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Sample records for resting discharge patterns

  1. RESTful Java patterns and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Bhakti

    2014-01-01

    This book is aimed at novice developers who want to gain insights into building RESTful services and improve productivity, as well as for advanced developers who want to delve into more complicated topics.

  2. Hexagon and stripe patterns in dielectric barrier streamer discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lifang; He Yafeng; Yin Zengqian; Chai Zhifang

    2004-01-01

    We present a specially designed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system for the study of pattern formation. Hexagon and stripe patterns have been observed in a streamer discharge in a DBD for the first time. The phase diagram of pattern types as a function of applied voltage is given

  3. Electrocorticographic discharge patterns in glioneuronal tumors and focal cortical dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrier, Cyrille H.; Aronica, Eleanora; Leijten, Frans S. S.; Spliet, Wim G. M.; van Huffelen, Alexander C.; van Rijen, Peter C.; Binnie, Colin D.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether highly epileptiform electrocorticographical discharge patterns occur in patients with glioneuronal tumors (GNTs) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and whether specific histopathological features are related to such patterns. METHODS: The series consists of operated

  4. Midcervical neuronal discharge patterns during and following hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, M. S.; Baekey, D. M.; Maling, N. G.; Sanchez, J. C.; Reier, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical evidence indicates that midcervical interneurons can be synaptically coupled with phrenic motoneurons. Accordingly, we hypothesized that interneurons in the C3–C4 spinal cord can display discharge patterns temporally linked with inspiratory phrenic motor output. Anesthetized adult rats were studied before, during, and after a 4-min bout of moderate hypoxia. Neuronal discharge in C3–C4 lamina I–IX was monitored using a multielectrode array while phrenic nerve activity was extracellularly recorded. For the majority of cells, spike-triggered averaging (STA) of ipsilateral inspiratory phrenic nerve activity based on neuronal discharge provided no evidence of discharge synchrony. However, a distinct STA phrenic peak with a 6.83 ± 1.1 ms lag was present for 5% of neurons, a result that indicates a monosynaptic connection with phrenic motoneurons. The majority (93%) of neurons changed discharge rate during hypoxia, and the diverse responses included both increased and decreased firing. Hypoxia did not change the incidence of STA peaks in the phrenic nerve signal. Following hypoxia, 40% of neurons continued to discharge at rates above prehypoxia values (i.e., short-term potentiation, STP), and cells with initially low discharge rates were more likely to show STP (P phrenic motoneuron pool, and these cells can modulate inspiratory phrenic output. In addition, the C3–C4 propriospinal network shows a robust and complex pattern of activation both during and following an acute bout of hypoxia. PMID:25552641

  5. SVM-based Partial Discharge Pattern Classification for GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yin; Bai, Demeng; Wang, Menglin; Gong, Xiaojin; Gu, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Partial discharges (PD) occur when there are localized dielectric breakdowns in small regions of gas insulated substations (GIS). It is of high importance to recognize the PD patterns, through which we can diagnose the defects caused by different sources so that predictive maintenance can be conducted to prevent from unplanned power outage. In this paper, we propose an approach to perform partial discharge pattern classification. It first recovers the PRPD matrices from the PRPD2D images; then statistical features are extracted from the recovered PRPD matrix and fed into SVM for classification. Experiments conducted on a dataset containing thousands of images demonstrates the high effectiveness of the method.

  6. Hydrogeological controls on spatial patterns of groundwater discharge in peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Hare

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peatland environments provide important ecosystem services including water and carbon storage, nutrient processing and retention, and wildlife habitat. However, these systems and the services they provide have been degraded through historical anthropogenic agricultural conversion and dewatering practices. Effective wetland restoration requires incorporating site hydrology and understanding groundwater discharge spatial patterns. Groundwater discharge maintains wetland ecosystems by providing relatively stable hydrologic conditions, nutrient inputs, and thermal buffering important for ecological structure and function; however, a comprehensive site-specific evaluation is rarely feasible for such resource-constrained projects. An improved process-based understanding of groundwater discharge in peatlands may help guide ecological restoration design without the need for invasive methodologies and detailed site-specific investigation. Here we examine a kettle-hole peatland in southeast Massachusetts historically modified for commercial cranberry farming. During the time of our investigation, a large process-based ecological restoration project was in the assessment and design phases. To gain insight into the drivers of site hydrology, we evaluated the spatial patterning of groundwater discharge and the subsurface structure of the peatland complex using heat-tracing methods and ground-penetrating radar. Our results illustrate that two groundwater discharge processes contribute to the peatland hydrologic system: diffuse lower-flux marginal matrix seepage and discrete higher-flux preferential-flow-path seepage. Both types of groundwater discharge develop through interactions with subsurface peatland basin structure, often where the basin slope is at a high angle to the regional groundwater gradient. These field observations indicate strong correlation between subsurface structures and surficial groundwater discharge. Understanding these general patterns

  7. Hydrogeological controls on spatial patterns of groundwater discharge in peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Danielle K.; Boutt, David F.; Clement, William P.; Hatch, Christine E.; Davenport, Glorianna; Hackman, Alex

    2017-11-01

    Peatland environments provide important ecosystem services including water and carbon storage, nutrient processing and retention, and wildlife habitat. However, these systems and the services they provide have been degraded through historical anthropogenic agricultural conversion and dewatering practices. Effective wetland restoration requires incorporating site hydrology and understanding groundwater discharge spatial patterns. Groundwater discharge maintains wetland ecosystems by providing relatively stable hydrologic conditions, nutrient inputs, and thermal buffering important for ecological structure and function; however, a comprehensive site-specific evaluation is rarely feasible for such resource-constrained projects. An improved process-based understanding of groundwater discharge in peatlands may help guide ecological restoration design without the need for invasive methodologies and detailed site-specific investigation. Here we examine a kettle-hole peatland in southeast Massachusetts historically modified for commercial cranberry farming. During the time of our investigation, a large process-based ecological restoration project was in the assessment and design phases. To gain insight into the drivers of site hydrology, we evaluated the spatial patterning of groundwater discharge and the subsurface structure of the peatland complex using heat-tracing methods and ground-penetrating radar. Our results illustrate that two groundwater discharge processes contribute to the peatland hydrologic system: diffuse lower-flux marginal matrix seepage and discrete higher-flux preferential-flow-path seepage. Both types of groundwater discharge develop through interactions with subsurface peatland basin structure, often where the basin slope is at a high angle to the regional groundwater gradient. These field observations indicate strong correlation between subsurface structures and surficial groundwater discharge. Understanding these general patterns may allow resource

  8. Modification of medullary respiratory-related discharge patterns by behaviors and states of arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F C

    1992-02-07

    The modulatory influences of behaviors and states of arousal on bulbar respiratory-related unit (RRU) discharge patterns were studied in an unanesthetized, freely behaving guinea pig respiratory model system. When fully instrumented, this model system permits concurrent monitoring and recording of (i) single units from either Bötzinger complex or nucleus para-ambiguus; (ii) electrocorticogram; and, (iii) diaphragmatic EMG. In addition to being used in surveys of RRU discharge patterns in freely behaving states, the model system also offered a unique opportunity in investigating the effects of pentobarbital on RRU discharge patterns before, throughout the course of, and during recovery from anesthesia. In anesthetized preparations, a particular RRU discharge pattern (such as tonic, incrementing or decrementing) typically displayed little, if any notable variation. The most striking development following pentobarbital was a state of progressive bradypnea attributable to a significantly augmented RRU cycle duration, burst duration and an increase in the RRU spike frequencies during anesthesia. In freely behaving states, medullary RRU activities rarely adhered to a fixed, immutable discharge pattern. More specifically, the temporal organization (such as burst duration, cycle duration, and the extent of modulation of within-burst spike frequencies) of RRU discharge patterns regularly showed complex and striking variations, not only with states of arousal (sleep/wakefulness, anesthesia) but also with discrete alterations in electrocorticogram (ECoG) activities and a multitude of on-going behavioral repertoires such as volitional movement, postural modification, phonation, mastication, deglutition, sniffing/exploratory behavior, alerting/startle reflexes. Only during sleep, and on occasions when the animal assumed a motionless, resting posture, could burst patterns of relatively invariable periodicity and uniform temporal attributes be observed. RRU activities during

  9. Histomorphological patterns in osseous rests exposed at fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, C.; Tiesler, V.; Oliva, A.I.; Quintana, P.

    2005-01-01

    Histomorphology as part of morphological research studies bony structure on the tissue level. Its methods are applied in this investigation to evaluate histomorphological impact patterns in heat-exposed bony material, particularly color changes, fissure patterns, volumetric reduction, and changes in the size of Haversian canals. These variables were evaluated in exposed thin sections of porcine long bones, obtained during two experimental series. The first one was conducted under stable thermal conditions in a furnace by measuring heat impact in stepped time (I to S hours) and temperature intervals (200 to 800 C). During a second experimental phase, bony samples were exposed to direct fire in defined time and heat intervals. The treated specimens were then sectioned and microscopically scrutinized. The results presented here were designed to offer new analytical, measurable standards in the investigation of forms of heat exposition of the human body, applicable in forensics and the study of ancient Maya posthumous body treatments. (Author)

  10. Estimating repetitive spatiotemporal patterns from resting-state brain activity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yusuke; Hiroe, Nobuo; Yamashita, Okito; Sato, Masa-Aki

    2016-06-01

    Repetitive spatiotemporal patterns in spontaneous brain activities have been widely examined in non-human studies. These studies have reported that such patterns reflect past experiences embedded in neural circuits. In human magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies, however, spatiotemporal patterns in resting-state brain activities have not been extensively examined. This is because estimating spatiotemporal patterns from resting-state MEG/EEG data is difficult due to their unknown onsets. Here, we propose a method to estimate repetitive spatiotemporal patterns from resting-state brain activity data, including MEG/EEG. Without the information of onsets, the proposed method can estimate several spatiotemporal patterns, even if they are overlapping. We verified the performance of the method by detailed simulation tests. Furthermore, we examined whether the proposed method could estimate the visual evoked magnetic fields (VEFs) without using stimulus onset information. The proposed method successfully detected the stimulus onsets and estimated the VEFs, implying the applicability of this method to real MEG data. The proposed method was applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and MEG data. The results revealed informative spatiotemporal patterns representing consecutive brain activities that dynamically change with time. Using this method, it is possible to reveal discrete events spontaneously occurring in our brains, such as memory retrieval. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tremor pattern differentiates drug-induced resting tremor from Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisticò, R; Fratto, A; Vescio, B; Arabia, G; Sciacca, G; Morelli, M; Labate, A; Salsone, M; Novellino, F; Nicoletti, A; Petralia, A; Gambardella, A; Zappia, M; Quattrone, A

    2016-04-01

    DAT-SPECT, is a well-established procedure for distinguishing drug-induced parkinsonism from Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the usefulness of blink reflex recovery cycle (BRrc) and of electromyographic parameters of resting tremor for the differentiation of patients with drug-induced parkinsonism with resting tremor (rDIP) from those with resting tremor due to PD. This was a cross-sectional study. In 16 patients with rDIP and 18 patients with PD we analysed electrophysiological parameters (amplitude, duration, burst and pattern) of resting tremor. BRrc at interstimulus intervals (ISI) of 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 750 msec was also analysed in patients with rDIP, patients with PD and healthy controls. All patients and controls underwent DAT-SPECT. Rest tremor amplitude was higher in PD patients than in rDIP patients (p tremor showed a synchronous pattern in all patients with rDIP, whereas it had an alternating pattern in all PD patients (p tremor can be considered a useful investigation for differentiating rDIP from PD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Petechiae: reproducible pattern of distribution and increased appearance after bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganse, Bergita; Limper, Ulrich; Bühlmeier, Judith; Rittweger, Jörn

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to acceleration can cause petechial hemorrhages, called G measles. Petechiae usually start to develop between 5 and 9 G with a high interindividual variance. Centrifuge training delays the onset to higher G levels. One might expect onset at lower G levels after bed rest; however, there is no evidence in the literature. A case of petechiae formation after bed rest is presented here. Orthostatic tolerance was tested using a tilt table and lower body negative pressure before and after bed rest in both campaigns of a 2 x 21-d bed rest study with 6 degrees head-down tilt. A 42-yr-old male Caucasian without any history of thrombosis, venous disease, hemorrhage, or petechiae, and with a negative thrombophilia screening, took part in the bed rest study as 1 out of 10 subjects. He was the only one to develop petechiae during the orthostatic tests after, but not before, bed rest in both campaigns. Petechiae were distributed throughout the lower legs and most pronounced at the shin in a stocking-like fashion, surprisingly reoccurring in an identical pattern of distribution. Petechiae appeared slowly over minutes during hyperemia. This case indicates that prolonged bed rest decreases the threshold for petechiae formation. A reproducible distribution pattern suggests that factors predisposing to petechiae formation keep their local distribution over time (possibly due to local vessel structures). Mechanisms of adaptation and interindividual variance are unclear. Findings are of clinical relevance as such cases might occur after prolonged bed rest in patients without need of expensive testing.

  13. Phrenic motoneuron discharge patterns following chronic cervical spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Ze; Dougherty, Brendan J.; Sandhu, Milapjit S.; Lane, Michael A.; Reier, Paul J.; Fuller, David D.

    2013-01-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) dramatically disrupts synaptic inputs and triggers biochemical, as well as morphological, plasticity in relation to the phrenic motor neuron (PhMN) pool. Accordingly, our primary purpose was to determine if chronic SCI induces fundamental changes in the recruitment profile and discharge patterns of PhMNs. Individual PhMN action potentials were recorded from the phrenic nerve ipsilateral to lateral cervical (C2) hemisection injury (C2Hx) in anesthetized adult male rats at 2, 4 or 8 wks post-injury and in uninjured controls. PhMNs were phenotypically classified as early (Early-I) or late inspiratory (Late-I), or silent according to discharge patterns. Following C2Hx, the distribution of PhMNs was dominated by Late-I and silent cells. Late-I burst parameters (e.g., spikes per breath, burst frequency and duration) were initially reduced but returned towards control values by 8 wks post-injury. In addition, a unique PhMN burst pattern emerged after C2Hx in which Early-I cells burst tonically during hypocapnic inspiratory apnea. We also quantified the impact of gradual reductions in end-tidal CO2 partial pressure (PETCO2) on bilateral phrenic nerve activity. Compared to control rats, as PETCO2 declined, the C2Hx animals had greater inspiratory frequencies (breaths*min−1) and more substantial decreases in ipsilateral phrenic burst amplitude. We conclude that the primary physiological impact of C2Hx on ipsilateral PhMN burst patterns is a persistent delay in burst onset, transient reductions in burst frequency, and the emergence of tonic burst patterns. The inspiratory frequency data suggest that plasticity in brainstem networks is likely to play an important role in phrenic motor output after cervical SCI. PMID:23954215

  14. Phrenic motoneuron discharge patterns following chronic cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Ze; Dougherty, Brendan J; Sandhu, Milapjit S; Lane, Michael A; Reier, Paul J; Fuller, David D

    2013-11-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) dramatically disrupts synaptic inputs and triggers biochemical, as well as morphological, plasticity in relation to the phrenic motor neuron (PhMN) pool. Accordingly, our primary purpose was to determine if chronic SCI induces fundamental changes in the recruitment profile and discharge patterns of PhMNs. Individual PhMN action potentials were recorded from the phrenic nerve ipsilateral to lateral cervical (C2) hemisection injury (C2Hx) in anesthetized adult male rats at 2, 4 or 8 wks post-injury and in uninjured controls. PhMNs were phenotypically classified as early (Early-I) or late inspiratory (Late-I), or silent according to discharge patterns. Following C2Hx, the distribution of PhMNs was dominated by Late-I and silent cells. Late-I burst parameters (e.g., spikes per breath, burst frequency and duration) were initially reduced but returned towards control values by 8wks post-injury. In addition, a unique PhMN burst pattern emerged after C2Hx in which Early-I cells burst tonically during hypocapnic inspiratory apnea. We also quantified the impact of gradual reductions in end-tidal CO2 partial pressure (PETCO2) on bilateral phrenic nerve activity. Compared to control rats, as PETCO2 declined, the C2Hx animals had greater inspiratory frequencies (breaths∗min(-1)) and more substantial decreases in ipsilateral phrenic burst amplitude. We conclude that the primary physiological impact of C2Hx on ipsilateral PhMN burst patterns is a persistent delay in burst onset, transient reductions in burst frequency, and the emergence of tonic burst patterns. The inspiratory frequency data suggest that plasticity in brainstem networks is likely to play an important role in phrenic motor output after cervical SCI. © 2013.

  15. Generation of activity-rest patterns by dual circadian pacemaker systems : a model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Domien G.M.; Daan, Serge

    1992-01-01

    Activity-rest patterns displayed by an animal under various circumstances are suggested to result from the combined influences of two virtually identical circadian pacemaker components. Increased output of each component proportionally increases the probability of activity of the animal. Such a dual

  16. Patterns of resting state connectivity in human primary visual cortical areas: a 7T fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemaekers, Mathijs; Schellekens, Wouter; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; Petridou, Natalia; Kristo, Gert; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2014-01-01

    The nature and origin of fMRI resting state fluctuations and connectivity are still not fully known. More detailed knowledge on the relationship between resting state patterns and brain function may help to elucidate this matter. We therefore performed an in depth study of how resting state

  17. Visual Learning Induces Changes in Resting-State fMRI Multivariate Pattern of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-07-08

    When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359786-13$15.00/0.

  18. Frequency specific patterns of resting-state networks development from childhood to adolescence: A magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lu; Xiang, Jing

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigated frequency dependent developmental patterns of the brain resting-state networks from childhood to adolescence. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were recorded from 20 healthy subjects at resting-state with eyes-open. The resting-state networks (RSNs) was analyzed at source-level. Brain network organization was characterized by mean clustering coefficient and average path length. The correlations between brain network measures and subjects' age during development from childhood to adolescence were statistically analyzed in delta (1-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha (8-12Hz), and beta (12-30Hz) frequency bands. A significant positive correlation between functional connectivity with age was found in alpha and beta frequency bands. A significant negative correlation between average path lengths with age was found in beta frequency band. The results suggest that there are significant developmental changes of resting-state networks from childhood to adolescence, which matures from a lattice network to a small-world network. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential resting-state EEG patterns associated with comorbid depression in Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewon; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Park, Su Mi; Jung, Hee Yeon; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2014-04-03

    Many researchers have reported a relationship between Internet addiction and depression. In the present study, we compared the resting-state quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) activity of treatment-seeking patients with comorbid Internet addiction and depression with those of treatment-seeking patients with Internet addiction without depression, and healthy controls to investigate the neurobiological markers that differentiate pure Internet addiction from Internet addiction with comorbid depression. Thirty-five patients diagnosed with Internet addiction and 34 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Patients with Internet addiction were divided into two groups according to the presence (N=18) or absence (N=17) of depression. Resting-state, eye-closed QEEG was recorded, and the absolute and relative power of the brain were analyzed. The Internet addiction group without depression had decreased absolute delta and beta powers in all brain regions, whereas the Internet addiction group with depression had increased relative theta and decreased relative alpha power in all regions. These neurophysiological changes were not related to clinical variables. The current findings reflect differential resting-state QEEG patterns between both groups of participants with Internet addiction and healthy controls and also suggest that decreased absolute delta and beta powers are neurobiological markers of Internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Study on Square Super-Lattice Pattern with Surface Discharge in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xue-jiao; Dong, Li-fang; Liu, Ying; Wang, Qian; Feng, Jian-yu

    2016-02-01

    Square super-lattice pattern with surface discharge consisting of central spots and dim spots is firstly observed in the mixture of argon and air by using a dielectric barrier discharge device with water electrodes. By observing the image, it is found that the central spot is located at the centriod of its surrounding four dim spots. The short-exposure image recorded by a high speed video camera shows that the dim spot results from the surface discharges (SDs). The brightness of the central spot and is quite different from that of the dim spot, which indicates that the plasma states of the central spot and the dim spot may be differentiated. The optical emission spectrum method is used to further study the several plasma parameters of the central spot and the dim spot in different argon content. The emission spectra of the N₂ second positive band (C³IIu --> B³ IIg) are measured, from which the molecule vibration temperatures of the central spot and the dim spot are calculated respectively. The broadening of spectral line 696.57 nm (2P₂-->1S₅) is used to study the electron densities of the central spot and the dim spot. It is found that the molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the dim spot are higher than those of the central spot in the same argon content The molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the central spot and the dim spot increase with the argon content increasing from 90% to 99.9%. The surface discharge induced by the volume discharge (VD) has the determinative effect on the formation of the dim spot The experimental results above play an important role in studying the formation mechanism of surface discharg&of square super-lattice pattern with surface discharge. In addition, the studies exert an influence on the application of surface discharge and volume discharge in different fields.

  1. Resting-state brain activity in the motor cortex reflects task-induced activity: A multi-voxel pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Toshiki; Kurashige, Hiroki; Nambu, Isao; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hanakawa, Takashi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Osu, Rieko

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that resting-state brain activity reflects task-induced brain activity patterns. In this study, we examined whether neural representations of specific movements can be observed in the resting-state brain activity patterns of motor areas. First, we defined two regions of interest (ROIs) to examine brain activity associated with two different behavioral tasks. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis with regularized logistic regression, we designed a decoder to detect voxel-level neural representations corresponding to the tasks in each ROI. Next, we applied the decoder to resting-state brain activity. We found that the decoder discriminated resting-state neural activity with accuracy comparable to that associated with task-induced neural activity. The distribution of learned weighted parameters for each ROI was similar for resting-state and task-induced activities. Large weighted parameters were mainly located on conjunctive areas. Moreover, the accuracy of detection was higher than that for a decoder whose weights were randomly shuffled, indicating that the resting-state brain activity includes multi-voxel patterns similar to the neural representation for the tasks. Therefore, these results suggest that the neural representation of resting-state brain activity is more finely organized and more complex than conventionally considered.

  2. Replicability of time-varying connectivity patterns in large resting state fMRI samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrol, Anees; Damaraju, Eswar; Miller, Robyn L; Stephen, Julia M; Claus, Eric D; Mayer, Andrew R; Calhoun, Vince D

    2017-12-01

    The past few years have seen an emergence of approaches that leverage temporal changes in whole-brain patterns of functional connectivity (the chronnectome). In this chronnectome study, we investigate the replicability of the human brain's inter-regional coupling dynamics during rest by evaluating two different dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) analysis frameworks using 7 500 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets. To quantify the extent to which the emergent functional connectivity (FC) patterns are reproducible, we characterize the temporal dynamics by deriving several summary measures across multiple large, independent age-matched samples. Reproducibility was demonstrated through the existence of basic connectivity patterns (FC states) amidst an ensemble of inter-regional connections. Furthermore, application of the methods to conservatively configured (statistically stationary, linear and Gaussian) surrogate datasets revealed that some of the studied state summary measures were indeed statistically significant and also suggested that this class of null model did not explain the fMRI data fully. This extensive testing of reproducibility of similarity statistics also suggests that the estimated FC states are robust against variation in data quality, analysis, grouping, and decomposition methods. We conclude that future investigations probing the functional and neurophysiological relevance of time-varying connectivity assume critical importance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Proportion and Patterns of Hospice Discharges in Medicare Advantage Compared to Medicare Fee-for-Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teno, Joan M; Christian, Thomas J; Gozalo, Pedro; Plotzke, Michael

    2018-03-01

    When Medicare Advantage (MA) patients elect hospice, all covered services are reimbursed under the Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) program. This financial arrangement may incentivize MA plans to refer persons to hospice near end of life when costs of care typically rise. To characterize hospice discharge patterns for MA versus FFS patients and examine whether patterns differ by MA concentration across hospital referral regions (HRRs). The rate and pattern of live discharges and length of stay (LOS) between FFS and MA patients were examined. A multivariate mixed-effects model examined whether hospice patients in MA versus FFS had differential patterns of discharges. In addition, we tested whether concentrations of MA hospice patients in a patient's HRR were associated with different patterns of discharges. In fiscal year 2014, there were 1,199,533 hospice discharges with 331,142 MA patients having a slightly higher live discharge rate (15.8%) compared to 868,391 FFS hospice discharges (15.4%). After controlling for patient characteristics, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 1.01 (95% CI 0.99-1.02). MA patients were less likely to have early live discharges (AOR 0.87 95% CI 0.84-0.91) and burdensome transitions (AOR 0.61 95% CI 0.58-0.64) but did not differ in live discharges post 210 days. Among hospice deaths, MA hospice patients were less likely to have a three-day or less LOS (AOR 0.95 95% 0.94-0.96) and a LOS exceeding 180 days (AOR 0.97 95% 0.96-0.99). The concentration of MA patients in a HRR had minimal impact. MA hospice patients' discharge patterns raised less concerns than FFS.

  4. Actigraphy-Derived Daily Rest-Activity Patterns and Body Mass Index in Community-Dwelling Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Quante, Mirja; Weng, Jia; Mitchell, Jonathan A; James, Peter; Marinac, Catherine R; Mariani, Sara; Redline, Susan; Kerr, Jacqueline; Godbole, Suneeta; Manteiga, Alicia; Wang, Daniel; Hipp, J Aaron

    2017-12-01

    To examine associations between 24-hour rest-activity patterns and body mass index (BMI) among community-dwelling US adults. Rest-activity patterns provide a field method to study exposures related to circadian rhythms. Adults (N = 578) wore an actigraph on their nondominant wrist for 7 days. Intradaily variability and interdaily stability (IS), M10 (most active 10-hours), L5 (least active 5-hours), and relative amplitude (RA) were derived using nonparametric rhythm analysis. Mesor, acrophase, and amplitude were calculated from log-transformed count data using the parametric cosinor approach. Participants were 80% female and mean (standard deviation) age was 52 (15) years. Participants with higher BMI had lower values for magnitude, RA, IS, total sleep time (TST), and sleep efficiency. In multivariable analyses, less robust 24-hour rest-activity patterns as represented by lower RA were consistently associated with higher BMI: comparing the bottom quintile (least robust) to the top quintile (most robust 24-hour rest-activity pattern) of RA, BMI was 3-kg/m2 higher (p = .02). Associations were similar in magnitude to an hour less of TST (1-kg/m2 higher BMI) or a 10% decrease in sleep efficiency (2-kg/m2 higher BMI), and independent of age, sex, race, education, and the duration of rest and/or activity. Lower RA, reflecting both higher night activity and lower daytime activity, was associated with higher BMI. Independent of the duration of rest or activity during the day or night, 24-hour rest, and activity patterns from actigraphy provide aggregated measures of activity that associate with BMI in community-dwelling adults. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Temporal symmetry of individual filaments in different spatial symmetry filaments pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, L. F.; Xiao, H.; Fan, W. L.; Yin, Z. Q.; Zhao, H. T.

    2010-01-01

    The temporal behavior of individual filament in different spatial symmetry filaments patterns in dielectric barrier discharge is investigated by using an optical method. A series of return maps of the discharge moments of individual filaments is given. It is found that the temporal symmetry of individual filament changes with the change of the spatial symmetry of filaments pattern as the applied voltage increases. The role of wall charges for this phenomenon is analyzed.

  6. [Study on formation process of honeycomb pattern in dielectric barrier discharge by optical emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Fang; Zhu, Ping; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yu

    2014-04-01

    The authors report on the first investigation of the variations in the plasma parameters in the formation process of the honeycomb pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge by optical emission spectrum in argon and air mixture. The discharge undergoes hexagonal lattice, concentric spot-ring pattern and honeycomb pattern with the applied voltage increasing. The molecular vibration temperature, electron excitation temperature and electronic density of the three kinds of patterns were investigated by the emission spectra of nitrogen band of second positive system (C3pi(u) --> B3 pi(g)), the relative intensity ratio method of spectral lines of Ar I 763.51 nm (2P(6) --> 1S(5)) and Ar I 772.42 nm (2P(2) -->1S(3)) and the broadening of spectral line 696.5 nm respectively. It was found that the molecular vibration temperature and electron excitation temperature of the honeycomb pattern are higher than those of the hexagonal lattice, but the electron density of the former is lower than that of the latter. The discharge powers of the patterns were also measured with the capacitance method. The discharge power of the honeycomb pattern is much higher than that of the hexagonal lattice. These results are of great importance to the formation mechanism of the patterns in dielectric barrier discharge.

  7. Application of cyclic fluorocarbon/argon discharges to device patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Dominik, E-mail: dmetzler@umd.edu [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Uppireddi, Kishore; Bruce, Robert L.; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Zhu, Yu; Price, William; Sikorski, Ed S.; Engelmann, Sebastian U.; Joseph, Eric A. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Li, Chen [Department of Physics, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Oehrlein, Gottlieb S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    With increasing demands on device patterning to achieve smaller critical dimensions and pitches for the 5 nm node and beyond, the need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing. In this work, a cyclic fluorocarbon/Ar plasma is successfully used for ALE patterning in a manufacturing scale reactor. Self-limited etching of silicon oxide is observed. The impact of various process parameters on the etch performance is established. The substrate temperature has been shown to play an especially significant role, with lower temperatures leading to higher selectivity and lower etch rates, but worse pattern fidelity. The cyclic ALE approach established with this work is shown to have great potential for small scale device patterning, showing self-limited etching, improved uniformity and resist mask performance.

  8. Application of cyclic fluorocarbon/argon discharges to device patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, Dominik; Uppireddi, Kishore; Bruce, Robert L.; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Zhu, Yu; Price, William; Sikorski, Ed S.; Engelmann, Sebastian U.; Joseph, Eric A.; Li, Chen; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing demands on device patterning to achieve smaller critical dimensions and pitches for the 5 nm node and beyond, the need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing. In this work, a cyclic fluorocarbon/Ar plasma is successfully used for ALE patterning in a manufacturing scale reactor. Self-limited etching of silicon oxide is observed. The impact of various process parameters on the etch performance is established. The substrate temperature has been shown to play an especially significant role, with lower temperatures leading to higher selectivity and lower etch rates, but worse pattern fidelity. The cyclic ALE approach established with this work is shown to have great potential for small scale device patterning, showing self-limited etching, improved uniformity and resist mask performance

  9. Partial discharge patterns related to surface deterioration in voids in epoxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from an investigation of the relationship between changes in partial discharge patterns and the surface deterioration process taking place in small naturally formed spherical voids in epoxy plastic. The voids were exposed to a moderate electric stress above inception level......, where partial discharges were present for more than 1500 h. Two types of electrical tree growth were found, the bush like tree and a single channel-like tree, which led to very different partial discharge patterns. It is concluded that the formation of crystals on a void surface leads to an immediate...... and easy-to-detect increase in the partial discharge activity with subsequent severe surface deterioration (deep pit formations) in the vicinity of the crystal. However, the partial discharge signal from a specimen with a black channel-like tree structure did not give any indication of channel growth...

  10. Correlating pattern of river discharge with degree of urbanization in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the hydrological response pattern of urbanized streams to landuse in sub-catchment areas of River Asa in Ilorin, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected directly from the field over a period of one hydrological year. Rainfall data were collected in each basin using a standard rain gauge of 20cm orifice ...

  11. Automatic classification of canine PRG neuronal discharge patterns using K-means clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuperku, Edward J; Prkic, Ivana; Stucke, Astrid G; Miller, Justin R; Hopp, Francis A; Stuth, Eckehard A

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory-related neurons in the parabrachial-Kölliker-Fuse (PB-KF) region of the pons play a key role in the control of breathing. The neuronal activities of these pontine respiratory group (PRG) neurons exhibit a variety of inspiratory (I), expiratory (E), phase spanning and non-respiratory related (NRM) discharge patterns. Due to the variety of patterns, it can be difficult to classify them into distinct subgroups according to their discharge contours. This report presents a method that automatically classifies neurons according to their discharge patterns and derives an average subgroup contour of each class. It is based on the K-means clustering technique and it is implemented via SigmaPlot User-Defined transform scripts. The discharge patterns of 135 canine PRG neurons were classified into seven distinct subgroups. Additional methods for choosing the optimal number of clusters are described. Analysis of the results suggests that the K-means clustering method offers a robust objective means of both automatically categorizing neuron patterns and establishing the underlying archetypical contours of subtypes based on the discharge patterns of group of neurons. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Anode pattern formation in atmospheric pressure air glow discharges with water anode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreycken, T.; Bruggeman, P.J.; Leys, C.

    2009-01-01

    Pattern formation in the anode layer at a water electrode in atmospheric pressure glow discharges in air is studied. With increasing current a sequence of different anode spot structures occurs from a constricted homogeneous spot in the case of small currents to a pattern consisting of small

  13. Resting-State Neurophysiological Activity Patterns in Young People with ASD, ADHD, and ASD + ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Tye, Charlotte; Ashwood, Karen L.; Azadi, Bahar; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick F.; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2018-01-01

    Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD…

  14. Spatio-temporal dynamics of the white-eye square superlattice pattern in dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Lingyan; Dong, Lifang; Feng, Jianyu; Liu, Weibo; Fan, Weili; Pan, Yuyang

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first investigation of the white-eye square superlattice pattern (WESSP) in a dielectric barrier discharge system. The evolution of patterns with increasing voltage is given. A phase diagram of WESSP as functions of gas pressure p and argon concentration φ is presented. The spatio-temporal dynamics of the WESSP is studied by using an intensified charge-coupled device camera and photomultipliers. Results show that the WESSP consists of four different transient sublattices, whose discharge sequence is small spots—spots on the line—halos—central spots in each half voltage cycle. The discharge moment and position of each sublattice are dependent upon the field of the wall charges produced by all sublattices discharged previously. (paper)

  15. Controlled structures in laterally patterned barrier discharges by illumination of the semiconductor electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, R; Schumann, T; Stollenwerk, L

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we present a possibility to actively control emerging patterns in laterally extended barrier discharges. One of the barriers is a high-ohmic semiconductive GaAs electrode. As the electrode is illuminated from its plasma-far side, the voltage inside the plasma gap is increased. If the gap voltage becomes higher than the ignition voltage of the gas, a discharge is started. A corresponding electrical model is given. The lateral resolution of control for a laterally homogeneous discharge is investigated. It is found that the luminescence of the discharge is controlled by both a variation of illumination power density and a variation of the applied voltage. However, during an increase in the applied voltage, the discharge may become larger than the area of illumination. Further, an investigation of the patterned discharge control shows that the number of current spots depends on the illumination power density and the area of illumination. The behaviour of current spot appearance suggests an inhibitory influence, preventing a discharge in its immediate surrounding and limiting the total number of current spots. (paper)

  16. Dynamic model based on voltage transfer curve for pattern formation in dielectric barrier glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ben; He, Feng; Ouyang, Jiting, E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Duan, Xiaoxi [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Simulation work is very important for understanding the formation of self-organized discharge patterns. Previous works have witnessed different models derived from other systems for simulation of discharge pattern, but most of these models are complicated and time-consuming. In this paper, we introduce a convenient phenomenological dynamic model based on the basic dynamic process of glow discharge and the voltage transfer curve (VTC) to study the dielectric barrier glow discharge (DBGD) pattern. VTC is an important characteristic of DBGD, which plots the change of wall voltage after a discharge as a function of the initial total gap voltage. In the modeling, the combined effect of the discharge conditions is included in VTC, and the activation-inhibition effect is expressed by a spatial interaction term. Besides, the model reduces the dimensionality of the system by just considering the integration effect of current flow. All these greatly facilitate the construction of this model. Numerical simulations turn out to be in good accordance with our previous fluid modeling and experimental result.

  17. Formation mechanism of dot-line square superlattice pattern in dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weibo; Dong, Lifang, E-mail: donglfhbu@163.com, E-mail: pyy1616@163.com; Wang, Yongjie; Zhang, Xinpu [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); College of Quality and Technical Supervision, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Pan, Yuyang, E-mail: donglfhbu@163.com, E-mail: pyy1616@163.com [College of Quality and Technical Supervision, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the formation mechanism of the dot-line square superlattice pattern (DLSSP) in dielectric barrier discharge. The spatio-temporal structure studied by using the intensified-charge coupled device camera shows that the DLSSP is an interleaving of three different subpatterns in one half voltage cycle. The dot square lattice discharges first and, then, the two kinds of line square lattices, which form square grid structures discharge twice. When the gas pressure is varied, DLSSP can transform from square superlattice pattern (SSP). The spectral line profile method is used to compare the electron densities, which represent the amounts of surface charges qualitatively. It is found that the amount of surface charges accumulated by the first discharge of DLSSP is less than that of SSP, leading to a bigger discharge area of the following discharge (lines of DLSSP instead of halos of SSP). The spatial distribution of the electric field of the surface charges is simulated to explain the formation of DLSSP. This paper may provide a deeper understanding for the formation mechanism of complex superlattice patterns in DBD.

  18. Analysis of Insulating Material of XLPE Cables considering Innovative Patterns of Partial Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Figueroa Godoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the quality of insulation in high voltage underground cables XLPE using a prototype which classifies the following usual types of patterns of partial discharge (PD: (1 internal PD, (2 superficial PD, (3 corona discharge in air, and (4 corona discharge in oil, in addition to considering two new PD patterns: (1 false contact and (2 floating ground. The tests and measurements to obtain the patterns and study cases of partial discharges were performed at the Testing Laboratory Equipment and Materials (LEPEM of the Federal Electricity Commission of Mexico (CFE using a measuring equipment LDIC and norm IEC60270. To classify the six patterns of partial discharges mentioned above a Probabilistic Neural Network Bayesian Modified (PNNBM method having the feature of using a large amount of data will be used and it is not saturated. In addition, PNN converges, always finding a solution in a short period of time with low computational cost. The insulation of two high voltage cables with different characteristics was analyzed. The test results allow us to conclude which wire has better insulation.

  19. The Influence of the Presence of Multiple Voids on the Discharge Patterns in Solid Epoxy Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Larsen, Esben

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, partial discharge test results from initial long term testing on samples which contain more voids, when exposed to a high electric stress will be presented. The influence on the discharge patterns, phase- and height-analyses, of such parameter as the number of voids and the void...... diameters will be given. A first evaluation/opinion of the impact this could have on the estimation of the insulation condition of electrical equipment, based on the identification of PD-patterns, will also be given....

  20. Patterns of resting state connectivity in human primary visual cortical areas: a 7T fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raemaekers, Mathijs; Schellekens, Wouter; van Wezel, Richard J A; Petridou, Natalia; Kristo, Gert; Ramsey, Nick F

    2014-01-01

    The nature and origin of fMRI resting state fluctuations and connectivity are still not fully known. More detailed knowledge on the relationship between resting state patterns and brain function may help to elucidate this matter. We therefore performed an in depth study of how resting state fluctuations map to the well known architecture of the visual system. We investigated resting state connectivity at both a fine and large scale within and across visual areas V1, V2 and V3 in ten human subjects using a 7Tesla scanner. We found evidence for several coexisting and overlapping connectivity structures at different spatial scales. At the fine-scale level we found enhanced connectivity between the same topographic locations in the fieldmaps of V1, V2 and V3, enhanced connectivity to the contralateral functional homologue, and to a lesser extent enhanced connectivity between iso-eccentric locations within the same visual area. However, by far the largest proportion of the resting state fluctuations occurred within large-scale bilateral networks. These large-scale networks mapped to some extent onto the architecture of the visual system and could thereby obscure fine-scale connectivity. In fact, most of the fine-scale connectivity only became apparent after the large-scale network fluctuations were filtered from the timeseries. We conclude that fMRI resting state fluctuations in the visual cortex may in fact be a composite signal of different overlapping sources. Isolating the different sources could enhance correlations between BOLD and electrophysiological correlates of resting state activity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Formation of self-organized anode patterns in arc discharge simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trelles, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Pattern formation and self-organization are phenomena commonly observed experimentally in diverse types of plasma systems, including atmospheric-pressure electric arc discharges. However, numerical simulations reproducing anode pattern formation in arc discharges have proven exceedingly elusive. Time-dependent three-dimensional thermodynamic non-equilibrium simulations reveal the spontaneous formation of self-organized patterns of anode attachment spots in the free-burning arc, a canonical thermal plasma flow established by a constant dc current between an axi-symmetric electrode configuration in the absence of external forcing. The number of spots, their size and distribution within the pattern depend on the applied total current and on the resolution of the spatial discretization, whereas the main properties of the plasma flow, such as maximum temperatures, velocity and voltage drop, depend only on the former. The sensibility of the solution to the spatial discretization stresses the computational requirements for comprehensive arc discharge simulations. The obtained anode patterns qualitatively agree with experimental observations and confirm that the spots originate at the fringes of the arc–anode attachment. The results imply that heavy-species–electron energy equilibration, in addition to thermal instability, has a dominant role in the formation of anode spots in arc discharges. (paper)

  2. Prediction of rhythmic and periodic EEG patterns and seizures on continuous EEG with early epileptiform discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, J; Herta, J; Draschtak, S; Pötzl, G; Pirker, S; Fürbass, F; Hartmann, M; Kluge, T; Baumgartner, C

    2015-08-01

    Continuous EEG (cEEG) is necessary to document nonconvulsive seizures (NCS), nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), as well as rhythmic and periodic EEG patterns of 'ictal-interictal uncertainty' (RPPIIU) including periodic discharges, rhythmic delta activity, and spike-and-wave complexes in neurological intensive care patients. However, cEEG is associated with significant recording and analysis efforts. Therefore, predictors from short-term routine EEG with a reasonably high yield are urgently needed in order to select patients for evaluation with cEEG. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of early epileptiform discharges (i.e., within the first 30 min of EEG recording) on the following: (1) incidence of ictal EEG patterns and RPPIIU on subsequent cEEG, (2) occurrence of acute convulsive seizures during the ICU stay, and (3) functional outcome after 6 months of follow-up. We conducted a separate analysis of the first 30 min and the remaining segments of prospective cEEG recordings according to the ACNS Standardized Critical Care EEG Terminology as well as NCS criteria and review of clinical data of 32 neurological critical care patients. In 17 patients with epileptiform discharges within the first 30 min of EEG (group 1), electrographic seizures were observed in 23.5% (n = 4), rhythmic or periodic EEG patterns of 'ictal-interictal uncertainty' in 64.7% (n = 11), and neither electrographic seizures nor RPPIIU in 11.8% (n = 2). In 15 patients with no epileptiform discharges in the first 30 min of EEG (group 2), no electrographic seizures were recorded on subsequent cEEG, RPPIIU were seen in 26.7% (n = 4), and neither electrographic seizures nor RPPIIU in 73.3% (n = 11). The incidence of EEG patterns on cEEG was significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.008). Patients with early epileptiform discharges developed acute seizures more frequently than patients without early epileptiform discharges (p = 0.009). Finally, functional

  3. Partial discharge patterns and surface deterioration in voids in filled and unfilled epoxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    /height analyses were performed over a period of 2400 h and showed very characteristic discharge patterns for each material combination. A unique behavior with regard to changes of pulse repetition rate and maximum apparent charge was observed for PD in alumina- and silica-filled epoxy. The void surfaces were...

  4. Simulation study of one-dimensional self-organized pattern in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Yanhui, E-mail: wangyh@dlut.edu.cn; Wang, Dezhen, E-mail: wangdez@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-04-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model is developed to simulate the one-dimensional self-organized patterns in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) driven by sinusoidal voltage in argon. Under certain conditions, by changing applied voltage amplitude, the transversely uniform discharge can evolve into the patterned discharge and the varied self-organized patterned discharges with different numbers and arrangements of discharge channels can be observed. Similar to the uniform atmospheric-pressure DBD, the patterned discharge mode is found to undergo a transition from Townsend regime, sub-glow regime to glow regime with increasing applied voltage amplitude. In the different regimes, charged particles and electric field display different dynamical behaviors. If the voltage amplitude is increased over a certain value, the discharge enters an asymmetric patterned discharge mode, and then transforms into the spatially chaotic state with out-of-order discharge channels. The reason for forming the one-dimensional self-organized pattern is mainly due to the so-called activation-inhibition effect resulting from the local high electron density region appearing in discharge space. Electrode arrangement is the reason that induces local high electron density.

  5. [Measurement of plasma parameters in cluster hexagon pattern discharge by optical emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Fang; Shen, Zhong-Kai; Li, Xin-Chun; Liu, Liang; Lu, Ning; Shang, Jie

    2012-09-01

    The cluster hexagon pattern was obtained in a dielectric barrier discharge in air/argon for the first time. Three plasma parameters, i. e. the molecular vibrational temperature, the molecular rotational temperature and the average electron energy of individual cluster in cluster hexagon pattern discharge, were studied by changing the air content. The molecular vibrational temperature and the molecular rotational temperature were calculated using the second positive band system of nitrogen molecules (C 3IIu --> B 3IIg) and the first negative band system of nitrogen molecular ions (B 2Sigma(u)+ --> Chi2 Sigma(g)+). The relative intensities of the first negative system of nitrogen molecular ions (391. 4 nm) and nitrogen molecules emission spectrum line (337.1 nm) were analyzed for studying the variations of the electron energy. It was found that the three plasma parameters of individual cluster in cluster hexagon pattern increase with air content increasing from 16% to 24%.

  6. Correlation of BOLD Signal with Linear and Nonlinear Patterns of EEG in Resting State EEG-Informed fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Portnova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent EEG and fMRI acquisitions in resting state showed a correlation between EEG power in various bands and spontaneous BOLD fluctuations. However, there is a lack of data on how changes in the complexity of brain dynamics derived from EEG reflect variations in the BOLD signal. The purpose of our study was to correlate both spectral patterns, as linear features of EEG rhythms, and nonlinear EEG dynamic complexity with neuronal activity obtained by fMRI. We examined the relationships between EEG patterns and brain activation obtained by simultaneous EEG-fMRI during the resting state condition in 25 healthy right-handed adult volunteers. Using EEG-derived regressors, we demonstrated a substantial correlation of BOLD signal changes with linear and nonlinear features of EEG. We found the most significant positive correlation of fMRI signal with delta spectral power. Beta and alpha spectral features had no reliable effect on BOLD fluctuation. However, dynamic changes of alpha peak frequency exhibited a significant association with BOLD signal increase in right-hemisphere areas. Additionally, EEG dynamic complexity as measured by the HFD of the 2–20 Hz EEG frequency range significantly correlated with the activation of cortical and subcortical limbic system areas. Our results indicate that both spectral features of EEG frequency bands and nonlinear dynamic properties of spontaneous EEG are strongly associated with fluctuations of the BOLD signal during the resting state condition.

  7. Deriving frequency-dependent spatial patterns in MEG-derived resting state sensorimotor network: A novel multiband ICA technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Allison C; Luber, Bruce; Carver, Frederick W; Robinson, Stephen E; Coppola, Richard; Zarate, Carlos A

    2017-02-01

    Recently, independent components analysis (ICA) of resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings has revealed resting state networks (RSNs) that exhibit fluctuations of band-limited power envelopes. Most of the work in this area has concentrated on networks derived from the power envelope of beta bandpass-filtered data. Although research has demonstrated that most networks show maximal correlation in the beta band, little is known about how spatial patterns of correlations may differ across frequencies. This study analyzed MEG data from 18 healthy subjects to determine if the spatial patterns of RSNs differed between delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma, and high gamma frequency bands. To validate our method, we focused on the sensorimotor network, which is well-characterized and robust in both MEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state data. Synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) was used to project signals into anatomical source space separately in each band before a group temporal ICA was performed over all subjects and bands. This method preserved the inherent correlation structure of the data and reflected connectivity derived from single-band ICA, but also allowed identification of spatial spectral modes that are consistent across subjects. The implications of these results on our understanding of sensorimotor function are discussed, as are the potential applications of this technique. Hum Brain Mapp 38:779-791, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Synergetic aspects of gas-discharge: lateral patterns in dc systems with a high ohmic barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwins, H.-G.; Stollenwerk, L.

    2014-12-01

    The understanding of self-organized patterns in spatially extended nonlinear dissipative systems is one of the most challenging subjects in modern natural sciences. Such patterns are also referred to as dissipative structures. We review this phenomenon in planar low temperature dc gas-discharge devices with a high ohmic barrier. It is demonstrated that for these systems a deep qualitative understanding of dissipative structures can be obtained from the point of view of synergetics. At the same time, a major contribution can be made to the general understanding of dissipative structures. The discharge spaces of the experimentally investigated systems, to good approximation, have translational and rotational symmetry by contraction. Nevertheless, a given system may exhibit stable current density distributions and related patterns that break these symmetries. Among the experimentally observed fundamental patterns one finds homogeneous isotropic states, fronts, periodic patterns, labyrinth structures, rotating spirals, target patterns and localized filaments. In addition, structures are observed that have the former as elementary building blocks. Finally, defect structures as well as irregular patterns are common phenomena. Such structures have been detected in numerous other driven nonlinear dissipative systems, as there are ac gas-discharge devices, semiconductors, chemical solutions, electrical networks and biological systems. Therefore, from the experimental observations it is concluded that the patterns in planar low temperature dc gas-discharge devices exhibit universal behavior. From the theoretical point of view, dissipative structures of the aforementioned kind are also referred to as attractors. The possible sets of attractors are an important characteristic of the system. The number and/or qualitative nature of attractors may change when changing parameters. The related bifurcation behavior is a central issue of the synergetic approach chosen in the present

  9. Synergetic aspects of gas-discharge: lateral patterns in dc systems with a high ohmic barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwins, H-G; Stollenwerk, L

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of self-organized patterns in spatially extended nonlinear dissipative systems is one of the most challenging subjects in modern natural sciences. Such patterns are also referred to as dissipative structures. We review this phenomenon in planar low temperature dc gas-discharge devices with a high ohmic barrier. It is demonstrated that for these systems a deep qualitative understanding of dissipative structures can be obtained from the point of view of synergetics. At the same time, a major contribution can be made to the general understanding of dissipative structures. The discharge spaces of the experimentally investigated systems, to good approximation, have translational and rotational symmetry by contraction. Nevertheless, a given system may exhibit stable current density distributions and related patterns that break these symmetries. Among the experimentally observed fundamental patterns one finds homogeneous isotropic states, fronts, periodic patterns, labyrinth structures, rotating spirals, target patterns and localized filaments. In addition, structures are observed that have the former as elementary building blocks. Finally, defect structures as well as irregular patterns are common phenomena. Such structures have been detected in numerous other driven nonlinear dissipative systems, as there are ac gas-discharge devices, semiconductors, chemical solutions, electrical networks and biological systems. Therefore, from the experimental observations it is concluded that the patterns in planar low temperature dc gas-discharge devices exhibit universal behavior. From the theoretical point of view, dissipative structures of the aforementioned kind are also referred to as attractors. The possible sets of attractors are an important characteristic of the system. The number and/or qualitative nature of attractors may change when changing parameters. The related bifurcation behavior is a central issue of the synergetic approach chosen in the present

  10. [Study on A White-Eye Pattern in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Dong, Li-fang; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Chao

    2015-06-01

    The white-eye pattern was firstly observed and investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge system in the mixture of argon and air whose content can be varied whenever necessary, and the study shows that the white-eye cell is an interleaving of three different hexagonal sub-structures: the center spot, the halo, and the ambient spots. The white-eye pattern is observed at a lower applied voltage. In this experiment, the heat capacity of water is high so that the water in water electrode is good at absorbing heat. In the process of pattern discharging the gas gap didn't increase its temperature, and the discharging phenomenon of this pattern has not changed. The temperature of the water electrodes almost keeps unchanged during the whole experiment, which is advantageous for the long-term stable measurement. Pictures recorded by ordinary camera with long exposure time in the same argon content condition show that the center spot, the halo, and the ambient spots og the white-eye pattern have different brightness, which may prove that their plasma states are different. And, it is worth noting that there are obvious differences of brightness not only on the center spot, the halo, and the ambient spots at the same pressure but also at the different pressure, which shows that its plasma state also changed with the variation of the pressure. Given this, in this experiment plasma temperatures of the central spot, halo, and ambient spots in a white-eye pattern at different gas pressure were studied by using optical emission spectra. The molecular vibration temperature is investigated by the emission spectra of nitrogen band of second positive system ( C3Πu --> B3Πg ). The electron excitation temperature is researched by the relative intensity ratio method of spectral lines of Ar I 763. 51 nm (2P6 --> 1S5) and Ar I 772. 42 nm (2P2 --> 1S3). The electronic density is investigated by the broadening of spectral line 696.5 nm. Through the analysis of experimental results, it

  11. Method for improving the electrostatics perforation pattern using power controlled discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, C; Miranda, E; GarcIa-Garcia, J [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Martinez-Cisneros, C; Alonso, J, E-mail: carolina.garzon@uab.cat [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-06-23

    The aims of this work are to show the influence of adding a series resistance at the output of a discharge generator circuit and to point out that this component can be used to control the spark energy in electrostatic perforation systems. Analysis of the experimental results reveals that there exists a close connection between the resistor value and the obtained perforation pattern both in hole density and size. The use of a series resistor has a strong influence on the material porosity, which is an important industrial parameter for assessing the pattern perforation quality.

