impact for their genesis is indefensible. Rather, the bays are commonly attributed to gradualistic fluvial, marine and/or aeolian processes operating during the Pleistocene era. The major axis orientations of Carolina bays are noted for varying statistically by latitude, suggesting that, should there be any merit to a cosmic hypothesis, a highly accurate triangulation network and suborbital analysis would yield a locus and allow for identification of a putative impact site. Digital elevation maps using LiDAR technology offer the precision necessary to measure their exquisitely-carved circumferential rims and orientations reliably. To support a comprehensive geospatial survey of Carolina bay landforms (Survey) we generated about a million km2 of false-color hsv-shaded bare-earth topographic maps as KML-JPEG tile sets for visualization on virtual globes. Considering the evidence contained in the Survey, we maintain that interdisciplinary research into a possible cosmic origin should be encouraged. Consensus opinion does hold a cosmic impact accountable for an enigmatic Pleistocene event - the Australasian tektite strewn field - despite the failure of a 60-year search to locate the causal astroblem. Ironically, a cosmic link to the Carolina bays is considered soundly falsified by the identical lack of a causal impact structure. Our conjecture suggests both these events are coeval with a cosmic impact into the Great Lakes area during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, at 786 ka ± 5 k. All Survey data and imagery produced for the Survey are available on the Internet to support independent research. A table of metrics for 50,000 bays examined for the Survey is available from an on-line Google Fusion Table: https://goo.gl/XTHKC4 . Each bay

  4. A sediment budget for the southern reach in San Francisco Bay, CA: Implications for habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellenbarger, Gregory; Wright, Scott A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is overseeing the restoration of about 6000 ha of former commercial salt-evaporation ponds to tidal marsh and managed wetlands in the southern reach of San Francisco Bay (SFB). As a result of regional groundwater overdrafts prior to the 1970s, parts of the project area have subsided below sea-level and will require between 29 and 45 million m3 of sediment to raise the surface of the subsided areas to elevations appropriate for tidal marsh colonization and development. Therefore, a sufficient sediment supply to the far south SFB subembayment is a critical variable for achieving restoration goals. Although both major tributaries to far south SFB have been seasonally gaged for sediment since 2004, the sediment flux at the Dumbarton Narrows, the bayward boundary of far south SFB, has not been quantified until recently. Using daily suspended-sediment flux data from the gages on Guadalupe River and Coyote Creek, combined with continuous suspended-sediment flux data at Dumbarton Narrows, we computed a sediment budget for far south SFB during Water Years 2009–2011. A Monte Carlo approach was used to quantify the uncertainty of the flux estimates. The sediment flux past Dumbarton Narrows from the north dominates the input to the subembayment. However, environmental conditions in the spring can dramatically influence the direction of springtime flux, which appears to be a dominant influence on the net annual flux. It is estimated that up to several millennia may be required for natural tributary sediments to fill the accommodation space of the subsided former salt ponds, whereas supply from the rest of the bay could fill the space in several centuries. Uncertainty in the measurement of sediment flux is large, in part because small suspended-sediment concentration differences between flood and ebb tides can lead to large differences in total mass exchange. Using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the random error associated with

  5. Water quality in South San Francisco Bay, California: current condition and potential issues for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, J Letitia; Davis, Jay A

    2010-01-01

    The SBSPRP is an extensive tidal wetland restoration project that is underway at the margin of South San Francisco Bay, California. The Project, which aims to restore former salt ponds to tidal marsh and manage other ponds for water bird support, is taking place in the context of a highly urbanized watershed and an Estuary already impacted by chemical contaminants. There is an intimate relationship between water quality in the watershed, the Bay, and the transitional wetland areas where the Project is located. The Project seeks to restore habitat for endangered and endemic species and to provide recreational opportunities for people. Therefore, water quality and bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish and wildlife is an important concern for the success of the Project. Mercury, PCBs, and PBDEs are the persistent contaminants of greatest concern in the region. All of these contaminants are present at elevated concentrations both in the abiotic environment and in wildlife. Dioxins, pyrethroids, PAHs, and selenium are also problematic. Organochlorine insecticides have historically impacted the Bay, and they remain above thresholds for concern in a small proportion of samples. Emerging contaminants, such as PFCs and non-PBDE flame retardants, are also an important water quality issue. Beyond chemical pollutants, other concerns for water quality in South San Francisco Bay exist, and include biological constituents, especially invasive species, and chemical attributes, such as dissolved oxygen and salinity. Future changes, both from within the Project and from the Bay and watershed, are likely to influence water quality in the region. Project actions to restore wetlands could worsen, improve, or not affect the already impaired water quality in South Bay. Accelerated erosion of buried sediment as a consequence of Project restoration actions is a potentially serious regional threat to South Bay water and sediment quality. Furthermore, the planned restoration of salt ponds

  6. 78 FR 1246 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ...-FF08RSDC00] Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the... scoping with regard to the environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary... one of the following methods. Email: [email protected] . Please include ``Otay Estuary NOI'' in the...

  7. Waterfall notch-filtering for restoration of acoustic backscatter records from Admiralty Bay, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciano; Hung, Edson Mintsu; Neto, Arthur Ayres; Magrani, Fábio José Guedes

    2018-06-01

    A series of multibeam sonar surveys were conducted from 2009 to 2013 around Admiralty Bay, Shetland Islands, Antarctica. These surveys provided a detailed bathymetric model that helped understand and characterize the bottom geology of this remote area. Unfortunately, the acoustic backscatter records registered during these bathymetric surveys were heavily contaminated with noise and motion artifacts. These artifacts persisted in the backscatter records despite the fact that the proper acquisition geometry and the necessary offsets and delays were applied during the survey and in post-processing. These noisy backscatter records were very difficult to interpret and to correlate with gravity-core samples acquired in the same area. In order to address this issue, a directional notch-filter was applied to the backscatter waterfall in the along-track direction. The proposed filter provided better estimates for the backscatter strength of each sample by considerably reducing residual motion artifacts. The restoration of individual samples was possible since the waterfall frame of reference preserves the acquisition geometry. Then, a remote seafloor characterization procedure based on an acoustic model inversion was applied to the restored backscatter samples, generating remote estimates of acoustic impedance. These remote estimates were compared to Multi Sensor Core Logger measurements of acoustic impedance obtained from gravity core samples. The remote estimates and the Core Logger measurements of acoustic impedance were comparable when the shallow seafloor was homogeneous. The proposed waterfall notch-filtering approach can be applied to any sonar record, provided that we know the system ping-rate and sampling frequency.

  8. [Denitrification study of Elodea nuttallii-nitrogen cycling bacteria restoration in Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Li, Zheng-Kui; Zhou, Tao; Wu, Ning-Mei; Ye, Zhong-Xiang; Liu, Dan-Dan

    2013-08-01

    Undisturbed sediment cores were collected from Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, and the integrated Elodea nuttallii-nitrogen cycling bacteria technology was applied as a restoration method. The effects of the Elodea nuttallii-nitrogen cycling bacteria technology on sediment denitrification was observed by isotope pairing technique. The highest denitrification rate of 104.64 micromol x (m2 x h)(-1) was achieved in sediments with Elodea nuttallii-nitrogen cycling bacteria assemblage. The abundance of nirS, nirK and nosZ genes involved in denitrification processes in the sediments (within 2 cm below the water-sediment interface) were measured by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The abundance of nirS and nosZ genes in the sediments with restoration treatments was increased, which was more than one order of magnitudes higher than that in bare sediments. The results indicated that the presence of macrophyte and nitrogen cycling bacteria could increase benthic nitrogen removal by facilitating coupled nitrification-denitrification and uncoupled nitrification-denitrification.

  9. Grazer Functional Roles, Induced Defenses, and Indirect Interactions: Implications for Eelgrass Restoration in San Francisco Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Lewis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the individual and interactive roles of consumer species is more than academic when the host plant is a subject of intense conservation interest. In a mesocosm experiment, we compared effects of common invertebrate grazers in San Francisco Bay seagrass (Zostera marina, eelgrass beds, finding that some species (a native opisthobranch, Phyllaplysia taylori; a native isopod, Idotea resecata; and an introduced gastropod, Ilyanassa obsoleta enhanced eelgrass growth through removal of epiphytic algae, as is often predicted for small invertebrate grazers on seagrasses, while one (an introduced caprellid amphipod, Caprella cf. drepanochir had neutral effects. In contrast, the putatively-introduced gammaridean amphipod, Ampithoe valida, had strong negative effects on eelgrass (in addition to epiphytes through consumption, as we had previously observed in the field during restoration programs. We tested whether other common grazer species could influence the effects of the eelgrass-grazing Ampithoe, and found that Idotea induced production of phenolic compounds and limited eelgrass damage by Ampithoe, without affecting Ampithoe abundance. These results have implications for restoration strategies, and contribute to a growing awareness of the importance of trait-mediated indirect grazer interactions through grazer-induced changes in plant traits, providing the first example in a seagrass system.

  10. Effects of human disturbance on waterbird nesting and reproductive success at restoration pond SF2, south San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    To offset for the loss of managed pond habitat during restoration of wetlands to tidal marsh, the South Bay Salt Pond (SBSP) Restoration Project is enhancing some of the remaining ponds by constructing islands for roosting and nesting waterbirds. Among these wetland habitats, the SBSP Restoration Project also is installing walking trails and viewing platforms in an effort to bring the public closer to nature. In winter of 2010–11, the SBSP Restoration Project constructed 30 islands in Pond SF2 and walking trails and viewing platforms around the edge of the pond. The restoration project partners acknowledged that human disturbance could detrimentally affect nesting and roosting waterbirds. Although optimal buffer distances and potential for human disturbance were unknown, islands in Pond SF2, nevertheless, were designed with built-in buffers of greater than 300 feet (91 meters) from a trail and 600 feet (182 meters) from a viewing platform in order to minimize potential human disturbances.

  11. Avian response to early tidal salt marsh restoration at former commercial salt evaporation ponds in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athearn, Nicole D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Shinn, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Restoration of former commercial salt evaporation ponds in the San Francisco Bay estuary is intended to reverse a severe decline (>79%) in tidal salt marshes. San Francisco Bay is a critical migratory stopover site and wintering area for shorebirds and waterfowl, and salt ponds are important high tide roosting and foraging areas. Conservation of past bird abundance is a stated goal of area restoration projects, and early adaptive management will be critical for achieving this objective. However, initial avian response at sites restored to tidal flow may not be indicative of long-term results. For example, winter shorebirds at a 529 ha pond breached in 2002 showed a marked increase in shorebird abundance following breaching. Shorebirds comprised 1% of area totals during 1999-2002 and increased to 46% during 2003-2008. These changes accompanied increased tidal range and sedimentation, but minimal vegetation establishment. Conversely, a fully vegetated, restored 216 ha pond in the same system consistently supported less than 2% of all waterbirds in the region. Early restoration may temporarily increase habitat, but managed ponds will be needed for long-term waterbird abundance within a restored pond-marsh system.

  12. Tree plantings in depression wetland restorations show mixed success (South Carolina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca R. Sharitz; Christopher D. Barton; Diane De Steven

    2006-01-01

    Studies of bottomland forest restoration in the southeastern United States indicate that success can be improved by protecting planted tree seedlings from herbivores and controlling competing vegetation. Reforesting “isolated” depressional wetlands may present different challenges: growing-season ponding may expose seedlings to flooding stress, and competition control...

  13. The areal extent of brown shrimp habitat suitability in Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA: Targeting vegetated habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.M.; Nestlerode, J.A.; Harwell, L.C.; Bourgeois, P.

    2010-01-01

    The availability of wetlands and shallow water habitats significantly influences Gulf of Mexico (GOM) penaeid shrimp fishery productivity. However, the GOM region has the highest rate of wetland loss in the USA. Protection and management of these vital GOM habitats are critical to sustainable shrimp fisheries. Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a major component of GOM fisheries. We present an approach for estimating the areal extent of suitable habitat for post-larval and juvenile brown shrimp in Mobile Bay, Alabama, using an existing habitat suitability index model for the northern GOM calculated from probabilistic survey of water quality and sediment data, land cover data, and submerged aquatic vegetation coverages. This estuarine scale approach is intended to support targeted protection and restoration of these habitats. These analyses indicate that approximately 60% of the area of Mobile Bay is categorized as suitable to near optimal for post-larval and juvenile shrimp and 38% of the area is marginally to minimally suitable. We identify potential units within Mobile Bay for targeted restoration to improve habitat suitability. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Planning Phase at Southern Eden Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will complete the design and permits to restore 1,300 acres of tidal wetlands, provide 3.5 miles shoreline protection, and accelerate wetlands restoration at the Eden Landing Ecological Reserve.

  15. Large-Scale Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Chesapeake Bay: Status Report, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    seed injector designed by VIMS, which does not require a gel matrix, has been tested in Spider Crab Bay in Virginia’s Coastal Bays (Figures 13 and 14...seagrasses, contributing to their loss. Additionally, waters landward of restrictive breakwaters tend to be warmer ( blue and red thermometers) than those...marina), (2) wild celery (V. americana), (3) sago pondweed (S. pectinata), and (4) redhead grass (P. perfoliatus). Molecular and cultivation

  16. Understanding nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and implications for management and restoration: the Eastern Shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2015-03-12

    The Eastern Shore includes only a small part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but contributes disproportionately large loads of the excess nitrogen and phosphorus that have contributed to ecological and economic degradation of the bay in recent decades. Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States and a vital ecological and economic resource. The bay and its tributaries have been degraded in recent decades by excessive nitrogen and phosphorus in the water column, however, which cause harmful algal blooms and decreased water clarity, submerged aquatic vegetation, and dissolved oxygen. The disproportionately large nitrogen and phosphorus yields from the Eastern Shore to Chesapeake Bay are attributable to human land-use practices as well as natural hydrogeologic and soil conditions. Applications of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds to the Eastern Shore from human activities are intensive. More than 90 percent of nitrogen and phosphorus reaching the land in the Eastern Shore is applied as part of inorganic fertilizers or manure, or (for nitrogen) fixed directly from the atmosphere in cropland. Also, hydrogeologic and soil conditions promote the movement of these compounds from application areas on the landscape to groundwater and (or) surface waters, and the proximity of much of the Eastern Shore to tidal waters limits opportunities for natural removal of these compounds in the landscape. The Eastern Shore only includes 7 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but receives nearly twice as much nitrogen and phosphorus applications (per area) as the remainder of the watershed and yields greater nitrogen and phosphorus, on average, to the bay. Nitrogen and phosphorus commonly occur in streams at concentrations that may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and have increased in recent decades.

  17. 75 FR 32209 - North San Pablo Bay Restoration and Reuse Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... promote the expanded beneficial use of recycled water in the North Bay region. In this way, water demand... XVI of Public Law 102-575, as amended, which provides a mechanism for Federal participation and cost... Napa counties are facing long-term water supply shortfalls. Surface and groundwater supplies within...

  18. 3 CFR 13508 - Executive Order 13508 of May 12, 2009. Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Chesapeake Bay and its tributary waters, including resources under the Food Security Act of 1985 as amended... as possible and prior to release of a final strategy. Sec. 204. Collaboration with State Partners. In... structures at sea, such as cases of force majeure caused by stress of weather or other act of God. PART 11...

  19. Mangrove Restoration Areas in Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Apart from two 100 m test plots, mangrove restoration activities were conducted between 1999 and 2001. Each year, thousands of red mangrove propagules were planted...

  20. OYSTER POPULATUION ESTIMATION IN SUPPORT OF THE TEN-YEAR GOAL FOR OYSTER RESOTRATION IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY: DEVELOPING STRATEGIES FOR RESTORING AND MANAGING THE EASTERN OYSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Roger, Steve Jordan, Gary Smith, Kennedy Paynter, James Wesson, Mary Christman, Jessica Vanisko, Juliana Harding, Kelly Greenhawk and Melissa Southworth. 2003. Oyster Population Estimation in Support of the Ten-Year Goal for Oyster Restoration in the Chesapeake Bay: Develop...

  1. Presence and absence of bats across habitat scales in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.Mark; Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.: Edwards, John W.; Kilgo, John C.

    2006-10-01

    Abstract During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat II) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand, and landscape-level features such as forest structural metrics, forest type, proximity to riparian zones and Carolina bay wetlands, insect abundance, and weather. There was considerable empirical support to suggest that the majority of the activity of bats across most of the 6 species occurred at smaller, stand-level habitat scales that combine measures of habitat clutter (e.g., declining forest canopy cover and basal area), proximity to riparian zones, and insect abundance. Accordingly, we hypothesized that most foraging habitat relationships were more local than landscape across this relatively large area for generalist species of bats. The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) was the partial exception, as its presence was linked to proximity of Carolina bays (best approximating model) and bottomland hardwood communities (other models with empirical support). Efforts at SRS to promote open longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and loblolly pine (P. taeda) savanna conditions and to actively restore degraded Carolina bay wetlands will be beneficial to bats. Accordingly, our results should provide managers better insight for crafting guidelines for bat habitat conservation that could be linked to widely accepted land management and environmental restoration practices for the region.

  2. 78 FR 56921 - South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...-F2013227943] South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19... South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project and consists of restoring and enhancing over 2,000 acres of... Pollution Control Plant located at 700 Los Esteros Road, San Jose, California. The details of the public...

  3. Mapping elevations of tidal wetland restoration sites in San Francisco Bay: Comparing accuracy of aerial lidar with a singlebeam echosounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athearn, N.D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Jaffe, B.; Hattenbach, B.J.; Foxgrover, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    The southern edge of San Francisco Bay is surrounded by former salt evaporation ponds, where tidal flow has been restricted since the mid to late 1890s. These ponds are now the focus of a large wetland restoration project, and accurate measurement of current pond bathymetry and adjacent mud flats has been critical to restoration planning. Aerial light detection and ranging (lidar) has become a tool for mapping surface elevations, but its accuracy had rarely been assessed for wetland habitats. We used a singlebeam echosounder system we developed for surveying shallow wetlands to map submerged pond bathymetry in January of 2004 and compared those results with aerial lidar surveys in two ponds that were dry in May of 2004. From those data sets, we compared elevations for 5164 (Pond E9, 154 ha) and 2628 (Pond E14, 69 ha) echosounder and lidar points within a 0.375-m radius of each other (0.750-m diameter lidar spot size). We found that mean elevations of the lidar points were lower than the echosounder results by 5 ?? 0.1 cm in Pond E9 and 2 ?? 0.2 cm in Pond E14. Only a few points (5% in Pond E9, 2% in Pond E14) differed by more than 20 cm, and some of these values may be explained by residual water in the ponds during the lidar survey or elevation changes that occurred between surveys. Our results suggest that aerial lidar may be a very accurate and rapid way to assess terrain elevations for wetland restoration projects. ?? 2010 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  4. Salt Marsh Monitoring in Jamaica Bay, New York from 2003 to 2013: A Decade of Change from Restoration to Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Campbell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study used Quickbird-2 and Worldview-2, high resolution satellite imagery, in a multi-temporal salt marsh mapping and change analysis of Jamaica Bay, New York. An object-based image analysis methodology was employed. The study seeks to understand both natural and anthropogenic changes caused by Hurricane Sandy and salt marsh restoration, respectively. The objectives of this study were to: (1 document salt marsh change in Jamaica Bay from 2003 to 2013; (2 determine the impact of Hurricane Sandy on salt marshes within Jamaica Bay; (3 evaluate this long term monitoring methodology; and (4 evaluate the use of multiple sensor derived classifications to conduct change analysis. The study determined changes from 2003 to 2008, 2008 to 2012 and 2012 to 2013 to better understand the impact of restoration and natural disturbances. The study found that 21 ha of salt marsh vegetation was lost from 2003 to 2013. From 2012 to 2013, restoration efforts resulted in an increase of 10.6 ha of salt marsh. Hurricane Sandy breached West Pond, a freshwater environment, causing 3.1 ha of freshwater wetland loss. The natural salt marsh showed a decreasing trend in loss. Larger salt marshes in 2012 tended to add vegetation in 2012–2013 (F4,6 = 13.93, p = 0.0357 and R2 = 0.90. The study provides important information for the resource management of Jamaica Bay.

  5. Soil physicochemical conditions, denitrification rates, and nosZ abundance in North Carolina Coastal Plain restored wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ever since the United States adopted a national policy of wetland “No Net Loss”, a variety of measures have been aimed at restoring wetland biogeochemical function to former wetland areas. Nitrogen is a key element controlled by properly functioning wetlands, particularly when they are located adjac...

  6. Integrating scientific knowledge into large-scale restoration programs: the CALFED Bay-Delta Program experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K.A.; Short, A.

    2009-01-01

    Integrating science into resource management activities is a goal of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, a multi-agency effort to address water supply reliability, ecological condition, drinking water quality, and levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California. Under CALFED, many different strategies were used to integrate science, including interaction between the research and management communities, public dialogues about scientific work, and peer review. This paper explores ways science was (and was not) integrated into CALFED's management actions and decision systems through three narratives describing different patterns of scientific integration and application in CALFED. Though a collaborative process and certain organizational conditions may be necessary for developing new understandings of the system of interest, we find that those factors are not sufficient for translating that knowledge into management actions and decision systems. We suggest that the application of knowledge may be facilitated or hindered by (1) differences in the objectives, approaches, and cultures of scientists operating in the research community and those operating in the management community and (2) other factors external to the collaborative process and organization.

  7. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2000 • 2004.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  8. Evaluation of social attraction measures to establish Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) nesting colonies for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, San Francisco Bay, California—2017 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C. Alex; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Wang, Yiwei; Strong, Cheryl

    2018-05-31

    Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), historically one of the most numerous colonial-breeding waterbirds in South San Francisco Bay, California, have had recent decreases in the number of nesting colonies and overall breeding population size. The South Bay Salt Pond (SBSP) Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh habitat in South San Francisco Bay. This restoration will remove much of the historical island nesting habitat used by Forster’s terns, American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), and other waterbirds. To address this issue, the SBSP Restoration Project organized the construction of new nesting islands in managed ponds that will not be restored to tidal marsh, thereby providing enduring island nesting habitat for waterbirds. In 2012, 16 new islands were constructed in Pond A16 in the Alviso complex of the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, increasing the number of islands in this pond from 4 to 20. However, despite a history of nesting on the four historical islands in Pond A16 before 2012, no Forster’s terns have nested in Pond A16 since the new islands were constructed.In 2017, we used social attraction measures (decoys and electronic call systems) to attract Forster’s terns to islands within Pond A16 to re-establish nesting colonies. We maintained these systems from March through August 2017. To evaluate the effect of these social attraction measures, we also completed waterbird surveys between April and August, where we recorded the number and location of all Forster’s terns and other waterbirds using Pond A16, and monitored waterbird nests. We compared bird survey and nest monitoring data collected in 2017 to data collected in 2015 and 2016, prior to the implementation of social attraction measures, allowing for direct evaluation of social attraction efforts on Forster’s terns.To increase the visibility and stakeholder involvement of this project, we engaged in

  9. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve’s (NERR) Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  10. Production and Field Planting of Vegetative Propagules for Restoration of Redhead Grass and Sago Pondweed in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) have been lost from shallow waters of Chesapeake Bay (Orth and Moore 1983) and other coastal ecosystems worldwide...a mixture of ambient estuarine water from the Choptank River (a tributary of Chesapeake Bay) and freshwater (tap) needed to maintain a salinity of 7...with a mixture of freshwater and ambient estuarine water (to maintain a salinity of 10) that was circulated through a closed- loop recirculation system

  11. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  12. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A one 1000 ml (one Liter) water sample was collected every 20 days at 2 hour and 4 minute intervals for 2 complete tidal cycles (26 hours) with an ISCO automated...

  13. Invasive Species Guidebook for Department of Defense Installations in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed: Identification, Control, and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Crown vetch Coronilla varia MD, VA 14 Leafy spurge Euphorbia esula VA 15 Ground ivy Glechoma hederacea DC, MD, PA, VA, WV 17 Cogongrass Imperata ...INSTALLATIONS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY WATERSHED IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL METHODS Cogongrass ( Imperata cylindrica) Description & Biology – A large

  14. Use of Land Use Land Cover Change Mapping Products in Aiding Coastal Habitat Conservation and Restoration Efforts of the Mobile Bay NEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Swann, Roberta; Smooth, James

    2010-01-01

    The Mobile Bay region has undergone significant land use land cover change (LULC) over the last 35 years, much of which is associated with urbanization. These changes have impacted the region s water quality and wildlife habitat availability. In addition, much of the region is low-lying and close to the Gulf, which makes the region vulnerable to hurricanes, climate change (e.g., sea level rise), and sometimes man-made disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Land use land cover change information is needed to help coastal zone managers and planners to understand and mitigate the impacts of environmental change on the region. This presentation discusses selective results of a current NASA-funded project in which Landsat data over a 34-year period (1974-2008) is used to produce, validate, refine, and apply land use land cover change products to aid coastal habitat conservation and restoration needs of the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program (MB NEP). The project employed a user defined classification scheme to compute LULC change mapping products for the entire region, which includes the majority of Mobile and Baldwin counties. Additional LULC change products have been computed for select coastal HUC-12 sub-watersheds adjacent to either Mobile Bay or the Gulf of Mexico, as part of the MB NEP watershed profile assessments. This presentation will include results of additional analyses of LULC change for sub-watersheds that are currently high priority areas, as defined by MB NEP. Such priority sub-watersheds include those that are vulnerable to impacts from the DWH oil spill, as well as sub-watersheds undergoing urbanization. Results demonstrating the nature and permanence of LULC change trends for these higher priority sub-watersheds and results characterizing change for the entire 34-year period and at approximate 10-year intervals across this period will also be presented. Future work will include development of value-added coastal habitat quality

  15. Growth of sand whiff Citharichthys arenaceus and bay whiff Citharichthys spilopterus (pleuronectiformes: bothidae) in Puerto Rico (greater antilles) and North Carolina (USA), with comments on growth rate comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Miller, John M.; Aliaume, Catherine; Zerbi, Alfonso

    Sagittal otoliths from two bothid flatfish species ( Citharichthys arenaceus and C. spilopterus) collected in Puerto Rico were microstructurally examined and periodic increments counted. C. arenaceus length-at-age (33 to 246 days) data were best fitted by a Gompertz growth model whose parameters were estimated to be SL ∞ = 170 mm and K = 0.0166. Adult size is reached in less than one year. The peak period of hatching occurred in late spring, and settlement took place 39 days later. Due to a smaller age range (71 to 150 days), growth of C. spilopterus was described by a linear relationship with slope = 0.693 and intercept = -15.1 days. Hatching occurred in winter and spring. These two species showed no significant difference in age at settlement. After settlement, growth of C. spilopterus (0.69 mm·d -1 at 71 to 113 days old) was significantly slower than that of C. arenaceus (1.00 mm·d -1 at 71 to 113 days) possibly due to poorer environmental (abiotic or food-related) conditions during the dry, cool season (December-April). C. spilopterus from North Carolina, hatched in the same period, settled about two weeks older than in Puerto Rico. Growth after settlement was significantly slower in North Carolina (0.44 mm·d -1 at 71 to 113 days) than in Puerto Rico. Environmental conditions (including temperature), distance between spawning areas and settlement grounds, and/or food availability, might explain the dissimilarity in growth observed between the two geographic areas. We recommend absolute field growth to be compared by using growth rates obtained by deriving the growth curve formula.

  16. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  17. Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project Nekton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project (PIERP) is a large scale 1,800 acres restoration project located in mid Chesapeake Bay. Fishery collections are...

  18. Lowering Barriers to Achieving Multiple Environmental Goals in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recognition of past unsuccessful restoration strategies for the Chesapeake Bay, President Obama signed Executive Order (EO) 13508 “Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed” in 2009.

  19. A study of the effects of implementing agricultural best management practices and in-stream restoration on suspended sediment, stream habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at three stream sites in Surry County, North Carolina, 2004-2007-Lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas G.; Ferrell, G.M.; Harned, Douglas A.; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of agricultural best management practices and in-stream restoration on suspended-sediment concentrations, stream habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were examined in a comparative study of three small, rural stream basins in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces of North Carolina and Virginia between 2004 and 2007. The study was designed to assess changes in stream quality associated with stream-improvement efforts at two sites in comparison to a control site (Hogan Creek), for which no improvements were planned. In the drainage basin of one of the stream-improvement sites (Bull Creek), several agricultural best management practices, primarily designed to limit cattle access to streams, were implemented during this study. In the drainage basin of the second stream-improvement site (Pauls Creek), a 1,600-foot reach of the stream channel was restored and several agricultural best management practices were implemented. Streamflow conditions in the vicinity of the study area were similar to or less than the long-term annual mean streamflows during the study. Precipitation during the study period also was less than normal, and the geographic distribution of precipitation indicated drier conditions in the southern part of the study area than in the northern part. Dry conditions during much of the study limited opportunities for acquiring high-flow sediment samples and streamflow measurements. Suspended-sediment yields for the three basins were compared to yield estimates for streams in the southeastern United States. Concentrations of suspended sediment and nutrients in samples from Bull Creek, the site where best management practices were implemented, were high compared to the other two sites. No statistically significant change in suspended-sediment concentrations occurred at the Bull Creek site following implementation of best management practices. However, data collected before and after channel stabilization at the Pauls

  20. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  1. Hyperspectral Estimation of the Chlorophyll Content in Short-Term and Long-Term Restorations of Mangrove in Quanzhou Bay Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Dou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The chlorophyll content can indicate the general health of vegetation, and can be estimated from hyperspectral data. The aim of this study is to estimate the chlorophyll content of mangroves at different stages of restoration in a coastal wetland in Quanzhou, China, using proximal hyperspectral remote sensing techniques. We determine the hyperspectral reflectance of leaves from two mangrove species, Kandelia candel and Aegiceras corniculatum, from short-term and long-term restoration areas with a portable spectroradiometer. We also measure the leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value. We use partial-least-squares stepwise regression to determine the relationships between the spectral reflectance and the chlorophyll content of the leaves, and establish two models, a full-wave-band spectrum model and a red-edge position regression model, to estimate the chlorophyll content of the mangroves. The coefficients of determination for the red-edge position model and the full-wave-band model exceed 0.72 and 0.82, respectively. The inverted chlorophyll contents are estimated more accurately for the long-term restoration mangroves than for the short-term restoration mangroves. Our results indicate that hyperspectral data can be used to estimate the chlorophyll content of mangroves at different stages of restoration, and could possibly be adapted to estimate biochemical constituents in leaves.

  2. Steam, solarization, and tons of prevention: the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's fight to contain Phytophthoras in San Francisco Bay area restoration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Lyman; Jessica Appel; Mia Ingolia; Ellen Natesan; Joe Ortiz

    2017-01-01

    To compensate for unavoidable impacts associated with critical water infrastructure capital improvement projects, the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) restored over 2,050 acres of riparian, wetland, and upland habitat on watershed lands in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties. Despite strict bio-sanitation protocols, plant pathogens (...

  3. Development of an Assessment Framework for Restored Forested Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin; E.A. Nelson

    1998-01-01

    Development of an assessment framework and associated indicators that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a wetland restoration is critical to demonstrating the sustainability of restored sites. An interdisciplinary approach was developed to assess how succession is proceeding on a restored bottomland site in South Carolina relative to an undisturbed...

  4. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase I project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  5. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  6. Emerson Parcel of Dutch Slough Tidal Marsh Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Emerson Parcel of Dutch Slough Tidal Marsh Restoration Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  7. Macroinvertebrate Prey Availability and Fish Diet Selectivity in Relation to Environmental Variables in Natural and Restoring North San Francisco Bay Tidal Marsh Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R. Howe

    2014-03-01

    affinis as a larvivorous surface-feeder. Fish diets were influenced by position along the estuarine gradient and season. Overall, our data show that local-scale site effects and marsh position within the estuary influence invertebrate community composition and abundance. Additionally, we show that restoring marsh ecosystems can subsidize fishes similarly to reference marshes. We, thus, recommend that managers focus on the ability of restoring marshes to produce food subsidies for target species when planning and designing tidal marsh restoration projects, especially those targeted for food web support. 

  8. Biogeochemical processes in an urban, restored wetland of San Francisco Bay, California, 2007-2009; methods and data for plant, sediment and water parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Agee, Jennifer L.; Kieu, Le H.; Kakouros, Evangelos; Erikson, Li H.; Ward, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    The restoration of 18 acres of historic tidal marsh at Crissy Field has had great success in terms of public outreach and visibility, but less success in terms of revegetated marsh sustainability. Native cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) has experienced dieback and has failed to recolonize following extended flooding events during unintended periodic closures of its inlet channel, which inhibits daily tidal flushing. We examined the biogeochemical impacts of these impoundment events on plant physiology and on sulfur and mercury chemistry to help the National Park Service land managers determine the relative influence of these inlet closures on marsh function. In this comparative study, we examined key pools of sulfur, mercury, and carbon compounds both during and between closure events. Further, we estimated the net hydrodynamic flux of methylmercury and total mercury to and from the marsh during a 24-hour diurnal cycle. This report documents the methods used and the data generated during the study.

  9. The extent of tidal influence in the Waccamaw River, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Thepaut; John Shelton; Susan Libes; Paul Conrads; Robert Sheehan

    2016-01-01

    The Waccamaw River Basin is located in the coastal plain and meanders from North Carolina to South Carolina. This tidal black-water river flows parallel to the coast past the cities of Conway and Georgetown, terminating in Winyah Bay. The river is hydrologically connected to the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIW) and experiences semi-diurnal tides with a range ...

  10. Water budgets of two forested watersheds in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Jianbiao Lu; David L. Gartner; Masato Miwa; Carl C. Trettin

    2000-01-01

    Wetland protection, restoration and management require detail information of the water budgets for a particular system. Relatively undisturbed systems with long-term hydrologic records are extremely valuable for developing reference wetlands and detecting effects of management. Two forested flatwoods watersheds in the lower coastal plain of South Carolina have been...

  11. South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study, Data Report for Observations, October 2003 - April 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Charlene M.; Warner, John C.; Martini, Marinna A.; Voulgaris, George; Work, Paul; Haas, Kevin A.; Hanes, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Oceanographic observations have been made at nine locations in Long Bay, South Carolina from October 2003 through April 2004. These sites are centered around a shore-oblique sand feature that is approximately 10 km long, 2 km wide, and in excess of 3 m thick. The observations were collected through a collaborative effort with the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of South Carolina, and Georgia Institute of Technology Savannah Campus as part of a larger study to understand the physical processes that control the transport of sediments in Long Bay.

  12. San Pablo Bay Tidal Marsh Enhancement and Water Quality Improvement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP San Pablo Bay Tidal Marsh Enhancement and Water Quality Improvement Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  13. Modeling Mitigation Activities in North Carolina Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient enrichment and excessive sediment loadings have contributed to the degradation of rivers, lakes and estuaries in North Carolina. The North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality (NCDEQ) has implemented several basin-wide nutrient and sediment management strategies, yet gaps remain in understanding the impact of these strategies given the complexities in quantifying the processes that govern the transport of nutrient and sediment. In particular, improved assessment of the status of nutrient and sediment loadings to lakes and estuaries throughout the state is needed, including characterizing their sources and describing the relative contributions of different areas. The NCDEQ Division of Mitigation Services (DMS) uses watershed planning to identify and prioritize the best locations to implement stream, wetland, and riparian-buffer restoration to improve water quality. To support better decision-making for watershed restoration activities we are developing a SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) model framework specifically for North Carolina. The SPARROW analysis (developed by the U.S. Geological Survey) relates water-quality monitoring data to better understand the effects of human activities and natural processes on surface-water quality. The core of the model consists of using a nonlinear-regression equation to describe the non-conservative transport of contaminants from point and nonpoint sources on land to rivers, lakes and estuaries through the stream and river network. In this presentation, preliminary total Nitrogen, total Phosphorus, and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) NC-SPARROW models are described that illustrate the SPARROW modeling framework incorporating specific restoration datasets and activity metrics, such as extent of riparian buffer and easements.

  14. Spill management strategy for the Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, H.L.; Chapman, R.S.; Johnson, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is a unique cooperative effort between state and Federal agencies to restore the health and productivity of America's largest estuary. To assist in addressing specific management issues, a comprehensive three-dimensional, time-varying hydrodynamic and water quality model has ben developed. The Bay modeling strategy will serve as an excellent framework for including submodules to predict the movement, dispersion, and weathering of accidental spills, such as for petroleum products or other chemicals. This paper presents sample results from the Bay application to illustrate the success of the model system in simulating Bay processes. Also, a review of model requirements for successful spill modeling in Chesapeake Bay is presented. Recommendations are given for implementing appropriate spill modules with the Bay model framework and establishing a strategy for model use in addressing management issues

  15. Library Programs in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Count of programs offered and program attendance numbers at public libraries in North CarolinaData is from the 2014-15 NC Statistical Report of NC Public Libraries:...

  16. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  17. Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Depressional Forested Wetland in South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin; Devendra M. Amatya

    2004-01-01

    Depressional forested wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays are common land features in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern US. Those wetlands play important roles in providing wildlife habitats, water quality improvement, and carbon sequestration. Great stresses have been imposed on those important ecosystems...

  18. Mex Bay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... surveys to assess the vulnerability of the most important physical and eutrophication parameters along. El- Mex Bay coast. As a result of increasing population and industrial development, poorly untreated industrial waste, domestic sewage, shipping industry and agricultural runoff are being released to the.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Science—Improving the value of the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Scott W.; Hyer, Kenneth; Goldbaum, Elizabeth

    2017-05-05

    IntroductionCongress directed the Federal Government to work with States to restore the Nation’s largest estuary.Chesapeake Bay restoration provides important economic and ecological benefits:18 million people live and work in the Bay watershed and enjoy its benefits.3,600 types of fish, wildlife, and plants underpin the economic value of the Bay ecosystem.Poor water quality and habitat loss threaten restoration and negatively impact the economy.10 Goals to meet by 2025 through the Chesapeake Bay Program, a voluntary partnership.

  20. Forests of North Carolina, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown

    2015-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  1. Forests of North Carolina, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Brown; Samuel Lambert

    2016-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  2. An example of a DOE [Department of Energy]/university partnership: South Carolina Pilot Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albenesius, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    A consortium of educational institutions in South Carolina proposed to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in July 1989 a working partnership for mutual improvement of technical capability in the environmental restoration and waste management fields. The institutions forming the consortium are Clemson University, the University of South Carolina, the Medical University of South Carolina, and South Carolina State College. A major component of the partnership is applied research closely coupled with the problems and issues of the Savannah River site regarding demonstration of waste management processes and concepts of disposal and disposal site closure. A primary benefit to DOE from this partnership is expected to be improved public perception of the actions being taken by DOE to protect the public, particularly in areas of environmental restoration and waste management. It is evident at the Savannah River site that this is a key factor in successfully achieving the site's mission. The strength of the interest of the South Carolina institutions in developing initiatives in waste management forecasts a healthy long-term prospect for the partnership. The State of South Carolina has established a hazardous waste research fund of approximately $650 thousand annually for research by the partnership universities to seek better ways to maintain a healthy environment and to reduce, dispose of, or store waste products safely

  3. Carolinas Energy Career Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classens, Anver; Hooper, Dick; Johnson, Bruce

    2013-03-31

    Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC), located in Charlotte, North Carolina, established the Carolinas Energy Career Center (Center) - a comprehensive training entity to meet the dynamic needs of the Charlotte region's energy workforce. The Center provides training for high-demand careers in both conventional energy (fossil) and renewable energy (nuclear and solar technologies/energy efficiency). CPCC completed four tasks that will position the Center as a leading resource for energy career training in the Southeast: • Development and Pilot of a New Advanced Welding Curriculum, • Program Enhancement of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) Technology, • Student Support through implementation of a model targeted toward Energy and STEM Careers to support student learning, • Project Management and Reporting. As a result of DOE funding support, CPCC achieved the following outcomes: • Increased capacity to serve and train students in emerging energy industry careers; • Developed new courses and curricula to support emerging energy industry careers; • Established new training/laboratory resources; • Generated a pool of highly qualified, technically skilled workers to support the growing energy industry sector.

  4. GenCade Application at Onslow Bay, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    reverse transport direction. In addition, tropical and extratropical storms can impact the shore from the southeast or southwest, depending on storm ...The influence of inlet modifications, geologic framework, and storms on the recent evolution of Masonboro Island, NC. Master of Science thesis...Wilmington (USACE). 2000. Special Report: Impact of Federal Navigation and Storm Damage Reduction Projects on Masonboro Island, NC. U.S. Army Corps of

  5. The land value impacts of wetland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Nikhil; BenDor, Todd K

    2013-09-30

    U.S. regulations require offsets for aquatic ecosystems damaged during land development, often through restoration of alternative resources. What effect does large-scale wetland and stream restoration have on surrounding land values? Restoration effects on real estate values have substantial implications for protecting resources, increasing tax base, and improving environmental policies. Our analysis focuses on the three-county Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina region, which has experienced rapid development and extensive aquatic ecological restoration (through the state's Ecosystem Enhancement Program [EEP]). Since restoration sites are not randomly distributed across space, we used a genetic algorithm to match parcels near restoration sites with comparable control parcels. Similar to propensity score analysis, this technique facilitates statistical comparison and isolates the effects of restoration sites on surrounding real estate values. Compared to parcels not proximate to any aquatic resources, we find that, 1) natural aquatic systems steadily and significantly increase parcel values up to 0.75 mi away, and 2) parcels 0.5 mi from EEP sites gain substantial amenity value. When we control for intervening water bodies (e.g. un-restored streams and wetlands), we find a similar inflection point whereby parcels points to the need for higher public visibility of aquatic ecosystem restoration programs and increased public information about their value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Whither North Carolina furniture manufacturing?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Lacy

    2004-01-01

    North Carolina's furniture manufacturing industry has contracted in recent years as imports have gained a greater share of the domestic furniture market. Rapid growth of the furniture industry in China and a surge in exports from that country to the United States in particular have contributed to plant closings and consolidation of operations in the state. North Carolina's furniture manufacturers are adapting to the emergence of global competition and are developing new corporate strategies t...

  7. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  8. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  9. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, G.; Greening, H.S.; Yates, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida,USA, is a shallow,subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of sea grasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds.

  10. ramic restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish R Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of a patient with severely worn dentition after restoring the vertical dimension is a complex procedure and assessment of the vertical dimension is an important aspect in these cases. This clinical report describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a patient who was clinically monitored to evaluate the adaptation to a removable occlusal splint to restore vertical dimension for a period 1 month and provisional restorations to determine esthetic and functional outcome for a period of 3 months. It is necessary to recognizing that form follows function and that anterior teeth play a vital role in the maintenance of oral health. Confirmation of tolerance to changes in the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is of paramount importance. Articulated study casts and a diagnostic wax-up can provide important information for the evaluation of treatment options. Alteration of the VDO should be conservative and should not be changed without careful consideration.

  11. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  12. NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, Ground-water recharge in North Carolina: North Carolina State University, as prepared for the NC Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources (NC DEHNR) Division of Enviromental Management Groundwater S...

  13. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  14. Florida Bay: A history of recent ecological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourqurean, J.W.; Robblee, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Florida Bay is a unique subtropical estuary at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula. Recent ecological changes (seagrass die-off, algal blooms, increased turbidity) to the Florida Bay ecosystem have focused the attention of the public, commercial interests, scientists, and resource managers on the factors influencing the structure and function of Florida Bay. Restoring Florida Bay to some historic condition is the goal of resource managers, but what is not clear is what an anthropogenically-unaltered Florida Bay would look like. While there is general consensus that human activities have contributed to the changes occurring in the Florida Bay ecosystem, a high degree of natural system variability has made elucidation of the links between human activity and Florida Bay dynamics difficult. Paleoecological analyses, examination of long-term datasets, and directed measurements of aspects of the ecology of Florida Bay all contribute to our understanding of the behavior of the bay, and allow quantification of the magnitude of the recent ecological changes with respect to historical variability of the system.

  15. Transparent Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barou, L.; Bristogianni, T.; Oikonomopoulou, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of structural glass in restoration and conservation practices in order to highlight and safeguard our built heritage. Cast glass masonry is introduced in order to consolidate a half-ruined historic tower in Greece, by replacing the original parts of the façade

  16. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  17. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  18. Restorative neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  19. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  20. THE CAROLINA LUPUS STUDY (CLU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolina Lupus (CLU) Study, an epidemiologic study of risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is a severe, chronic, systemic autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects women and African-Americans. The CLU Study focuses on measures of endogenous hormone ex...

  1. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttle, William K.; Fourqurean, James W.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Zieman, Joseph C.; Robblee, Michael B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long‐term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central

  2. 76 FR 28023 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2232-522; Project No. 516-459] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Meetings On March 18, 2011, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) requested a meeting with Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC...

  3. Organic Matter Remineralization Predominates Phosphorus Cycling in the Mid-Bay Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunendra, Joshi R.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Burdige, David J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sparks, Donald L.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-05-19

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the US, suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and non–point source nutrient sources. Restoration of the bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs and hydrological conditions, and complex interacting factors including climate forcing. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics enables one to identify the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment- water interface and aid to better constrain mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between the sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Op) in concert with sediment chemistry, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on the sediment retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the meso-haline portion of the mid-bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedback effect on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Isotope data indicate that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-bay sediments. We interpret that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any bottom-water and/or pore-water P derived from other sources or biogeochemical processes and exceeded saturation with respect to authigenic P precipitation. It is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway against remobilization (coupled Fe-P cycling) pathway in the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results are expected to have significant implications for the current understanding of P cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling in the bay, particularly on the

  4. Phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics in Winyah Bay, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneillo, G. E.; Brooks, S. S.; Brown, S. L.; Woodford, K. M.; Wright, C. R.

    2016-02-01

    Winyah Bay is a coastal plain estuary located in South Carolina that has been classified for a moderate risk of Eutrophication by NOAA. Winyah Bay receives freshwater input from four rivers, the Waccamaw, Sampit, Black, and Pee Dee Rivers. The Waccamaw, Sampit and Black River are blackwater systems that discharge elevated amounts of colored dissolved organic matter. During the summer and fall of 2015, bioassay experiments were performed to simultaneously examine both light and nutrient (nitrogen & phosphate) limitation throughout Winyah Bay. Sampling stations near the mouth of the Waccamaw and Sampit Rivers showed that phytoplankton were light limited in the late summer instead of nutrient limited. These stations were located in the industrialized area of the bay and typically had the highest nutrient concentrations and highest turbidity, with Secchi depths typically less than 0.5 meters. Results indicated that phytoplankton may be nitrogen limited near the mouth of Winyah Bay, where nutrient concentrations and turbidity were observed to be lower than locations further upstream. There was also an observed dissolved oxygen and pH gradient during the summer of 2015. Dissolved oxygen levels less than 4.0 mg/L were routinely observed near the industrialized head of the estuary and corresponded with lower pH values.

  5. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  6. Magnitude and Distribution of Flows into Northeastern Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Eduardo; Hittle, Clinton D.

    2000-01-01

    Changes in water-management practices have been made to accommodate a large and rapidly growing urban population along the Atlantic Coast and to meet the demand for intensive agricultural activities. These changes have resulted in a highly managed hydrologic system consisting of numerous canals, levees, control structures, and pumping stations that have altered the hydrology of the Everglades and Florida Bay ecosystems. Over the past decade, Florida Bay has experienced sea-grass die-off and algal blooms, which are indicators of ecological change attributed primarily to the increase in salinity and nutrient content of bay waters. Because plans are to restore sheetflow in the Everglades wetlands to its natural state, water managers anticipate a change in the magnitude and timing of freshwater exiting the mainland through the creeks that cut through the embankment or as sheetflow into Florida Bay.

  7. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  8. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  9. Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using “ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities” (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the President’s Executive Order 13508—Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is “the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information.” (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better

  10. DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Watershed Hydrology - UAV Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, S. D.; Baruah, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States, with a watershed extending through six states and the nation's capital. Urbanization and agriculture practices have led to an excess runoff of nutrients and sediment into the bay. Nutrients and sediment loading stimulate the growth of algal blooms associated with various problems including localized dissolved oxygen deficiencies, toxic algal blooms and death of marine life. The Chesapeake Bay Program, among other stakeholder organizations, contributes greatly to the restoration efforts of the Chesapeake Bay. These stakeholders contribute in many ways such as monitoring the water quality, leading clean-up projects, and actively restoring native habitats. The first stage of the DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Coastal Management project, relating to water quality, contributed to the restoration efforts by introducing NASA satellite-based water quality data products to the stakeholders as a complement to their current monitoring methods. The second stage, to be initiated in the fall 2008 internship term, will focus on the impacts of land cover variability within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Multiple student led discussions with members of the Land Cover team at the Chesapeake Bay Program Office in the DEVELOP GSFC 2008 summer term uncovered the need for remote sensing data for hydrological mapping in the watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Program expressed in repeated discussions on Land Cover mapping that significant portions of upper river areas, streams, and the land directly interfacing those waters are not accurately depicted in the watershed model. Without such hydrological mapping correlated with land cover data the model will not be useful in depicting source areas of nutrient loading which has an ecological and economic impact in and around the Chesapeake Bay. The fall 2008 DEVELOP team will examine the use of UAV flown sensors in connection with in-situ and Earth Observation satellite data. To maximize the

  11. Overcoming restoration paradigms: value of the historical record and metapopulation dynamics in native oyster restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald N. Lipcius

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Restoration strategies for native oyster populations rely on multiple sources of information, which often conflict due to time- and space-varying patterns in abundance and distribution. For instance, strategies based on population connectivity and disease resistance can differ, and extant and historical records of abundance and distribution are often at odds, such that the optimal strategy is unclear and valuable restoration sites may be excluded from consideration. This was the case for the Lynnhaven River subestuary of lower Chesapeake Bay, which was deemed unsuitable for Eastern Oyster restoration based on physical conditions, disease challenge, and extant oyster abundance. Consequently, we (i evaluated previously unknown historical data from the 1800s, (ii quantified extant oyster recruitment and abundance, physical conditions, and disease presence on constructed restoration reefs and alternative substrates, and (iii assessed simulations from biophysical models to identify potential restoration sites in the metapopulation. The collective data distinguished numerous restoration sites (i in the polyhaline zone (salinity 18.4-22.2 where disease resistance is evolving, (ii where oysters were abundant in the late 1800s-early 1900s, (iii of recent high recruitment, abundance and survival, despite consistent and elevated disease challenge, and (iv interconnected as a metapopulation via larval dispersal. Moreover, a network of constructed restoration reefs met size structure, abundance and biomass standards of restoration success. These findings demonstrate that assumptions about the suitability of sites for oyster restoration based on individual processes can be severely flawed, and that in-depth examination of multiple processes and sources of information are required for oyster reef restoration plans to maximize success. We use these findings and previous information to recommend a strategy for successful restoration of subtidal oyster reefs

  12. Water Awareness Through Environmental Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Caldwell, K.

    2012-04-01

    and negative effects of human presence on the local and global water supply. Student research scientifically tested ways to slow down the effects of run-off contaminants. Students also revisit water analysis and plant trees as buffers as part of their stream preservation efforts in a culminating activity. Oyster Reef Restoration Project: As a result of changes in climate, pollution and human consumption, the oyster population in the Chesapeake Bay had previously been on a rapid decline. The Oyster Reef Restoration Project allows students to understand the creatures of the bay and the cause of this decline. They explore the domino effect this has had on the quality of the water in the bay and future implications on the environment when the oyster population fluctuates significantly. Students construct concrete reefs and study the components of its contents and the reef's impact on the bay. Students are responsible for mixing, pouring and preparing the reef for its eventual drop in the bay. Wetlands Recovery: Following the elimination of a substantial amount of the natural wetlands behind the elementary and middle schools, a wetlands area was erected on the school grounds. This pond has been used to learn about habitats and the role humans, plants and organisms play in the preservation of the earth soil and water supply. This wetland is used by both the elementary and middle schools as a place for hands-on inquiry based learning. Students maintain the upkeep of the pond and teach other students at lower grades.

  13. Tree Seedlings Establishment Across a Hydrologic Gradient in a Bottomland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin; E.A. Nelson; W.H. Conner

    1998-01-01

    Seedling establishment and survival on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina is being monitored as part of the Pen Branch Bottomland Restoration Project. Bottomland tree species were planted from 1993-1995 across a hydrologic gradient which encompasses the drier upper floodplain corridor, the lower floodplain corridor and the continuously inundated delta. Twelve...

  14. Integrating science and resource management in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Greening, Holly; Morrison, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay is recognized internationally for its remarkable progress towards recovery since it was pronounced "dead" in the late 1970s. Due to significant efforts by local governments, industries and private citizens throughout the watershed, water clarity in Tampa Bay is now equal to what it was in 1950, when population in the watershed was less than one-quarter of what it is today. Seagrass extent has increased by more than 8,000 acres since the mid-1980s, and fish and wildlife populations are increasing. Central to this successful turn-around has been the Tampa Bay resource management community's long-term commitment to development and implementation of strong science-based management strategies. Research institutions and agencies, including Eckerd College, the Florida Wildlife Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Mote Marine Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Southwest Florida Water Management District, University of South Florida, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, local and State governments, and private companies contribute significantly to the scientific basis of our understanding of Tampa Bay's structure and ecological function. Resource management agencies, including the Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council's Agency on Bay Management, the Southwest Florida Water Management District's Surface Water Improvement and Management Program, and the Tampa Bay Estuary Program, depend upon this scientific basis to develop and implement regional adaptive management programs. The importance of integrating science with management has become fully recognized by scientists and managers throughout the region, State and Nation. Scientific studies conducted in Tampa Bay over the past 10–15 years are increasingly diverse and complex, and resource management programs reflect our increased knowledge of geology, hydrology and hydrodynamics, ecology and restoration techniques. However, a synthesis of this

  15. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  16. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  17. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  18. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  19. The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0093 TITLE: The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Carpenter, MD RECIPIENT...Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0093 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Laura Carpenter...provides a description of the Year 2 progress made and plans for Year 3 for the project entitled “The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS).” The goal of

  20. Measuring Macrobenthos Biodiversity at Oyster Aquaculture Sites in the Delaware Inland Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, M. J.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Delaware Inland Bays consists of three shallow coastal bays located in the southern portion of Delaware. Anthropogenic activities have led to the degradation of water quality, because the bays are surrounded by highly developed areas and have low flushing rates. This results in loss of biodiversity and abundance of organisms. Ongoing degradation of the bays has led to a dramatic decline in local oyster populations since the late 1800s. Oysters are keystone species, which provide habitats for organisms and help to improve water quality. This study aims to find if the introduction of oyster aquaculture improves local biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos. The study was conducted in Rehoboth Bay, Indian River Bay and Little Assawoman Bay. Aquaculture gear was placed at one location in each of the bays and 24 sediment core samples were taken once a month. From these core samples all worms were fixed and stained in a 10% Formalin Rose Bengal solution and preserved in 70% Ethanol for later identification. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of oyster tissue will also be performed to assess the health of the bay. The goals of this research are to better understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability and health of the Delaware Inland Bays.

  1. 2011 South Carolina DNR Lidar: York County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,500 square miles in York, Pickens, Anderson, and Oconee Counties in South Carolina. This metadata covers the LiDAR produced...

  2. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Edgefield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  3. Boletus durhamensis sp. nov. from North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Alan E. Bessette; Owen L. McConnell

    2016-01-01

    A new bolete with cinnamon-brown pores, Boletus durhamensis, is described. Collected in northern North Carolina, it is possibly mycorrhizal with Quercus spp. Morphological and molecular characters support this taxon as a new species.

  4. 2013 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Beaufort County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LMSI provided high accuracy, calibrated multiple return LiDAR for roughly 785 square miles covering Beaufort County, South Carolina. The nominal point spacing for...

  5. 2014 Horry County, South Carolina Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of lidar point cloud data. This project required lidar data to be acquired over Horry County, South Carolina. The total area of the Horry...

  6. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Calhoun County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  7. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Lancaster County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  8. Will Restored Tidal Marshes Be Sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Orr

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We assess whether or not restored marshes in the San Francisco Estuary are expected to be sustainable in light of future landscape scale geomorphic processes given typical restored marsh conditions. Our assessment is based on a review of the literature, appraisal of monitoring data for restored marshes, and application of vertical accretion modeling of organic and inorganic sedimentation. Vertical accretion modeling suggests that salt marshes in San Pablo Bay will be sustainable for moderate relative sea level rise (3 to 5 mm yr-1 and average sediment supply (c. 100 mg L-1. Accelerated relative sea level rise (above 6 mm yr-1 and/or reduced sediment supply (50 mg L-1 will cause lowering of the marsh surface relative to the tide range and may cause shifts from high to low marsh vegetation by the year 2100. Widespread conversion of marsh to mudflat-"ecological drowning"-is not expected within this time frame. Marshes restored at lower elevations necessary to aid the natural development of channel systems (c. 0.5 m below mean higher high water are predicted to accrete to high marsh elevations by the year 2100 for moderate relative sea level rise and sediment supply conditions. Existing rates of sediment accretion in restored fresh water tidal marshes of the Delta of greater than 9 mm yr-1 and slightly lower drowning elevations suggest that these marshes will be resilient against relatively high rates of sea level rise. Because of higher rates of organic production, fresh water marshes are expected to be less sensitive to reduced sediment availability than salt marshes. The ultimate long-term threat to the sustainability of tidal marshes is the interruption of coastal rollover-the process by which landward marsh expansion in response to sea level rise compensates for shoreline erosion. Bay front development now prevents most landward marsh expansion, while shoreline erosion is expected to accelerate as sea level rises.

  9. Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 13 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Co as ta...ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 August 2017 Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Kevin B. Conner U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P...Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “Sediment Budget Analysis, Masonboro Inlet, NC” ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 ii Abstract A

  10. Using Stable Isotopes to Link Nutrient Sources in the Everglades and Biological Sinks in Florida Bay: A Biogeochemical Approach to Evaluate Ecosystem Response to Changing Nutrient Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, A. M.; Hollander, D. J.; Heil, C.; Glibert, P.; Murasko, S.; Revilla, M.; Alexander, J.

    2005-05-01

    Anthropogenic influences in South Florida have led to deterioration of its two major ecosystems, the Everglades wetlands and the Florida Bay estuary. Consequently, the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan has been proposed to restore the Everglades ecosystem; however, restoration efforts will likely exert new ecological changes in the Everglades and ultimately Florida Bay. The success of the Florida Everglades restoration depends on our understanding and ability to predict how regional changes in the distribution and composition of dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients will direct the downstream biogeochemical dynamics of Florida Bay. While the transport of freshwater and nutrients to Florida Bay have been studied, much work remains to directly link nutrient dynamics in Florida Bay to nutrient sources in the Everglades. Our study uses stable C and N isotopic measurements of chemical and biological materials from the Everglades and Florida Bay as part of a multi-proxy approach to link nutrient sources in the Everglades to biological sinks in Florida Bay. Isotopic analyses of dissolved and particulate species of water, aquatic vegetation and sedimentary organic matter show that the watersheds within the Everglades are chemically distinct and that these signatures are also reflected in the bay. A large east-west gradient in both carbon and nitrogen (as much as 10‰ for δ15N POM) reflect differing nutrient sources for each region of Florida Bay and is strongly correlated with upstream sources in the Everglades. Isotopic signatures also reflect seasonal relationships associated with wet and dry periods. High C and N measurements of DOM and POM measurements suggest significant influence from waste water in Canal C-111 in eastern Florida Bay, particularly during the dry season. These observations show that nutrients from the Everglades watersheds enter Florida Bay and are important in controlling biogeochemical processes in the bay. This study proves that

  11. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  12. U.S. Geological Survey; North Carolina's water resources; a partnership with State, Federal and local agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winner, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    For more than 80 years, the Federal-State Cooperative Program in North Carolina has been an effective partnership that provides timely water information for all levels of government. The cooperative program has raised awareness of State and local water problems and issues and has enhanced transfer and exchange of scientific information. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts statewide water-resources investigations in North Carolina that include hydrologic data collection, applied research studies, and other interpretive studies. These programs are funded through cooperative agreements with the North Carolina Departments of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources; Human Resources; and Transportation, as well as more than a dozen city and county governmental agencies. The USGS also conducts special studies and data-collection programs for Federal agencies, including the Department of Defense, the U.S. Soil Conservation Service, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that contribute to North Carolina's water information data base. Highlights of selected programs are presented to show the scope of USGS activities in North Carolina and their usefulness in addressing water-resource problems. The reviewed programs include the statewide data-collection program, estuarine studies, the National Water-Quality Assessment program, military installation restoration program, and groundwater flow model-development program in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont provinces.

  13. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York...

  14. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gerold; Greening, Holly; Yates, Kimberly K.; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, is a shallow, subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of seagrasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds. Over the past three decades, nitrogen controls involving sources such as wastewater treatment plants, stormwater conveyance systems, fertilizer manufacturing and shipping operations, and power plants have been undertaken to meet these and other management objectives. Cumulatively, these controls have resulted in a 60% reduction in annual total nitrogen (TN) loads relative to earlier worse-case (latter 1970s) conditions. As a result, annual water-clarity and chlorophyll a targets are currently met in most years, and seagrass cover measured in 2008 was the highest recorded since 1950. Factors that have contributed to the observed improvements in Tampa Bay over the past several decades include the following: (1) Development of numeric, science-based water-quality targets to meet a long-term goal of restoring seagrass acreage to 1950s levels. Empirical and mechanistic models found that annual average chlorophyll a concentrations were a primary manageable factor affecting light attenuation. The models also quantified relationships between TN loads, chlorophyll a concentrations, light attenuation, and fluctuations in seagrass cover. The availability of long-term monitoring data, and a systematic process for using the data to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, has allowed managers to track progress and

  15. Sources, fate, and transport of nitrogen and phosphorus in the Chesapeake Bay watershed-An empirical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott W.; Brakebill, John W.; Blomquist, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) was used to provide empirical estimates of the sources, fate, and transport of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, and the mean annual TN and TP flux to the bay and in each of 80,579 nontidal tributary stream reaches. Restoration efforts in recent decades have been insufficient to meet established standards for water quality and ecological conditions in Chesapeake Bay. The bay watershed includes 166,000 square kilometers of mixed land uses, multiple nutrient sources, and variable hydrogeologic, soil, and weather conditions, and bay restoration is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources and complex interacting factors affecting the occurrence, fate, and transport of nitrogen and phosphorus from source areas to streams and the estuary. Effective and efficient nutrient management at the regional scale in support of Chesapeake Bay restoration requires a comprehensive understanding of the sources, fate, and transport of nitrogen and phosphorus in the watershed, which is only available through regional models. The current models, Chesapeake Bay nutrient SPARROW models, version 4 (CBTN_v4 and CBTP_v4), were constructed at a finer spatial resolution than previous SPARROW models for the Chesapeake Bay watershed (versions 1, 2, and 3), and include an updated timeframe and modified sources and other explantory terms.

  16. Chesapeake Bay under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to extensive data obtained over its 13,000 km of shoreline, the Chesapeake Bay has been suffering a major, indeed unprecedented, reduction in submerged vegetation. Chesapeake Bay is alone in experiencing decline in submerged vegetation. Other estuary systems on the east coast of the United States are not so affected. These alarming results were obtained by the synthesis of the findings of numerous individual groups in addition to large consortium projects on the Chesapeake done over the past decade. R. J. Orth and R. A. Moore of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science pointed to the problem of the severe decline of submerged grasses on the Bay and along its tributaries. In a recent report, Orth and Moore note: “The decline, which began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's, has affected all species in all areas. Many major river systems are now totally devoid of any rooted vegetation” (Science, 222, 51-53, 1983).

  17. Waterbird nest monitoring program in San Francisco Bay (2005-10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, Forster’s Terns (Sterna forsteri), American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana), and Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) were uncommon residents of San Francisco Bay, California (Grinnell and others, 1918; Grinnell and Wythe, 1927; Sibley, 1952). Presently, however, avocets and stilts are the two most abundant breeding shorebirds in San Francisco Bay (Stenzel and others, 2002; Rintoul and others, 2003). More than 4,000 avocets and 1,000 stilts, roughly 20 percent of their San Francisco Bay wintering populations, breed within the estuary, making San Francisco Bay the largest breeding area for these species on the Pacific Coast (Stenzel and others, 2002; Rintoul and others, 2003). Forster’s Terns were first observed breeding in the San Francisco Bay in 1948 (110 nests); they had increased to over 4000 individuals by the 1980s (Sibley, 1952; Gill, 1977; Harvey and others, 1992; Carter and others, 1990) and were estimated at 2000–3000 for 1998–2002; (Strong and others, 2004).It is hypothesized that the relatively large size of the current waterbird breeding populations is a result of the creation of artificial salt evaporation ponds from the 1930s through the 1950s (Gill, 1977; Goals Project, 1999). Until recently, these salt ponds and associated islands used by waterbirds for nesting have been managed relatively similarly and have supported large breeding waterbird populations. Recently, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project has implemented plans to convert 50–90 percent of the 15,000 acres of salt ponds in the South San Francisco Bay back to tidal marsh habitat. Therefore, there is concern that the Restoration Project, while benefiting other native species, could negatively influence local breeding populations of waterbirds that are reliant on salt pond habitats for both breeding and foraging. A primary goal of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is to maintain current breeding waterbird populations (South Bay Salt Pond Long

  18. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  19. Submersed aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay: Sentinel species in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Robert J.; Dennison, William C.; Lefcheck, Jonathon S.; Gurbisz, Cassie; Hannam, Michael; Keisman, Jennifer; Landry, J. Brooke; Moore, Kenneth A.; Murphy, Rebecca R.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Testa, Jeremy; Weller, Donald E.; Wilcox, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Chesapeake Bay has undergone profound changes since European settlement. Increases in human and livestock populations, associated changes in land use, increases in nutrient loadings, shoreline armoring, and depletion of fish stocks have altered the important habitats within the Bay. Submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) is a critical foundational habitat and provides numerous benefits and services to society. In Chesapeake Bay, SAV species are also indicators of environmental change because of their sensitivity to water quality and shoreline development. As such, SAV has been deeply integrated into regional regulations and annual assessments of management outcomes, restoration efforts, the scientific literature, and popular media coverage. Even so, SAV in Chesapeake Bay faces many historical and emerging challenges. The future of Chesapeake Bay is indicated by and contingent on the success of SAV. Its persistence will require continued action, coupled with new practices, to promote a healthy and sustainable ecosystem.