  12. Multivariate pattern analysis strategies in detection of remitted major depressive disorder using resting state functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runa Bhaumik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of distributed brain networks may aid in probing and targeting mechanisms involved in major depressive disorder (MDD. To date, few studies have used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI to attempt to discriminate individuals with MDD from individuals without MDD, and to our knowledge no investigations have examined a remitted (r population. In this study, we examined the efficiency of support vector machine (SVM classifier to successfully discriminate rMDD individuals from healthy controls (HCs in a narrow early-adult age range. We empirically evaluated four feature selection methods including multivariate Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO and Elastic Net feature selection algorithms. Our results showed that SVM classification with Elastic Net feature selection achieved the highest classification accuracy of 76.1% (sensitivity of 81.5% and specificity of 68.9% by leave-one-out cross-validation across subjects from a dataset consisting of 38 rMDD individuals and 29 healthy controls. The highest discriminating functional connections were between the left amygdala, left posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex, and right ventral striatum. These appear to be key nodes in the etiopathophysiology of MDD, within and between default mode, salience and cognitive control networks. This technique demonstrates early promise for using rs-fMRI connectivity as a putative neurobiological marker capable of distinguishing between individuals with and without rMDD. These methods may be extended to periods of risk prior to illness onset, thereby allowing for earlier diagnosis, prevention, and intervention.

  13. Multivariate pattern analysis strategies in detection of remitted major depressive disorder using resting state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Runa; Jenkins, Lisanne M; Gowins, Jennifer R; Jacobs, Rachel H; Barba, Alyssa; Bhaumik, Dulal K; Langenecker, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of distributed brain networks may aid in probing and targeting mechanisms involved in major depressive disorder (MDD). To date, few studies have used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to attempt to discriminate individuals with MDD from individuals without MDD, and to our knowledge no investigations have examined a remitted (r) population. In this study, we examined the efficiency of support vector machine (SVM) classifier to successfully discriminate rMDD individuals from healthy controls (HCs) in a narrow early-adult age range. We empirically evaluated four feature selection methods including multivariate Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and Elastic Net feature selection algorithms. Our results showed that SVM classification with Elastic Net feature selection achieved the highest classification accuracy of 76.1% (sensitivity of 81.5% and specificity of 68.9%) by leave-one-out cross-validation across subjects from a dataset consisting of 38 rMDD individuals and 29 healthy controls. The highest discriminating functional connections were between the left amygdala, left posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex, and right ventral striatum. These appear to be key nodes in the etiopathophysiology of MDD, within and between default mode, salience and cognitive control networks. This technique demonstrates early promise for using rs-fMRI connectivity as a putative neurobiological marker capable of distinguishing between individuals with and without rMDD. These methods may be extended to periods of risk prior to illness onset, thereby allowing for earlier diagnosis, prevention, and intervention.

  14. Differential Resting-State Connectivity Patterns of the Right Anterior and Posterior Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices (DLPFC in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Chechko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In schizophrenia (SCZ, dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC has been linked to the deficits in executive functions and attention. It has been suggested that, instead of considering the right DLPFC as a cohesive functional entity, it can be divided into two parts (anterior and posterior based on its whole-brain connectivity patterns. Given these two subregions' differential association with cognitive processes, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC profile of both subregions through resting-state data to determine whether they are differentially affected in SCZ. Resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans were obtained from 120 patients and 172 healthy controls (HC at 6 different MRI sites. The results showed differential FC patterns for the anterior and posterior parts of the right executive control-related DLPFC in SCZ with the parietal, the temporal and the cerebellar regions, along with a convergent reduction of connectivity with the striatum and the occipital cortex. An increased psychopathology level was linked to a higher difference in posterior vs. anterior FC for the left IFG/anterior insula, regions involved in higher-order cognitive processes. In sum, the current analysis demonstrated that even between two neighboring clusters connectivity could be differentially disrupted in SCZ. Lacking the necessary anatomical specificity, such notions may in fact be detrimental to a proper understanding of SCZ pathophysiology.

  15. Distribution patterns of firearm discharge residues as revealed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Driscoll, D.C.; Jester, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    A systematic investigation using a variety of handguns has revealed the existence of distinguisable distribution patterns of firearm discharge residues on surfaces below the flight path of a bullet. The residues are identificable even at distances of 12 meters from the gun using nondestructive neutron activation analysis. The results of these investigations show that the distribution pattern for a gun is reproducible using similar ammunition and that there exist two distinct regions to the patterns developed between the firearm and the target-one with respect to the position of the gun and the other in the vicinity of the target. The judicious applications of these findings could be of significant value in criminal investigations. (T.G.)

  16. Self-Organized Patterns in Gas-Discharge: Particle-Like Behaviour and Dissipative Solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwins, H.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of self-organise patterns in spatially extended nonlinear dissipative systems (SOPs) is one of the most challenging subjects in modern natural sciences. In the last 20 years it turned out that research in the field of low temperature gas-discharge can help to obtain insight into important aspect of SOPs. At the same time, due to the practical relevance of plasma systems one might expect interesting applications. In the present paper the focus is on self-organised filamentary patterns in planar dc and ac systems with high ohmic and dielectric barrier, respectively. - In the discharge plane of these systems filaments show up as spots which are also referred to as dissipative solitons (DSs). In many respect experimentally detected DSs exhibit particle-like behaviour. Among other things, isolated stationary or travelling DSs, stationary, travelling or rotating 'molecules' and various kinds of many-body systems have been observed. Also scattering, generation and annihilation of DSs are frequent phenomena. - At least some of these patterns can be described quantitatively in terms of a drift diffusion model. It is also demonstrated that a simple reaction diffusion model allows for an intuitive understanding of many of the observed phenomena. At the same time this model is the basis for a theoretical foundation of the particle picture and the experimentally observed universal behaviour of SOPs. - Finally some hypothetical applications are discussed

  17. Histomorphological patterns in osseous rests exposed at fire; Patrones histomorfologicos en restos oseos expuestos al fuego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, C.; Tiesler, V. [Facultad de Ciencias Antropologicas, UADY, 97000 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Oliva, A.I.; Quintana, P. [CINVESTAV, IPN Unidad Merida, Depto. Fisica Aplicada, 97310 Merida (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Histomorphology as part of morphological research studies bony structure on the tissue level. Its methods are applied in this investigation to evaluate histomorphological impact patterns in heat-exposed bony material, particularly color changes, fissure patterns, volumetric reduction, and changes in the size of Haversian canals. These variables were evaluated in exposed thin sections of porcine long bones, obtained during two experimental series. The first one was conducted under stable thermal conditions in a furnace by measuring heat impact in stepped time (I to S hours) and temperature intervals (200 to 800 C). During a second experimental phase, bony samples were exposed to direct fire in defined time and heat intervals. The treated specimens were then sectioned and microscopically scrutinized. The results presented here were designed to offer new analytical, measurable standards in the investigation of forms of heat exposition of the human body, applicable in forensics and the study of ancient Maya posthumous body treatments. (Author)

  18. Functional connectivity pattern during rest within the episodic memory network in association with episodic memory performance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Reinke, Britta; Matura, Silke; Prvulovic, David; Linden, David E J; van de Ven, Vincent

    2015-02-28

    In this study, we sought to examine the intrinsic functional organization of the episodic memory network during rest in bipolar disorder (BD). The previous work suggests that deficits in intrinsic functional connectivity may account for impaired memory performance. We hypothesized that regions involved in episodic memory processing would reveal aberrant functional connectivity in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 21 patients with BD and 21 healthy matched controls who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a resting condition. We did a seed-based functional connectivity analysis (SBA), using the regions of the episodic memory network that showed a significantly different activation pattern during task-related fMRI as seeds. The functional connectivity scores (FC) were further correlated with episodic memory task performance. Our results revealed decreased FC scores within frontal areas and between frontal and temporal/hippocampal/limbic regions in BD patients in comparison with controls. We observed higher FC in BD patients compared with controls between frontal and limbic regions. The decrease in fronto-frontal functional connectivity in BD patients showed a significant positive association with episodic memory performance. The association between task-independent dysfunctional frontal-limbic FC and episodic memory performance may be relevant for current pathophysiological models of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Discharge characteristics and hydrodynamics behaviors of atmospheric plasma jets produced in various gas flow patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsuhara, Yuichi; Uchida, Giichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi; Takenaka, Kosuke; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric nonequilibrium plasma jets have been widely employed in biomedical applications. For biomedical applications, it is an important issue to understand the complicated mechanism of interaction of the plasma jet with liquid. In this study, we present analysis of the discharge characteristics of a plasma jet impinging onto the liquid surface under various gas flow patterns such as laminar and turbulence flows. For this purpose, we analyzed gas flow patters by using a Schlieren gas-flow imaging system in detail The plasma jet impinging into the liquid surface expands along the liquid surface. The diameter of the expanded plasma increases with gas flow rate, which is well explained by an increase in the diameter of the laminar gas-flow channel. When the gas flow rate is further increased, the gas flow mode transits from laminar to turbulence in the gas flow channel, which leads to the shortening of the plasm-jet length. Our experiment demonstrated that the gas flow patterns strongly affect the discharge characteristics in the plasma-jet system. This study was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas ``Plasma Medical Innovation'' (24108003) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT).

  20. Discharge patterns of human genioglossus motor units during arousal from sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Vanessa; Malhotra, Atul; Nicholas, Christian L; Worsnop, Christopher; Jordan, Amy S; Butler, Jane E; Saboisky, Julian P; Gandevia, Simon C; White, David P; Trinder, John

    2010-03-01

    Single motor unit recordings of the human genioglossus muscle reveal motor units with a variety of discharge patterns. Integrated multiunit electromyographic recordings of genioglossus have demonstrated an abrupt increase in the muscle's activity at arousal from sleep. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of arousal from sleep on the activity of individual motor units as a function of their particular discharge pattern. Genioglossus activity was measured using intramuscular fine-wire electrodes inserted via a percutaneous approach. Arousals from sleep were identified using the ASDA criterion and the genioglossus electromyogram recordings analyzed for single motor unit activity. Sleep research laboratory. Sleep and respiratory data were collected in 8 healthy subjects (6 men). 138 motor units were identified during prearousalarousal sleep: 25% inspiratory phasic, 33% inspiratory tonic, 4% expiratory phasic, 3% expiratory tonic, and 35% tonic. At arousal from sleep inspiratory phasic units significantly increased the proportion of a breath over which they were active, but did not appreciably increase their rate of firing. 80 new units were identified at arousals, 75% were inspiratory, many of which were active for only 1 or 2 breaths. 22% of units active before arousal, particularly expiratory and tonic units, stopped at the arousal. Increased genioglossus muscle activity at arousal from sleep is primarily due to recruitment of inspiratory phasic motor units. Further, activity within the genioglossus motoneuron pool is reorganized at arousal as, in addition to recruitment, approximately 20% of units active before arousals stopped firing.

  1. Extraction and characterization of essential discharge patterns from multisite recordings of spiking ongoing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Storchi

    oscillations with multisite discharge patterns.

  2. FDG F18/Rest Tl 201 SPECT patterns in recent myocardial infarction. Predictive value for regional function recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massardo, Teresa [Universidad de Chile, Hospital Clinico. Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Gonzalez, Patricio; Coll, Claudia; Yovanovich, Jorge; Jofre, M Josefina; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Chamorro, Hernan; Ramirez, Alfredo; Kunstmann, Sonia; Lopez, Hector; Aramburu, Ivonne; Bru, Solange [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Hospital Clinico. Centros de Medicina Nuclear e Cardiovascular; Clinica Santa Maria, Santiago [Chile

    2003-04-01

    Background: detecting viability is important after recent myocardial infarction (MI). SPECT FDG/Tl flow-metabolism patterns for predicting functional recovery were analyzed in this setting. Method: forty-one patients were studied (56+-12 years; 80% males) with Tl 201 at rest and FDG F 18 SPECT at a mean of 8.9 days post MI (range:1-24). All had baseline and 3 month follow-up echocardiography (Echo) and initial coronary angiography. They were submitted to primary PTCA in 12 cases, late PTCA in 15 and bypass surgery in 10 and thrombolysis was performed in 4 patients as only procedure. A total of 345 culprit artery territory segments were interpreted by 3 nuclear independent observers. Analysis included segments with or without abnormal motion. Results: FDG/Tl 201 on patient basis, had: sensitivity 91%; specificity 56%; positive predictive value 88 %; negative predictive value (NPV) 63% and accuracy 83%. The analysis of segments with abnormal contractility showed values of 67%, 69%, 44%, 85% and 68%, respectively. Reverse mismatch with FDG/Tl appears to predict viability similarly to classical mismatch; severe or moderate match was highly associated with no functional recovery (NPV 85%). Conclusion: flow-perfusion patterns are variable in recent MI. FDG/Tl 201 SPECT has acceptable accuracy for predicting functional recovery and excellent NPV to further exclude viability (author)

  3. FDG F18/Rest Tl 201 SPECT patterns in recent myocardial infarction. Predictive value for regional function recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massardo, Teresa; Gonzalez, Patricio; Coll, Claudia; Yovanovich, Jorge; Jofre, M. Josefina; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Chamorro, Hernan; Ramirez, Alfredo; Kunstmann, Sonia; Lopez, Hector; Aramburu, Ivonne; Bru, Solange; Clinica Santa Maria, Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Background: detecting viability is important after recent myocardial infarction (MI). SPECT FDG/Tl flow-metabolism patterns for predicting functional recovery were analyzed in this setting. Method: forty-one patients were studied (56+-12 years; 80% males) with Tl 201 at rest and FDG F 18 SPECT at a mean of 8.9 days post MI (range:1-24). All had baseline and 3 month follow-up echocardiography (Echo) and initial coronary angiography. They were submitted to primary PTCA in 12 cases, late PTCA in 15 and bypass surgery in 10 and thrombolysis was performed in 4 patients as only procedure. A total of 345 culprit artery territory segments were interpreted by 3 nuclear independent observers. Analysis included segments with or without abnormal motion. Results: FDG/Tl 201 on patient basis, had: sensitivity 91%; specificity 56%; positive predictive value 88 %; negative predictive value (NPV) 63% and accuracy 83%. The analysis of segments with abnormal contractility showed values of 67%, 69%, 44%, 85% and 68%, respectively. Reverse mismatch with FDG/Tl appears to predict viability similarly to classical mismatch; severe or moderate match was highly associated with no functional recovery (NPV 85%). Conclusion: flow-perfusion patterns are variable in recent MI. FDG/Tl 201 SPECT has acceptable accuracy for predicting functional recovery and excellent NPV to further exclude viability (author)

  4. Directional patterns of cross frequency phase and amplitude coupling within the resting state mimic patterns of fMRI functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kurt E.; Wander, Jeremiah D.; Ko, Andrew L.; Casimo, Kaitlyn; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Darvas, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging investigations into the brain's resting state interactions have yielded a wealth of insight into the intrinsic and dynamic neural architecture supporting cognition and behavior. Electrophysiological studies however have highlighted the fact that synchrony across large-scale cortical systems is composed of spontaneous interactions occurring at timescales beyond the traditional resolution of fMRI, a feature that limits the capacity of fMRI to draw inference on the true directional relationship between network nodes. To approach the question of directionality in resting state signals, we recorded resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) and electrocorticography (ECoG) from four human subjects undergoing invasive epilepsy monitoring. Using a seed-point based approach, we employed phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) and biPhase Locking Values (bPLV), two measures of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) to explore both outgoing and incoming connections between the seed and all non-seed, site electrodes. We observed robust PAC between a wide range of low-frequency phase and high frequency amplitude estimates. However, significant bPLV, a CFC measure of phase-phase synchrony, was only observed at specific narrow low and high frequency bandwidths. Furthermore, the spatial patterns of outgoing PAC connectivity were most closely associated with the rsfMRI connectivity maps. Our results support the hypothesis that PAC is relatively ubiquitous phenomenon serving as a mechanism for coordinating high-frequency amplitudes across distant neuronal assemblies even in absence of overt task structure. Additionally, we demonstrate that the spatial distribution of a seed-point rsfMRI sensorimotor network is strikingly similar to specific patterns of directional PAC. Specifically, the high frequency activities of distal patches of cortex owning membership in a rsfMRI sensorimotor network were most likely to be entrained to the phase of a low frequency rhythm engendered from the

  5. Spatial-temporal evolution of self-organized loop-patterns on a water surface and a diffuse discharge in the gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Geng, Jinling; Jia, Pengying; Zhang, Panpan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Yaru

    2017-11-01

    Excited by an alternating current voltage, a patterned discharge and a diffuse discharge are generated in a needle to liquid configuration. Using an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), temporal evolution of the discharge between the two electrodes is investigated for the diffuse mode and the patterned mode, respectively. For the diffuse mode, the positive discharge is in a glow regime, and the negative discharge is in a Townsend discharge regime. For the patterned mode, the discharge always belongs to the Townsend discharge regime. Moreover, in the patterned mode, various patterns including the single loop, single loop with the surrounding corona, triple loops, and concentric loops with a central spot are observed on the water surface with the increasing positive peak-value of the applied voltage (Upp). Temporally resolved images of the loop-patterns are captured on the water surface. From the electrical measurements and the ICCD imaging, it is found that the loop pattern emerges after the discharge bridges the two electrodes. Then, it begins to evolve and finally degenerates with the decrease in the discharge current. The pattern does not disappear until the discharge quenches. Formation of the loop-patterns is attributed to the role of negative ions.

  6. Altered motor unit discharge patterns in paretic muscles of stroke survivors assessed using surface electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Aneesha K.; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Hemispheric stroke survivors often show impairments in voluntary muscle activation. One potential source of these impairments could come from altered control of muscle, via disrupted motor unit (MU) firing patterns. In this study, we sought to determine whether MU firing patterns are modified on the affected side of stroke survivors, as compared with the analogous contralateral muscle. Approach. Using a novel surface electromyogram (EMG) sensor array, coupled with advanced template recognition software (dEMG) we recorded surface EMG signals over the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle on both paretic and contralateral sides. Recordings were made as stroke survivors produced isometric index finger abductions over a large force range (20%-60% of maximum). Utilizing the dEMG algorithm, MU firing rates, recruitment thresholds, and action potential amplitudes were estimated for concurrently active MUs in each trial. Main results. Our results reveal significant changes in the firing rate patterns in paretic FDI muscle, in that the discharge rates, characterized in relation to recruitment force threshold and to MU size, were less clearly correlated with recruitment force than in contralateral FDI muscles. Firing rates in the affected muscle also did not modulate systematically with the level of voluntary muscle contraction, as would be expected in intact muscles. These disturbances in firing properties also correlated closely with the impairment of muscle force generation. Significance. Our results provide strong evidence of disruptions in MU firing behavior in paretic muscles after a hemispheric stroke, suggesting that modified control of the spinal motoneuron pool could be a contributing factor to muscular weakness in stroke survivors.

  7. Assessing medication adherence and healthcare utilization and cost patterns among hospital-discharged patients with schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karve, Sudeep; Markowitz, Michael; Fu, Dong-Jing; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Chi-Chuan; Candrilli, Sean D; Alphs, Larry

    2014-06-01

    adherence likely are important characteristics to examine among patients with schizoaffective disorder and help provide a more holistic view of patients' adherence patterns. Furthermore, we observed a high rate of rehospitalization and greater healthcare costs during the initial 60-day period post-discharge among patients with schizoaffective disorder. Further research is required to better understand and manage transitional care after discharge (e.g., monitor adherence), which may help reduce the likelihood of rehospitalization and the associated downstream costs.

  8. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  9. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  10. Effects of thermal discharges on the seasonal patterns of nutrient concentrations in brackish water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitchals, D.

    1985-05-01

    Massiv quantities of water are used in power plant cooling systems, especially nuclear power plants, and are often returned to the donor ecosystem at significantly elevated temperatures. Few studies of the environmental effects of such a situation have looked extensively at the effects on nutrients in the water. The present study examined the effects of cooling water discharges from a nuclear power plant on the seasonal nutrient patterns within and outside a brackish water, research artificial lake, the 0.9 km 2 Biotest Basin on Sweden's east coast. The lack of ice cover in winter is the most apparent effect. In a portion of the lake with a relatively long water residence time, on the order of a few days, the vernal nutrient depletion of phosphate, nitrate, and nitrite apparently began sooner than outside the lake. Benthic influence on nutrient concentrations in the free water mass may be very significant in coastal areas receiving heat inputs. This study's data apparently support the conclusion by other researchers that phosphorus may be the nutrient limiting algal growth in the spring in this area of the central Baltic Sea. Determination of a nutrient budget for the Basin was unachievable because inlet and outlet nutrient concentrations were insufficiently different to override experimental variation. Implications for management of heat inputs to coastal ecosystems include avoidance of areas with high nutrient content, rich organic sediment, or poor flushing. (author)

  11. Hydrology of the Po River: looking for changing patterns in river discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Montanari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientists and public administrators are devoting increasing attention to the Po River, in Italy, in view of concerns related to the impact of increasing urbanisation and exploitation of water resources. A better understanding of the hydrological regime of the river is necessary to improve water resources management and flood protection. In particular, the analysis of the effects of hydrological and climatic change is crucial for planning sustainable development and economic growth. An extremely interesting issue is to inspect to what extent river flows can be naturally affected by the occurrence of long periods of water abundance or scarcity, which can be erroneously interpreted as irreversible changes due to human impact. In fact, drought and flood periods alternatively occurred in the recent past in the form of long-term fluctuations. This paper presents advanced graphical and analytical methods to gain a better understanding of the temporal distribution of the Po River discharge. In particular, we present an analysis of river flow variability and persistence properties, to gain a better understanding of natural patterns, and in particular long-term changes, which may affect the future flood risk and availability of water resources.

  12. Loading pattern optimization with maximum utilization of discharging fuel employing adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, T. K.; Joo, H. G.; Kim, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    In order to find the most economical loading pattern (LP) considering multi-cycle fuel loading, multi-objective fuel LP optimization problems are examined by employing an adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function (ACDPF) method. This is an improved method to simplify the complicated acceptance logic of the original DPF method in that the stochastic effects caused by the different random number sequence can be reduced. The effectiveness of the multi-objective simulated annealing (SA) algorithm employing ACDPF is examined for the reload core LP of Cycle 4 of Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 4. Several optimization runs are performed with different numbers of objectives consisting of cycle length and average burnup of fuels to be discharged or reloaded. The candidate LPs obtained from the multi-objective optimization runs turn out to be better than the reference LP in the aspects of cycle length and utilization of given fuels. It is note that the proposed ACDPF based MOSA algorithm can be a practical method to obtain an economical LP considering multi-cycle fuel loading. (authors)

  13. High rate behavior and discharge limits in micro-pattern detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, A; Pagano, P; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Biagi, S F; Buzulutskov, A F; Gruwé, M; De Lentdecker, G; Mörmann, D; Sharma, A

    1999-01-01

    We present and discuss a set of systematic measurements, carried out with gaseous proportional micro-pattern detectors, in order to assess their maximum gain when irradiated with high-rate soft X-rays and heavily ionizing alpha particles. The inventory of detectors tested includes: micro-strip micromegas, micro-dot, gas electron multiplier, CAT (compteur à trous), trench (or groove), micro-CAT (or WELL) detectors, as well as systems with two elements of gaseous amplification in cascade. We confirm the general trend of all single-stage detectors to follow Raether's criterion, i.e. a spontaneous transition from avalanche to streamer, followed by a discharge, when the avalanche size reaches a value of a few 10 7 ; a noticeable exception is the micro-dot counter holding more than 10 8. In multiple structures, where the gain under irradiation is increased by at least one order of magnitude; we speculate this to be a consequence of a voltage dependence of Raether's limit, larger for low operating potentials. Our c...

  14. Hydrology of the Po River: looking for changing patterns in river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, A.

    2012-05-01

    Scientists and public administrators are devoting increasing attention to the Po River, in Italy, in view of concerns related to the impact of increasing urbanisation and exploitation of water resources. A better understanding of the hydrological regime of the river is necessary to improve water resources management and flood protection. In particular, the analysis of the effects of hydrological and climatic change is crucial for planning sustainable development and economic growth. An extremely interesting issue is to inspect to what extent river flows can be naturally affected by the occurrence of long periods of water abundance or scarcity, which can be erroneously interpreted as irreversible changes due to human impact. In fact, drought and flood periods alternatively occurred in the recent past in the form of long term cycles. This paper presents advanced graphical and analytical methods to gain a better understanding of the temporal distribution of the Po River discharge. In particular, we present an analysis of river flow variability and memory properties to better understand natural patterns and in particular long term changes, which may affect the future flood risk and availability of water resources.

  15. High rate behavior and discharge limits in micro-pattern detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressan, A.; Hoch, M.; Pagano, P.; Ropelewski, L.; Sauli, F.; Biagi, S.; Buzulutskov, A.; Gruwe, M.; De Lentdecker, G.; Moermann, D.; Sharma, A.

    1999-01-01

    We present and discuss a set of systematic measurements, carried out with gaseous proportional micro-pattern detectors, in order to assess their maximum gain when irradiated with high-rate soft X-rays and heavily ionizing alpha particles. The inventory of detectors tested includes: micro-strips, micromegas, micro-dot, gas electron multiplier, CAT (compteur a trous), trench (or groove), micro-CAT (or WELL) detectors, as well as systems with two elements of gaseous amplification in cascade. We confirm the general trend of all single-stage detectors to follow Raether's criterion, i.e. a spontaneous transition from avalanche to streamer, followed by a discharge, when the avalanche size reaches a value of a few 10 7 ; a noticeable exception is the micro-dot counter holding more than 10 8 . In multiple structures, where the gain is shared between two devices in cascade, the maximum overall gain under irradiation is increased by at least one order of magnitude; we speculate this to be a consequence of a voltage dependence of Raether's limit, larger for low operating potentials. Our conclusion is that only multiple devices can guarantee a sufficient margin of reliability for operation in harsh LHC running conditions

  16. The spatio-temporal dynamic pattern of rural domestic solid waste discharge of China and its challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guangjin; Kong, Lingqiang; Liu, Xiaojuan; Yuan, Wenping

    2018-04-01

    At present, construction of rural domestic waste treatment facilities is seriously lagging, and in many cases, treatment facilities do not yet exist in some villages of China. Serious rural waste pollution has not only impacted the quality of surface water and groundwater but also the atmosphere and the living environment of farmers of China. There are relatively few studies of rural domestic waste pollution, especially with respect to the spatio-temporal dynamic pattern of rural domestic waste discharge. Using survey data and income per capita, we calculated rural domestic waste discharge per capita per day. From this, we calculated provincial rural domestic waste discharge. According to our study, rural domestic waste discharge was 1.42 × 10 8 t/year in 2000. This number increased to 2.3 × 10 8 t/year in 2006 and to 2.47 × 10 8 t/year in 2010. Rural domestic waste increased dramatically while the actual rural population and the proportion of the rural population declined. When examining the eight regions, the rural domestic waste discharge of northeastern China, Qinghai-Tibet, middle China, and southwestern China had increased dramatically, while that of northern China, southern China, and eastern China increased relatively slowly. The economies of northern China, southern China, and eastern China are more developed; their rural domestic waste discharge has been high since 2000 and has continued to increase slowly. In northeastern China, Qinghai-Tibet, middle China, and southwestern China, rural domestic waste discharge was low in 2000; however, in the ten-year period from 2000 to 2010, their rural domestic waste discharge increased dramatically.

  17. Studies on discharges in Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors, towards a spark resistant THGEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cantini, Cosimo; De Oliveira, Rui

    The problem afflicting any of MPGDs is the phenomenon of discharging which might be destructive in some highly energetic cases, at least being responsible of a slow aging of the detector. So far one solution has been cascading several gain elements (GEM, THGEM detectors) reducing the gain of each one; this method, spreading the charges along their path, reduce effectively the likelihood of a discharge but introduce more material due to the multiple stages of amplification. Our goal is developing a single stage THGEM detector which could withstand discharges, not reducing the gain, hence being still able to amplify low level ionizing particles while implementing some methodologies to reduce the damages due to discharge induced by high rate of particles’ flux and/or highly ionizing particles. This report describes the test bench set up to study discharges between simple structures, which are actually models of the bigger detector. The idea behind this approach is to reduce the complexity of the whole phenomen...

  18. Anode spot patterns and fluctuations in an atmospheric-pressure glow discharge in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipenko, V I; Safronau, Y A; Simonchik, L V; Tsuprik, I M; Callegari, Th

    2013-01-01

    Oscillations of the main parameters (voltage on electrodes, potential, light intensity and discharge current) in a dc atmospheric-pressure glow discharge in helium are investigated in a range of currents from milliamperes to several amperes. It is established that these oscillations are connected with the existence of anode spots. In the case of a single spot, fluctuations of discharge light intensity are observed when the supply voltage exceeds the breakdown voltage for the interelectrode gap. At the same time, voltage fluctuations have the form of relaxation oscillations with a frequency that depends on the electrical parameters of the external circuit. With an increase in discharge gap and current, the number of spots increases. They form a stable structure, and the fluctuations of current and voltage stay harmonic. The brightness of the spots seems to be determined by the frequency of their blinking. The amplitude of current fluctuation increases with the increase in discharge current and can be up to 15% of its average value. The frequency of current oscillations, which is about 0.75 MHz at a current of 0.5 A, depends weakly on the discharge gap (it varies within ±10% for the gap interval from 1 to 10 mm). The oscillation frequency is maximal (about 0.85 MHz) at a current of about 0.4 A. At higher currents (2–4 A, depending on the discharge gap), the fluctuations disappear when a contraction of the anode region into one anode spot occurs. (paper)

  19. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdiet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  20. Inter-hospital Cross-validation of Irregular Discharge Patterns for Young vs. Old Psychiatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdzierz, Gerald J.; Davis, William E.

    1975-01-01

    Type of discharge (irregular vs. regular) and length of time hospitalized were used as unobtrusive measures of psychiatric patient acceptance of hospital treatment regime among two groups (18-27 years and 45 years and above) of patients. (Author)

  1. Self-organized pattern on the surface of a metal anode in low-pressure DC discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqi, YANG; Weiguo, LI

    2018-03-01

    Self-organization phenomena on the surface of a metal electrode in low-pressure DC discharge is studied. In this paper, we carry out laboratory investigations of self-organization in a low-pressure test platform for 100-200 mm rod-plane gaps with a needle tip, conical tip and hemispherical tip within 1-10 kPa. The factors influencing the pattern profile are the pressure value, gap length and shape of the electrode, and a variety of pattern structures are observed by changing these factors. With increasing pressure, first the pattern diameter increases and then decreases. With the needle tip, layer structure, single-ring structure and double-ring structure are displayed successively with increasing pressure. With the conical tip, the ring-like structure gradually forms separate spots with increasing pressure. With the hemispherical tip, there are anode spots inside the ring structure. With the increase of gap length, the diameter of the self-organized pattern increases and the profile of the pattern changes. The development process of the pattern contains three key stages: pattern enlargement, pattern stabilization and pattern shrink.

  2. Resting-State Neurophysiological Activity Patterns in Young People with ASD, ADHD, and ASD + ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Tye, Charlotte; Ashwood, Karen L; Azadi, Bahar; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick F; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2018-01-01

    Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD (ASD/ASD + ADHD) showed reduced theta and alpha power compared to children without ASD (controls/ADHD). Children with ADHD (ADHD/ASD + ADHD) displayed decreased delta power compared to children without ADHD (ASD/controls). Children with ASD + ADHD largely presented as an additive co-occurrence with deficits of both disorders, although reduced theta compared to ADHD-only and reduced delta compared to controls suggested some unique markers. Identifying specific neurophysiological profiles in ASD and ADHD may assist in characterising more homogeneous subgroups to inform treatment approaches and aetiological investigations.

  3. Nutritional Status and Daytime Pattern of Protein Intake on Match, Post-Match, Rest and Training Days in Senior Professional and Youth Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettonviel A, E O; Brinkmans N, Y J; Russcher, Kris; Wardenaar, Floris C; Witard, Oliver C

    2016-06-01

    The nutritional status of elite soccer players across match, postmatch, training and rest days has not been defined. Recent evidence suggests the pattern of dietary protein intake impacts the daytime turnover of muscle proteins and, as such, influences muscle recovery. We assessed the nutritional status and daytime pattern of protein intake in senior professional and elite youth soccer players and compared findings against published recommendations. Fourteen senior professional (SP) and 15 youth elite (YP) soccer players from the Dutch premier division completed nutritional assessments using a 24-hr web-based recall method. Recall days consisted of a match, postmatch, rest, and training day. Daily energy intake over the 4-day period was similar between SP (2988 ± 583 kcal/day) and YP (2938 ± 465 kcal/day; p = .800). Carbohydrate intake over the combined 4-day period was lower in SP (4.7 ± 0.7 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) vs. YP (6.0 ± 1.5 g·kg-1 BM·day-1, p = .006) and SP failed to meet recommended carbohydrate intakes on match and training days. Conversely, recommended protein intakes were met for SP (1.9 ± 0.3 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) and YP (1.7 ± 0.4 g·kg-1 BM·day-1), with no differences between groups (p = .286). Accordingly, both groups met or exceeded recommended daily protein intakes on individual match, postmatch, rest and training days. A similar "balanced" daytime pattern of protein intake was observed in SP and YP. To conclude, SP increased protein intake on match and training days to a greater extent than YP, however at the expense of carbohydrate intake. The daytime distribution of protein intake for YP and SP aligned with current recommendations of a balanced protein meal pattern.

  4. Angina - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest pain - discharge; Stable angina - discharge; Chronic angina - discharge; Variant angina - discharge; Angina pectoris - discharge; Accelerating angina - discharge; New-onset angina - discharge; Angina-unstable - discharge; ...

  5. Integrated input protection against discharges for Micro Pattern Gas Detectors readout ASICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiutowski, T.; Dąbrowski, W.; Koperny, S.; Wiącek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Immunity against possible random discharges inside active detector volume of MPGDs is one of the key aspects that should be addressed in the design of the front-end electronics. This issue becomes particularly critical for systems with high channel counts and high density readout employing the front-end electronics built as multichannel ASICs implemented in modern CMOS technologies, for which the breakdown voltages are in the range of a few Volts. The paper presents the design of various input protection structures integrated in the ASIC manufactured in a 350 nm CMOS process and test results using an electrical circuit to mimic discharges in the detectors.

  6. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  7. Pattern and outcome of patients discharged from chest ward of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Sachdeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe morbidity and mortality profile of patients discharged from chest ward of a university hospital. Materials and Methods: Prospectively selected information (age, gender, residence, length of stay, outcome and primary diagnosis of all consecutive in-patients was recorded for six month reference period. Results: Out of 967 patients, mean age was 50.64 years (±15.71; M:F = 3.5:1; 81.3% were from rural area. Primary diagnosis was tuberculosis/sequel among 528 (54.60% and non-TB among 439 (45.4% patients (chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases [COPD] - 20.3%; pneumonia - 15.8%; lung cancer - 5.0%; asthma - 1.6%; bronchiectasis - 0.9%, lung abscess - 0.8%, miscellaneous - 1.0%. Total deaths observed was 142 (14.7% of all discharges and 54.25% of deaths occurred within 48 hours of admission suggesting criticality/late presentation; time distribution of death was similar considering 8-hourly period of 24-h cycle. Average length of stay for all patients was 6.91 (±5.14 days while it was 7.38 (±4.98 days for discharge live and 4.19 (±5.21 days for expired patients. Conclusion: Study provides a snapshot of patients discharged from chest ward that may aid in decision making, improving quality of care and initiation of educational activities at primary level.

  8. Does hospital discharge policy influence sick-leave patterns in the case of female breast cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Rikard; Stenbeck, Magnus; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    in 2000 were selected from the National Cancer Register and combined with data from the sick-leave database of the National Social Insurance Board and the National Hospital Discharge Register (N = 1834). A multi-factorial model was fitted to the data to investigate how differences in hospital care...

  9. Recumbence Behavior in Zoo Elephants: Determination of Patterns and Frequency of Recumbent Rest and Associated Environmental and Social Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Holdgate

    Full Text Available Resting behaviors are an essential component of animal welfare but have received little attention in zoological research. African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana and Asian elephant (Elephas maximus rest includes recumbent postures, but no large-scale investigation of African and Asian zoo elephant recumbence has been previously conducted. We used anklets equipped with accelerometers to measure recumbence in 72 adult female African (n = 44 and Asian (n = 28 elephants housed in 40 North American zoos. We collected 344 days of data and determined associations between recumbence and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. African elephants were recumbent less (2.1 hours/day, S.D. = 1.1 than Asian elephants (3.2 hours/day, S.D. = 1.5; P < 0.001. Nearly one-third of elephants were non-recumbent on at least one night, suggesting this is a common behavior. Multi-variable regression models for each species showed that substrate, space, and social variables had the strongest associations with recumbence. In the African model, elephants who spent any amount of time housed on all-hard substrate were recumbent 0.6 hours less per day than those who were never on all-hard substrate, and elephants who experienced an additional acre of outdoor space at night increased their recumbence by 0.48 hours per day. In the Asian model, elephants who spent any amount of time housed on all-soft substrate were recumbent 1.1 hours more per day more than those who were never on all-soft substrate, and elephants who spent any amount of time housed alone were recumbent 0.77 hours more per day than elephants who were never housed alone. Our results draw attention to the significant interspecific difference in the amount of recumbent rest and in the factors affecting recumbence; however, in both species, the influence of flooring substrate is notably important to recumbent rest, and by extension, zoo elephant welfare.

  10. From swing to cane: Sex differences of EEG resting-state temporal patterns during maturation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Tomescu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available While many insights on brain development and aging have been gained by studying resting-state networks with fMRI, relating these changes to cognitive functions is limited by the temporal resolution of fMRI. In order to better grasp short-lasting and dynamically changing mental activities, an increasing number of studies utilize EEG to define resting-state networks, thereby often using the concept of EEG microstates. These are brief (around 100 ms periods of stable scalp potential fields that are influenced by cognitive states and are sensitive to neuropsychiatric diseases. Despite the rising popularity of the EEG microstate approach, information about age changes is sparse and nothing is known about sex differences. Here we investigated age and sex related changes of the temporal dynamics of EEG microstates in 179 healthy individuals (6–87 years old, 90 females, 204-channel EEG. We show strong sex-specific changes in microstate dynamics during adolescence as well as at older age. In addition, males and females differ in the duration and occurrence of specific microstates. These results are of relevance for the comparison of studies in populations of different age and sex and for the understanding of the changes in neuropsychiatric diseases.

  11. Examination of the Pattern of Growth of Cerebral Tissue Volumes From Hospital Discharge to Early Childhood in Very Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Anderson, Peter J; Matthews, Lillian G; Neil, Jeffrey J; Kapur, Kush; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Thompson, Deanne K; Inder, Terrie E

    2016-08-01

    Smaller cerebral volumes at hospital discharge in very preterm (VPT) infants are associated with poor neurobehavioral outcomes. Brain growth from the newborn period to middle childhood has not been explored because longitudinal data have been lacking. To examine the pattern of growth of cerebral tissue volumes from hospital discharge to childhood in VPT infants and to determine perinatal risk factors for impaired brain growth and associations with neurobehavioral outcomes at 7 years. Prospective cohort study of VPT infants (childhood and outcomes in VPT infants. Low brain volumes observed in VPT infants are exaggerated at 7 years. Low brain volume in infancy is associated with long-term functional outcomes, emphasizing the persisting influence of early brain development on subsequent growth and outcomes.

  12. Elevational gradients in fish diversity in the Himalaya: water discharge is the key driver of distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jay P; Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K

    2012-01-01

    Studying diversity and distribution patterns of species along elevational gradients and understanding drivers behind these patterns is central to macroecology and conservation biology. A number of studies on biogeographic gradients are available for terrestrial ecosystems, but freshwater ecosystems remain largely neglected. In particular, we know very little about the species richness gradients and their drivers in the Himalaya, a global biodiversity hotspot. We collated taxonomic and distribution data of fish species from 16 freshwater Himalayan rivers and carried out empirical studies on environmental drivers and fish diversity and distribution in the Teesta river (Eastern Himalaya). We examined patterns of fish species richness along the Himalayan elevational gradients (50-3800 m) and sought to understand the drivers behind the emerging patterns. We used generalized linear models (GLM) and generalized additive models (GAM) to examine the richness patterns; GLM was used to investigate relationship between fish species richness and various environmental variables. Regression modelling involved stepwise procedures, including elimination of collinear variables, best model selection, based on the least Akaike's information criterion (AIC) and the highest percentage of deviance explained (D(2)). This maiden study on the Himalayan fishes revealed that total and non-endemic fish species richness monotonously decrease with increasing elevation, while endemics peaked around mid elevations (700-1500 m). The best explanatory model (synthetic model) indicated that water discharge is the best predictor of fish species richness patterns in the Himalayan rivers. This study, carried out along one of the longest bioclimatic elevation gradients of the world, lends support to Rapoport's elevational rule as opposed to mid domain effect hypothesis. We propose a species-discharge model and contradict species-area model in predicting fish species richness. We suggest that drivers of

  13. The role of resting duration in the kinematic pattern of two consecutive bench press sets to failure in elite sprint kayakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, D; Herrero, J A; Abadía, O; García-Isla, F J; Ualí, I; Izquierdo, M

    2008-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of rest period duration (RP) on the time course of the acceleration portion (AP) and mean velocity of the concentric phase across two bench press sets to failure with a submaximal load (60% of the 1RM) using different RP. Ten elite junior kayakers performed, on four different days, two consecutive bench press sets to failure, allowing randomly 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-min RP between sets. AP reached a maximal value of 66% of the concentric movement time. This maximal AP was observed in repetition number 2 or 3, and then AP declined during the set, with a significant decrease when the number of repetitions was over 80% of the total number of repetitions performed. AP and lifting velocity patterns of the concentric phase were not altered during a second set to failure, regardless of RP. However, when velocity was expressed in absolute terms, 1-min RP was insufficient to maintain the average lifting velocity during the second set, compared to the first one. These results may be of use in selecting number of repetitions and resting duration in order to ensure optimal maintenance of the accelerative portion of concentric movement time with different resting-period durations.

  14. Evidence of a dissociation pattern in resting-state default mode network connectivity in first-episode, treatment-naive major depression patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xueling; Wang, Xiang; Xiao, Jin; Liao, Jian; Zhong, Mingtian; Wang, Wei; Yao, Shuqiao

    2012-04-01

    Imaging studies have shown that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with altered activity patterns of the default mode network (DMN). However, the neural correlates of the resting-state DMN and MDD-related pathopsychological characteristics, such as depressive rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) phenomena, still remain unclear. Using independent component analysis, we analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 35 first-episode, treatment-naive young adults with MDD and from 35 matched healthy control subjects. Patients with MDD exhibited higher levels of rumination and OGM than did the control subjects. We observed increased functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex regions (especially the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) and decreased functional connectivity in the posterior medial cortex regions (especially the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus) in MDD patients compared with control subjects. In the depressed group, the increased functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex correlated positively with rumination score, while the decreased functional connectivity in the posterior medial cortex correlated negatively with OGM score. We report dissociation between anterior and posterior functional connectivity in resting-state DMNs of first-episode, treatment-naive young adults with MDD. Increased functional connectivity in anterior medial regions of the resting-state DMN was associated with rumination, whereas decreased functional connectivity in posterior medial regions was associated with OGM. These results provide new evidence for the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiology of MDD and suggest that abnormal DMN activity may be an MDD trait. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Schizophrenia patients and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome adolescents at risk express the same deviant patterns of resting state EEG microstates: A candidate endophenotype of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miralena I. Tomescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder and many of the factors contributing to its pathogenesis are poorly understood. In addition, identifying reliable neurophysiological markers would improve diagnosis and early identification of this disease. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS is one major risk factor for schizophrenia. Here, we show further evidence that deviant temporal dynamics of EEG microstates are a potential neurophysiological marker by showing that the resting state patterns of 22q11DS are similar to those found in schizophrenia patients. The EEG microstates are recurrent topographic distributions of the ongoing scalp potential fields with temporal stability of around 80 ms that are mapping the fast reconfiguration of resting state networks. Five minutes of high-density EEG recordings was analysed from 27 adult chronic schizophrenia patients, 27 adult controls, 30 adolescents with 22q11DS, and 28 adolescent controls. In both patient groups we found increased class C, but decreased class D presence and high transition probabilities towards the class C microstates. Moreover, these aberrant temporal dynamics in the two patient groups were also expressed by perturbations of the long-range dependency of the EEG microstates. These findings point to a deficient function of the salience and attention resting state networks in schizophrenia and 22q11DS as class C and class D microstates were previously associated with these networks, respectively. These findings elucidate similarities between individuals at risk and schizophrenia patients and support the notion that abnormal temporal patterns of EEG microstates might constitute a marker for developing schizophrenia.

  16. Is Rest Really Rest? Resting State Functional Connectivity during Rest and Motor Task Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiewicz, Michael T; Crawley, Adrian P; Mikulis, David J

    2018-04-18

    Numerous studies have identified the default mode network (DMN) within the brain of healthy individuals, which has been attributed to the ongoing mental activity of the brain during the wakeful resting-state. While engaged during specific resting-state fMRI paradigms, it remains unclear as to whether traditional block-design simple movement fMRI experiments significantly influence the default mode network or other areas. Using blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI we characterized the pattern of functional connectivity in healthy subjects during a resting-state paradigm and compared this to the same resting-state analysis performed on motor task data residual time courses after regressing out the task paradigm. Using seed-voxel analysis to define the DMN, the executive control network (ECN), and sensorimotor, auditory and visual networks, the resting-state analysis of the residual time courses demonstrated reduced functional connectivity in the motor network and reduced connectivity between the insula and the ECN compared to the standard resting-state datasets. Overall, performance of simple self-directed motor tasks does little to change the resting-state functional connectivity across the brain, especially in non-motor areas. This would suggest that previously acquired fMRI studies incorporating simple block-design motor tasks could be mined retrospectively for assessment of the resting-state connectivity.

  17. Defect Pattern Recognition Based on Partial Discharge Characteristics of Oil-Pressboard Insulation for UHVDC Converter Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Si

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ultra high voltage direct current (UHVDC transmission system has advantages in delivering electrical energy over long distance at high capacity. UHVDC converter transformer is a key apparatus and its insulation state greatly affects the safe operation of the transmission system. Partial discharge (PD characteristics of oil-pressboard insulation under combined AC-DC voltage are the foundation for analyzing the insulation state of UHVDC converter transformers. The defect pattern recognition based on PD characteristics is an important part of the state monitoring of converter transformers. In this paper, PD characteristics are investigated with the established experimental platform of three defect models (needle-plate, surface discharge and air gap under 1:1 combined AC-DC voltage. The different PD behaviors of three defect models are discussed and explained through simulation of electric field strength distribution and discharge mechanism. For the recognition of defect types when multiple types of sources coexist, the Random Forests algorithm is used for recognition. In order to reduce the computational layer and the loss of information caused by the extraction of traditional features, the preprocessed single PD pulses and phase information are chosen to be the features for learning and test. Zero-padding method is discussed for normalizing the features. Based on the experimental data, Random Forests and Least Squares Support Vector Machine are compared in the performance of computing time, recognition accuracy and adaptability. It is proved that Random Forests is more suitable for big data analysis.

  18. Discharge competence and pattern formation in peatlands: a meta-ecosystem model of the Everglades ridge-slough landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Heffernan

    Full Text Available Regular landscape patterning arises from spatially-dependent feedbacks, and can undergo catastrophic loss in response to changing landscape drivers. The central Everglades (Florida, USA historically exhibited regular, linear, flow-parallel orientation of high-elevation sawgrass ridges and low-elevation sloughs that has degraded due to hydrologic modification. In this study, we use a meta-ecosystem approach to model a mechanism for the establishment, persistence, and loss of this landscape. The discharge competence (or self-organizing canal hypothesis assumes non-linear relationships between peat accretion and water depth, and describes flow-dependent feedbacks of microtopography on water depth. Closed-form model solutions demonstrate that 1 this mechanism can produce spontaneous divergence of local elevation; 2 divergent and homogenous states can exhibit global bi-stability; and 3 feedbacks that produce divergence act anisotropically. Thus, discharge competence and non-linear peat accretion dynamics may explain the establishment, persistence, and loss of landscape pattern, even in the absence of other spatial feedbacks. Our model provides specific, testable predictions that may allow discrimination between the self-organizing canal hypotheses and competing explanations. The potential for global bi-stability suggested by our model suggests that hydrologic restoration may not re-initiate spontaneous pattern establishment, particularly where distinct soil elevation modes have been lost. As a result, we recommend that management efforts should prioritize maintenance of historic hydroperiods in areas of conserved pattern over restoration of hydrologic regimes in degraded regions. This study illustrates the value of simple meta-ecosystem models for investigation of spatial processes.

  19. Effects of Neuroactive Drugs in the Discharge Patterns of Microsternarchus (Hypopomidae: Gymnotiformes) Electric Organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Isac Silva; Ferreira, Milena; Silva-Júnior, Urbano Lopes; Alves-Gomes, José Antônio

    2017-12-01

    Considering the conserved nature of synaptic physiology among vertebrates, we tested the effects of three psychotropics (diazepam, doxapram, and nicotine) on Microsternarchus cf. bilineatus, measuring 10 parameters associated to the electric organ discharges rhythm and waveform before and after the administration of each drug and a control group. There were statistically significant differences (p electric organ's (EO) firing rate, regardless of the expected stimulant or depressor effect of the drugs on the central nervous system (CNS). The intensity of the response changed with the treatment. The observed changes in the fishes' behavior may be a result of the drugs' direct action on the CNS or a combination of this with systemic effects of each substance tested, also in the EO.

  20. The Relationship between Respiration-Related Membrane Potential Slow Oscillations and Discharge Patterns in Mitral/Tufted Cells: What Are the Rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briffaud, Virginie; Fourcaud-Trocmé, Nicolas; Messaoudi, Belkacem; Buonviso, Nathalie; Amat, Corine

    2012-01-01

    Background A slow respiration-related rhythm strongly shapes the activity of the olfactory bulb. This rhythm appears as a slow oscillation that is detectable in the membrane potential, the respiration-related spike discharge of the mitral/tufted cells and the bulbar local field potential. Here, we investigated the rules that govern the manifestation of membrane potential slow oscillations (MPSOs) and respiration-related discharge activities under various afferent input conditions and cellular excitability states. Methodology and Principal Findings We recorded the intracellular membrane potential signals in the mitral/tufted cells of freely breathing anesthetized rats. We first demonstrated the existence of multiple types of MPSOs, which were influenced by odor stimulation and discharge activity patterns. Complementary studies using changes in the intracellular excitability state and a computational model of the mitral cell demonstrated that slow oscillations in the mitral/tufted cell membrane potential were also modulated by the intracellular excitability state, whereas the respiration-related spike activity primarily reflected the afferent input. Based on our data regarding MPSOs and spike patterns, we found that cells exhibiting an unsynchronized discharge pattern never exhibited an MPSO. In contrast, cells with a respiration-synchronized discharge pattern always exhibited an MPSO. In addition, we demonstrated that the association between spike patterns and MPSO types appeared complex. Conclusion We propose that both the intracellular excitability state and input strength underlie specific MPSOs, which, in turn, constrain the types of spike patterns exhibited. PMID:22952828

  1. The characteristic patterns of neuronal avalanches in mice under anesthesia and at rest: An investigation using constrained artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöpfel, Thomas; Leech, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Local perturbations within complex dynamical systems can trigger cascade-like events that spread across significant portions of the system. Cascades of this type have been observed across a broad range of scales in the brain. Studies of these cascades, known as neuronal avalanches, usually report the statistics of large numbers of avalanches, without probing the characteristic patterns produced by the avalanches themselves. This is partly due to limitations in the extent or spatiotemporal resolution of commonly used neuroimaging techniques. In this study, we overcome these limitations by using optical voltage (genetically encoded voltage indicators) imaging. This allows us to record cortical activity in vivo across an entire cortical hemisphere, at both high spatial (~30um) and temporal (~20ms) resolution in mice that are either in an anesthetized or awake state. We then use artificial neural networks to identify the characteristic patterns created by neuronal avalanches in our data. The avalanches in the anesthetized cortex are most accurately classified by an artificial neural network architecture that simultaneously connects spatial and temporal information. This is in contrast with the awake cortex, in which avalanches are most accurately classified by an architecture that treats spatial and temporal information separately, due to the increased levels of spatiotemporal complexity. This is in keeping with reports of higher levels of spatiotemporal complexity in the awake brain coinciding with features of a dynamical system operating close to criticality. PMID:29795654

  2. Electric organ discharge patterns during group hunting by a mormyrid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnegard, Matthew E; Carlson, Bruce A

    2005-07-07

    Weakly electric fish emit and receive low-voltage electric organ discharges (EODs) for electrolocation and communication. Since the discovery of the electric sense, their behaviours in the wild have remained elusive owing to their nocturnal habits and the inaccessible environments in which they live. The transparency of Lake Malawi provided the first opportunity to simultaneously observe freely behaving mormyrid fish and record their EODs. We observed a piscivorous mormyrid, Mormyrops anguilloides, hunting in small groups in Lake Malawi while feeding on rock-frequenting cichlids of the largest known vertebrate species flock. Video recordings yielded the novel and unexpected finding that these groups resembled hunting packs by being largely composed of the same individuals across days. We show that EOD accelerations accompany prey probing and size estimation by M. anguilloides. In addition, group members occasionally synchronize bursts of EODs with an extraordinary degree of precision afforded by the mormyrid echo response. The characteristics and context of burst synchronization suggest that it may function as a pack cohesion signal. Our observations highlight the potential richness of social behaviours in a basal vertebrate lineage, and provide a framework for future investigations of the neural mechanisms, behavioural rules and ecological significance of social predation in M. anguilloides.