  20. Restoration of Gooseberry Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long

    2000-01-01

    Grazing exclusion and channel modifications were used to restore wet meadows along a stream on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. The efforts are reestablishing functional processes to promote long-term restoration of wetland health and species conservation.

  1. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study - Characterization of Tidal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIvor, Carole

    2005-01-01

    Tidal wetlands in Tampa Bay, Florida, consist of mangrove forests and salt marshes. Wetlands buffer storm surges, provide fish and wildlife habitat, and enhance water quality through the removal of water-borne nutrients and contaminants. Substantial areas of both mangroves and salt marshes have been lost to agricultural, residential, and industrial development in this urban estuary. Wetlands researchers are characterizing the biological components of tidal wetlands and examining the physical factors such as salinity, tidal flushing, and sediment deposition that control the composition of tidal wetland habitats. Wetlands restoration is a priority of resource managers in Tampa Bay. Baseline studies such as these are needed for successful restoration planning and evaluation.

  2. Wood power in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.G.; Guessous, L. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    North Carolina (NC) is one of the most forested states, and supports a major wood products industry. The NC Department of Natural Resources sponsored a study by Research Triangle Institute to examine new, productive uses of the State`s wood resources, especially electric power generation by co-firing with coal. This paper summarizes our research of the main factors influencing wood power generation opportunities, i.e., (1) electricity demand; (2) initiative and experience of developers; (3) available fuel resources; (4) incentives for alternate fuels; and (5) power plant technology and economics. The results cover NC forests, short rotation woody crops, existing wood energy facilities, electrical power requirements, and environmental regulations/incentives. Quantitative assessments are based on the interests of government agencies, utilities, electric cooperatives, developers and independent power producers, forest products industries, and the general public. Several specific, new opportunities for wood-to-electricity in the State are identified and described. Comparisons are made with nationwide resources and wood energy operations. Preferred approaches in NC are co-generation in existing or modified boilers and in dedicated wood power plants in forest industry regions. Co-firing is mainly an option for supplementing unreliable primary fuel supplies to existing boilers.

  3. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  4. The Morphology of Streams Restored for Market and Nonmarket Purposes: Insights From a Mixed Natural-Social Science Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.; Doyle, M.; Lave, R.; Robertson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stream restoration is increasingly driven by compensatory mitigation; impacts to streams associated with typical land development activities must be offset via restoration of streams elsewhere. This policy creates an environment where restored stream 'credits' are traded under market-like conditions, comparable to wetland mitigation, carbon offsets, or endangered species habitat banking. The effect of mitigation on restoration design and construction is unknown. We use geomorphic surveys to quantify the differences between restored and nonrestored streams, and the difference between streams restored for market purposes (compensatory mitigation) from those restored for nonmarket programs. Physical study sites are located in the state of North Carolina, USA. We also analyze the social and political-economic drivers of the stream restoration and mitigation industry using analysis of policy documents and interviews with key personnel including regulators, mitigation bankers, stream designers, and scientists. Restored streams are typically wider, shallower and geomorphically more homogeneous than nonrestored streams. For example, nonrestored streams are typically characterized by more than an order of magnitude variability in radius of curvature and meander wavelength within a single study reach. By contrast, the radius of curvature in many restored streams does not vary for nearly the entire project reach. Streams restored for the mitigation market are typically headwater streams and part of a large, complex of long restored main channels, and many restored tributaries; streams restored for nonmarket purposes are typically shorter and consist of the main channel only. Interviews reveal that social forces shape the morphology of restored streams. Designers integrate many influences including economic and regulatory constraints, but traditions of practice have a large influence as well. Home to a fairly mature stream mitigation banking market, North Carolina can provide

  5. North Carolina Statewide Lidar DEM 2014 Phase 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  6. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, WILSON COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  7. 2014 NCFMP Lidar: Statewide North Carolina (Phase 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  8. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, GREENE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  9. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, EDGECOMBE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  10. North Carolina Statewide Lidar DEM 2015 Phase 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest, covering approximately 7,197 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina LiDAR project called for the...

  11. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Scotland County, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  12. 2015 NCFMP Lidar: Statewide North Carolina (Phase 3)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest, covering approximately 7,197 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina LiDAR project called for the...

  13. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, HALIFAX COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  14. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Franklin County, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  15. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  16. Economic impacts of Medicaid in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Christopher; Hall, William; Garrett, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimates of the economic impacts of Medicaid program expenditures in North Carolina in state fiscal year (SFY) 2003. The study uses input-output analysis to estimate the economic impacts of Medicaid expenditures. The study uses North Carolina Medicaid program expenditure data for SFY 2003 as submitted by the North Carolina Division of Medical Assistance to the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Industry structure data from 2002 that are part of the IMPLAN input-output modeling software database are also used in the analysis. In SFY 2003 $6.307 billion in Medicaid program expenditures occurred within the state of North Carolina-$3.941 billion federal dollars, $2.014 billion state dollars, and $351 million in local government funds. Each dollar of state and local government expenditures brought $1.67 in federal Medicaid cost-share to the state. The economic impacts within North Carolina of the 2003 Medicaid expenditures included the following: 182,000 jobs supported (including both full-time and some part-time jobs); $6.1 billion in labor income (wages, salaries, sole proprietorship/partnership profits); and $1.9 billion in capital income (rents, interest payments, corporate dividend payments). If the Medicaid program were shut down and the funds returned to taxpayers who saved/spent the funds according to typical consumer expenditure patterns, employment in North Carolina would fall by an estimated 67,400 jobs, and labor income would fall by $2.83 billion, due to the labor-intensive nature of Medicaid expenditures. Medicaid expenditure and economic impact results do not capture the economic value of the improved health and well-being of Medicaid recipients. Furthermore, the results do not capture the savings to society from increased preventive care and reduced uncompensated care resulting from Medicaid. State and local government expenditures do not fully capture the economic consequences of Medicaid

  17. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material... ........................ 9 THE RICHARDS BAY PIPELINE ........................................ 16 Environmental considerations ................................... 16 - Phosphogypsum disposal ................................... 16 - Effects of fluoride on locally occurring...

  18. Bayes and Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, F.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation consists of research in three subjects in two themes—Bayes and networks: The first studies the posterior contraction rates for the Dirichlet-Laplace mixtures in a deconvolution setting (Chapter 1). The second subject regards the statistical inference in preferential attachment

  19. Newspaper Advertising Trends and Teacher Supply in the Carolinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewalt, Mark W.; Graham, Patricia L.

    This year-long research project documented critical issues of supply and demand for teachers in the Carolinas. Researchers focused on the number of public and private school education positions advertised in the four major newspapers serving South Carolina and the Charlotte metropolitan region of North Carolina. They documented advertising trends…

  20. Sustainable development in the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of projects planned for the James Bay/Hudson Bay region, and the expected environmental impacts of these projects. The watershed of James Bay and Hudson Bay covers well over one third of Canada, from southern Alberta to central Ontario to Baffin Island, as well as parts of north Dakota and Minnesota in the U.S.A. Hydroelectric power developments that change the timing and rate of flow of fresh water may cause changes in the nature and duration of ice cover, habitats of marine mammals, fish and migratory birds, currents into and out of Hudson Bay/James Bay, seasonal and annual loads of sediments and nutrients to marine ecosystems, and anadromous fish populations. Hydroelectric projects are proposed for the region by Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. In January 1992, the Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC), the Environmental Committee of Sanikuluaq, and the Rawson Academy of Arctic Science will launch the Hudson Bay/James Bay Bioregion Program, an independent initiative to apply an ecosystem approach to the region. Two main objectives are to provide a comprehensive assessment of the cumulative impacts of human activities on the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion, and to foster sustainable development by examining and proposing cooperative processes for decision making among governments, developers, aboriginal peoples and other stakeholders. 1 fig

  1. PREFACE: Carolina International Symposium on Neutrino Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avignone, Frank; Creswick, Richard; Kubodera, Kuniharu; Purohit, Milind

    2009-07-01

    The Carolina International Symposium on Neutrino Physics, 2008 (CISNP'08) was organized and held at the University of South Carolina by the Department of Physics in May 2008, to celebrate the 75th birthdays of Professors Frank Avignone (South Carolina) and Ettore Fiorini (Milan) and to commemorate the 75th birthday of the late Peter Rosen (DOE). Although much of the work done by these luminaries has been in non-accelerator areas such as double beta-decay, the meeting covered many topics in neutrino physics as well, including neutrino oscillations, supernova explosions, neutrino nucleosynthesis, axions, dark matter, dark energy, and cosmology. Talks included presentations of recent theoretical progress, experimental results, detector technology advances and a few reminiscences. This is the second such symposium held at Carolina, the first was held in 2000. We were fortunate to have attracted many top speakers who gave scintillating presentations, most of which have been put in writing and are presented in this volume. Many thanks go to various people involved in this conference, including of course Drs Avignone, Fiorini and Rosen whose efforts over the years provided us with the opportunity, and all the speakers, many of whom took time out of their very busy schedules to come to Columbia and give talks and then to write them up. Thanks also to our Department Chairman, Professor Chaden Djalali, and to our support staff which included Mr Robert Sproul, Ms Mary Papp, Ms Beth Powell and Mr R Simmons. Finally, we must thank our funding agencies which are the South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, The Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and the University of South Carolina. The Editorial Team: Frank Avignone (USC) Richard Creswick (USC) Kuniharu Kubodera (USC) Milind Purohit (USC, Chief Editor) CISNP Scientific Advisory Committee: Wick Haxton (Seattle) Barry Holstein (Amherst) Kuniharu Kubodera (USC) CISNP Organizing Committee: Richard Creswick (USC) Chaden Djalali (USC

  2. Microbial diversity and carbon cycling in San Francisco Bay wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Wetland restoration efforts in San Francisco Bay aim to rebuild habitat for endangered species and provide an effective carbon storage solution, reversing land subsidence caused by a century of industrial and agricultural development. However, the benefits of carbon sequestration may be negated by increased methane production in newly constructed wetlands, making these wetlands net greenhouse gas (GHG) sources to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of wetland restoration on below-ground microbial communities responsible for GHG cycling in a suite of historic and restored wetlands in SF Bay. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with real-time GHG monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of wetland soil microbial communities. The wetland soils harbor diverse communities of bacteria and archaea whose membership varies with sampling location, proximity to plant roots and sampling depth. Our results also highlight the dramatic differences in GHG production between historic and restored wetlands and allow us to link microbial community composition and GHG cycling with key environmental variables including salinity, soil carbon and plant species.

  3. A mangrove creek restoration plan utilizing hydraulic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marois, Darryl E; Mitsch, William J

    2017-11-01

    Despite the valuable ecosystem services provided by mangrove ecosystems they remain threatened around the globe. Urban development has been a primary cause for mangrove destruction and deterioration in south Florida USA for the last several decades. As a result, the restoration of mangrove forests has become an important topic of research. Using field sampling and remote-sensing we assessed the past and present hydrologic conditions of a mangrove creek and its connected mangrove forest and brackish marsh systems located on the coast of Naples Bay in southwest Florida. We concluded that the hydrology of these connected systems had been significantly altered from its natural state due to urban development. We propose here a mangrove creek restoration plan that would extend the existing creek channel 1.1 km inland through the adjacent mangrove forest and up to an adjacent brackish marsh. We then tested the hydrologic implications using a hydraulic model of the mangrove creek calibrated with tidal data from Naples Bay and water levels measured within the creek. The calibrated model was then used to simulate the resulting hydrology of our proposed restoration plan. Simulation results showed that the proposed creek extension would restore a twice-daily flooding regime to a majority of the adjacent mangrove forest and that there would still be minimal tidal influence on the brackish marsh area, keeping its salinity at an acceptable level. This study demonstrates the utility of combining field data and hydraulic modeling to aid in the design of mangrove restoration plans.

  4. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  5. Restorative dentistry for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donly, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses contemporary pediatric restorative dentistry. Indications and contraindications for the choice of different restorative materials in different clinical situations, including the risk assessment of the patient, are presented. The specific use of glass ionomer cement or resin-modified glass ionomer cement, resin-based composite, and stainless steel crowns is discussed so that preparation design and restoration placement is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. AN OBJECTIVE CLIMATOLOGY OF CAROLINA COASTAL FRONTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes a simple objective method to identify cases of coastal frontogenesis offshore of the Carolinas and to characterize the sensible weather associated with frontal passage at measurement sites near the coast. The identification method, based on surface hourly d...

  7. South Carolina Guide for Small Business Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Ellen C.; Elliott, Ronald T.

    This guide for small business management in South Carolina addresses the three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. The guide contains suggestions for specific classroom activities for each domain. Each of the 11 units or tasks in the guide contains a competency statement followed by performance objectives, job-relevant…

  8. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by South Carolina single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  9. [South Carolina School-to-Work Brochures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for Academic and Career Education, Pendleton, SC.

    This packet includes three pamphlets from the South Carolina School-to-Work Initiative, which involves many components in ensuring for students high levels of academic and technical achievement; strong problem-solving, teamwork and technology skills; clear career goals; better access to postsecondary education and meaningful employment; and a…

  10. Families & the North Carolina Smart Start Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Betsy; Bryant, Donna; Zolotor, Adam

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years and their families. This study examined characteristics of families participating in Smart Start, their child care arrangements and family activities, and their need for and use of community…

  11. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by North Carolina single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  12. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  13. Arsenic in North Carolina: public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Messier, Kyle P; Shehee, Mina; Rudo, Kenneth; Serre, Marc L; Fry, Rebecca C

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and relevant environmental contaminant in drinking water systems. We set out to comprehensively examine statewide arsenic trends and identify areas of public health concern. Specifically, arsenic trends in North Carolina private wells were evaluated over an eleven-year period using the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services database for private domestic well waters. We geocoded over 63,000 domestic well measurements by applying a novel geocoding algorithm and error validation scheme. Arsenic measurements and geographical coordinates for database entries were mapped using Geographic Information System techniques. Furthermore, we employed a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) geostatistical framework, which accounts for geocoding error to better estimate arsenic values across the state and identify trends for unmonitored locations. Of the approximately 63,000 monitored wells, 7712 showed detectable arsenic concentrations that ranged between 1 and 806μg/L. Additionally, 1436 well samples exceeded the EPA drinking water standard. We reveal counties of concern and demonstrate a historical pattern of elevated arsenic in some counties, particularly those located along the Carolina terrane (Carolina slate belt). We analyzed these data in the context of populations using private well water and identify counties for targeted monitoring, such as Stanly and Union Counties. By spatiotemporally mapping these data, our BME estimate revealed arsenic trends at unmonitored locations within counties and better predicted well concentrations when compared to the classical kriging method. This study reveals relevant information on the location of arsenic-contaminated private domestic wells in North Carolina and indicates potential areas at increased risk for adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Political and Economic Geomorphology: The Effect of Market Forces on Stream Restoration Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.; Doyle, M. W.; Lave, R.; Robertson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Stream restoration in the U.S. is increasingly driven by compensatory mitigation; impacts to streams associated with typical land development activities must be offset via restoration of streams elsewhere. This policy application creates conditions in which restored stream ';credits' are traded under market-like conditions, comparable to wetland mitigation, carbon offsets, or endangered species habitat banking. The effect of this relatively new mechanism to finance stream restoration on design and construction is unknown. This research explores whether the introduction of a credit-based mitigation apparatus results in streams designed to maximize credit yields (i.e., ';credit-chasing') rather than focusing on restoring natural systems or functions. In other words, are market-based restored streams different from those designed for non-market purposes? We quantified geomorphic characteristics (e.g. hydraulic geometry, sinuosity, profile, bed sediment, LWD) of three types of streams: (1) a random sample of non-restored reaches, (2) streams restored for compensatory mitigation, and (3) streams restored under alternative funding sources (e.g., government grant programs, non-profit activities). We also compared the location of the types of stream reaches to determine whether there is a spatiality of restored streams. Physical data were complemented with a series of semi-structured interviews with key personnel in the stream restoration industry to solicit information on the influence of policy interpretation and market-driven factors on the design process. Preliminary analysis suggests that restoration is driving a directional shift in stream morphology in North Carolina. As a simple example, in the Piedmont, non-restored and restored channels had mean sinuosity of 1.17 and 1.23, respectively (p sale of restored stream credits, was seen as critically important rather than the marginal gains to be made by manipulating particular stream designs to glean more credits

  15. Ecological restoration [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    2010-01-01

    Ecological restoration has increased in prominence in recent years as environmental policies have slowed the rate of environmental degradation in many parts of the world and practitioners have looked for active ways to reverse the damage. Because of the vast number of types and contexts of degraded ecological systems, the field of ecological restoration is still very...

  16. Humic Substances from Manila Bay and Bolinao Bay Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Llaguno

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The C,H,N composition of sedimentary humic acids (HA extracted from three sites in Manila Bay and six sites in Bolinao Bay yielded H/C atomic ratios of 1.1-1.4 and N/C atomic ratios of 0.09 - 0.16. The Manila Bay HA's had lower H/C and N/C ratios compared to those from Bolinao Bay. The IR spectra showed prominent aliphatic C-H and amide I and II bands. Manila Bay HA's also had less diverse molecular composition based on the GC-MS analysis of the CuO and alkaline permanganate oxidation products of the humic acids.

  17. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    we introduce northern forests as an ecosystem, discuss the historical and recent human impact and provide a brief status report on the ecological restoration projects and research already conducted there. Based on this discussion, we argue that before any restoration actions commence, the ecology......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here...

  18. Retributive and restorative justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  19. Review of suspended sediment in lower South Bay relevant to light attenuation and phytoplankton blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Manning, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Lower South Bay (LSB), a shallow subembayment of San Francisco Bay (SFB), is situated south of the Dumbarton Bridge, and is surrounded by, and interconnected with, a network of sloughs, marshes, and former salt ponds undergoing restoration (Figure ES.1). LSB receives 120 million gallons per day of treated wastewater effluent from three publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) that service San Jose and the densely populated surrounding region. During the dry season, when flows from creeks and streams are at their minimum, POTW effluent comprises the majority of freshwater flow to Lower South Bay. Although LSB has a large tidal prism, it experiences limited net exchange with the surrounding Bay, because much of the water that leaves on ebb tides returns during the subsequent flood tides. The limited exchange leads to distinctly different biogeochemical conditions in LSB compared to other SFB subembayments, including LSB having the highest nutrient concentrations and highest phytoplankton biomass.

  20. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  1. Surface geology of Williston 7.5-minute quadrangle, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willoughby, R.H.; Nystrom, P.G. Jr.; Denham, M.E.; Eddy, C.A.; Price, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed geologic mapping has shown the distribution and lithologic character of stratigraphic units and sedimentary deposits in Williston quadrangle. A middle Eocene stratigraphic unit correlative with the restricted McBean Formation is the oldest unit at the surface. The McBean-equivalent unit occurs at low elevations along drainages in the north of the quadrangle but does not crop out. These beds are typically very fine- to fine-grained quartz sand, locally with abundant black organic matter and less commonly with calcium carbonate. The uppermost middle Eocene Orangeburg District bed, commonly composed of loose, clay-poor, very fine- to fine-grained quartz sand, occurs at the surface in the north and southwest of the quadrangle with sparse exposure. The upper Eocene Dry Branch Formation occurs on valley slopes throughout the quadrangle. The Dry Branch is composed of medium- to very coarse-grained quartz sand with varying amounts on interstitial clay and lesser bedded clay. The upper Eocene Tobacco road Sand occurs on upper valley slopes and some interfluves and consists of very fine-grained quartz sand to quartz granules. The upper Middle Miocene to lower Upper Miocene upland unit caps the interfluves and is dominantly coarse-grained quartz sand to quartz granules, with included granule-size particles of white clay that are weathered feldspars. Loose, incohesive quartzose sands of the eolian Pinehurst Formation, Upper Miocene to Lower Pliocene, occur on the eastern slopes of some interfluves in the north of the quadrangle. Quartz sand with varying included humic matter occurs in Carolina bays, and loose deposits of windblown sand occur on the rims of several Carolina bays. Quaternary alluvium fills the valley floors

  2. 226Ra behavior in the Pee Dee river-Winyah Bay estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinger, R.J.; Moore, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved 226 Ra in Winyah Bay, South Carolina, and in the adjacent Atlantic Ocean are augmented by the desorption of radium from sediments in the low-salinity area of the estuary and diffusion from bottom sediments. Desorption of 226 Ra is reflected by lower concentrations in suspended sediments from higher-salinity regions of the estuary. Bottom sediments from the high-salinity region have lower 226 Ra/ 230 Th activity ratios than those from the low-salinity end. (orig./ME)

  3. Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBiase, Adrienne E; Taylor, Barbara E

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  4. Workshop for coordinating South Carolina`s pre-college systemic initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-26

    The goal of the South Carolina Statewide Systemic Initiative (SC SSI) is to provide quality and effective learning experiences in science and mathematics to all people of South Carolina by affecting systemic change. To accomplish this goal, South Carolina must: (1) coordinate actions among many partners for science and mathematics change; (2) place the instruments of change into the hands of the effectors of change - teachers and schools; and (3) galvanize the support of policy makers, parents, and local communities for change. The SC SSI proposes to establish a network of 13 regional mathematics and science HUBs. The central idea of this plan is the accumulation of Teacher Leaders at each HUB who are prepared in special Curriculum Leadership Institutes to assist other teachers and schools. The HUB becomes a regional nexus for delivering services to schools who request assistance by matching schools with Teacher Leaders. Other initiatives such as the use of new student performance assessments, the integration of instructional technologies into the curriculum, a pilot preservice program, and Family Math and Family Science will be bundled together through the Teacher Leaders in the HUBs. Concurrent policy changes at the state level in teacher and administrator certification and recertification requirements, school regulations and accountability, and the student performance assessment system will enable teachers and schools to support instructional practices that model South Carolina`s new state Curriculum Frameworks in Mathematics and Science.

  5. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  6. Restoration of landfill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A K; Chamley, M E

    1986-10-01

    Many excavated quarries are subsequently used for waste disposal operations and frequently imported landfill provides the only means of restoring a former quarry to some beneficial afteruse. Concentrating solely on the final surface cover, this paper sets out some of the principles, which should be considered by those involved in landfill operations to ensure the long term success of restoration schemes. With the emphasis on restoration to agriculture, factors such as availability of cover materials and depths necessary are discussed in terms of requirements to support plant growth, protect clay capping layers and prevent damage to agricultural implements. Soil handling and appropriate after care management are considered. 4 refs.

  7. The chronic pain initiative and community care of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Michael; McKee, Jerry; Mahan, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    The rate of unintentional deaths from opioid poisoning has reached epidemic proportions. One model of successful intervention is Project Lazarus, an integrated-care pilot program in Wilkes County, North Carolina. Community Care of North Carolina, supported by a grant of $1.3 million from the Kate B. Reynolds Charitable Trust and matching funds of $1.3 million from the North Carolina Office of Rural Health and Community Care, is now expanding the Project Lazarus approach statewide.

  8. Culex coronator in coastal Georgia and South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulis, Robert A; Russell, Jennifer D; Lewandowski, Henry B; Thompson, Pamela S; Heusel, Jeffrey L

    2008-12-01

    In 2007, adult Culex coronator were collected in Chatham County, Georgia, and Jasper County, South Carolina, during nuisance and disease vector surveillance efforts. A total of 75 specimens of this species were collected at 8 widely separated locations in Chatham County, Georgia, and 4 closely situated sites in Jasper County, South Carolina. These represent the first Atlantic coastal records of this species in Georgia and the first confirmed records of Cx. coronator in South Carolina.

  9. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  10. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  11. Principles of Wetland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  12. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... this massive reconstruction work, which involved moving more than 2,7 million cubic meters of earth, cause a lot of ‘dissonance’ among the local population, the resulting ‘nature’ and its dynamic processes are also constantly compromising the preferred image of the restored landscape (Clemmensen 2014......). The presentation offers insight into an on-going research and development project - Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual, which question existing trends and logics within nature restoration. The project explores how the Skjern River Delta could have been ‘restored’ with a greater sensibility for its cultural...

  13. based dynamic voltage restorer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    operation due to presence of increased use of nonlinear loads (computers, microcontrollers ... simulations of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) was achieved using MATLAB/Simulink. ..... using Discrete PWM generator, then the IGBT inverter.

  14. Bay of Fundy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying

  15. Surficial geologic map of the Elizabethtown 30' x 60' quadrangle, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Robert E.; Lewis, William C.; Crider, E. Allen

    2011-01-01

    The Elizabethtown 30' x 60' quadrangle is located in southeastern North Carolina between Fayetteville and Wilmington. Most of the area is flat to gently rolling, although steep slopes occur locally along some of the larger streams. Total relief in the area is slightly over 210 feet (ft), with elevations ranging from slightly less than 10 ft above sea level along the Black River (east of Rowan in the southeastern corner of the map) to slightly over 220 ft in the northwestern corner northeast of Hope Mills. The principal streams in the area are the Cape Fear, Black, South, and Lumber Rivers, which on average flow from northwest to southeast across the map area. The principal north-south roads are Interstate Route 95, Interstate Route 40, U.S. Route 117, U.S. Route 301, U.S. Route 421, and U.S. Route 701, and the principal east-west roads are N.C. State Route 241 and N.C. State Route 41. This part of North Carolina is primarily rural and agricultural. The largest communities in and adjacent to the area are Elizabethtown, Hope Mills, Clinton, Warsaw, and Lumberton. The map lies entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province. Outstanding features of this area are the large number of sand-rimmed Carolina bays, five of which contain enough water to constitute natural lakes: Bay Tree Lake, Salter Lake, Little Singletary Lake, Singletary Lake, and White Lake. These are associated with widespread windblown sand deposits on which are grown abundant crops of blueberries. The extent and distribution of these deposits have been estimated based on a combination of augerhole, outcrop, and light-detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The geology of the Elizabethtown 30' x 60' quadrangle was originally mapped on 32 7.5-minute quadrangles at 1:24,000 scale and then compiled on this 1:100,000-scale base. The base-map topographic contours on this compilation are shown in meters; the cross sections, structure contours, and well and corehole basement elevations have been

  16. Environmental management of a highly impacted, urbanized tropical estuary: rehabilitation and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorhaug, A.

    1980-03-01

    The principles of the dynamics and interrelationships within the dominant subtropical and tropical Caribbean seagrass community have been studied previously before, during, and after impact. From these and scores of observations of damage and recovery patterns in Thalassia ecosystems, a sense of management recovery strategy has emerged. Artificial restoring of Thalassia testudinum seeds into areas cut off from stock (fruit, seeds) appeared feasible on a large scale after the Turkey Point (Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida) restoration and test sampling throughout North Biscayne Bay. Two large-scale seeding attempts were made; after 11 months they compared favorably with Turkey Point specimens with regard to growth parameters, despite the turbidity and other persistent pollution. Thus, the possible areas in which Thalassia seed restoration can be used has increased to include estuaries of multiple impact still in various stages of recovery after physical and sewage pollution. This technique should be especially useful to “developing” nations where important nearshore fisheries nurseries based on Thalassia ecosystems have been heavily damaged and now lie barren. Man's impact on the estuary where seed restoration was attempted includes the following activities: 50% of the bay bottom directly dredged or filled (leaving much unconsolidated sediment); 50 million gallons of domestic waste dumped directly into a low flushing part of the bay for 20 years; seven major causeways transecting the bay, restricting circulation and flushing; two artificial inlets made into navigational channels; freshwater sheet flow drastically changed due to channelization by flood-control canals; urban runoff from a million people entering the bay. Most of the impacts have now abated; however, their long-term effects remain.

  17. F00461: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Onslow Bay, North Carolina, 2000-06-30

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. H08778: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Bull Bay, South Carolina, 1964-05-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  19. H08797: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Vicinity of Winyah Bay Entrance, South Carolina, 1964-10-21

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis for Leque Island and zis a ba Restoration Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiting, Jonathan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Khangaonkar, Tarang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    Ducks Unlimited, Inc. in collaboration with Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians have proposed the restoration of Leque Island and zis a ba (formerly Matterand) sites near the mouth of Old Stillaguamish River Channel in Port Susan Bay, Washington. The Leque Island site, which is owned by WDFW, consists of nearly 253 acres of land south of Highway 532 that is currently behind a perimeter dike. The 90-acres zis a ba site, also shielded by dikes along the shoreline, is located just upstream of Leque Island and is owned by Stillaguamish Tribes. The proposed actions consider the removal or modification of perimeter dikes at both locations to allow estuarine functions to be restored. The overall objective of the proposed projects is to remove the dike barriers to 1) provide connectivity and access between the tidal river channel and the restoration site for use by juvenile migrating salmon and 2) create a self-sustaining tidal marsh habitat. Ducks Unlimited engaged Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Port Susan Bay, Skagit Bay, and the interconnecting Leque Island region for use in support of the feasibility assessment for the Leque Island and zis a ba restoration projects. The objective of this modeling-based feasibility assessment is to evaluate the performance of proposed restoration actions in terms of achieving habitat goals while assessing the potential hydraulic and sediment transport impacts to the site and surrounding parcels of land.

  1. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  2. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  3. Recent results from Daya Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Ming-chung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing powerful nuclear reactors as antineutrino sources, high mountains to provide ample shielding from cosmic rays in the vicinity, and functionally identical detectors with large target volume for near-far relative measurement, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has achieved unprecedented precision in measuring the neutrino mixing angle θ13 and the neutrino mass squared difference |Δm2ee|. I will report the latest Daya Bay results on neutrino oscillations and light sterile neutrino search.

  4. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ''Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration''. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration

  5. 76 FR 37805 - Progress Energy Carolinas; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2206-030] Progress Energy Carolinas; Notice of Meeting On May 31, 2011, Progress Energy Carolinas (Progress Energy), licensee for the... National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and staff to discuss what is needed to complete formal...

  6. Terrapene carolina triunguis (three-toed box turtle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory K. Adams; Jennifer H. Adams

    2013-01-01

    Terrapene carolina triunguis is the western-most subspecies of T. carolina and has a range that stretches from southeast Kansas and central Missouri south to the Gulf Coast (Conant and Collins 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts....

  7. Accessibility and Usage of Technology by North Carolina Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Maegen R.; Warner, Wendy J.; Flowers, James L.; Croom, D. Barry

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the integration of technology into the instructional process in North Carolina agricultural education classrooms. The study used survey research methodology to collect information on the availability of instructional technology and the frequency of instructional technology use by North Carolina agriculture teachers. The study…

  8. Teacher Salary Bonuses in North Carolina. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Teacher Salary Bonuses in North Carolina"--a paper presented at the February 2008 National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference--Jacob Vigdor of Duke University reviews a teacher salary bonus program operating in North Carolina. Known officially as the ABC's of Public Education, the program awards teachers…

  9. Temporal and spatial variability in North Carolina piedmont stream temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Boggs; G. Sun; S.G. McNulty; W. Swartley; Treasure E.; W. Summer

    2009-01-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial patterns of in-stream temperature can provide useful information to managing future impacts of climate change on these systems. This study will compare temporal patterns and spatial variability of headwater in-stream temperature in six catchments in the piedmont of North Carolina in two different geological regions, Carolina slate...

  10. Lethal domestic violence in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, M G; Spence, P R; Spence, R L

    2000-01-01

    Strategies for preventing domestic violence can be tailored to a particular geographic or socioeconomic area if the patterns of domestic violence in the area are known. National statistics, although widely available, may not be applicable to a specific region. We reviewed homicide deaths in Eastern North Carolina between 1978 and 1999 to identify patterns in this rural area. Approximately 20% of the homicide deaths in eastern North Carolina are caused by intimate partners. Women accounted for 53% of the victims in 1976, similar to national figures but not rising to 72% as seen nationally in 1998. Latinos are an increasing presence in the area, but had only one recorded episode of lethal violence against an intimate partner. Gunshots accounted for most of the deaths (59% in men, 72% in women). Knowledge of such patterns can assist in selecting prevention strategies for this particular area. Over the last 25 years increasing attention has been devoted to domestic violence (DV), initially defined as abuse committed against a spouse, former spouse, fiancée, boy- or girlfriend, or cohabitant. As time has passed, the definition has been broadened to include other family members--elders, children, and siblings. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now uses the term "intimate partner violence" for intentional emotional or physical abuse inflicted by a spouse, ex-spouse, a present or former boy- or girlfriend, or date. For the purposes of this paper, we consider DV interchangeable with intimate partner violence. There has been a national concern that abusive events are under-reported. The National Crime Victimization Survey, an anonymous household survey, indicated nearly 1 million incidents of non-lethal intimate partner violence per year between 1992 and 1996. The number decreased from 1.1 million in 1993 to 840,000 in 1996. Attempts to validate such data for a given geographic area often require subjects to violate anonymity--this may account for lower

  11. Survey and Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileto, C.; Vegas, F.

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser) and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  12. SURVEY AND RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mileto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the technological evolution over the last two centuries, survey has experienced two main conceptual leaps: the introduction of photography as a tool for an indiscriminate register for reality, and the shift from autographic to allographic survey, phenomena which can generate a distancing effect within the restoration process. Besides, this text presents the relationship between survey in its numerous forms and technologies (manual and semi-manual to more complex ones like scanner-laser and the restoration of the building, either for establishing a diagnosis, operating or valorizating, illustrating it with examples developed by the authors, as well as the criteria to be applied when documenting a building to be restored, irrespective of the means and technology available in each case.

  13. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: Finding the common ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Hull, Joshua M.; Albertson, Joy D.; Bloom, Valary K.; Bobzien, Steven; McBroom, Jennifer; Latta, Marilyn; Olofson, Peggy; Rohmer, Tobias M.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Strong, Donald R.; Grijalva, Erik; Wood, Julian K.; Skalos, Shannon; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway’s Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail), a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora × S. foliosa) readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict and propose

  14. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: finding the common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Casazza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway's Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail, a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora. California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora à - S. foliosa readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict

  15. Chesapeake Bay recovery and factors affecting trends: Long-termmonitoring, indicators, and insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the outcome of restoration efforts is the only way to identify the status of a recovery and the most effective management strategies. In this paper, we discuss Chesapeake Bay and watershed recovery and factors influencing water quality trends. For over 30 years, the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership’s long-term tidal and watershed water quality monitoring networks have measured physical, chemical and biological parameters throughout the bay and its surrounding watershed underpinning an adaptive management process to drive ecosystem recovery. There are many natural and anthropogenic factors operating and interacting to affect the watershed and bay water quality recovery responses to management actions. Across habitats and indicators, the bay and its watershed continue to express a diverse spatial and temporal fabric of multiscale conditions, stressors and trends that show a range of health conditions and impairments, as well as evidence of progress and degradation. Recurrent independent reviews of the monitoring program have driven a culture of continued adaptation of the monitoring networks to reflect ever evolving management information needs. The adherence to bay and watershed-wide consistent monitoring protocols provides monitoring data supporting analyses and development of scientific syntheses that underpin indicator and model development, regulatory assessments, targeting of management actions, evaluation of management effectiveness, and directing of priorities and policies.

  16. Using the Surface Reflectance MODIS Terra Product to Estimate Turbidity in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Rickman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Turbidity is a commonly-used index of the factors that determine light penetration in the water column. Consistent estimation of turbidity is crucial to design environmental and restoration management plans, to predict fate of possible pollutants, and to estimate sedimentary fluxes into the ocean. Traditional methods monitoring fixed geographical locations at fixed intervals may not be representative of the mean water turbidity in estuaries between intervals, and can be expensive and time consuming. Although remote sensing offers a good solution to this limitation, it is still not widely used due in part to required complex processing of imagery. There are satellite-derived products, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra surface reflectance daily product (MOD09GQ Band 1 (620–670 nm which are now routinely available at 250 m spatial resolution and corrected for atmospheric effect. This study shows this product to be useful to estimate turbidity in Tampa Bay, Florida, after rainfall events (R2 = 0.76, n = 34. Within Tampa Bay, Hillsborough Bay (HB and Old Tampa Bay (OTB presented higher turbidity compared to Middle Tampa Bay (MTB and Lower Tampa Bay (LTB.

  17. Seagrass restoration enhances "blue carbon" sequestration in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Jill T; McGlathery, Karen J; Gunnell, John; McKee, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that provide important ecosystem services in the coastal zone, including carbon and nutrient sequestration. Organic carbon in seagrass sediment, known as "blue carbon," accumulates from both in situ production and sedimentation of particulate carbon from the water column. Using a large-scale restoration (>1700 ha) in the Virginia coastal bays as a model system, we evaluated the role of seagrass, Zosteramarina, restoration in carbon storage in sediments of shallow coastal ecosystems. Sediments of replicate seagrass meadows representing different age treatments (as time since seeding: 0, 4, and 10 years), were analyzed for % carbon, % nitrogen, bulk density, organic matter content, and ²¹⁰Pb for dating at 1-cm increments to a depth of 10 cm. Sediment nutrient and organic content, and carbon accumulation rates were higher in 10-year seagrass meadows relative to 4-year and bare sediment. These differences were consistent with higher shoot density in the older meadow. Carbon accumulation rates determined for the 10-year restored seagrass meadows were 36.68 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹. Within 12 years of seeding, the restored seagrass meadows are expected to accumulate carbon at a rate that is comparable to measured ranges in natural seagrass meadows. This the first study to provide evidence of the potential of seagrass habitat restoration to enhance carbon sequestration in the coastal zone.

  18. Fall spawning of Atlantic sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph A.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Flowers, H. Jared

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) declared Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus to be threatened or endangered throughout its range in U.S. waters. Restoration of the subspecies will require much new information, particularly on the location and timing of spawning. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and sampling with anchored artificial substrates (spawning pads) to detect fall (September–November) spawning in the Roanoke River in North Carolina. This population is included in the Carolina Distinct Population Segment, which was classified by NOAA as endangered. Sampling was done immediately below the first shoals encountered by anadromous fishes, near Weldon. Our collection of 38 eggs during the 21 d that spawning pads were deployed appears to be the first such collection (spring or fall) for wild-spawned Atlantic Sturgeon eggs. Based on egg development stages, estimated spawning dates were September 17–18 and 18–19 at water temperatures from 25.3°C to 24.3°C and river discharge from 55 to 297 m3/s. These observations about fall spawning and habitat use should aid in protecting critical habitats and planning research on Atlantic Sturgeon spawning in other rivers.

  19. Top-down control of phytoplankton by oysters in Chesapeake Bay, USA: Comment on Pomeroy et al. (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy et al. (2006) proposed that temporal and spatial mismatches between eastern oyster filtration and phytoplankton abundance will preclude restored stocks of eastern oysters from reducing the severity of hypoxia in the deep channel of central Chesapeake Bay. We refute this c...

  20. 78 FR 45152 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas; North Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... North Carolina SIP meets the requirements of section 182(b)(5) applicable for purposes of redesignation...] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designation of Areas; North Carolina; Redesignation... supplemented on March 28, 2013, the State of North Carolina, through the North Carolina Department of...

  1. Ecosystem history of South Florida; Biscayne Bay sediment core descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    The 'Ecosystem History of Biscayne Bay and the southeast Coast' project of the U.S. Geological Survey is part of a multi-disciplinary effort that includes Florida Bay and the Everglades to provide paleoecologic reconstructions for the south Florida region. Reconstructions of past salinity, nutrients, substrate, and water quality are needed to determine ecosystem variability due to both natural and human-induced causes. Our understanding of the relations between the south Florida ecosystem and introduced forces will allow managers to make informed decisions regarding the south Florida ecosystem restoration and monitoring. The record of past ecosystem conditions can be found in shallow sediment cores. This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report describes six shallow sediment cores collected from Biscayne Bay. The cores described herein are being processed for a variety of analytical procedures, and this provides the descriptive framework for future analyses of the included cores. This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards or with the North American Stratigraphic Code. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  2. Elk habitat suitability map for North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Steven G.; Cobb, David T.; Collazo, Jaime A.

    2015-01-01

    Although eastern elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) were extirpated from the eastern United States in the 19th century, they were successfully reintroduced in the North Carolina portion of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the early 2000s. The North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission (NCWRC) is evaluating the prospect of reintroducing the species in other locations in the state to augment recreational opportunities. As a first step in the process, we created a state-wide elk habitat suitability map. We used medium-scale data sets and a two-component approach to iden- tify areas of high biological value for elk and exclude from consideration areas where elk-human conflicts were more likely. Habitats in the state were categorized as 66% unsuitable, 16.7% low, 17% medium, and <1% high suitability for elk. The coastal plain and Piedmont contained the most suitable habitat, but prospective reintroduction sites were largely excluded from consideration due to extensive agricultural activities and pervasiveness of secondary roads. We ranked 31 areas (≥ 500 km2) based on their suitability for reintroduction. The central region of the state contained the top five ranked areas. The Blue Ridge Mountains, where the extant population of elk occurs, was ranked 21st. Our work provides a benchmark for decision makers to evaluate potential consequences and trade-offs associated with the selection of prospective elk reintroduction sites.

  3. Community-level response of fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates to stream restoration in a third-order tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selego, Stephen M.; Rose, Charnee L.; Merovich, George T.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010). Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI), the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  4. Community-Level Response of Fishes and Aquatic Macroinvertebrates to Stream Restoration in a Third-Order Tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Selego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010. Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI, the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  5. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored southeastern depressional wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Barton, Christopher, D.

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can complicate assessments of restoration success. Sixteen drained depressions in South Carolina, USA, were restored experimentally by forest clearing and ditch plugging for potential crediting to a mitigation bank. Depressions were assigned to alternate revegetation methods representing desired targets of herbaceous and wet-forest communities. After five years, restoration progress and revegetation methods were evaluated. Restored hydroperiods differed among wetlands, but all sites developed diverse vegetation of native wetland species. Vegetation traits were influenced by hydroperiod and the effects of early drought, rather than by revegetation method. For mitigation banking, individual wetlands were assessed for improvement from pre-restoration condition and similarity to assigned reference type. Most wetlands met goals to increase hydroperiod, herb-species dominance, and wetland-plant composition. Fewer wetlands achieved equivalence to reference types because some vegetation targets were incompatible with depression hydroperiods and improbable without intensive management. The results illustrated a paradox in judging success when vegetation goals may be unsuited to system constraints.

  6. Restorative justice and victimology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth of restorative justice has sparked debate over the future of the criminal justice system, which has historically adopted a retributive, punitive philosophy and advocated for an individualistic, treatment-orientated approach. This approach has over time failed to address the needs of crime victims, communities and.

  7. Restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  8. Restoration in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blignaut, J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration can provide a wide range of direct and indirect benefits to society. However, there are very few projects that have attempted to properly quantify those benefits and present them in such a way that society is motivated to invest...

  9. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1: Records Search, Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Diazinon Calcium Cyanide A-Dust Pramitol 25E Mayforce Rodeo PZ 270 Dursban Fungicides Prograss PZ 250 Baygon Weed Hoe 108 Unicorn Fogging Solution Benlate...head; the direction in which ground water flows. I DPDO: Defense Property Disposal Office, previously included Redistri- bution and Marketing (R&M

  10. 77 FR 59163 - Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ..., dogwood, and sourwood. Stand density is high, typically ranging from 120 to 160 square feet of basal area... native forest vegetation. This change in condition would improve ecosystem [[Page 59164

  11. Using fire to restore pine/hardwood ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Barton D. Clinton; Ronald L. Hendrick; Amy E. Major

    1997-01-01

    In the Southern Appalachians, mixed pine/hardwood ecosystems occupy the most xeric sites (i.e., south/west aspect ridge sites). They are typically comprised of varying proportions of pitch pine (Pinus rigida), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and/or shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and a mixture of hardwoods, including scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), chestnut oak (...

  12. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1. Records Search, Charleston AFB, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    and plastics plants. Conducted industrial waste surveys, landfill design, and planning for plant environmental protection programs; evaluated air...management study for a major plastics manufacturing company. Responsibilitites included identification and investigation of a number of operating...61 aste Caracteristics 68 Pathways 69 Total 198 divided by 3 = 63 3ross total sc,:re B. Aooly factor for waste containment from waste manaement

  13. 75 FR 10457 - Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... relatively low tree densities of 25-60% forest cover with understories that are dominated by native grasses... trees exist in the overstory of most of these stands and hardwood sprouts and saplings abound in the... in pine plantations. Other stands are sparse due to poor planting success or to past logging that did...

  14. Quantitative validation of a habitat suitability index for oyster restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth eTheuerkauf

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability index (HSI models provide spatially explicit information on the capacity of a given habitat to support a species of interest, and their prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite caution that the reliability of HSIs must be validated using independent, quantitative data, most HSIs intended to inform terrestrial and marine species management remain unvalidated. Furthermore, of the eight HSI models developed for eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica restoration and fishery production, none has been validated. Consequently, we developed, calibrated, and validated an HSI for the eastern oyster to identify optimal habitat for restoration in a tributary of Chesapeake Bay, the Great Wicomico River (GWR. The GWR harbors a high density, restored oyster population, and therefore serves as an excellent model system for assessing the validity of the HSI. The HSI was derived from GIS layers of bottom type, salinity, and water depth (surrogate for dissolved oxygen, and was tested using live adult oyster density data from a survey of high vertical relief reefs (HRR and low vertical relief reefs (LRR in the sanctuary network. Live adult oyster density was a statistically-significant sigmoid function of the HSI, which validates the HSI as a robust predictor of suitable oyster reef habitat for rehabilitation or restoration. In addition, HRR had on average 103-116 more adults m^−2 than LRR at a given level of the HSI. For HRR, HSI values ≥0.3 exceeded the accepted restoration target of 50 live adult oysters m^−2. For LRR, the HSI was generally able to predict live adult oyster densities that meet or exceed the target at HSI values ≥0.3. The HSI indicated that there remain large areas of suitable habitat for restoration in the GWR. This study provides a robust framework for HSI model development and validation, which can be refined and applied to other systems and previously developed HSIs to improve the efficacy of

  15. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all...

  16. 77 FR 2972 - Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application for Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene Thunder Bay Power Company Project No. 2404-095 Thunder Bay Power, LLC Midwest Hydro, Inc...

  17. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.125 Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship...

  18. 77 FR 38488 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY... restrict vessels from a portion of the St. Lawrence River during the Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence...

  19. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  20. Humboldt Bay Benthic Habitats 2009 Aquatic Setting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  1. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  2. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  3. Holocene Tsunamis in Avachinsky Bay, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinegina, Tatiana K.; Bazanova, Lilya I.; Zelenin, Egor A.; Bourgeois, Joanne; Kozhurin, Andrey I.; Medvedev, Igor P.; Vydrin, Danil S.

    2018-04-01

    This article presents results of the study of tsunami deposits on the Avachinsky Bay coast, Kurile-Kamchatka island arc, NW Pacific. We used tephrochronology to assign ages to the tsunami deposits, to correlate them between excavations, and to restore paleo-shoreline positions. In addition to using established regional marker tephra, we establish a detailed tephrochronology for more local tephra from Avachinsky volcano. For the first time in this area, proximal to Kamchatka's primary population, we reconstruct the vertical runup and horizontal inundation for 33 tsunamis recorded over the past 4200 years, 5 of which are historical events - 1737, 1792, 1841, 1923 (Feb) and 1952. The runup heights for all 33 tsunamis range from 1.9 to 5.7 m, and inundation distances from 40 to 460 m. The average recurrence for historical events is 56 years and for the entire study period 133 years. The obtained data makes it possible to calculate frequencies of tsunamis by size, using reconstructed runup and inundation, which is crucial for tsunami hazard assessment and long-term tsunami forecasting. Considering all available data on the distribution of historical and paleo-tsunami heights along eastern Kamchatka, we conclude that the southern part of the Kamchatka subduction zone generates stronger tsunamis than its northern part. The observed differences could be associated with variations in the relative velocity and/or coupling between the downgoing Pacific Plate and Kamchatka.

  4. Holocene Tsunamis in Avachinsky Bay, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinegina, Tatiana K.; Bazanova, Lilya I.; Zelenin, Egor A.; Bourgeois, Joanne; Kozhurin, Andrey I.; Medvedev, Igor P.; Vydrin, Danil S.

    2018-03-01

    This article presents results of the study of tsunami deposits on the Avachinsky Bay coast, Kurile-Kamchatka island arc, NW Pacific. We used tephrochronology to assign ages to the tsunami deposits, to correlate them between excavations, and to restore paleo-shoreline positions. In addition to using established regional marker tephra, we establish a detailed tephrochronology for more local tephra from Avachinsky volcano. For the first time in this area, proximal to Kamchatka's primary population, we reconstruct the vertical runup and horizontal inundation for 33 tsunamis recorded over the past 4200 years, 5 of which are historical events - 1737, 1792, 1841, 1923 (Feb) and 1952. The runup heights for all 33 tsunamis range from 1.9 to 5.7 m, and inundation distances from 40 to 460 m. The average recurrence for historical events is 56 years and for the entire study period 133 years. The obtained data makes it possible to calculate frequencies of tsunamis by size, using reconstructed runup and inundation, which is crucial for tsunami hazard assessment and long-term tsunami forecasting. Considering all available data on the distribution of historical and paleo-tsunami heights along eastern Kamchatka, we conclude that the southern part of the Kamchatka subduction zone generates stronger tsunamis than its northern part. The observed differences could be associated with variations in the relative velocity and/or coupling between the downgoing Pacific Plate and Kamchatka.

  5. Identification of a novel herpesvirus in captive Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Richard R; Norton, Terry M; Bronson, Ellen; Allender, Matthew C; Stedman, Nancy; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-02-25

    Herpesviruses are significant pathogens of chelonians which most commonly cause upper respiratory tract disease and necrotizing stomatitis. Herpesvirus infection was identified in two populations of captive Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) using histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with DNA sequencing. Necrotizing lesions with eosinophilic to amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were identified in the tissues of one hatch-year individual in January 2013, which was herpesvirus positive by PCR. A separate captive group of adults had an observed herpesvirus prevalence of 58% using PCR in July 2011. In these cases, a novel herpesvirus, Terrapene herpesvirus 1 (TerHV1), was identified and serves as the first herpesvirus sequenced in the genus Terrapene. Similar to the other herpesviruses of the Order Testudines, TerHV1 clusters with the genus Scutavirus of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  7. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  8. With Prudhoe Bay in decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Pollock, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Almost every day, it seems, someone is mentioning Prudhoe Bay---its development activities, the direction of its oil production, and more recently its decline rate. Almost as frequently, someone is mentioning the number of companies abandoning exploration in Alaska. The state faces a double-edged dilemma: decline of its most important oil field and a diminished effort to find a replacement for the lost production. ARCO has seen the Prudhoe Bay decline coming for some time and has been planning for it. We have reduced staff, and ARCO and BP Exploration are finding cost-effective ways to work more closely together through such vehicles as shared services. At the same time, ARCO is continuing its high level of Alaskan exploration. This article will assess the future of Prudhoe Bay from a technical perspective, review ARCO's exploration plans for Alaska, and suggest what the state can do to encourage other companies to invest in this crucial producing region and exploratory frontier

  9. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for nearshore observations at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Haas, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    An oceanographic field study conducted in February 2010 investigated processes that control nearshore flow and sediment transport dynamics at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation setup, and locations of the sensor deployments. The data collected, and supporting meteorological and streamflow observations, are presented as time-series plots for data visualization. Additionally, the data are available as part of this report.

  10. Climate Variability Structures Plant Community Dynamics in Mediterranean Restored and Reference Tidal Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan E. Chapple

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean regions and other areas with variable climates, interannual weather variability may impact ecosystem dynamics, and by extension ecological restoration projects. Conditions at reference sites, which are often used to evaluate restoration projects, may also be influenced by weather variability, confounding interpretations of restoration outcomes. To better understand the influence of weather variability on plant community dynamics, we explore change in a vegetation dataset collected between 1990 and 2005 at a historic tidal wetland reference site and a nearby tidal wetland restoration project initiated in 1976 in California’s San Francisco (SF Bay. To determine the factors influencing reference and restoration trajectories, we examine changes in plant community identity in relation to annual salinity levels in the SF Bay, annual rainfall, and tidal channel structure. Over the entire study period, both sites experienced significant directional change away from the 1990 community. Community change was accelerated following low salinity conditions that resulted from strong El Niño events in 1994–1995 and 1997–1998. Overall rates of change were greater at the restoration site and driven by a combination of dominant and sub-dominant species, whereas change at the reference site was driven by sub-dominant species. Sub-dominant species first appeared at the restoration site in 1996 and incrementally increased during each subsequent year, whereas sub-dominant species cover at the reference site peaked in 1999 and subsequently declined. Our results show that frequent, long-term monitoring is needed to adequately capture plant community dynamics in variable Mediterranean ecosystems and demonstrate the need for expanding restoration monitoring and timing restoration actions to match weather conditions.

  11. Geology and geomorphology of the Carolina Sandhills, Chesterfield County, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher; Fitzwater, Bradley A.; Whittecar, G. Richard

    2016-01-01

    This two-day field trip focuses on the geology and geomorphology of the Carolina Sandhills in Chesterfield County, South Carolina. This area is located in the updip portion of the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain province, supports an ecosystem of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and wiregrass (Aristida stricta), and contains three major geologic map units: (1) An ~60–120-m-thick unit of weakly consolidated sand, sandstone, mud, and gravel is mapped as the Upper Cretaceous Middendorf Formation and is interpreted as a fluvial deposit. This unit is capped by an unconformity, and displays reticulate mottling, plinthite, and other paleosol features at the unconformity. The Middendorf Formation is the largest aquifer in South Carolina. (2) A 0.3–10-m-thick unit of unconsolidated sand is mapped as the Quaternary Pinehurst Formation and is interpreted as deposits of eolian sand sheets and dunes derived via remobilization of sand from the underlying Cretaceous strata. This unit displays argillic horizons and abundant evidence of bioturbation by vegetation. (3) A geomorphologic feature in the study area is a north-trending escarpment (incised by headwater streams) that forms a markedly asymmetric drainage divide. This drainage divide, as well as the Quaternary terraces deposits, are interpreted as evidence of landscape disequilibrium (possibly geomorphic responses to Quaternary climate changes).

  12. Distribution and behavior of major and trace elements in Tokyo Bay, Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki; Kimura, Ken-ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen major and trace elements in marine sediment core samples collected from the coasts along eastern Japan, i.e. Tokyo Bay (II) (the recess), Tokyo Bay (IV) (the mouth), Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay and the Northwest Pacific basin as a comparative subject were determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The sedimentation rates and sedimentary ages were calculated for the coastal sediment cores by the 210 Pb method. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) Lanthanoid abundance patterns suggested that the major origin of the sediments was terrigenous material. La*/Lu* and Ce*/La* ratios revealed that the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Mutsu Bay more directly reflected the contribution from river than those of other regions. In addition, the Th/Sc ratio indicated that the coastal sediments mainly originated in the materials from the volcanic island-arcs, Japanese islands, whereas those from the Northwest Pacific mainly from the continent. (2) The correlation between the Ce/U and Th/U ratios with high correlation coefficients of 0.920 to 0.991 indicated that all the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Funka Bay were in reducing conditions while at least the upper sediments from Tokyo Bay (IV) and Mutsu Bay were in oxidizing conditions. (3) It became quite obvious that the sedimentation mechanism and the sedimentation environment at Tokyo Bay (II) was different from those at Tokyo Bay (IV), since the sedimentation rate at Tokyo Bay (II) was approximately twice as large as that at Tokyo Bay (IV). The sedimentary age of the 5th layer (8∼10 cm in depth) from Funka Bay was calculated at approximately 1940∼50, which agreed with the time, 1943∼45 when Showa-shinzan was formed by the eruption of the Usu volcano. (author)

  13. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  14. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  15. Long-term competence restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed.

  16. Ecosystem Restoration: Fact or Fancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Callie J. Schweitzer; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; James P. Barnett; Charles K. McMahon; Donald J. Tomszak

    1998-01-01

    Ecological restoration is generally accepted as the reestablishment of natural ecological processes that produce certain dynamic ecosystem properties of structure, function, and processes. But restore to what? The most frequently used conceptual model for the restoration process is the shift of conditions from some current (degraded) dynamic state to some past dynamic...

  17. Ecological Restoration: Guidance from Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Zedler

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the science and practice of ecosystem restoration led me to identify key ecological theories and concepts that are relevant to planning, implementing, and sustaining restoration efforts. From experience with actual restoration projects, I provide guidance for improving the restoration process. Despite an abundance of theory and guidance, restoration goals are not always achieved, and pathways toward targets are not highly predictable. This is understandable, since each restoration project has many constraints and unique challenges. To improve restoration progress, I advise that sites be designed as experiments to allow learning while doing. At least the larger projects can be restored in phases, each designed as experimental treatments to test alternative restoration approaches. Subsequent phases can then adopt one or more of the treatments that best achieved goals in earlier phases while applying new tests of other restoration measures. Both science and restoration can progress simultaneously. This phased, experimental approach (called “adaptive restoration” is an effective tool for improving restoration when monitoring, assessment, interpretation and research are integrated into the process.

  18. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Rios, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  19. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  20. Default Bayes factors for ANOVA designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.; Speckman, Paul L.; Province, Jordan M.

    2012-01-01

    Bayes factors have been advocated as superior to p-values for assessing statistical evidence in data. Despite the advantages of Bayes factors and the drawbacks of p-values, inference by p-values is still nearly ubiquitous. One impediment to the adoption of Bayes factors is a lack of practical

  1. Clinical decisions for anterior restorations: the concept of restorative volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Jorge André; Almeida, Paulo Júlio; Fischer, Alex; Phaxay, Somano Luang

    2012-12-01

    The choice of the most appropriate restoration for anterior teeth is often a difficult decision. Numerous clinical and technical factors play an important role in selecting the treatment option that best suits the patient and the restorative team. Experienced clinicians have developed decision processes that are often more complex than may seem. Less experienced professionals may find difficulties making treatment decisions because of the widely varied restorative materials available and often numerous similar products offered by different manufacturers. The authors reviewed available evidence and integrated their clinical experience to select relevant factors that could provide a logical and practical guideline for restorative decisions in anterior teeth. The presented concept of restorative volume is based on structural, optical, and periodontal factors. Each of these factors will influence the short- and long-term behavior of restorations in terms of esthetics, biology, and function. Despite the marked evolution of esthetic restorative techniques and materials, significant limitations still exist, which should be addressed by researchers. The presented guidelines must be regarded as a mere orientation for risk analysis. A comprehensive individual approach should always be the core of restorative esthetic treatments. The complex decision process for anterior esthetic restorations can be clarified by a systematized examination of structural, optical, and periodontal factors. The basis for the proposed thought process is the concept of restorative volume that is a contemporary interpretation of restoration categories and their application. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu CH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  3. Restoration of longitudinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Frieden, B R

    1988-01-15

    In this paper, a method of restoring longitudinal images is developed. By using the transfer function for longitudinal objects, and inverse filtering, a longitudinal image may be restored. The Fourier theory and sampling theorems for transverse images cannot be used directly in the longitudinal case. A modification and reasonable approximation are introduced. We have numerically established a necessary relationship between just-resolved longitudinal separation (after inverse filtering), noise level, and the taking conditions of object distance and lens diameter. An empirical formula is also found to well-fit the computed results. This formula may be of use for designing optical systems which are to image longitudinal details, such as in robotics or microscopy.

  4. Shifting shoals and shattered rocks : How man has transformed the floor of west-central San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Wong, Florence L.; Carlson, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    San Francisco Bay, one of the world's finest natural harbors and a major center for maritime trade, is referred to as the 'Gateway to the Pacific Rim.' The bay is an urbanized estuary that is considered by many to be the major estuary in the United States most modified by man's activities. The population around the estuary has grown rapidly since the 1850's and now exceeds 7 million people. The San Francisco Bay area's economy ranks as one of the largest in the world, larger even than that of many countries. More than 10 million tourists are estimated to visit the bay region each year. The bay area's population and associated development have increasingly changed the estuary and its environment. San Francisco Bay and the contiguous Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta encompass roughly 1,600 square miles (4,100 km2) and are the outlet of a major watershed that drains more than 40 percent of the land area of the State of California. This watershed provides drinking water for 20 million people (two thirds of the State's population) and irrigates 4.5 million acres of farmland and ranchland. During the past several decades, much has been done to clean up the environment and waters of San Francisco Bay. Conservationist groups have even bought many areas on the margins of the bay with the intention of restoring them to a condition more like the natural marshes they once were. However, many of the major manmade changes to the bay's environment occurred so long ago that the nature of them has been forgotten. In addition, many changes continue to occur today, such as the introduction of exotic species and the loss of commercial and sport fisheries because of declining fish populations. The economy and population of the nine counties that surround the bay continue to grow and put increasing pressure on the bay, both direct and indirect. Therefore, there are mixed signals for the future health and welfare of San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay estuary consists of three

  5. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  6. A Hoseus Banjo Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer, David

    2016-01-01

    Intrigued by the sound of another recently restored example, I attempted to bring a sadly abused, bottom-of-the-line, Hoseus-equipped banjo up to playable condition. Reminders, lessons learned, and the joy of (albeit crude) handiwork made it well- worth the purchase price. The actual sound and physics of the Hoseus contraption remain hidden in the complex interaction of the various parts, as demonstrated by the accompanying sound samples.

  7. Dale Sayers' Scientific Legacy in North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paesler, M. A.; Washington, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    From the time he joined the NC State faculty in 1976 until his untimely death in 2004, Dale Sayers enthusiastically offered the strengths of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to colleagues with a wide variety of interests. A master collaborator. Dale teamed with researchers from disciplines as far ranging as solid state physics, biochemistry, electrical engineering, medicine and geology. In this talk, offered as a tribute to these efforts, I will highlight a small subset of Dale's many collaborations with other North Carolina faculty. The few cited examples chosen from a host of collaborations reveal the strength of Dale's science and the breadth of his vision. I will also tell of Dale's efforts to build a synchrotron on our campus in an effort that nearly succeeded despite ill-timed political adversity and ultimately tragic obstacles

  8. 76 FR 59731 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the M/V Cosco Busan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... impacted, including birds, fish, shoreline habitats, and human recreational activities. We, the Federal and... benefit shoreline habitats, $2.5 million to benefit eelgrass and fish, and $18.8 million for recreational... Improvement Projects Preferred restoration actions to benefit recreational uses throughout the Bay [[Page...

  9. North Carolina School Performance Data 2016-2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — 2016-17 State, District, and School Level Drilldown Performance DataPercentages greater than 95 are displayed as >95 and percentages less than 5 are displayed as...

  10. Morehead City, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Morehead City, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  11. North Carolina DOT peer exchange on performance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report highlights key recommendations and best practices identified at the peer exchange on Transportation Asset Management Plans (TAMP), held on February 5 and 6, 2014, in Columbia, South Carolina. This event was sponsored by the Transportation...

  12. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  13. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M. [USDA Forest Service, Parsons, WV (United States); Menzel, Michael A. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Ford, W. Mark [USDA Forest Service, Parsons, WV (United States); Edwards, John W. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Sheffield, Steven R. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Bunch, Mary S. [South Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources, Pendleton, SC (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Menzel. J.M., M.A. Menzel, W.M. Ford, J.W. Edwards, S.R. Sheffield, J.C. Kilgo, and M.S. Bunch. 2003. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina. Southeastern Nat. 2(1): 121-152. There is a paucity of information available about the distribution of bats in the southeastern United States. We synthesized records from museums, bat captures, and bats submitted for rabies testing to provide a more accurate and useful distribution for natural resource managers and those planning to research bats in South Carolina. Distributional information, including maps, collection localities within counties, and literature references, for all 14 species of bats that occur in South Carolina, has never been synthesized. To provide better information on the state's bat fauna, we have updated distributions for all species that occur in South Carolina.

  14. Wind Powering America: The Next Steps in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Jennifer L. [North Carolina Solar Center; Scanlin, Dennis [Appalachian State University; Quinlan, Paul [North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association

    2013-06-18

    The goal of this project is to apply the WPA’s proactive outreach strategy to the problem of educating the public about the likely transmission infrastructure developments concomitant to the significant development of wind energy resources in North Carolina. Given the lead time to develop significant new transmission infrastructure (5-10 years), it is critical to begin this outreach work today, so that wind resources can be developed to adequately meet the 20% by 2030 goal in the mid- to long-term (10-20 years). The project team planned to develop a transmission infrastructure outreach campaign for North Carolina by: (1) convening a utility interest group (UIG) of the North Carolina Wind Working Group (NC WWG) consisting of electric utilities in the state and the Southeast; and (2) expanding outreach to local and state government officials in North Carolina.