  3. Prognostic EEG patterns in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest with particular focus on Generalized Periodic Epileptiform Discharges (GPEDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, P; Malissin, I; Tran-Dinh, Y R; Deye, N; Baud, F; Lévy, B I; Kubis, N

    2014-04-01

    We assessed clinical and early electrophysiological characteristics, in particular Generalized Periodic Epileptiform Discharges (GPEDs) patterns, of consecutive patients during a 1-year period, hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) after resuscitation following cardiac arrest (CA). Consecutive patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest (CA) with first EEG recordings within 48hours were included. Clinical data were collected from hospital records, in particular therapeutic hypothermia. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were re-analyzed retrospectively. Sixty-two patients were included. Forty-two patients (68%) were treated with therapeutic hypothermia according to international guidelines. Global mortality was 74% but not significantly different between patients who benefited from therapeutic hypothermia compared to those who did not. All the patients who did not have an initial background activity (36/62; 58%) died. By contrast, initial background activity was present in 26/62 (42%) and among these patients, 16/26 (61%) survived. Electroencephalography demonstrated GPEDs patterns in 5 patients, all treated by therapeutic hypothermia and antiepileptic drugs. One of these survived and showed persistent background activity with responsiveness to benzodiazepine intravenous injection. Patients presenting suppressed background activity, even when treated by hypothermia, have a high probability of poor outcome. Thorough analysis of EEG patterns might help to identify patients with a better chance of survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Influences of Traction Load Shock on Artificial Partial Discharge Faults within Traction Transformer—Experimental Test for Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibing Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD measurement and its pattern recognition are vital to fault diagnosis of transformers, especially to those traction substation transformers undergoing repetitive traction load shocks. This paper presents the primary factors induced by traction load shocks including high total harmonics distortion (THD, transient voltage impulse and high-temperature rise, and their effects on the feature parameters of PD. Experimental tests are conducted on six artificial PD models with these factors introduced one by one. Results reveal that the maximum PD quantity and the PD repetitive rate are favorable to be enlarged when the oil temperature exceeds 80 °C or the THD is higher than 16% with certain orders of harmonic. The decline in PD inception voltage can mainly be attributed to the transient voltage impulse. The variation in central frequency of the fast Fourier transformation (FFT spectra transformed from ultra-high frequency signals can mainly be attributed to high THD, especially when it exceeds 20%. The temperature rise has no significant influence on the FFT spectra; the transient voltage impulse, however, can result in a central frequency shift of the floating particle discharge. With the rapid development of high-speed railways, the study presented in this paper will be helpful for field PD detection and recognition of traction substation transformers in the future.

  5. Inpatient migration patterns in persons with spinal cord injury: A registry study with hospital discharge data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Ronca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated and compared patient migration patterns of persons with spinal cord injury, the general population and persons with morbid obesity, rheumatic conditions and bowel disease, for secondary health conditions, across administrative boundaries in Switzerland. The effects of patient characteristics and health conditions on visiting hospitals outside the residential canton were examined using complete, nationwide, inpatient health records for the years 2010 and 2011. Patients with spinal cord injury were more likely to obtain treatment outside their residential canton as compared to all other conditions. Facilitators of patient migration in persons with spinal cord injury and the general hospital population were private or accidental health insurances covering costs. Barriers of patient migration in persons with spinal cord injury were old age, severe multimorbidity, financial coverage by basic health insurance, and minority language region. Keywords: Spinal cord injury, Patient migration, Health services accessibility, Health care utilization, Inpatient hospital care

  6. Non-stationary discharge patterns in motor cortex under subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Sabato; Montgomery, Erwin B; Gale, John T; Sarma, Sridevi V

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) directly modulates the basal ganglia (BG), but how such stimulation impacts the cortex upstream is largely unknown. There is evidence of cortical activation in 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-lesioned rodents and facilitation of motor evoked potentials in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, but the impact of the DBS settings on the cortical activity in normal vs. Parkinsonian conditions is still debated. We use point process models to analyze non-stationary activation patterns and inter-neuronal dependencies in the motor and sensory cortices of two non-human primates during STN DBS. These features are enhanced after treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which causes a consistent PD-like motor impairment, while high-frequency (HF) DBS (i.e., ≥100 Hz) strongly reduces the short-term patterns (period: 3-7 ms) both before and after MPTP treatment, and elicits a short-latency post-stimulus activation. Low-frequency DBS (i.e., ≤50 Hz), instead, has negligible effects on the non-stationary features. Finally, by using tools from the information theory [i.e., receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and information rate (IR)], we show that the predictive power of these models is dependent on the DBS settings, i.e., the probability of spiking of the cortical neurons (which is captured by the point process models) is significantly conditioned on the timely delivery of the DBS input. This dependency increases with the DBS frequency and is significantly larger for high- vs. low-frequency DBS. Overall, the selective suppression of non-stationary features and the increased modulation of the spike probability suggest that HF STN DBS enhances the neuronal activation in motor and sensory cortices, presumably because of reinforcement mechanisms, which perhaps involve the overlap between feedback antidromic and feed-forward orthodromic responses along the BG-thalamo-cortical loop.

  7. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder from Brain Resting-State Functional Connectivity Patterns Using a Deep Neural Network with a Novel Feature Selection Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyu; Dominick, Kelli C; Minai, Ali A; Li, Hailong; Erickson, Craig A; Lu, Long J

    2017-01-01

    The whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) pattern obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly applied to study neuropsychiatric conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by using different machine learning models. Recent studies indicate that both hyper- and hypo- aberrant ASD-associated FCs were widely distributed throughout the entire brain rather than only in some specific brain regions. Deep neural networks (DNN) with multiple hidden layers have shown the ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information from high dimensional data across a series of neural hidden layers, significantly improving classification accuracy for such data. In this study, a DNN with a novel feature selection method (DNN-FS) is developed for the high dimensional whole-brain resting-state FC pattern classification of ASD patients vs. typical development (TD) controls. The feature selection method is able to help the DNN generate low dimensional high-quality representations of the whole-brain FC patterns by selecting features with high discriminating power from multiple trained sparse auto-encoders. For the comparison, a DNN without the feature selection method (DNN-woFS) is developed, and both of them are tested with different architectures (i.e., with different numbers of hidden layers/nodes). Results show that the best classification accuracy of 86.36% is generated by the DNN-FS approach with 3 hidden layers and 150 hidden nodes (3/150). Remarkably, DNN-FS outperforms DNN-woFS for all architectures studied. The most significant accuracy improvement was 9.09% with the 3/150 architecture. The method also outperforms other feature selection methods, e.g., two sample t -test and elastic net. In addition to improving the classification accuracy, a Fisher's score-based biomarker identification method based on the DNN is also developed, and used to identify 32 FCs related to ASD. These FCs come from or cross different pre

  8. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder from Brain Resting-State Functional Connectivity Patterns Using a Deep Neural Network with a Novel Feature Selection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The whole-brain functional connectivity (FC pattern obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly applied to study neuropsychiatric conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD by using different machine learning models. Recent studies indicate that both hyper- and hypo- aberrant ASD-associated FCs were widely distributed throughout the entire brain rather than only in some specific brain regions. Deep neural networks (DNN with multiple hidden layers have shown the ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information from high dimensional data across a series of neural hidden layers, significantly improving classification accuracy for such data. In this study, a DNN with a novel feature selection method (DNN-FS is developed for the high dimensional whole-brain resting-state FC pattern classification of ASD patients vs. typical development (TD controls. The feature selection method is able to help the DNN generate low dimensional high-quality representations of the whole-brain FC patterns by selecting features with high discriminating power from multiple trained sparse auto-encoders. For the comparison, a DNN without the feature selection method (DNN-woFS is developed, and both of them are tested with different architectures (i.e., with different numbers of hidden layers/nodes. Results show that the best classification accuracy of 86.36% is generated by the DNN-FS approach with 3 hidden layers and 150 hidden nodes (3/150. Remarkably, DNN-FS outperforms DNN-woFS for all architectures studied. The most significant accuracy improvement was 9.09% with the 3/150 architecture. The method also outperforms other feature selection methods, e.g., two sample t-test and elastic net. In addition to improving the classification accuracy, a Fisher's score-based biomarker identification method based on the DNN is also developed, and used to identify 32 FCs related to ASD. These FCs come from or cross

  9. Influence of oxygen gas on characteristics of self-organized luminous pattern formation observed in an atmospheric dc glow discharge using a liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Naoki; Uchida, Satoshi; Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Self-organized luminous pattern formation is observed in the liquid surface of an atmospheric dc glow discharge using a liquid electrode with a miniature helium flow. The factors affecting pattern formation are the gap length, discharge current, helium mass flow rate and polarity. The pattern shape depends on the conductivity and temperature of the liquid electrode. A variety of patterns were observed by changing the conductivity and temperature of the liquid. We clarified that the self-organized pattern formation depends on the amount of electronegative gas, such as oxygen, in the gas in the electrode gap. When an oxygen gas flow was fed to the liquid surface from the outside in an obliquely downward direction, namely, the amount of oxygen gas on the liquid surface was increased locally, self-organized pattern formation was observed in the region with the increased amount of oxygen gas. When the amount of oxygen in the gas in the gap was changed by using a sheath flow system, the appearance of the pattern changed. The presence of oxygen gas strongly affected the self-organized pattern formation of the atmospheric dc discharge using a liquid anode. (paper)

  10. UHF Signal Processing and Pattern Recognition of Partial Discharge in Gas-Insulated Switchgear Using Chromatic Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Li, Xi; Rong, Mingzhe; Xie, Dingli; Ding, Dan; Wang, Zhixiang

    2017-01-18

    The ultra-high frequency (UHF) method is widely used in insulation condition assessment. However, UHF signal processing algorithms are complicated and the size of the result is large, which hinders extracting features and recognizing partial discharge (PD) patterns. This article investigated the chromatic methodology that is novel in PD detection. The principle of chromatic methodologies in color science are introduced. The chromatic processing represents UHF signals sparsely. The UHF signals obtained from PD experiments were processed using chromatic methodology and characterized by three parameters in chromatic space ( H , L , and S representing dominant wavelength, signal strength, and saturation, respectively). The features of the UHF signals were studied hierarchically. The results showed that the chromatic parameters were consistent with conventional frequency domain parameters. The global chromatic parameters can be used to distinguish UHF signals acquired by different sensors, and they reveal the propagation properties of the UHF signal in the L-shaped gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). Finally, typical PD defect patterns had been recognized by using novel chromatic parameters in an actual GIS tank and good performance of recognition was achieved.

  11. Discharge patterns of human tensor palatini motor units during sleep onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christian L; Jordan, Amy S; Heckel, Leila; Worsnop, Christopher; Bei, Bei; Saboisky, Julian P; Eckert, Danny J; White, David P; Malhotra, Atul; Trinder, John

    2012-05-01

    Upper airway muscles such as genioglossus (GG) and tensor palatini (TP) reduce activity at sleep onset. In GG reduced muscle activity is primarily due to inspiratory modulated motor units becoming silent, suggesting reduced respiratory pattern generator (RPG) output. However, unlike GG, TP shows minimal respiratory modulation and presumably has few inspiratory modulated motor units and minimal input from the RPG. Thus, we investigated the mechanism by which TP reduces activity at sleep onset. The activity of TP motor units were studied during relaxed wakefulness and over the transition from wakefulness to sleep. Sleep laboratory. Nine young (21.4 ± 3.4 years) males were studied on a total of 11 nights. Sleep onset. Two TP EMGs (thin, hooked wire electrodes), and sleep and respiratory measures were recorded. One hundred twenty-one sleep onsets were identified (13.4 ± 7.2/subject), resulting in 128 motor units (14.3 ± 13.0/subject); 29% of units were tonic, 43% inspiratory modulated (inspiratory phasic 18%, inspiratory tonic 25%), and 28% expiratory modulated (expiratory phasic 21%, expiratory tonic 7%). There was a reduction in both expiratory and inspiratory modulated units, but not tonic units, at sleep onset. Reduced TP activity was almost entirely due to de-recruitment. TP showed a similar distribution of motor units as other airway muscles. However, a greater proportion of expiratory modulated motor units were active in TP and these expiratory units, along with inspiratory units, tended to become silent over sleep onset. The data suggest that both expiratory and inspiratory drive components from the RPG are reduced at sleep onset in TP.

  12. Limpieza de patrones φ,q,n de descargas parciales; Denoising of partial discharge φ,q,n patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Alfredo Dorrbercker Drake

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La medición de descargas parciales (DP se sustenta en la detección y filtraje de pulsos de corriente que aparecen en una banda de frecuencia que abarca desde los kilohertzios hasta los gigahertzios, por tal motivo los detectores de descargas parciales (DDP poseen sistemas para desagregar dichos pulsos de corriente. Sin embargo, los DDP también permiten el paso de otras señales de alta frecuencia (ruidos que se mezclan con los pulsos de DP y afectan la medición, interpretación y caracterización de las DP. Para atenuar ese efecto, se han desarrollado distintas técnicas para separar los ruidos tanto asociados a las señales como los existentes en los patrones φ,q,n.  En este artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la reducción de los ruidos asociados a la conmutación de tiristores y los ruidos esporádicos, de los patrones φ,q,n mediante el empleo de técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes digitales. The measurement of partial (PD discharges is sustained in the detection and filtration of current pulses which appear in a band of frequency that include from the kilohertz until the gigahertzios, for such a reason the detectors of partial (PDD discharges they possess systems for the separation of this current pulses. However, PDD also allows the step of other signals of high frequency, denominated noises, that mix with the pulses of PD and they affect measurement, interpretation and characterization of PD. To attenuate that effect, different techniques have been developed to separate the noises so much associated to the signs like the existent ones in the φ,q,n patterns. In this paper are presented the results obtained in the noise reduction of the noises associated to the thyristor’s commutation and the sporadic noises, in the φ,q,n patterns by means of the technical of digital images processing

  13. Different patterns of spontaneous brain activity between tremor-dominant and postural instability/gait difficulty subtypes of Parkinson's disease: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Min; Wang, Zhi-Jiang; Fang, Jin-Ping; Gao, Li-Yan; Ma, Ling-Yan; Wu, Tao; Hou, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Jia-Rong; Feng, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD) and tremor-dominant (TD) subtypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) show different clinical manifestations; however, their underlying neural substrates remain incompletely understood. This study aimed at investigating the subtype-specific patterns of spontaneous brain activity in PD. Thirty-one patients with PD (12 TD/19 PIGD) and 22 healthy gender- and age-matched controls were recruited. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected, and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) was measured. Voxelwise one-way analysis of covariance and post hoc analyses of ALFF were performed among the three groups, with age and gender as covariates (levodopa daily dosage and gray matter volume as additional covariates for validation analysis). Correlations of clinical variables (e.g., disease duration and PIGD/tremor subscale score) with ALFF values were examined. Compared with controls, patients with TD exhibited higher ALFF in the right cerebellar posterior lobe and patients with PIGD exhibited lower ALFF in the bilateral putamen and cerebellar posterior lobe, and higher values primarily in several cortical areas including the inferior and superior temporal gyrus, superior frontal, and parietal gyrus. Compared with patients with PIGD, patients with TD had higher ALFF in the bilateral putamen and the cerebellar posterior lobe, as well as lower ALFF in the bilateral temporal gyrus and the left superior parietal lobule. In all patients, ALFF in the bilateral cerebellar posterior lobe positively correlated with tremor score and ALFF in the bilateral putamen negatively correlated with PIGD score. Different patterns of spontaneous neural activity in the cerebellum and putamen may underlie the neural substrate of PD motor subtypes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Elevated serum cytokines correlated with altered behavior, serum cortisol rhythm, and dampened 24-hour rest-activity patterns in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Tyvin; Innominato, Pasquale F; Boerner, Julie; Mormont, M Christine; Iacobelli, Stefano; Baron, Benoit; Jasmin, Claude; Lévi, Francis

    2005-03-01

    Incapacitating symptom burden in cancer patients contributes to poor quality of life (QOL) and can influence treatment outcomes because of poor tolerance to therapy. In this study, the role of circulating cytokines in the production symptoms in cancer patients is evaluated. Eighty patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with either normal (group I, n = 40) or dampened (group II, n = 40) 24-hour rest/activity patterns measured by actigraphy were identified. Actigraphy patterns were correlated with QOL indices, serum cortisol obtained at 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. and with serum levels of transforming growth factor-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) obtained at 8:00 a.m. and analyzed in duplicate by ELISA. Cytokine levels and survival were also correlated. Group II patients had significantly higher pre treatment levels of all three cytokines, displayed significantly poorer emotional and social functioning, had higher fatigue, more appetite loss, and poorer performance status compared with group I patients. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and IL-6 were significantly increased in the patients with WHO performance status >1 and in those with appetite loss. Fatigue was significantly associated with elevated TGF-alpha only. IL-6 was increased in those patients with extensive liver involvement and multiple organ replacement, and it was significantly correlated with dampened cortisol rhythm. In a multivariate analysis, IL-6 was correlated with poor treatment outcome. Significant correlations were found between serum levels of TGF-alpha and IL-6, circadian patterns in wrist activity and serum cortisol and tumor-related symptoms in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. These data support the hypothesis that some cancer patient's symptoms of fatigue, poor QOL, and treatment outcome are related to tumor or host generated cytokines and could reflect cytokine effects on the circadian timing system. This interplay between cytokine

  15. Long-term total sleep deprivation decreases the default spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern in healthy male subjects: a resting-state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai XJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Jian Dai,1,2* Chun-Lei Liu,3,4* Ren-Lai Zhou,3 Hong-Han Gong,1 Bin Wu,5 Lei Gao,1 Yi-Xiang J Wang2 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China; 3Beijing Key Lab of Applied Experimental Psychology, School of Psychology, and National Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4School of Education, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 5National Key Laboratory of Human Factors Engineering, China Astronaut Research and Training Center, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors have contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study is to use resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF methods to explore intrinsic default-mode network (DMN impairment after sleep deprivation (SD and its relationships with clinical features. Methods: Twelve healthy male subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging twice: once following rested wakefulness (RW and the other following 72 hours of total SD. Before the scans, all subjects underwent the attention network test (ANT. The independent component analysis (ICA, rsFC, and ALFF methods were used to examine intrinsic DMN impairment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to distinguish SD status from RW status. Results: Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed a lower accuracy rate (RW =96.83%, SD =77.67%; P<0.001, a slower reaction time (RW =695.92 ms; SD =799.18 ms; P=0.003, a higher lapse rate (RW =0.69%, SD =19.29%; P<0.001, and a higher intraindividual coefficient of variability in reaction time (RW =0.26, SD =0

  16. Cyclic alternating pattern and interictal epileptiform discharges during morning sleep after sleep deprivation in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Filippo Sean; Maestri, Michelangelo; Guida, Melania; Carnicelli, Luca; Caciagli, Lorenzo; Ferri, Raffaele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Bonanni, Enrica

    2017-08-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) increases the occurrence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) compared to basal EEG in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In adults, EEG after SD is usually performed in the morning after SD. We aimed to evaluate whether morning sleep after SD bears additional IED-inducing effects compared with nocturnal physiological sleep, and whether changes in sleep stability (described by the cyclic alternating pattern-CAP) play a significant role. Adult patients with TLE underwent in-lab night polysomnography (n-PSG) and, within 7days from n-PSG, they underwent also a morning EEG after night SD (SD-EEG). We included only TLE patients in which both recordings showed IED. SD-EEG consisted of waking up patients at 2:00 AM and performing video EEG at 8:00 AM. For both recordings, we obtained the following markers for the first sleep cycle: IED/h (Spike Index, SI), sleep macrostructure, microstructure (NREM CAP rate; A1, A2 and A3 Indices), and SI association with CAP variables. The macrostructure of the first sleep cycle was similar in n-PSG and morning SD-EEG, whereas CAP rate and SI were significantly higher in SD-EEG. SI increase was selectively associated with CAP phases. SD increases the instability of morning recovery sleep compared with n-PSG, and particularly enhances CAP A1 phases, which are associated with the majority of IED. Thus, higher instability of morning recovery sleep may account at least in part for the increased IED yield in SD-EEG in TLE patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Altered pattern of spontaneous brain activity in the patients with end-stage renal disease: a resting-state functional MRI study with regional homogeneity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Liang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the pattern of spontaneous neural activity in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD with and without neurocognitive dysfunction using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI with a regional homogeneity (ReHo algorithm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: rs-fMRI data were acquired in 36 ESRD patients (minimal nephro-encephalopathy [MNE], n = 19, 13 male, 37±12.07 years; non-nephro-encephalopathy [non-NE], n = 17, 11 male, 38±12.13 years and 20 healthy controls (13 male, 7 female, 36±10.27 years. Neuropsychological (number connection test type A [NCT-A], digit symbol test [DST] and laboratory tests were performed in all patients. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC was used to measure the regional homogeneity for each subject. The regional homogeneity maps were compared using ANOVA tests among MNE, non-NE, and healthy control groups and post hoc t -tests between each pair in a voxel-wise way. A multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between ReHo index and NCT-A, DST scores, serum creatinine and urea levels, disease and dialysis duration. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, both MNE and non-NE patients showed decreased ReHo in the multiple areas of bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. Compared with the non-NE, MNE patients showed decreased ReHo in the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL, medial frontal cortex (MFC and left precuneus (PCu. The NCT-A scores and serum urea levels of ESRD patients negatively correlated with ReHo values in the frontal and parietal lobes, while DST scores positively correlated with ReHo values in the bilateral PCC/precuneus, MFC and inferior parietal lobe (IPL (all P0.05, AlphaSim corrected. CONCLUSION: Diffused decreased ReHo values were found in both MNE and non-NE patients. The progressively decreased ReHo in the default mode network (DMN, frontal and parietal lobes might be trait-related in MNE. The Re

  18. [Study on Hexagonal Super-Lattice Pattern with Light Spot and Dim Spot in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Dong, Li-fang; Niu, Xue-jiao; Zhang, Chao

    2016-02-01

    The hexagonal super-lattice pattern composed of the light spot and the dim spot is firstly observed and investigated in the discharge of gas mixture of air and argon by using the dielectric barrier discharge device with double water electrodes. It is found that the dim spot is located at the center of its surrounding three light spots by observing the discharge image. Obviously, the brightness of the light spot and the dim spot are different, which indicates that the plasma states of the light spot and the dim spot may be different. The optical emission spectrum method is used to further study the several plasma parameters of the light spot and the dim spot in different argon content. The emission spectra of the N₂ second positive band (C³IIu --> B³IIg) are measured, from which the molecule vibration temperatures of the light spot and the dim spot are calculated. Based on the relative intensity ratio of the line at 391.4 nm and the N₂ line at 394.1 nm, the average electron energies of the light spot and the dim spot are investigated. The broadening of spectral line 696.57 nm (2P₂-1S₅) is used to study the electron densities of the light spot and the dim spot. The experiment shows that the molecule vibration temperature, average electron energy and the electron density of the dim spot are higher than those of the light spot in the same argon content. The molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the light spot and dim spot increase with the argon content increasing from 70% to 95%, while average electron energies of the light spot and dim spot decrease gradually. The short-exposure image recorded by a high speed video camera shows that the dim spot results from the surface discharges (SDs). The surface discharge induced by the volume discharge (VD) has the decisive effect on the formation of the dim spot. The experiment above plays an important role in studying the formation mechanism of the hexagonal super-lattice pattern with light spot and

  19. Pathological Vaginal Discharge among Pregnant Women: Pattern of Occurrence and Association in a Population-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria M. V. da Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of pathological vaginal discharge and to describe risk factors associated with pregnant women. All women living in the city of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil, who gave birth in 2010 were included in the study. A standardized questionnaire was administered to collect information on demographic, reproductive, and health-related factors and morbidity during pregnancy. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions, and multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance was performed. Of the 2,395 women studied, 43% had pathological vaginal discharge during pregnancy. The adjusted analysis showed that younger women of lower socioeconomic condition, those with a past history of abortion, vaginal discharge in a previous pregnancy, and treated for depression, anemia, and urinary tract infection during their current pregnancy, were more likely to have pathological vaginal discharge. Vaginal discharge during pregnancy was highly prevalent in the sample studied calling for proper risk factor management at the primary care level.

  20. Eccentric muscle damage has variable effects on motor unit recruitment thresholds and discharge patterns in elbow flexor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnall, Tamara J; Rogasch, Nigel C; Nordstrom, Michael A; Semmler, John G

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eccentric muscle damage on recruitment threshold force and repetitive discharge properties of low-threshold motor units. Ten subjects performed four tasks involving isometric contraction of elbow flexors while electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded from human biceps brachii and brachialis muscles. Tasks were 1) maximum voluntary contraction (MVC); 2) constant-force contraction at various submaximal targets; 3) motor unit recruitment threshold task; and 4) minimum motor unit discharge rate task. These tasks were performed on three separate days before, immediately after, and 24 h after eccentric exercise of elbow flexor muscles. MVC force declined (42%) immediately after exercise and remained depressed (29%) 24 h later, indicative of muscle damage. Mean motor unit recruitment threshold for biceps brachii was 8.4+/-4.2% MVC, (n=34) before eccentric exercise, and was reduced by 41% (5.0+/-3.0% MVC, n=34) immediately after and by 39% (5.2+/-2.5% MVC, n=34) 24 h after exercise. No significant changes in motor unit recruitment threshold were observed in the brachialis muscle. However, for the minimum tonic discharge rate task, motor units in both muscles discharged 11% faster (10.8+/-2.0 vs. 9.7+/-1.7 Hz) immediately after (n=29) exercise compared with that before (n=32). The minimum discharge rate variability was greater in brachialis muscle immediately after exercise (13.8+/-3.1%) compared with that before (11.9+/-3.1%) and 24 h after exercise (11.7+/-2.4%). No significant changes in minimum discharge rate variability were observed in the biceps brachii motor units after exercise. These results indicate that muscle damage from eccentric exercise alters motor unit recruitment thresholds for >or=24 h, but the effect is not the same in the different elbow flexor muscles.

  1. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  2. Sensitivity analysis of discharge patterns of subthalamic nucleus in the model of basal ganglia in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jyotsna; Singh, Phool; Malik, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson disease alters the information patterns in movement related pathways in brain. Experimental results performed on rats show that the activity patterns changes from single spike activity to mixed burst mode in Parkinson disease. However the cause of this change in activity pattern is not yet completely understood. Subthalamic nucleus is one of the main nuclei involved in the origin of motor dysfunction in Parkinson disease. In this paper, a single compartment conductance based model is considered which focuses on subthalamic nucleus and synaptic input from globus pallidus (external). This model shows highly nonlinear behavior with respect to various intrinsic parameters. Behavior of model has been presented with the help of activity patterns generated in healthy and Parkinson condition. These patterns have been compared by calculating their correlation coefficient for different values of intrinsic parameters. Results display that the activity patterns are very sensitive to various intrinsic parameters and calcium shows some promising results which provide insights into the motor dysfunction.

  3. Effect of Integrated Cognitive Therapy on Hippocampal Functional Connectivity Patterns in Stroke Patients with Cognitive Dysfunction: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanli Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to identify abnormal hippocampal functional connectivity (FC following ischemic stroke using resting-state fMRI. We also explored whether abnormal hippocampal FC could be modulated by integrated cognitive therapy and tested whether these alterations were associated with cognitive performance. Methods. 18 right-handed cognitively impaired ischemic stroke patients and 18 healty control (HC subjects were included in this study. Stroke subjects were scanned at baseline and after integrated cognitive therapy, while HCs were only scanned at baseline, to identify regions that show significant correlations with the seed region. Behavioral and cognitive assessments were obtained before each scan. Results. During the resting state, we found abnormal hippocampal FC associated with temporal regions, insular cortex, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortex in stroke patients compared to HCs. After integrated cognitive therapy, however, the stroke group showed increased hippocampal FC mainly located in the prefrontal gyrus and the default mode network (DMN. Altered hippocampal FC was associated with cognitive improvement. Conclusion. Resting-state fMRI may provide novel insight into the study of functional networks in the brain after stroke. Furthermore, altered hippocampal FC may be a compensatory mechanism for cognitive recovery after ischemic stroke.

  4. Heart pacemaker - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation - discharge; Artificial pacemaker - discharge; Permanent pacemaker - discharge; Internal pacemaker - discharge; Cardiac resynchronization therapy - discharge; CRT - discharge; ...

  5. REST based mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambow, Mark; Preuss, Thomas; Berdux, Jörg; Conrad, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example for REST based mobile applications and emphasize on pros and cons for the use of REST in mobile application scenarios.

  6. Deep neural network with weight sparsity control and pre-training extracts hierarchical features and enhances classification performance: Evidence from whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity patterns of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghoe; Calhoun, Vince D; Shim, Eunsoo; Lee, Jong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) patterns obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly employed to study neuropsychiatric conditions by using pattern classifiers such as the support vector machine (SVM). Meanwhile, a deep neural network (DNN) with multiple hidden layers has shown its ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information of image and speech data from lower-to-higher hidden layers, markedly enhancing classification accuracy. The objective of this study was to adopt the DNN for whole-brain resting-state FC pattern classification of schizophrenia (SZ) patients vs. healthy controls (HCs) and identification of aberrant FC patterns associated with SZ. We hypothesized that the lower-to-higher level features learned via the DNN would significantly enhance the classification accuracy, and proposed an adaptive learning algorithm to explicitly control the weight sparsity in each hidden layer via L1-norm regularization. Furthermore, the weights were initialized via stacked autoencoder based pre-training to further improve the classification performance. Classification accuracy was systematically evaluated as a function of (1) the number of hidden layers/nodes, (2) the use of L1-norm regularization, (3) the use of the pre-training, (4) the use of framewise displacement (FD) removal, and (5) the use of anatomical/functional parcellation. Using FC patterns from anatomically parcellated regions without FD removal, an error rate of 14.2% was achieved by employing three hidden layers and 50 hidden nodes with both L1-norm regularization and pre-training, which was substantially lower than the error rate from the SVM (22.3%). Moreover, the trained DNN weights (i.e., the learned features) were found to represent the hierarchical organization of aberrant FC patterns in SZ compared with HC. Specifically, pairs of nodes extracted from the lower hidden layer represented sparse FC patterns implicated in SZ, which was

  7. Altered spontaneous brain activity pattern in patients with high myopia using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation: a resting-state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang X

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Xin Huang,1,2,* Fu-Qing Zhou,3,* Yu-Xiang Hu,1 Xiao-Xuan Xu,1 Xiong Zhou,4 Yu-Lin Zhong,1 Jun Wang,4 Xiao-Rong Wu1 1Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 2Department of Ophthalmology, The First People’s Hospital of Jiujiang City, Jiujiang, 3Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi Province Medical Imaging Research Institute, 4Second Department of Respiratory Disease, Jiangxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Many previous reports have demonstrated significant neural anatomy changes in the brain of high myopic (HM patients, whereas the spontaneous brain activity changes in the HM patients at rest are not well studied. Our objective was to use amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF method to investigate the changes in spontaneous brain activity in HM patients and their relationships with clinical features. Methods: A total of 38 patients with HM (17 males and 21 females and 38 healthy controls (HCs (17 males and 21 females closely matched in age, sex, and education underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The ALFF method was used to assess local features of spontaneous brain activity. The relationship between the mean ALFF signal values in many brain regions and the clinical features in HM patients was calculated by correlation analysis. Results: Compared with HCs, the HM patients had significantly lower ALFF in the right inferior and middle temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus/putamen, right inferior frontal gyrus/putamen/insula, right middle frontal gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule and higher ALFF values in the bilateral midcingulate cortex, left postcentral gyrus, and left precuneus/inferior parietal lobule. However, no relationship was found between the mean ALFF

  8. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xuming Liu,1 Zhihan Yan,2 Tingyu Wang,1 Xiaokai Yang,1 Feng Feng,3 Luping Fan,1 Jian Jiang4 1Department of Radiology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Department of Radiology, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 3Peking Union Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 4Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL after normal sleep (NS and after sleep deprivation (SD. Methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results: Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL, left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the

  9. Discrimination of Li-ion batteries based on Hamming network using discharging-charging voltage pattern recognition for improved state-of-charge estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongjun; Cho, B.H. [Power Electronics System Laboratory, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Differences in electrochemical characteristics among Li-ion batteries and factors such as temperature and ageing result in erroneous state-of-charge (SoC) estimation when using the existing extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm. This study presents an application of the Hamming neural network to the identification of suitable battery model parameters for improved SoC estimation. The discharging-charging voltage (DCV) patterns of ten fresh Li-ion batteries are measured, together with the battery parameters, as representative patterns. Through statistical analysis, the Hamming network is applied for identification of the representative DCV pattern that matches most closely of the pattern of the arbitrary battery to be measured. Model parameters of the representative battery are then applied to estimate the SoC of the arbitrary battery using the EKF. This avoids the need for repeated parameter measurement. Using model parameters selected by the proposed method, all SoC estimates (off-line and on-line) based on the EKF are within {+-}5% of the values estimated by ampere-hour counting. (author)

  10. Nipple Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any unexpected nipple discharge evaluated by a doctor. Nipple discharge in men under any circumstances could be a problem and needs further evaluation. One or both breasts may produce a nipple discharge, either spontaneously or when you squeeze your ...

  11. Alternative REST Splicing Underappreciated

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guo-Lin; Miller, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    As a major orchestrator of the cellular epigenome, the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) can either repress or activate thousands of genes depending on cellular context, suggesting a highly context-dependent REST function tuned by environmental cues. While REST shows cell-type non-selective active transcription, an N-terminal REST4 isoform caused by alternative splicing - inclusion of an extra exon (N3c) which introduces a pre-mature stop codon - has been implicated in...

  12. The influence of large-scale climatic patterns on precipitation, temperature, and discharge in Czech river basins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípek, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2013), s. 278-285 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300600901 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : macro-scale climatic patterns * cidlina river * Blanice river * hydrometeorology Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.231, year: 2013 http://147.213.145.2/vc/vc1.asp

  13. Deviant dynamics of EEG resting state pattern in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome adolescents: A vulnerability marker of schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomescu, Miralena I; Rihs, Tonia A; Becker, Robert; Britz, Juliane; Custo, Anna; Grouiller, Frédéric; Schneider, Maude; Debbané, Martin; Eliez, Stephan; Michel, Christoph M

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly found altered temporal characteristics of EEG microstates in schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adolescents affected by the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), known to have a 30 fold increased risk to develop schizophrenia, already show deviant EEG microstates. If this is the case, temporal alterations of EEG microstates in 22q11DS individuals could be considered as potential biomarkers for schizophrenia. We used high-density (204 channel) EEG to explore between-group microstate differences in 30 adolescents with 22q11DS and 28 age-matched controls. We found an increased presence of one microstate class (class C) in the 22q11DS adolescents with respect to controls that was associated with positive prodromal symptoms (hallucinations). A previous across-age study showed that the class C microstate was more present during adolescence and a combined EEG-fMRI study associated the class C microstate with the salience resting state network, a network known to be dysfunctional in schizophrenia. Therefore, the increased class C microstates could be indexing the increased risk of 22q11DS individuals to develop schizophrenia if confirmed by our ongoing longitudinal study comparing both the adult 22q11DS individuals with and without schizophrenia, as well as schizophrenic individuals with and without 22q11DS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating the Impact of Drought Stresses on Groundwater System in Bagh- Malek Plain by Discharge Pattern Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lalehzari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Groundwater is the largest resource of water supplement and shortages of surface water supplies in drought conditions that requires an increase in groundwater discharge. Groundwater flow dependson the subsurface properties such as hydraulic gradient (water table gradient or head loss in artesian condition and hydrodynamic coefficients. The flow treatment is analyzed with an accurate estimation of effective parameters in groundwater equation. This function is obtained using the continuous equation. Inlet and outlet flows of a cell are equal to storage amounts in the continuous equation. Analytical solution of this equation is complex, so numerical methods are developed including finite element and finite difference methods. For example, Feflow is a groundwater modeling tool that makesuse of finite element method (Reynolds and Marimuthu, 2007. Modflow as a finite difference three-dimensional model simulated underground flow under steady and unsteady conditions in anisotropic and non-homogeneous porous media. Modflow is designed to simulate aquifer systems in which saturated-flow conditions exist, Darcy’s Law applies, the density of groundwater is constant, and the principal directions of horizontal hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity do not vary within the system. In Modflow, an aquifer system is replaced by a discretized domain consisting of an array of nodes and the associated finite difference blocks. Groundwater modeling and water table prediction by this model have the acceptable results, because many different informations of water resource system are applied. Many people and organizations have contributed to the development of an effective groundwater monitoring system, as well as experimental and modeling studies (Lalehzari et al., 2013. The objective of this paper is investigation of hydraulic and physical conditions. So, a numerical model has to be developed by PMWIN software for Bagh-i Malek aquifer to calculate

  15. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  16. Patterns and correlates of adherence to self-monitoring in lung transplant recipients during the first 12 months after discharge from transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lu; DeVito Dabbs, Annette; Dew, Mary Amanda; Sereika, Susan M; Lingler, Jennifer H

    2017-08-01

    Self-monitoring of lung function, vital signs, and symptoms is crucial for lung transplant recipients (LTRs) to ensure early detection of complications and prompt intervention. This study sought to identify patterns and correlates of adherence to self-monitoring among LTRs over the first 12 months post-discharge from transplant. This study analyzed existing data from the usual care arm participants of a randomized clinical trial who tracked self-monitoring activities using paper-and-pencil logs. Adherence was calculated as the percent of days LTRs recorded any self-monitoring data per interval: hospital discharge-2 months, 3-6 months, and 7-12 months. The sample (N=91) was mostly white (87.9%), male (61.5%), with a mean age of 57.2±13.8 years. Group-based trajectory analyses revealed two groups: (i) moderately adherent with slow decline (n=29, 31.9%) and (ii) persistently nonadherent (n=62, 68.1%). Multivariate binary logistic regression revealed the following baseline factors increased the risk in the persistently nonadherent group: female (P=.035), higher anxiety (P=.008), and weaker sense of personal control over health (P=.005). Poorer physical health over 12 months were associated with increased risk in the persistently nonadherent group (P=.004). This study highlighted several modifiable factors for future interventions to target, including reducing post-transplant anxiety, and strengthening sense of personal control over health in LTRs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Clinical applications of resting state functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Fox

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal of fMRI. The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care. In this article we review the advantages of the resting state signal for clinical applications including detailed discussion of signal to noise considerations. We include guidelines for performing resting state research on clinical populations, outline the different areas for clinical application, and identify important barriers to be addressed to facilitate the translation of resting state fcMRI into the clinical realm.

  18. Time-Varying Networks of Inter-Ictal Discharging Reveal Epileptogenic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Liang, Yi; Li, Fali; Sun, Hongbin; Peng, Wenjing; Du, Peishan; Si, Yajing; Song, Limeng; Yu, Liang; Xu, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The neuronal synchronous discharging may cause an epileptic seizure. Currently, most of the studies conducted to investigate the mechanism of epilepsy are based on EEGs or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recorded during the ictal discharging or the resting-state, and few studies have probed into the dynamic patterns during the inter-ictal discharging that are much easier to record in clinical applications. Here, we propose a time-varying network analysis based on adaptive directed transfer function to uncover the dynamic brain network patterns during the inter-ictal discharging. In addition, an algorithm based on the time-varying outflow of information derived from the network analysis is developed to detect the epileptogenic zone. The analysis performed revealed the time-varying network patterns during different stages of inter-ictal discharging; the epileptogenic zone was activated prior to the discharge onset then worked as the source to propagate the activity to other brain regions. Consistence between the epileptogenic zones detected by our proposed approach and the actual epileptogenic zones proved that time-varying network analysis could not only reveal the underlying neural mechanism of epilepsy, but also function as a useful tool in detecting the epileptogenic zone based on the EEGs in the inter-ictal discharging.

  19. Interpretation of concentration‐discharge patterns in acid‐neutralizing capacity during storm flow in three small, forested catchments in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Chanat, Jeffrey G.; Hornberger, George M.; Webb, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Episodic concentration‐discharge (c‐Q) plots are a popular tool for interpreting the hydrochemical response of small, forested catchments. Application of the method involves assuming an underlying conceptual model of runoff processes and comparing observed c‐Q looping patterns with those predicted by the model. We analyzed and interpreted c‐Q plots of acid‐neutralizing capacity (ANC) for 133 storms collected over a 7‐year period from three catchments in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Because of their underlying lithologies the catchments represent a gradient in both hydrologic and geochemical behavior, ranging from a flashy, acidic, poorly buffered catchment to a moderate, neutral, well‐buffered catchment. The relative frequency of observed anticlockwise c‐Q loops in each catchment decreased along this gradient. Discriminant function analysis indicated that prestorm base flow ANC was an important predictor of loop rotation direction; however, the strength of the predictive relationship decreased along the same gradient. The trends were consistent with several equally plausible three‐component mixing models. Uncertainty regarding end‐member timing and relative volume and possible time variation in end‐member concentrations were key factors precluding identification of a unique model. The inconclusive results obtained on this large data set suggest that identification of underlying runoff mechanisms on the basis of a small number of c‐Q plots without additional supporting evidence is likely to be misleading.

  20. RESTful Web Services Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Allamaraju, Subbu

    2010-01-01

    While the REST design philosophy has captured the imagination of web and enterprise developers alike, using this approach to develop real web services is no picnic. This cookbook includes more than 100 recipes to help you take advantage of REST, HTTP, and the infrastructure of the Web. You'll learn ways to design RESTful web services for client and server applications that meet performance, scalability, reliability, and security goals, no matter what programming language and development framework you use. Each recipe includes one or two problem statements, with easy-to-follow, step-by-step i

  1. NIPPLE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  2. Ileostomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dried fruits (such as raisins), mushrooms, chunky relishes, coconut, and some Chinese vegetables. Tips for when no ... ask your doctor Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Small bowel resection - discharge Total colectomy or ...

  3. REST based service composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Ingstrup, Mads; Pløger, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing work developing and testing a Service Composition framework based upon the REST architecture named SECREST. A minimalistic approach have been favored instead of a creating a complete infrastructure. One focus has been on the system's interaction model. Indeed, an aim...

  4. REST in practice Hypermedia and systems architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Jim; Robinson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Why don't typical enterprise projects go as smoothly as projects you develop for the Web? Does the REST architectural style really present a viable alternative for building distributed systems and enterprise-class applications? In this insightful book, three SOA experts provide a down-to-earth explanation of REST and demonstrate how you can develop simple and elegant distributed hypermedia systems by applying the Web's guiding principles to common enterprise computing problems. You'll learn techniques for implementing specific Web technologies and patterns to solve the needs of a typical com

  5. Discharge Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2012-01-01

    For several years, efforts have been made to strengthen collaboration between health professionals with different specializations and to improve patient transition from hospital to home (care). In the Danish health care system, these efforts have concentrated on cancer and heart diseases, whereas...... coordinator, employed at the hospital, is supposed to anticipate discharge and serve as mediator between the hospital and the municipal home care system. Drawing on methods from discourse and interaction analysis, the paper studies the practice of the discharge coordinator in two encounters between patients...... how the home context provides different resources for identification of patient needs and mutual decision making....

  6. [A study of home care needs of patients at discharge and effects of home care--centered on patients discharged from a rural general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y S; Kim, D H; Storey, M; Kim, C J; Kang, K S

    1992-01-01

    The study was carried out at W. hospital, an affiliated hospital of Y university, involved a total of 163 patients who were discharged from the hospital between May 1990 and March 1991. Data collection was twice, just prior to discharge and a minimum of three months post discharge. Thirty patients who lived within a hour travel time of the hospital received home care during the three months post discharge. Nursing diagnoses and nursing interventions for these patients were analyzed in this study. The results of the study are summarized as follows: 1. Discharge needs for the subjects of the study were analyzed using Gordon's eleven functional categories and it was found that 48.3% of the total sample had identified nursing needs. Of these, the needs most frequently identified were in the categories of sexuality, 79.3%, health perception, 68.2% self concept, 62.5%, and sleep and rest 62.5%. Looking at the nursing diagnosis that were made for the 30 patients receiving home care, the following diagnoses were the most frequently given; alteration in sexual pattern 79.3%, alterations in health maintenance, 72.6%, alteration in comfort, 68.0%, depression, 64.0%, noncompliance with diet therapy, 63.7%, alteration in self concept, 55.6%, and alteration in sleep pattern, 53%. 2. In looking at the effects of home nursing care as demonstrated by changes in the functional categories over the three month period, it was found that of the 11 functional categories, the need level for health perception, nutrition, activity and self concept decreased slightly over the three month period. On the average sleep patterns improved, but restfulness was slightly less and bowel elimination patterns improved but satisfaction with urinary elimination was slightly less. On the other hand, role enactment, sexuality, stress management and spirituality decreased slightly. The only results that were statistically significant at the 0.05 level were improvement in digestion and decrease in pain. No

  7. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-eluting stents - discharge; PCI - discharge; Percutaneous coronary intervention - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - discharge; Coronary angioplasty - discharge; Coronary artery angioplasty - discharge; Cardiac ...

  8. Identification of Resting State Networks Involved in Executive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joanna; McNulty, Jonathan P; Boran, Lorraine; Roche, Richard A P; Delany, David; Bokde, Arun L W

    2016-06-01

    The structural networks in the human brain are consistent across subjects, and this is reflected also in that functional networks across subjects are relatively consistent. These findings are not only present during performance of a goal oriented task but there are also consistent functional networks during resting state. It suggests that goal oriented activation patterns may be a function of component networks identified using resting state. The current study examines the relationship between resting state networks measured and patterns of neural activation elicited during a Stroop task. The association between the Stroop-activated networks and the resting state networks was quantified using spatial linear regression. In addition, we investigated if the degree of spatial association of resting state networks with the Stroop task may predict performance on the Stroop task. The results of this investigation demonstrated that the Stroop activated network can be decomposed into a number of resting state networks, which were primarily associated with attention, executive function, visual perception, and the default mode network. The close spatial correspondence between the functional organization of the resting brain and task-evoked patterns supports the relevance of resting state networks in cognitive function.

  9. Radiological discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodliffe, J.

    1990-01-01

    Current practice of North Sea States on the discharge and disposal of liquid radioactive wastes to the North Sea are based on the declaration issued at the Second International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea, known as the London Declaration. This has three main points the first of which emphasises the application of the Best Available Technology to protect the North Sea, the second provides a framework on which future controls on radioactive discharges should be based. The third identifies two parts of the framework; to take into account the recommendations of international organizations and that any repositories of radioactive waste which are built should not pollute the North Sea. This chapter looks at how the concensus based on the London Declaration is working, gauges the progress made in the implementation of the policy goal, identifies existing and future areas for concern and proposes ways of strengthening the control of radioactive discharges. The emphasis is on the United Kingdom practice and regulations for liquid wastes, most of which comes from the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  10. Resting eggs in free living marine and estuarine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Kiørboe, Thomas; Brun, Philipp Georg

    2018-01-01

    Marine free living copepods can survive harsh periods and cope with seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions using resting eggs (embryonic dormancy). Laboratory experiments show that temperature is the common driver for resting egg production. Hence, we hypothesize (i) that seasonal...... temperature variation, rather than variation in food abundance is the main driver for the occurrence of the resting eggs strategy in marine and estuarine copepod species; and (ii) that the thermal boundaries of the distribution determine where resting eggs are produced and whether they are produced to cope...... with warm or cold periods. We compile literature information on the occurrence of resting egg production and relate this to spatio-temporal patterns in sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration obtained from satellite observations. We find that the production of resting eggs has been reported...

  11. Dipoles at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    In a world populated by magnetic monopoles (as well as ordinary electric charges), there are two kinds of electric dipoles: those due to separated electric charges, and those due to current loops of magnetic charge. Similarly, there are two kinds of magnetic dipoles: those due to separated magnetic monopoles, and those due to electric current loops. This paper derives the potentials and fields of each of the four dipole species, and calculates the force, torque, energy, momentum, and angular momentum of each type, when placed (at rest) in a static external field (which may itself be produced by electric charges and currents, magnetic charges and currents, or all of these). Some implications and applications of the various results are discussed

  12. Discharge patterns of radionuclides and the influence of early diagenesis in a salt-marsh of the Ribble Estuary, NW England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; Parker, A.; Rae, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Routine discharges of low level liquid radioactive waste from British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Sellafield and Springfield have resulted in enhanced levels of radionuclides in sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England, UK. The variations in radionuclide concentrations ( 137 Cs, 230 Th, 232 Th, 238 U, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am) with depth were analysed in order to investigate historical discharge trends. The influence of early diagenesis in terms of radionuclide mobility was established by considering geochemical associations of radionuclides through the depth profile. A core from Longton Marsh was analysed by gamma-spectrometry and alpha-spectrometry. Major/trace metal and total organic carbon determinations were also made. Sequential extractions were employed in order to specify radionuclide phase associations. Distinct subsurface maxima were present for 137 Cs, 241 Am and 239,240 Pu with activities as high as 4500 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs and 800 Bq kg -1 for 241 Am. Thorium-230 and 238 U exhibited complex activity profiles with depth. 137 Cs was found associated predominantly with the residual phase at all depths. Thorium-230 and 239,240 Pu were mainly associated with the organic and sesquioxide phases with some evidence to suggest that plutonium had undergone a phase redistribution below the sediment surface. Caesium-137, 230 Th and 239,240 Pu were deemed useful in terms of establishing core chronologies. (author)

  13. A CUSUM analysis of discharge patterns by a hydroelectric dam and discussion of potential effects on the upstream migration of American eel elvers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessop, B.M.; Harvie, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    American eel elvers are among the diadromous fishes native to the Saint John River in New Brunswick that have been affected by the construction of hydroelectric dams. Before 1980, large numbers of elvers were observed entering the fishway of the Mactaquac Dam in May and June for upstream migration, but their presence abruptly ceased after 1980. A study was conducted to determine why they disappeared at the Mactaquac Dam. A cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis was performed to determine the variability in magnitude, duration, timing, frequency, and rate of change in the daily and seasonal average level of water discharge associated with the installation of the last two of six turbines in late 1979 and early 1980. It is believed that the rapid, short-term fluctuations in water discharge which is characteristic of peaking hydroelectric dam operations, could seriously affect life cycle transitions of diadromous fishes. Upstream and downstream migration of the elvers may be affected along with their abundance, diversity and productivity. Young fish in particular are at higher risk of mortality during high flows, depending on the species. 40 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  14. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  15. Resting ECG findings in elite football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Philipp; Ditzel, Roman; Ditzel, Heribert; Urhausen, Axel; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ECG abnormalities in a large sample of elite football players. Data from 566 elite male football players (57 of them of African origin) above 16 years of age were screened retrospectively (age: 20.9 ± 5.3 years; BMI: 22.9 ± 1.7 kg · m(-2), training history: 13.8 ± 4.7 years). The resting ECGs were analysed and classified according to the most current ECG categorisation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) (2010) and a classification of Pelliccia et al. (2000) in order to assess the impact of the new ESC-approach. According to the classification of Pelliccia, 52.5% showed mildly abnormal ECG patterns and 12% were classified as distinctly abnormal ECG patterns. According to the classification of the ESC, 33.7% showed 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Short-QT interval was the most frequent ECG pattern in this group (41.9%), followed by a shortened PR-interval (19.9%). When assessed with a QTc cut-off-point of 340 ms (instead of 360 ms), only 22.2% would have had 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Resting ECG changes amongst elite football players are common. Adjustment of the ESC criteria by adapting proposed time limits for the ECG (e.g. QTc, PR) should further reduce the rate of false-positive results.