  15. Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  16. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  17. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  18. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  19. Incidence and impact of damage to South Carolina's timber, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Anderson; Joe P. McClure; William H. Hoffard; Noel D. Cost

    1981-01-01

    This bulletin reports survey data on agents damaging trees in South Carolina’s forests. Data were collected in 1977 and 1978 by the Renewable Resources Evaluation Work Unit of the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station.

  20. Setting standards of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miomira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author deals with the basic theoretical statements and discussions about the practical use of restorative justice. She discusses the questions of introducing and application of restorative justice in order to reach the balance of interests between a victim, society and a delinquent. There is no unique statement about the restorative justice concept, so the authors make this concept by listing certain activities with rispect of standards and principles. Also she emphasizes the values of restorative justice process. A part of the article is dedicated to the standards for restorative justice that are harmonized with the international documents of human rights. .

  1. Restoring coastal wetlands that were ditched for mosquito control: a preliminary assessment of hydro-leveling as a restoration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J.; Tiling, Ginger; Leasure, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    The wetlands surrounding Tampa Bay, Florida were extensively ditched for mosquito control in the 1950s. Spoil from ditch construction was placed adjacent to the wetlands ditches creating mound-like features (spoil-mounds). These mounds represent a loss of 14% of the wetland area in Tampa Bay. Spoil mounds interfere with tidal flow and are locations for non-native plants to colonize (e.g., Schinus terebinthifolius). Removal of the spoil mounds to eliminate exotic plants, restore native vegetation, and re-establish natural hydrology is a restoration priority for environmental managers. Hydro-leveling, a new technique, was tested in a mangrove forest restoration project in 2004. Hydro-leveling uses a high pressure stream of water to wash sediment from the spoil mound into the adjacent wetland and ditch. To assess the effectiveness of this technique, we conducted vegetation surveys in areas that were hydro-leveled and in non-hydro-leveled areas 3 years post-project. Adult Schinus were reduced but not eliminated from hydro-leveled mounds. Schinus seedlings however were absent from hydro-leveled sites. Colonization by native species was sparse. Mangrove seedlings were essentially absent (≈2 m−2) from the centers of hydro-leveled mounds and were in low density on their edges (17 m−2) in comparison to surrounding mangrove forests (105 m−2). Hydro-leveling resulted in mortality of mangroves adjacent to the mounds being leveled. This was probably caused by burial of pneumatophores during the hydro-leveling process. For hydro-leveling to be a useful and successful restoration technique several requirements must be met. Spoil mounds must be lowered to the level of the surrounding wetlands. Spoil must be distributed further into the adjacent wetland to prevent burial of nearby native vegetation. Finally, native species may need to be planted on hydro-leveled areas to speed up the re-vegetation process.

  2. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer M. Menzel; Michael A. Menzel; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards; Steven R. Sheffield; John C. Kilgo; Mary S. Bunch

    2003-01-01

    There is a paucity of information available about the distribution of bats in the southeastern United States. Golley (1966) recorded the distribution and gave a brief summary of the natural history of 11 of 14 species of bats that occur in South Carolina and DiSalvo et al. (2002) recently reported on the distribution of 13 species of bats that occur in South Carolina...

  3. Application of the Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L; McCarthy, Schatzi H; Gilkey, Melissa B; Brewer, Noel T

    2014-03-01

    The Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention describes 4 main causes of cervical cancer incidence: human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, lack of screening, screening errors, and not receiving follow-up care. We present 2 applications of the Carolina Framework in which we identify high-need counties in North Carolina and generate recommendations for improving prevention efforts. We created a cervical cancer prevention need index (CCPNI) that ranked counties on cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccine initiation and completion, Pap smear screening, and provision of Pap tests to rarely- or never-screened women. In addition, we conducted in-depth interviews with 19 key informants from programs and agencies involved in cervical cancer prevention in North Carolina. North Carolina's 100 counties varied widely on individual CCPNI components, including annual cervical cancer mortality (median 2.7/100,000 women; range 0.0-8.0), adolescent girls' HPV vaccine initiation (median 42%; range 15%-62%), and Pap testing in the previous 3 years among Medicaid-insured adult women (median 59%; range 40%-83%). Counties with the greatest prevention needs formed 2 distinct clusters in the northeast and south-central regions of the state. Interviews generated 9 recommendations to improve cervical cancer prevention in North Carolina, identifying applications to specific programs and policies in the state. This study found striking geographic disparities in cervical cancer prevention need in North Carolina. Future prevention efforts in the state should prioritize high-need regions as well as recommended strategies and applications in existing programs. Other states can use the Carolina Framework to increase the impact of their cervical cancer prevention efforts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  5. Latest results from Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobel, Vit; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment was designed to measure θ 13, the smallest mixing angle in the three-neutrino mixing framework, with unprecedented precision. The experiment consists of eight functionally identical detectors placed underground at different baselines from three pairs of nuclear reactors in South China. Since Dec. 2011, the experiment has been running stably for more than 4 years, and has collected the largest reactor anti-neutrino sample to date. Daya Bay is able to greatly improve the precision on θ 13 and to make an independent measurement of the effective mass splitting in the electron antineutrino disappearance channel. Daya Bay can also perform a number of other precise measurements, such as a high-statistics determination of the absolute reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum, as well as a search for sterile neutrino mixing, among others. The most recent results from Daya Bay are discussed in this paper, as well as the current status and future prospects of the experiment.

  6. Daya bay reactor neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jun

    2010-01-01

    Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment is a large international collaboration experiment under construction. The experiment aims to precisely determine the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 by detecting the neutrinos produced by the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. θ 13 is one of two unknown fundamental parameters in neutrino mixing. Its magnitude is a roadmap of the future neutrino physics, and very likely related to the puzzle of missing antimatter in our universe. The precise measurement has very important physics significance. The detectors of Daya Bay is under construction now. The full operation is expected in 2011. Three years' data taking will reach the designed the precision, to determine sin 2 2θ 13 to better than 0.01. Daya Bay neutrino detector is an underground large nuclear detector of low background, low energy, and high precision. In this paper, the layout of the experiment, the design and fabrication progress of the detectors, and some highlighted nuclear detecting techniques developed in the detector R and D are introduced. (author)

  7. Image restoration, uncertainty, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F T

    1969-01-01

    Some of the physical interpretations about image restoration are discussed. From the theory of information the unrealizability of an inverse filter can be explained by degradation of information, which is due to distortion on the recorded image. The image restoration is a time and space problem, which can be recognized from the theory of relativity (the problem of image restoration is related to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics). A detailed discussion of the relationship between information and energy is given. Two general results may be stated: (1) the restoration of the image from the distorted signal is possible only if it satisfies the detectability condition. However, the restored image, at the best, can only approach to the maximum allowable time criterion. (2) The restoration of an image by superimposing the distorted signal (due to smearing) is a physically unrealizable method. However, this restoration procedure may be achieved by the expenditure of an infinite amount of energy.

  8. Microcrustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Ponds and Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrienne E. DeBiase; Barbara E. Taylor

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  9. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Mei, May L; Cheung, Chloe; Nalliah, Romesh P

    2013-07-30

    The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED) and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations.

  10. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: North Carolina and South Carolina Digital Data Re-release, 1996 (NODC Accession 0049956)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises an update of the Environmental Sensitivity Indexes (ESI) data for North and South Carolina. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  11. Sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Lester J. McKee,

    2013-01-01

    The papers in this special issue feature state-of-the-art approaches to understanding the physical processes related to sediment transport and geomorphology of complex coastal-estuarine systems. Here we focus on the San Francisco Bay Coastal System, extending from the lower San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta, through the Bay, and along the adjacent outer Pacific Coast. San Francisco Bay is an urbanized estuary that is impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities common to many large estuaries, including a mining legacy, channel dredging, aggregate mining, reservoirs, freshwater diversion, watershed modifications, urban run-off, ship traffic, exotic species introductions, land reclamation, and wetland restoration. The Golden Gate strait is the sole inlet connecting the Bay to the Pacific Ocean, and serves as the conduit for a tidal flow of ~ 8 x 109 m3/day, in addition to the transport of mud, sand, biogenic material, nutrients, and pollutants. Despite this physical, biological and chemical connection, resource management and prior research have often treated the Delta, Bay and adjacent ocean as separate entities, compartmentalized by artificial geographic or political boundaries. The body of work herein presents a comprehensive analysis of system-wide behavior, extending a rich heritage of sediment transport research that dates back to the groundbreaking hydraulic mining-impact research of G.K. Gilbert in the early 20th century.

  12. Single-beam bathymetry data collected in 2015 from Grand Bay, Alabama-Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Stalk, Chelsea A.; Smith, Christopher G.; Locker, Stanley D.; Fredericks, Jake J.; McCloskey, Terrence A.; Wheaton, Cathryn J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the Sea-level and Storm Impacts on Estuarine Environments and Shorelines (SSIEES) project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted a single-beam bathymetry survey within the estuarine, open-bay, and tidal creek environments of Grand Bay, Alabama-Mississippi, from May to June 2015. The goal of the SSIEES project is to assess the physical controls of sediment and material exchange between wetlands and estuarine environments along the northern Gulf of Mexico, specifically Grand Bay, Alabama-Mississippi; Vermilion Bay, Louisiana; and, along the east coast, within Chincoteague Bay, Virginia-Maryland. The data described in this report provide baseline bathymetric information for future research investigating wetland-marsh evolution, sediment transport, erosion, recent and long-term geomorphic change, and can also support the modeling of changes in response to restoration and storm impacts. The survey area encompasses more than 40 square kilometers of Grand Bay’s waters.

  13. Gear and survey efficiency of patent tongs for oyster populations on restoration reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Schulte

    Full Text Available Surveys of restored oyster reefs need to produce accurate population estimates to assess the efficacy of restoration. Due to the complex structure of subtidal oyster reefs, one effective and efficient means to sample is by patent tongs, rather than SCUBA, dredges, or bottom cores. Restored reefs vary in relief and oyster density, either of which could affect survey efficiency. This study is the first to evaluate gear (the first full grab and survey (which includes selecting a specific half portion of the first grab for further processing efficiencies of hand-operated patent tongs as a function of reef height and oyster density on subtidal restoration reefs. In the Great Wicomico River, a tributary of lower Chesapeake Bay, restored reefs of high- and low-relief (25-45 cm, and 8-12 cm, respectively were constructed throughout the river as the first large-scale oyster sanctuary reef restoration effort (sanctuary acreage > 20 ha at one site in Chesapeake Bay. We designed a metal frame to guide a non-hydraulic mechanical patent tong repeatedly into the same plot on a restored reef until all oysters within the grab area were captured. Full capture was verified by an underwater remotely-operated vehicle. Samples (n = 19 were taken on nine different reefs, including five low- (n = 8 and four high-relief reefs (n = 11, over a two-year period. The gear efficiency of the patent tong was estimated to be 76% (± 5% standard error, whereas survey efficiency increased to 81% (± 10% due to processing. Neither efficiency differed significantly between young-of-the-year oysters (spat and adults, high- and low-relief reefs, or years. As this type of patent tong is a common and cost-effective tool to evaluate oyster restoration projects as well as population density on fished habitat, knowing the gear and survey efficiencies allows for accurate and precise population estimates.

  14. Gear and survey efficiency of patent tongs for oyster populations on restoration reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, David M; Lipcius, Romuald N; Burke, Russell P

    2018-01-01

    Surveys of restored oyster reefs need to produce accurate population estimates to assess the efficacy of restoration. Due to the complex structure of subtidal oyster reefs, one effective and efficient means to sample is by patent tongs, rather than SCUBA, dredges, or bottom cores. Restored reefs vary in relief and oyster density, either of which could affect survey efficiency. This study is the first to evaluate gear (the first full grab) and survey (which includes selecting a specific half portion of the first grab for further processing) efficiencies of hand-operated patent tongs as a function of reef height and oyster density on subtidal restoration reefs. In the Great Wicomico River, a tributary of lower Chesapeake Bay, restored reefs of high- and low-relief (25-45 cm, and 8-12 cm, respectively) were constructed throughout the river as the first large-scale oyster sanctuary reef restoration effort (sanctuary acreage > 20 ha at one site) in Chesapeake Bay. We designed a metal frame to guide a non-hydraulic mechanical patent tong repeatedly into the same plot on a restored reef until all oysters within the grab area were captured. Full capture was verified by an underwater remotely-operated vehicle. Samples (n = 19) were taken on nine different reefs, including five low- (n = 8) and four high-relief reefs (n = 11), over a two-year period. The gear efficiency of the patent tong was estimated to be 76% (± 5% standard error), whereas survey efficiency increased to 81% (± 10%) due to processing. Neither efficiency differed significantly between young-of-the-year oysters (spat) and adults, high- and low-relief reefs, or years. As this type of patent tong is a common and cost-effective tool to evaluate oyster restoration projects as well as population density on fished habitat, knowing the gear and survey efficiencies allows for accurate and precise population estimates.

  15. River Restoration and Meanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mathias Kondolf

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the most visually striking river restoration projects are those that involve the creation of a new channel, often in a new alignment and generally with a form and dimensions that are different from those of the preproject channel. These channel reconstruction projects often have the objective of creating a stable, single-thread, meandering channel, even on rivers that were not historically meandering, on rivers whose sediment load and flow regime would not be consistent with such stable channels, or on already sinuous channels whose bends are not symmetrical. Such meandering channels are often specified by the Rosgen classification system, a popular restoration design approach. Although most projects of this type have not been subject to objective evaluation, completed postproject appraisals show that many of these projects failed within months or years of construction. Despite its, at best, mixed results, this classification and form-based approach continues to be popular because it is easy to apply, because it is accessible to those without formal training in fluvial geomorphology, and probably because it satisfies a deep-seated, although unrecognized, cultural preference for single-thread meandering channels. This preference is consistent with 18th-century English landscape theories, which held the serpentine form to be ideal and led to widespread construction of meandering channels on the country estates of the era. The preference for stability in restored channels seems to be widely accepted by practitioners and funders despite the fact that it is antithetical to research showing that dynamically migrating channels have the greatest ecological richness.

  16. Conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina genetic diversity in a mesocosm-based restoration experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Ort

    Full Text Available Eelgrass (Zostera marina forms the foundation of an important shallow coastal community in protected estuaries and bays. Widespread population declines have stimulated restoration efforts, but these have often overlooked the importance of maintaining the evolutionary potential of restored populations by minimizing the reduction in genetic diversity that typically accompanies restoration. In an experiment simulating a small-scale restoration, we tested the effectiveness of a buoy-deployed seeding technique to maintain genetic diversity comparable to the seed source populations. Seeds from three extant source populations in San Francisco Bay were introduced into eighteen flow-through baywater mesocosms. Following seedling establishment, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci to compare genetic diversity indices from 128 shoots to those found in the source populations. Importantly, allelic richness and expected heterozygosity were not significantly reduced in the mesocosms, which also preserved the strong population differentiation present among source populations. However, the inbreeding coefficient F IS was elevated in two of the three sets of mesocosms when they were grouped according to their source population. This is probably a Wahlund effect from confining all half-siblings within each spathe to a single mesocosm, elevating F IS when the mesocosms were considered together. The conservation of most alleles and preservation of expected heterozygosity suggests that this seeding technique is an improvement over whole-shoot transplantation in the conservation of genetic diversity in eelgrass restoration efforts.

  17. Conservation of eelgrass (Zostera marina) genetic diversity in a mesocosm-based restoration experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, Brian S; Cohen, C Sarah; Boyer, Katharyn E; Reynolds, Laura K; Tam, Sheh May; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) forms the foundation of an important shallow coastal community in protected estuaries and bays. Widespread population declines have stimulated restoration efforts, but these have often overlooked the importance of maintaining the evolutionary potential of restored populations by minimizing the reduction in genetic diversity that typically accompanies restoration. In an experiment simulating a small-scale restoration, we tested the effectiveness of a buoy-deployed seeding technique to maintain genetic diversity comparable to the seed source populations. Seeds from three extant source populations in San Francisco Bay were introduced into eighteen flow-through baywater mesocosms. Following seedling establishment, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci to compare genetic diversity indices from 128 shoots to those found in the source populations. Importantly, allelic richness and expected heterozygosity were not significantly reduced in the mesocosms, which also preserved the strong population differentiation present among source populations. However, the inbreeding coefficient F IS was elevated in two of the three sets of mesocosms when they were grouped according to their source population. This is probably a Wahlund effect from confining all half-siblings within each spathe to a single mesocosm, elevating F IS when the mesocosms were considered together. The conservation of most alleles and preservation of expected heterozygosity suggests that this seeding technique is an improvement over whole-shoot transplantation in the conservation of genetic diversity in eelgrass restoration efforts.

  18. Baseline restoration using current conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, A.M.L.S.; Simoes, J.B.; Correia, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    A good performance of high resolution nuclear spectrometry systems, at high pulse rates, demands restoration of baseline between pulses, in order to remove rate dependent baseline shifts. This restoration is performed by circuits named baseline restorers (BLRs) which also remove low frequency noise, such as power supply hum and detector microphonics. This paper presents simple circuits for baseline restoration based on a commercial current conveyor (CCII01). Tests were performed, on two circuits, with periodic trapezoidal shaped pulses in order to measure the baseline restoration for several pulse rates and restorer duty cycles. For the current conveyor based Robinson restorer, the peak shift was less than 10 mV, for duty cycles up to 60%, at high pulse rates. Duty cycles up to 80% were also tested, being the maximum peak shift 21 mV. The peak shift for the current conveyor based Grubic restorer was also measured. The maximum value found was 30 mV at 82% duty cycle. Keeping the duty cycle below 60% improves greatly the restorer performance. The ability of both baseline restorer architectures to reject low frequency modulation is also measured, with good results on both circuits

  19. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Cheung,; Nalliah,Romesh; Mei,May L

    2013-01-01

    Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slo...

  20. Distribution and Genetic Structure of Fucus distichus Linnaeus 1953 (formerly F. gardneri within Central San Francisco Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Whitaker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss3art4Fucus distichus, a rockweed common to the mid-intertidal shoreline within the San Francisco Estuary (previously known as F. gardneri, was injured during the Cosco Busan oil spill in November 2007 and subsequent clean-up actions. Restoration planning activities are underway to help recover F. distichus at sites within central San Francisco Bay where damage occurred. As a first step, we conducted shoreline surveys during the summers of 2012–2013 to map the occurrence of this rockweed. Of the 151.73 km of rocky shoreline within the central bay, F. distichus covered 32.16 km of shoreline. The alga generally occurred in narrow bands but formed expansive beds at locations with natural, flat bedrock benches. We also observed F. distichus on artificial substrata such as seawalls and riprap, but not on pilings. Samples of F. distichus from 11 sites throughout the central / east San Francisco Bay were genetically analyzed (microsatellite genotyping. The populations analyzed (1 had low genetic diversity, (2 the frequency of homozygotes was higher than expected (suggesting high inbreeding, and (3 also displayed geographic population structure, in part driven by very small differences in the midst of extremely low within-population genetic diversity. However, these genetic data do not raise concerns for restoration methods in terms of choosing donor populations and mixing F. distichus from different sites within the central bay. The choice of donor populations should be based on practical criteria for effective restoration; individuals will nonetheless be taken from locations as nearby to donor sites as possible. Various locations throughout the central San Francisco Bay are composed of cobble or small riprap that are populated with F. distichus, which could provide efficient means of translocating rockweed for future restoration activities.

  1. Breeding of in-situ Petroleum Degrading Bacteria in Hangzhou Bay and evaluating for the In-situ repair effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ru; Lin, Hai; Qiao, Bing; Dong, Yingbo; Zhang, Wei; Chang, Wen

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the restoration behaviour of the in-situ microorganisms in seawater and sediments to the marine accident oil spill was researched. The experimental study on the breeding of in-situ petroleum-degrading bacteria in the seawater and sediments of Hangzhou Bay and the restoration of oil spill were carried out. Making use of the reinforced microbial flora, combined with physical and chemical methods in field environment, petroleum degrading and restoration experiment were performed, the effect of the breeding of in-situ degrading bacteria was evaluated, and the standard process of in-situ bacteria sampling, laboratory screening, domestication and degradation efficiency testing were formed. This study laid a foundation for further evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages for the petroleum-degrading bacteria of Hangzhou Bay during the process of in-situ restoration. The results showed that in-situ microbes of Hangzhou Bay could reach the growth peak in 5 days with the suitable environmental factors and sufficient nutrient elements, and the degradation efficiency could reach 65.2% (or 74.8% after acclimation). And also the microbes could adapt to the local sea water and environmental conditions, with a certain degree of degradation. The research results could provide parameter support for causal judgment and quantitative assessment of oil spill damage.

  2. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Ecosystem responses to long-term nutrient management in an urban estuary: Tampa Bay, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, H.; Janicki, A.; Sherwood, E. T.; Pribble, R.; Johansson, J. O. R.

    2014-12-01

    In subtropical Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, we evaluated restoration trajectories before and after nutrient management strategies were implemented using long-term trends in nutrient loading, water quality, primary production, and seagrass extent. Following citizen demands for action, reduction in wastewater nutrient loading of approximately 90% in the late 1970s lowered external total nitrogen (TN) loading by more than 50% within three years. Continuing nutrient management actions from public and private sectors were associated with a steadily declining TN load rate and with concomitant reduction in chlorophyll-a concentrations and ambient nutrient concentrations since the mid-1980s, despite an increase of more than 1 M people living within the Tampa Bay metropolitan area. Water quality (chlorophyll-a concentration, water clarity as indicated by Secchi disk depth, total nitrogen concentration and dissolved oxygen) and seagrass coverage are approaching conditions observed in the 1950s, before the large increases in human population in the watershed. Following recovery from an extreme weather event in 1997-1998, water clarity increased significantly and seagrass is expanding at a rate significantly different than before the event, suggesting a feedback mechanism as observed in other systems. Key elements supporting the nutrient management strategy and concomitant ecosystem recovery in Tampa Bay include: 1) active community involvement, including agreement about quantifiable restoration goals; 2) regulatory and voluntary reduction in nutrient loadings from point, atmospheric, and nonpoint sources; 3) long-term water quality and seagrass extent monitoring; and 4) a commitment from public and private sectors to work together to attain restoration goals. A shift from a turbid, phytoplankton-based system to a clear water, seagrass-based system that began in the 1980s following comprehensive nutrient loading reductions has resulted in a present-day Tampa Bay which looks and

  4. Predictable repair of provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Barry D; Cooper, Jeril R; Lazarchik, David A

    2009-01-01

    The importance of provisional restorations is often downplayed, as they are thought of by some as only "temporaries." As a result, a less-than-ideal provisional is sometimes fabricated, in part because of the additional chair time required to make provisional modifications when using traditional techniques. Additionally, in many dental practices, these provisional restorations are often fabricated by auxillary personnel who may not be as well trained in the fabrication process. Because provisionals play an important role in achieving the desired final functional and esthetic result, a high-quality provisional restoration is essential to fabricating a successful definitive restoration. This article describes a method for efficiently and predictably repairing both methacrylate and bis-acryl provisional restorations using flowable composite resin. By use of this relatively simple technique, provisional restorations can now be modified or repaired in a timely and productive manner to yield an exceptional result. Successful execution of esthetic and restorative dentistry requires attention to detail in every aspect of the case. Fabrication of high-quality provisional restorations can, at times, be challenging and time consuming. The techniques for optimizing resin provisional restorations as described in this paper are pragmatic and will enhance the delivery of dental treatment.

  5. Cardiac transplantation in South Carolina: 300 transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbley, A J; Odom, Sylvia; Van Bakel, Adrian B; Pereira, Naveen; Ikonomidis, John S; Bradley, Scott; Kratz, John M; Sade, Robert M; Uber, Walt; Stroud, Martha R; Crawford, Fred A

    2006-02-01

    For nearly 20 years, the Medical University's Heart Transplant Program has been providing the citizens of South Carolina with excellent results with a minimum of delay. We present here the results of our first 300 heart transplants, spanning the first 18 years of the Cardiac Transplant Program at the Medical University. Overall survival has been very good, with one, five and ten year survival rates in the adults being 92 +/- 2%, 78 +/- 3%, and 58 +/- 4%. The children's group showed survival rates of 94 +/- 5%, 79 +/- 11%, and 79 +/- 11% over the same lengths of time. Most recently, the federally sponsored Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (www.ustransplant.org, July 2005) reports for MUSC a one-year survival of 97.67% and three-year survival of 90.74%; both leading the Southeast. We attribute this success to the dedicated work of health care workers at all levels who believe in attention to detail and that the patient always comes first. It is our hope that we will be able to continue to provide expert, state-of-the-art, cardiac transplant services long into the future, while continuing to expand our heart failure management program as dictated by further developments in this rapidly evolving specialty.

  6. Nuclear cluster strategy Carolinas - Ontario - Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberth, R.

    2012-01-01

    Organization of Candu Industries (OCI) is an industry association representing the interests of 170 private sector suppliers of products and services to the Canadian and offshore nuclear industries. OCI member companies, mainly in Ontario, employ over 30,000 highly specialized workers with over 12,000 working in nuclear area. OCI's objectives are to sustain the domestic nuclear program by building support among political leaders, the public and local communities, assist OCI member companies in becoming the preferred suppliers for domestic nuclear projects (competitive), assist OCI member companies in international nuclear markets - trade missions and vendor workshops. OCI is at the heart of an 'Ontario nuclear cluster'. The Carolinas have shown what can be achieved when industry, academia, S&T centers and governments collaborate with a shared vision to achieve a common goals. Ontario has the assets to become a stronger center for nuclear excellence. OCI is working to bring the pieces together. Saskatchewan has the assets to become a center of excellence in Small Modular Reactors (SMR) by licensing and constructing the first SMR in Canada.

  7. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  8. 77 FR 43077 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ...; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... information collection requirement concerning North Carolina sales tax certification. Public comments are... respond, through the use of appropriate technological collection techniques or other forms of information...

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Carolina.

  10. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  11. Hurricane Ophelia Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the North Carolina Coast After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the North Carolina coast after Hurricane Ophelia made landfall. The regions photographed range from Hubert, North Carolina to...

  12. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Spartanburg Quadrangle, South Carolina and North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schot, E.H.; Galipeau, J.M.

    1980-11-01

    The Spartanburg Quadrangle, South Carolina and North Carolina, was evaluated for uranium favorability using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. The evaluation included the study and analysis of published and collected geologic, geophysical, and geochemical data from subsurface, surface, and aerial studies. Five environments are favorable for uranium deposits. The Triassic Wadesboro Basin has ground waters with anomalously high uranium concentrations and uranium-to-conductivity ratios. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa-Middendorf Formation is near a uranium source and has sediments favorable for uranium deposition. The contact-metamorphic aureoles associated with the Liberty Hill-Kershaw and Winnsboro-Rion plutonic complexes are close to uranium sources and contain the reductants (sulfides, graphite) necessary for precipitation. The East Fork area in the Charlotte Belt has ground waters with uranium concentrations 4 to 132 times the mean concentration reported for the surrounding Piedmont area. Unfavorable environments include the Catawba Granite, the area west of the Winnsboro-Rion complex, gold-quartz veins, the vermiculite district, and the Western Monazite Belt

  13. Community Relations Plan for Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has applied to the California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), for renewal of its Hazardous Waste Handling Facility Permit. A permit is required under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The permit will allow LBL to continue using its current hazardous waste handling facility, upgrade the existing facility, and construct a replacement facility. The new facility is scheduled for completion in 1995. The existing facility will be closed under RCRA guidelines by 1996. As part of the permitting process, LBL is required to investigate areas of soil and groundwater contamination at its main site in the Berkeley Hills. The investigations are being conducted by LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program and are overseen by a number of regulatory agencies. The regulatory agencies working with LBL include the California Environmental Protection Agency`s Department of Toxic Substances Control, the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the East Bay Municipal Utilities District, and the Berkeley Department of Environmental Health. RCRA requires that the public be informed of LBL`s investigations and site cleanup, and that opportunities be available for the public to participate in making decisions about how LBL will address contamination issues. LBL has prepared this Community Relations Plan (CRP) to describe activities that LBL will use to keep the community informed of environmental restoration progress and to provide for an open dialogue with the public on issues of importance. The CRP documents the community`s current concerns about LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program. Interviews conducted between February and April 1993 with elected officials, agency staff, environmental organizations, businesses, site neighbors, and LBL employees form the basis for the information contained in this document.

  14. Restoration of harvested peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarmets, Tiit

    1999-01-01

    A short analysis of the main topics of the IPS Symposium Peatland Restoration and Reclamation, Duluth, Minnesota, USA, 1998 is given. It has been single-mindedly recommended in Estonia so far that harvested peatland surfaces should be levelled and outflows shut. But following these recommendations will lead to an unfounded formation of marshy areas with a very low growth of plants. The reclamation of harvested peatlands for agricultural purposes is expensive and there is no commercial need for agricultural land in today's Estonia now. In the author's opinion the foreflows and intermediate ditches should be left open which would favour the growth of the brushwood to grow later into the forest of commercial value. (author)

  15. The South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Feaster, Toby D.; Caldwell, Andral W.

    2016-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted a series of three field investigations to evaluate historical, riverine bridge scour in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of South Carolina. These investigations included data collected at 231 riverine bridges, which lead to the development of bridge-scour envelope curves for clear-water and live-bed components of scour. The application and limitations of the South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves were documented in four reports, each report addressing selected components of bridge scour. The current investigation (2016) synthesizes the findings of these previous reports into a guidance manual providing an integrated procedure for applying the envelope curves. Additionally, the investigation provides limited verification for selected bridge-scour envelope curves by comparing them to field data collected outside of South Carolina from previously published sources. Although the bridge-scour envelope curves have limitations, they are useful supplementary tools for assessing the potential for scour at riverine bridges in South Carolina.

  16. The Role of Tidal Marsh Restoration in Fish Management in the San Francisco Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Herbold

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available   Tidal marsh restoration is an important management issue in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary. Restoration of large areas of tidal marsh is ongoing or planned in the lower estuary (up to 6,000 ha, Callaway et al. 2011. Large areas are proposed for restoration in the upper estuary under the Endangered Species Act biological opinions (3,237 ha and the Bay Delta Conservation Plan (26,305 ha. In the lower estuary, tidal marsh has proven its value to a wide array of species that live within it (Palaima 2012. In the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta, one important function ascribed to restoration of freshwater tidal marshes is that they make large contributions to the food web of fish in open waters (BDCP 2013. The Ecosystem Restoration Program ascribed a suite of ecological functions to tidal marsh restoration, including habitat and food web benefits to native fish (CDFW 2010. This background was the basis for a symposium, Tidal Marshes and Native Fishes in the Delta: Will Restoration Make a Difference? held at the University of California, Davis, on June 10, 2013. This paper summarizes conclusions the authors drew from the symposium. 

  17. Restorative Justice in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Katrin; Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-06-29

    An important, and perhaps uniquely human, mechanism for maintaining cooperation against free riders is third-party punishment. Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, will not punish third parties even though they will do so when personally affected. Until recently, little attention has been paid to how punishment and a sense of justice develop in children. Children respond to norm violations. They are more likely to share with a puppet that helped another individual as opposed to one who behaved harmfully, and they show a preference for seeing a harmful doll rather than a victim punished. By 6 years of age, children will pay a cost to punish fictional and real peers, and the threat of punishment will lead preschoolers to behave more generously. However, little is known about what motivates a sense of justice in children. We gave 3- and 5-year-old children--the youngest ages yet tested--the opportunity to remove items and prevent a puppet from gaining a reward for second- and third-party violations (experiment 1), and we gave 3-year-olds the opportunity to restore items (experiment 2). Children were as likely to engage in third-party interventions as they were when personally affected, yet they did not discriminate among the different sources of harm for the victim. When given a range of options, 3-year-olds chose restoration over removal. It appears that a sense of justice centered on harm caused to victims emerges early in childhood and highlights the value of third-party interventions for human cooperation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Linking ecosystem service supply to stakeholder concerns on both land and sea: An example from Guánica Bay watershed, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policies to protect coastal resources may lead to greater social, economic, and ecological returns when they consider potential co-benefits and trade-offs on land. In Guánica Bay watershed, Puerto Rico, a watershed management plan is being implemented to restore declining quality...

  19. 75 FR 8297 - Tongass National Forest, Thorne Bay Ranger District, Thorne Bay, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ..., Thorne Bay, AK AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Cancellation of Notice of intent to prepare an... Roberts, Zone Planner, Thorne Bay Ranger District, Tongass National Forest, P.O. Box 19001, Thorne Bay, AK 99919, telephone: 907-828-3250. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The 47,007-acre Kosciusko Project Area is...

  20. 77 FR 44140 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Maple-Oregon Bridges so vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets... movement of vehicular traffic in Sturgeon Bay. The Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal is approximately 8.6 miles long... significant increase in vehicular and vessel traffic during the peak tourist and navigation season between...

  1. The onset of deglaciation of Cumberland Bay and Stromness Bay, South Georgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Putten, N.; Verbruggen, C.

    Carbon dating of basal peat deposits in Cumberland Bay and Stromness Bay and sediments from a lake in Stromness Bay, South Georgia indicates deglaciation at the very beginning of the Holocene before c. 9500 14C yr BP. This post-dates the deglaciation of one local lake which has been ice-free since

  2. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION.... This temporary safety zone will restrict vessels from a portion of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks... hazards associated with the fireworks display. DATES: This rule is effective from 8 p.m. until 10 p.m. on...

  3. The initial phase of a Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Savanna restoration: species establishment and community responses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenbach, Todd, A; Foster, Bryan, L.; Imm, Donald, W.

    2010-09-01

    AbstractAbstract The significant loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem in the southeastern United States has serious implications for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In response to this loss, we have initiated a long-term and landscape-scale restoration experiment at the 80,125 ha (310 mi2) Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. Aristida beyrichiana (wiregrass), an important and dominant grass (i.e., a “matrix” species) of the longleaf pine savanna understory, and 31 other herbaceous “non-matrix” species were planted at six locations throughout SRS in 2002 and 2003. Of the 36,056 transplanted seedlings, 75% were still alive in June 2004, while mean 1–2 year survival across all planted species was 48%. Lespedeza hirta (hairy lespedeza) exhibited the greatest overall survival per 3 ×3 m cell at 95%, whereas Schizachyrium spp. (little bluestem) exhibited the greatest mean cover among individual species at 5.9%. Wiregrass survival and cover were significantly reduced when planted with non-matrix species. Aggregate cover of all planted species in restored cells averaged 25.9% in 2006. High rates of survival and growth of the planted species resulted in greater species richness (SR), diversity, and vegetative cover in restored cells. Results suggest that the loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem may be ameliorated through restoration efforts and illustrate the positive impact of restoration plantings on biodiversity and vegetative cover.

  4. Social welfare and restorative justice

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Darrell

    2009-01-01

    "This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice." [author's abstract

  5. Forest restoration is forward thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Brian J. Palik; John A. Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    It is not surprising to us that the topic of forest restoration is being discussed in the Journal of Forestry. It is a topic frequently bantered about in the literature; a quick search in Google Scholar for "forest restoration" generates more than 1 million hits. A significant portion of the debate centers on the search for succinct, holistic, universally...

  6. [Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie; Vanheusden, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations are conservative and esthetic approaches for compromised teeth. Overlays constitute a less invasive alternative for tooth tissues than crown preparations. With inlays and onlays they are also indicated in case of full arch or quadrant rehabilitations including several teeth. This article screens indications and realization of this type of restorations.

  7. Prescribed burning for understory restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2006-01-01

    Because the longleaf ecosystem evolved with and is adapted to frequent fire, every 2 to 8 years, prescribed burning is often useful for restoring understory communities to a diverse ground layer of grasses, herbs, and small shrubs. This restoration provides habitat for a number of plant and animal species that are restricted to or found mostly in longleaf pine...

  8. Big slow movers: a look at weathered-rock slides in Western North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca S. Latham; Richard M. Wooten; Anne C. Witt; Stephen J. Fuemmeler; Kenneth a. Gillon; Thomas J. Douglas; Jennifer B. Bauer; Barton D. Clinton

    2007-01-01

    The North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) is currently implementing a landslide hazard-mapping program in western North Carolina authorized by the North Carolina Hurricane Recovery Act of 2005. To date, over 2700 landslides and landslide deposits have been documented. A small number of these landslides are relatively large, slow-moving, weathered-rock slides...

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 North Carolina State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Carolina.

  10. Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae: Cynareae) new to North Carolina and an illustrated key to southeastern congeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, A.; Westbrooks, R.; Lloyd, J.

    2002-01-01

    Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae) is documented for North Carolina. The species had previously been known from Florida to South Carolina and from disjunct populations in Virginia. An illustrated key is provided to aid others in the diagnosis of Cirsium in North Carolina and the southeast.

  11. Segregation Again: North Carolina's Transition from Leading Desegregation Then to Accepting Segregation Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayscue, Jennifer B.; Woodward, Brian

    2014-01-01

    North Carolina has a storied history of school integration efforts spanning several decades. In response to the "Brown" decision, North Carolina's strategy of delayed integration was more subtle than the overt defiance of other Southern states. Numerous North Carolina school districts were early leaders in employing strategies to…

  12. 76 FR 36875 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Carolina: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... requirements pertaining to NO X as an ozone precursor into the South Carolina SIP. b. NSR PM2.5 Rule With...-0958-201119; FRL-9322- 6] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Carolina: Prevention.... SUMMARY: EPA is taking final action to approve three revisions to the South Carolina State Implementation...

  13. 78 FR 57838 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 21-Dorchester County, South Carolina, Authorization of Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-57-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 21--Dorchester County, South Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, AGFA Materials Corporation, (Photographic Film Cutting), Goose Creek, South Carolina On May 17, 2013, the South Carolina State Ports...

  14. 78 FR 16247 - Foreign-Trade Zone 38-Spartanburg County, South Carolina; Authorization of Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-86-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 38--Spartanburg County, South Carolina; Authorization of Production Activity; ZF Transmissions Gray Court, LLC (Automatic Transmissions); Gray Court, South Carolina On November 8, 2012, the South Carolina State Ports Authority...

  15. 40 CFR 282.83 - North Carolina State-Administered Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approved the North Carolina program on April 26, 2001 with an effective date of August 14, 2001. (b) North... the Underground Storage Tank Program, 1997. (B) North Carolina Regulatory Requirements Applicable to... Procedure Rule 24Intervention (B) The regulatory provisions include: (1) North Carolina Administrative Code...

  16. 78 FR 34639 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 21-Dorchester County, South Carolina; Notification of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-57-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 21--Dorchester County, South Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; AGFA Materials Corporation (Photographic Film Cutting); Goose Creek, South Carolina The South Carolina State Ports Authority, grantee of...

  17. 33 CFR 165.515 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cape Fear River to the stern of the Battleship USS NORTH CAROLINA. (b) Definitions. The designated..., Wilmington, North Carolina. 165.515 Section 165.515 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.515 Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (a) Location. The following area is...

  18. 77 FR 62200 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina Portion of the Charlotte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R04-OAR-2010-0019(b); FRL-9741-1] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina Portion of the Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, North Carolina-South Carolina 1997 8-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area; Reasonable Further Progress Plan AGENCY...

  19. 76 FR 49313 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans North Carolina: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Code (NCAC), Subchapter 2D .0530, subsections (a), (b), (g), (i), (u), and (v) (from North Carolina's... and Promulgation of Implementation Plans North Carolina: Prevention of Significant Deterioration and...: EPA is taking final action to approve revisions to the North Carolina State Implementation Plan (SIP...

  20. The High Cost of South Carolina's Low Graduation Rate. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Research has documented a crisis in South Carolina's high school graduation rate. While state officials report a graduation rate above 70 percent, researchers from South Carolina and elsewhere place the rate just above 50 percent, with rates among minority students lower than 50 percent. South Carolina's graduation rate is the worst of all 50…

  1. High School Renewal in South Carolina: An Angry Response to Abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Anna T.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    1998-01-01

    Feeling angry and abandoned over losing a cooperative training center, South Carolina high school educators began a series of "what next?" conversations. Following two information-sharing conferences, 17 high schools and the University of South Carolina formed a school-university partnership called the South Carolina High School Renewal…

  2. Salt Marsh Ecosystem Responses to Restored Tidal Connectivity across a 14y Chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capooci, M.; Spivak, A. C.; Gosselin, K.

    2016-02-01

    Salt marshes support valuable ecosystem services. Yet, human activities negatively impact salt marsh function and contribute to their loss at a global scale. On Cape Cod, MA, culverts and impoundments under roads and railways restricted tidal exchange and resulted in salt marsh conversion to freshwater wetlands. Over the past 14 y, these structures have been removed or replaced, restoring tidal connectivity between marshes and a saltwater bay. We evaluated differences in plant community composition, sediment properties, and pore water chemistry in marshes where tidal connectivity was restored using a space-for-time, or chronosequence approach. Each restored marsh was paired with a nearby, natural salt marsh to control for variability between marshes. In each restored and natural salt marsh we evaluated the plant community by measuring species-specific percent cover and biomass and collected sediment cores for bulk density and pore water analyses. Plant communities responded rapidly: salt-tolerant species, such as Spartina alterniflora, became established while freshwater species, including Phragmites australis, were less abundant within 3 y of restoration. The number of plant species was generally greater in marshes restored within 10 y, compared to older and natural marshes. Sediment bulk density varied with depth and across sites. This likely reflects differences in site history and local conditions. Deeper horizons (24-30cm) generally had higher values in restored sites while surface values (0-3cm) were similar in restored and natural marshes. Porewater pH and sulfide were similar in restored and natural marshes, suggesting rapid microbial responses to seawater reintroduction. Overall, marsh properties and processes reflecting biological communities responded rapidly to tidal restoration. However, variability between study locations underscores the potential importance of site history, local hydrology, and geomorphology in shaping marsh biogeochemistry.

  3. Diabetes awareness among African Americans in rural North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Angela K; Baaklini, Walid A

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the extent of diabetes unawareness in rural North Carolina. Randomly administered an eight-question survey to African Americans age 15-74 living in Halifax County North Carolina. Ninety-five out of 116 eligible participants completed the survey (82% response rate). Most (67%) of the participants reported having two or more major risk factors for Type II diabetes (diabetes mellitus). More than half (51.6%) of the participants were obese. Most (96.8%) of the participants reported having been tested for diabetes at some point in their lives (10% testedpositive, only 8.4% of the remaining 9o% reported ever having a second test). Diabetes mellitus is a very prevalentproblem among the African American population of Halifax County North Carolina. Our study underscores the fact that patients are not systematically screened and followed-up for diabetes melitus. More healthcare and commnity programs need to be adapted to fight this serious public health problem.

  4. Hydrologic aspects of Hurricane Hugo in South Carolina, September 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck-Kolben, R. E.; Cherry, R.N.

    1995-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo, with winds in excess of 135 miles per hour(mi/h), made landfall near Charleston, S.C., early on the morning of September 22, 1989. It was the most destructive hurricane ever experienced in South Carolina. The storm caused 35 deaths and $7 billion in property damage in South Carolina (Purvis, 1990).This report documents some hydrologic effects of Hurricane Hugo along the South Carolina coast. The report includes maps showing storm-tide stage and profiles of the maximum storm-tide stages along the outer coast. Storm-tide stage frequency information is presented and changes in beach morphology and water quality of coastal streams resulting from the storm are described.

  5. The Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Robert; Lins, Harry F.; Smith, Jodi Jones

    2016-12-27

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina are excellent examples of the nearly 300 barrier islands rimming the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These low, sandy islands are among the most dynamic natural landscapes occupied by man. Beach sands move offshore, onshore, and along the shore in the direction of the prevailing longshore currents. In this way, sandy coasts continuously adjust to different tide, wave, and current conditions and to rising sea level that causes the islands to migrate landward.Despite such changes, barrier islands are of considerable environmental importance. The Outer Banks are home to diverse natural ecosystems that are adapted to the harsh coastal environment. Native species tend to be robust and many are specifically adapted to withstand salt spray, periodic saltwater flooding, and the islands’ well-drained sandy soil. The Outer Banks provide an important stopover for birds on the Atlantic flyway, and many species inhabit the islands year round. In addition, Outer Banks beaches provide an important nesting habitat for five endangered or threatened sea turtle species.European explorers discovered North Carolina’s barrier islands in the 16th century, although the islands were not permanently settled until the middle 17th century. By the early 19th century, shipbuilding and lumber industries were among the most successful, until forest resources were depleted. Commercial fishing eventually followed, and it expanded considerably after the Civil War. By the Great Depression, however, little industry existed on the Outer Banks. In response to the effects of a severe hurricane in 1933, the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps proposed a massive sand-fixation program to stabilize the moving sand and prevent storm waves from sweeping across the entire width of some sections of the islands. Between 1933 and 1940, this program constructed sand fencing on 185 kilometers (115 miles) of beach and planted grass seedlings

  6. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A., was prepared using National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) stream-sediment data. Before termination of the NURE program, sampling of nearly the entire state (48,666 square miles of land area) was completed and geochemical analyses were obtained. The NURE data are applicable to mineral exploration, agriculture, waste disposal siting issues, health, and environmental studies. Applications in state government include resource surveys to assist mineral exploration by identifying geochemical anomalies and areas of mineralization. Agriculture seeks to identify areas with favorable (or unfavorable) conditions for plant growth, disease, and crop productivity. Trace elements such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum must be present within narrow ranges in soils for optimum growth and productivity. Trace elements as a contributing factor to disease are of concern to health professionals. Industry can use pH and conductivity data for water samples to site facilities which require specific water quality. The North Carolina NURE database consists of stream-sediment samples, groundwater samples, and stream-water analyses. The statewide database consists of 6,744 stream-sediment sites, 5,778 groundwater sample sites, and 295 stream-water sites. Neutron activation analyses were provided for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, Dy in groundwater and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in stream sediments. Supplemental analyses by other techniques were reported on U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn for 4,619 stream-sediment samples. A small subset of 334 stream samples was analyzed for gold. The goal of the atlas was to make available the statewide NURE data with minimal interpretation to enable prospective users to modify and manipulate the data for their end use. The atlas provides only

  7. Novel fen ecosystems in western North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Western North Carolina is mountainous, and groundwater flows from hillslope recharge zones to valley stream and spring discharge zones. Depending on surface topography and geologic conditions, the water table may approach or intersect the ground surface to form seepage wetlands, or fens. Fen ecosystems can be very sensitive to changes in land use, groundwater pumping, and upslope development. This presentation will focus on two sites where historical land use and human activity played important roles in creating or preserving fen ecosystems. Both sites now support—and are being managed to protect—federally endangered flora and fauna. The first site is home to Sarracenia oreophilia, an endangered pitcher plant that thrives on saturated soils with low nutrient content. The site's early history includes tree clearing, drain tile installation, and cattle grazing, while more recent management activities have included drain tile excavation, manual invasive removal, and prescribed burns. A 15-year water-level record indicates seasonal artesian conditions wet a 3m clay unit (K=2E-5 cm/sec) beneath the site, which is able to retain moisture during drier periods. Shorter "clay wetting periods" during drought years (1999-2000; 2007-2008) correspond to reduced clump counts in pitcher-plant surveys. The second site is a former aggregate quarry that now supports over 60 bog turtles (Clemmys muhlenbergii). The biggest threat to this site is encroachment of non-native and invasive multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) and other large woody species. Management activities include manual removal and prescribed goat herbivory. Current efforts to characterize the springs, water-table, and surface-water flows will be used to detect changes in the future to the hydrologic regime in the fen.

  8. Sediment Budgets and Sources Inform a Novel Valley Bottom Restoration Practice Impacted by Legacy Sediment: The Big Spring Run, PA, Restoration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. C.; Merritts, D.; Rahnis, M. A.; Gellis, A.; Hartranft, J.; Mayer, P. M.; Langland, M.; Forshay, K.; Weitzman, J. N.; Schwarz, E.; Bai, Y.; Blair, A.; Carter, A.; Daniels, S. S.; Lewis, E.; Ohlson, E.; Peck, E. K.; Schulte, K.; Smith, D.; Stein, Z.; Verna, D.; Wilson, E.

    2017-12-01

    Big Spring Run (BSR), a small agricultural watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania, is located in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, which has the highest nutrient and sediment yields in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. To effectively reduce nutrient and sediment loading it is important to monitor the effect of management practices on pollutant reduction. Here we present results of an ongoing study, begun in 2008, to understand the impact of a new valley bottom restoration strategy for reducing surface water sediment and nutrient loads. We test the hypotheses that removing legacy sediments will reduce sediment and phosphorus loads, and that restoring eco-hydrological functions of a buried Holocene wetland (Walter & Merritts 2008) will improve surface and groundwater quality by creating accommodation space to trap sediment and process nutrients. Comparisons of pre- and post-restoration gage data show that restoration lowered the annual sediment load by at least 118 t yr-1, or >75%, from the 1000 m-long restoration reach, with the entire reduction accounted for by legacy sediment removal. Repeat RTK-GPS surveys of pre-restoration stream banks verified that >90 t yr-1 of suspended sediment was from bank erosion within the restoration reach. Mass balance calculations of 137Cs data indicate 85-100% of both the pre-restoration and post-restoration suspended sediment storm load was from stream bank sources. This is consistent with trace element data which show that 80-90 % of the pre-restoration outgoing suspended sediment load at BSR was from bank erosion. Meanwhile, an inventory of fallout 137Cs activity from two hill slope transects adjacent to BSR yields average modern upland erosion rates of 2.7 t ha-1 yr-1 and 5.1 t ha-1 yr-1, showing modest erosion on slopes and deposition at toe of slopes. We conclude that upland farm slopes contribute little soil to the suspended sediment supply within this study area, and removal of historic valley bottom sediment effectively

  9. Bathymetry and digital elevation models of Coyote Creek and Alviso Slough, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Finlayson, David P.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Fregoso, Theresa A.

    2012-01-05

    In 2010 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center completed three cruises to map the bathymetry of the main channel and shallow intertidal mudflats in the southernmost part of south San Francisco Bay. The three surveys were merged to generate comprehensive maps of Coyote Creek (from Calaveras Point east to the railroad bridge) and Alviso Slough (from the bay to the town of Alviso) to establish baseline bathymetry prior to the breaching of levees adjacent to Alviso and Guadalupe Sloughs as part of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (http://www.southbayrestoration.org). Since 2010 the USGS has conducted twelve additional surveys to monitor bathymetric change in this region as restoration progresses.The bathymetry surveys were conducted using the state-of-the-art research vessel R/V Parke Snavely outfitted with an interferometric sidescan sonar for swath mapping in extremely shallow water. This publication provides high-resolution bathymetric data collected by the USGS. For the 2010 baseline survey we have merged the bathymetry with aerial lidar data that were collected for the USGS during the same time period to create a seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area. The series of bathymetry datasets are provided at 1 m resolution and the 2010 bathymetric/topographic DEM at 2 m resolution. The data are formatted as both X, Y, Z text files and ESRI Arc ASCII files that are accompanied by Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata.

  10. Hurricane-induced Sediment Transport and Morphological Change in Jamaica Bay, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, K.; Chen, Q. J.

    2016-02-01

    Jamaica Bay is located in Brooklyn and Queens, New York on the western end of the south shore of the Long Island land mass. It experienced a conversion of more than 60% of the vegetated salt-marsh islands to intertidal and subtidal mudflats. Hurricanes and nor'easters are among the important driving forces that reshape coastal landscape quickly and affect wetland sustainability. Wetland protection and restoration need a better understanding of hydrodynamics and sediment transport in this area, especially under extreme weather conditions. Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall along east coast on October 30, 2012, provides a critical opportunity for studying the impacts of hurricanes on sedimentation, erosion and morphological changes in Jamaica Bay and salt marsh islands. The Delft3D model suit was applied to model hydrodynamics and sediment transport in Jamaica Bay and salt marsh islands. Three domains were set up for nesting computation. The local domain covering the bay and salt marshes has a resolution of 10 m. The wave module was online coupled with the flow module. Vegetation effects were considered as a large number of rigid cylinders by a sub-module in Delft3D. Parameters in sediment transport and morphological change were carefully chosen and calibrated. Prior- and post-Sandy Surface Elevation Table (SET)/accretion data including mark horizon (short-term) and 137Cs and 210Pb (long-term) at salt marsh islands in Jamaica Bay were used for model validation. Model results indicate that waves played an important role in hurricane-induced morphological change in Jamaica Bay and wetlands. In addition, numerical experiments were carried out to investigate the impacts of hypothetic hurricanes. This study has been supported by the U.S. Geological Survey Hurricane Sandy Disaster Recovery Act Funds.

  11. "I Was Dead Restorative Today": From Restorative Justice to Restorative Approaches in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, G.; Lloyd, G.; Stead, J.; Kane, J.; Riddell, S.; Weedon, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores definitions and understandings of restorative practices in education. It offers a critique of current theoretical models of restorative justice originally derived from the criminal justice system and now becoming popular in educational settings. It questions the appropriateness of these concepts as they are being introduced to…

  12. Assessing Genetic Diversity after Mangrove Restoration in Brazil: Why Is It So Important?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Granado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vital for many marine and terrestrial species, and several other environmental services, such as carbon sink areas, the mangrove ecosystem is highly threatened due to the proximity of large urban centers and climate change. The forced fragmentation of this ecosystem affects the genetic diversity distribution among natural populations. Moreover, while restoration efforts have increased, few studies have analyzed how recently-planted areas impact the original mangrove genetic diversity. We analyzed the genetic diversity of two mangroves species (Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia schaueriana in three areas in Brazil, using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. Using the local approach, we identified the genetic diversity pool of a restored area compared to nearby areas, including the remnant plants inside the restored area, one well-conserved population at the shore of Guanabara Bay, and one impacted population in Araçá Bay. The results for L. racemosa showed that the introduced population has lost genetic diversity by drift, but remnant plants with high genetic diversity or incoming propagules could help improve overall genetic diversity. Avicennia schaueriana showed similar genetic diversity, indicating an efficient gene flow. The principal component analysis showing different connections between both species indicate differences in gene flow and dispersal efficiencies, highlighting the needed for further studies. Our results emphasize that genetic diversity knowledge and monitoring associated with restoration actions can help avoid bottlenecks and other pitfalls, especially for the mangrove ecosystem.

  13. Part I, Introduction: Ecology and Regional Context of Tidal Wetlands in the San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Ferner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This two-part special issue reviews the basic ecology of tidal wetlands in the San Francisco Estuary. Several articles highlight the well-preserved tracts of historic tidal marsh found at China Camp State Park and Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve. These two protected areas serve as important reference sites for wetland restoration and conservation and also comprise San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (SF Bay NERR. SF Bay NERR is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s nationwide network of 28 estuarine research reserves (http://www.nerrs.noaa.gov that all share common goals: (1 conducting standardized long-term monitoring, (2 supporting applied environmental research, (3 providing stewardship of estuarine natural resources, and (4 linking science with decision making in pursuit of effective solutions to coastal management problems.

  14. Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center at the Medical Univesity for South Carolina Charleston, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed construction and operation of the Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center (Center) at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), Charleston, SC. The DOE is evaluating a grant proposal to authorize the MUSC to construct, equip and operate the lower two floors of the proposed nine-story Center as an expansion of on-going clinical research and out-patient diagnostic activities of the Cardiology Division of the existing Gazes Cardiac Research Institute. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  15. 75 FR 28673 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Morehead & South Fork Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35339] Carolina Coastal... ``Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--North Carolina State Ports Authority'' to reflect a correction submitted by Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA). CLNA filed a verified...

  16. 76 FR 51026 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Highway, Seneca, SC 29672. 29223-4905. Rebekah Dobrasko, South Carolina Tyler B. Howe, Eastern Band of... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2503-147--South Carolina and North Carolina Keowee- Toxaway Hydroelectric Project] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Notice of...

  17. Unique thermal record in False Bay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundlingh, ML

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade False Bay has assumed a prime position in terms of research in to large South African bays. This is manifested by investigations that cover flow conditions modelling, thermal structure, management, biology and nutrients, geology...

  18. Hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers tend to perform very well on a large number of problem domains, although their representation power is quite limited compared to more sophisticated machine learning algorithms. In this pa- per we study combining multiple naive Bayes classifiers by using the hierar- chical

  19. Safety culture development at Daya Bay NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shanming

    2001-01-01

    From view on Organization Behavior theory, the concept, development and affecting factors of safety culture are introduced. The focuses are on the establishment, development and management practice for safety culture at Daya Bay NPP. A strong safety culture, also demonstrated, has contributed greatly to improving performance at Daya Bay

  20. The Holocene History of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Reynisson, Njall

    2013-01-01

    Marine sediments analyzed from cores taken in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, located in the Labrador Sea, captured oceanographic and climatic changes from the end of the Younger Dryas through the Holocene. Placentia Bay is an ideal site to capture changes in both the south-flowing Labrador Current ...

  1. Towards a sustainable future in Hudson Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrainetz, G.

    1991-01-01

    To date, ca $40-50 billion has been invested in or committed to hydroelectric development on the rivers feeding Hudson Bay. In addition, billions more have been invested in land uses such as forestry and mining within the Hudson Bay drainage basin. However, there has never been a study of the possible impacts on Hudson Bay resulting from this activity. Neither has there been any federal environmental assessment on any of the economic developments that affect Hudson Bay. To fill this gap in knowledge, the Hudson Bay Program was established. The program will not conduct scientific field research but will rather scan the published literature and consult with leading experts in an effort to identify biophysical factors that are likely to be significantly affected by the cumulative influence of hydroelectric and other developments within and outside the region. An annotated bibliography on Hudson Bay has been completed and used to prepare a science overview paper, which will be circulated for comment, revised, and used as the basis for a workshop on cumulative effects in Hudson Bay. Papers will then be commissioned for a second workshop to be held in fall 1993. A unique feature of the program is its integration of traditional ecological knowledge among the Inuit and Cree communities around Hudson Bay with the scientific approach to cumulative impact assessment. One goal of the program is to help these communities bring forward their knowledge in such a way that it can be integrated into the cumulative effects assessment

  2. Provisional Restorations – A Permanent Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, William F; Keirby, Naomi; Ricketts, David N J

    2016-12-01

    Provisional restorations play an important role when providing indirect restorations. There are a number of materials and techniques available for their construction. Careful planning and construction can protect the prepared tooth surface, improve the periodontal condition and help plan for the definitive restoration. A good provisional restoration can save time, money and effort. Clinical relevance: Provisional restoration construction is an integral part of the indirect restorative process for inlays, onlays, crowns and bridges.

  3. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily

  4. Developing an Approach to Prioritize River Restoration using Data Extracted from Flood Risk Information System Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Band, L. E.; Duncan, J. M.; Lovette, J. P.; Corzo, G.; Miles, B.

    2015-12-01

    Prioritizing river restoration requires information on river geometry. In many states in the US detailed river geometry has been collected for floodplain mapping and is available in Flood Risk Information Systems (FRIS). In particular, North Carolina has, for its 100 Counties, developed a database of numerous HEC-RAS models which are available through its Flood Risk Information System (FRIS). These models that include over 260 variables were developed and updated by numerous contractors. They contain detailed surveyed or LiDAR derived cross-sections and modeled flood extents for different extreme event return periods. In this work, over 4700 HEC-RAS models' data was integrated and upscaled to utilize detailed cross-section information and 100-year modelled flood extent information to enable river restoration prioritization for the entire state of North Carolina. We developed procedures to extract geomorphic properties such as entrenchment ratio, incision ratio, etc. from these models. Entrenchment ratio quantifies the vertical containment of rivers and thereby their vulnerability to flooding and incision ratio quantifies the depth per unit width. A map of entrenchment ratio for the whole state was derived by linking these model results to a geodatabase. A ranking of highly entrenched counties enabling prioritization for flood allowance and mitigation was obtained. The results were shared through HydroShare and web maps developed for their visualization using Google Maps Engine API.

  5. VT River Restoration Data in Lamoille County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Documented river and riparian buffer restoration projects in Lamoille County, Vermont. Restoration includes buffer plantings (trees and shrubs),...

  6. Prevalence of Perkinsus marinus (dermo), Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), and QPX in bivalves of Delaware's inland bays and quantitative, high-throughput diagnosis of dermo by QPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Paul N; Ewart, John W; Marsh, Adam G

    2007-01-01

    Restoration of oyster reef habitat in the Inland Bays of Delaware was accompanied by an effort to detect and determine relative abundance of the bivalve pathogens Perkinsus marinus, Haplosporidium nelsoni, and QPX. Both the oyster Crassostrea virginica and the clam Mercenaria mercenaria were sampled from the bays. In addition, oysters were deployed at eight sites around the bays as sentinels for the three parasites. Perkinsus marinus prevalence was measured with a real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology that enabled high-throughput detection of as few as 31 copies of the ribosomal non-transcribed spacer region in 500 ng oyster DNA. The other pathogens were assayed using PCR with species-specific primers. Perkinsus marinus was identified in Indian River Bay at moderate prevalence ( approximately 40%) in both an artificial reef and a wild oyster population whereas sentinel oysters were PCR-negative after 3-months exposure during summer and early fall. Haplosporidium nelsoni was restricted to one oyster deployed in Little Assawoman Bay. QPX and P. marinus were not detected among wild clams. While oysters in these bays have historically been under the greatest threat by MSX, it is apparent that P. marinus currently poses a greater threat to recovery of oyster aquaculture in Delaware's Inland Bays.

  7. An Introduction to the San Francisco Estuary Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of tidal wetlands may provide an important tool for improving ecological health and water management for beneficial uses of the San Francisco Estuary (hereafter “Estuary”. Given the large losses of tidal wetlands from San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in the last 150 years, it seems logical to assume that restoring tidal wetlands will have benefits for a variety of aquatic and terrestrial native species that have declined during the same time period. However, many other changes have also occurred in the Estuary concurrent with the declines of native species. Other factors that might be important in species declines include the effects of construction of upstream dams, large and small water diversions within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, agricultural pesticides, trace elements from industrial and agricultural activities, and invasions of alien species. Discussions among researchers, managers, and stakeholders have identified a number of uncertainties regarding the potential benefits of tidal wetland restoration. The articles of the Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series address four major issues of concern. Stated as questions, these are: 1. Will tidal wetland restoration enhance populations of native fishes? 2. Will wetland restoration increase rates of methylation of mercury? 3. Will primary production and other ecological processes in restored tidal wetlands result in net export of organic carbon to adjacent habitats, resulting in enhancement of the food web? Will the carbon produced contribute to the formation of disinfection byproducts when disinfected for use as drinking water? 4. Will restored tidal wetlands provide long-term ecosystem benefits that can be sustained in response to ongoing physical processes, including sedimentation and hydrodynamics? Reducing the uncertainty surrounding these issues is of critical importance because tidal wetland restoration is assumed to be a critical tool for

  8. A Landscape-level Model for Ecosystem Restoration in the San Francisco Estuary and Its Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Kimmerer

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The CALFED Bay-Delta Program is an ambitious effort to restore ecosystems and improve reliability of ecosystem services in California’s Central Valley. Key issues for CALFED and its Ecosystem Restoration Program (ERP include (1 meeting societal demand for multiple, potentially conflicting ecosystem services; (2 the tradeoff among more or less environmentally intrusive approaches to solving problems; (3 whether restoration should focus at the ecosystem level or on individual species; (4 the appropriate response to uncertainty; and (5 the tension between action and investigation. A long-term, landscape-scale perspective is essential for framing the scientific questions underlying these broad issues. We introduce a landscape-scale conceptual model that illustrates linkages, including material flows and animal migration, among the major ecosystem components being described in detail in a series of review papers. This model shows how linkages between ecosystem components result in remote consequences of locally applied restoration actions. The network of linkages is made more complicated by human interventions, which add components not previously a part of the landscape (e.g., salmonid hatcheries and alter or even reverse causal relations. A landscape perspective also helps identify conceptual gaps in CALFED’s restoration strategy, such as climate change and human population growth, which should be explicitly considered in forecasts of the long-term prospects for restoration. A landscape perspective is no panacea; in particular, the effects of restoration at this scale will be difficult to detect. Nevertheless, we advocate integrating investigations of processes at nested, smaller scales as an approach for evaluating effects of individual restoration actions and of the entire program. We believe CALFED and other large restoration programs will be most successful if they are able to integrate both societal expectations and scientific study at the

  9. Confirmation of cisco spawning in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario using an egg pumping device

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Ellen M.; Stott, Wendylee; Young, Brian; Karboski, Curtis T.; Crabtree, Darran L.; Roseman, Edward; Rudstam, Lars G.

    2017-01-01

    Cisco Coregonus artedi, a historically abundant and commercially important fish in the Great Lakes, have declined drastically in the last century due to the impacts of invasive species, overfishing, and habitat degradation. Chaumont Bay, New York is believed to contain one of the last remaining spawning populations of cisco in Lake Ontario although direct evidence of spawning has remained elusive. We document cisco spawning in Chaumont Bay for the first time in decades through the use of an egg pumping device specifically developed to sample through lake ice. Forty-one eggs were identified as cisco using genetic barcoding of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. Cisco eggs were associated with shallow, rocky shoals. Contemporary knowledge of spawning behavior is an important step toward the successful restoration of cisco in Lake Ontario and across the Great Lakes.

  10. Strong tidal modulation of net ecosystem exchange in a salt marsh in North Inlet, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, T. L.; Smith, E. M.; Bogoev, I.