  16. Information Flow Between Resting-State Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Ibai; Erramuzpe, Asier; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Cabrera, Alberto; Marinazzo, Daniele; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto J; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes Diaz, Jesus M

    2015-11-01

    The resting brain dynamics self-organize into a finite number of correlated patterns known as resting-state networks (RSNs). It is well known that techniques such as independent component analysis can separate the brain activity at rest to provide such RSNs, but the specific pattern of interaction between RSNs is not yet fully understood. To this aim, we propose here a novel method to compute the information flow (IF) between different RSNs from resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. After hemodynamic response function blind deconvolution of all voxel signals, and under the hypothesis that RSNs define regions of interest, our method first uses principal component analysis to reduce dimensionality in each RSN to next compute IF (estimated here in terms of transfer entropy) between the different RSNs by systematically increasing k (the number of principal components used in the calculation). When k=1, this method is equivalent to computing IF using the average of all voxel activities in each RSN. For k≥1, our method calculates the k multivariate IF between the different RSNs. We find that the average IF among RSNs is dimension dependent, increasing from k=1 (i.e., the average voxel activity) up to a maximum occurring at k=5 and to finally decay to zero for k≥10. This suggests that a small number of components (close to five) is sufficient to describe the IF pattern between RSNs. Our method--addressing differences in IF between RSNs for any generic data--can be used for group comparison in health or disease. To illustrate this, we have calculated the inter-RSN IF in a data set of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to find that the most significant differences between AD and controls occurred for k=2, in addition to AD showing increased IF w.r.t. The spatial localization of the k=2 component, within RSNs, allows the characterization of IF differences between AD and controls.

  17. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  18. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  19. DIRAC RESTful API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus Ramo, A; Graciani Diaz, R; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2012-01-01

    The DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a flexible and modular solution that can be adapted to the requirements of any community. Users interact with DIRAC via command line, using the web portal or accessing resources via the DIRAC python API. The current DIRAC API requires users to use a python version valid for DIRAC. Some communities have developed their own software solutions for handling their specific workload, and would like to use DIRAC as their back-end to access distributed computing resources easily. Many of these solutions are not coded in python or depend on a specific python version. To solve this gap DIRAC provides a new language agnostic API that any software solution can use. This new API has been designed following the RESTful principles. Any language with libraries to issue standard HTTP queries may use it. GSI proxies can still be used to authenticate against the API services. However GSI proxies are not a widely adopted standard. The new DIRAC API also allows clients to use OAuth for delegating the user credentials to a third party solution. These delegated credentials allow the third party software to query to DIRAC on behalf of the users. This new API will further expand the possibilities communities have to integrate DIRAC into their distributed computing models.

  20. Changing pattern of ice flow and mass balance for glaciers discharging into the Larsen A and B embayments, Antarctic Peninsula, 2011 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Helmut; Abdel Jaber, Wael; Wuite, Jan; Scheiblauer, Stefan; Floricioiu, Dana; Melchior van Wessem, Jan; Nagler, Thomas; Miranda, Nuno; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2018-04-01

    We analysed volume change and mass balance of outlet glaciers on the northern Antarctic Peninsula over the periods 2011 to 2013 and 2013 to 2016, using high-resolution topographic data from the bistatic interferometric radar satellite mission TanDEM-X. Complementary to the geodetic method that applies DEM differencing, we computed the net mass balance of the main outlet glaciers using the mass budget method, accounting for the difference between the surface mass balance (SMB) and the discharge of ice into an ocean or ice shelf. The SMB values are based on output of the regional climate model RACMO version 2.3p2. To study glacier flow and retrieve ice discharge we generated time series of ice velocity from data from different satellite radar sensors, with radar images of the satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X as the main source. The study area comprises tributaries to the Larsen A, Larsen Inlet and Prince Gustav Channel embayments (region A), the glaciers calving into the Larsen B embayment (region B) and the glaciers draining into the remnant part of the Larsen B ice shelf in Scar Inlet (region C). The glaciers of region A, where the buttressing ice shelf disintegrated in 1995, and of region B (ice shelf break-up in 2002) show continuing losses in ice mass, with significant reduction of losses after 2013. The mass balance numbers for the grounded glacier area of region A are -3.98 ± 0.33 Gt a-1 from 2011 to 2013 and -2.38 ± 0.18 Gt a-1 from 2013 to 2016. The corresponding numbers for region B are -5.75 ± 0.45 and -2.32 ± 0.25 Gt a-1. The mass balance in region C during the two periods was slightly negative, at -0.54 ± 0.38 Gt a-1 and -0.58 ± 0.25 Gt a-1. The main share in the overall mass losses of the region was contributed by two glaciers: Drygalski Glacier contributing 61 % to the mass deficit of region A, and Hektoria and Green glaciers accounting for 67 % to the mass deficit of region B. Hektoria and Green glaciers accelerated significantly in 2010

  1. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  2. Multi-element sewer slime impact pattern--a quantitative characteristic enabling identification of the source of heavy metal discharges into sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintrup, J; Wünsch, G

    2001-11-01

    The capability of sewer slime to accumulate heavy metals from municipal wastewater can be exploited to identify the sources of sewage sludge pollution. Former investigations of sewer slime looked for a few elements only and could, therefore, not account for deviations of the enrichment efficiency of the slime or for irregularities from sampling. Results of ICP-MS multi element determinations were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. A new dimensionless characteristic "sewer slime impact" is proposed, which is zero for unloaded samples. Patterns expressed in this data format specifically extract the information required to identify the type of pollution and polluter quicker and with less effort and cost than hitherto.

  3. Review of radioactive discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report is a review of the arisings and concludes that suitable technologies exist, which if applied, could reduce discharges from nuclear power plants in England and Wales in line with the rest of Europe. (author)

  4. EMF-REST: Generation of RESTful APIs from Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza , Ed-Douibi; Cánovas Izquierdo , Javier Luis; Gómez , Abel; Tisi , Massimo; Cabot , Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, RESTful Web services have become more and more popular as a lightweight solution to connect remote systems in distributed and Cloud-based architectures. However, being an architectural style rather than a specification or standard, the proper design of RESTful Web services is not trivial since developers have to deal with a plethora of recommendations and best practices. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) emphasizes the use of models and model transformations to raise the level...

  5. Multi-element sewer slime impact pattern - a quantitative characteristic enabling identification of the source of heavy metal discharges into sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintrup, J. [Chemistry Lab., Wessling GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Wuensch, G. [Lehrgebiet Analytische Chemie, Univ. Hannover (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The capability of sewer slime to accumulate heavy metals from municipal wastewater can be exploited to identify the sources of sewage sludge pollution. Former investigations of sewer slime looked for a few elements only and could, therefore, not account for deviations of the enrichment efficiency of the slime or for irregularities from sampling. Results of ICP-MS multi element determinations were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. A new dimensionless characteristic ''sewer slime impact'' is proposed, which is zero for unloaded samples. Patterns expressed in this data format specifically extract the information required to identify the type of pollution and polluter quicker and with less effort and cost than hitherto. (orig.)

  6. Task vs. rest-different network configurations between the coactivation and the resting-state brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xin; Gohel, Suril; Kim, Eun H; Biswal, Bharat B

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in studies of human brain networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, it is unclear whether and how brain networks measured during the resting-state exhibit comparable properties to brain networks during task performance. In the present study, we investigated meta-analytic coactivation patterns among brain regions based upon published neuroimaging studies, and compared the coactivation network configurations with those in the resting-state network. The strength of resting-state functional connectivity between two regions were strongly correlated with the coactivation strength. However, the coactivation network showed greater global efficiency, smaller mean clustering coefficient, and lower modularity compared with the resting-state network, which suggest a more efficient global information transmission and between system integrations during task performing. Hub shifts were also observed within the thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex. The thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex exhibited higher and lower degrees, respectively in the coactivation network compared with the resting-state network. These results shed light regarding the reconfiguration of the brain networks between task and resting-state conditions, and highlight the role of the thalamus in change of network configurations in task vs. rest.

  7. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  8. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan H Lee

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm.The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization.The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  9. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  10. Ankle replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  11. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - discharge ... in the hospital for surgery to repair a hip fracture, a break in the upper part of ...

  12. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  13. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  14. Do resting brain dynamics predict oddball evoked-potential?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tien-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oddball paradigm is widely applied to the investigation of cognitive function in neuroscience and in neuropsychiatry. Whether cortical oscillation in the resting state can predict the elicited oddball event-related potential (ERP is still not clear. This study explored the relationship between resting electroencephalography (EEG and oddball ERPs. The regional powers of 18 electrodes across delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies were correlated with the amplitude and latency of N1, P2, N2 and P3 components of oddball ERPs. A multivariate analysis based on partial least squares (PLS was applied to further examine the spatial pattern revealed by multiple correlations. Results Higher synchronization in the resting state, especially at the alpha spectrum, is associated with higher neural responsiveness and faster neural propagation, as indicated by the higher amplitude change of N1/N2 and shorter latency of P2. None of the resting quantitative EEG indices predict P3 latency and amplitude. The PLS analysis confirms that the resting cortical dynamics which explains N1/N2 amplitude and P2 latency does not show regional specificity, indicating a global property of the brain. Conclusions This study differs from previous approaches by relating dynamics in the resting state to neural responsiveness in the activation state. Our analyses suggest that the neural characteristics carried by resting brain dynamics modulate the earlier/automatic stage of target detection.

  15. Human activity and rest in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenneberg, Till; Keller, Lena K; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Vetter, Céline; Winnebeck, Eva C

    2015-01-01

    Our lives are structured by the daily alternation of activity and rest, of wake and sleep. Despite significant advances in circadian and sleep research, we still lack answers to many of the most fundamental questions about this conspicuous behavioral pattern. We strongly believe that investigating this pattern in entrained conditions, real-life and daily contexts-in situ-will help the field to elucidate some of these central questions. Here, we present two common approaches for in situ investigation of human activity and rest: the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) and actimetry. In the first half of this chapter, we provide detailed instructions on how to use and interpret the MCTQ. In addition, we give an overview of the main insights gained with this instrument over the past 10 years, including some new findings on the interaction of light and age on sleep timing. In the second half of this chapter, we introduce the reader to the method of actimetry and share our experience in basic analysis techniques, including visualization, smoothing, and cosine model fitting of in situ recorded data. Additionally, we describe our new approach to automatically detect sleep from activity recordings. Our vision is that the broad use of such easy techniques in real-life settings combined with automated analyses will lead to the creation of large databases. The resulting power of big numbers will promote our understanding of such fundamental biological phenomena as sleep. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A dielectric barrier discharge in neon at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Junxia; Luo Haiyun; Wang Xinxin

    2011-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge in neon at atmospheric pressure is investigated with electrical measurement and fast photography. It is found that a stable diffuse discharge can be easily generated in a gap with a gap space of 0.5-6 mm and is identified with a glow discharge. The first breakdown voltage of the gap is considerably higher than that of the same gap working in a stable diffuse discharge mode, which indicates that Penning ionization of neon metastables from the previous discharge with inevitable gas impurities plays an important role in the decrease in the breakdown voltage. Discharge patterns are observed in a gap shorter than 1 mm. From the experiments with a wedge-like gap, it is found that the discharge patterns are formed in the area with a higher applied electric field, which suggests that a higher applied electric field may cause a transition from a diffuse glow to discharge patterns.

  17. RESTful Java web services security

    CERN Document Server

    Enríquez, René

    2014-01-01

    A sequential and easy-to-follow guide which allows you to understand the concepts related to securing web apps/services quickly and efficiently, since each topic is explained and described with the help of an example and in a step-by-step manner, helping you to easily implement the examples in your own projects. This book is intended for web application developers who use RESTful web services to power their websites. Prior knowledge of RESTful is not mandatory, but would be advisable.

  18. Effectiveness of Partition and Graph Theoretic Clustering Algorithms for Multiple Source Partial Discharge Pattern Classification Using Probabilistic Neural Network and Its Adaptive Version: A Critique Based on Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD is a major cause of failure of power apparatus and hence its measurement and analysis have emerged as a vital field in assessing the condition of the insulation system. Several efforts have been undertaken by researchers to classify PD pulses utilizing artificial intelligence techniques. Recently, the focus has shifted to the identification of multiple sources of PD since it is often encountered in real-time measurements. Studies have indicated that classification of multi-source PD becomes difficult with the degree of overlap and that several techniques such as mixed Weibull functions, neural networks, and wavelet transformation have been attempted with limited success. Since digital PD acquisition systems record data for a substantial period, the database becomes large, posing considerable difficulties during classification. This research work aims firstly at analyzing aspects concerning classification capability during the discrimination of multisource PD patterns. Secondly, it attempts at extending the previous work of the authors in utilizing the novel approach of probabilistic neural network versions for classifying moderate sets of PD sources to that of large sets. The third focus is on comparing the ability of partition-based algorithms, namely, the labelled (learning vector quantization and unlabelled (K-means versions, with that of a novel hypergraph-based clustering method in providing parsimonious sets of centers during classification.

  19. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  20. Galactography in non-lactating nipple discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Myung Ok; Lee, Joo Mi; Moon, Jang Ho; Kang, Ik Won; Chung, Soo Young; Bae, Sang Hoon; Park, Soo Sung [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Nipple discharge in non-lactating breast is classified as 2 groups. The first group is stagnation discharge which is determined by an apocrino-like exfoliation and stagnation within the ductal system. The second group is hyperplastic or neoplastic group. The secretory breast disease combined with nipple discharge can not be diagnosed by simple X-ray mammography of ultrasonography. For differential diagnosis of secretory breast disease and for localization of lesions, the galactography is necessary. We analysed 49 cases of galactography is non-lactating breat and obtained following results. 1. The most common cause of discharge was duct ectasis (39%) in stagnation discharge group and papilloma (23%) in hyperplastic discharge group. 2. Hyperplastic discharge group occurred most frequently in 5th decade of age and was discovered more frequently in fatty parenchymal pattern on simple mammography. 3. The most frequent type of nipple discharge was cloudy-milky type in stagnation group and bloody nature in hyperplastic group. 4. The most common cause of bloody discharge was papilloma (58%). 5. The bloody nipple discharge among 56 cases of breast cancer during 4 years occurred only in 5 cases (9%)

  1. What goes on in the resting-state? A qualitative glimpse into resting-state experience in the scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, Russell T.; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The brain’s resting-state has attracted considerable interest in recent years, but currently little is known either about typical experience during the resting-state or about whether there are inter-individual differences in resting-state phenomenology. We used descriptive experience sampling (DES) in an attempt to apprehend high fidelity glimpses of the inner experience of five participants in an extended fMRI study. Results showed that the inner experiences and the neural activation patterns (as quantified by amplitude of low frequency fluctuations analysis) of the five participants were largely consistent across time, suggesting that our extended-duration scanner sessions were broadly similar to typical resting-state sessions. However, there were very large individual differences in inner phenomena, suggesting that the resting-state itself may differ substantially from one participant to the next. We describe these individual differences in experiential characteristics and display some typical moments of resting-state experience. We also show that retrospective characterizations of phenomena can often be very different from moment-by-moment reports. We discuss implications for the assessment of inner experience in neuroimaging studies more generally, concluding that it may be possible to use fMRI to investigate neural correlates of phenomena apprehended in high fidelity. PMID:26500590

  2. Mimickers of generalized spike and wave discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Raed; Bhatt, Amar B

    2014-06-01

    Overinterpretation of benign EEG variants is a common problem that can lead to the misdiagnosis of epilepsy. We review four normal patterns that mimic generalized spike and wave discharges: phantom spike-and-wave, hyperventilation hypersynchrony, hypnagogic/ hypnopompic hypersynchrony, and mitten patterns.

  3. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and left ventricular function at rest in patients with rest angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.; Kane, S.A.; Amenta, A.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the rest thallium-201 perfusion pattern during angina-free periods in 40 patients with rest angina pectoris secondary to coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 70% diameter narrowing). Seventeen patients had previous Q wave myocardial infarction. The perfusion defects were considered fixed or reversible, depending on the absence or presence of redistribution in the 4-hour delayed images. There were 40 perfusion defects (26 fixed and 14 reversible) in 27 patients whereas 13 patients had normal scans. Reversible perfusion defects were present in 10 patients (25%). Of the 26 fixed perfusion defects, 17 did not have corresponding Q waves. Occluded vessels (63%) had more perfusion defects than vessels with subtotal occlusion (30%) (p less than 0.01). The perfusion defect size was larger in patients with lower ejection fraction than in patients with higher ejection fraction. We conclude: (1) perfusion defects are common in patients with rest angina and are reversible in 25% of patients indicating reduced regional coronary blood flow; (2) the degree of stenosis affects the presence of perfusion defect; (3) fixed defects may be present without corresponding Q waves; and (4) global left ventricular function is related to the size of perfusion defects

  4. RESTful web services with Dropwizard

    CERN Document Server

    Dallas, Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    A hands-on focused step-by-step tutorial to help you create Web Service applications using Dropwizard. If you are a software engineer or a web developer and want to learn more about building your own Web Service application, then this is the book for you. Basic knowledge of Java and RESTful Web Service concepts is assumed and familiarity with SQL/MySQL and command-line scripting would be helpful.

  5. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  6. Tight connection between fission gas discharge channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, W.; Peehs, M.; Rau, P.; Krug, W.; Stechemesser, H.

    1978-01-01

    The invention is concerned with the tight connection between the fission gas discharge channel, leading away from the support plate of a gas-cooled reactor, and the top of the fuel element suspended from this support plate. The closure is designed to be gas-tight for the suspended as well as for the released fuel element. The tight connection has got an annular body resting on the core support plate in the mouth region of the fission gas discharge channel. This body is connected with the fission gas discharge channel in the fuel element top fitting via a gas-tight part and supported by a compression spring. Care is taken for sealing if the fuel element is removal. (RW) [de

  7. Infraslow Electroencephalographic and Dynamic Resting State Network Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Joshua K; Thompson, Garth J; Pan, Wen-Ju; Billings, Jacob; Schumacher, Eric H; Epstein, Charles M; Keilholz, Shella D

    2017-06-01

    A number of studies have linked the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in traditional frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ), but the relationship between BOLD and its direct frequency correlates in the infraslow band (resting state magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired simultaneously. The DC EEG signals were correlated with the BOLD signal in patterns that resembled resting state networks. Subsequent dynamic analysis showed that the correlation between DC EEG and the BOLD signal varied substantially over time, even within individual subjects. The variation in DC EEG appears to reflect the time-varying contribution of different resting state networks. Furthermore, some of the patterns of DC EEG and BOLD correlation are consistent with previous work demonstrating quasiperiodic spatiotemporal patterns of large-scale network activity in resting state. These findings demonstrate that infraslow electrical activity is linked to BOLD fluctuations in humans and that it may provide a basis for large-scale organization comparable to that observed in animal studies.

  8. WEB-SERVICE. RESTFUL ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Melnichuk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Network technology for interaction between two applications via the HTTP protocol was considered in article.When client works with REST API - it means it works with "resources", and in SOAP work is performed with operations. To build REST web services, you must follow certain principles: explicit use of HTTP methods, access to resources by URI, stateless, HATEAOS, caching, transfer of objects in JSON or XML representation. But sometimes some principles are ignored to ensure a higher speed of work and to reduce development time.The pros and cons of using JSON and XML representations were considered, and it can be said that using the JSON format reduces the amount of data transfer, and with the use of XML, the readability of data increases.Also, two main ways of data transfer in REST web services were considered: converting the file to Base64 and transferring it as an object field or transferring the file using the usual HTTP multipart. The Base64 standard approach gives a higher speed for multiple files in a single request, because only one HTTP connection is created, but these files are stored in RAM during request processing, which increases chance of the application crashing.In the conclusion, the advantages of using web services and their wide use in other architectural approaches were considered, which increases the popularity of web services.

  9. Rest but busy: Aberrant resting-state functional connectivity of triple network model in insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaojuan; Qin, Haixia; Wu, Taoyu; Hu, Hua; Liao, Keren; Cheng, Fei; Gao, Dong; Lei, Xu

    2018-02-01

    One classical hypothesis among many models to explain the etiology and maintenance of insomnia disorder (ID) is hyperarousal. Aberrant functional connectivity among resting-state large-scale brain networks may be the underlying neurological mechanisms of this hypothesis. The aim of current study was to investigate the functional network connectivity (FNC) among large-scale brain networks in patients with insomnia disorder (ID) during resting state. In the present study, the resting-state fMRI was used to evaluate whether patients with ID showed aberrant FNC among dorsal attention network (DAN), frontoparietal control network (FPC), anterior default mode network (aDMN), and posterior default mode network (pDMN) compared with healthy good sleepers (HGSs). The Pearson's correlation analysis was employed to explore whether the abnormal FNC observed in patients with ID was associated with sleep parameters, cognitive and emotional scores, and behavioral performance assessed by questionnaires and tasks. Patients with ID had worse subjective thought control ability measured by Thought Control Ability Questionnaire (TCAQ) and more negative affect than HGSs. Intriguingly, relative to HGSs, patients with ID showed a significant increase in FNC between DAN and FPC, but a significant decrease in FNC between aDMN and pDMN. Exploratory analysis in patients with ID revealed a significantly positive correlation between the DAN-FPC FNC and reaction time (RT) of psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). The current study demonstrated that even during the resting state, the task-activated and task-deactivated large-scale brain networks in insomniacs may still maintain a hyperarousal state, looking quite similar to the pattern in a task condition with external stimuli. Those results support the hyperarousal model of insomnia.

  10. From "rest" to language task: Task activation selects and prunes from broader resting-state network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaelle E; He, Xiaosong; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I

    2017-05-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs) show spatial patterns generally consistent with networks revealed during cognitive tasks. However, the exact degree of overlap between these networks has not been clearly quantified. Such an investigation shows promise for decoding altered functional connectivity (FC) related to abnormal language functioning in clinical populations such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this context, we investigated the network configurations during a language task and during resting state using FC. Twenty-four healthy controls, 24 right and 24 left TLE patients completed a verb generation (VG) task and a resting-state fMRI scan. We compared the language network revealed by the VG task with three FC-based networks (seeding the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC)/Broca): two from the task (ON, OFF blocks) and one from the resting state. We found that, for both left TLE patients and controls, the RSN recruited regions bilaterally, whereas both VG-on and VG-off conditions produced more left-lateralized FC networks, matching more closely with the activated language network. TLE brings with it variability in both task-dependent and task-independent networks, reflective of atypical language organization. Overall, our findings suggest that our RSN captured bilateral activity, reflecting a set of prepotent language regions. We propose that this relationship can be best understood by the notion of pruning or winnowing down of the larger language-ready RSN to carry out specific task demands. Our data suggest that multiple types of network analyses may be needed to decode the association between language deficits and the underlying functional mechanisms altered by disease. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2540-2552, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    .26–0.48) and primiparous compared to multiparous had an OR of 0.22 (CI 0.17–0.29) for early discharge. Other predictors for early discharge were: no induction of labour, no epidural painkiller, bleeding less than 500 ml during delivery, higher gestational age, early expected discharge and positive breastfeeding experience...

  12. Heart attack - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  13. Selection and spatial arrangement of rest sites within northern tamandua home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D. D.; Montgomery, R. A.; Millspaugh, J. J.; Jansen, P. A.; Garzon-Lopez, C. X.; Kays, R.

    The distribution of suitable rest sites is considered to be a key determinant of spatial patterns in animal activity. However, it is not immediately evident which landscape features satisfy rest site requirements or how these sites are configured within the home range. We used Global Positioning

  14. Selection and spatial Arrangement of rest sites within Northern tamandua (Tamandua mexicana) home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D.D.; Montgomery, R.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Jansen, P.A.; Garzon-Lopez, C.X.; Kays, R.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of suitable rest sites is considered to be a key determinant of spatial patterns in animal activity. However, it is not immediately evident which landscape features satisfy rest site requirements or how these sites are configured within the home range. We used Global Positioning

  15. Rest requirements and rest management of personnel in shift work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammell, B.D. [PDG Environmental, Melbourne, FL (United States); Scheuerle, A. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A difficulty-weighted shift assignment scheme is proposed for use in prolonged and strenuous field operations such as emergency response, site testing, and short term hazardous waste remediation projects. The purpose of the work rotation plan is to increase productivity, safety, and moral of workers. Job weighting is accomplished by assigning adjustments to the mental and physical intensity of the task, the protective equipment worn, and the climatic conditions. The plan is based on medical studies of sleep deprivation, the effects of rest adjustments, and programs to reduce sleep deprivation and normalize shift schedules.

  16. Sustainable Rest Area Design and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    One way in which State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) can modernize their rest areas while reducing operations and maintenance costs is by incorporating sustainable practices into rest area design and operations. Sustainability practices that D...

  17. Combinations of resting RSA and RSA reactivity impact maladaptive mood repair and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Bylsma, Lauren M; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kovacs, Maria

    2013-10-01

    We examined whether the combined indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest (resting RSA) and in response to a sad film (RSA reactivity) predict effective and ineffective responses to reduce sadness (adaptive vs. maladaptive mood repair) in women with histories of juvenile-onset depression (n=74) and no history of major mental disorders (n=75). Structural equation models were used to estimate latent resting RSA, depression, and adaptive and maladaptive mood repair and to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated that combinations of resting RSA+RSA reactivity (RSA patterns) predicted maladaptive mood repair, which in turn, mediated the effects of RSA pattern on depression. Further, RSA patterns moderated the depressogenic effects of maladaptive mood repair. RSA patterns were unrelated to adaptive mood repair. Our findings suggest that mood repair is one mechanism through which physiological vulnerabilities adversely affect mental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Restful API Architecture Based on Laravel Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianjun; Ji, Zhoupeng; Fan, Yu; Zhan, Yongsong

    2017-10-01

    Web service has been an industry standard tech for message communication and integration between heterogeneous systems. RESTFUL API has become mainstream web service development paradigm after SOAP, how to effectively construct RESTFUL API remains a research hotspots. This paper presents a development model of RESTFUL API construction based on PHP language and LARAVEL framework. The key technical problems that need to be solved during the construction of RESTFUL API are discussed, and implementation details based on LARAVEL are given.

  19. Dynamic interneuron-principal cell interplay leads to a specific pattern of in vitro ictogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Maxime; Chen, Li-Yuan; Hamidi, Shabnam; Avoli, Massimo

    2018-07-01

    Ictal discharges induced by 4-aminopyridine in the in vitro rodent entorhinal cortex present with either low-voltage fast or sudden onset patterns. The role of interneurons in initiating low-voltage fast onset ictal discharges is well established but the processes leading to sudden onset ictal discharges remain unclear. We analysed here the participation of interneurons (n = 75) and principal cells (n = 13) in the sudden onset pattern by employing in vitro tetrode wire recordings in the entorhinal cortex of brain slices from Sprague-Dawley rats. Ictal discharges emerged from a background of frequently occurring interictal spikes that were associated to a specific interneuron/principal cell interplay. High rates of interneuron firing occurred 12 ms before interictal spike onset while principal cells fired later during low interneuron firing. In contrast, the onset of sudden ictal discharges was characterized by increased firing from principal cells 627 ms before ictal onset whereas interneurons increased their firing rates 161 ms before ictal onset. Our data show that sudden onset ictogenesis is associated with frequently occurring interictal spikes resting on the interplay between interneurons and principal cells while ictal discharges stem from enhanced principal cell firing leading to increased interneuron activity. These findings indicate that specific patterns of interactions between interneurons and principal cells shape interictal and ictal discharges with sudden onset in the rodent entorhinal cortex. We propose that specific neuronal interactions lead to the generation of distinct onset patterns in focal epileptic disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Alterations in Resting-State Activity Relate to Performance in a Verbal Recognition Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zunini, Rocío A.; Thivierge, Jean-Philippe; Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Taler, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    In the brain, resting-state activity refers to non-random patterns of intrinsic activity occurring when participants are not actively engaged in a task. We monitored resting-state activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) both before and after a verbal recognition task. We show a strong positive correlation between accuracy in verbal recognition and pre-task resting-state alpha power at posterior sites. We further characterized this effect by examining resting-state post-task activity. We found marked alterations in resting-state alpha power when comparing pre- and post-task periods, with more pronounced alterations in participants that attained higher task accuracy. These findings support a dynamical view of cognitive processes where patterns of ongoing brain activity can facilitate –or interfere– with optimal task performance. PMID:23785436

  1. Dielectric barrier discharge image processing by Photoshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lifang; Li, Xuechen; Yin, Zengqian; Zhang, Qingli

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, the filamentary pattern of dielectric barrier discharge has been processed by using Photoshop, the coordinates of each filament can also be obtained. By using Photoshop two different ways have been used to analyze the spatial order of the pattern formation in dielectric barrier discharge. The results show that the distance of the neighbor filaments at U equals 14 kV and d equals 0.9 mm is about 1.8 mm. In the scope of the experimental error, the results from the two different methods are similar.

  2. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  3. Cognitive and default-mode resting state networks: do male and female brains "rest" differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Moayedi, Massieh; Taylor, Keri S; Pope, Geoff; Davis, Karen D

    2010-11-01

    Variability in human behavior related to sex is supported by neuroimaging studies showing differences in brain activation patterns during cognitive task performance. An emerging field is examining the human connectome, including networks of brain regions that are not only temporally-correlated during different task conditions, but also networks that show highly correlated spontaneous activity during a task-free state. Both task-related and task-free network activity has been associated with individual task performance and behavior under certain conditions. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether sex differences exist during a task-free resting state for two networks associated with cognitive task performance (executive control network (ECN), salience network (SN)) and the default mode network (DMN). Forty-nine healthy subjects (26 females, 23 males) underwent a 5-min task-free fMRI scan in a 3T MRI. An independent components analysis (ICA) was performed to identify the best-fit IC for each network based on specific spatial nodes defined in previous studies. To determine the consistency of these networks across subjects we performed self-organizing group-level ICA analyses. There were no significant differences between sexes in the functional connectivity of the brain areas within the ECN, SN, or the DMN. These important findings highlight the robustness of intrinsic connectivity of these resting state networks and their similarity between sexes. Furthermore, our findings suggest that resting state fMRI studies do not need to be controlled for sex. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Glow discharging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Katsuki; Kawasaki, Kozo; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawashima, Shuichi.

    1989-01-01

    In a thermonuclear device, etc. impurities adsorbed to inner walls of a vacuum vessel by glow discharge are released to clean the vacuum vessel for preventing intrusion of the impurities into plasmas. The object of the present invention is to minimize the capacity of a power source equipment for the glow discharge device to the least extent. That is, a stabilization resistance is connected in series between each of a plurality of anodes which are inserted and arranged at the inside of a vacuum vessel as a cathode and a power source respectively. The resistance value R is selected so as to satisfy the relation: R < (Vi - Vm)/Ii, in which Vi: glow discharge starting voltage, Vm: glow discharge keeping voltage, Ii: glow discharge starting current. Accordingly, if a voltage is applied from a power source to a plurality of anodes, scattering of electric discharge between the anodes can be suppressed and the effect of voltage drop during discharge by the stabilization resistance can be eliminated. As a result, it is possible to provide an economically advantageous glow discharge device with the capacity for the power source facility being to the least extent. (K.M.)

  5. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  6. Modelling electric discharge chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.; Wren, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The chemistry occurring in a electric discharge was modelled to predict how it would be influenced by discharge conditions. The discharge was characterized by a calculated Boltzmann electron-energy distribution, from which rate constants for electron-molecule processes in air were determined. These rate constants were used in a chemical kinetics calculation that also included reactions between neutral molecules, ions, free radicals and electronically excited species. The model describes how the discharge chemistry was influenced by humidity, electric field, electron number density, and concentrations of key reagents identified in the study. The use of an electric discharge to destroy airborne contaminant molecules was appraised, the targeted contaminants being CF 2 Cl 2 , HCN, and SO 2 . The modelling results indicate that an electric discharge should be able to remove HCN and CF 2 Cl 2 effectively, especially if the discharge conditions have been optimized. Effective destruction is achieved with a moderate electric field (over 1 x 10 -15 V.cm 2 ), a substantial electron number density (over 1 x 10 12 cm -3 ), and the presence of H 2 0 in the process air. The residence time in the discharge was also shown to be important in contaminant destruction. An attempt was made to explain the results of the electric discharge abatement of SO 2 , a component of a simulated flue-gas mixture. Results from the model indicate that the discharge parameters that increase the concentration of hydroxyl radical also increase the rate of decomposition of SO 2 . An objective of the study was to explain the apparent enhancement of SO 2 destruction by the presence of a small amount of NO 2 . It was thought that a likely explanation would be the stabilization of HOSO 2 , an important intermediate in the oxidation of SO 2 by NO 2 . (49 figs., 14 tabs., 75 refs.)

  7. Pro REST API development with nodejs

    CERN Document Server

    Doglio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Pro REST API Development with Node.js is your guide to managing and understanding the full capabilities of successful REST development. API design is a hot topic in the programming world, but not many resources exist for developers to really understand how you can leverage the advantages. This book will provide a brief background on REST and the tools it provides (well known and not so well known). Understand how there is more to REST than just JSON and URLs. You will then cover and compare the maintained modules currently available in the npm community, including Express, Restify, Vatican,

  8. Resting state fMRI: A review on methods in resting state connectivity analysis and resting state networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K A; Akhil Raja, K; Arun, K M; Rajesh, P G; Thomas, Bejoy; Kapilamoorthy, T R; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2017-08-01

    The inquisitiveness about what happens in the brain has been there since the beginning of humankind. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a prominent tool which helps in the non-invasive examination, localisation as well as lateralisation of brain functions such as language, memory, etc. In recent years, there is an apparent shift in the focus of neuroscience research to studies dealing with a brain at 'resting state'. Here the spotlight is on the intrinsic activity within the brain, in the absence of any sensory or cognitive stimulus. The analyses of functional brain connectivity in the state of rest have revealed different resting state networks, which depict specific functions and varied spatial topology. However, different statistical methods have been introduced to study resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity, yet producing consistent results. In this article, we introduce the concept of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in detail, then discuss three most widely used methods for analysis, describe a few of the resting state networks featuring the brain regions, associated cognitive functions and clinical applications of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. This review aims to highlight the utility and importance of studying resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity, underlining its complementary nature to the task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. Discharge lamp technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  10. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1976-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  11. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes

    used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...... was based on a polynomial regression predicting yearly tile drain discharge values using site specific parameters such as soil type, catchment topography, etc. as predictors. Values of calibrated model parameters from the dynamic modelling were compared to the same site specific parameter as used...

  12. Electric discharge during electrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I; Keidar, Michael

    2015-04-16

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 10(3) A/cm(2). The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 10(16) cm(-3) and (1-2) Ohm(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold.

  13. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - discharge after vaginal delivery ... You may have bleeding from your vagina for up to 6 weeks. Early on, you may pass some small clots when you first get up. Bleeding will slowly become ...

  14. Prostate radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000399.htm Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...

  15. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  16. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000123.htm Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  17. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  18. Atrial fibrillation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000237.htm Atrial fibrillation - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... have been in the hospital because you have atrial fibrillation . This condition occurs when your heart beats faster ...

  19. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  20. Knee arthroscopy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000199.htm Knee arthroscopy - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... surgery to treat problems in your knee (knee arthroscopy). You may have been checked for: Torn meniscus. ...

  1. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  2. Shoulder surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000179.htm Shoulder surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had shoulder surgery to repair the tissues inside or around your ...

  3. Discharges for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffels, W W; Nimalasuriya, T; Flikweert, A J; Mulders, H C J

    2007-01-01

    The most common man-made discharge is a lamp. Even though lamps are often considered a mature technology, the discharge physics is often poorly understood. Two recent initiatives discussed here show that plasma research can help to make significant improvements. First we discuss color separation in metal halide lamps, which is a problem that prevents these highly efficient lamps from being used in more applications. Secondly a novel lamp concept is presented that may replace the current mercury based fluorescent lamps

  4. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis…

  5. Resting state EEG correlates of memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Kate; Tishler, Ward; Manceor, Stephanie; Hamilton, Kelly; Gaulden, Andrew; Parr, Elaine; Wamsley, Erin J

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that post-training sleep benefits human memory. At the same time, emerging data suggest that other resting states may similarly facilitate consolidation. In order to identify the conditions under which non-sleep resting states benefit memory, we conducted an EEG (electroencephalographic) study of verbal memory retention across 15min of eyes-closed rest. Participants (n=26) listened to a short story and then either rested with their eyes closed, or else completed a distractor task for 15min. A delayed recall test was administered immediately following the rest period. We found, first, that quiet rest enhanced memory for the short story. Improved memory was associated with a particular EEG signature of increased slow oscillatory activity (rest can facilitate memory, and that this may occur via an active process of consolidation supported by slow oscillatory EEG activity and characterized by decreased attention to the external environment. Slow oscillatory EEG rhythms are proposed to facilitate memory consolidation during sleep by promoting hippocampal-cortical communication. Our findings suggest that EEG slow oscillations could play a significant role in memory consolidation during other resting states as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Discharge lamp technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, J. [GE Lighting, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advance. A general overview of discharge lighting technology can be found in the book of Waymouth (1971). A recent review of low pressure lighting discharge science is found in Dakin (1991). The pioneering paper of Reiling (1964) provides a good introduction to metal halide discharges. Particularly relevant to lighting for plant growth, a recent and thorough treatment of high pressure Na lamps is found in the book by deGroot and vanVliet (1986). Broad practical aspects of lighting application are thoroughly covered in the IES Lighting Handbook edited by Kaufman (1984).

  7. Chaos in gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piel, A.

    1993-01-01

    Many gas discharges exhibit natural oscillations which undergo a transition from regular to chaotic behavior by changing an experimental parameter or by applying external modulation. Besides several isolated investigations, two classes of discharge phenomena have been studied in more detail: ionization waves in medium pressure discharges and potential relaxation oscillations in filament cathode discharges at very low pressure. The latter phenomenon will be discussed by comparing experimental results from different discharge arrangements with particle-in-cell simulations and with a model based on the van-der-Pol equation. The filament cathode discharge has two stable modes of operation: the low current anode-glow-mode and the high current temperature-limited-mode, which form the hysteresis curve in the I(U) characteristics. Close to the hysteresis point of the AGM periodic relaxation oscillations occur. The authors demonstrate that the AGM can be understood by ion production in the anode layer, stopping of ions by charge exchange, and trapping in the virtual cathode around the filament. The relaxation oscillations consist of a slow filling phase and a rapid phase that invokes formation of an unstable double-layer, current-spiking, and ion depletion from the cathodic plasma. The relaxation oscillations can be mode-locked by external modulation. Inside a mode-locked state, a period doubling cascade is observed at high modulation degree

  8. Structural connectivity allows for multi-threading during rest: the structure of the cortex leads to efficient alternation between resting state exploratory behavior and default mode processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senden, Mario; Goebel, Rainer; Deco, Gustavo

    2012-05-01

    Despite the absence of stimulation or task conditions the cortex exhibits highly structured spatio-temporal activity patterns. These patterns are known as resting state networks (RSNs) and emerge as low-frequency fluctuations (rest. We are interested in the relationship between structural connectivity of the cortex and the fluctuations exhibited during resting conditions. We are especially interested in the effect of degree of connectivity on resting state dynamics as the default mode network (DMN) is highly connected. We find in experimental resting fMRI data that the DMN is the functional network that is most frequently active and for the longest time. In large-scale computational simulations of the cortex based on the corresponding underlying DTI/DSI based neuroanatomical connectivity matrix, we additionally find a strong correlation between the mean degree of functional networks and the proportion of time they are active. By artificially modifying different types of neuroanatomical connectivity matrices in the model, we were able to demonstrate that only models based on structural connectivity containing hubs give rise to this relationship. We conclude that, during rest, the cortex alternates efficiently between explorations of its externally oriented functional repertoire and internally oriented processing as a consequence of the DMN's high degree of connectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Altered amygdalar resting-state connectivity in depression is explained by both genes and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Tornador, Cristian; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Nuria; Nenadic, Igor; Deco, Gustavo; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2015-10-01

    Recent findings indicate that alterations of the amygdalar resting-state fMRI connectivity play an important role in the etiology of depression. While both depression and resting-state brain activity are shaped by genes and environment, the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors mediating the relationship between amygdalar resting-state connectivity and depression remain largely unexplored. Likewise, novel neuroimaging research indicates that different mathematical representations of resting-state fMRI activity patterns are able to embed distinct information relevant to brain health and disease. The present study analyzed the influence of genes and environment on amygdalar resting-state fMRI connectivity, in relation to depression risk. High-resolution resting-state fMRI scans were analyzed to estimate functional connectivity patterns in a sample of 48 twins (24 monozygotic pairs) informative for depressive psychopathology (6 concordant, 8 discordant and 10 healthy control pairs). A graph-theoretical framework was employed to construct brain networks using two methods: (i) the conventional approach of filtered BOLD fMRI time-series and (ii) analytic components of this fMRI activity. Results using both methods indicate that depression risk is increased by environmental factors altering amygdalar connectivity. When analyzing the analytic components of the BOLD fMRI time-series, genetic factors altering the amygdala neural activity at rest show an important contribution to depression risk. Overall, these findings show that both genes and environment modify different patterns the amygdala resting-state connectivity to increase depression risk. The genetic relationship between amygdalar connectivity and depression may be better elicited by examining analytic components of the brain resting-state BOLD fMRI signals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Glow discharge based device for solving mazes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinov, Alexander E., E-mail: dubinov-ae@yandex.ru; Mironenko, Maxim S.; Selemir, Victor D. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center − All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation); Sarov Institute of Physics and Technology (SarFTI) of National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation); Maksimov, Artem N.; Pylayev, Nikolay A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center − All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-15

    A glow discharge based device for solving mazes has been designed and tested. The device consists of a gas discharge chamber and maze-transformer of radial-azimuth type. It allows changing of the maze pattern in a short period of time (within several minutes). The device has been tested with low pressure air. Once switched on, a glow discharge has been shown to find the shortest way through the maze from the very first attempt, even if there is a section with potential barrier for electrons on the way. It has been found that ionization waves (striations) can be excited in the maze along the length of the plasma channel. The dependancy of discharge voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. A reduction in discharge voltage with one or two potential barriers present has been found and explained. The dependency of the magnitude of discharge ignition voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. The reduction of the ignition voltage with the presence of one or two potential barriers has been observed and explained.

  11. Phase-synchronization-based parcellation of resting state fMRI signals reveals topographically organized clusters in early visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gravel, Nicolás G; Harvey, Ben M; Renken, Remco K; Dumoulin, Serge O; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2018-01-01

    Resting-state fMRI is widely used to study brain function and connectivity. However, interpreting patterns of resting state (RS) fMRI activity remains challenging as they may arise from different neuronal mechanisms than those triggered by exogenous events. Currently, this limits the use of RS-fMRI

  12. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  13. Assessing the Effects of Climate on Global Fluvial Discharge Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, M. R.; Plink-Bjorklund, P.

    2017-12-01

    Plink-Bjorklund (2015) established the link between precipitation seasonality and river discharge variability in the monsoon domain and subtropical rivers (see also Leier et al, 2005; Fielding et al., 2009), resulting in distinct morphodynamic processes and a sedimentary record distinct from perennial precipitation zone in tropical rainforest zone and mid latitudes. This study further develops our understanding of discharge variability using a modern global river database created with data from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC). The database consists of daily discharge for 595 river stations and examines them using a series of discharge variability indexes (DVI) on different temporal scales to examine how discharge variability occurs in river systems around the globe. These indexes examine discharge of individual days and monthly averages that allows for comparison of river systems against each other, regardless of size of the river. Comparing river discharge patterns in seven climate zones (arid, cold, humid subtropics, monsoonal, polar, rainforest, and temperate) based off the Koppen-Geiger climate classifications reveals a first order climatic control on discharge patterns and correspondingly sediment transport. Four groupings of discharge patterns emerge when coming climate zones and DVI: persistent, moderate, seasonal, and erratic. This dataset has incredible predictive power about the nature of discharge in fluvial systems around the world. These seasonal effects on surface water supply affects river morphodynamics and sedimentation on a wide timeframe, ranging from large single events to an inter-annual or even decadal timeframe. The resulting sedimentary deposits lead to differences in fluvial architecture on a range of depositional scales from sedimentary structures and bedforms to channel complex systems. These differences are important to accurately model for several reasons, ranging from stratigraphic and paleoenviromental reconstructions to more

  14. Resting state cerebral blood flow with arterial spin labeling MRI in developing human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Duan, Yunsuo; Peterson, Bradley S; Asllani, Iris; Zelaya, Fernando; Lythgoe, David; Kangarlu, Alayar

    2018-07-01

    The development of brain circuits is coupled with changes in neurovascular coupling, which refers to the close relationship between neural activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Studying the characteristics of CBF during resting state in developing brain can be a complementary way to understand the functional connectivity of the developing brain. Arterial spin labeling (ASL), as a noninvasive MR technique, is particularly attractive for studying cerebral perfusion in children and even newborns. We have collected pulsed ASL data in resting state for 47 healthy subjects from young children to adolescence (aged from 6 to 20 years old). In addition to studying the developmental change of static CBF maps during resting state, we also analyzed the CBF time series to reveal the dynamic characteristics of CBF in differing age groups. We used the seed-based correlation analysis to examine the temporal relationship of CBF time series between the selected ROIs and other brain regions. We have shown the developmental patterns in both static CBF maps and dynamic characteristics of CBF. While higher CBF of default mode network (DMN) in all age groups supports that DMN is the prominent active network during the resting state, the CBF connectivity patterns of some typical resting state networks show distinct patterns of metabolic activity during the resting state in the developing brains. Copyright © 2018 European Paediatric Neurology Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Resting state functional connectivity predicts neurofeedback response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin eScheinost

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tailoring treatments to the specific needs and biology of individual patients – personalized medicine – requires delineation of reliable predictors of response. Unfortunately, these have been slow to emerge, especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently described a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback protocol that can reduce contamination-related anxiety, a prominent symptom of many cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Individual response to this intervention is variable. Here we used patterns of brain functional connectivity, as measured by baseline resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI, to predict improvements in contamination anxiety after neurofeedback training. Activity of a region of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and anterior prefrontal cortex, Brodmann area (BA 10, associated with contamination anxiety in each subject was measured in real time and presented as a neurofeedback signal, permitting subjects to learn to modulate this target brain region. We have previously reported both enhanced OFC/BA 10 control and improved anxiety in a group of subclinically anxious subjects after neurofeedback. Five individuals with contamination-related OCD who underwent the same protocol also showed improved clinical symptomatology. In both groups, these behavioral improvements were strongly correlated with baseline whole-brain connectivity in the OFC/BA 10, computed from rs-fMRI collected several days prior to neurofeedback training. These pilot data suggest that rs-fMRI can be used to identify individuals likely to benefit from rt-fMRI neurofeedback training to control contamination anxiety.

  16. Resting-state hemodynamics are spatiotemporally coupled to synchronized and symmetric neural activity in excitatory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Shaik, Mohammed A.; Kozberg, Mariel G.; Portes, Jacob P.; Timerman, Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    Brain hemodynamics serve as a proxy for neural activity in a range of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In resting-state fMRI, hemodynamic fluctuations have been found to exhibit patterns of bilateral synchrony, with correlated regions inferred to have functional connectivity. However, the relationship between resting-state hemodynamics and underlying neural activity has not been well established, making the neural underpinnings of functional connectivity networks unclear. In this study, neural activity and hemodynamics were recorded simultaneously over the bilateral cortex of awake and anesthetized Thy1-GCaMP mice using wide-field optical mapping. Neural activity was visualized via selective expression of the calcium-sensitive fluorophore GCaMP in layer 2/3 and 5 excitatory neurons. Characteristic patterns of resting-state hemodynamics were accompanied by more rapidly changing bilateral patterns of resting-state neural activity. Spatiotemporal hemodynamics could be modeled by convolving this neural activity with hemodynamic response functions derived through both deconvolution and gamma-variate fitting. Simultaneous imaging and electrophysiology confirmed that Thy1-GCaMP signals are well-predicted by multiunit activity. Neurovascular coupling between resting-state neural activity and hemodynamics was robust and fast in awake animals, whereas coupling in urethane-anesthetized animals was slower, and in some cases included lower-frequency (resting-state hemodynamics in the awake and anesthetized brain are coupled to underlying patterns of excitatory neural activity. The patterns of bilaterally-symmetric spontaneous neural activity revealed by wide-field Thy1-GCaMP imaging may depict the neural foundation of functional connectivity networks detected in resting-state fMRI. PMID:27974609

  17. Multipactor discharge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with a multipactor discharge apparatus which can be used for tuning microwave organs such as magnetron oscillators and other cavity resonators. This apparatus is suitable for delivering an improved tuning effect in a resonation organ wherefrom the working frequency must be set. This apparatus is equipped with two multipactor discharge electrodes set in a configuration such to that a net current flows from one electrode to another. These electrodes are parallel and flat. The apparatus can be used in magnetron devices as well for continuous waves as for impulses

  18. Red herring vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Pringle, Kirsty; Rajimwale, Ashok

    2013-09-18

    Labial hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition that can be easily misdiagnosed and ultimately lead to irreversible damage. An 11-year-old premenarche girl presented with a 5-day history of pain and swelling in the labia with associated vaginal discharge. The general practitioner treated her with clotrimazole without improvement. On examination, there was an oedematous swelling of the right labia with a proximal hair tourniquet. Local anaesthetic was applied and the hair removed with forceps. There was instant relief of pain and the discharge stopped within 24 h. The patient was sent home with a course of antibiotics.

  19. Travelling-wave-sustained discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Hans; Shivarova, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    This review is on discharges maintained by travelling waves: new plasma sources, discovered in 1974 and considered as a prototype of the gas discharges according to their definition as nonlinear systems which unify in a self-consistent manner plasmas and fields. In the presentation here of the fluid-plasma models of the diffusion-controlled regime of the travelling-wave-sustained discharges (TWSDs), the basic features of the discharge maintenance-the discharge self-consistency and the electron heating in the high-frequency field-are stressed. Operation of stationary and pulsed discharges, discharge maintenance without and in external magnetic fields as well as discharge production in different gases (argon, helium, helium-argon gas mixtures and hydrogen) are covered. Modulation instability of diffusion-controlled discharges and discharge filamentation at higher gas pressures are also included in the review. Experimental findings which motivate aspects of the reported modelling are pointed out

  20. Brief wakeful resting can eliminate directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Andreas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-02-01

    When cued to intentionally forget previously encoded memories, participants typically show reduced recall of the memories on a later recall test. We examined how such directed forgetting is affected by a brief period of wakeful resting between encoding and test. Encoding was followed by a "passive" wakeful resting period in which subjects heard emotionally neutral music or perceived neutral pictures, or it was followed by an "active" distraction period in which subjects were engaged in counting or calculation tasks. Whereas typical directed forgetting was present after active distraction, the forgetting was absent after wakeful resting. The findings indicate that the degree to which people can intentionally forget memories is influenced by the cognitive activity that people engage in shortly after learning takes place. The results provide first evidence on the interplay between wakeful resting and intentional forgetting.

  1. Partnership strategies for safety roadside rest areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This project studied the many factors influencing the potential for public private partnerships for Safety : Roadside Rest Areas. It found that Federal and California State laws and regulations represent important : barriers to certain types and loca...

  2. Elegants ja eklektika - Rest Art / Lylian Meister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meister, Lylian, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas Mustika keskuses asuvas sisustussalongis Rest Art pakutavast. Asjade müümise kõrval pakutakse kodudele ja hotellidele-restoranidele terviklahendusi. Salongi kujundas Kard Männil. 4 värv. vaadet

  3. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) REST API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This REST-based API is designed to support lightweight Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content consumption by consumers. It is anticipated that this API...

  4. Deterministic dynamics of plasma focus discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, J.; Alabraba, M.A.; Warmate, A.G.; Giudice, G.

    1992-04-01

    The performance (neutron yield, X-ray production, etc.) of plasma focus discharges fluctuates strongly in series performed with fixed experimental conditions. Previous work suggests that these fluctuations are due to a deterministic ''internal'' dynamics involving degrees of freedom not controlled by the operator, possibly related to adsorption and desorption of impurities from the electrodes. According to these dynamics the yield of a discharge depends on the outcome of the previous ones. We study 8 series of discharges in three different facilities, with various electrode materials and operating conditions. More evidence of a deterministic internal dynamics is found. The fluctuation pattern depends on the electrode materials and other characteristics of the experiment. A heuristic mathematical model that describes adsorption and desorption of impurities from the electrodes and their consequences on the yield is presented. The model predicts steady yield or periodic and chaotic fluctuations, depending on parameters related to the experimental conditions. (author). 27 refs, 7 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Dynamic reorganization of human resting-state networks during visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadone, Sara; Della Penna, Stefania; Sestieri, Carlo; Betti, Viviana; Tosoni, Annalisa; Perrucci, Mauro Gianni; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-06-30

    Fundamental problems in neuroscience today are understanding how patterns of ongoing spontaneous activity are modified by task performance and whether/how these intrinsic patterns influence task-evoked activation and behavior. We examined these questions by comparing instantaneous functional connectivity (IFC) and directed functional connectivity (DFC) changes in two networks that are strongly correlated and segregated at rest: the visual (VIS) network and the dorsal attention network (DAN). We measured how IFC and DFC during a visuospatial attention task, which requires dynamic selective rerouting of visual information across hemispheres, changed with respect to rest. During the attention task, the two networks remained relatively segregated, and their general pattern of within-network correlation was maintained. However, attention induced a decrease of correlation in the VIS network and an increase of the DAN→VIS IFC and DFC, especially in a top-down direction. In contrast, within the DAN, IFC was not modified by attention, whereas DFC was enhanced. Importantly, IFC modulations were behaviorally relevant. We conclude that a stable backbone of within-network functional connectivity topography remains in place when transitioning between resting wakefulness and attention selection. However, relative decrease of correlation of ongoing "idling" activity in visual cortex and synchronization between frontoparietal and visual cortex were behaviorally relevant, indicating that modulations of resting activity patterns are important for task performance. Higher order resting connectivity in the DAN was relatively unaffected during attention, potentially indicating a role for simultaneous ongoing activity as a "prior" for attention selection.

  6. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  7. Detecting Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using Resting State Magnetoencephalographic Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily A Vakorin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate means to detect mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI using objective and quantitative measures remain elusive. Conventional imaging typically detects no abnormalities despite post-concussive symptoms. In the present study, we recorded resting state magnetoencephalograms (MEG from adults with mTBI and controls. Atlas-guided reconstruction of resting state activity was performed for 90 cortical and subcortical regions, and calculation of inter-regional oscillatory phase synchrony at various frequencies was performed. We demonstrate that mTBI is associated with reduced network connectivity in the delta and gamma frequency range (>30 Hz, together with increased connectivity in the slower alpha band (8-12 Hz. A similar temporal pattern was associated with correlations between network connectivity and the length of time between the injury and the MEG scan. Using such resting state MEG network synchrony we were able to detect mTBI with 88% accuracy. Classification confidence was also correlated with clinical symptom severity scores. These results provide the first evidence that imaging of MEG network connectivity, in combination with machine learning, has the potential to accurately detect and determine the severity of mTBI.

  8. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  9. Neural control of phrenic motoneuron discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Ze; Fuller, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Phrenic motoneurons (PMNs) provide a synaptic relay between bulbospinal respiratory pathways and the diaphragm muscle. PMNs also receive propriospinal inputs, although the functional role of these interneuronal projections has not been established. Here we review the literature regarding PMN discharge patterns during breathing and the potential mechanisms that underlie PMN recruitment. Anatomical and neurophysiological studies indicate that PMNs form a heterogeneous pool, with respiratory-related PMN discharge and recruitment patterns likely determined by a balance between intrinsic MN properties and extrinsic synaptic inputs. We also review the limited literature regarding PMN bursting during respiratory plasticity. Differential recruitment or rate modulation of PMN subtypes may underlie phrenic motor plasticity following neural injury and/or respiratory stimulation; however this possibility remains relatively unexplored. PMID:21376841

  10. Activity flow over resting-state networks shapes cognitive task activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W; Ito, Takuya; Bassett, Danielle S; Schultz, Douglas H

    2016-12-01

    Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) has helped reveal the intrinsic network organization of the human brain, yet its relevance to cognitive task activations has been unclear. Uncertainty remains despite evidence that resting-state FC patterns are highly similar to cognitive task activation patterns. Identifying the distributed processes that shape localized cognitive task activations may help reveal why resting-state FC is so strongly related to cognitive task activations. We found that estimating task-evoked activity flow (the spread of activation amplitudes) over resting-state FC networks allowed prediction of cognitive task activations in a large-scale neural network model. Applying this insight to empirical functional MRI data, we found that cognitive task activations can be predicted in held-out brain regions (and held-out individuals) via estimated activity flow over resting-state FC networks. This suggests that task-evoked activity flow over intrinsic networks is a large-scale mechanism explaining the relevance of resting-state FC to cognitive task activations.

  11. Regional homogeneity and resting state functional connectivity: associations with exposure to early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Noah S; Kuras, Yuliya I; Valentine, Thomas R; Sweet, Lawrence H; Tyrka, Audrey R; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L

    2013-12-30

    Early life stress (ELS) confers risk for psychiatric illness. Previous literature suggests ELS is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in adulthood, but there are no studies of resting-state neuronal activity in this population. This study investigated whether ELS-exposed individuals demonstrate resting-state activity patterns similar to those found in PTSD. Twenty-seven adults (14 with at least moderate ELS), who were medication-free and without psychiatric or medical illness, underwent MRI scans during two 4-minute rest periods. Resting-state activity was examined using regional homogeneity (ReHo), which estimates regional activation patterns through indices of localized concordance. ReHo values were compared between groups, followed by rs-FC analyses utilizing ReHo-localized areas as seeds to identify other involved regions. Relative to controls, ELS subjects demonstrated diminished ReHo in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and superior temporal gyrus (STG). ReHo values were inversely correlated with ELS severity. Secondary analyses revealed decreased rs-FC between the IPL and right precuneus/posterior cingulate, left fusiform gyrus, cerebellum and caudate in ELS subjects. These findings indicate that ELS is associated with altered resting-state activity and connectivity in brain regions involved in trauma-related psychiatric disorders. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether these associations represent potential imaging biomarkers of stress exposure. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Thallium-201 peripheral perfusion scans: feasibility of single-dose, single-day, rest and stress study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.E.; Stewart, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and redistribution kinetics of thallium-201 in the lower extremities were investigated to determine the relationships among the rest, stress, and delayed-stress perfusion studies. The distribution of perfusion when the tracer was administered at rest was compared with that when administered during stress, and the distribution 5 to 6 h after the stress injection. In nine of 10 subjects without peripheral vascular disease, the 5 to 6 h poststress redistribution pattern was unchanged from the stress pattern and was different from the rest pattern. However, in all patients with peripheral vascular disease, the delayed poststress perfusion distribution had greater similarity to the rest pattern and was substantially different from that noted immediately after stress. Using the time frame of this study, the stress and delayed-stress 201 Tl perfusion study of the lower extremities cannot be used to represent true rest perfusion. However, because of the similarity of the delayed-stress to the true rest distribution in abnormals, it may be clinically useful in defining rest and stress alterations

  13. Thallium-201 peripheral perfusion scans: feasibility of single-dose, single-day, rest and stress study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.E.; Stewart, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and redistribution kinetics of thallium-201 in the lower extremities were investigated to determine the relationships among the rest, stress, and delayed-stress perfusion studies. The distribution of perfusion when the tracer was administered at rest was compared with that when administered during stress, and the distribution 5--6 hr after the stress injection. The distribution was evaluated qualitatively by scanning and quantitatively by point counting. In nine of 10 subjects without peripheral vascular disease, the 5--6 poststress redistribution pattern was unchanged from the stress pattern and was different from the rest pattern. However, in all patients with peripheral vascular disease, the delayed poststress perfusion distribution had greater similarity to the rest pattern and was substantially different from that noted immediately after stress. Using the time frame of this study, the stress and delayed-stress 201 Tl perfusion study of the lower extremities cannot be used to represent true rest perfusion. However, because of the similarity of the delayed-stress to the true rest distribution in abnormals, it may be clinically useful in defining rest and stress alterations

  14. The Impacts of Climate Change on the Discharge of Osse-Ossiomo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a strong evidence of global warming using the index of temperature in the drainage basin. River discharge also indicated fluctuating trends from year to year in the decades with available discharge records. It was concluded that the river discharge pattern of Osse-Ossiomo River Basin, S. W. Nigeria exhibited ...

  15. Vessel Sewage Discharges: No-Discharge Zones (NDZs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    States may petition the EPA to establish areas, called no discharge zones (NDZs), where vessel sewage discharges are prohibited. This page describes how NDZs are designated, the types of designations, who enforces them, and how to comply.

  16. Anastomosing Rivers are Disequilibrium Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavooi, E.; Haas, de T.; Kleinhans, M.G.; Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    Anastomosing rivers have multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins. Various theories have been proposed to explain this pattern, including an increased discharge conveyance and sediment transport capacity of multiple channels, or, alternatively, a tendency to avulse due to upstream

  17. Resting-state FMRI confounds and cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin; Birn, Rasmus M.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is to investigate the brain’s functional connections by using the temporal similarity between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals in different regions of the brain “at rest” as an indicator of synchronous neural activity. Since this measure relies on the temporal correlation of FMRI signal changes between different parts of the brain, any non-neural activity-related process that affects the signals will influence the measure of functional connectivity, yielding spurious results. To understand the sources of these resting-state FMRI confounds, this article describes the origins of the BOLD signal in terms of MR physics and cerebral physiology. Potential confounds arising from motion, cardiac and respiratory cycles, arterial CO2 concentration, blood pressure/cerebral autoregulation, and vasomotion are discussed. Two classes of techniques to remove confounds from resting-state BOLD time series are reviewed: 1) those utilising external recordings of physiology and 2) data-based cleanup methods that only use the resting-state FMRI data itself. Further methods that remove noise from functional connectivity measures at a group level are also discussed. For successful interpretation of resting-state FMRI comparisons and results, noise cleanup is an often over-looked but essential step in the analysis pipeline. PMID:23571418

  18. Monitoring of lightning discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a brief description of a lightning discharge recording system developed at the NPO 'Monitoring Techniques' under the direction of V.M. Moskolenko (Moscow). The system provides information about dangerous environmental occurrences such as tornados and hurricanes, making the forecast of extreme situations possible, especially in the areas of dangerous industries and objects. The created automatic system can be useful in solving the tasks relating to nuclear test monitoring. (author)

  19. Underwater Ship Husbandry Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    which entered into force in September of 2008, prohibits the use of harmful organotins such as tributyltin ( TBT ) in AFCs used on international...States. The use of TBT AFCs is explicitly prohibited under the VGP, and vessels must remove such coatings or paint over them to prevent toxic ...to hull husbandry include (1) the discharge of toxic chemicals used as biocides in AFCs and (2) biofouling as a vector for aquatic nuisance species

  20. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  1. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  2. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats Authors: Gary E. Hatch, John McKee, James Brown, Bill McDonnell, Elston Seal, Joleen Soukup, Ralph Slade, Kay Crissman and Robert Devlin, National Health and Environmental...

  3. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  4. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alexander eDiaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ. Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after five minutes eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer’s disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease.

  5. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, B. Alexander; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Migliorati, Filippo; Stoffers, Diederick; Den Braber, Anouk; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Hardstone, Richard; Van't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ). Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after 5 min eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer's disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease. PMID:23964225

  6. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  7. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  8. Resilience of developing brain networks to interictal epileptiform discharges is associated with cognitive outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, George M; Cassel, Daniel; Morgan, Benjamin R; Smith, Mary Lou; Otsubo, Hiroshi; Ochi, Ayako; Taylor, Margot; Rutka, James T; Snead, O Carter; Doesburg, Sam

    2014-10-01

    The effects of interictal epileptiform discharges on neurocognitive development in children with medically-intractable epilepsy are poorly understood. Such discharges may have a deleterious effect on the brain's intrinsic connectivity networks, which reflect the organization of functional networks at rest, and in turn on neurocognitive development. Using a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging-magnetoencephalography approach, we examine the effects of interictal epileptiform discharges on intrinsic connectivity networks and neurocognitive outcome. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the location of regions comprising various intrinsic connectivity networks in 26 children (7-17 years), and magnetoencephalography data were reconstructed from these locations. Inter-regional phase synchronization was then calculated across interictal epileptiform discharges and graph theoretical analysis was applied to measure event-related changes in network topology in the peri-discharge period. The magnitude of change in network topology (network resilience/vulnerability) to interictal epileptiform discharges was associated with neurocognitive outcomes and functional magnetic resonance imaging networks using dual regression. Three main findings are reported: (i) large-scale network changes precede and follow interictal epileptiform discharges; (ii) the resilience of network topologies to interictal discharges is associated with stronger resting-state network connectivity; and (iii) vulnerability to interictal discharges is associated with worse neurocognitive outcomes. By combining the spatial resolution of functional magnetic resonance imaging with the temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography, we describe the effects of interictal epileptiform discharges on neurophysiological synchrony in intrinsic connectivity networks and establish the impact of interictal disruption of functional networks on cognitive outcome in children with epilepsy. The

  9. Synchronized Bilateral Synaptic Inputs to Drosophila melanogaster Neuropeptidergic Rest/Arousal Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, E. V.; Wu, Y.; deCarvalho, T.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropeptide PDF (pigment-dispersing factor)-secreting large ventrolateral neurons (lLN(v)s) in the Drosophila brain regulate daily patterns of rest and arousal. These bilateral wake-promoting neurons are light responsive and integrate information from the circadian system, sleep circuits...

  10. Time of acquisition and network stability in pediatric resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.H. White (Tonya); R.L. Muetzel (Ryan); M. Schmidt (Marcus); S.J.E. Langeslag (Sandra); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractResting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been shown to elucidate reliable patterns of brain networks in both children and adults. Studies in adults have shown that rs-fMRI acquisition times of ∼5 to 6 min provide adequate sampling to produce stable spatial maps

  11. Continuous pile discharging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.P.

    1976-01-01

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug. 7 claims, 10 drawing figures

  12. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F [High Current Electronics Institute, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-07

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications.

  13. Capacitive discharge exciplex lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnin, E A; Erofeev, M V; Tarasenko, V F

    2005-01-01

    Simple-geometry exciplex lamps of a novel type excited by a capacitive discharge (CD-excilamps) have been investigated. An efficient radiation has been obtained on KrBr*, KrCl*, XeBr*, XeCl* molecules and I* atom. The highest values of efficiency of various working molecules are approximately 10-18%. The lifetime of the operating gas mixture in KrCl*, XeCl*, I* and XeBr* exciplex lamps excited by a CD is above 1000 h. Owing to the above-mentioned characteristics, the exciplex lamps excited by a CD are supposed to be very promising for various applications

  14. Continuous pile discharging machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillips P.

    1976-05-11

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  15. 1 SHORT COMMUNICATION Resting behaviour of Anopheles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... Resting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and its implication on malaria .... nature) were requested to sleep under the double mosquito net trap (one ... designed from the DNA sequences of the intergenic spacer region of ...

  16. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    2012-01-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  17. [Creep of amalgam fillings under clasp rests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, L; Jung, T; West, M

    1989-10-01

    A clinically realistic experiment was set up to obtain information on the amount of vertical settling of clasp rests in amalgam restorations under functional loading. Mesioocclusal cavities were prepared in 16 lower molar specimens cast in brass. The cavities were filled with amalgam and provided with a mesial rest seat. A constant load of 100 N was applied via a simplified (experimental) saddle to a cobalt-chromium E-clasp cast to the saddle. The duration of the load corresponded to 160 days of clinical function. The chronological course of vertical displacement was analyzed mathematically. According to this result the process can be divided into three components: settling immediately upon load initiation (mean value 96 microns, transition creep (mean value 25 microns) and creep ata constant rate (mean value 15 microns). The mean overall vertical displacement of the rests was 136 microns, the maximum value 287 microns. These findings suggest that vertical settling of a clasp rest into its seat in an amalgam restoration may eventually result in significant changes in occlusion and may almost completely exhaust gingival resilience.

  18. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  19. REST: a toolkit for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Song

    Full Text Available Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI has been drawing more and more attention in recent years. However, a publicly available, systematically integrated and easy-to-use tool for RS-fMRI data processing is still lacking. We developed a toolkit for the analysis of RS-fMRI data, namely the RESting-state fMRI data analysis Toolkit (REST. REST was developed in MATLAB with graphical user interface (GUI. After data preprocessing with SPM or AFNI, a few analytic methods can be performed in REST, including functional connectivity analysis based on linear correlation, regional homogeneity, amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF, and fractional ALFF. A few additional functions were implemented in REST, including a DICOM sorter, linear trend removal, bandpass filtering, time course extraction, regression of covariates, image calculator, statistical analysis, and slice viewer (for result visualization, multiple comparison correction, etc.. REST is an open-source package and is freely available at http://www.restfmri.net.

  20. Cryogenic high current discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meierovich, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Z-pinches formed from frozen deuterium fibers by a rapidly rising current have enhanced stability and high neutron yield. The efforts to understand the enhanced stability and neutron yield on the basis of classical picture of Bennett equilibrium of the current channel has not given satisfactory results. The traditional approach does not take into account the essential difference between the frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinches and the usual Z-pinches such as exploding wires or classical gas-puffed Z-pinches. The very low temperature of the fiber atoms (10 K), together with the rapidly rising current, result in the coexistence of a high current channel with unionized fiber atoms for a substantial period of time. This phenomena lasts during the risetime. This approach takes into account the difference of the breakdown in a dielectric deuterium fiber and the breakdown in a metallic wire. This difference is essential to the understanding of specific features of cryogenic high current discharges. Z-pinches in frozen deuterium fibers should be considered as a qualitatively new phenomenon on the boundary of cryogenic and high current physics. It is a start of a new branch in plasma physics: the physics of cryogenic high current discharges

  1. Energy landscapes of resting-state brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu eWatanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During rest, the human brain performs essential functions such as memory maintenance, which are associated with resting-state brain networks (RSNs including the default-mode network (DMN and frontoparietal network (FPN. Previous studies based on spiking-neuron network models and their reduced models, as well as those based on imaging data, suggest that resting-state network activity can be captured as attractor dynamics, i.e., dynamics of the brain state toward an attractive state and transitions between different attractors. Here, we analyze the energy landscapes of the RSNs by applying the maximum entropy model, or equivalently the Ising spin model, to human RSN data. We use the previously estimated parameter values to define the energy landscape, and the disconnectivity graph method to estimate the number of local energy minima (equivalent to attractors in attractor dynamics, the basin size, and hierarchical relationships among the different local minima. In both of the DMN and FPN, low-energy local minima tended to have large basins. A majority of the network states belonged to a basin of one of a few local minima. Therefore, a small number of local minima constituted the backbone of each RSN. In the DMN, the energy landscape consisted of two groups of low-energy local minima that are separated by a relatively high energy barrier. Within each group, the activity patterns of the local minima were similar, and different minima were connected by relatively low energy barriers. In the FPN, all dominant energy were separated by relatively low energy barriers such that they formed a single coarse-grained global minimum. Our results indicate that multistable attractor dynamics may underlie the DMN, but not the FPN, and assist memory maintenance with different memory states.

  2. Trading shallow safety for deep sleep: Juvenile green turtles select deeper resting sites as they grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; White, Connor F.; Iverson, Autumn R.; Whitney, Nick

    2016-01-01

    To better protect endangered green sea turtles Chelonia mydas, a more thorough understanding of the behaviors of each life stage is needed. Although dive profile analyses obtained using time-depth loggers have provided some insights into habitat use, recent work has shown that more fine-scale monitoring of body movements is needed to elucidate physical activity patterns. We monitored 11 juvenile green sea turtles with tri-axial acceleration data loggers in their foraging grounds in Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA, for periods ranging from 43 to 118 h (mean ± SD: 72.8 ± 27.3 h). Approximately half of the individuals (n = 5) remained in shallow (overall mean depth less than 2 m) water throughout the experiment, whereas the remaining individuals (n = 6) made excursions to deeper (4 to 27 m) waters, often at night. Despite these differences in depth use, acceleration data revealed a consistent pattern of diurnal activity and nocturnal resting in most individuals. Nocturnal depth differences thus do not appear to represent differences in behavior, but rather different strategies to achieve the same behavior: rest. We calculated overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) to assess the relative energetic cost of each behavioral strategy in an attempt to explain the differences between them. Animals in deeper water experienced longer resting dives, more time resting per hour, and lower mean hourly ODBA. These results suggest that resting in deeper water provides energetic benefits that outweigh the costs of transiting to deep water and a potential increased risk of predation.

  3. Functional connectivity analysis of the brain network using resting-state fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Spatial patterns of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals reflect the underlying neural architecture. The study of the brain network based on these self-organized patterns is termed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). This review article aims at briefly reviewing a basic concept of this technology and discussing its implications for neuropsychological studies. First, the technical aspects of resting-state fMRI, including signal sources, physiological artifacts, image acquisition, and analytical methods such as seed-based correlation analysis and independent component analysis, are explained, followed by a discussion on the major resting-state networks, including the default mode network. In addition, the structure-function correlation studied using diffuse tensor imaging and resting-state fMRI is briefly discussed. Second, I have discussed the reservations and potential pitfalls of 2 major imaging methods: voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and task fMRI. Problems encountered with voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping can be overcome by using resting-state fMRI and evaluating undamaged brain networks in patients. Regarding task fMRI in patients, I have also emphasized the importance of evaluating the baseline brain activity because the amplitude of activation in BOLD fMRI is hard to interpret as the same baseline cannot be assumed for both patient and normal groups. (author)

  4. Diffusion of condenser water discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakiri, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    Thermal and nuclear power stations in Japan are mostly located in coastal area, and the cooling water is discharged into sea as warm water. Recently, large interest is taken in this matter, and it is desirable to predict the diffusion of warm discharge accurately and to take effective measures for lowering the temperature. As for the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, simplified estimation, mathematical analysis and hydrographical model experiment are used corresponding to objects and conditions. As for the measures to lower temperature, the method of discharging warm water into deep sea bottom was confirmed to be very effective. In this paper, the phenomena of diffusion of warm discharge in sea, the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, and the deep sea discharge as the measure for lowering temperature are outlined. The factors concerning the diffusion of warm discharge in sea are the conditions of discharge, topography and sea state, and the diffusion is roughly divided into mixing diffusion in the vicinity of warm water outlet and eddy diffusion in distant region. It is difficult to change artificially the conditions of diffusion in distant region, and the measures of raising the rate of dilution in near region are effective, therefore the deep sea discharge is adopted. (Kako, I.)

  5. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive direct coronary artery bypass - discharge; MIDCAB - discharge; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass - discharge; RACAB - discharge; Keyhole ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  6. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not KidsHealth / For Teens / ... Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Print What Is Vaginal Discharge? Vaginal discharge is fluid that comes from ...

  7. Analysis of Multipactor Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Y. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Several comprehensive studies of radio frequency (rf) breakdown and rf heating are reported. They are of general interest to magnetic confinement fusion, rf linac, and high power microwave source development. The major results include: (1) a ground-breaking theory of multipactor discharge on dielectric, including a successful proof-of-principle experiment that verified the newly developed scaling laws, (2) an in depth investigation of the failure mechanisms of diamond windows and ceramic windows, and of the roles of graphitization, thin films of coating and contaminants, and (3) a most comprehensive theory, to date, on the heating of particulates by an electromagnetic pulse, and on the roles of rf magnetic field heating and of rf electric field heating, including the construction of new scaling laws that govern them. The above form a valuable knowledge base for the general problem of heating phenomenology

  8. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  9. Practical Implementation of 10 Rules for Writing REST APIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Hradil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a practical implementation of “10 Rules for Writing REST APIs introduced in the article” (Hradil, 2016. The application is done in Invoice Home (Wikilane, 2016, an invoicing web application for small business and entrepreneurs available world-wide. The API is implemented in JSON hypermedia format (ECMA International, 2016 and with Ruby on Rails framework (Hansson, 2016. The main purpose of the API is to allow connection of Invoice Home with external systems and offer Invoice Home data in simpler format compared to the current HTML format of the full-stack web application. The paper could be also used as a basic template or pattern for any other implementation of the JSON API in any web-based application.

  10. Stage-discharge rating curves based on satellite altimetry and modeled discharge in the Amazon basin

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Adrien; Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Calmant, Stephane; Garambois, Pierre-André; Collischonn, Walter; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frederique

    2016-01-01

    In this study, rating curves (RCs) were determined by applying satellite altimetry to a poorly gauged basin. This study demonstrates the synergistic application of remote sensing and watershed modeling to capture the dynamics and quantity of flow in the Amazon River Basin, respectively. Three major advancements for estimating basin-scale patterns in river discharge are described. The first advancement is the preservation of the hydrological meanings of the parameters expressed by ...

  11. Annihilation of antiproton on deuteron at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.; Shmatikov, M.

    1982-01-01

    The system of Faddeev equations for amplitudes of anti pD iteraction at rest accounting for higher partial anti NN waves is derived. From its solution the total and elastic anti pD cross sections are calculated. Predictions for the missing-mass spectrum in the anti pD annihilation are made. The P-wave anti NN states give small contribution to the anti pD cross section at rest, the theoretical value of the latter being less than the experimental cross section extrapolated to the threshold. Let us emphasize that the total anti pD cross section depending weakly on the radii of anti NN interactions is sensitive to the values of the anti NN scattering lengths. Experimental data for anti pD cross sections at rest can be obtained only by extrapolation procedure. Henceforth it is very important to investigate the anti pD interactions at low but non-zero momenta where the direct comparison to the experiment is possible [ru

  12. Dicarboxylic acids from electric discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitman, B.; Chang, S.; Lawless, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted concerning the possible synthesis of a suite of dicarboxylic acids similar to that found in the Murchison meteorite. The investigation included the conduction of a chemical evolution experiment which simulated electric discharge through the primitive atmosphere of the earth. The suite of dicarboxylic acids obtained in the electric discharge experiment is similar to that of the Murchison meteorite, except for the fact that 2-chlorosuccinic acid is present in the spark discharge.

  13. Dielectric fluid directional spreading under the action of corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shangru; Liu, Jie; Hu, Qun; Jiang, Teng; Yang, Jinchu; Liu, Sheng; Zheng, Huai

    2018-01-01

    Liquid spreading is a very common nature phenomenon and of significant importance for a broad range of applications. In this study, a dielectric fluid directional spreading phenomenon is presented. Under the action of corona discharge, a dielectric fluid, here a typical silicone directionally spreads along conductive patterns on conductive/nonconductive substrates. Directional spreading behaviors of silicone were experimentally observed on different conductive patterns in detail. Spreading speeds were analyzed at different driving voltages, which induced the corona discharge. The presented phenomenon may be useful to inspire several techniques of manipulating liquid transportation and fabricating micropatterns.

  14. Maximum discharge rate of liquid-vapor mixtures from vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.

    1975-09-01

    A discrepancy exists in theoretical predictions of the two-phase equilibrium discharge rate from pipes attached to vessels. Theory which predicts critical flow data in terms of pipe exit pressure and quality severely overpredicts flow rates in terms of vessel fluid properties. This study shows that the discrepancy is explained by the flow pattern. Due to decompression and flashing as fluid accelerates into the pipe entrance, the maximum discharge rate from a vessel is limited by choking of a homogeneous bubbly mixture. The mixture tends toward a slip flow pattern as it travels through the pipe, finally reaching a different choked condition at the pipe exit

  15. Task vs. rest—different network configurations between the coactivation and the resting-state brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xin; Gohel, Suril; Kim, Eun H.; Biswal, Bharat B.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in studies of human brain networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, it is unclear whether and how brain networks measured during the resting-state exhibit comparable properties to brain networks during task performance. In the present study, we investigated meta-analytic coactivation patterns among brain regions based upon published neuroimaging studies, and compared the coactivation network configurations with those in the resting-state network. The strength of resting-state functional connectivity between two regions were strongly correlated with the coactivation strength. However, the coactivation network showed greater global efficiency, smaller mean clustering coefficient, and lower modularity compared with the resting-state network, which suggest a more efficient global information transmission and between system integrations during task performing. Hub shifts were also observed within the thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex. The thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex exhibited higher and lower degrees, respectively in the coactivation network compared with the resting-state network. These results shed light regarding the reconfiguration of the brain networks between task and resting-state conditions, and highlight the role of the thalamus in change of network configurations in task vs. rest. PMID:24062654

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain at rest--exploring EEG microstates as electrophysiological signatures of BOLD resting state networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Han; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2012-05-01

    Neuroimaging research suggests that the resting cerebral physiology is characterized by complex patterns of neuronal activity in widely distributed functional networks. As studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal, the resting brain activity is associated with slowly fluctuating hemodynamic signals (~10s). More recently, multimodal functional imaging studies involving simultaneous acquisition of BOLD-fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG) data have suggested that the relatively slow hemodynamic fluctuations of some resting state networks (RSNs) evinced in the BOLD data are related to much faster (~100 ms) transient brain states reflected in EEG signals, that are referred to as "microstates". To further elucidate the relationship between microstates and RSNs, we developed a fully data-driven approach that combines information from simultaneously recorded, high-density EEG and BOLD-fMRI data. Using independent component analysis (ICA) of the combined EEG and fMRI data, we identified thirteen microstates and ten RSNs that are organized independently in their temporal and spatial characteristics, respectively. We hypothesized that the intrinsic brain networks that are active at rest would be reflected in both the EEG data and the fMRI data. To test this hypothesis, the rapid fluctuations associated with each microstate were correlated with the BOLD-fMRI signal associated with each RSN. We found that each RSN was characterized further by a specific electrophysiological signature involving from one to a combination of several microstates. Moreover, by comparing the time course of EEG microstates to that of the whole-brain BOLD signal, on a multi-subject group level, we unraveled for the first time a set of microstate-associated networks that correspond to a range of previously described RSNs, including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, attention, frontal, visceromotor and default mode networks. These

  17. Physical actions and work-rest time in men's beach volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Palao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the ball contacts, jumps, hits, work time, and rest ratio in male beach volleyball players in relation to their tactical roles. The sample of this study included 6970 rallies played by 91 beach volleyball players, which corresponded to 179 sets of the 2008 Men's Beach Volleyball World Tour (FIVB. We analyzed: ball contacts, jumps, hits, work time, rest time, set (first, second or third, and player's tactical role (e.g., defense specialist, blocker, or no specialization. A significantly higher number of jumps were executed by blockers. No differences were found in the third set for any of the physical variables studied. This paper provides references about the physical demands (e.g., contacts, jumps, and hits for blockers and defense specialists and temporal patterns of the beach volleyball game (i.e., work and rest time for two-set matches and three-set matches.

  18. Sex-related differences in amygdala functional connectivity during resting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, L A; Zald, D H; Pardo, J V; Cahill, L F

    2006-04-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have established a sex-related hemispheric lateralization of amygdala involvement in memory for emotionally arousing material. Here, we examine the possibility that sex-related differences in amygdala involvement in memory for emotional material develop from differential patterns of amygdala functional connectivity evident in the resting brain. Seed voxel partial least square analyses of regional cerebral blood flow data revealed significant sex-related differences in amygdala functional connectivity during resting conditions. The right amygdala was associated with greater functional connectivity in men than in women. In contrast, the left amygdala was associated with greater functional connectivity in women than in men. Furthermore, the regions displaying stronger functional connectivity with the right amygdala in males (sensorimotor cortex, striatum, pulvinar) differed from those displaying stronger functional connectivity with the left amygdala in females (subgenual cortex, hypothalamus). These differences in functional connectivity at rest may link to sex-related differences in medical and psychiatric disorders.

  19. Patterns - "A crime solver".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasupriya, A; Dhanapal, Raghu; Reena, K; Saraswathi, Tr; Ramachandran, Cr

    2011-01-01

    This study is intended to analyze the predominant pattern of lip and finger prints in males and females and to correlate lip print and finger print for gender identity. The study sample comprised of 200 students of Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, 100 males and 100 females aged between 18 to 27 years. Brown/pink colored lip stick was applied on the lips and the subject was asked to spread it uniformly over the lips. Lip prints were traced in the normal rest position of the lips with the help of cellophane tape. The imprint of the left thumb was taken on a white chart sheet and visualized using magnifying lens. While three main types of finger prints are identified, the classification of lip prints is simplified into branched, reticular, and vertical types. Association between lip prints and finger prints was statistically tested using Chi-square test. This study showed that lip and finger patterns did not reveal statistically significant results within the gender. The correlation between lip and finger patterns for gender identification, was statistically significant. In males, branched type of lip pattern associated with arch, loop, and whorl type of finger pattern was most significant. In females, vertical lip pattern associated with arch finger pattern and reticular lip pattern associated with whorl finger patterns were most significant. We conclude that a correlative study between the lip print and finger print will be very useful in forensic science for gender identification.

  20. Spectrum of vaginal discharge in a tertiary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaranjini, R; Jaisankar, Tj; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Kumari, Rashmi; Chandrasekhar, Laxmisha; Malathi, M; Parija, Sc; Habeebullah, S

    2013-07-01

    Vaginal discharge is one of the common reasons for gynecological consultation. Many of the causes of vaginitis have a disturbed vaginal microbial ecosystem associated with them. Effective treatment of vaginal discharge requires that the etiologic diagnosis be established and identifying the same offers a precious input to syndromic management and provides an additional strategy for human immunodeficiency virus prevention. The present study was thus carried out to determine the various causes of vaginal discharge in a tertiary care setting. A total of 400 women presenting with vaginal discharge of age between 20 and 50 years, irrespective of marital status were included in this study and women who had used antibiotics or vaginal medication in the previous 14 days and pregnant women were excluded. Of the 400 women with vaginal discharge studied, a diagnosis was established in 303 women. Infectious causes of vaginal discharge were observed in 207 (51.75%) women. Among them, bacterial vaginosis was the most common cause seen in 105 (26.25%) women. The other infections observed were candidiasis alone (61, 15.25%), trichomoniasis alone (12, 3%), mixed infections (22, 5.5%) and mucopurulent cervicitis (7 of the 130 cases looked for, 8.46%). Among the non-infectious causes, 72 (18%) women had physiological vaginal discharge and 13 (3.3%) women had cervical in situ cancers/carcinoma cervix. The pattern of infectious causes of vaginal discharge observed in our study was comparable with the other studies in India. Our study emphasizes the need for including Papanicolaou smear in the algorithm for evaluation of vaginal discharge, as it helps establish the etiology of vaginal discharge reliably and provides a valuable opportunity to screen for cervical malignancies.

  1. Discharge cleaning for a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shigeyuki

    1983-01-01

    Various methods of discharge cleaning for tokamaks are described. The material of the first walls of tokamaks is usually stainless steel, inconel, titanium and so on. Hydrogen is exclusively used as the discharge gas. Glow discharge cleaning (GDC), Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), and electron cyclotron resonance discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) are discussed in this paper. The cleaning by GDC is made by moving a movable anode to the center of a tokamak vassel. Taylor found the good cleaning effect of induced discharge by high pressure and low power discharge. This is called TDC. When the frequency of high frequency discharge in a magnetic field is equal to that of the electron cyclotron resonance, the break down potential is lowered if the pressure is sufficiently low. The ECR-CD is made by using this effect. In TDC and ECR-DC, the electron temperature, which has a close relation to the production rate of H 0 , can be controlled by the pressure. In GDC, the operating pressure was improved by the radio frequency glow (RG) method. However, there is still the danger of arcing. In case of GDC and ECR-DC, the position of plasma can be controlled, but not in case of TDC. The TDC is accepted by most of takamak devices in the world. (Kato, T.)

  2. The practice of terminal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Murugam, Vengadasalam; Quah, Daniel Song Chiek

    2017-01-01

    'Terminal discharges' are carried out in Singapore for patients who wish to die at home. However, if due diligence is not exercised, parallels may be drawn with euthanasia. We present a theoretical discussion beginning with the definition of terminal discharges and the reasons why they are carried out in Singapore. By considering the intention behind terminal discharges and utilising a multidisciplinary team to deliberate on the clinical, social and ethical intricacies with a patient- and context-specific approach, euthanasia is avoided. It is hoped that this will provide a platform for professionals in palliative medicine to negotiate challenging issues when arranging a terminal discharge, so as to avoid the pitfall of committing euthanasia in a country such as Singapore where euthanasia is illegal. It is hoped that a set of guidelines for terminal discharges may someday be realised to assist professionals in Singapore and around the world.

  3. The ASDEX Upgrade discharge schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, G.; Engelhardt, K.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.

    2007-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade's recently commissioned discharge control system (DCS) marks the transition from a traditional programmed system to a highly flexible 'data driven' one. The allocation of application processes (APs) to controllers, the interconnection of APs through uniquely named signals, and AP control parameter values are all defined as data, and can easily be adapted to the requirements of a particular discharge. The data is laid down in a set of XML documents which APs request via HTTP from a configuration server before a discharge. The use of XML allows for easy parsing, and structural validation through (XSD) schemas. The central input to the configuration process is the discharge schedule (DS), which embodies the dynamic behaviour of a planned discharge as reference trajectories grouped in segments, concatenated through transition conditions. Editing, generation and validation tools, and version control through CVS allow for efficient management of DSs

  4. Task-rest modulation of basal ganglia connectivity in mild to moderate Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C; Poston, Kathleen L; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG-cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen-medial parietal and pallidum-occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate-supramarginal gyrus and pallidum-inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal-cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate-prefrontal, caudate-precuneus, and putamen-motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance.

  5. Task-Rest Modulation of Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Mild to Moderate Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C.; Poston, Kathleen L.; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M.; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG–cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen–medial parietal and pallidum–occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate–supramarginal gyrus and pallidum–inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal–cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate–prefrontal, caudate–precuneus, and putamen–motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance. PMID:25280970

  6. A resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study of concussion in collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, Suzanne M; Sikoglu, Elif M; Liso Navarro, Ana A; McCafferty, Joseph; Eisenstock, Jordan; Stevenson, J Herbert; King, Jean A; Moore, Constance M

    2015-06-01

    Sports-related concussions are currently diagnosed through multi-domain assessment by a medical professional and may utilize neurocognitive testing as an aid. However, these tests have only been able to detect differences in the days to week post-concussion. Here, we investigate a measure of brain function, namely resting state functional connectivity, which may detect residual brain differences in the weeks to months after concussion. Twenty-one student athletes (9 concussed within 6 months of enrollment; 12 non-concussed; between ages 18 and 22 years) were recruited for this study. All participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task and the Color-Word Interference Test. Neuroimaging data, specifically resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data, were acquired to examine resting state functional connectivity. Two sample t-tests were used to compare the neurocognitive scores and resting state functional connectivity patterns among concussed and non-concussed participants. Correlations between neurocognitive scores and resting state functional connectivity measures were also determined across all subjects. There were no significant differences in neurocognitive performance between concussed and non-concussed groups. Concussed subjects had significantly increased connections between areas of the brain that underlie executive function. Across all subjects, better neurocognitive performance corresponded to stronger brain connectivity. Even at rest, brains of concussed athletes may have to 'work harder' than their healthy peers to achieve similar neurocognitive results. Resting state brain connectivity may be able to detect prolonged brain differences in concussed athletes in a more quantitative manner than neurocognitive test scores.

  7. Broadband Electrophysiological Dynamics Contribute to Global Resting-State fMRI Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Haiguang; Liu, Zhongming

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous activity observed with resting-state fMRI is used widely to uncover the brain's intrinsic functional networks in health and disease. Although many networks appear modular and specific, global and nonspecific fMRI fluctuations also exist and both pose a challenge and present an opportunity for characterizing and understanding brain networks. Here, we used a multimodal approach to investigate the neural correlates to the global fMRI signal in the resting state. Like fMRI, resting-state power fluctuations of broadband and arrhythmic, or scale-free, macaque electrocorticography and human magnetoencephalography activity were correlated globally. The power fluctuations of scale-free human electroencephalography (EEG) were coupled with the global component of simultaneously acquired resting-state fMRI, with the global hemodynamic change lagging the broadband spectral change of EEG by ∼5 s. The levels of global and nonspecific fluctuation and synchronization in scale-free population activity also varied across and depended on arousal states. Together, these results suggest that the neural origin of global resting-state fMRI activity is the broadband power fluctuation in scale-free population activity observable with macroscopic electrical or magnetic recordings. Moreover, the global fluctuation in neurophysiological and hemodynamic activity is likely modulated through diffuse neuromodulation pathways that govern arousal states and vigilance levels. This study provides new insights into the neural origin of resting-state fMRI. Results demonstrate that the broadband power fluctuation of scale-free electrophysiology is globally synchronized and directly coupled with the global component of spontaneous fMRI signals, in contrast to modularly synchronized fluctuations in oscillatory neural activity. These findings lead to a new hypothesis that scale-free and oscillatory neural processes account for global and modular patterns of functional connectivity observed

  8. Functional Connectivity of Resting Hemodynamic Signals in Submillimeter Orientation Columns of the Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasireddi, Anil K; Vazquez, Alberto L; Whitney, David E; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2016-09-07

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has been increasingly used for examining connectivity across brain regions. The spatial scale by which hemodynamic imaging can resolve functional connections at rest remains unknown. To examine this issue, deoxyhemoglobin-weighted intrinsic optical imaging data were acquired from the visual cortex of lightly anesthetized ferrets. The neural activity of orientation domains, which span a distance of 0.7-0.8 mm, has been shown to be correlated during evoked activity and at rest. We performed separate analyses to assess the degree to which the spatial and temporal characteristics of spontaneous hemodynamic signals depend on the known functional organization of orientation columns. As a control, artificial orientation column maps were generated. Spatially, resting hemodynamic patterns showed a higher spatial resemblance to iso-orientation maps than artificially generated maps. Temporally, a correlation analysis was used to establish whether iso-orientation domains are more correlated than orthogonal orientation domains. After accounting for a significant decrease in correlation as a function of distance, a small but significant temporal correlation between iso-orientation domains was found, which decreased with increasing difference in orientation preference. This dependence was abolished when using artificially synthetized orientation maps. Finally, the temporal correlation coefficient as a function of orientation difference at rest showed a correspondence with that calculated during visual stimulation suggesting that the strength of resting connectivity is related to the strength of the visual stimulation response. Our results suggest that temporal coherence of hemodynamic signals measured by optical imaging of intrinsic signals exists at a submillimeter columnar scale in resting state.

  9. Framework for ReSTful Web Services in OSGi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Mittman, David S.; Fox, Jason M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Wallick, Michael N.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Rabe, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ensemble ReST is a software system that eases the development, deployment, and maintenance of server-side application programs to perform functions that would otherwise be performed by client software. Ensemble ReST takes advantage of the proven disciplines of ReST (Representational State Transfer. ReST leverages the standardized HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites

  10. Nephrogenic rests mimicking Wilms' tumor on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhas, Naveen; Siegelman, Stanley S.; Argani, Pedram; Gearhart, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Nephrogenic rests (NR) are persistent benign remnants of embryonic renal tissue. A small percentage of these may develop into Wilms' tumor (WT). Radiologic imaging is relied upon to differentiate between these entities, with the hallmark of malignant transformation being growth on serial imaging studies. There is, however, considerable overlap in their imaging characteristics. The authors present a case of two biopsy-proven NR in a 2-year-old girl with sporadic aniridia that were indistinguishable from WT on initial radiologic studies. One of the NR grew on serial imaging studies mimicking a WT, but after resection was confirmed to be a benign hyperplastic NR on pathologic examination. (orig.)

  11. Hypoxic responses in resting hyperthermic humans

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This thesis investigated the interaction between steady state hypoxia and passive hyperthermia on human ventilation and the influence of the PETCO2 on this interaction. On one of two days males twice breathed 12% oxygen for 20 min while either normothermic or hyperthermic with PETCO2 clamped -1 mm Hg above resting (iHVR). On the other day the same tests were performed except P&02 was uncontrolled (pHVR). Hyperthermia increased euoxic ventilation compared to normothermia (plO.OO1). During ...

  12. Proton spin structure in the rest frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavada, P.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that the quark-parton model in the standard infinite momentum approach overestimates the proton spin structure function g 1 (x) in comparison with the approach taking consistently into account the internal motion of quarks described by a spherical phase space in the proton rest frame. Particularly, it is shown the first moment of the spin structure function in the latter approach, assuming only the valence quarks contribution to the proton spin, does not contradict the experimental data. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Resting-state functional connectivity remains unaffected by preceding exposure to aversive visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissmann, Léonie; Gschwind, Leo; Schicktanz, Nathalie; Deuring, Gunnar; Rosburg, Timm; Schwegler, Kyrill; Gerhards, Christiane; Milnik, Annette; Pflueger, Marlon O; Mager, Ralph; de Quervain, Dominique J F; Coynel, David

    2018-02-15

    While much is known about immediate brain activity changes induced by the confrontation with emotional stimuli, the subsequent temporal unfolding of emotions has yet to be explored. To investigate whether exposure to emotionally aversive pictures affects subsequent resting-state networks differently from exposure to neutral pictures, a resting-state fMRI study implementing a two-group repeated-measures design in healthy young adults (N = 34) was conducted. We focused on investigating (i) patterns of amygdala whole-brain and hippocampus connectivity in both a seed-to-voxel and seed-to-seed approach, (ii) whole-brain resting-state networks with an independent component analysis coupled with dual regression, and (iii) the amygdala's fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations, all while EEG recording potential fluctuations in vigilance. In spite of the successful emotion induction, as demonstrated by stimuli rating and a memory-facilitating effect of negative emotionality, none of the resting-state measures was differentially affected by picture valence. In conclusion, resting-state networks connectivity as well as the amygdala's low frequency oscillations appear to be unaffected by preceding exposure to widely used emotionally aversive visual stimuli in healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Detecting brain dynamics during resting state: a tensor based evolutionary clustering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-sharoa, Esraa; Al-khassaweneh, Mahmood; Aviyente, Selin

    2017-08-01

    Human brain is a complex network with connections across different regions. Understanding the functional connectivity (FC) of the brain is important both during resting state and task; as disruptions in connectivity patterns are indicators of different psychopathological and neurological diseases. In this work, we study the resting state functional connectivity networks (FCNs) of the brain from fMRI BOLD signals. Recent studies have shown that FCNs are dynamic even during resting state and understanding the temporal dynamics of FCNs is important for differentiating between different conditions. Therefore, it is important to develop algorithms to track the dynamic formation and dissociation of FCNs of the brain during resting state. In this paper, we propose a two step tensor based community detection algorithm to identify and track the brain network community structure across time. First, we introduce an information-theoretic function to reduce the dynamic FCN and identify the time points that are similar topologically to combine them into a tensor. These time points will be used to identify the different FC states. Second, a tensor based spectral clustering approach is developed to identify the community structure of the constructed tensors. The proposed algorithm applies Tucker decomposition to the constructed tensors and extract the orthogonal factor matrices along the connectivity mode to determine the common subspace within each FC state. The detected community structure is summarized and described as FC states. The results illustrate the dynamic structure of resting state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network, somatomotor network, subcortical network and visual network.

  15. Transition into daylight saving time influences the fragmentation of the rest-activity cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulio-Henriksson Annamari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daylight saving time is widely adopted. Little is known about its influence on the daily rest-activity cycles. We decided to explore the effects of transition into daylight saving time on the circadian rhythm of activity. Methods We monitored the rest-activity cycles with the use of wrist-worn accelerometer on a sample of ten healthy adults for ten days around the transition into summer time. Identical protocols were carried out on the same individuals in two consecutive years, yielding data on 200 person-days for analysis in this study. Results There was no significant effect on the rest-activity cycle in the sample as a whole. Fragmentation of the rest-activity cycle was enhanced in a subgroup of persons having sleep for eight hours or less (P = 0.04 but reduced in those who preferred to sleep for more than eight hours per night (P = 0.05. The average level of motor activity was increased in persons having the morning preference for daily activity patterns (P = 0.01. Conclusion Transition into daylight saving time may have a disruptive effect on the rest-activity cycle in those healthy adults who are short-sleepers or more of the evening type.

  16. Does resting-state connectivity reflect depressive rumination? A tale of two analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marc G; Misic, Bratislav; Buschkuehl, Martin; Kross, Ethan; Deldin, Patricia J; Peltier, Scott; Churchill, Nathan W; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Vakorin, Vasily; McIntosh, Anthony R; Jonides, John

    2014-12-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by rumination. Prior research suggests that resting-state brain activation reflects rumination when depressed individuals are not task engaged. However, no study has directly tested this. Here we investigated whether resting-state epochs differ from induced ruminative states for healthy and depressed individuals. Most previous research on resting-state networks comes from seed-based analyses with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). By contrast, we examined resting state connectivity by using the complete multivariate connectivity profile (i.e., connections across all brain nodes) and by comparing these results to seeded analyses. We find that unconstrained resting-state intervals differ from active rumination states in strength of connectivity and that overall connectivity was higher for healthy vs. depressed individuals. Relationships between connectivity and subjective mood (i.e., behavior) were strongly observed during induced rumination epochs. Furthermore, connectivity patterns that related to subjective mood were strikingly different for MDD and healthy control (HC) groups suggesting different mood regulation mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of furosemide on pulmonary blood flow distribution in resting and exercising horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, H. H.; Bernard, S. L.; Glenny, R. W.; Fedde, M. R.; Polissar, N. L.; Basaraba, R. J.; Walther, S. M.; Gaughan, E. M.; McMurphy, R.; Hlastala, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    We determined the spatial distribution of pulmonary blood flow (PBF) with 15-micron fluorescent-labeled microspheres during rest and exercise in five Thoroughbred horses before and 4 h after furosemide administration (0.5 mg/kg iv). The primary finding of this study was that PBF redistribution occurred from rest to exercise, both with and without furosemide. However, there was less blood flow to the dorsal portion of the lung during exercise postfurosemide compared with prefurosemide. Furosemide did alter the resting perfusion distribution by increasing the flow to the ventral regions of the lung; however, that increase in flow was abated with exercise. Other findings included 1) unchanged gas exchange and cardiac output during rest and exercise after vs. before furosemide, 2) a decrease in pulmonary arterial pressure after furosemide, 3) an increase in the slope of the relationship of PBF vs. vertical height up the lung during exercise, both with and without furosemide, and 4) a decrease in blood flow to the dorsal region of the lung at rest after furosemide. Pulmonary perfusion variability within the lung may be a function of the anatomy of the pulmonary vessels that results in a predominantly fixed spatial pattern of flow distribution.

  18. Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality of sheep without enhancing environmental benefits. ... This experiment was established to compare three intensive rotational grazing strategies (fast rotation [FR], average 57-day rest; slow rotation [SR], average 114-day rest; and flexible grazing [FX], based ...

  19. Altered thalamo-cortical resting state functional connectivity in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyan; Bai, Jie; Wang, Caihong; von Deneen, Karen M; Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Jingliang

    2017-07-13

    The thalamus has widespread connections with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and modulates communication between the striatum and PFC, which is crucial to the neural mechanisms of smoking. However, relatively few studies focused on the thalamic resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns and their association with smoking behaviors in smokers. 24 young male smokers and 24 non-smokers were enrolled in our study. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess the nicotine dependence level. The bilateral thalamic RSFC patterns were compared between smokers and non-smokers. The relationship between neuroimaging findings and smoking behaviors (FTND and pack-years) were also investigated in smokers. Relative to nonsmokers, smokers showed reduced RSFC strength between the left thalamus and several brain regions, i.e. the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral caudate. In addition, the right thalamus showed reduced RSFC with the right dlPFC as well as the bilateral insula in smokers. Therefore, the findings in the current study revealed the reduced RSFC of the thalamus with the dlPFC, the ACC, the insula and the caudate in smokers, which provided new insights into the roles of the thalamus in nicotine addiction from a function integration perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of volume and surface charges on discharge structure of glow dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shao-Wei; He, Feng; Wang, Yu; Li, Lulu; Ouyang, Ji-Ting [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2013-08-15

    The effect of volume and surface charges on the structure of glow dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been investigated numerically by using two-dimensional (2D) fluid modeling. The local increase of volume or surface charges induces a kind of activation-inhibition effect, which enhances the local volume discharge and inhibits the discharge in neighborhoods, resulting in non-uniform discharge. The activation-inhibition effect due to the non-uniform volume and/or surface charges depends on the non-uniformity itself and the applied voltage. The activation-inhibition of non-uniform charges has different effects on the volume charges and the accumulated surface charges. The distribution of remaining free charges (seed electrons) in volume at the beginning of voltage pulse plays a key role for the glow DBD structure, resulting in a patterned DBD, when the seed electrons are non-uniform at higher frequency and moderate voltage or uniform DBD, when the seed electrons are uniform at lower frequency or high voltage. The distribution of surface charges is not the determining factor but a result of the formed DBD structure.

  1. Resting State Network Estimation in Individual Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Carl D.; Laumann, Timothy O.; Szrama, Nicholas P.; Baldassarre, Antonello; Snyder, Abraham Z.