    2017-12-01

    Along the southeastern US, intertidal salt marshes represent a critical habitat at the interface of the terrestrial and marine environments and perform a variety of ecological functions and services that make them of great economic importance for coastal communities They provide essential fish and shellfish habitat, with a majority of all commercially- and recreationally important fish species being dependent on intertidal marsh habitat during some portion of their life cycle. The penaeid shrimp industry, South Carolina's most economically important fishery, would cease to exist without the critical nursery function provided by intertidal salt marshes. Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is a keystone species in the high salinity marshes of the southeastern U.S., and its functioning is essential to the health and survival of salt marshes under rising sea levels. To better quantify and facilitate prediction of future salt marsh productivity, in May of 2017, we established a new integrated eddy covariance tower system to measure the net ecosystem exchange of carbon in a salt marsh in coastal South Carolina. The tower site is co-located with long-term, ongoing measurements as part of the North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NI-WB NERR). Current sampling conducted within the eddy flux footprint includes: annual measures of the vegetation community at the time of peak biomass; bi-monthly measures of sediment elevation at Sediment Elevation Tables (SETs) located at the upper and lower ends of the flux footprint; monthly sediment porewater salinity and nutrient (ammonium, orthophosphate) and sulfide concentrations; and biannual sediment elevation surveys by RTK-GPS. A suite of water quality measurements are made every 15 minutes in the main creek that floods the marsh platform in the flux footprint. Here we present our first six months of observations investigating the abiotic drivers of productivity on daily (intratidal) to monthly timescales

  11. Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis to Support Nearshore Restoration Projects in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqing Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To re-establish the intertidal wetlands with full tidal exchange and improve salmonid rearing habitat in the Skagit River estuary, State of Washington, USA, a diked agriculture farm land along the Skagit Bay front is proposed to be restored to a fully functional tidal wetland. The complex and dynamic Skagit River estuarine system calls for the need of a multi-facet and multi-dimensional analysis using observed data, numerical and analytical methods. To assist the feasibility study of the restoration project, a hydrodynamic modeling analysis was conducted using a high-resolution unstructured-grid coastal ocean model to evaluate the hydrodynamic response to restoration alternatives and to provide guidance to the engineering design of a new levee in the restoration site. A set of parameters were defined to quantify the hydrodynamic response of the nearshore restoration project, such as inundation area, duration of inundation, water depth and salinity of the inundated area. To assist the design of the new levee in the restoration site, the maximum water level near the project site was estimated with consideration of extreme high tide, wind-induced storm surge, significant wave height and future sea-level rise based on numerical model results and coastal engineering calculation.

  12. Direct Seeding Scarlet Oak in the North Carolina Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl R. Sluder

    1965-01-01

    Seedling establishment rates varied from 0 to 50 percent in a direct seeding study with scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh.) on the Bent Creek Experimental Forest near Asheville, North Carolina. Acorns planted 2 inches deep in the spring with screen protection produced the most seedlings; those surface sown without screens in the spring or fall...

  13. North Carolina Tales Fly with Fourth Grade Tellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Gretchen Daub

    2008-01-01

    In fourth grade, North Carolina students are required to write their own personal narratives. The teachers felt that telling a story would be a great stepping stone toward writing one. Rather than focusing on grammar and the mechanics of writing, students could focus on story development and creativity. In this article, the author describes how…

  14. South Carolina Higher Education Statistical Abstract, 2014. 36th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Mim, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The South Carolina Higher Education Statistical Abstract is a comprehensive, single-source compilation of tables and graphs which report data frequently requested by the Governor, Legislators, college and university staff, other state government officials, and the general public. The 2014 edition of the Statistical Abstract marks the 36th year of…

  15. South Carolina Higher Education Statistical Abstract, 2015. 37th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Mim, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The South Carolina Higher Education Statistical Abstract is a comprehensive, single-source compilation of tables and graphs which report data frequently requested by the Governor, Legislators, college and university staff, other state government officials, and the general public. The 2015 edition of the Statistical Abstract marks the 37th year of…

  16. Diurnal variation of precipitation over the Carolina Sandhills region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    State Climate Office of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC 27695-8208, USA. ∗ e-mail: ... of the weather forecast models experience problems in accounting for the ... effect of vegetation and soil contrasts on thermally induced flow is ... Sandhills; diurnal convection; heat flux gradients; cloud–radiation interaction. J. Earth Syst. Sci.

  17. Cracking the Egg: The South Carolina Digital Library's New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Christopher G.; Boyd, Kate Foster

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the historical foundations of the South Carolina Digital Library, a collaborative statewide program that ties together academic special collections and archives, public libraries, state government archives, and other cultural resource institutions in an effort to provide the state with a comprehensive database of online…

  18. South Carolina State Library Annual Report 1991-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Library, Columbia.

    In fiscal year 1992, state funding to the South Carolina State Library was reduced on four occasions, but the library staff performed at high levels. Despite a 38 percent reduction in the library materials budget, the State Library had its best year ever in terms of providing information, with the number of items loaned continuing to increase. In…

  19. Search efforts for ivory-billed woodpecker in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Moskwik; Theresa Thom; Laurel M. Barnhill; Craig Watson; Jennifer Koches; John Kilgo; Bill Hulslander; Colette Degarady; Gary. Peters

    2013-01-01

    Following the reported rediscovery of Campephilus principalis (Ivory-billed Woodpecker) in Arkansas, we initiated searches in South Carolina in February 2006, with additional searches in the winter and spring of 2006–2007 and 2007–2008, concentrating in the Congaree, Santee, and Pee Dee river basins. We accrued a cumulative total of 8893 survey hours...

  20. North Carolina, 2007: Forest Inventory and Analysis factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Brown; Barry D. New

    2011-01-01

    Sixty-three of North Carolina’s 100 counties were > 50 percent forested. Fifteen of these were > 75 percent forested (fig. 1). The majority of these most heavily forested counties were located in the more mountainous regions of the State, usually near or including national forest lands. The remaining two most heavily forested counties were in the lower Coastal...

  1. Do Academically Able Teachers Leave Education? The North Carolina Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.; Vance, Victor S.

    1981-01-01

    To determine whether academically able teachers are more likely than others to leave the classroom, a study was conducted of the data file of all certified regular classroom teachers who entered teaching in North Carolina from 1973 to 1980 and had no prior teaching experience. (Author/WD)

  2. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of South Carolina. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  3. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of North Carolina. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  4. South Carolina Course Alignment Project: Best Practices Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Kristine; Ward, Terri; Hopper-Moore, Greg

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate a more seamless transition from high school to postsecondary education, high schools and colleges need to build new relationships and examine educational programming on both sides of the critical juncture between the senior year in high school and the first year in college. This South Carolina College and Career Readiness Toolkit was…

  5. Preventing Childhood Obesity: Policy and Practice Strategies for North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jenni, Ed.; Rosch, Joel, Ed.; Smith, Shannon, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    North Carolina Family Impact Seminars (NCFIS) include annual seminars, briefing reports and follow-up activities designed specifically for state policymakers, including legislators and legislative staff, the governor and executive branch staff, and state agency representatives. The Center for Child and Family Policy at Duke University convenes the…

  6. School Consolidation Survey: Iredell County: Mooresville, Statesville, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt and Engelhardt, Inc., Purdy Station, NY.

    This document explores the feasibility of consolidating three North Carolina school districts into a single administrative unit. Factors analyzed include future population and enrollment growth, existing buildings and school building needs, program offerings, staff qualifications, administrative organization, and financial considerations of…

  7. North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit Two: Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Lundie; Frankenberg, Dirk

    Although North Carolina's coastal water is chemically and physically similar to other bodies of sea water, the specific manner in which tides and waves act upon the coastline is unique. Accordingly, the 30 activities presented in this manual are intended to help junior high school students understand how physical forces modify coastal areas. While…

  8. An Analysis of South Carolina Per Pupil State Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    In many states, including South Carolina, school choice is being discussed as perhaps the best way to both improve student achievement and spend education dollars more efficiently. The evidence from the 12 school choice programs currently running around the country is that the increased competition among public and private schools leads to more…

  9. 75 FR 55594 - North Carolina; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... resulting from Hurricane Earl beginning on September 1, 2010, and continuing, are of sufficient severity and... State of North Carolina have been designated as adversely affected by this declared emergency: Beaufort..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing...

  10. 76 FR 61726 - North Carolina; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Hurricane Irene beginning on August 25, 2011, and continuing, are of sufficient severity and magnitude to... State of North Carolina have been designated as adversely affected by this declared emergency: Carteret... Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in Presidentially Declared...

  11. Western North Carolina report card on forest sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Fox; Bill Jackson; Sarah Jackson; Gary Kauffmann; Mary Carol Koester; Robert Mera; Terry Seyden; Charles Van Sickle; Sealy Chipley; Jim Fox; Jeff Hicks; Matt Hutchins; Karin Lichtenstein; Kelsie Nolan; Todd Pierce; Beth Porter

    2011-01-01

    Western North Carolina encompasses 4.8 million acres of highly valued temperate forests. To help address future management and conservation decisions surrounding these resources, the report card evaluates environmental, social, and economic conditions in recent decades across an 18 county area. The report card describes the status of indicators of forest sustainability...

  12. Integrating Larval Dispersal, Permitting, and Logistical Factors Within a Validated Habitat Suitability Index for Oyster Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Puckett

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability index (HSI models are increasingly used to guide ecological restoration. Successful restoration is a byproduct of several factors, including physical and biological processes, as well as permitting and logistical considerations. Rarely are factors from all of these categories included in HSI models, despite their combined relevance to common restoration goals such as population persistence. We developed a Geographic Information System (GIS-based HSI for restoring persistent high-relief subtidal oyster (Crassostrea virginica reefs protected from harvest (i.e., sanctuaries in Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, USA. Expert stakeholder input identified 17 factors to include in the HSI. Factors primarily represented physical (e.g., salinity and biological (e.g., larval dispersal processes relevant to oyster restoration, but also included several relevant permitting (e.g., presence of seagrasses and logistical (e.g., distance to restoration material stockpile sites considerations. We validated the model with multiple years of oyster density data from existing sanctuaries, and compared HSI output with distributions of oyster reefs from the late 1800's. Of the 17 factors included in the model, stakeholders identified four factors—salinity, larval export from existing oyster sanctuaries, larval import to existing sanctuaries, and dissolved oxygen—most critical to oyster sanctuary site selection. The HSI model provided a quantitative scale over which a vast water body (~6,000 km2 was narrowed down by 95% to a much smaller suite of optimal (top 1% HSI and suitable (top 5% HSI locations for oyster restoration. Optimal and suitable restoration locations were clustered in northeast and southwest Pamlico Sound. Oyster density in existing sanctuaries, normalized for time since reef restoration, was a positive exponential function of HSI, providing validation for the model. Only a small portion (10–20% of historical reef locations

  13. Basic research for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  15. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Wetland Restoration and Sediment Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — In 2008, Minnesota’s Private Lands Program and Wetland Management Districts began to compare different methods of restoring prairie pothole wetlands to see if there...

  18. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps:-characterisation of relevant contaminated sites -identication and characterisation of relevant restoration...... techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated...

  19. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L

    1992-03-01

    McKinley Bay is a shallow protected bay along the eastern Beaufort Sea coast which provides an important habitat for diving ducks. Since 1979, the bay has been the site of a winter harbor and support base for oil and gas exploraton in the Beaufort Sea. Aerial surveys for bird abundance and distribution were conducted in August 1991 as a continuation of long-term monitoring of birds in McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, a nearby area used as a control. The main objectives of the 1991 surveys were to expand the set of baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers, and to determine if numbers of diving ducks had changed since the initial 1981-85 surveys. On the day with the best survey conditions, the population of diving ducks at McKinley bay was estimated at ca 32,000, significantly more than 1981-85. At Hutchison Bay, there were an estimated 11,000 ducks. As in previous years, large numbers of diving ducks were observed off Atkinson Point at the northwest corner of McKinley Bay, at the south end of the bay, and in the northeast corner near a long spit. Most divers in Hutchison Bay were at the west side. Diving ducks, primarily Oldsquaw and scoter, were the most abundant bird group in the study area. Observed distribution patterns of birds are discussed with reference to habitat preferences. 16 refs., 7 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. Protecting workers from secondhand smoke in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Marcus; Malek, Sally Herndon; Shopland, Donald R; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to job-related secondhand smoke represents a significant, but entirely preventable occupational health risk to non-smoking workers. This article examines trends in smoke-free workplace policies in North Carolina. We also examine whether workers comply with such policies. Data from the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey were analyzed from 1992 through 2002. Trends for North Carolina workers are compared with workers nationally and trends are presented by age, race, gender, and type of worker. North Carolina ranks 35th in the proportion of its workforce reporting a smoke-free place of employment. The proportion of workers reporting such a policy doubled between 1992 and 2002. Females were more likely to reporta smoke-free work environment (72.0%, CI +/- 2.6) than males (61.2%, CI +/- 4.6%). Blue-collar (55.6%, CI +/- 5.5) and service workers (61.2%, CI +/- 8.4), especially males, were less likely to report a smoke-free worksite than white-collar workers (73.4%, CI +/- 2.6). Compliance with a smoke-free policy does not appear to be an issue, only 3.2% of workers statewide reported someone had violated their company's nonsmoking policy While some progress has been made in North Carolina to protect workers from secondhand smoke, significant disparities exist. Smoke-free policies can make a significant difference in reducing exposure to airborne toxins and their associated diseases, and these protective public health policies have not been shown to reduce business revenues. Much has been done to assure the health and safety of workers through public health policy However, opportunities to protect North Carolina workers from the health effects of secondhand smoke are limited by a preemptive state law.

  1. Scientists Engage South Carolina Community in Earthquake Education and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Beutel, E.; Jaume', S.; Levine, N.; Doyle, B.

    2008-12-01

    Scientists at the College of Charleston are working with the state of South Carolina's Emergency Management Division to increase awareness and understanding of earthquake hazards throughout South Carolina. As part of this mission, the SCEEP (South Carolina Earthquake Education and Preparedness) program was formed at the College of Charleston to promote earthquake research, outreach, and education in the state of South Carolina. Working with local, regional, state and federal offices, SCEEP has developed education programs for everyone from professional hazard management teams to formal and informal educators. SCEEP also works with the media to ensure accurate reporting of earthquake and other hazard information and to increase the public's understanding of earthquake science and earthquake seismology. As part of this program, we have developed a series of activities that can be checked out by educators for use in their classrooms and in informal education venues. These activities are designed to provide educators with the information and tools they lack to adequately, informatively, and enjoyably teach about earthquake and earth science. The toolkits contain seven activities meeting a variety of National Education Standards, not only in Science, but also in Geography, Math, Social Studies, Arts Education, History and Language Arts - providing a truly multidisciplinary toolkit for educators. The activities provide information on earthquake myths, seismic waves, elastic rebound, vectors, liquefaction, location of an epicenter, and then finally South Carolina earthquakes. The activities are engaging and inquiry based, implementing proven effective strategies for peaking learners' interest in scientific phenomena. All materials are provided within the toolkit and so it is truly check and go. While the SCEEP team has provided instructions and grade level suggestions for implementing the activity in an educational setting, the educator has full reign on what to showcase

  2. Compensatory stream and wetland mitigation in North Carolina: an evaluation of regulatory success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tammy; Kulz, Eric; Munoz, Breda; Dorney, John R

    2013-05-01

    Data from a probability sample were used to estimate wetland and stream mitigation success from 2007 to 2009 across North Carolina (NC). "Success" was defined as whether the mitigation site met regulatory requirements in place at the time of construction. Analytical results were weighted by both component counts and mitigation size. Overall mitigation success (including preservation) was estimated at 74 % (SE = 3 %) for wetlands and 75 % (SE = 4 %) for streams in NC. Compared to the results of previous studies, wetland mitigation success rates had increased since the mid-1990s. Differences between mitigation providers (mitigation banks, NC Ecosystem Enhancement Program's design-bid-build and full-delivery programs, NC Department of Transportation and private permittee-responsible mitigation) were generally not significant although permittee-responsible mitigation yielded higher success rates in certain circumstances. Both wetland and stream preservation showed high rates of success and the stream enhancement success rate was significantly higher than that of stream restoration. Additional statistically significant differences when mitigation size was considered included: (1) the Piedmont yielded a lower stream mitigation success rate than other areas of the state, and (2) recently constructed wetland mitigation projects demonstrated a lower success rate than those built prior to 2002. Opportunities for improvement exist in the areas of regulatory record-keeping, understanding the relationship between post-construction establishment and long-term ecological trajectories of stream and wetland restoration projects, incorporation of numeric ecological metrics into mitigation monitoring and success criteria, and adaptation of stream mitigation designs to achieve greater success in the Piedmont.

  3. 75 FR 2580 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-North Carolina State Ports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [STB Finance Docket No. 35339] Carolina... City; \\2\\ (2) from milepost 0.0, in Morehead City, through and including the classification yard... becomes effective). An original and 10 copies of all pleadings, referring to STB Finance Docket No. 35339...

  4. Space use and habitat selection of migrant and resident American Avocets in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Scott A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Warnock, N.; Athearn, N.D.

    2010-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is a wintering area for shorebirds, including American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana). Recently, a new resident population of avocets has emerged, presumably because of the development of tidal marshes into salt-evaporation ponds. In habitat restoration now underway, as many as 90% of salt ponds will be restored to tidal marsh. However, it is unknown if wintering and resident avocets coexist and if their requirements for space and habitat differ, necessitating different management for their populations to be maintained during restoration. We captured and radio-marked wintering avocets at a salt pond and a tidal flat to determine their population status (migrant or resident) and examine their space use and habitat selection. Of the radio-marked avocets, 79% were migrants and 21% were residents. At the salt pond, residents' fidelity to their location of capture was higher, and residents moved less than did migrants from the same site. Conversely, on the tidal flat, fidelity of residents to their site of capture was lower, and residents' home ranges were larger than those of migrants from the same site. Habitat selection of migrants and residents differed little; however, capture site influenced habitat selection far more than the birds' status as migrants or residents. Our study suggests that individual avocets have high site fidelity while wintering in San Francisco Bay, although the avocet as a species is plastic in its space use and habitat selection. This plasticity may allow wintering migrant and resident avocets to adapt to habitat change in San Francisco Bay. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  5. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  6. Holy grail at Baglan Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Jim

    1999-01-01

    The UK government's consent for the construction of a gas-fired power plant at Baglan Bay in South Wales is reported, and the growing popularity of economic combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plants and the resulting environmental improvements are noted . The combining of gas and steam turbines, design developments, and the UK moratorium on planning consents for gas fired power plants are discussed. General Electric's H System technology which will lower the amount of energy lost in the conversion of natural gas to electricity is described, and details of the ten most problematic CCGTs in the UK are given. The domination of the CCGT global market by four manufacturers, and the pressure on manufacturers to develop their designs are considered. (UK)

  7. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast... zone on the navigable waters of Oyster Bay near Oyster Bay, NY for the Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary... Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display is scheduled for October 19, 2013 and is one of...

  8. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  9. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted Areas AGENCY: U.S. Army... read as follows: Sec. 334.665 East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, Restricted Areas...

  10. 75 FR 15343 - Regulated Navigation Area: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ...: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the Providence River and Taunton River AGENCY... River and Mount Hope Bay in the vicinity of the two Brightman Street bridges have not been adopted and... Island and Mt. Hope Bay, MA.'' The notice was prompted primarily by two events: (1) The U.S. Army Corps...

  11. Urban and community forests of the Southern Atlantic region: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; and the District of Columbia by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry...

  12. Evaluating the Impact of Land Use Change on Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Stressors in Mobile Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Quattrochi, Dale; Thom, Ronald; Woodruff, Dana; Judd, Chaeli; Ellis, Jean; Watson, Brian; Rodriquez, Hugo; Johnson, Hoyt

    2009-01-01

    Alabama coastal systems have been subjected to increasing pressure from a variety of activities including urban and rural development, shoreline modifications, industrial activities, and dredging of shipping and navigation channels. The impacts on coastal ecosystems are often observed through the use of indicator species. One such indicator species for aquatic ecosystem health is submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Watershed and hydrodynamic modeling has been performed to evaluate the impact of land use change in Mobile and Baldwin counties on SAV stressors and controlling factors (temperature, salinity, and sediment) in Mobile Bay. Watershed modeling using the Loading Simulation Package in C++ (LSPC) was performed for all watersheds contiguous to Mobile Bay for land use scenarios in 1948, 1992, 2001, and 2030. Landsat-derived National Land Cover Data (NLCD) were used in the 1992 and 2001 simulations after having been reclassified to a common classification scheme. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model was used to project the 2030 land use scenario based on current trends. The LSPC model simulations provided output on changes in flow, temperature, and sediment for 22 discharge points into the Bay. Theses results were inputted in the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Computer Code (EFDC) hydrodynamic model to generate data on changes in temperature, salinity, and sediment on a grid with four vertical profiles throughout Mobile Bay. The changes in the aquatic ecosystem were used to perform an ecological analysis to evaluate the impact on SAV habitat suitability. This is the key product benefiting the Mobile Bay coastal environmental managers that integrates the influences of temperature, salinity, and sediment due to land use driven flow changes with the restoration potential of SAVs.

  13. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa A.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  14. Transplanting native dominant plants to facilitate community development in restored coastal plain wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.

    2007-12-01

    Abstract: Drained depressional wetlands are typically restored by plugging ditches or breaking drainage tiles to allow recovery of natural ponding regimes, while relying on passive recolonization from seed banks and dispersal to establish emergent vegetation. However, in restored depressions of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, certain characteristic rhizomatous graminoid species may not recolonize because they are dispersal-limited and uncommon or absent in the seed banks of disturbed sites. We tested whether selectively planting such wetland dominants could facilitate restoration by accelerating vegetative cover development and suppressing non-wetland species. In an operational-scale project in a South Carolina forested landscape, drained depressional wetlands were restored in early 2001 by completely removing woody vegetation and plugging surface ditches. After forest removal, tillers of two rhizomatous wetland grasses (Panicum hemitomon, Leersia hexandra) were transplanted into singlespecies blocks in 12 restored depressions that otherwise were revegetating passively. Presence and cover of all plant species appearing in planted plots and unplanted control plots were recorded annually. We analyzed vegetation composition after two and four years, during a severe drought (2002) and after hydrologic recovery (2004). Most grass plantings established successfully, attaining 15%–85% cover in two years. Planted plots had fewer total species and fewer wetland species compared to control plots, but differences were small. Planted plots achieved greater total vegetative cover during the drought and greater combined cover of wetland species in both years. By 2004, planted grasses appeared to reduce cover of non-wetland species in some cases, but wetter hydrologic conditions contributed more strongly to suppression of non-wetland species. Because these two grasses typically form a dominant cover matrix in herbaceous depressions, our results indicated that

  15. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species

  16. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.J.

    1999-12-17

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously impacted by the discharge of heated nuclear reactor effluent. The depredated restoration areas had been pretreated with both herbicide and control burning prior to planting the hardwood seedlings. After discovery of the wild pig damage, these areas were surveyed on foot to assess the magnitude of the depredation on the planted seedling crop. Foraging by the local wild pigs in the pretreatment areas selectively impacted only four of the nine hardwood species used in this restoration effort. Based on the surveys, the remaining five species did not appear to have been impacted at all. A variety of reasons could be used to explain this phenomenon. The pretreatment methodology is thought to have been the primary aspect of the restoration program that initially led the wild pigs to discover the planted seedlings. In addition, it is possible that a combination of other factors associated with odor and taste may have resulted in the selective depredation. Future wetland restoration efforts in areas with wild pigs should consider pretreatment methods and species to be planted. If pretreatment methods and species such as discussed in the present study must be used, then the prior removal of wild pigs from surrounding lands will help prevent depredations by this non-native species.

  17. Technical approach to groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

  18. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  19. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  20. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  1. San Antonio Bay 1986-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effect of salinity on utilization of shallow-water nursery habitats by aquatic fauna was assessed in San Antonio Bay, Texas. Overall, 272 samples were collected...

  2. Corpus ChristiEast Matagorda Bay 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of habitat utilization were compared among transplanted and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Halls Lake area of Chocolate Bay in the Galveston...

  3. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Bathymetry: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  4. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  5. FL BAY SPECTROUT-POPULATION STATUS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  6. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  7. Benthic harpacticoid copepods of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Xinzheng

    2017-09-01

    The species richness of benthic harpacticoid copepod fauna in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, on the southern coast of Shandong Peninsula, has not been comprehensively studied. We present a preliminary inventory of species for this region based on material found in nine sediment samples collected from 2011 to 2012. Our list includes 15 species belonging to 15 genera in 9 families, the most speciose family was the Miraciidae Dana, 1846 (seven species); all other families were represented by single species only. Sediment characteristics and depth are determined to be important environmental determinants of harpacticoid distribution in this region. We briefly detail the known distributions of species and provide a key to facilitate their identification. Both harpacticoid species richness and the species/genus ratio in Jiaozhou Bay are lower than in Bohai Gulf and Gwangyang Bay. The poor knowledge of the distribution of benthic harpacticoids, in addition to low sampling effort in Jiaozhou Bay, likely contribute to low species richness.

  8. Biscayne Bay Florida Bottlenose Dolphin Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of small vessel based studies of bottlenose dolphins that reside within Biscayne Bay, Florida, adjacent estuaries and nearshore...

  9. Long-term impacts due to sediment supply changes towards the San Francisco Bay-Delta system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achete, F.; Van der Wegen, M. V.; Jaffe, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    changes can be influenced by anthropogenic activities and Wright and Schoellhamer (2004) proved that there is a decreasing trend in the sediment export from the delta. Preliminary results show that changes in the Sacramento River discharge leads to drastic changes in the export of sediment from the delta to the bay and consequently to the coastal region. The understanding and ability to forecast shifts in sediment supply and morphological changes can be a useful tool for the decision making process, as well for planning marshes restoration projects that are to keep pace with sea level rise in addition to restoring habitat and biodiversity.

  10. Restoration of motion blurred images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola, Leopoldo N.; Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.

    2017-08-01

    Image restoration is a classic problem in image processing. Image degradations can occur due to several reasons, for instance, imperfections of imaging systems, quantization errors, atmospheric turbulence, relative motion between camera or objects, among others. Motion blur is a typical degradation in dynamic imaging systems. In this work, we present a method to estimate the parameters of linear motion blur degradation from a captured blurred image. The proposed method is based on analyzing the frequency spectrum of a captured image in order to firstly estimate the degradation parameters, and then, to restore the image with a linear filter. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by processing synthetic and real-life images. The obtained results are characterized in terms of accuracy of image restoration given by an objective criterion.

  11. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  12. Optimal Site Characterization and Selection Criteria for Oyster Restoration using Multicolinear Factorial Water Quality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J.

    2015-12-01

    Elevated levels of nutrient loadings have enriched the Chesapeake Bay estuaries and coastal waters via point and nonpoint sources and the atmosphere. Restoring oyster beds is considered a Best Management Practice (BMP) to improve the water quality as well as provide physical aquatic habitat and a healthier estuarine system. Efforts include declaring sanctuaries for brood-stocks, supplementing hard substrate on the bottom and aiding natural populations with the addition of hatchery-reared and disease-resistant stocks. An economic assessment suggests that restoring the ecological functions will improve water quality, stabilize shorelines, and establish a habitat for breeding grounds that outweighs the value of harvestable oyster production. Parametric factorial models were developed to investigate multicolinearities among in situ water quality and oyster restoration activities to evaluate posterior success rates upon multiple substrates, and physical, chemical, hydrological and biological site characteristics to systematically identify significant factors. Findings were then further utilized to identify the optimal sites for successful oyster restoration augmentable with Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) and BMPs. Factorial models evaluate the relationship among the dependent variable, oyster biomass, and treatments of temperature, salinity, total suspended solids, E. coli/Enterococci counts, depth, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, nitrogen and phosphorus, and blocks consist of alternative substrates (oyster shells versus riprap, granite, cement, cinder blocks, limestone marl or combinations). Factorial model results were then compared to identify which combination of variables produces the highest posterior biomass of oysters. Developed Factorial model can facilitate maximizing the likelihood of successful oyster reef restoration in an effort to establish a healthier ecosystem and to improve overall estuarine water quality in the Chesapeake Bay estuaries.

  13. Wave attenuation across a tidal marsh in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Martinez, Madeline R.; Lacy, Jessica; Ferner, Matthew C.; Variano, Evan A.

    2018-01-01

    Wave attenuation is a central process in the mechanics of a healthy salt marsh. Understanding how wave attenuation varies with vegetation and hydrodynamic conditions informs models of other marsh processes that are a function of wave energy (e.g. sediment transport) and allows for the incorporation of marshes into coastal protection plans. Here, we examine the evolution of wave height across a tidal salt marsh in San Francisco Bay. Instruments were deployed along a cross-shore transect, starting on the mudflat and crossing through zones dominated by Spartina foliosa and Salicornia pacifica. This dataset is the first to quantify wave attenuation for these vegetation species, which are abundant in the intertidal zone of California estuaries. Measurements were collected in the summer and winter to assess seasonal variation in wave attenuation. Calculated drag coefficients of S. foliosa and S. pacifica were similar, indicating equal amounts of vegetation would lead to similar energy dissipation; however, S. pacifica has much greater biomass close to the bed (<20 cm) and retains biomass throughout the year, and therefore, it causes more total attenuation. S. foliosa dies back in the winter, and waves often grow across this section of the marsh. For both vegetation types, attenuation was greatest for low water depths, when the vegetation was emergent. For both seasons, attenuation rates across S. pacifica were the highest and were greater than published attenuation rates across similar (Spartina alterniflora) salt marshes for the comparable depths. These results can inform designs for marsh restorations and management plans in San Francisco Bay and other estuaries containing these species.

  14. Toxic phytoplankton in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kristine M.; Garrison, David L.; Cloern, James E.

    1996-01-01

    The Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) was conceived and designed to document the changing distribution and effects of trace substances in San Francisco Bay, with focus on toxic contaminants that have become enriched by human inputs. However, coastal ecosystems like San Francisco Bay also have potential sources of naturally-produced toxic substances that can disrupt food webs and, under extreme circumstances, become threats to public health. The most prevalent source of natural toxins is from blooms of algal species that can synthesize metabolites that are toxic to invertebrates or vertebrates. Although San Francisco Bay is nutrient-rich, it has so far apparently been immune from the epidemic of harmful algal blooms in the world’s nutrient-enriched coastal waters. This absence of acute harmful blooms does not imply that San Francisco Bay has unique features that preclude toxic blooms. No sampling program has been implemented to document the occurrence of toxin-producing algae in San Francisco Bay, so it is difficult to judge the likelihood of such events in the future. This issue is directly relevant to the goals of RMP because harmful species of phytoplankton have the potential to disrupt ecosystem processes that support animal populations, cause severe illness or death in humans, and confound the outcomes of toxicity bioassays such as those included in the RMP. Our purpose here is to utilize existing data on the phytoplankton community of San Francisco Bay to provide a provisional statement about the occurrence, distribution, and potential threats of harmful algae in this Estuary.

  15. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs

  16. Intellectual system for images restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, Igor

    2005-02-01

    Intelligence systems on basis of artificial neural networks and associative memory allow to solve effectively problems of recognition and restoration of images. However, within analytical technologies there are no dominating approaches of deciding of intellectual problems. Choice of the best technology depends on nature of problem, features of objects, volume of represented information about the object, number of classes of objects, etc. It is required to determine opportunities, preconditions and field of application of neural networks and associative memory for decision of problem of restoration of images and to use their supplementary benefits for further development of intelligence systems.

  17. Reproductive maturation and breeding of woodcock in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, R.T.; Doerr, P.D.; Keppie, Daniel M.; Owen, Ray B.

    1977-01-01

    Breeding woodcock (PhiJohela minor) were studied in North Carolina during the winters and springs of 1974-75 and 1975-76.. Measurements of testes and ovaries from 19 male and 30 female woodcock suggest that gonadal recrudescence in many woodcock occurs on the wintering grounds. In males, testicular recrudescence occurred as early as December and was accompanied by territory selection and courtship activity. Of 15 females collected in February, 5 had shelled eggs in the oviduct. Seven woodcock broods, located from 1 March to 30 April, were banded, aged, and released. From estimated clutch completion dates it appears that broods were successfully hatched from clutches completed as early as 21 January. Because of the early nesting of woodcock in North Carolina, hunters and land managers need to be aware of woodcock breeding habits and their need for protection during late winter.

  18. Quaternary geophysical framework of the northeastern North Carolina coastal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E.R.; Foster, D.S.; Mallinson, D.M.; Himmelstoss, E.A.; McNinch, J.E.; List, J.H.; Hammar-Klose, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that mapped the Quaternary geologic framework of the estuaries, barrier islands, and inner continental shelf. This information provides a basis to understand the linkage between geologic framework, physical processes, and coastal evolution at time scales from storm events to millennia. The study area attracts significant tourism to its parks and beaches, contains a number of coastal communities, and supports a local fishing industry, all of which are impacted by coastal change. Knowledge derived from this research program can be used to mitigate hazards and facilitate effective management of this dynamic coastal system.