    2014-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to study brain networks associated with both normal and pathological cognitive function. The objective of this work is to reliably compute resting state network (RSN) topography in single participants. We trained a supervised classifier (multi-layer perceptron; MLP) to associate blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) correlation maps corresponding to pre-defined seeds with specific RSN identities. Hard classification of maps obtained from a priori seeds was highly reliable across new participants. Interestingly, continuous estimates of RSN membership retained substantial residual error. This result is consistent with the view that RSNs are hierarchically organized, and therefore not fully separable into spatially independent components. After training on a priori seed-based maps, we propagated voxel-wise correlation maps through the MLP to produce estimates of RSN membership throughout the brain. The MLP generated RSN topography estimates in individuals consistent with previous studies, even in brain regions not represented in the training data. This method could be used in future studies to relate RSN topography to other measures of functional brain organization (e.g., task-evoked responses, stimulation mapping, and deficits associated with lesions) in individuals. The multi-layer perceptron was directly compared to two alternative voxel classification procedures, specifically, dual regression and linear discriminant analysis; the perceptron generated more spatially specific RSN maps than either alternative. PMID:23735260

  2. Discharge Planning in Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in health status accompanied by multiple transitions between care settings and care providers. Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities, and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. Objective To determine if discharge planning is effective at reducing health resource utilization and improving patient outcomes compared with standard care alone. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2004, until December 13, 2011. Review Methods Reports, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up and limited to specified chronic conditions were examined. Outcomes included mortality/survival, readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital length of stay (LOS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient satisfaction. Results One meta-analysis compared individualized discharge planning to usual care and found a significant reduction in readmissions favouring individualized discharge planning. A second meta-analysis compared comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support to usual care. There was a significant reduction in readmissions favouring discharge planning with postdischarge support. However, there was significant statistical heterogeneity. For both meta-analyses there was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality between the study arms. Limitations There was difficulty in distinguishing the relative contribution of each element within the terms “discharge planning” and “postdischarge support.” For most studies, “usual care” was not explicitly described. Conclusions Compared with usual care, there was moderate quality evidence that individualized discharge planning is more effective at reducing readmissions or hospital LOS but not mortality, and very low quality evidence that it is more

  3. Recurrent vaginal discharge in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Sharon; Wood, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Childhood vaginal discharge remains a frequent reason for referral from primary to secondary care. The Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) service at Kettering General Hospital was established in 1993 and provides a specialized service that meets the needs of children with gynaecological conditions. To investigate recurrent vaginal discharge noting symptomatology, defining pathogens, common and rarer causes, exploring management regimes, and any changes in practice over time. Retrospective review spanning 15 years identifying prepubertal children attending the outpatient PAG clinic with recurrent vaginal discharge. We reviewed the medical notes individually. 110 patients were identified; 85% were referred from primary care. The age distribution was bimodal at four and eight years. Thirty-five percent of our patients were discharged after the initial consultation. The commonest cause of discharge was vulvovaginitis (82%). Other important causes included suspected sexual abuse (5%), foreign body (3%), labial adhesions (3%), vaginal agenesis (2%). 35% of patients were admitted for vaginoscopy. Vaginal discharge is the most common gynecological symptom in prepubertal girls and can cause repeated clinical episodes. Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause and often responds to simple hygiene measures. Awareness of the less common causes of vaginal discharge is essential. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stage-discharge rating curves based on satellite altimetry and modeled discharge in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Adrien; Dias de Paiva, Rodrigo; Santos da Silva, Joecila; Medeiros Moreira, Daniel; Calmant, Stephane; Garambois, Pierre-André; Collischonn, Walter; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Seyler, Frederique

    2016-05-01

    In this study, rating curves (RCs) were determined by applying satellite altimetry to a poorly gauged basin. This study demonstrates the synergistic application of remote sensing and watershed modeling to capture the dynamics and quantity of flow in the Amazon River Basin, respectively. Three major advancements for estimating basin-scale patterns in river discharge are described. The first advancement is the preservation of the hydrological meanings of the parameters expressed by Manning's equation to obtain a data set containing the elevations of the river beds throughout the basin. The second advancement is the provision of parameter uncertainties and, therefore, the uncertainties in the rated discharge. The third advancement concerns estimating the discharge while considering backwater effects. We analyzed the Amazon Basin using nearly one thousand series that were obtained from ENVISAT and Jason-2 altimetry for more than 100 tributaries. Discharge values and related uncertainties were obtained from the rain-discharge MGB-IPH model. We used a global optimization algorithm based on the Monte Carlo Markov Chain and Bayesian framework to determine the rating curves. The data were randomly allocated into 80% calibration and 20% validation subsets. A comparison with the validation samples produced a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (Ens) of 0.68. When the MGB discharge uncertainties were less than 5%, the Ens value increased to 0.81 (mean). A comparison with the in situ discharge resulted in an Ens value of 0.71 for the validation samples (and 0.77 for calibration). The Ens values at the mouths of the rivers that experienced backwater effects significantly improved when the mean monthly slope was included in the RC. Our RCs were not mission-dependent, and the Ens value was preserved when applying ENVISAT rating curves to Jason-2 altimetry at crossovers. The cease-to-flow parameter of our RCs provided a good proxy for determining river bed elevation. This proxy was validated

  5. Legal aspects of thermal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)

  6. An introduction to gas discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Howatson, A M

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to Gas Discharges: Second Edition aims to provide a compact introduction to the subject of gas discharges, which continues to make both scientific and industrial progress. In this second edition, the author has made minor corrections, rewritten and expanded some sections, used SI units and modernized notions, in hopes of making the book more up to date. Included in the book is a short history of the subject, an introduction that enumerates the types of gas discharges, the fundamental processes, and then moves on to the more specific areas such as the breakdown, the self-sustai

  7. CQI project improves discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    At Gibson Rehab Center in Williamsport, PA, a continuous quality improvement project to bolster the institution's discharge planning process has resulted in increased satisfaction and an award for quality. The 15-month project was spearheaded by a multidisciplinary team charged with identifying areas that had a significant impact on customer service and suggesting better ways of delivering that service. Among the changes the group suggested were establishing a weekly discharge planning group for new neuro patients, assigning a discharge coordinator for each treatment team, and creating an interdisciplinary communication sheet for the home health therapy staff.

  8. "Therapeutic" bed rest in pregnancy: unethical and unsupported by data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Christina A; Grimes, David A; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-06-01

    "Therapeutic" bed rest continues to be used widely, despite evidence of no benefit and known harms. In this commentary, we summarize the Cochrane reviews of bed rest and propose an ethical argument for discontinuing this practice. Cochrane systematic reviews do not support "therapeutic" bed rest for threatened abortion, hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm birth, multiple gestations, or impaired fetal growth. This assessment has been echoed in other comprehensive reviews. Prescribing bed rest is inconsistent with the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice. Hence, if bed rest is to be used, it should be only within a formal clinical trial.

  9. The Ensembl REST API: Ensembl Data for Any Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Andrew; Beal, Kathryn; Keenan, Stephen; McLaren, William; Pignatelli, Miguel; Ritchie, Graham R S; Ruffier, Magali; Taylor, Kieron; Vullo, Alessandro; Flicek, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present a Web service to access Ensembl data using Representational State Transfer (REST). The Ensembl REST server enables the easy retrieval of a wide range of Ensembl data by most programming languages, using standard formats such as JSON and FASTA while minimizing client work. We also introduce bindings to the popular Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor tool permitting large-scale programmatic variant analysis independent of any specific programming language. The Ensembl REST API can be accessed at http://rest.ensembl.org and source code is freely available under an Apache 2.0 license from http://github.com/Ensembl/ensembl-rest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  11. Resting site use of giant pandas in Wanglang Nature Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Li, Junqing

    2017-10-23

    Little is known about the resting sites used by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), which restricts our understanding of their resting habits and limits conservation efforts. To enhance our understanding of resting site requirements and factors affecting the resting time of giant pandas, we investigated the characteristics of resting sites in the Wanglang Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. The results indicated that the resting sites of giant pandas were characterised by a mean slope of 21°, mean nearest tree size of 53.75 cm, mean nearest shrub size of 2.82 cm, and mean nearest bamboo number of 56. We found that the resting sites were closer to bamboo than to trees and shrubs, suggesting that the resting site use of giant pandas is closely related to the presence of bamboo. Considering that giant pandas typically rest near a large-sized tree, protection of large trees in the forests is of considerable importance for the conservation of this species. Furthermore, slope was found to be an important factor affecting the resting time of giant pandas, as they tended to rest for a relatively longer time in sites with a smaller degree of slope.

  12. Quantifying agreement between anatomical and functional interhemispheric correspondences in the resting brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Joon Jo

    Full Text Available The human brain is composed of two broadly symmetric cerebral hemispheres, with an abundance of reciprocal anatomical connections between homotopic locations. However, to date, studies of hemispheric symmetries have not identified correspondency precisely due to variable cortical folding patterns. Here we present a method to establish accurate correspondency using position on the unfolded cortical surface relative to gyral and sulcal landmarks. The landmark method is shown to outperform the method of reversing standard volume coordinates, and it is used to quantify the functional symmetry in resting fMRI data throughout the cortex. Resting brain activity was found to be maximally correlated with locations less than 1 cm away on the cortical surface from the corresponding anatomical location in nearly half of the cortex. While select locations exhibited asymmetric patterns, precise symmetric relationships were found to be the norm, with fine-grained symmetric functional maps demonstrated in motor, occipital, and inferior frontal cortex.

  13. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruritus vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... Common causes of vaginal itching and discharge in young girls include: Chemicals such as perfumes and dyes in detergents, fabric softeners, creams, ointments, ...

  14. Microwave discharges in capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervisevic, Emil

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the study of microwave discharge by a surface wave, and more precisely focusses on the discharge in capillary tubes filled with argon. The author first present theoretical models which describe, on the one hand, the propagation of the surface wave along the plasma column, and, on the other hand, longitudinal and radial profiles of the main discharge characteristics. The second part addresses the study of the influence of parameters (gas pressure and tube radius) on discharge operation and characteristics. Laws of similitude as well as empirical relationships between argon I and argon II emission line intensities, electron density, and electric field in the plasma have been established [fr

  15. Ion source of discharge type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enchevich, I.B. [TRIUMF, Cyclotron Div., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Korenev, S.A. [JINR, Hihg Energy Physics Lab., Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1992-07-01

    A new scheme of ion source based on a dielectric surface sliding discharge is described. The conditions to form this type of discharge are analyzed and experimental results are shown. The main parameters of this ion source are: accelerating voltage U = 1/20kV; continuous extracted ion beam; current density j = 0.01/0.5 A/cm{sup 2}; ions of Cl, F, C, H; residual gas pressure P = 10{sup -6} Torr. A magnetic system is used to separate the different types of ions. The dielectric material in the discharge circuit (anode plasma emitter) defines the type of ions. The emission characteristics of plasma emitter and the discharge parameters are presented. The ion current yield satisfies the Child-Langmuir law. (author)

  16. Ion source of discharge type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enchevich, I.B.; Korenev, S.A.

    1992-07-01

    A new scheme of ion source based on a dielectric surface sliding discharge is described. The conditions to form this type of discharge are analyzed and experimental results are shown. The main parameters of this ion source are: accelerating voltage U = 1/20kV; continuous extracted ion beam; current density j = 0.01/0.5 A/cm 2 ; ions of Cl, F, C, H; residual gas pressure P = 10 -6 Torr. A magnetic system is used to separate the different types of ions. The dielectric material in the discharge circuit (anode plasma emitter) defines the type of ions. The emission characteristics of plasma emitter and the discharge parameters are presented. The ion current yield satisfies the Child-Langmuir law. (author)

  17. Asymmetrical frontal resting-state beta oscillations predict trait aggressive tendencies and behavioral inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Hofman, Dennis; Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetrical patterns of frontal cortical activity have been implicated in the development and expression of aggressive behavior. Along with individual motivational tendencies, the ability to restrain one's impulses might be a factor in aggressive behavior. Recently, a role for the inhibitory cortical beta rhythm was suggested. The present study investigated whether individual differences in resting state asymmetries in the beta frequency band were associated with trait aggression and behavio...

  18. Runaway breakdown and electrical discharges in thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milikh, Gennady; Roussel-Dupré, Robert

    2010-12-01

    This review considers the precise role played by runaway breakdown (RB) in the initiation and development of lightning discharges. RB remains a fundamental research topic under intense investigation. The question of how lightning is initiated and subsequently evolves in the thunderstorm environment rests in part on a fundamental understanding of RB and cosmic rays and the potential coupling to thermal runaway (as a seed to RB) and conventional breakdown (as a source of thermal runaways). In this paper, we describe the basic mechanism of RB and the conditions required to initiate an observable avalanche. Feedback processes that fundamentally enhance RB are discussed, as are both conventional breakdown and thermal runaway. Observations that provide clear evidence for the presence of energetic particles in thunderstorms/lightning include γ-ray and X-ray flux intensifications over thunderstorms, γ-ray and X-ray bursts in conjunction with stepped leaders, terrestrial γ-ray flashes, and neutron production by lightning. Intense radio impulses termed narrow bipolar pulses (or NBPs) provide indirect evidence for RB particularly when measured in association with cosmic ray showers. Our present understanding of these phenomena and their enduring enigmatic character are touched upon briefly.

  19. Radioactive discharges from Sellafield (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This study of low-level liquid radioactive discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd Sellafield site into the eastern basin of the Irish Sea, prepared on the basis of existing publications and documents, reviews chemical forms and rate of discharges, physical oceanography, sediment distribution and fisheries of the Irish Sea, behaviour of radionuclides in seawater, association with sedimentary materials, accumulation of radionuclides by biological materials, environmental monitoring, surveillance and assessment of radiation exposure of the public and impact on the environment

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coughing up dark mucus Your fingertips or the skin around your fingernails are blue Alternative Names COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; ...

  1. Ballooning stability of JET discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huysmans, G.T.A.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Galvao, R.M.O.; Lazzaro, E.; Smeulders, P.

    1989-01-01

    Conditions under which ballooning modes are expected to be excited have recently been obtained in two different types of discharges in JET. In the first type, extremely large pressure gradients have been produced in the plasma core through pellet injections in the current rise phase followed by strong additional heating. In the second type, the total pressure of the discharge is approaching the Troyon limit. The stability of these discharges with respect to the ideal MHD ballooning modes has been studied with the stability code HBT. The equilibria are reconstructed with the IDENTC code using the external magnetic measurements and the experimental pressure profile. The results show that the evaluated high beta discharge is unstable in the central region of the plasma. This instability is related to the low shear and not to a large pressure gradient, as expected at the Troyon limit. In the pellet discharges the regions with the large pressure gradients are unstable to ballooning modes at the time of the beta decay, which ends the period of enhanced performance. The maximum pressure gradient in these discharges is limited by the boundary of the first region of stability. The observed phenomena at the beta decay are similar to those observed at the beta limit in DIII-D and TFTR. (author)

  2. Filamentary and diffuse barrier discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2001-01-01

    Barrier discharges, sometimes also referred to as dielectric-barrier discharges or silent discharges, are characterized by the presence of at least one insulating layer in contact with the discharge between two planar or cylindrical electrodes connected to an ac power supply. The main advantage of this type of electrical discharge is, that non-equilibrium plasma conditions in atmospheric-pressure gases can be established in an economic and reliable way. This has led to a number of important applications including industrial ozone generation, surface modification of polymers, plasma chemical vapor deposition, excitation of CO 2 lasers, excimer lamps and, most recently, large-area flat plasma display panels. Depending on the application, the width of the discharge gap can range from less than 0.1 mm to about 100 mm and the applied frequency from below line frequency to several gigahertz. Typical materials used for the insulating layer (dielectric barrier) are glass, quartz, ceramics but also thin enamel or polymer layers

  3. Resting-State Network Topology Differentiates Task Signals across the Adult Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Micaela Y; Alhazmi, Fahd H; Park, Denise C; Savalia, Neil K; Wig, Gagan S

    2017-03-08

    Brain network connectivity differs across individuals. For example, older adults exhibit less segregated resting-state subnetworks relative to younger adults (Chan et al., 2014). It has been hypothesized that individual differences in network connectivity impact the recruitment of brain areas during task execution. While recent studies have described the spatial overlap between resting-state functional correlation (RSFC) subnetworks and task-evoked activity, it is unclear whether individual variations in the connectivity pattern of a brain area (topology) relates to its activity during task execution. We report data from 238 cognitively normal participants (humans), sampled across the adult life span (20-89 years), to reveal that RSFC-based network organization systematically relates to the recruitment of brain areas across two functionally distinct tasks (visual and semantic). The functional activity of brain areas (network nodes) were characterized according to their patterns of RSFC: nodes with relatively greater connections to nodes in their own functional system ("non-connector" nodes) exhibited greater activity than nodes with relatively greater connections to nodes in other systems ("connector" nodes). This "activation selectivity" was specific to those brain systems that were central to each of the tasks. Increasing age was accompanied by less differentiated network topology and a corresponding reduction in activation selectivity (or differentiation) across relevant network nodes. The results provide evidence that connectional topology of brain areas quantified at rest relates to the functional activity of those areas during task. Based on these findings, we propose a novel network-based theory for previous reports of the "dedifferentiation" in brain activity observed in aging. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Similar to other real-world networks, the organization of brain networks impacts their function. As brain network connectivity patterns differ across

  4. Collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2010-11-01

    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective configuration to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without significant heating of the background gas. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinusoidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or diffuse, laterally homogeneous discharges. The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges are discussed in detail. Special attention is paid to self-organization of current filaments and pattern formation. Major similarities of the two types of barrier discharges are elaborated.

  5. The influence of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate for malaria risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Matthew B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of the mosquito and parasite life-history traits that combine to determine malaria transmission intensity are temperature sensitive. In most cases, the process-based models used to estimate malaria risk and inform control and prevention strategies utilize measures of mean outdoor temperature. Evidence suggests, however, that certain malaria vectors can spend large parts of their adult life resting indoors. Presentation of hypothesis If significant proportions of mosquitoes are resting indoors and indoor conditions differ markedly from ambient conditions, simple use of outdoor temperatures will not provide reliable estimates of malaria transmission intensity. To date, few studies have quantified the differential effects of indoor vs outdoor temperatures explicitly, reflecting a lack of proper understanding of mosquito resting behaviour and associated microclimate. Testing the hypothesis Published records from 8 village sites in East Africa revealed temperatures to be warmer indoors than outdoors and to generally show less daily variation. Exploring the effects of these temperatures on malaria parasite development rate suggested indoor-resting mosquitoes could transmit malaria between 0.3 and 22.5 days earlier than outdoor-resting mosquitoes. These differences translate to increases in transmission risk ranging from 5 to approaching 3,000%, relative to predictions based on outdoor temperatures. The pattern appears robust for low- and highland areas, with differences increasing with altitude. Implications of the hypothesis Differences in indoor vs outdoor environments lead to large differences in the limits and the intensity of malaria transmission. This finding highlights a need to better understand mosquito resting behaviour and the associated microclimate, and to broaden assessments of transmission ecology and risk to consider the potentially important role of endophily.

  6. Sleep and alertness during alternating monophasic and polyphasic rest-activity cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcú, S; Casagrande, M; Ferrara, M; Bellatreccia, A

    1998-07-01

    People involved in shift work often have to face altered patterns of sleep and wakefulness. This is particularly true for schedules involving night shifts and/or fragmentation of duty periods throughout the 24-hr day. In such conditions, it can be difficult to obtain satisfactory periods of sleep, and sleepiness on duty is a frequent and dangerous occurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep and wakefulness periods of subjects whose work schedule was characterized by an alternation of 2 hours of activity and 4 hours of rest (sleep allowed), repeated 4 times throughout the 24-hr day. This schedule was alternated with 24 hours off duty. Nine healthy male volunteers were monitored by means of ambulatory polysomnography while attending their 24-hr rest-activity schedule. Sleep periods were visually scored according to standard criteria. Wake periods were visually scored using both 30 s and 5 s epochs in order to reveal episodes of drowsiness and/or microsleep. Results showed that total sleep time was substantially reduced as compared to the usual 7-8 hour monophasic nocturnal sleep. Subjects did not sleep during the first rest period (11.00-15.00). Time in sleep linearly increased in the course of the 3 remaining rest periods. Normal sleep stage distribution was substantially spared only in the last rest period (3.00-7.00 a.m.). With regard to duty periods, only a few microsleeps were detected and their number did not significantly vary across the four 2-hr activity periods. In conclusion, this rest-activity schedule, despite the considerable sleep reduction, allowed maintaining good levels of vigilance as shown by the virtual absence of EEG microsleeps. Whether future research will prove that this regimen does not cause an impairment of performance, it should be a suitable strategy for the management of continuous operations.

  7. Differential structural and resting state connectivity between insular subdivisions and other pain-related brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, K; Jbabdi, S; Lin, C S; Andersson, J; Tracey, I

    2014-10-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the anterior, mid, and posterior division of the insula subserve different functions in the perception of pain. The anterior insula (AI) has predominantly been associated with cognitive-affective aspects of pain, while the mid and posterior divisions have been implicated in sensory-discriminative processing. We examined whether this functional segregation is paralleled by differences in (1) structural and (2) resting state connectivity and (3) in correlations with pain-relevant psychological traits. Analyses were restricted to the 3 insular subdivisions and other pain-related brain regions. Both type of analyses revealed largely overlapping results. The AI division was predominantly connected to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (structural and resting state connectivity) and orbitofrontal cortex (structural connectivity). In contrast, the posterior insula showed strong connections to the primary somatosensory cortex (SI; structural connectivity) and secondary somatosensory cortex (SII; structural and resting state connectivity). The mid insula displayed a hybrid connectivity pattern with strong connections with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, SII (structural and resting state connectivity) and SI (structural connectivity). Moreover, resting state connectivity revealed strong connectivity of all 3 subdivisions with the thalamus. On the behavioural level, AI structural connectivity was related to the individual degree of pain vigilance and awareness that showed a positive correlation with AI-amygdala connectivity and a negative correlation with AI-rostral anterior cingulate cortex connectivity. In sum, our findings show a differential structural and resting state connectivity for the anterior, mid, and posterior insula with other pain-relevant brain regions, which might at least partly explain their different functional profiles in pain processing. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Classification of electrical discharges in DC Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi, E-mail: sruban.stephens@gmail.com [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Deb, A.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Rajan, Rehim N. [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kishore, N.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-08-11

    Controlled electrical discharge aids in conditioning of the system while uncontrolled discharges damage its electronic components. DC Accelerator being a high voltage system is no exception. It is useful to classify electrical discharges according to the severity. Experimental prototypes of the accelerator discharges are developed. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are used to detect the signals from these discharges. Time and Frequency domain characteristics of the detected discharges are used to extract features. Machine Learning approaches like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are employed to classify the discharges. This aids in detecting the severity of the discharges.

  9. Deriving Global Discharge Records from SWOT Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, M.; Fisher, C. K.; Wood, E. F.

    2017-12-01

    River flows are poorly monitored in many regions of the world, hindering our ability to accurately estimate water global water usage, and thus estimate global water and energy budgets or the variability in the global water cycle. Recent developments in satellite remote sensing, such as water surface elevations from radar altimetry or surface water extents from visible/infrared imagery, aim to fill this void; however, the streamflow estimates derived from these are inherently intermittent in both space and time. There is then a need for new methods that are able to derive spatially and temporally continuous records of discharge from the many available data sources. One particular application of this will be the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which is designed to provide global observations of water surface elevation and slope from which river discharge can be estimated. Within the 21-day repeat cycle, a river reach will be observed 2-4 times on average. Due to the relationship between the basin orientation and the orbit, these observations are not evenly distributed in time or space. In this study, we investigate how SWOT will observe global river basins and how the temporal and spatial sampling impacts our ability to reconstruct discharge records.River flows can be estimated throughout a basin by assimilating SWOT observations using the Inverse Streamflow Routing (ISR) model of Pan and Wood [2013]. This method is applied to 32 global basins with different geometries and crossing patterns for the future orbit, assimilating theoretical SWOT-retrieved "gauges". Results show that the model is able to reconstruct basin-wide discharge from SWOT observations alone; however, the performance varies significantly across basins and is driven by the orientation, flow distance, and travel time in each, as well as the sensitivity of the reconstruction method to errors in the satellite retrieval. These properties are combined to estimate the "observability" of

  10. A comparison of resting images from two myocardial perfusion tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, C.; Laney, R.; Pennell, D.; Proukakis, H.; Underwood, R.

    1995-01-01

    We have compared stress-redistribution and delayed rest thallium-201 with rest technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) tomograms in order to compare the tracers for the assessment of myocardial viability and to validate a rapid protocol combining the two tracers. We studied 30 consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease [group 1: 16 with normal left ventricular function, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 55%, SD 6%; group 2: 14 with abnormal function, mean LVEF 28%, SD 8%]. 201 Tl was injected during infusion of adenosine followed by acquisition of conventional stress and redistribution tomograms. On a separate day, 201 Tl was injected at rest with imaging 4 h later. 99m Tc-MIBI was then given at rest and imaging was performed. Three images were compared: redistribution 201 Tl, rest 201 Tl, and rest 99m Tc-MIBI. Tracer activity was classified visually and quantitatively in nine segments and segments with>50% activity were defined as containing clinically significant viable myocardium. Mean global tracer uptake as a percentage of maximum was similar in group 1 (rest 201 Tl 69%±12%, redistribution 201 Tl 69%±15%, rest 99m Tc-MIBI 70%±13%), but in group 2 mean tracer uptake was significantly greater in the rest 201 Tl images (59%±16%) than in redistribution 201 Tl images (53%±17%) or rest 99m Tc-MIBI images (53%±19%). Overall agreement for regional uptake score was excellent (κ from 0.79 to 0.84), although there were a significant number of segments with less uptake shown by redistribution 201 Tl and by rest 99m Tc-MIBI than by rest 201 Tl in group 2. The number of segments with significant viable myocardium in group 1 was very similar between the three images but in group 2 rest 201 Tl identified significantly more segments as viable than the other images. (orig./MG) (orig.). With 1 fig., 7 tabs

  11. Prognostic value of an electrocardiogram at rest and exercise test in patients admitted with suspected acute myocardial infarction, in whom the diagnosis is not confirmed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J K; Hommel, E; Hansen, J F

    1987-01-01

    . Impaired prognosis was found in patients with negative T waves or ST depression at rest or with ST--T abnormalities or angina pectoris during exercise. Patients with ST depression or elevation, Q wave or intraventricular block at rest. ST abnormalities during exercise or both constituted a high-risk group......The prognosis following discharge in 217 patients admitted with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) due to chest pain, but in whom AMI was not confirmed, was related to the electrocardiogram (ECG) at rest and a symptom-limited exercise test. The patients were followed for 12 to 24 months...... in the ECG at rest and during exercise can be used to identify high and low risk patients....

  12. Principal States of Dynamic Functional Connectivity Reveal the Link Between Resting-State and Task-State Brain: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Zhu, Yang; Sun, Junfeng; Deng, Lifu; He, Naying; Yang, Yang; Ling, Huawei; Ayaz, Hasan; Fu, Yi; Tong, Shanbao

    2018-01-25

    Task-related reorganization of functional connectivity (FC) has been widely investigated. Under classic static FC analysis, brain networks under task and rest have been demonstrated a general similarity. However, brain activity and cognitive process are believed to be dynamic and adaptive. Since static FC inherently ignores the distinct temporal patterns between rest and task, dynamic FC may be more a suitable technique to characterize the brain's dynamic and adaptive activities. In this study, we adopted [Formula: see text]-means clustering to investigate task-related spatiotemporal reorganization of dynamic brain networks and hypothesized that dynamic FC would be able to reveal the link between resting-state and task-state brain organization, including broadly similar spatial patterns but distinct temporal patterns. In order to test this hypothesis, this study examined the dynamic FC in default-mode network (DMN) and motor-related network (MN) using Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD)-fMRI data from 26 healthy subjects during rest (REST) and a hand closing-and-opening (HCO) task. Two principal FC states in REST and one principal FC state in HCO were identified. The first principal FC state in REST was found similar to that in HCO, which appeared to represent intrinsic network architecture and validated the broadly similar spatial patterns between REST and HCO. However, the second FC principal state in REST with much shorter "dwell time" implied the transient functional relationship between DMN and MN during REST. In addition, a more frequent shifting between two principal FC states indicated that brain network dynamically maintained a "default mode" in the motor system during REST, whereas the presence of a single principal FC state and reduced FC variability implied a more temporally stable connectivity during HCO, validating the distinct temporal patterns between REST and HCO. Our results further demonstrated that dynamic FC analysis could offer unique

  13. Discharge characteristics in inhomogeneous fields under air flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Holbøll, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    the frequency and magnitude of partial discharges in the vicinity of the electrode due to an increased rate of space charge removal around the tip of the needle and in the gap. The positive polarity shows higher dependency on air flow compared to the negative polarity. It is shown that positive breakdown......This research investigates the impact of high velocity air flow on Partial Discharge (PD) patterns generated in strongly inhomogeneous fields. In the laboratory, a needle plane electrode configuration was exposed to a high electrical DC-field and a laminar air flow up to 22 ms. The needle...

  14. Estimating sediment discharge: Appendix D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Simões, Francisco J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment-discharge measurements usually are available on a discrete or periodic basis. However, estimates of sediment transport often are needed for unmeasured periods, such as when daily or annual sediment-discharge values are sought, or when estimates of transport rates for unmeasured or hypothetical flows are required. Selected methods for estimating suspended-sediment, bed-load, bed- material-load, and total-load discharges have been presented in some detail elsewhere in this volume. The purposes of this contribution are to present some limitations and potential pitfalls associated with obtaining and using the requisite data and equations to estimate sediment discharges and to provide guidance for selecting appropriate estimating equations. Records of sediment discharge are derived from data collected with sufficient frequency to obtain reliable estimates for the computational interval and period. Most sediment- discharge records are computed at daily or annual intervals based on periodically collected data, although some partial records represent discrete or seasonal intervals such as those for flood periods. The method used to calculate sediment- discharge records is dependent on the types and frequency of available data. Records for suspended-sediment discharge computed by methods described by Porterfield (1972) are most prevalent, in part because measurement protocols and computational techniques are well established and because suspended sediment composes the bulk of sediment dis- charges for many rivers. Discharge records for bed load, total load, or in some cases bed-material load plus wash load are less common. Reliable estimation of sediment discharges presupposes that the data on which the estimates are based are comparable and reliable. Unfortunately, data describing a selected characteristic of sediment were not necessarily derived—collected, processed, analyzed, or interpreted—in a consistent manner. For example, bed-load data collected with

  15. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Functional Mobility and Balance: Relationship to Resting State Motor Cortex Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeniz, B.; Koppelmans, V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA offers researchers from a variety of backgrounds the opportunity to study bed rest as an experimental analog for space flight. Extended exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble many of the effects of a low-gravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The aim of our study is to a) identify changes in brain function that occur with prolonged bed rest and characterize their recovery time course; b) assess whether and how these changes impact behavioral and neurocognitive performance. Thus far, we completed data collection from six participants that include task based and resting state fMRI. The data have been acquired through the bed rest facility located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Subjects remained in bed with their heads tilted down 6 degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Behavioral measures and neuroimaging assessments were obtained at seven time points: a) 7 and 12 days before bed rest; b) 7, 30, and 65 days during bed rest; and c) 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (FcMRI) analysis was performed to assess the connectivity of motor cortex in and out of bed rest. We found a decrease in motor cortex connectivity with vestibular cortex and the cerebellum from pre bed rest to in bed rest. We also used a battery of behavioral measures including the functional mobility test and computerized dynamic posturography collected before and after bed rest. We will report the preliminary results of analyses relating brain and behavior changes. Furthermore, we will also report the preliminary results of a spatial working memory task and vestibular stimulation during in and out of bed rest.

  16. Pharmacist-led discharge medication counselling: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Aline F; Reis, Wálleri C; Lombardi, Natália Fracaro; Mendes, Antonio M; Netto, Harli Pasquini; Rotta, Inajara; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2018-04-24

    Discharge medication counselling has produced improved quality of care and health outcomes, especially by reducing medication errors and readmission rates, and improving medication adherence. However, no studies have assembled an evidence-based discharge counselling process for clinical pharmacists. Thus, the present study aims to map the components of the pharmacist-led discharge medication counselling process. We performed a scoping review by searching electronic databases (Pubmed, Scopus, and DOAJ) and conducting a manual search to identify studies published up to July 2017. Studies that addressed pharmacist-led discharge medication counselling, regardless of the population, clinical conditions, and outcomes evaluated, were included. A total of 1563 studies were retrieved, with 75 matching the inclusion criteria. Thirty-two different components were identified, and the most prevalent were the indication of the medications and adverse drug reactions, which were reported in more than 50% of the studies. The components were reported similarly by studies from the USA and the rest of the world, and over the years. However, 2 differences were identified: the use of a dosage schedule, which was more frequent in studies published in 2011 or before and in studies outside the USA; and the teach-back technique, which was used more frequently in the USA. Poor quality reporting was also observed, especially regarding the duration of the counselling, the number of patients, and the medical condition. Mapping the components of the pharmacist-led discharge counselling studies through a scoping review allowed us to reveal how this service is performed around the world. Wide variability in this process and poor reporting were identified. Future studies are needed to define the core outcome set of this clinical pharmacy service to allow the generation of robust evidence and reproducibility in clinical practice. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Glow discharge in singlet oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N.P.; Ionin, A.A.; Klimachev, Yu.M.; Sinitsyn, D.V.; Yuryshev, N.N.; Kochetov, I.V.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Currently, there is no experimental data on the plasma balance in gas mixtures with a high content of singlet delta oxygen O 2 ( 1 Δ g ). These data can be obtained by studying the parameters of an electric discharge in singlet oxygen produced by a chemical generator. The O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) molecules significantly change the kinetics of electrons and negative ions in plasma. Hence, the discharge conditions at low and high O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentrations are very different. Here, the parameters of the positive column of a glow discharge in a gas flow from a chemical singlet-oxygen generator are studied. It is experimentally shown that, at an O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentration of 50% and at pressures of 1.5 and 2 torr, the electric field required to sustain the discharge is considerably lower than in the case when all of the oxygen molecules are in the ground state. A theoretical model of the glow discharge is proposed whose predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data

  18. Efficiency at rest: magnetoencephalographic resting-state connectivity and individual differences in verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, David; Cuesta, Pablo; Bajo, Ricardo; García-Pacios, Javier; López-Higes, Ramón; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    Inter-individual differences in cognitive performance are based on an efficient use of task-related brain resources. However, little is known yet on how these differences might be reflected on resting-state brain networks. Here we used Magnetoencephalography resting-state recordings to assess the relationship between a behavioral measurement of verbal working memory and functional connectivity as measured through Mutual Information. We studied theta (4-8 Hz), low alpha (8-10 Hz), high alpha (10-13 Hz), low beta (13-18 Hz) and high beta (18-30 Hz) frequency bands. A higher verbal working memory capacity was associated with a lower mutual information in the low alpha band, prominently among right-anterior and left-lateral sensors. The results suggest that an efficient brain organization in the domain of verbal working memory might be related to a lower resting-state functional connectivity across large-scale brain networks possibly involving right prefrontal and left perisylvian areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Resting states are resting traits--an FMRI study of sex differences and menstrual cycle effects in resting state cognitive control networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmervik, Helene; Hausmann, Markus; Osnes, Berge; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    To what degree resting state fMRI is stable or susceptible to internal mind states of the individual is currently an issue of debate. To address this issue, the present study focuses on sex differences and investigates whether resting state fMRI is stable in men and women or changes within relative short-term periods (i.e., across the menstrual cycle). Due to the fact that we recently reported menstrual cycle effects on cognitive control based on data collected during the same sessions, the current study is particularly interested in fronto-parietal resting state networks. Resting state fMRI was measured in sixteen women during three different cycle phases (menstrual, follicular, and luteal). Fifteen men underwent three sessions in corresponding time intervals. We used independent component analysis to identify four fronto-parietal networks. The results showed sex differences in two of these networks with women exhibiting higher functional connectivity in general, including the prefrontal cortex. Menstrual cycle effects on resting states were non-existent. It is concluded that sex differences in resting state fMRI might reflect sexual dimorphisms in the brain rather than transitory activating effects of sex hormones on the functional connectivity in the resting brain.

  20. Reconfiguration of Brain Network Architectures between Resting-State and Complexity-Dependent Cognitive Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, Luke J; Cocchi, Luca; Zalesky, Andrew; Mattingley, Jason B

    2017-08-30

    Our capacity for higher cognitive reasoning has a measurable limit. This limit is thought to arise from the brain's capacity to flexibly reconfigure interactions between spatially distributed networks. Recent work, however, has suggested that reconfigurations of task-related networks are modest when compared with intrinsic "resting-state" network architecture. Here we combined resting-state and task-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how flexible, task-specific reconfigurations associated with increasing reasoning demands are integrated within a stable intrinsic brain topology. Human participants (21 males and 28 females) underwent an initial resting-state scan, followed by a cognitive reasoning task involving different levels of complexity, followed by a second resting-state scan. The reasoning task required participants to deduce the identity of a missing element in a 4 × 4 matrix, and item difficulty was scaled parametrically as determined by relational complexity theory. Analyses revealed that external task engagement was characterized by a significant change in functional brain modules. Specifically, resting-state and null-task demand conditions were associated with more segregated brain-network topology, whereas increases in reasoning complexity resulted in merging of resting-state modules. Further increments in task complexity did not change the established modular architecture, but affected selective patterns of connectivity between frontoparietal, subcortical, cingulo-opercular, and default-mode networks. Larger increases in network efficiency within the newly established task modules were associated with higher reasoning accuracy. Our results shed light on the network architectures that underlie external task engagement, and highlight selective changes in brain connectivity supporting increases in task complexity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans have clear limits in their ability to solve complex reasoning problems. It is thought that

  1. GPi oscillatory activity differentiates tics from the resting state, voluntary movements, and the unmedicated parkinsonian state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joohi Jimenez-Shahed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an emerging treatment strategy for severe, medication-refractory Tourette syndrome (TS. Thalamic (Cm-Pf and pallidal (including globus pallidus interna, GPi targets have been the most investigated. While the neurophysiological correlates of Parkinson’s disease (PD in the GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN are increasingly recognized, these patterns are not well characterized in other disease states. Recent findings indicate that the cross-frequency coupling (CFC between beta band and high frequency oscillations (HFOs within the STN in PD patients is pathologic. Methods: We recorded intraoperative local field potentials (LFPs from the postero-ventrolateral GPi in three adult patients with TS at rest, during voluntary movements, and during tic activity and compared them to the intraoperative GPi-LFP activity recorded from four unmedicated PD patients at rest. Results: In all PD patients, we noted excessive beta band activity (13-30Hz at rest which consistently modulated the amplitude of the co-existent HFOs observed between 200-400Hz, indicating the presence of beta-HFO CFC. In all 3 TS patients at rest, we observed theta band activity (4-7Hz and HFOs. Two patients had beta band activity, though at lower power than theta oscillations. Tic activity was associated with increased high frequency (200-400Hz and gamma band (35-200Hz activity. There was no beta-HFO CFC in TS patients at rest. However, CFC between the phase of 5-10Hz band activity and the amplitude of HFOs was found in two TS patients. During tics, this shifted to CFC between the phase of beta band activity and the amplitude of HFOs in all subjects. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first study that shows that beta-HFO CFC exists in the GPi of TS patients during tics and at rest in PD patients, and suggests that this pattern might be specific to pathologic/involuntary movements. Furthermore, our findings suggest that during tics, resting

  2. Developing RESTful web services with Jersey 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Gulabani, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    The book will follow a standard tutorial approach and will teach readers how to use the Jersey API for creating RESTful web services.This book is intended for Java EE developers who are building applications on the REST architecture. This is a quick, hands-on guide for learning JAX-RS 2.0. Developers should have some knowledge about RESTful web services but it's not essential to know JAX-RS 1.0.

  3. Measurement of gas temperature and OH density in the afterglow of pulsed positive corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji

    2008-01-01

    The gas temperature and OH density in the afterglow of pulsed positive corona discharge are measured using the laser-induced predissociation fluorescence (LIPF) of OH radicals. Discharge occurs in a 13 mm point-to-plane gap in an atmospheric-pressure H 2 O(2.8%)/O 2 (2.0%)/N 2 mixture. The temperature measurement shows that (i) the temperature increases after discharge and (ii) the temperature near the anode tip (within 1 mm from the anode tip) is much higher than that of the rest of the discharge volume. Near the anode tip, the temperature increases from 500 K (t = 0 μs) to 1100 K (t = 20 μs), where t is the postdischarge time, while it increases from 400 K (t = 0 μs) to 700 K (t = 100 μs) in the rest of the discharge volume away from the anode tip. This temperature difference between the two volumes (near and far from the anode tip) causes a difference in the decay rate of OH density: OH density near the anode tip decays approximately 10 times slower than that far from the tip. The spatial distribution of OH density shows good agreement with that of the secondary streamer luminous intensity. This shows that OH radicals are mainly produced in the secondary streamer, not in the primary one

  4. Age-related changes of the dental aesthetic zone at rest and during spontaneous smiling and speech.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geld, P.A.A.M. van der; Oosterveld, P.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse lip line heights and age effects in an adult male population during spontaneous smiling, speech, and tooth display in the natural rest position and to determine whether lip line height follows a consistent pattern during these different functions. The sample

  5. Reduced brain resting-state network specificity in infants compared with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Korey P; Rojas, Donald C; Ross, Randal G; Hunter, Sharon K; Maharajh, Keeran; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Tregellas, Jason R

    2014-01-01

    Infant resting-state networks do not exhibit the same connectivity patterns as those of young children and adults. Current theories of brain development emphasize developmental progression in regional and network specialization. We compared infant and adult functional connectivity, predicting that infants would exhibit less regional specificity and greater internetwork communication compared with adults. Functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest was acquired in 12 healthy, term infants and 17 adults. Resting-state networks were extracted, using independent components analysis, and the resulting components were then compared between the adult and infant groups. Adults exhibited stronger connectivity in the posterior cingulate cortex node of the default mode network, but infants had higher connectivity in medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex than adults. Adult connectivity was typically higher than infant connectivity within structures previously associated with the various networks, whereas infant connectivity was frequently higher outside of these structures. Internetwork communication was significantly higher in infants than in adults. We interpret these findings as consistent with evidence suggesting that resting-state network development is associated with increasing spatial specificity, possibly reflecting the corresponding functional specialization of regions and their interconnections through experience.

  6. Intrinsic Resting-State Functional Connectivity in the Human Spinal Cord at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Emeterio Nateras, Oscar; Yu, Fang; Muir, Eric R; Bazan, Carlos; Franklin, Crystal G; Li, Wei; Li, Jinqi; Lancaster, Jack L; Duong, Timothy Q

    2016-04-01

    To apply resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to map functional connectivity of the human spinal cord. Studies were performed in nine self-declared healthy volunteers with informed consent and institutional review board approval. Resting-state functional MR imaging was performed to map functional connectivity of the human cervical spinal cord from C1 to C4 at 1 × 1 × 3-mm resolution with a 3.0-T clinical MR imaging unit. Independent component analysis (ICA) was performed to derive resting-state functional MR imaging z-score maps rendered on two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. Seed-based analysis was performed for cross validation with ICA networks by using Pearson correlation. Reproducibility analysis of resting-state functional MR imaging maps from four repeated trials in a single participant yielded a mean z score of 6 ± 1 (P 3, P 3.0-T clinical MR imaging unit and standard MR imaging protocols and hardware reveals prominent functional connectivity patterns within the spinal cord gray matter, consistent with known functional and anatomic layouts of the spinal cord.

  7. Changes in resting neural connectivity during propofol sedation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Stamatakis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The default mode network consists of a set of functionally connected brain regions (posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral parietal cortex maximally active in functional imaging studies under "no task" conditions. It has been argued that the posterior cingulate is important in consciousness/awareness, but previous investigations of resting interactions between the posterior cingulate cortex and other brain regions during sedation and anesthesia have produced inconsistent results.We examined the connectivity of the posterior cingulate at different levels of consciousness. "No task" fMRI (BOLD data were collected from healthy volunteers while awake and at low and moderate levels of sedation, induced by the anesthetic agent propofol. Our data show that connectivity of the posterior cingulate changes during sedation to include areas that are not traditionally considered to be part of the default mode network, such as the motor/somatosensory cortices, the anterior thalamic nuclei, and the reticular activating system.This neuroanatomical signature resembles that of non-REM sleep, and may be evidence for a system that reduces its discriminable states and switches into more stereotypic patterns of firing under sedation.

  8. Volunteer Work, Religious Commitment, and Resting Pulse Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail; Hill, Peter C

    2017-04-01

    Research indicates that greater involvement in volunteer activities is associated with better health. We aim to contribute to this literature in two ways. First, rather than rely on self-reports of health, measured resting pulse rates serve as the dependent variable. Second, an effort is made to see if religious commitment moderates the relationship between volunteering and resting pulse rates. Data that come from a recent nationwide survey (N = 2265) suggest that volunteer work is associated with lower resting pulse rates. The results also reveal that the relationship between engaging in volunteer work and resting pulse rates improves among study participants who are more deeply committed to religion.

  9. Introducing the PRIDE Archive RESTful web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Florian; del-Toro, Noemi; Ternent, Tobias; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The PRIDE (PRoteomics IDEntifications) database is one of the world-leading public repositories of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics data and it is a founding member of the ProteomeXchange Consortium of proteomics resources. In the original PRIDE database system, users could access data programmatically by accessing the web services provided by the PRIDE BioMart interface. New REST (REpresentational State Transfer) web services have been developed to serve the most popular functionality provided by BioMart (now discontinued due to data scalability issues) and address the data access requirements of the newly developed PRIDE Archive. Using the API (Application Programming Interface) it is now possible to programmatically query for and retrieve peptide and protein identifications, project and assay metadata and the originally submitted files. Searching and filtering is also possible by metadata information, such as sample details (e.g. species and tissues), instrumentation (mass spectrometer), keywords and other provided annotations. The PRIDE Archive web services were first made available in April 2014. The API has already been adopted by a few applications and standalone tools such as PeptideShaker, PRIDE Inspector, the Unipept web application and the Python-based BioServices package. This application is free and open to all users with no login requirement and can be accessed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/ws/archive/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Latent heat of traffic moving from rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad Ahmadi, S.; Berrier, Austin S.; Doty, William M.; Greer, Pat G.; Habibi, Mohammad; Morgan, Hunter A.; Waterman, Josam H. C.; Abaid, Nicole; Boreyko, Jonathan B.

    2017-11-01

    Contrary to traditional thinking and driver intuition, here we show that there is no benefit to ground vehicles increasing their packing density at stoppages. By systematically controlling the packing density of vehicles queued at a traffic light on a Smart Road, drone footage revealed that the benefit of an initial increase in displacement for close-packed vehicles is completely offset by the lag time inherent to changing back into a ‘liquid phase’ when flow resumes. This lag is analogous to the thermodynamic concept of the latent heat of fusion, as the ‘temperature’ (kinetic energy) of the vehicles cannot increase until the traffic ‘melts’ into the liquid phase. These findings suggest that in situations where gridlock is not an issue, drivers should not decrease their spacing during stoppages in order to lessen the likelihood of collisions with no loss in flow efficiency. In contrast, motion capture experiments of a line of people walking from rest showed higher flow efficiency with increased packing densities, indicating that the importance of latent heat becomes trivial for slower moving systems.

  11. Rest frame properties of the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The proton is modeled as three quarks of small current quark mass. The three-body Dirac equation is solved with spin-independent central diagonal linear confining potentials with an attractive Coulombic term in a relativistic three-quark model. Hyperspherical coordinates are used, and the bound state is found analytically. After integrating over the hyperangles, the Hamiltonian is an 8 by 8 matrix of coupled first-order differential equations in one variable, the hyperradius. These are analytically solved in hypercentral approximation. For the (1/2 + ) 3 ground-state configuration in the nonrelativistic large-quark-mass limit, there are no nodes in the wave function. However, in the extreme relativistic limit of small current quark masses of a few MeV, the expectation value of the number of nodes is about 1.30 when the potential parameters are chosen to reproduce the proton rms charge radius. The quarks are assumed to possess a Pauli anomalous magnetic moment, like that of the electron and muon of (α/2π)(e/m). Assuming all three quarks have equal mass, one can fit the rest energy, magnetic moment, rms charge radius, and axial charge of the proton with this relativistic three-body Dirac equation model. The solution found shows the necessity of including all components of the composite three-quark wave function, as the upper component contributes only 0.585 to the norm

  12. Electron runaway in rf discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.F.

    1992-10-01

    The critical electric field is computed as a function of pressure and starting energy for electrons to run away to high energies in moderate pressure discharges. The runaway conditions depend critically on the shape of the elastic cross section vs. energy curve. Computations are made for H, H 2 , and He gases, and it is shown that runaway occurs much more readily in atomic hydrogen than in the other gases. The values of the runaway fields are larger than would normally occur in dc discharges, where large voltages would lead to arc formation. However, in rf discharges such electric fields can be sustained over times long compared to electron transit times but short compared to ion transit times. (author)

  13. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V [ru

  14. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 183-N Backwash Discharge Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Liquid effluents on the Hanford Site have been classified as Phase I, Phase II, and Miscellaneous Streams. The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 establishes milestones for State Waste Discharge Permit application submittals for all Phase I and Phase II streams, as well as the following 11 Miscellaneous Streams as identified in Table 4 of the Consent Order No. DE91NM-177.

  15. Correspondent Functional Topography of the Human Left Inferior Parietal Lobule at Rest and Under Task Revealed Using Resting-State fMRI and Coactivation Based Parcellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaojian; Xie, Sangma; Guo, Xin; Becker, Benjamin; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-03-01

    The human left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) plays a pivotal role in many cognitive functions and is an important node in the default mode network (DMN). Although many previous studies have proposed different parcellation schemes for the LIPL, the detailed functional organization of the LIPL and the exact correspondence between the DMN and LIPL subregions remain unclear. Mounting evidence indicates that spontaneous fluctuations in the brain are strongly associated with cognitive performance at the behavioral level. However, whether a consistent functional topographic organization of the LIPL during rest and under task can be revealed remains unknown. Here, they used resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and task-related coactivation patterns separately to parcellate the LIPL and identified seven subregions. Four subregions were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and three subregions were located in the angular gyrus (AG). The subregion-specific networks and functional characterization revealed that the four anterior subregions were found to be primarily involved in sensorimotor processing, movement imagination and inhibitory control, audition perception and speech processing, and social cognition, whereas the three posterior subregions were mainly involved in episodic memory, semantic processing, and spatial cognition. The results revealed a detailed functional organization of the LIPL and suggested that the LIPL is a functionally heterogeneous area. In addition, the present study demonstrated that the functional architecture of the LIPL during rest corresponds with that found in task processing. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1659-1675, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.

    2012-01-01

    . Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...... neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge'' (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length...

  17. Plasma Discharge in Toroidal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usada, Widdi; Suryadi; Purwadi, Agus; Kasiyo

    1996-01-01

    A toroidal discharge apparatus has been made as an initial research in magnetic confinement system. This system consists of a capacitor, a RF source, an igniter system, a primary coil, a torus, and completed by Rogowski probe as a current detector. In this system, the discharge occurs when the minimum voltage is operated at 5 kV. The experiment result shows that the coupling factor is 0.35, it is proved that there is an equality between estimated and measurement results of the primary inductance i.e 8.5 μH

  18. Taming Instabilities in Plasma Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, T.; Krahnstover, N. O.; Mausbach, T.; Piel, A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent experimental work on taming instabilities in plasma discharges is discussed. Instead of suppressing instabilities, it is desired to achieve control over their dynamics, done by perturbing appropriately the current flow in the external circuit of the discharge. Different discrete and continuous feedback as well as open-loop control schemes are applied. Chaotic oscillations in plasma diodes are controlled using the OGY discrete feedback scheme. This is demonstrated both in experiment and computer simulation. Weakly developed ionization wave turbulence is tamed by continuous feedback control. Open-loop control of stochastic fluctuations - stochastic resonance - is demonstrated in a thermionic plasma diode. (author)

  19. Comparison of stress-rest and rest-stress one day myocardial perfusion scintigraphies in detecting coronary artery diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Jun; Song, Ho Cheon; Kim, Ji Yeul

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that both rest and stress myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium agents can be performed on the same day using two different doses injected within few hours. The purpose of this study was to compare the two protocols (stress-rest and rest-stress) in detecting coronary artery diseases. One hundred and sixty patients (101 males, 59 females, mean age 57±9 years) and 120 patients (79 males, 41 females, mean age 59±10 years) underwent stress-rest myocardial perfusion SPECT and rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT, respectively. All of them underwent both myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography within 1 month. A coronary stenosis was considered significant when it compromised the luminal diameter by ≥50%. The chi square test was used to compare differences in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between the two groups. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of stress-rest protocol were 99%, 35% and 68%, respectively. Those of rest-stress protocol were 96%, 47% and 78%, respectively. There was no difference between the two protocols in identifying individual diseased coronary artery branches. Therefore, one day stress-rest and rest-stress myocardial SPECT using 99m Tc agents were comparable and were very sensitive tests in detecting coronary artery diseases

  20. Can Sleep and Resting Behaviours Be Used as Indicators of Welfare in Shelter Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C Owczarczak-Garstecka

    Full Text Available Previous research on humans and animals suggests that the analysis of sleep patterns may reliably inform us about welfare status, but little research of this kind has been carried out for non-human animals in an applied context. This study explored the use of sleep and resting behaviour as indicators of welfare by describing the activity patterns of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris housed in rescue shelters, and comparing their sleep patterns to other behavioural and cognitive measures of welfare. Sleep and activity patterns were observed over five non-consecutive days in a population of 15 dogs. Subsequently, the characteristics of sleep and resting behaviour were described and the impact of activity on patterns of sleep and resting behaviour analysed. Shelter dogs slept for 2.8% of the day, 14.3% less than previously reported and experienced less sleep fragmentation at night (32 sleep bouts. There were no statistically significant relationships between behaviours exhibited during the day and sleep behaviour. A higher proportion of daytime resting behaviour was significantly associated with a positive judgement bias, less repetitive behaviour and increased time spent coded as 'relaxed' across days by shelter staff. These results suggest that, in the context of a busy shelter environment, the ability to rest more during the day could be a sign of improved welfare. Considering the non-linear relationship between sleep and welfare in humans, the relationship between sleep and behavioural indicators of welfare, including judgement bias, in shelter dogs may be more complex than this study could detect.

  1. Altered resting brain connectivity in persistent cancer related fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson P. Hampson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an estimated 3 million women in the US living as breast cancer survivors and persistent cancer related fatigue (PCRF disrupts the lives of an estimated 30% of these women. PCRF is associated with decreased quality of life, decreased sleep quality, impaired cognition and depression. The mechanisms of cancer related fatigue are not well understood; however, preliminary findings indicate dysfunctional activity in the brain as a potential factor. Here we investigate the relationship between PCRF on intrinsic resting state connectivity in this population. Twenty-three age matched breast cancer survivors (15 fatigued and 8 non-fatigued who completed all cancer-related treatments at least 12 weeks prior to the study, were recruited to undergo functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI. Intrinsic resting state networks were examined with both seed based and independent component analysis methods. Comparisons of brain connectivity patterns between groups as well as correlations with self-reported fatigue symptoms were performed. Fatigued patients displayed greater left inferior parietal lobule to superior frontal gyrus connectivity as compared to non-fatigued patients (P < 0.05 FDR corrected. This enhanced connectivity was associated with increased physical fatigue (P = 0.04, r = 0.52 and poor sleep quality (P = 0.04, r = 0.52 in the fatigued group. In contrast greater connectivity in the non-fatigued group was found between the right precuneus to the periaqueductal gray as well as the left IPL to subgenual cortex (P < 0.05 FDR corrected. Mental fatigue scores were associated with greater default mode network (DMN connectivity to the superior frontal gyrus (P = 0.05 FDR corrected among fatigued subjects (r = 0.82 and less connectivity in the non-fatigued group (r = −0.88. These findings indicate that there is enhanced intrinsic DMN connectivity to the frontal gyrus in breast cancer survivors with persistent

  2. A novel lunar bed rest analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M

    2013-11-01

    Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.

  3. Aging, resting pulse rate, and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, Jochanan; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Stessman-Lande, Irit; Gilon, Dan; Leibowitz, David

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between resting pulse rate (RPR) and longevity in individuals aged 70 to 90. The Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study (1990-2010) is a prospective longitudinal study of a representative cohort born in 1920-21. Home-based comprehensive assessment in 1990, 1998, and 2005. Individuals aged 70 (n = 453), 78 (n = 856), and 85 (n = 1,044), with follow-up to age 90. Comprehensive assessment included average RPR, beta-blocker usage, and physical activity level. Mortality data were collected from the Ministry of Interior from 1990 to 2010. Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs) were determined for RPR (continuous variable), adjusting for sex, education, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, hypertension, kidney disease, anemia, physical activity, body mass index, self-rated health, dementia, beta-blocker use, and an interaction term for RPR by beta-blocker use. Mean RPR was 75.1 ± 9.9 at 70, 74.5 ± 10.9 at 78, and 68.5 ± 10.5 at 85 in women and 74.3 ± 10.7 at 70, 73.1 ± 11.2 at 78, and 65.2 ± 10.5 at 85 in men, with a significant decline from 78 to 85 for both sexes. In participants not taking beta-blockers followed up from 70 to 77, 78 to 84, and 85 to 90, mean RPR was lower in survivors than nonsurvivors for women (75.8 ± 9.2 vs 83.5 ± 10.9, P longevity. It may serve as a simple prognostic marker in the oldest old. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Tang, Chengcheng; Vaxman, Amir; Wonka, Peter; Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical

  5. Spheres of discharge of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Abraham E.; Stevens, Lawrence E.

    2009-02-01

    Although springs have been recognized as important, rare, and globally threatened ecosystems, there is as yet no consistent and comprehensive classification system or common lexicon for springs. In this paper, 12 spheres of discharge of springs are defined, sketched, displayed with photographs, and described relative to their hydrogeology of occurrence, and the microhabitats and ecosystems they support. A few of the spheres of discharge have been previously recognized and used by hydrogeologists for over 80 years, but others have only recently been defined geomorphologically. A comparison of these spheres of discharge to classification systems for wetlands, groundwater dependent ecosystems, karst hydrogeology, running waters, and other systems is provided. With a common lexicon for springs, hydrogeologists can provide more consistent guidance for springs ecosystem conservation, management, and restoration. As additional comprehensive inventories of the physical, biological, and cultural characteristics are conducted and analyzed, it will eventually be possible to associate spheres of discharge with discrete vegetation and aquatic invertebrate assemblages, and better understand the habitat requirements of rare or unique springs species. Given the elevated productivity and biodiversity of springs, and their highly threatened status, identification of geomorphic similarities among spring types is essential for conservation of these important ecosystems.

  6. Problems with textile wastewater discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantala, Pentti

    1987-01-01

    The general character of textile industry wastewaters is briefly discussed. General guidelines and practice in Finland when discharging textile industry wastewaters to municipal sewer systems is described. A survey revealed that most municipalities experience some problems due to textile industry wastewaters. Pretreatment is not always practiced and in some cases pretreatment is not operated efficiently. (author)

  7. Discharge measurements at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Sauer, Vernon B.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques and standards for making discharge measurements at streamflow gaging stations are described in this publication. The vertical axis rotating-element current meter, principally the Price current meter, has been traditionally used for most measurements of discharge; however, advancements in acoustic technology have led to important developments in the use of acoustic Doppler current profilers, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and other emerging technologies for the measurement of discharge. These new instruments, based on acoustic Doppler theory, have the advantage of no moving parts, and in the case of the acoustic Doppler current profiler, quickly and easily provide three-dimensional stream-velocity profile data through much of the vertical water column. For much of the discussion of acoustic Doppler current profiler moving-boat methodology, the reader is referred to U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 3-A22 (Mueller and Wagner, 2009). Personal digital assistants (PDAs), electronic field notebooks, and other personal computers provide fast and efficient data-collection methods that are more error-free than traditional hand methods. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, volumetric tanks, indirect methods, and tracers in measuring discharge are briefly described.

  8. Ions mobilities in corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtaev, Sh. A.; Bochkareva, G. V.; Sydykova, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    Ion mobility in unipolar corona at small inter-electron distances (up to 0.01 m) when as coroning element serves micro-wire is consider. Experimental data of ion mobility in corona discharge external zone in atmospheric air are obtained and its comparative analysis with known data is worked out. (author)

  9. Air corona discharge chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, L.E.; Kanter, I.E.

    1984-01-01

    We have theoretically studied the initial chemical processing steps which occur in pulseless, negative, dc corona discharges in flowing air. A rate equation model is used because these discharges consist of a very small ionization zone near the pin with most of the pin-plane gap filled by a drift zone where both the electric field and the electron density are relatively uniform. The primary activated species are N 2 (A),O and O 2 (a 1 Δ). The predicted activated species density due to one discharge is 100 ppm per ms . mA cm 2 assuming E/n=60 Td. In pure, dry air the final product due to these activated species is primarily O 3 . The NO /sub x/ production is about 0.5 ppm per mA. In moist air there is an additional production of about 1.5 ppm per mA of HO /sub x/ species. The predicted ozone formation reactions will be ''intercepted'' when impurities are present in the air. Impurities present at densities below about 0.1% will react primarily with the activated species rather than with electrons. Hence the predicted activated species density provides an estimate of the potential chemical processing performance of the discharge

  10. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense

  11. Discharge cleaning of carbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results of discharge cleaning of carbon deposits are presented. Deposits were prepared by creating plasma in pure methane. The methane was cracked in RF discharge at the output power of 250 W. The resultant radicals were bonded to the wall of discharge vessel forming a thin film of hydrogenated black carbon with the thickness of about 200nm. The film was then cleaned in situ by oxygen plasma with the density of about 1x10 16 m -3 , electron temperature of 5 eV, neutral gas kinetic temperature of about 100 0 C and neutral atom density of 6x10 21 m -3 . The treatment time was 30 minutes. The efficiency of plasma cleaning was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. As long as the wall was contaminated with carbon deposit, substantial emission of the CO molecules was detected. As the cleaning was in progress, the CO emission was decreasing and vanished after 30 minutes when the discharge vessel became free of any carbon. The results are explained by interaction of plasma radicals with carbon deposits. (author)

  12. Camouflage through an active choice of a resting spot and body orientation in moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, C-K; Moon, J-Y; Lee, S-I; Jablonski, P G

    2012-09-01

    Cryptic colour patterns in prey are classical examples of adaptations to avoid predation, but we still know little about behaviours that reinforce the match between animal body and the background. For example, moths avoid predators by matching their colour patterns with the background. Active choice of a species-specific body orientation has been suggested as an important function of body positioning behaviour performed by moths after landing on the bark. However, the contribution of this behaviour to moths' crypticity has not been directly measured. From observations of geometrid moths, Hypomecis roboraria and Jankowskia fuscaria, we determined that the positioning behaviour, which consists of walking and turning the body while repeatedly lifting and lowering the wings, resulted in new resting spots and body orientations in J. fuscaria and in new resting spots in H. roboraria. The body positioning behaviour of the two species significantly decreased the probability of visual detection by humans, who viewed photographs of the moths taken before and after the positioning behaviour. This implies that body positioning significantly increases the camouflage effect provided by moth's cryptic colour pattern regardless of whether the behaviour involves a new body orientation or not. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of morphological adaptations, such as colour pattern of moths, cannot be fully understood without taking into account a behavioural phenotype that coevolved with the morphology for increasing the adaptive value of the morphological trait. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. New Insights into the Instability of Discharge Products in Na-O2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Medrano, Imanol; Pinedo, Ricardo; Bi, Xuanxuan; Ruiz de Larramendi, Idoia; Lezama, Luis; Janek, Jürgen; Amine, Khalil; Lu, Jun; Rojo, Teófilo

    2016-08-10

    Sodium-oxygen batteries currently stimulate extensive research due to their high theoretical energy density and improved operational stability when compared to lithium-oxygen batteries. Cell stability, however, needs to be demonstrated also under resting conditions before future implementation of these batteries. In this work we analyze the effect of resting periods on the stability of the sodium superoxide (NaO2) discharge product. The instability of NaO2 in the cell environment is demonstrated leading to the evolution of oxygen during the resting period and the decrease of the cell efficiency. In addition, migration of the superoxide anion (O2(-)) in the electrolyte is observed and demonstrated to be an important factor affecting Coulombic efficiency.

  14. Atypical Laterality of Resting Gamma Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Villalobos, Michele E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal brain oscillatory activity has been found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and proposed as a potential biomarker. While several studies have investigated gamma oscillations in ASD, none have examined resting gamma power across multiple brain regions. This study investigated resting gamma power using EEG in 15 boys with ASD and 18 age…

  15. Rest tremor in idiopathic adult-onset dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, A F; Berardelli, A; Defazio, G

    2016-05-01

    Tremor in dystonia has been described as a postural or kinetic abnormality. In recent series, however, patients with idiopathic adult-onset dystonia also displayed rest tremor. The frequency and distribution of rest tremor were studied in a cohort of 173 consecutive Italian patients affected by various forms of idiopathic adult-onset dystonia attending our movement disorder clinic over 8 months. Examination revealed tremor in 59/173 patients (34%): 12 patients had head tremor, 34 patients had arm tremor, whilst 13 patients presented tremor in both sites. Head tremor was postural in all patients, whereas arm tremor was postural/kinetic in 28 patients, only at rest in one and both postural/kinetic and at rest in 18 patients. Patients with tremor were more likely to have segmental/multifocal dystonia. Patients who had rest tremor (either alone or associated with action tremor) had a higher age at dystonia onset and a greater frequency of dystonic arm involvement than patients with action tremor alone or without tremor. Both action and rest tremor are part of the tremor spectrum of adult-onset dystonia and are more frequently encountered in segmental/multifocal dystonia. The higher age at dystonia onset and the greater frequency of arm dystonia in patients with rest tremor may have pathophysiological implications and may account, at least in part, for the previous lack of identification of rest tremor as one possible type of tremor present in dystonia. © 2016 EAN.

  16. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-10-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the registration and query of geospatial data provenance by extending ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM). Recent advance of the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) paradigm has shown great promise for the easy integration of distributed resources. RESTful Web Service aims to provide a standard way for Web clients to communicate with servers based on REST principles. The existing approach for provenance catalogue service could be improved by adopting the RESTful design. This paper presents the design and implementation of a catalogue service for geospatial data provenance following RESTful architecture style. A middleware named REST Converter is added on the top of the legacy catalogue service to support a RESTful style interface. The REST Converter is composed of a resource request dispatcher and six resource handlers. A prototype service is developed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  17. A REST-ful interpretation for embedded modular systems based on open architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, James

    2016-05-01

    The much-anticipated revolution of the "Internet of things" (IoT) is expected to generate one trillion internet devices within the next 15 years, mostly in the form of simple wireless sensor devices. While this revolution promises to transform silicon markets and drive a number of disruptive changes in society, it is also the case that the protocols, complexity, and security issues of extremely large dynamic, co-mingled networks is still poorly understood. Furthermore, embedded system developers, to include military and aerospace users, have largely ignored the potential (good and bound) of the cloudlike, possibly intermingling networks having variable structure to how future systems might be engineered. In this paper, we consider a new interpretation of IoT inspired modular architecture strategies involving the representational state transfer (REST) model, in which dynamic networks with variable structure employ stateless application programming interface (API) concepts. The power of the method, which extends concepts originally developed for space plug-and-play avionics, is that it allows for the fluid co-mingling of hardware and software in networks whose structure can overlap and evolve. Paradoxically, these systems may have the most stringent determinism and fault-tolerant needs. In this paper we review how RESTful APIs can potentially be used to design, create, test, and deploy systems rapidly while addressing security and referential integrity even when the nodes of many systems might physically co-mingle. We will also explore ways to take advantage of the RESTful paradigm for fault tolerance and what extensions might be necessary to deal with high-performance and determinism.

  18. Stimulus-Elicited Connectivity Influences Resting-State Connectivity Years Later in Human Development: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard-Durnam, Laurel Joy; Gee, Dylan Grace; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva; Humphreys, Kathryn Leigh; Lumian, Daniel Stephen; Fareri, Dominic Stephen; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-04-27

    Although the functional architecture of the brain is indexed by resting-state connectivity networks, little is currently known about the mechanisms through which these networks assemble into stable mature patterns. The current study posits and tests the long-term phasic molding hypothesis that resting-state networks are gradually shaped by recurring stimulus-elicited connectivity across development by examining how both stimulus-elicited and resting-state functional connections of the human brain emerge over development at the systems level. Using a sequential design following 4- to 18-year-olds over a 2 year period, we examined the predictive associations between stimulus-elicited and resting-state connectivity in amygdala-cortical circuitry as an exemplar case (given this network's protracted development across these ages). Age-related changes in amygdala functional connectivity converged on the same regions of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and inferior frontal gyrus when elicited by emotional stimuli and when measured at rest. Consistent with the long-term phasic molding hypothesis, prospective analyses for both connections showed that the magnitude of an individual's stimulus-elicited connectivity unidirectionally predicted resting-state functional connectivity 2 years later. For the amygdala-mPFC connection, only stimulus-elicited connectivity during childhood and the transition to adolescence shaped future resting-state connectivity, consistent with a sensitive period ending with adolescence for the amygdala-mPFC circuit. Together, these findings suggest that resting-state functional architecture may arise from phasic patterns of functional connectivity elicited by environmental stimuli over the course of development on the order of years. A fundamental issue in understanding the ontogeny of brain function is how resting-state (intrinsic) functional networks emerge and relate to stimulus-elicited functional connectivity. Here, we posit and test the long

  19. Stress/Rest Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT in Comparison with Rest/Stress Rubidium - 82 PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Kamg, K. W.; Lee, K. H.; Jeong, J. M.; Kwark, C. E.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M.C.; Seo, J. D.; Koh, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    We compared stress/rest myocardial Tc-99m-MIBI tomographic image findings with rest/stress rubidium-82 tomographic images. In 23 patients with coronary artery disease (12 of them received bypass grafts before) and 6 normal subjects, rest rubidium PET study was performed, rubidium-82 and Tc-99m-MIBI were injected simultaneously to each patient after dipyridamole stress for rubidium PET and MIBI SPECT; and rest MIBI SPECT was performed 4 hours thereafter. We scored segmental decrease of rubidium, or MIBI uptakes into 5 grades for 29 segments from 3 short-axis, vertical and horizontal slices. Scores were summed for each major arterial territory. When more score than two grade-2's or one grade-3 was considered as the cue for significant stenosis for major arterial territories, 67% of 46 stenosed arteries were found with MIBI studies and 78% of them by rubidium studies. Fourteen among 28 grafted arterial territories of 12 post-CABG patients were found normal with both rubidium and MIBI. Segmental scores were concordant between rubidium and MIBI in 72% of 709-stress segments and in 80% of 825 rest segments. Stress rubidium segmental scores were less than stress MIBI scores in 9%, so were rest rubidium scores. Stress rubidium scores were more than stress MIBI scores in 20% of segments, and rest rubidium segmental scores were more than rest MIBI scores in 11%. Rank correlations (Spearman's rho's more than 0.7(stress) and 0.5(rest), slopes (MIBI/rubidium) around 0.7(stress) and 0.9(rest) suggested deeper and wider defects in stress with rubidium. Slope over 1 (MIBI/rubidium) with LAD segmental scores at rest and 7 territories which had much larger score with MIBI revealed exaggeration of rest defects with rest MIBI in same-day stress/rest study. Difference scores (stress-rest for each territory) suggesting ischemia were larger with rubidium (slope of MIBI/rubidium around 0.45). As has been implied by animal or separate-day- human studies, these segmental analyses with

  20. High peripheral temperatures in king penguins while resting at sea: thermoregulation versus fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewden, Agnès; Enstipp, Manfred R; Picard, Baptiste; van Walsum, Tessa; Handrich, Yves

    2017-09-01

    Marine endotherms living in cold water face an energetically challenging situation. Unless properly insulated, these animals will lose heat rapidly. The field metabolic rate of king penguins at sea is about twice that on land. However, when at sea, their metabolic rate is higher during extended resting periods at the surface than during foraging, when birds descend to great depth in pursuit of their prey. This is most likely explained by differences in thermal status. During foraging, peripheral vasoconstriction leads to a hypothermic shell, which is rewarmed during extended resting bouts at the surface. Maintaining peripheral perfusion during rest in cold water, however, will greatly increase heat loss and, therefore, thermoregulatory costs. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the maintenance of a normothermic shell during surface rest: (1) to help the unloading of N 2 accumulated during diving; and (2) to allow the storage of fat in subcutaneous tissue, following the digestion of food. We tested the latter hypothesis by maintaining king penguins within a shallow seawater tank, while we recorded tissue temperature at four distinct sites. When king penguins were released into the tank during the day, their body temperature immediately declined. However, during the night, periodic rewarming of abdominal and peripheral tissues occurred, mimicking temperature patterns observed in the wild. Body temperatures, particularly in the flank, also depended on body condition and were higher in 'lean' birds (after 10 days of fasting) than in 'fat' birds. While not explicitly tested, our observation that nocturnal rewarming persists in the absence of diving activity during the day does not support the N 2 unloading hypothesis. Rather, differences in temperature changes throughout the day and night, and the effect of body condition/mass supports the hypothesis that tissue perfusion during rest is required for nutritional needs. © 2017. Published by The Company of

  1. Female thermal sensitivity to hot and cold during rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrett, Nicola; Ouzzahra, Yacine; Redortier, Bernard; Voelcker, Thomas; Havenith, George

    2015-12-01

    Regional differences in thermal sensation to a hot or cold stimulus are often limited to male participants, in a rested state and cover minimal locations. Therefore, magnitude sensation to both a hot and cold stimulus were investigated during rest and exercise in 8 females (age: 20.4 ± 1.4 years, mass: 61.7 ± 4.0 kg, height: 166.9 ± 5.4 cm, VO2max: 36.8 ± 4.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Using a repeated measures cross over design, participants rested in a stable environment (22.3 ± 0.9°C, 37.7 ± 5.5% RH) whilst a thermal probe (25 cm(2)), set at either 40°C or 20°C, was applied in a balanced order to 29 locations across the body. Participants reported their thermal sensation after 10s of application. Following this, participants cycled at 50% VO2max for 20 min and then 30% VO2max whilst the sensitivity test was repeated. Females experienced significantly stronger magnitude sensations to the cold than the hot stimulus (5.5 ± 1.7 and 4.3 ± 1.3, pcold stimulation (psensation was greatest at the head then the torso and declined towards the extremities. No significant effect of location was found in response to the hot stimulation and the pattern across the body was more homogenous. In comparison to rest, exercise caused a significant overall reduction in thermal sensation (5.2 ± 1.5 and 4.6 ± 1.7, respectively, p<0.05). Body maps were produced for both stimuli during rest and exercise, which highlight sensitive areas across the body. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduced brain resting-state network specificity in infants compared with adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wylie KP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Korey P Wylie,1,* Donald C Rojas,1,* Randal G Ross,1 Sharon K Hunter,1 Keeran Maharajh,1 Marc-Andre Cornier,2 Jason R Tregellas1,3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA; 3Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, CO, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Infant resting-state networks do not exhibit the same connectivity patterns as those of young children and adults. Current theories of brain development emphasize developmental progression in regional and network specialization. We compared infant and adult functional connectivity, predicting that infants would exhibit less regional specificity and greater internetwork communication compared with adults.Patients and methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest was acquired in 12 healthy, term infants and 17 adults. Resting-state networks were extracted, using independent components analysis, and the resulting components were then compared between the adult and infant groups.Results: Adults exhibited stronger connectivity in the posterior cingulate cortex node of the default mode network, but infants had higher connectivity in medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex than adults. Adult connectivity was typically higher than infant connectivity within structures previously associated with the various networks, whereas infant connectivity was frequently higher outside of these structures. Internetwork communication was significantly higher in infants than in adults.Conclusion: We interpret these findings as consistent with evidence suggesting that resting-state network development is associated with increasing spatial specificity, possibly reflecting the corresponding functional specialization of regions and their interconnections through experience. Keywords: functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging

  3. Resting State EEG-based biometrics for individual identification using convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan Ma; Minett, James W; Blu, Thierry; Wang, William S-Y

    2015-08-01

    Biometrics is a growing field, which permits identification of individuals by means of unique physical features. Electroencephalography (EEG)-based biometrics utilizes the small intra-personal differences and large inter-personal differences between individuals' brainwave patterns. In the past, such methods have used features derived from manually-designed procedures for this purpose. Another possibility is to use convolutional neural networks (CNN) to automatically extract an individual's best and most unique neural features and conduct classification, using EEG data derived from both Resting State with Open Eyes (REO) and Resting State with Closed Eyes (REC). Results indicate that this CNN-based joint-optimized EEG-based Biometric System yields a high degree of accuracy of identification (88%) for 10-class classification. Furthermore, rich inter-personal difference can be found using a very low frequency band (0-2Hz). Additionally, results suggest that the temporal portions over which subjects can be individualized is less than 200 ms.

  4. Collective Phenomena In Volume And Surface Barrier Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2010-07-01

    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective means to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without appreciable gas heating. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. In laboratory experiments also the use of resistive, ferroelectric and semiconducting materials has been investigated, also porous ceramic layers and dielectric barriers with controlled surface conductivity. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are also devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinu- soidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or laterally homogeneous discharges. Reviews of the subject and the older literature on barrier discharges were published by Kogelschatz (2002, 2003), by Wagner et al. (2003) and by Fridman et al. (2005). A detailed discussion of various properties of barrier discharges can also be found in the recent book "Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure" by Becker et al. (2005). The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges will be discussed in detail. Special attention will be given to self-organization of current filaments. Main similarities and differences of the two types of barrier discharges will be elaborated.

  5. Annual report on radioactive discharges from Winfrith and monitoring the environment 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This annual report, the seventh, aims to provide full information on our discharges and environmental monitoring. The report is mainly graphical, comparing past and current levels with authorised limits, derived limits or the recommended limits of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Discharges from Winfrith are subject to Authorisations issued jointly by the Department of the Environment (DOE) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). These Authorisations, one for discharges to the sea and one for discharges to the atmosphere, require that Winfrith establish a need to discharge; that we apply Best Practicable Means (BPM) to reduce our discharges; that our discharges are below set Authorised Limits; and that schedules of effluent and environmental monitoring are established. As a 'back stop', discharges at the limits must not result in doses to the most potentially exposed part of the local population - the critical group -exceeding 0.5 mSv per year. The limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for dose to a member of the general public is 1.0 mSv per year. In September 1990 Winfrith's Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) was shut down therefore the pattern of discharges for 1991 differs from previous years. Discharges are generally reduced resulting in an even lower dose to the critical group, well below 1% of the ICRP limit and much less than 1% of the UK average natural background dose. (author)

  6. New discharge tube with virtual cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidelmann, L.; Aubrecht, L.

    2003-01-01

    Till this time known methods of the excitation of the discharge between electrodes are using either secondary or thermo emission of electrons by the cathode. Usually we speak about the self-maintained discharge. Lifetime of the cathode, that is shortened by the emission, limits in principle, the lifetime of the whole discharge tube. The discharge can, according to the present state of the art, be induced also by the inductive way. Arrangement for excitation of such discharge is rather expensive. The construction of the inductive excited discharge tube is considerably influenced by the necessity of the limitation of the losses in excitation magnetic circuits. Especially length of the discharge and pressure of the working gas are limited by the economic standpoints. Function of the discharge is always connected with unwanted electromagnetic radiation, whose restraint is expensive and represents limiting factor for arrangement of the discharge tube (Authors)

  7. Imaging the Where and When of Tic Generation and Resting State Networks in Adult Tourette Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eNeuner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tourette syndrome (TS is a neuropsychiatric disorder with the core phenomenon of tics, whose origin and temporal pattern are unclear. We investigated the When and Where of tic generation and resting state networks (RSNs via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.Methods: Tic-related activity and the underlying resting state networks in adult TS were studied within one fMRI session. Participants were instructed to lie in the scanner and to let tics occur freely. Tic onset times, as determined by video-observance were used as regressors and added to preceding time-bins of one second duration each to detect prior activation. RSN were identified by independent component analysis (ICA and correlated to disease severity by the means of dual regression.Results: Two seconds before a tic, the supplementary motor area (SMA, ventral primary motor cortex, primary sensorimotor cortex and parietal operculum exhibited activation; one second before a tic, the anterior cingulate, putamen, insula, amygdala, cerebellum and the extrastriatal-visual cortex exhibited activation; with tic-onset, the thalamus, central operculum, primary motor and somatosensory cortices exhibited activation. Analysis of resting state data resulted in 21 components including the so-called default-mode network. Network strength in those regions in SMA of two premotor ICA maps that were also active prior to tic occurrence, correlated significantly with disease severity according to the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTTS scores.Discussion: We demonstrate that the temporal pattern of tic generation follows the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit, and that cortical structures precede subcortical activation. The analysis of spontaneous fluctuations highlights the role of cortical premotor structures. Our study corroborates the notion of TS as a network disorder in which abnormal resting state network activity might contribute to the generation of tics in SMA.

  8. Successful group psychotherapy of depression in adolescents alters fronto-limbic resting-state connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, J; Metzger, C D; Plener, P L; Koelch, M G; Groen, G; Abler, B

    2017-02-01

    Current resting state imaging findings support suggestions that the neural signature of depression and therefore also its therapy should be conceptualized as a network disorder rather than a dysfunction of specific brain regions. In this study, we compared neural connectivity of adolescent patients with depression (PAT) and matched healthy controls (HC) and analysed pre-to-post changes of seed-based network connectivities in PAT after participation in a cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy (CBT). 38 adolescents (30 female; 19 patients; 13-18 years) underwent an eyes-closed resting-state scan. PAT were scanned before (pre) and after (post) five sessions of CBT. Resting-state functional connectivity was analysed in a seed-based approach for right-sided amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Symptom severity was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory Revision (BDI-II). Prior to group CBT, between groups amygdala and sgACC connectivity with regions of the default mode network was stronger in the patients group relative to controls. Within the PAT group, a similar pattern significantly decreased after successful CBT. Conversely, seed-based connectivity with affective regions and regions processing cognition and salient stimuli was stronger in HC relative to PAT before CBT. Within the PAT group, a similar pattern changed with CBT. Changes in connectivity correlated with the significant pre-to-post symptom improvement, and pre-treatment amygdala connectivity predicted treatment response in depressed adolescents. Sample size and missing long-term follow-up limit the interpretability. Successful group psychotherapy of depression in adolescents involved connectivity changes in resting state networks to that of healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying patients with Alzheimer's disease using resting-state fMRI and graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee, Ali; Ebrahimzadeh, Ata; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2015-11-01

    Study of brain network on the basis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has provided promising results to investigate changes in connectivity among different brain regions because of diseases. Graph theory can efficiently characterize different aspects of the brain network by calculating measures of integration and segregation. In this study, we combine graph theoretical approaches with advanced machine learning methods to study functional brain network alteration in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Support vector machine (SVM) was used to explore the ability of graph measures in diagnosis of AD. We applied our method on the resting-state fMRI data of twenty patients with AD and twenty age and gender matched healthy subjects. The data were preprocessed and each subject's graph was constructed by parcellation of the whole brain into 90 distinct regions using the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) atlas. The graph measures were then calculated and used as the discriminating features. Extracted network-based features were fed to different feature selection algorithms to choose most significant features. In addition to the machine learning approach, statistical analysis was performed on connectivity matrices to find altered connectivity patterns in patients with AD. Using the selected features, we were able to accurately classify patients with AD from healthy subjects with accuracy of 100%. Results of this study show that pattern recognition and graph of brain network, on the basis of the resting state fMRI data, can efficiently assist in the diagnosis of AD. Classification based on the resting-state fMRI can be used as a non-invasive and automatic tool to diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  10. Biomarkers of Dose and Effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Human controlled exposure studies have generally focused on subjects exposed to ozone (O3) while exercising while exposures in rats have been done at rest. We exposed resting subjects to labeled O3 (18O3, 0.4 ppm, for 2 hr) and compared O3 dose and effects with our...

  11. Building RESTful web services with Go learn how to build powerful RESTful APIs with Golang that scale gracefully

    CERN Document Server

    Yellavula, Naren

    2017-01-01

    REST is an architectural style that tackles the challenges of building scalable web services and in today's connected world, APIs have taken a central role on the web. APIs provide the fabric through which systems interact, and REST has become synonymous with APIs. The depth, breadth, and ease of use of Go, makes it a breeze for developers to ...

  12. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ku Kang

    Full Text Available Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature. We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual. This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  13. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  14. Feasibility of wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tristo, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of real time wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization. Experiments were performed involving discharge counting and tool electrode wear measurement in a wide range of process parameters...

  15. Relativistic Electrons in Electric Discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, Deniz

    at the time when also gigantic electric discharges were observed at 10-90 km altitude in the stratosphere and mesosphere, the so called “jets” and “sprites”, commonly referred to as “Transient Luminous Events” (TLEs). TGFs were _rst thought connected to TLEs, but later research has pointed to lightning......Thunderstorms generate bursts of X- and Gamma radiation. When observed from spacecraft, the bursts are referred to as “Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes” (TGFs). They are bremsstrahlung from energetic electrons accelerated in thunderstorm electric _elds. The TGFs were _rst observed in the 90ties...... discharges as the source. The “Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor” (ASIM) for the International Space Station in 2016, led by DTU Space, and the French microsatellite TARANIS, also with launch in 2016, will identify with certainty the source of TGFs. In preparation for the missions, the Ph.D. project has...

  16. Runaway electrons in toroidal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoepfel, H.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of runaway electrons in toroidal devices are reviewed here, with particular reference to tokamaks. The complex phenomenology of runaway effects, which have been the subject of research for the past twenty years, is organized within the framework of a number of physical models. The mechanisms and rates for runaway production are discussed first, followed by sections on runaway-driven kinetic relaxation processes and runaway orbit confinement. Next, the equilibrium and stability of runaway-dominated discharges are reviewed. Models for runaway production at early times in the discharge and the scaling of runaway phenomena to larger devices are also discussed. Finally, detection techniques and possible applications of runaways are mentioned. (author)

  17. REST-MapReduce: An Integrated Interface but Differentiated Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast deployment of cloud computing, MapReduce architectures are becoming the major technologies for mobile cloud computing. The concept of MapReduce was first introduced as a novel programming model and implementation for a large set of computing devices. In this research, we propose a novel concept of REST-MapReduce, enabling users to use only the REST interface without using the MapReduce architecture. This approach provides a higher level of abstraction by integration of the two types of access interface, REST API and MapReduce. The motivation of this research stems from the slower response time for accessing simple RDBMS on Hadoop than direct access to RDMBS. This is because there is overhead to job scheduling, initiating, starting, tracking, and management during MapReduce-based parallel execution. Therefore, we provide a good performance for REST Open API service and for MapReduce, respectively. This is very useful for constructing REST Open API services on Hadoop hosting services, for example, Amazon AWS (Macdonald, 2005 or IBM Smart Cloud. For evaluating performance of our REST-MapReduce framework, we conducted experiments with Jersey REST web server and Hadoop. Experimental result shows that our approach outperforms conventional approaches.

  18. Energy discharge heater power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.

    1992-11-01

    The heater power supply is intended to supply capacitively stored,energy to embedded heater strips in cryo magnets. The amount of energy can be controlled by setting different charge different capacitor values. Two chassis' can be operated in series or interlocks are provided. The charge voltage, number of capacitors pulse can be monitored. There and dual channel has two discharge supplies in one chassis. This report reviews the characteristics of this power supply further

  19. Electrostatic probes in luminescent discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Raposo, C. da.

    1980-01-01

    A system to produce luminescent type plasma by continuos discharge and ionization by high frequency was constructed. The ionization was done in the air and in the argon under pressures from 3 to 10 mmHg. The parameters of a non magnetized collisional plasma and the parameters of a magnetized plasma such as, density, eletron temperature and potential, using a Langmuir probe with plane geometry, were determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Cytokines in chronically critically ill patients after activity and rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Chris; Higgins, Patricia A; Chen, Yea Jyh Kathy; Levine, Alan D

    2007-04-01

    Inflammation, a common problem for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), frequently is associated with serious and prolonged critical illnesses. To date, no study has examined whether physical activity influences inflammatory factors in critically ill adults. The objectives of this study were to (a) examine the relationships between type and duration of physical activity and serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine; IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine; and their ratio and (b) determine if there are associations between cytokines or their ratio and activity or outcomes. This descriptive feasibility study investigated the approaches to measuring levels of physical activity and its relationship to serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 and the ratio between them in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation during periods of activity and rest. Measurements included serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels, direct observation and actigraphy, and prospective chart review. Ten critically ill patients who were mechanically ventilated for an average of 10 days in a large, urban, teaching hospital were enrolled. The average ratio of IL-6 to IL-10 improved after an average of 14.7 min of passive physical activity, typically multiple in-bed turns associated with hygiene. IL-6, IL-10, and their ratio were not associated with patient outcomes of weaning success or length of stay. High levels of IL-6 were associated with mortality. Cytokine balance may be improved by low levels of activity among patients with prolonged critical illness. The pattern of cytokines produced after activity may improve patients' recovery from prolonged critical illness and mechanical ventilation.

  1. Internal Electrostatic Discharge Monitor - IESDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wousik; Goebel, Dan M.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses an innovation designed to effectively monitor dielectric charging in spacecraft components to measure the potential for discharge in order to prevent damage from internal electrostatic discharge (IESD). High-energy electrons penetrate the structural materials and shielding of a spacecraft and then stop inside dielectrics and keep accumulating. Those deposited charges generate an electric field. If the electric field becomes higher than the breakdown threshold (approx. =2 x 10(exp 5) V/cm), discharge occurs. This monitor measures potentials as a function of dielectric depth. Differentiation of potential with respect to the depth yields electric field. Direct measurement of the depth profile of the potential in a dielectric makes real-time electronic field evaluation possible without simulations. The IESDM has been designed to emulate a multi-layer circuit board, to insert very thin metallic layers between the dielectric layers. The conductors serve as diagnostic monitoring locations to measure the deposited electron-charge and the charge dynamics. Measurement of the time-dependent potential of the metal layers provides information on the amount of charge deposited in the dielectrics and the movement of that charge with time (dynamics).

  2. Estimation of the Relationship Between Remotely Sensed Anthropogenic Heat Discharge and Building Energy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Weng, Qihao; Gurney, Kevin R.; Shuai, Yanmin; Hu, Xuefei

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat discharge and energy use from residential and commercial buildings across multiple scales in the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. The anthropogenic heat discharge was estimated with a remote sensing-based surface energy balance model, which was parameterized using land cover, land surface temperature, albedo, and meteorological data. The building energy use was estimated using a GIS-based building energy simulation model in conjunction with Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration survey data, the Assessor's parcel data, GIS floor areas data, and remote sensing-derived building height data. The spatial patterns of anthropogenic heat discharge and energy use from residential and commercial buildings were analyzed and compared. Quantitative relationships were evaluated across multiple scales from pixel aggregation to census block. The results indicate that anthropogenic heat discharge is consistent with building energy use in terms of the spatial pattern, and that building energy use accounts for a significant fraction of anthropogenic heat discharge. The research also implies that the relationship between anthropogenic heat discharge and building energy use is scale-dependent. The simultaneous estimation of anthropogenic heat discharge and building energy use via two independent methods improves the understanding of the surface energy balance in an urban landscape. The anthropogenic heat discharge derived from remote sensing and meteorological data may be able to serve as a spatial distribution proxy for spatially-resolved building energy use, and even for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions if additional factors are considered.

  3. RestKit for iOS standard guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kalapun, Taras

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step, example-based guide to learning how you can link your apps and web services using RestKit.This book is for iOS developers of all levels who are interested in boosting their productivity by utilizing third party libraries and who have a willingness to learn how to build RESTful apps using the RestKit framework. A basic knowledge of Objective-C is required as well as a simple understanding of how to use CoreData.

  4. How restful is it with all that noise? Comparison of Interleaved silent steady state (ISSS) and conventional imaging in resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, J; Ferreira, M; Leppert, I R; Matsushita, R; Pike, B; Zatorre, R J

    2017-02-15

    Resting-state fMRI studies have become very important in cognitive neuroscience because they are able to identify BOLD fluctuations in brain circuits involved in motor, cognitive, or perceptual processes without the use of an explicit task. Such approaches have been fruitful when applied to various disordered populations, or to children or the elderly. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the consequences of the loud acoustic scanner noise associated with conventional fMRI acquisition, which could be an important confounding factor affecting auditory and/or cognitive networks in resting-state fMRI. Several approaches have been developed to mitigate the effects of acoustic noise on fMRI signals, including sparse sampling protocols and interleaved silent steady state (ISSS) acquisition methods, the latter being used only for task-based fMRI. Here, we developed an ISSS protocol for resting-state fMRI (rs-ISSS) consisting of rapid acquisition of a set of echo planar imaging volumes following each silent period, during which the steady state longitudinal magnetization was maintained with a train of relatively silent slice-selective excitation pulses. We evaluated the test-retest reliability of intensity and spatial extent of connectivity networks of fMRI BOLD signal across three different days for rs-ISSS and compared it with a standard resting-state fMRI (rs-STD). We also compared the strength and distribution of connectivity networks between rs-ISSS and rs-STD. We found that both rs-ISSS and rs-STD showed high reproducibility of fMRI signal across days. In addition, rs-ISSS showed a more robust pattern of functional connectivity within the somatosensory and motor networks, as well as an auditory network compared with rs-STD. An increased connectivity between the default mode network and the language network and with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) network was also found for rs-ISSS compared with rs-STD. Finally, region of interest analysis showed

  5. Recovery from an acute relapse is associated with changes in motor resting-state connectivity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Blinkenberg, Morten; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) of the brain has been successfully used to identify altered functional connectivity in the motor network in multiple sclerosis (MS).1 In clinically stable patients with MS, we recently demonstrated increased coupling between the basal ganglia and the motor...... network.1 Accordingly, rs-fMRI in MS is particularly suited to investigate functional reorganisation of the motor network in the remission phase after a relapse because the resting-state connectivity pattern is not influenced by interindividual differences in motor ability and task performance....... In this prospective rs-fMRI study, we mapped acute changes in resting-state motor connectivity in 12 patients with relapsing forms of MS presenting with an acute relapse involving an upper limb paresis. Previous functional MRI (fMRI) studies have shown that the activation of sensorimotor areas was stronger and more...

  6. Altered Default Mode Network on Resting-State fMRI in Children with Infantile Spasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Infantile spasms (IS syndrome is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy, which occurs in children characterized by spasms, impaired consciousness, and hypsarrhythmia. Abnormalities in default mode network (DMN might contribute to the loss of consciousness during seizures and cognitive deficits in children with IS. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the changes in DMN with functional connectivity (FC and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, the two methods to discover the potential neuronal underpinnings of IS. The consistency of the two calculate methods of DMN abnormalities in IS patients was also our main focus. To avoid the disturbance of interictal epileptic discharge, our testing was performed within the interictal durations without epileptic discharges. Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 13 patients with IS and 35 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. FC analysis with seed in posterior cingulate cortex (PCC was used to compare the differences between two groups. We chose PCC as the seed region because PCC is the only node in the DMN that directly interacts with virtually all other nodes according to previous studies. Furthermore, the ALFF values within the DMN were also calculated and compared between the two groups. The FC results showed that IS patients exhibited markedly reduced connectivity between posterior seed region and other areas within DMN. In addition, part of the brain areas within the DMN showing significant difference of FC had significantly lower ALFF signal in the patient group than that in the healthy controls. The observed disruption in DMN through the two methods showed that the coherence of brain signal fluctuation in DMN during rest was broken in IS children. Neuronal functional impairment or altered integration in DMN would be one neuroimaging characteristic, which might help us to understand the underlying neural mechanism of IS. Further studies are needed to determine whether

  7. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  8. EPA Region 1 No Discharge Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset details No Discharge Zones (NDZ) for New England. Boaters may not discharge waste into these areas. Boundaries were determined mostly by Federal...

  9. Early hospital discharge and early puerperal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Villalobos, Dolores; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo; Salinas, Aarón; González, Dolores; Walker, Dilys; Rojo-Herrera, Guadalupe; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association between time of postpartum discharge and symptoms indicative of complications during the first postpartum week. Women with vaginal delivery at a Mexico City public hospital, without complications before the hospital discharge, were interviewed seven days after delivery. Time of postpartum discharge was classified as early (25 hours). The dependent variable was defined as the occurrence and severity of puerperal complication symptoms. Out of 303 women, 208 (68%) were discharged early. However, women with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care had lower odds of presenting symptoms in early puerperium than women without early discharge and inadequate prenatal care (OR 0.36; 95% confidence intervals = 0.17-0.76). There was no association between early discharge and symptoms of complications during the first postpartum week; the odds of complications were lower for mothers with early discharge and satisfactory prenatal care.

  10. Multivariate pattern dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Anzellotti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available When we perform a cognitive task, multiple brain regions are engaged. Understanding how these regions interact is a fundamental step to uncover the neural bases of behavior. Most research on the interactions between brain regions has focused on the univariate responses in the regions. However, fine grained patterns of response encode important information, as shown by multivariate pattern analysis. In the present article, we introduce and apply multivariate pattern dependence (MVPD: a technique to study the statistical dependence between brain regions in humans in terms of the multivariate relations between their patterns of responses. MVPD characterizes the responses in each brain region as trajectories in region-specific multidimensional spaces, and models the multivariate relationship between these trajectories. We applied MVPD to the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS and to the fusiform face area (FFA, using a searchlight approach to reveal interactions between these seed regions and the rest of the brain. Across two different experiments, MVPD identified significant statistical dependence not detected by standard functional connectivity. Additionally, MVPD outperformed univariate connectivity in its ability to explain independent variance in the responses of individual voxels. In the end, MVPD uncovered different connectivity profiles associated with different representational subspaces of FFA: the first principal component of FFA shows differential connectivity with occipital and parietal regions implicated in the processing of low-level properties of faces, while the second and third components show differential connectivity with anterior temporal regions implicated in the processing of invariant representations of face identity.

  11. Early discharge hospital at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C; Iliffe, Steve; Doll, Helen A; Broad, Joanna; Gladman, John; Langhorne, Peter; Richards, Suzanne H; Shepperd, Sasha

    2017-06-26

    Early discharge hospital at home is a service that provides active treatment by healthcare professionals in the patient's home for a condition that otherwise would require acute hospital inpatient care. This is an update of a Cochrane review. To determine the effectiveness and cost of managing patients with early discharge hospital at home compared with inpatient hospital care. We searched the following databases to 9 January 2017: the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and EconLit. We searched clinical trials registries. Randomised trials comparing early discharge hospital at home with acute hospital inpatient care for adults. We excluded obstetric, paediatric and mental health hospital at home schemes.   DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and EPOC. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the body of evidence for the most important outcomes. We included 32 trials (N = 4746), six of them new for this update, mainly conducted in high-income countries. We judged most of the studies to have a low or unclear risk of bias. The intervention was delivered by hospital outreach services (17 trials), community-based services (11 trials), and was co-ordinated by a hospital-based stroke team or physician in conjunction with community-based services in four trials.Studies recruiting people recovering from strokeEarly discharge hospital at home probably makes little or no difference to mortality at three to six months (risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 1.48, N = 1114, 11 trials, moderate-certainty evidence) and may make little or no difference to the risk of hospital readmission (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.66, N = 345, 5 trials, low-certainty evidence). Hospital at home may lower the risk of living in institutional setting at six months (RR 0.63, 96% CI

  12. Resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile cardiac imaging in chronic coronary artery disease: comparison with rest-redistribution thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuocolo, A.; Maurea, S.; Pace, L.; Nicolai, E.; Nappi, A.; Imbriaco, M.; Trimarco, B.; Salvatore, M.

    1993-01-01

    We studied 19 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction 33%±8%) by resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) and rest-redistribution thallium-201 cardiac imaging. Thallium and 99m Tc-MIBI studies were visually analysed. Of 285 segments, 203 (71%) had normal thallium uptake, 48 (17%) showed reversible thallium defects and 34 (12%) showed irreversible thallium defects. Of these 34 irreversible thallium defects, 19 (56%) were moderate and 15 (44%) were severe. Of the corresponding 285 segments, 200 (70%) had normal 99m Tc-MIBI uptake, while 37 (13%) showed moderate and 48 (17%) showed severe reduction of MIBI uptake. Myocardial segmental agreement for regional uptake score between initial thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI images was 90% (κ=0.78). Segmental agreement between delayed thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI images was 77% (κ=0.44). In particular, in 26 (9%) segments 99m Tc-MIBI uptake was severely reduced while delayed thallium uptake was normal or only moderately reduced. These data suggest that although rest-redistribution thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI cardiac imaging provide concordant results in the majority of myocardial segments, some segments with severely reduced resting 99m Tc-MIBI uptake may contain viable but hypoperfused myocardium. Thus, conclusions on myocardial viability based on 99m Tc-MIBI uptake should be made with caution in chronic coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  13. Capacitor discharges, magnetohydrodynamics, X-rays, ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume 1: Capacitor Discharges - Magnetohydrodynamics - X-Rays - Ultrasonics deals with the theoretical and engineering problems that arise in the capacitor discharge technique.This book discusses the characteristics of dielectric material, symmetrical switch tubes with mercury filling, and compensation conductor forms. The transformed discharge for highest current peaks, ignition transformer for internal combustion engines, and X-ray irradiation of subjects in mechanical motion are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the transformed capacitor discharge in w

  14. Basic Studies of Distributed Discharge Limiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-10

    electron avalanche ionization discharges induced by a focused 110 GHz millimeter-wave beam in atmospheric air. Discharges take place in a free volume of...plasma. 3.1.7 Vacuum Ultraviolet emission from pulsed discharges at atmospheric pressure. Fig. 6. Energy level diagram for molecular and...the utilized spectral simulation software, SPECTRAPLOT. 3.1.8 Non-intrusive diagnostic method for dissociation degree in pulsed discharges

  15. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2015-10-27

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical tiling patterns on the plane must take on various shapes in order to faithfully and feasibly approximate curved surfaces. We define and analyze the deformations these tiles must undertake to account for curvature, and discover the symmetries that remain invariant under such deformations. We propose a novel method to regularize polyhedral patterns while maintaining these symmetries into a plethora of aesthetic and feasible patterns.

  16. Decreased resting functional connectivity after traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asht Mangal Mishra

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI contributes to about 10% of acquired epilepsy. Even though the mechanisms of post-traumatic epileptogenesis are poorly known, a disruption of neuronal networks predisposing to altered neuronal synchrony remains a viable candidate mechanism. We tested a hypothesis that resting state BOLD-fMRI functional connectivity can reveal network abnormalities in brain regions that are connected to the lesioned cortex, and that these changes associate with functional impairment, particularly epileptogenesis. TBI was induced using lateral fluid-percussion injury in seven adult male Sprague-Dawley rats followed by functional imaging at 9.4T 4 months later. As controls we used six sham-operated animals that underwent all surgical operations but were not injured. Electroencephalogram (EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was performed to measure resting functional connectivity. A week after functional imaging, rats were implanted with bipolar skull electrodes. After recovery, rats underwent pentyleneterazol (PTZ seizure-susceptibility test under EEG. For image analysis, four pairs of regions of interests were analyzed in each hemisphere: ipsilateral and contralateral frontal and parietal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. High-pass and low-pass filters were applied to functional imaging data. Group statistics comparing injured and sham-operated rats and correlations over time between each region were calculated. In the end, rats were perfused for histology. None of the rats had epileptiform discharges during functional imaging. PTZ-test, however revealed increased seizure susceptibility in injured rats as compared to controls. Group statistics revealed decreased connectivity between the ipsilateral and contralateral parietal cortex and between the parietal cortex and hippocampus on the side of injury as compared to sham-operated animals. Injured animals also had abnormal negative connectivity between the ipsilateral and

  17. AgNOR Count in Resting Cells (Resting NOR Is a New Prognostic Marker in Invasive Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuro Tomobe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that the AgNOR count in proliferating cells is a predictor of tumor recurrence in superficial bladder tumor (J. Urol. 162 (1999, 63–68. In the present study, we evaluate the type of AgNOR associated with cell cycles as a prognostic factor in invasive bladder tumor using a double staining technique employing both AgNOR and MIB-1 labelling. Materials and methods: Forty-four paraffin sections of invasive bladder tumors were stained simultaneously with AgNOR and MIB-1. The number of AgNORs in proliferating (MIB-1 positive or resting (MIB-1 negative cells were counted from a total of 100 nuclei. Correlations between MIB-1 associated AgNOR count and clinicopathological parameters were statistically analyzed. Results: The AgNOR count in proliferating cells (proliferating NOR was significantly higher than that in resting cells (resting NOR (p < 0.01. The resting NOR in tumors with distant metastases was significantly higher than that in tumors without metastases (p < 0.05. Patients with a low resting NOR tumor had a better prognosis than those with a high resting NOR tumor, whereas the proliferating NOR was not associated with survival. Survival analysis revealed that the resting NOR was the most powerful prognostic marker in patients with invasive bladder tumor (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Resting NOR had a predictive value in the prognosis of patients with invasive bladder tumor. Keywords: Transitional cell carcinoma, invasive, resting cell, AgNORs, MIB-1

  18. Resting States Are Resting Traits – An fMRI Study of Sex Differences and Menstrual Cycle Effects in Resting State Cognitive Control Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelmervik, Helene; Hausmann, Markus; Osnes, Berge; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    To what degree resting state fMRI is stable or susceptible to internal mind states of the individual is currently an issue of debate. To address this issue, the present study focuses on sex differences and investigates whether resting state fMRI is stable in men and women or changes within relative short-term periods (i.e., across the menstrual cycle). Due to the fact that we recently reported menstrual cycle effects on cognitive control based on data collected during the same sessions, the c...