  19. Building a sustainable Academic Health Department: the South Carolina model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lillian Upton; Waddell, Lisa; Kyle, Joseph; Hand, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Given the limited resources available to public health, it is critical that university programs complement the development needs of agencies. Unfortunately, academic and practice public health entities have long been challenged in building sustainable collaborations that support practice-based research, teaching, and service. The academic health department concept offers a promising solution. In South Carolina, the partners started their academic health department program with a small grant that expanded into a dynamic infrastructure that supports innovative professional exchange and development programs. This article provides a background and describes the key elements of the South Carolina model: joint leadership, a multicomponent memorandum of agreement, and a shared professional development mission. The combination of these elements allows the partners to leverage resources and deftly respond to challenges and opportunities, ultimately fostering the sustainability of the collaboration.

  20. The political ecology of lead poisoning in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchette, Carol L

    2008-06-01

    In the United States, childhood blood lead levels have dropped substantially since 1991, when the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) implemented new screening guidelines. Many states, including North Carolina, have established successful screening and intervention programs. Still, pockets of higher lead poisoning rates continue to be a problem in some geographic areas. One of these areas consists of several counties in eastern North Carolina. This cluster of higher rates cannot be explained by poverty and housing characteristics alone. Instead, the explanation requires an understanding of place that encompasses a range of historical, social, political, and economic processes. This paper utilizes a political ecology approach to provide a deeper understanding of how these processes can contribute to ill health.

  1. Restorative Glass : Reversible, discreet restoration using structural glass components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Bristogianni, T.; Barou, L.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Nijsse, R.; Veer, F.A.; Henk, Schellen; van Schijndel, Jos

    2016-01-01

    The application of structural glass as the principal material in restoration and conservation practices is a distinguishable, yet discreet approach. The transparency of glass allows the simultaneous perception of the monument at both its original and present condition, preserving its historical and

  2. Lehardyia alleithoros, sp. nov. (Turbellaria, Kalyptorhynchia) from the Coast of North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Ashley; Smith, Julian P S; Litvaitis, Marian K

    2011-06-01

    As with other high-energy beaches, those of North Carolina harbor a diverse fauna of kalyptorhynch turbellarians, and most appear to be new to science. Here, we describe Lehardyia alleithoros , a new kalyptorhynch turbellarian of the Karkinorhynchidae, from 3 high-energy beach sites in North Carolina. We also report an apparent range extension for Carcharodorhynchus flavidus Brunet, 1967. These observations bring the total number of kalyptorhynch turbellarians reported from the marine interstitial environment of North Carolina to five.

  3. Improving the Return on Investment of Graduate Medical Education in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Warren; Wouk, Noah; Spero, Julie C

    2016-01-01

    The National Academy of Medicine has called for fundamental reform in the governance and accountability of graduate medical education, but how to implement this change is unclear. We describe the North Carolina graduate medical education system, and we propose tracking outcomes and aligning residency stipends with outcomes such as specialty choice, practice in North Carolina, and acceptance of new Medicaid and Medicare patients. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  4. Cultivating New Directions: The Changing Role of Tobacco in North Carolina's Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sarah D; Kurtzman, Rachel; Golden, Shelley D; Kong, Amanda Y; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2018-01-01

    Citing potential economic harm to the state, the tobacco industry has a history of opposing tobacco control efforts in North Carolina. This commentary discusses the changing role of tobacco in North Carolina's economy, argues that tobacco control causes little economic harm to the state, and explores development of alternative industries. ©2018 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  5. Race, Wealth, and Solid Waste Facilities in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Jennifer M.; Wing, Steve; Lipscomb, Hester J.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Cravey, Altha J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Concern has been expressed in North Carolina that solid waste facilities may be disproportionately located in poor communities and in communities of color, that this represents an environmental injustice, and that solid waste facilities negatively impact the health of host communities. Objective Our goal in this study was to conduct a statewide analysis of the location of solid waste facilities in relation to community race and wealth. Methods We used census block groups to obtain ...

  6. Low-flow characteristics of streams in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.

    2017-09-22

    An ongoing understanding of streamflow characteristics of the rivers and streams in South Carolina is important for the protection and preservation of the State’s water resources. Information concerning the low-flow characteristics of streams is especially important during critical flow periods, such as during the historic droughts that South Carolina has experienced in the past few decades.Between 2008 and 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, updated low-flow statistics at 106 continuous-record streamgages operated by the U.S. Geological Survey for the eight major river basins in South Carolina. The low-flow frequency statistics included the annual minimum 1-, 3-, 7-, 14-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day mean flows with recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 years, depending on the length of record available at the streamflow-gaging station. Computations of daily mean flow durations for the 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 75-, 90-, and 95-percent probability of exceedance also were included.This report summarizes the findings from publications generated during the 2008 to 2016 investigations. Trend analyses for the annual minimum 7-day average flows are provided as well as trend assessments of long-term annual precipitation data. Statewide variability in the annual minimum 7-day average flow is assessed at eight long-term (record lengths from 55 to 78 years) streamgages. If previous low-flow statistics were available, comparisons with the updated annual minimum 7-day average flow, having a 10-year recurrence interval, were made. In addition, methods for estimating low-flow statistics at ungaged locations near a gaged location are described.

  7. Police as contributors to Healthy Communities: Aiken, South Carolina.

    OpenAIRE

    Frommer, P; Papouchado, K

    2000-01-01

    In Aiken, South Carolina, community policing has led to numerous innovative programs that have contributed to a healthy community. The MOMS and COPS (Managing Our Maternity System with Community Oriented Policing System) program has played a significant part in the county's 50% decrease in infant mortality since 1989 and contributed to Aiken's designation as an All-America City in 1997. Other programs include a mentoring program for at-risk teen girls; instant crime reporting with donated cel...

  8. Carolina Power and Light Company's computerized Radiological Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Carolina Power and Lignt Company has recently implement a new version of their computerized Radiological Information management System. The new version was programmed in-house and is run on the Company's mainframe computers. In addition to providing radiation worker dose histories and current dose updates, the system provides real-time access control for all three of the Company's nuclear plants such as respirator and survey equipment control and inventory, TLD QC records, and many other functions

  9. Vacuolar myelinopathy in waterfowl from a North Carolina impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augspurger, T.; Fischer, John R.; Thomas, Nancy; Sileo, L.; Brannian, Roger E.; Miller, Kimberli J.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2003-01-01

    Vacuolar myelinopathy was confirmed by light and electron microscopic examination of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris), and buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) collected during an epizootic at Lake Surf in central North Carolina (USA) between November 1998 and February 1999. Clinical signs of affected birds were consistent with central nervous system impairment of motor function (incoordination, abnormal movement and posture, weakness, paralysis). This is the first report of this disease in wild waterfowl (Anseriformes).Aug

  10. Application of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques to Evaluate Water Quality in Turbid Coastal Waters of South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, K. A.; Ryan, K.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal and inland waters represent a diverse set of resources that support natural habitat and provide valuable ecosystem services to the human population. Conventional techniques to monitor water quality using in situ sensors and laboratory analysis of water samples can be very time- and cost-intensive. Alternatively, remote sensing techniques offer better spatial coverage and temporal resolution to accurately characterize the dynamic and unique water quality parameters. Existing remote sensing ocean color products, such as the water quality proxy chlorophyll-a, are based on ocean derived bio-optical models that are primarily calibrated in Case 1 type waters. These traditional models fail to work when applied in turbid (Case 2 type), coastal waters due to spectral interference from other associated color producing agents such as colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments. In this work, we introduce a novel technique for the predictive modeling of chlorophyll-a using a multivariate-based approach applied to in situ hyperspectral radiometric data collected from the coastal waters of Long Bay, South Carolina. This method uses a partial least-squares regression model to identify prominent wavelengths that are more sensitive to chlorophyll-a relative to other associated color-producing agents. The new model was able to explain 80% of the observed chlorophyll-a variability in Long Bay with RMSE = 2.03 μg/L. This approach capitalizes on the spectral advantage gained from current and future hyperspectral sensors, thus providing a more robust predicting model. This enhanced mode of water quality monitoring in marine environments will provide insight to point-sources and problem areas that may contribute to a decline in water quality. The utility of this tool is in its versatility to a diverse set of coastal waters and its use by coastal and fisheries managers with regard to recreation, regulation, economic and public health purposes.

  11. Optical properties of composite restorations influenced by dissimilar dentin restoratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Jovana; Veljovic, Djordje N; Stasic, Jovana N; Savic-Stankovic, Tatjana; Trifkovic, Branka; Miletic, Vesna

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate optical properties (color and translucency) of 'sandwich' restorations of resin-based composites and esthetically unfavorable dentin restoratives. Cylindrical 'dentin' specimens (8mm in diameter and 2mm thick, N=5/group) were prepared using EverX Posterior (GC), Biodentine (Septodont), experimental hydroxyapatite (HAP) or conventional composites (Gradia Direct Posterior, GC; Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z500, 3M ESPE). Capping 'enamel' layers were prepared using composites (Gradia Direct Posterior, Filtek Z250 or Z550) of A1 or A3 shade and the following thickness: 0.6, 1 or 2mm. Color (ΔE) and translucency parameter (TP) were determined using a spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0, VITA Zahnfabrik). Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance with Tukey's post-hoc tests (α=0.05). TP was greatly affected by layer thickness, whilst ΔE depended on shade and layer thickness of the capping composite. HAP and Biodentine showed significantly lower TP and higher ΔE (deviation from 'ideal white') than composites (p<0.05). Greater TP was seen in EverX_composite groups than in corresponding control groups of the same shade and thickness. TP of composites combined with Biodentine or HAP was below 2, lower than the corresponding control groups (p<0.05). Within-group differences of ΔE were greatest in HAP_composite groups. EverX_Gradia and EverX_FiltekZ250 combinations showed the most comparable ΔE with the control groups. A 2mm thick layer of composite covering dentin restoratives with unfavorable esthetics is recommended for a final 'sandwich' restoration that is esthetically comparable to a conventional, mono-composite control restoration. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Large-Scale Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Chesapeake Bay: Status Report, 2003-2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Deborah J; Bergstrom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    ...). New techniques and equipment developed as part of this research have introduced the capability to collect and disperse millions of eelgrass seeds. These results demonstrate these programs success in developing tools and techniques necessary to plant SAV at scales unattainable with technologies existing only a few years ago.

  13. 75 FR 14152 - Executive Order 13508; Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration Section 502; Guidance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... concurrent Federal Leadership Committee and public review, both as required by the Executive Order. Note that... disk or CD-ROM you submit. If your comment cannot be read due to technical difficulties and we are...

  14. Developing genetic privacy legislation: the South Carolina experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J G; Young, S R; Brooks, K A; Aiken, J H; Patterson, E D; Pritchett, S T

    1998-01-01

    The availability of presymptomatic and predisposition genetic testing has spawned the need for legislation prohibiting health insurance discrimination on the basis of genetic information. The federal effort, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996, falls short by protecting only those who access insurance through group plans. A committee of University of South Carolina professionals convened in 1996 to develop legislation in support of genetic privacy for the state of South Carolina. The legislation prevents health insurance companies from denying coverage or setting insurance rates on the basis of genetic information. It also protects the privacy of genetic information and prohibits performance of genetic tests without specific informed consent. In preparing the bill, genetic privacy laws from other states were reviewed, and a modified version of the Virginia law adopted. The South Carolina Committee for the Protection of Genetic Privacy version went a step further by including enforcement language and excluding Virginia's sunset clause. The definition of genetic information encompassed genetic test results, and importantly, includes family history of genetic disease. Our experience in navigating through the state legislature and working through opposition from the health insurance lobby is detailed herein.

  15. AN OVERVIEW OF BIOFUELS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH CAROLINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S.; French, T.

    2010-02-03

    The South Carolina Bio-Energy Research Collaborative is working together on the development and demonstration of technology options for the production of bio-fuels using renewable non-food crops and biomass resources that are available or could be made available in abundance in the southeastern United States. This collaboration consists of Arborgen LLC, Clemson University, Savannah River National Laboratory, and South Carolina State University, with support from Dyadic, Fagen Engineering, Renewed World Energies, and Spinx. Thus far, most work has centered on development of a fermentation-based process to convert switchgrass into ethanol, with the concomitant generation of a purified lignin stream. The process is not feed-specific, and the work scope has recently expanded to include sweet sorghum and wood. In parallel, the Collaborative is also working on developing an economical path to produce oils and fuels from algae. The Collaborative envisions an integrated bio-fuels process that can accept multiple feedstocks, shares common equipment, and that produces multiple product streams. The Collaborative is not the only group working on bio-energy in South Carolina, and other companies are involved in producing biomass derived energy products at an industrial scale.

  16. Peat resource estimation in South Carolina. Final report, Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, M.; Andrejko, M.; Corvinus, D.; Tisdale, M.

    1982-01-01

    South Carolina has few indigenous energy resources. Most widely known and utilized are hydropower, wood, and solar. Peat is a material composed of partially decomposed organic matter that, after burial for long periods of time, may eventually become coal. Peat is utilized as an energy resource for the production of electricity and for home heating in Europe and the Soviet Union. There are peat deposits in South Carolina, but peat has never been used as an energy resource within the state. This report presents the results of the two years of a planned four-year study of the quantity and energy potential of peat in South Carolina. In this year's survey two activities were undertaken. The first was to visit highly probable peat deposits to confirm the presence of fuel-grade peat. The second was to survey and characterize in more detail the areas judged to be of highest potential as major resources. The factors carrying the greatest weight in our determination of priority areas were: (1) a description of peat deposits in the scientific literature or from discussions with state and federal soil scientists; (2) mention of organic soils on soil maps or in the literature; and (3) information from farmers and other local citizens.

  17. Restoring a disappearing ecosystem: the Longleaf Pine Savanna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Timothy B. [USFS; Miller, Karl V. [University of Georgia; Park, Noreen

    2013-05-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) savannas of the southeastern United States contain some of the worlds most diverse plant communities, along with a unique complement of wildlife. Their traditionally open canopy structure and rich understory of grasses and herbs were critical to their vigor. However, a long history of land-use practices such as logging, farming, and fire exclusion have reduced this once-widespread ecosystem to only 3 percent of its original range. At six longleaf pine plantations in South Carolina, Tim Harrington with the Pacific Northwest Research Station and collaborators with the Southern Research Station used various treatments (including prescribed burns, tree thinning, and herbicide applications) to alter the forest structure and tracked how successful each one was in advancing savanna restoration over a 14-year period. They found that typical planting densities for wood production in plantations create dense understory shade that excludes many native herbaceous species important to savannas and associated wildlife. The scientists found that although tree thinning alone did not result in sustained gains, a combination of controlled burning, thinning, and herbicide treatments to reduce woody plants was an effective strategy for recovering the savanna ecosystem. The scientists also found that these efforts must be repeated periodically for enduring benefits.

  18. Using a CAI Network for Statewide Remediation: GRI in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumford, John

    1988-01-01

    Describes South Carolina's Governor's Remediation Initiative (GRI), an instructional management system that links diagnostic tests and teaching modules for use by high school mathematics and reading laboratories. (TW)

  19. BOOK REVIEW OF "CHESAPEAKE BAY BLUES: SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND THE STRUGGLE TO SAVE THE BAY"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a book review of "Chesapeake Bay Blues: Science, Politics, and the Struggle to Save the Bay". This book is very well written and provides an easily understandable description of the political challenges faced by those proposing new or more stringent environmental regulat...

  20. 77 FR 21890 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Street and Maple-Oregon Bridges so vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon... the efficient movement of vehicular traffic in Sturgeon Bay. The Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal is... experiences a significant increase in vehicular and vessel traffic during the peak tourist and navigation...

  1. 76 FR 28309 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets due to unscheduled bridge... schedules during the peak tourist and navigation seasons to provide for the efficient movement of vehicular... between Lake Michigan and Green Bay. The area experiences a significant increase in vehicular and vessel...

  2. A new species of Perlesta (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from North Carolina with additional records for North Carolina and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratieff, B.C.; Zuellig, R.E.; Lenat, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-eight species of Nearctic Perlesta are currently recognized (Stark 1989, 2004; Kondratieff et al. 2006, 2008; Grubbs and DeWalt 2008, Grubbs and DeWalt 2011, Kondratieff and Myers 2011). Interestingly, but needing confirmation, Perlesta has been recently recorded from Central America (Gutiérrez-Fonseca and Springer 2011). Continued collecting and study of Perlesta from North Carolina by the authors revealed one additional undescribed species. Ten species of Perlesta currently have been recorded from North Carolina (Stark 1989, 2004, Kondratieff et al. 2006, 2008, Grubbs and DeWalt 2008). Additionally, new Perlesta species records are given for Virginia. The terminology used in the description of the male adult follows Stark (1989, 2004).

  3. Cambridge Bay: Six years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edworthy, J.

    1992-01-01

    The story of a wind energy project in Cambridge Bay, Northwest Territories, is presented from the perspective of the company that supplied the equipment and supported the project through its life. The project was intended to demonstrate the technical, economic, institutional, and operational issues and barriers to the use of wind power in remote communities. The system, involving four Carter Model 25 units each rated at 25 kW, was installed in 1987 and commissioned in January 1988. Shortly thereafter, the Northern Canada Power Commission (which requested the project in the first place) was taken over by the territorial administration, and employee continuity was disrupted. At about the same time, Federal support for the project decreased. Technical problems included a transformer failure, a generator failure, and a failed yaw tube which turned out to be lightly designed and poorly made. The Carter turbine company also went out of business, making spare parts difficult to obtain. The utility organization changed abruptly in summer 1991 with the arrival of a new area superintendent who did not support the project. The wind farm was shut down in 1992. The project generated a total of 160,982 kWh with over 71% availability. The positive and negative results from the project are summarized and recommendations are made for future Arctic wind power projects. 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Restoration of severely weathered wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; Mark. Knaebe

    2000-01-01

    Severely weathered window units were used to test various restoration methods and pretreatments. Sanded and unsanded units were pretreated with a consolidant or water repellent preservative, finished with an oil- or latex-based paint system, and exposed outdoors near Madison, WI, for five years. Pretreatments were applied to both window sashes (stiles and rails) and...

  5. Restoring formation after leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    A method of restoring a formation which had uranium and other mineral values extracted by an alkaline lixiviant comprises introducing a source of phosphate in an amount sufficient to lower the level of soluble uranium compounds below that previously existing in the formation by the formation of insoluble uranium phosphate compounds

  6. Natural look in volume restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Mary P

    2008-09-01

    Filling and volumizing injection procedures are currently widely used for facial augmentation and re-establishing a youthful appearance. Aesthetic physicians have advanced from the practice of treating single lines and wrinkles towards filling large facial areas to globally restore natural facial contours and meet patient demand for nonsurgical rejuvenation. This review describes the different categories of fillers and volumizers based on their duration of action and ability to create a natural looking effect; they can be broadly classified as temporary or long-lasting biodegradable agents, or permanent nonbiodegradable agents. Temporary fillers are effective to correct lines and wrinkles, but may not adequately meet the need for global facial rejuvenation and volume replacement in a long-term, cost-efficient manner. Permanent fillers for global restoration pose the issue of long-term safety, and may not be compatible with changes in facial architecture with continued aging. Longer lasting volumizers provide patients with a durable, effective option for the restoration of facial volume and the re-establishment of youthful facial contours. Temporary fillers and volumizers may also be used in combination to provide a wide source of options for the global restoration and rejuvenation of the face.

  7. Image Restoration with New Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow-Møller, Anne Marie

    The article examines the role played by the corporate website while a company - Arla - attempted to restore an image tarnished by unethical behaviour. The company's strategy focussed on dialogue: it introduced a large number of authentic employees in their natural role as cook, dairy farmer, etc....

  8. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis

    configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed...

  9. Bayesian image restoration, using configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis Linda

    2006-01-01

    configurations are expressed in terms of the mean normal measure of the random set. These probabilities are used as prior probabilities in a Bayesian image restoration approach. Estimation of the remaining parameters in the model is outlined for the salt and pepper noise. The inference in the model is discussed...

  10. [Dental implant restoration abutment selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Shi; Hao, Zeng

    2017-04-01

    An increasing number of implant restoration abutment types are produced with the rapid development of dental implantology. Although various abutments can meet different clinical demands, the selection of the appropriate abutment is both difficult and confusing. This article aims to help clinicians select the appropriate abutment by describing abutment design, types, and selection criteria.

  11. Terrorism, forgiveness and restorative justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemberton, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly

  12. Armazenamento de sementes de carolina em diferentes temperaturas e embalagens Storage of carolina seeds in different temperature and packing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a embalagem e a temperatura adequadas para o armazenamento de sementes de carolina. As sementes foram armazenadas em sacos de papel e de plástico, mantidas em 0±2; 10±2; 20±2°C e 60 5% de umidade relativa do ar (UR e em temperatura ambiente (23,4±3,3°C e 68,7±9%UR. O teor de água, a germinação e o vigor foram determinados trimestralmente. Durante o armazenamento, o teor de água das sementes foi de aproximadamente 8,9%. A embalagem saco de plástico e a temperatura de 0°C são adequadas para o armazenamento das sementes de carolina.The objective of the present research was to determine the more adequated packing and temperature for storage of "carolina" seeds. The seeds were stored in paper and plastic packings and kept in 0±2; 10±2; 20±2°C and 60 5% air relative humidity (ARH and in ambient temperature (23,4±3,3°C and 68,7±9% ARH. Quarterly, the water seed content, germinative test and seed vigour were avaluated. During storage, the seed water content was approximately 8.9%. The plastic packing (plastic bag and tempertature of 0oC are adequated for storage of "carolina" seeds.

  13. Subtidal Bathymetric Changes by Shoreline Armoring Removal and Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Salish Sea, a region with a diverse coastline, is altered by anthropogenic shoreline modifications such as seawalls. In recent years, local organizations have moved to restore these shorelines. Current research monitors the changes restoration projects have on the upper beach, lower beach, and intertidal, however little research exists to record possible negative effects on the subtidal. The purpose of this research is to utilize multibeam sonar bathymetric data to analyze possible changes to the seafloor structure of the subtidal in response to shoreline modification and to investigate potential ecosystem consequences of shoreline alteration. The subtidal is home to several species including eelgrass (Zostera marina). Eelgrass is an important species in Puget Sound as it provides many key ecosystem functions including providing habitat for a wide variety of organisms, affecting the physics of waves, and sediment transport in the subtidal. Thus bathymetric changes could impact eelgrass growth and reduce its ability to provide crucial ecosystem services. Three Washington state study sites of completed shoreline restoration projects were used to generate data from areas of varied topographic classification, Seahurst Park in Burien, the Snohomish County Nearshore Restoration Project in Everett, and Cornet Bay State Park on Whidbey Island. Multibeam sonar data was acquired using a Konsberg EM 2040 system and post-processed in Caris HIPS to generate a base surface of one-meter resolution. It was then imported into the ArcGIS software suite for the generation of spatial metrics. Measurements of change were calculated through a comparison of historical and generated data. Descriptive metrics generated included, total elevation change, percent area changed, and a transition matrix of positive and negative change. Additionally, pattern metrics such as, surface roughness, and Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), were calculated. The comparison of historical data to new data

  14. Everglades Restoration: Competing Societal Factors Versus Good Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. R.

    2002-05-01

    For the most part, it is agreed that the future health and welfare of the Greater Everglades ecosystem relies on the critical timing and delivery of freshwater in a manner that simulates historical sheetflow (non-channelized flow). Successful restoration of sheetflow might be defined as getting the right volume of water to the right places at the right time; however, in order to achieve this a delicate balance of scientific, political and economic factors, many of which have competing interests, must be achieved. These factors include: 1) population growth and urban sprawl in south Florida. Increased demand for land and water to sustain sprawl will have some degree of detrimental impact on the time- and volume-critical delivery of water needed for restoration of essential habitat in both the terrestrial (tree islands, grasslands and marshes) and marine (Florida and Biscayne Bays and related estuaries) environments. 2) Increased demand for agriculture within south Florida requires significant management, sequestration, and diversion of surface and ground-water resources, as well as the acquisition of lands amenable to crop production. Since a large part of the agricultural area lies within the confines of the natural Everglades ecosystem, and "upstream" from Everglades National Park, impacts upon the surface and ground-water (agriculture-induced soil erosion, fertilization, pesticide practices, and surface and ground-water withdrawal) tend to have substantial impacts on the progress of natural ecosystem restoration. 3) Continued growth in the tourism and recreation markets will require concomitant growth in the development and acquisition of lands and resultant land-use changes that may have adverse impact on the natural ecosystem. Since the timing and delivery of water to the Everglades comes from recharge areas outside the boundaries of managed public lands, land-use practices within privately owned lands could have serious "downstream" impacts on the timing and

  15. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N. Del Tufo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of fluent speech in one’s native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is ‘restored’ via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read at the level of one’s peers without any clear failure due to environmental influences. In the current study we utilized the phonemic restoration illusion paradigm, to examine individual differences in phonemic restoration across a range of reading ability, from very good to dyslexic readers. Results demonstrate that restoration occurs less in those who have high scores on measures of phonological processing. Based on these results, we suggest that the processing or representation of acoustic detail may not be as reliable in poor and dyslexic readers, with the result that lexical information is more likely to override acoustic properties of the stimuli. This pattern of increased restoration could result from a failure of perceptual tuning, in which unstable representations of speech sounds result in the acceptance of non-speech sounds as speech. An additional or alternative theory is that degraded or impaired phonological processing at the speech sound level may reflect architecture that is overly plastic and consequently fails to stabilize appropriately for speech sound representations. Therefore the inability to separate speech and noise may result as a deficit in separating noise from the acoustic signal.

  16. North Carolina's direct care workforce development journey: the case of the North Carolina New Organizational Vision Award Partner Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, S Diane; Kemper, Peter; Barry, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    Better Jobs Better Care was a five-state direct care workforce demonstration designed to change policy and management practices that influence recruitment and retention of direct care workers, problems that continue to challenge providers. One of the projects, the North Carolina Partner Team, developed a unified approach in which skilled nursing, home care, and assisted living providers could be rewarded for meeting standards of workplace excellence. This case study documents the complex adaptive system agents and processes that coalesced to result in legislation recognizing the North Carolina New Organizational Vision Award. We used a holistic, single-case study design. Qualitative data from project work plans and progress reports as well as notes from interviews with key stakeholders and observation of meetings were coded into a simple rubric consisting of characteristics of complex adaptive systems. Key system agents in the state set the stage for the successful multistakeholder coalition. These included leadership by the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services and a several year effort to develop a unifying vision for workforce development. Grant resources were used to facilitate both content and process work. Structure was allowed to emerge as needed. The coalition's own development is shown to have changed the context from which it was derived. An inclusive and iterative process produced detailed standards and measures for the voluntary recognition process. With effective facilitation, the interests of the multiple stakeholders coalesced into a policy response that encourages practice changes. Implications for managing change-oriented coalitions are discussed.

  17. Physical processes in a coupled bay-estuary coastal system: Whitsand Bay and Plymouth Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncles, R. J.; Stephens, J. A.; Harris, C.

    2015-09-01

    Whitsand Bay and Plymouth Sound are located in the southwest of England. The Bay and Sound are separated by the ∼2-3 km-wide Rame Peninsula and connected by ∼10-20 m-deep English Channel waters. Results are presented from measurements of waves and currents, drogue tracking, surveys of salinity, temperature and turbidity during stratified and unstratified conditions, and bed sediment surveys. 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models are used to explore the generation of tidally- and wind-driven residual currents, flow separation and the formation of the Rame eddy, and the coupling between the Bay and the Sound. Tidal currents flow around the Rame Peninsula from the Sound to the Bay between approximately 3 h before to 2 h after low water and form a transport path between them that conveys lower salinity, higher turbidity waters from the Sound to the Bay. These waters are then transported into the Bay as part of the Bay-mouth limb of the Rame eddy and subsequently conveyed to the near-shore, east-going limb and re-circulated back towards Rame Head. The Simpson-Hunter stratification parameter indicates that much of the Sound and Bay are likely to stratify thermally during summer months. Temperature stratification in both is pronounced during summer and is largely determined by coastal, deeper-water stratification offshore. Small tidal stresses in the Bay are unable to move bed sediment of the observed sizes. However, the Bay and Sound are subjected to large waves that are capable of driving a substantial bed-load sediment transport. Measurements show relatively low levels of turbidity, but these respond rapidly to, and have a strong correlation with, wave height.

  18. A cluster of patients infected with I221V influenza b virus variants with reduced oseltamivir susceptibility--North Carolina and South Carolina, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shikha; Moore, Zack; Lee, Nicole; McKenna, John; Bishop, Amber; Fleischauer, Aaron; Springs, Chasisity B; Nguyen, Ha T; Sheu, Tiffany G; Sleeman, Katrina; Finelli, Lyn; Gubareva, Larisa; Fry, Alicia M

    2013-03-15

    During 2010-2011, influenza B viruses with a novel neuraminidase substitution, denoted I221V (B/I221V), associated with reduced in vitro oseltamivir susceptibility were detected in North Carolina. We determined the prevalence of I221V among B viruses submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for antiviral resistance surveillance, including all B viruses submitted to North Carolina and South Carolina state laboratories, during October 2010-September 2011.We conducted chart reviews and telephone interviews to characterize North Carolina and South Carolina patients with B/I221V vs wild-type B virus infection (B/WT). We detected I221V in 45 (22%) of 209 B viruses from North Carolina and 8 (10%) of 82 B viruses from South Carolina. We detected I221V in 3 (0.3%) of 881 B viruses tested from 45 other states. B/I221V infection was not associated with differences in underlying conditions or illness severity, compared with B/WT infection. No patients with B/I221V infection received oseltamivir prior to specimen collection. Among patients who completed oseltamivir, those with B/I221V infection reported a longer duration until illness resolution (5 vs 3 days; P = .02). B/I221V cocirculated with B/WT in North Carolina and South Carolina during 2010-2011. I221V did not alter illness severity but may have reduced oseltamivir effectiveness. Thus, global surveillance for I221V is important.

  19. Millennial-scale sustainability of the Chesapeake Bay Native American oyster fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Torben C; Reeder-Myers, Leslie A; Hofman, Courtney A; Breitburg, Denise; Lockwood, Rowan; Henkes, Gregory; Kellogg, Lisa; Lowery, Darrin; Luckenbach, Mark W; Mann, Roger; Ogburn, Matthew B; Southworth, Melissa; Wah, John; Wesson, James; Hines, Anson H

    2016-06-07

    Estuaries around the world are in a state of decline following decades or more of overfishing, pollution, and climate change. Oysters (Ostreidae), ecosystem engineers in many estuaries, influence water quality, construct habitat, and provide food for humans and wildlife. In North America's Chesapeake Bay, once-thriving eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations have declined dramatically, making their restoration and conservation extremely challenging. Here we present data on oyster size and human harvest from Chesapeake Bay archaeological sites spanning ∼3,500 y of Native American, colonial, and historical occupation. We compare oysters from archaeological sites with Pleistocene oyster reefs that existed before human harvest, modern oyster reefs, and other records of human oyster harvest from around the world. Native American fisheries were focused on nearshore oysters and were likely harvested at a rate that was sustainable over centuries to millennia, despite changing Holocene climatic conditions and sea-level rise. These data document resilience in oyster populations under long-term Native American harvest, sea-level rise, and climate change; provide context for managing modern oyster fisheries in the Chesapeake Bay and elsewhere around the world; and demonstrate an interdisciplinary approach that can be applied broadly to other fisheries.

  20. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus population increases in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland: evidence for habitat saturation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla R. Letto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Across North America, Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus populations appear to be recovering following bans of DDT. A limited number of studies from across North America have recorded a surplus of nonbreeding adult Bald Eagles in dense populations when optimal habitat and food become limited. Placentia Bay, Newfoundland is one of these. The area has one of the highest densities of Bald Eagles in eastern North America, and has recently experienced an increase in the proportion of nonbreeding adults within the population. We tested whether the observed Bald Eagle population trends in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland during the breeding seasons 1990-2009 are due to habitat saturation. We found no significant differences in habitat or food resource characteristics between occupied territories and pseudo-absence data or between nest sites with high vs. low nest activity/occupancy rates. Therefore there is no evidence for habitat saturation for Bald Eagles in Placentia Bay and alternative hypotheses for the high proportion of nonbreeding adults should be considered. The Newfoundland population provides an interesting case for examination because it did not historically appear to be affected by pollution. An understanding of Bald Eagle population dynamics in a relatively pristine area with a high density can be informative for restoration and conservation of Bald Eagle populations elsewhere.