  19. Effects of irritant chemicals on Aedes aegypti resting behavior: is there a simple shift to untreated "safe sites"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortance Manda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti to irritant and repellent chemicals that can be exploited to reduce man-vector contact. Maximum efficacy of interventions based on irritant chemical actions will, however, require full knowledge of variables that influence vector resting behavior and how untreated "safe sites" contribute to overall impact. METHODS: Using a laboratory box assay, resting patterns of two population strains of female Ae. aegypti (THAI and PERU were evaluated against two material types (cotton and polyester at various dark:light surface area coverage (SAC ratio and contrast configuration (horizontal and vertical under chemical-free and treated conditions. Chemicals evaluated were alphacypermethrin and DDT at varying concentrations. RESULTS: Under chemical-free conditions, dark material had significantly higher resting counts compared to light material at all SAC, and significantly increased when material was in horizontal configuration. Cotton elicited stronger response than polyester. Within the treatment assays, significantly higher resting counts were observed on chemical-treated dark material compared to untreated light fabric. However, compared to matched controls, significantly less resting observations were made on chemical-treated dark material overall. Most importantly, resting observations on untreated light material (or "safe sites" in the treatment assay did not significantly increase for many of the tests, even at 25% SAC. Knockdown rates were ≤5% for all assays. Significantly more observations of flying mosquitoes were made in test assays under chemical-treatment conditions as compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: When preferred Ae. aegypti resting sites are treated with chemicals, even at reduced treatment coverage area, mosquitoes do not simply move to safe sites (untreated areas following contact with the treated material. Instead, they become agitated

  20. Orbits of two electrons released from rest in a uniform transverse magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2018-03-01

    Two identical charged particles released from rest repel each other radially. A uniform perpendicular magnetic field will then cause their trajectories to curve into a flower petal pattern. The orbit of each particle is approximately circular with a long period for a strong magnetic field, whereas it becomes a figure-eight for a weak magnetic field with each lobe completed in a cyclotron period. For example, such radially bound motions arise for two-dimensional electron gases. The level of treatment is appropriate for an undergraduate calculus-based electromagnetism course.

  1. Rest-activity circadian rhythms and bone mineral density in elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara S. Rogers

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: The data demonstrate modest associations between overall circadian rhythmicity of rest and activity (measured by pseudo F-statistic, as well as daytime to nighttime activity ratio (measured by alpha statistic, aBMD and ΔaBMD, but adjustment for covariates related to lifestyle, BMI and comorbidities attenuated most of these associations. These results suggest that RAR patterns are not independently associated with aBMD or four-year ΔaBMD at the total hip or femoral neck in older men, but additional research is needed.

  2. Findings in resting-state fMRI by differences from K-means clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyzhyk, Darya; Graña, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Resting state fMRI has growing number of studies with diverse aims, always centered on some kind of functional connectivity biomarker obtained from correlation regarding seed regions, or by analytical decomposition of the signal towards the localization of the spatial distribution of functional connectivity patterns. In general, studies are computationally costly and very sensitive to noise and preprocessing of data. In this paper we consider clustering by K-means as a exploratory procedure which can provide some results with little computational effort, due to efficient implementations that are readily available. We demonstrate the approach on a dataset of schizophrenia patients, finding differences between patients with and without auditory hallucinations.

  3. Radio frequency discharge with dust particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chutov, Y. I.; W. J. Goedheer,; Kravchenko, O. Y.; Zuz, V. M.; Yan, M.; Martins, R.; Ferreira, I.; Fortunato, E.; Kroesen, G.

    2000-01-01

    A 1D PIC/MCC method has been developed for computer simulations of low-pressure RF discharges with dust particles using the method for dust-free discharges. A RF discharge in argon with dust particles distributed uniformly in the interelectrode gap is simulated at parameters providing a possibility

  4. 32 CFR 724.117 - Discharge review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge review. 724.117 Section 724.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Definitions § 724.117 Discharge review. A nonadversary administrative reappraisal at the level of...

  5. Expansion of a nitrogen discharge by sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antinyan, M.A.; Galechyan, G.A.; Tavakalyan, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    When the background pressure and the discharge current in a gas discharge are raised the plasma column is tightened up into a filament. Then the discharge occupies a region of the discharge tube whose transverse dimensions are substantially less than those of the tube. This contraction phenomenon in discharges restricts the range of parameters used in various devices to the range of relatively low discharge currents and low gas pressures. This contraction interferes with creating high-power gas lasers, since it acts destructively on the lasing process. In order to suppress filamentation of discharges the working gas has been pumped through the system at high speed, with considerable success. The turbulent mixing in the stream plays an important role in creating an uncontracted discharge at high pressures. The purpose of the present work is to study the possibility of undoing the contraction of a nitrogen discharge, which is one of the main components in the operation of a CO 2 laser, by introducing an intense sound wave in the discharge tube. Discharge contraction and the effect of a sound wave propagating along the plasma column have been investigated experimentally in nitrogen by studying the current-voltage characteristics of a contracted discharge. 6 refs., 3 figs

  6. On regulation of radioactive airborne discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroganov, A.A.; Kuryndin, A.V.; Shapovalov, A.S.; Orlov, M.Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Authors present the Russian regulatory basis of radioactive airborne discharges which was updated after enactment of the Methodology for airborne discharge limits development. Criteria for establishing of airborne discharge limits, scope and other features of methodology are also considered in the article [ru

  7. Radionuclide ventriculography during rest and exercise: normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, E.B.; Marroni, B.J.; Achutti, A.C.; Anselmi, O.E.; Rabin, M.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty young volunteers of both sexes were examined by radioisotopic techniques to establish the normal range of ventricular function at rest and the response to a stress test (systolic arterious pressure X cardiac frequency > 25000). (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Memory reactivation during rest supports upcoming learning of related content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Margaret L.; Preston, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of offline processes for memory, how these mechanisms influence future learning remains unknown. Participants with established memories for a set of initial face–object associations were scanned during passive rest and during encoding of new related and unrelated pairs of objects. Spontaneous reactivation of established memories and enhanced hippocampal–neocortical functional connectivity during rest was related to better subsequent learning, specifically of related content. Moreover, the degree of functional coupling during rest was predictive of neural engagement during the new learning experience itself. These results suggest that through rest-phase reactivation and hippocampal–neocortical interactions, existing memories may come to facilitate encoding during subsequent related episodes. PMID:25331890

  9. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  10. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    2008-11-26

    Nov 26, 2008 ... ratio were the most important independent parameters in prediction of RPP. The study shows that ... study of various medical, surgical, and physical interventions on .... increase in myocardial activity and thus the MVO2 at rest.

  11. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Subjects with Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Type of Article: Original ... Resting Heart Rate in Subjects with Hypertension — Lamina S. et al investigate the effect of interval .... changes in VO max) of interest. In the t-test. 2.

  12. Memory reactivation during rest supports upcoming learning of related content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Margaret L; Preston, Alison R

    2014-11-04

    Although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of offline processes for memory, how these mechanisms influence future learning remains unknown. Participants with established memories for a set of initial face-object associations were scanned during passive rest and during encoding of new related and unrelated pairs of objects. Spontaneous reactivation of established memories and enhanced hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity during rest was related to better subsequent learning, specifically of related content. Moreover, the degree of functional coupling during rest was predictive of neural engagement during the new learning experience itself. These results suggest that through rest-phase reactivation and hippocampal-neocortical interactions, existing memories may come to facilitate encoding during subsequent related episodes.

  13. Effect of actuating voltage and discharge gap on plasma assisted detonation initiation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyin, ZHOU; Xueke, CHE; Wansheng, NIE; Di, WANG

    2018-06-01

    The influence of actuating voltage and discharge gap on plasma assisted detonation initiation by alternating current dielectric barrier discharge was studied in detail. A loose coupling method was used to simulate the detonation initiation process of a hydrogen–oxygen mixture in a detonation tube under different actuating voltage amplitudes and discharge gap sizes. Both the discharge products and the detonation forming process assisted by the plasma were analyzed. It was found that the patterns of the temporal and spatial distributions of discharge products in one cycle keep unchanged as changing the two discharge operating parameters. However, the adoption of a higher actuating voltage leads to a higher active species concentration within the discharge zone, and atom H is the most sensitive to the variations of the actuating voltage amplitude among the given species. Adopting a larger discharge gap results in a lower concentration of the active species, and all species have the same sensitivity to the variations of the gap. With respect to the reaction flow of the detonation tube, the corresponding deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) time and distance become slightly longer when a higher actuating voltage is chosen. The acceleration effect of plasma is more prominent with a smaller discharge gap, and the benefit builds gradually throughout the DDT process. Generally, these two control parameters have little effect on the amplitude of the flow field parameters, and they do not alter the combustion degree within the reaction zone.

  14. Inspiratory flow pattern in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortuna, C L; Minetti, A E; Mognoni, P

    1984-10-01

    The theoretical estimation of the mechanical work of breathing during inspiration at rest is based on the common assumption that the inspiratory airflow wave is a sine function of time. Different analytical studies have pointed out that from an energetic point of view a rectangular wave is more economical than a sine wave. Visual inspection of inspiratory flow waves recorded during exercise in humans and various animals suggests that a trend toward a rectangular flow wave may be a possible systematic response of the respiratory system. To test this hypothesis, the harmonic content of inspiratory flow waves that were recorded in six healthy subjects at rest, during exercise hyperventilation, and during a maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) maneuver were evaluated by a Fourier analysis, and the results were compared with those obtained on sinusoidal and rectangular models. The dynamic work inherent in the experimental waves and in the sine-wave model was practically the same at rest; during exercise hyperventilation and MVV, the experimental wave was approximately 16-20% more economical than the sinusoidal one. It was concluded that even though at rest the sinusoidal model is a reasonably good approximation of inspiratory flow, during exercise and MVV, a physiological controller is probably operating in humans that can select a more economical inspiratory pattern. Other peculiarities of airflow wave during hyperventilation and some optimization criteria are also discussed.

  15. Resting spore formation of aphid-pathogenic fungus Pandora nouryi depends on the concentration of infective inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Hong; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2008-07-01

    Resting spore formation of some aphid-pathogenic Entomophthorales is important for the seasonal pattern of their prevalence and survival but this process is poorly understood. To explore the possible mechanism involved in the process, Pandora nouryi (obligate aphid pathogen) interacted with green peach aphid Myzus persicae on cabbage leaves under favourable conditions. Host nymphs showered with primary conidia of an isolate (LC(50): 0.9-6.7 conidia mm(-2) 4-7 days post shower) from air captures in the low-latitude plateau of China produced resting spores (azygospores), primary conidia or both spore types. Surprisingly, the proportion of mycosed cadavers forming resting spores (P(CFRS)) increased sharply within the concentrations (C) of 28-240 conidia mm(-2), retained high levels at 240-1760, but was zero or extremely low at 0.3-16. The P(CFRS)-C relationship fit well the logistic equation P(CFRS) = 0.6774/[1 + exp(3.1229-0.0270C)] (r(2) = 0.975). This clarified for the first time the dependence of in vivo resting spore formation of P. nouryi upon the concentration of infective inoculum. A hypothesis is thus proposed that some sort of biochemical signals may exist in the host-pathogen interaction so that the fungal pathogen perceives the signals for prompt response to forthcoming host-density changes by either producing conidia for infecting available hosts or forming resting spores for surviving host absence in situ.

  16. RESTful web API design with Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Bojinov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer wanting to enrich your development skills to create scalable, server-side, RESTful applications based on the Node.js platform, this book is for you. You also need to be aware of HTTP communication concepts and should have a working knowledge of JavaScript. Knowledge of REST would be an added advantage but is definitely not a necessity.

  17. The Classic: On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John

    2009-09-01

    This Classic article is a reprint of the original work by John Hilton, On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV. An accompanying biographical sketch on John Hilton, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-0927-2 . The Classic Article is reprinted with courtesy from Hilton J. On The Influence of Mechanical and Physiological Rest in the Treatment of Accidents and Surgical Diseases, and the Diagnostic Value of Pain. London, England: Bell and Daldy; 1863.

  18. Genetic variablilities of body temperature and resting behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that neither progeny nor generation had effect on body temperature. The Alpha strain exhibited more resting behaviour than did the exotic and the pure native types. Majority of the birds rested in the afternoon at 2.00 pm. This could be attributed to the fact that at 2.00 pm the weather is hot and birds search for a ...

  19. Relativistic theory of gravitation and the graviton rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunsov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines a graviton rest mass (m) introduced in the framework of the relativistic theory of gravitation and obtains equations that describe a massive gravitational field. Under the assumption that the entire hidden mass of the matter in the Universe is due to the existence of a massive gravitational field, an upper bound on the rest mass is obtained: m ≤ 0.64 x 10 --65 g

  20. When frequencies never synchronize: the golden mean and the resting EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Klimesch, Wolfgang

    2010-06-04

    The classical frequency bands of the EEG can be described as a geometric series with a ratio (between neighbouring frequencies) of 1.618, which is the golden mean. Here we show that a synchronization of the excitatory phases of two oscillations with frequencies f1 and f2 is impossible (in a mathematical sense) when their ratio equals the golden mean, because their excitatory phases never meet. Thus, in a mathematical sense, the golden mean provides a totally uncoupled ('desynchronized') processing state which most likely reflects a 'resting' brain, which is not involved in selective information processing. However, excitatory phases of the f1- and f2-oscillations occasionally come close enough to coincide in a physiological sense. These coincidences are more frequent, the higher the frequencies f1 and f2. We demonstrate that the pattern of excitatory phase meetings provided by the golden mean as the 'most irrational' number is least frequent and most irregular. Thus, in a physiological sense, the golden mean provides (i) the highest physiologically possible desynchronized state in the resting brain, (ii) the possibility for spontaneous and most irregular (!) coupling and uncoupling between rhythms and (iii) the opportunity for a transition from resting state to activity. These characteristics have already been discussed to lay the ground for a healthy interplay between various physiological processes (Buchmann, 2002). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain entropy and human intelligence: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Glenn N; Calderone, Daniel; Morales, Leah J

    2018-01-01

    Human intelligence comprises comprehension of and reasoning about an infinitely variable external environment. A brain capable of large variability in neural configurations, or states, will more easily understand and predict variable external events. Entropy measures the variety of configurations possible within a system, and recently the concept of brain entropy has been defined as the number of neural states a given brain can access. This study investigates the relationship between human intelligence and brain entropy, to determine whether neural variability as reflected in neuroimaging signals carries information about intellectual ability. We hypothesize that intelligence will be positively associated with entropy in a sample of 892 healthy adults, using resting-state fMRI. Intelligence is measured with the Shipley Vocabulary and WASI Matrix Reasoning tests. Brain entropy was positively associated with intelligence. This relation was most strongly observed in the prefrontal cortex, inferior temporal lobes, and cerebellum. This relationship between high brain entropy and high intelligence indicates an essential role for entropy in brain functioning. It demonstrates that access to variable neural states predicts complex behavioral performance, and specifically shows that entropy derived from neuroimaging signals at rest carries information about intellectual capacity. Future work in this area may elucidate the links between brain entropy in both resting and active states and various forms of intelligence. This insight has the potential to provide predictive information about adaptive behavior and to delineate the subdivisions and nature of intelligence based on entropic patterns.

  2. Brain entropy and human intelligence: A resting-state fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Daniel; Morales, Leah J.

    2018-01-01

    Human intelligence comprises comprehension of and reasoning about an infinitely variable external environment. A brain capable of large variability in neural configurations, or states, will more easily understand and predict variable external events. Entropy measures the variety of configurations possible within a system, and recently the concept of brain entropy has been defined as the number of neural states a given brain can access. This study investigates the relationship between human intelligence and brain entropy, to determine whether neural variability as reflected in neuroimaging signals carries information about intellectual ability. We hypothesize that intelligence will be positively associated with entropy in a sample of 892 healthy adults, using resting-state fMRI. Intelligence is measured with the Shipley Vocabulary and WASI Matrix Reasoning tests. Brain entropy was positively associated with intelligence. This relation was most strongly observed in the prefrontal cortex, inferior temporal lobes, and cerebellum. This relationship between high brain entropy and high intelligence indicates an essential role for entropy in brain functioning. It demonstrates that access to variable neural states predicts complex behavioral performance, and specifically shows that entropy derived from neuroimaging signals at rest carries information about intellectual capacity. Future work in this area may elucidate the links between brain entropy in both resting and active states and various forms of intelligence. This insight has the potential to provide predictive information about adaptive behavior and to delineate the subdivisions and nature of intelligence based on entropic patterns. PMID:29432427

  3. Repetitive tactile stimulation changes resting-state functional connectivity – implications for treatment of sensorimotor decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eFreyer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders and physiological aging can lead to a decline of perceptual abilities. In contrast to the conventional therapeutic approach that comprises intensive training and practicing, passive repetitive sensory stimulation (RSS has recently gained increasing attention as an alternative to countervail the sensory decline by improving perceptual abilities without the need of active participation. A particularly effective type of high-frequency RSS, utilizing Hebbian learning principles, improves perceptual acuity as well as sensorimotor functions and has been successfully applied to treat chronic stroke patients and elderly subjects. High-frequency RSS has been shown to induce plastic changes of somatosensory cortex such as representational map reorganization, but its impact on the brain’s ongoing network activity and resting-state functional connectivity has not been investigated so far. Here, we applied high-frequency RSS in healthy human subjects and analyzed resting state Electroencephalography (EEG functional connectivity patterns before and after RSS by means of imaginary coherency (ImCoh, a frequency-specific connectivity measure which is known to reduce overestimation biases due to volume conduction and common reference. Thirty minutes of passive high-frequency RSS lead to significant ImCoh-changes of the resting state mu-rhythm in the individual upper alpha frequency band within distributed sensory and motor cortical areas. These stimulation induced distributed functional connectivity changes likely underlie the previously observed improvement in sensorimotor integration.

  4. Abnormal resting-state connectivity of motor and cognitive networks in early manifest Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R C; Sambataro, F; Vasic, N; Depping, M S; Thomann, P A; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Süssmuth, S D; Orth, M

    2014-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of multiple neural networks during the brain's 'resting state' could facilitate biomarker development in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and may provide new insights into the relationship between neural dysfunction and clinical symptoms. To date, however, very few studies have examined the functional integrity of multiple resting state networks (RSNs) in manifest HD, and even less is known about whether concomitant brain atrophy affects neural activity in patients. Using MRI, we investigated brain structure and RSN function in patients with early HD (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 20). For resting-state fMRI data a group-independent component analysis identified spatiotemporally distinct patterns of motor and prefrontal RSNs of interest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess regional brain atrophy, and 'biological parametric mapping' analyses to investigate the impact of atrophy on neural activity. Compared with controls, patients showed connectivity changes within distinct neural systems including lateral prefrontal, supplementary motor, thalamic, cingulate, temporal and parietal regions. In patients, supplementary motor area and cingulate cortex connectivity indices were associated with measures of motor function, whereas lateral prefrontal connectivity was associated with cognition. This study provides evidence for aberrant connectivity of RSNs associated with motor function and cognition in early manifest HD when controlling for brain atrophy. This suggests clinically relevant changes of RSN activity in the presence of HD-associated cortical and subcortical structural abnormalities.

  5. Improved left ventricular function and perfusion at rest after successful transluminal coronary angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepzig, H.; Kaltenbach, M.; Standke, R.; Maul, F.D.; Hoer, G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate left ventricular function and perfusion at rest before and after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. In consecutive 69 patients in whom coronary stenoses were dilated, the radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction at rest increased significantly. In 26 of these patients, the ejection fraction increased by at least 4%. In these patients, exercise-induced ischemic ST depression had been more pronounced than in the others. 36 other patients underwent 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy before and after angioplasty. Twelve patients in whom pre-PTCA images had revealed regions with irreversible 201 Tl uptake defects, showed normal 201 Tl distribution patterns on post-PTCA scintigrams. Post-exercise 201 Tl uptake (representing myocardial perfusion and metabolic activity) during pre-PTCA exercise stress tests was significantly lower in these cases. It is concluded that PTCA can improve left ventricular function and perfusion at rest. This improvement is most obvious in patients with pronounced exercise-induced myocardial ischemia as diagnosed by typical ST segment depression and reduced thallium uptake. (orig.) [de

  6. A case for motor network contributions to schizophrenia symptoms: Evidence from resting-state connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A; Goen, James R M; Maldonado, Ted

    2017-09-01

    Though schizophrenia (SCZ) is classically defined based on positive symptoms and the negative symptoms of the disease prove to be debilitating for many patients, motor deficits are often present as well. A growing literature highlights the importance of motor systems and networks in the disease, and it may be the case that dysfunction in motor networks relates to the pathophysiology and etiology of SCZ. To test this and build upon recent work in SCZ and in at-risk populations, we investigated cortical and cerebellar motor functional networks at rest in SCZ and controls using publically available data. We analyzed data from 82 patients and 88 controls. We found key group differences in resting-state connectivity patterns that highlight dysfunction in motor circuits and also implicate the thalamus. Furthermore, we demonstrated that in SCZ, these resting-state networks are related to both positive and negative symptom severity. Though the ventral prefrontal cortex and corticostriatal pathways more broadly have been implicated in negative symptom severity, here we extend these findings to include motor-striatal connections, as increased connectivity between the primary motor cortex and basal ganglia was associated with more severe negative symptoms. Together, these findings implicate motor networks in the symptomatology of psychosis, and we speculate that these networks may be contributing to the etiology of the disease. Overt motor deficits in SCZ may signal underlying network dysfunction that contributes to the overall disease state. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4535-4545, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  8. Fundamentals of thinking, patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, O. M.; Gafurov, D. O.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    The authors analyze the fundamentals of thinking and propose to consider a model of the brain based on the presence of magnetic properties of gliacytes (Schwann cells) because of their oxygen saturation (oxygen has paramagnetic properties). The authors also propose to take into account the motion of electrical discharges through synapses causing electric and magnetic fields as well as additional effects such as paramagnetic resonance, which allows combining multisensory object-related information located in different parts of the brain. Therefore, the events of the surrounding world are reflected and remembered in the cortex columns, thus, creating isolated subnets with altered magnetic properties (patterns) and subsequently participate in recognition of objects, form a memory, and so on. The possibilities for the pattern-based thinking are based on the practical experience of applying methods and technologies of artificial neural networks in the form of a neuroemulator and neuromorphic computing devices.

  9. Discovering EEG resting state alterations of semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Matthias; Koenig, Thomas; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Utsunomiya, Keita; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Dierks, Thomas; Nishida, Keiichiro

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of semantic dementia relies on cost-intensive MRI or PET, although resting EEG markers of other dementias have been reported. Yet the view still holds that resting EEG in patients with semantic dementia is normal. However, studies using increasingly sophisticated EEG analysis methods have demonstrated that slightest alterations of functional brain states can be detected. We analyzed the common four resting EEG microstates (A, B, C, and D) of 8 patients with semantic dementia in comparison with 8 healthy controls and 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Topographical differences between the groups were found in microstate classes B and C, while microstate classes A and D were comparable. The data showed that the semantic dementia group had a peculiar microstate E, but the commonly found microstate C was lacking. Furthermore, the presence of microstate E was significantly correlated with lower MMSE and language scores. Alterations in resting EEG can be found in semantic dementia. Topographical shifts in microstate C might be related to semantic memory deficits. This is the first study that discovered resting state EEG abnormality in semantic dementia. The notion that resting EEG in this dementia subtype is normal has to be revised. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterizing Resting-State Brain Function Using Arterial Spin Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jann, Kay; Wang, Danny J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an increasingly established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is finding broader applications in studying the healthy and diseased brain. This review addresses the use of ASL to assess brain function in the resting state. Following a brief technical description, we discuss the use of ASL in the following main categories: (1) resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measurement: the use of ASL-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements as an alternative to the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) technique to assess resting-state FC; (2) the link between network CBF and FC measurements: the use of network CBF as a surrogate of the metabolic activity within corresponding networks; and (3) the study of resting-state dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and cerebral metabolism: the use of dynamic CBF information obtained using ASL to assess dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and oxidative metabolism in the resting state. In addition, we summarize some future challenges and interesting research directions for ASL, including slice-accelerated (multiband) imaging as well as the effects of motion and other physiological confounds on perfusion-based FC measurement. In summary, this work reviews the state-of-the-art of ASL and establishes it as an increasingly viable MRI technique with high translational value in studying resting-state brain function. PMID:26106930

  11. Resting-state network disruption and APOE genotype in Alzheimer's disease: a lagged functional connectivity study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonides Canuet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE-4 is associated with a genetic vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease (AD and with AD-related abnormalities in cortical rhythms. However, it is unclear whether APOE-4 is linked to a specific pattern of intrinsic functional disintegration of the brain after the development of the disease or during its different stages. This study aimed at identifying spatial patterns and effects of APOE genotype on resting-state oscillations and functional connectivity in patients with AD, using a physiological connectivity index called "lagged phase synchronization". METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Resting EEG was recorded during awake, eyes-closed state in 125 patients with AD and 60 elderly controls. Source current density and functional connectivity were determined using eLORETA. Patients with AD exhibited reduced parieto-occipital alpha oscillations compared with controls, and those carrying the APOE-4 allele had reduced alpha activity in the left inferior parietal and temporo-occipital cortex relative to noncarriers. There was a decreased alpha2 connectivity pattern in AD, involving the left temporal and bilateral parietal cortex. Several brain regions exhibited increased lagged phase synchronization in low frequencies, specifically in the theta band, across and within hemispheres, where temporal lobe connections were particularly compromised. Areas with abnormal theta connectivity correlated with cognitive scores. In patients with early AD, we found an APOE-4-related decrease in interhemispheric alpha connectivity in frontal and parieto-temporal regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to regional cortical dysfunction, as indicated by abnormal alpha oscillations, there are patterns of functional network disruption affecting theta and alpha bands in AD that associate with the level of cognitive disturbance or with the APOE genotype. These functional patterns of nonlinear connectivity may potentially

  12. Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage V{sub rf}=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density n{sub e0} is depressed below the density n{sub esh} at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at V{sub rf}=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

  13. Differential effects of human activity on Hawaiian spinner dolphins in their resting bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Heenehan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hawaiian spinner dolphins display predictable daily behavior, using shallow bays to rest during the daytime, bays that are also frequented by humans. All previous research on the potential response of Hawaiian spinner dolphins to human activity has been conducted visually, at the surface. In this study we take a different approach by using passive acoustic monitoring to analyze dolphin behavior and assess whether human activity affects the behavior of the animals. We used days (n=99 and hours (n=641 when dolphins were confirmed present in visual surveys between January 9, 2011 and August 15, 2012 and metrics generated from concomitant 30-second sound recordings (n=9615. Previous research found that the dolphins were predictably silent during rest and that acoustic activity matched general activity of the dolphins with higher acoustic activity before and after rest, and silence during rest. The daily pattern of dolphin whistle activity in Bay 2 and 4 (Kealakekua and Kauhako matched what would be expected from this earlier work. However, in Bay 1 and 3 (Makako and Honaunau there was no drop in dolphin whistle activity during rest. After assessing the relationship between time of day and dolphin acoustic activity, data on human presence were used to determine how variability in the dolphins’ acoustic activity might be explained by human activity (i.e. the number of vessels, kayaks and swimmer snorkelers present. Bay 2, the bay with the most human activity, showed no relationship between dolphin whistle activity and human presence (either vessels, kayaks, or swimmer/snorkelers. Although the relationships were weak, Bay 1 displayed a positive relationship between dolphin whistle activity and the number of vessels and swimmer/snorkelers present in the bay. Bay 4 also showed a positive relationship between dolphin whistle activity and the number of swimmer snorkelers. We also documented less sound being added to the soundscape with each additional

  14. Double discharges in unipolar-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge xenon excimer lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuhai; Neiger, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    Excitation of dielectric barrier discharge xenon excimer lamps by unipolar short square pulses is studied in this paper. Two discharges with different polarity are excited by each voltage pulse (double discharge phenomenon). The primary discharge occurs at the top or at the rising flank of the applied unipolar square pulse, which is directly energized by the external circuit. The secondary discharge with the reversed polarity occurs at the falling flank or shortly after the falling flank end (zero external voltage) depending on the pulse width, which is energized by the energy stored by memory charges deposited by the primary discharge. Fast-speed ICCD imaging shows the primary discharge has a conic discharge appearance with a channel broadening on the anode side. This channel broadening increases with increasing the pulse top level. Only the anode-side surface discharge is observed in the primary discharge. The surface discharge on the cathode side which is present in bipolar sine voltage excitation is not observed. On the contrary, the secondary discharge has only the cathode-side surface discharge. The surface discharge on the anode side is not observed. The secondary discharge is much more diffuse than the primary discharge. Time-resolved emission measurement of double discharges show the secondary discharge emits more VUV xenon excimer radiation but less infrared (IR) xenon atomic emission than the primary discharge. It was found that the IR xenon atomic emission from the secondary discharge can be reduced by shortening the pulse width. The energy efficiency of unipolar-pulsed xenon excimer lamps (the overall energy efficiency of double discharges) is much higher than that obtained under bipolar sine wave excitation. The output VUV spectrum under unipolar pulse excitation is found to be identical to that under sine wave excitation and independent of injected electric power

  15. Low frequency fluctuations in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Küblböck, M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of the last two decades, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has emerged as a widely used, highly accepted and very popular method for the assessment of neuronal activity in the human brain. It is a completely non-invasive imaging technique with high temporal resolution, which relies on the measurement of local differences in magnetic susceptibility between oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Therefore, fMRI can be regarded as an indirect measure of neuronal activity via measurement of localised changes in cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption. Maps of neuronal activity are calculated from fMRI data acquired either in the presence of an explicit task (task-based fMRI) or in absence of a task (resting-state fMRI). While in task-based fMRI task-specific patterns of brain activity are subject to research, resting-state fMRI reveals fundamental networks of intrinsic brain activity. These networks are characterized by low-frequency oscillations in the power spectrum of resting-state fMRI data. In the present work, we first introduce the physical principles and the technical background that allow us to measure these changes in blood oxygenation, followed by an introduction to the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect and to analysis methods for both task-based and resting-state fMRI data. We also analyse the temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR) of a novel 2D-EPI sequence, which allows the experimenter to acquire several slices simultaneously in order to assess the optimal parameter settings for this sequence at 3T. We then proceed to investigate the temporal properties of measures for the amplitude of low-frequency oscillations in resting-state fMRI data, which are regarded as potential biomarkers for a wide range of mental diseases in various clinical studies and show the high stability and robustness of these data, which are important prerequisites for application as a biomarker as well as their dependency on head motion

  16. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  17. Discharge residence of TLD tagged fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1974-01-01

    Although visual observations suggested that fish remained in the discharge for considerable periods, temperature-sensitive tags indicated the majority of fish spend less than 50 hr or 10 percent of the time at discharge temperatures. During 1974 a second fish tagging study was conducted, using temperature-sensitive tags to yield discharge residence times of Lake Michigan salmonids at Point Beach thermal discharge. Preliminary results revealed that many fish tag values were close to Unit I line indicating that calculated maximum discharge residence times for these fish will be nearly 100 percent of the elapsed time

  18. "I am resting but rest less well with you." The moderating effect of anxious attachment style on alpha power during EEG resting state in a social context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.J.M.I.; Pozharliev, R.; van Strien, J.W.; Belschak, F.; Bagozzi, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A) or together (T). We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate

  19. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C.M.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The “competition” (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest – ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success

  20. Resting-state low-frequency fluctuations reflect individual differences in spoken language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhizhou; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Wang, Suiping; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge in language learning studies is to identify objective, pre-training predictors of success. Variation in the low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of spontaneous brain activity measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been found to reflect individual differences in cognitive measures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the extent to which initial spontaneous brain activity is related to individual differences in spoken language learning. We acquired RS-fMRI data and subsequently trained participants on a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use foreign pitch patterns (from Mandarin Chinese) to signal word meaning. We performed amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis, graph theory-based analysis, and independent component analysis (ICA) to identify functional components of the LFFs in the resting-state. First, we examined the ALFF as a regional measure and showed that regional ALFFs in the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance, whereas ALFFs in the default mode network (DMN) regions were negatively correlated with learning performance. Furthermore, the graph theory-based analysis indicated that the degree and local efficiency of the left superior temporal gyrus were positively correlated with learning performance. Finally, the default mode network and several task-positive resting-state networks (RSNs) were identified via the ICA. The "competition" (i.e., negative correlation) between the DMN and the dorsal attention network was negatively correlated with learning performance. Our results demonstrate that a) spontaneous brain activity can predict future language learning outcome without prior hypotheses (e.g., selection of regions of interest--ROIs) and b) both regional dynamics and network-level interactions in the resting brain can account for individual differences in future spoken language learning success

  1. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise Effects on the Brain and Sensorimotor Function in Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, V.; Cassady, K.; De Dios, Y. E.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, R. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    using both a region of interest (ROI, or seed-to-voxel) approach as well as a whole brain intrinsic connectivity (i.e., voxel-to-voxel) analysis. For the ROI analysis we selected 11 ROIs of brain regions that are involved in sensorimotor function (i.e., L. Insular C., L. Putamen, R. Premotor C., L.+R. Primary Motor C., R. Vestibular C., L. Posterior Cingulate G., R. Cerebellum Lobule V + VIIIb + Crus I, and the R. Superior Parietal G.) and correlated their time course of brain activation during rest with all other voxels in the brain. The whole brain connectivity analysis tests changes in the strength of the global connectivity pattern between each voxel and the rest of the brain. Functional mobility was assessed using an obstacle course. Vestibular contribution to balance was measured using Neurocom Sensory Organization Test 5. Behavioral measures were assessed pre-HDBR, and 0, 8 and 12 days post-HDBR. Linear mixed models were used to test for effects of time, group, and group-by-time interactions. Family-wise error corrected VBM revealed significantly larger increases in GM volume in the right primary motor cortex in bed rest control subjects than in bed rest exercise subjects. No other significant group by time interactions in gray matter changes with bed rest were observed. Functional connectivity MRI revealed that the increase in connectivity during bed rest of the left putamen with the bilateral midsagittal precunes and the right cingulate gyrus was larger in bed rest control subjects than in bed rest exercise subjects. Furthermore, the increase in functional connectivity with bed rest of the right premotor cortex with the right inferior frontal gyrus and the right primary motor cortex with the bilateral premotor cortex was smaller in bed rest control subjects than in bed rest exercise subjects. Functional mobility performance was less affected by HDBR in exercise subjects than in control subjects and post HDBR exercise subjects recovered faster than control

  3. Catchment heterogeneity controls emergent archetype concentration-discharge relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolff, A.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Rao, P. S.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Relationships between in-stream dissolved solute concentrations (C) and discharge (Q) are often-used indicators of catchment-scale processes and their interference with human activities. Here we analyze observational C-Q relationships from 61 catchments and 8 different solutes across a wide range of land-uses and discharge regimes. This analysis is combined with a parsimonious stochastic modeling approach to test how C-Q relationships arise from spatial heterogeneity in catchment solute sources coupled with different timescales of biogeochemical reactions. The observational data exhibit archetypical dilution, enrichment, and constant C-Q patterns. Moreover, with land-use intensification we find decreasing C variability relative to Q variability (chemostatic export regime). Our model indicates that the dominant driver of emergent C-Q patterns was structured heterogeneity of solute sources implemented as correlation of source concentration to travel time. Regardless of the C-Q pattern, with decreasing source heterogeneity we consistently find lower variability in C than in Q and a dominance of chemostatic export regimes. Here, the variance in exported loads is determined primarily by variance of Q. We conclude that efforts to improve stream water quality and ecological integrity in intensely managed catchments should lead away from landscape homogenization by introducing structured source heterogeneity. References: Musolff, A., J. H. Fleckenstein, P. S. C. Rao, and J. W. Jawitz (2017), Emergent archetype patterns of coupled hydrologic and biogeochemical responses in catchments, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(9), 4143-4151, doi: 10.1002/2017GL072630.

  4. Long recovery VLF perturbations associated with lightning discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salut, M. M.; Abdullah, M.; Graf, K. L.; Cohen, M. B.; Cotts, B. R. T.; Kumar, Sushil

    2012-08-01

    Long D-region ionospheric recovery perturbations are a recently discovered and poorly understood subcategory of early VLF events, distinguished by exceptionally long ionospheric recovery times of up to 20 min (compared to more typical ˜1 min recovery times). Characteristics and occurrence rates of long ionospheric recovery events on the NWC transmitter signal recorded at Malaysia are presented. 48 long recovery events were observed. The location of the causative lightning discharge for each event is determined from GLD360 and WWLLN data, and each discharge is categorized as being over land or sea. Results provide strong evidence that long recovery events are attributed predominately to lightning discharges occurring over the sea, despite the fact that lightning activity in the region is more prevalent over land. Of the 48 long recovery events, 42 were attributed to lightning activity over water. Analysis of the causative lightning of long recovery events in comparison to all early VLF events reveals that these long recovery events are detectable for lighting discharges at larger distances from the signal path, indicating a different scattering pattern for long recovery events.

  5. [Severe vaginal discharge following rectal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, L C; Bremers, A J A; Heesakkers, J P F A; Kluivers, K B

    2018-01-01

    Almost 50% of women who have had rectal surgery subsequently develop vaginal discharge. Due to the recurrent and unexpected nature of this heavy discharge, they often experience it as very distressing. Many of these women undergo extensive diagnostic tests that are mainly focused on identifying fistula formation. If no fistula is found, in most cases no other cause for severe vaginal discharge can be demonstrated. In our practice, we saw three patients (49-, 54- and 74-years-old, respectively) with similar severe vaginal discharge after rectal surgery and in whom no explanation for the vaginal discharge could be found. For this reason we conducted a literature search into this condition. Anatomical changes appear to be responsible for heavy vaginal discharge following rectal surgery. Changes in pelvic floor muscles and compression of the distal part of the vagina may lead to pooling of fluid in the proximal part of the vagina, resulting in severe discharge. Symptomatic treatment may reduce the symptoms.

  6. Anisotropic Percolation Analysis of Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shogo; Odagaki, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    Exploiting a nonlinear resistor network on a square lattice in two dimensions, we investigate discharge when two opposite sides of the lattice are subjected to a constant voltage difference. Each site is ionized randomly with a probability in proportion to the square of the strength of the electric field, and the resistivity between two ionized sites is assumed to be 10-6 times smaller than the original resistivity. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we obtain the current and distribution of clusters of ionized sites as functions of the fraction of ionized sites. It is found that a wall of potential drop is formed as the fraction approaches a critical value, which is followed by discharge. The critical value is much smaller than the critical percolation probability of the standard site percolation on the square lattice. We also find that a singular behavior of the cluster distribution is expected at a critical fraction differently from that for the current, and that the critical exponents characterizing the cluster distribution satisfy the scaling relation known for two-dimensional percolation, while the critical exponent of the percolation probability is close to the value reported for a directed percolation.

  7. Electrostatic discharge concepts and definitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovina, Dan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Many objects -like a human body, plastic wrap, or a rolling cart -that are electrically neutral, overall, can gain a net electrostatic charge by means of one of three methods: induction, physical transfer, or triboelectric charging (separation of conductive surfaces). The result is a voltage difference between the charged object and other objects, creating a situation where current flow is likely if two objects come into contact or close proximity. This current flow is known as electrostatic discharge, or ESD. The energy and voltage of the discharge can be influenced by factors such as the temperature and humidity in the room, the types of materials or flooring involved, or the clothing and footwear a person uses. Given the possible ranges of the current and voltage characteristic of an ESD pulse, it is important to consider the safety risks associated with detonator handling, assembly and disassembly, transportation and maintenance. For main charge detonators, these safety risks include high explosive violent reactions (HEVR) as well as inadvertent nuclear detonations (lND).

  8. Discharge regularity in the turtle posterior crista: comparisons between experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jay M; Holt, Joseph C

    2013-12-01

    Intra-axonal recordings were made from bouton fibers near their termination in the turtle posterior crista. Spike discharge, miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSPs), and afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) were monitored during resting activity in both regularly and irregularly discharging units. Quantal size (qsize) and quantal rate (qrate) were estimated by shot-noise theory. Theoretically, the ratio, σV/(dμV/dt), between synaptic noise (σV) and the slope of the mean voltage trajectory (dμV/dt) near threshold crossing should determine discharge regularity. AHPs are deeper and more prolonged in regular units; as a result, dμV/dt is larger, the more regular the discharge. The qsize is larger and qrate smaller in irregular units; these oppositely directed trends lead to little variation in σV with discharge regularity. Of the two variables, dμV/dt is much more influential than the nearly constant σV in determining regularity. Sinusoidal canal-duct indentations at 0.3 Hz led to modulations in spike discharge and synaptic voltage. Gain, the ratio between the amplitudes of the two modulations, and phase leads re indentation of both modulations are larger in irregular units. Gain variations parallel the sensitivity of the postsynaptic spike encoder, the set of conductances that converts synaptic input into spike discharge. Phase variations reflect both synaptic inputs to the encoder and postsynaptic processes. Experimental data were interpreted using a stochastic integrate-and-fire model. Advantages of an irregular discharge include an enhanced encoder gain and the prevention of nonlinear phase locking. Regular and irregular units are more efficient, respectively, in the encoding of low- and high-frequency head rotations, respectively.

  9. Modifications of resting state networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Sirio; Saccà, Francesco; Cervo, Amedeo; Marsili, Angela; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Giorgio, Sara Maria Delle Acque; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Brunetti, Arturo; Quarantelli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the integrity of the Resting State Networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) and the correlations between the modification of these networks and clinical variables. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) data from 19 SCA2 patients and 29 healthy controls were analyzed using an independent component analysis and dual regression, controlling at voxel level for the effect of atrophy by co-varying for gray matter volume. Correlations between the resting state networks alterations and disease duration, age at onset, number of triplets, and clinical score were assessed by Spearman's coefficient, for each cluster which was significantly different in SCA2 patients compared with healthy controls. In SCA2 patients, disruption of the cerebellar components of all major resting state networks was present, with supratentorial involvement only for the default mode network. When controlling at voxel level for gray matter volume, the reduction in functional connectivity in supratentorial regions of the default mode network, and in cerebellar regions within the default mode, executive and right fronto-parietal networks, was still significant. No correlations with clinical variables were found for any of the investigated resting state networks. The SCA2 patients show significant alterations of the resting state networks, only partly explained by the atrophy. The default mode network is the only resting state network that shows also supratentorial changes, which appear unrelated to the cortical gray matter volume. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical significance of these changes. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. A Modified Water-Table Fluctuation Method to Characterize Regional Groundwater Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A modified Water-Table Fluctuation (WTF method is developed to quantitatively characterize the regional groundwater discharge patterns in stressed aquifers caused by intensive agricultural pumping. Two new parameters are defined to express the secondary information in the observed data. One is infiltration efficiency and the other is discharge modulus (recurring head loss due to aquifer discharge. An optimization procedure is involved to estimate these parameters, based on continuous groundwater head measurements and precipitation records. Using the defined parameters and precipitation time series, water level changes are calculated for individual wells with fidelity. The estimated parameters are then used to further address the characterization of infiltration and to better quantify the discharge at the regional scale. The advantage of this method is that it considers recharge and discharge simultaneously, whereas the general WTF methods mostly focus on recharge. In the case study, the infiltration efficiency reveals that the infiltration is regionally controlled by the intrinsic characteristics of the aquifer, and locally distorted by engineered hydraulic structures that alter surface water-groundwater interactions. The seasonality of groundwater discharge is characterized by the monthly discharge modulus. These results from individual wells are clustered into groups that are consistent with the local land use pattern and cropping structures.

  11. Neural markers of loss aversion in resting-state brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Dodich, Alessandra; Falini, Andrea; Antonellis, Giulia; Cappa, Stefano F

    2017-02-01

    Neural responses in striatal, limbic and somatosensory brain regions track individual differences in loss aversion, i.e. the higher sensitivity to potential losses compared with equivalent gains in decision-making under risk. The engagement of structures involved in the processing of aversive stimuli and experiences raises a further question, i.e. whether the tendency to avoid losses rather than acquire gains represents a transient fearful overreaction elicited by choice-related information, or rather a stable component of one's own preference function, reflecting a specific pattern of neural activity. We tested the latter hypothesis by assessing in 57 healthy human subjects whether the relationship between behavioral and neural loss aversion holds at rest, i.e. when the BOLD signal is collected during 5minutes of cross-fixation in the absence of an explicit task. Within the resting-state networks highlighted by a spatial group Independent Component Analysis (gICA), we found a significant correlation between strength of activity and behavioral loss aversion in the left ventral striatum and right posterior insula/supramarginal gyrus, i.e. the very same regions displaying a pattern of neural loss aversion during explicit choices. Cross-study analyses confirmed that this correlation holds when voxels identified by gICA are used as regions of interest in task-related activity and vice versa. These results suggest that the individual degree of (neural) loss aversion represents a stable dimension of decision-making, which reflects in specific metrics of intrinsic brain activity at rest possibly modulating cortical excitability at choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lobular patterns of cerebellar resting-state connectivity in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivito, Giusy; Lupo, Michela; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Clausi, Silvia; Baiocco, Roberto; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco; Leggio, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core deficits in social functioning. Core autistics traits refer to poor social and imagination skills, poor attention-switching/strong focus of attention, exceptional attention to detail, as expressed by the autism-spectrum quotient. Over the years, the importance of the cerebellum in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorder has been acknowledged. Neuroimaging studies have provided a strong support to this view, showing both structural and functional connectivity alterations to affect the cerebellum in autism spectrum disorder. According to the underconnectivity theory, disrupted connectivity within cerebello-cerebral networks has been specifically implicated in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorder. However, inconsistent results have been generated across studies. In this study, an integrated approach has been used in a selected population of adults with autism spectrum disorder to analyse both cerebellar morphometry and functional connectivity. In individuals with autism spectrum disorder, a decreased cerebellar grey matter volume affected the right Crus II, a region showing extensive connections with cerebral areas related to social functions. This grey matter reduction correlates with the degree of autistic traits as measured by autism-spectrum quotient. Interestingly, altered functional connectivity was found between the reduced cerebellar Crus II and contralateral cerebral regions, such as frontal and temporal areas. Overall, the present data suggest that adults with autism spectrum disorder present with specific cerebellar structural alterations that may affect functional connectivity within cerebello-cerebral modules relevant to social processing and account for core autistics traits. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Feasibility Study of a Lunar Analog Bed Rest Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.; Platts, Steven H.; Yarbough, Patrice; Buccello-Stout, Regina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a 9.5deg head-up tilt bed rest model to simulate the effects of the 1/6 g load to the human body that exists on the lunar surface. The lunar analog bed rest model utilized a modified hospital bed. The modifications included mounting the mattress on a sled that rolled on bearings to provide freedom of movement. The weight of the sled was off-loaded using a counterweight system to insure that 1/6 body weight was applied along the long axis (z-axis) of the body. Force was verified through use of a force plate mounted at the foot of the bed. A seating assembly was added to the bed to permit periods of sitting. Subjects alternated between standing and sitting positions throughout the day. A total of 35% of the day was spent in the standing position and 65% was spent sitting. In an effort to achieve physiologic fluid shifts expected for a 1/6 G environment, subjects wore compression stockings and performed unloaded foot and ankle exercises. Eight subjects (3 females and 5 males) participated in this study. Subjects spent 13 days in the pre-bed rest phase, 6 days in bed rest and 3 days post bed rest. Subjects consumed a standardized diet throughout the study. To determine feasibility, measures of subject comfort, force and plasma volume were collected. Subject comfort was assessed using a Likert scale. Subjects were asked to assess level of comfort (0-100) for 11 body regions and provide an overall rating. Results indicated minimal to no discomfort as most subjects reported scores of zero. Force measures were performed for each standing position and were validated against subject s calculated 1/6 body weight (r(sup 2) = 0.993). The carbon monoxide rebreathing technique was used to assess plasma volume during pre-bed rest and on the last day of bed rest. Plasma volume results indicated a significant decrease (p = 0.001) from pre to post bed rest values. Subjects lost on average 8.3% (sd = 6.1%) during the

  14. Neurophysiological features of Internet gaming disorder and alcohol use disorder: a resting-state EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, K-L; Choi, J-S; Lee, J; Park, S M; Lim, J-A; Lee, J Y; Kim, S N; Oh, S; Kim, D J; Kwon, J S

    2015-09-01

    Despite that Internet gaming disorder (IGD) shares clinical, neuropsychological and personality characteristics with alcohol use disorder (AUD), little is known about the resting-state quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) patterns associated with IGD and AUD. Therefore, this study compared the QEEG patterns in patients with IGD with those in patients with AUD to identify unique neurophysiological characteristics that can be used as biomarkers of IGD. A total of 76 subjects (34 with IGD, 17 with AUD and 25 healthy controls) participated in this study. Resting-state, eyes-closed QEEGs were recorded, and the absolute and relative power of brains were analyzed. The generalized estimating equation showed that the IGD group had lower absolute beta power than AUD (estimate = 5.319, P < 0.01) and the healthy control group (estimate = 2.612, P = 0.01). The AUD group showed higher absolute delta power than IGD (estimate = 7.516, P < 0.01) and the healthy control group (estimate = 7.179, P < 0.01). We found no significant correlations between the severity of IGD and QEEG activities in patients with IGD. The current findings suggest that lower absolute beta power can be used as a potential trait marker of IGD. Higher absolute power in the delta band may be a susceptibility marker for AUD. This study clarifies the unique characteristics of IGD as a behavioral addiction, which is distinct from AUD, by providing neurophysiological evidence.

  15. Asymmetrical hippocampal connectivity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: evidence from resting state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellano Gabriela

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, the most common type of focal epilepsy in adults, is often caused by hippocampal sclerosis (HS. Patients with HS usually present memory dysfunction, which is material-specific according to the hemisphere involved and has been correlated to the degree of HS as measured by postoperative histopathology as well as by the degree of hippocampal atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Verbal memory is mostly affected by left-sided HS, whereas visuo-spatial memory is more affected by right HS. Some of these impairments may be related to abnormalities of the network in which individual hippocampus takes part. Functional connectivity can play an important role to understand how the hippocampi interact with other brain areas. It can be estimated via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI resting state experiments by evaluating patterns of functional networks. In this study, we investigated the functional connectivity patterns of 9 control subjects, 9 patients with right MTLE and 9 patients with left MTLE. Results We detected differences in functional connectivity within and between hippocampi in patients with unilateral MTLE associated with ipsilateral HS by resting state fMRI. Functional connectivity resulted to be more impaired ipsilateral to the seizure focus in both patient groups when compared to control subjects. This effect was even more pronounced for the left MTLE group. Conclusions The findings presented here suggest that left HS causes more reduction of functional connectivity than right HS in subjects with left hemisphere dominance for language.

  16. Dynamic brain glucose metabolism identifies anti-correlated cortical-cerebellar networks at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo G; Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan; Wiers, Corinde E; Kim, Sunny W; Demiral, Şukru B; Cabrera, Elizabeth A; Lindgren, Elsa; Miller, Gregg; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2017-12-01

    It remains unclear whether resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) networks are associated with underlying synchrony in energy demand, as measured by dynamic 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoroglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We measured absolute glucose metabolism, temporal metabolic connectivity (t-MC) and rfMRI patterns in 53 healthy participants at rest. Twenty-two rfMRI networks emerged from group independent component analysis (gICA). In contrast, only two anti-correlated t-MC emerged from FDG-PET time series using gICA or seed-voxel correlations; one included frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, the other included the cerebellum and medial temporal regions. Whereas cerebellum, thalamus, globus pallidus and calcarine cortex arose as the strongest t-MC hubs, the precuneus and visual cortex arose as the strongest rfMRI hubs. The strength of the t-MC linearly increased with the metabolic rate of glucose suggesting that t-MC measures are strongly associated with the energy demand of the brain tissue, and could reflect regional differences in glucose metabolism, counterbalanced metabolic network demand, and/or differential time-varying delivery of FDG. The mismatch between metabolic and functional connectivity patterns computed as a function of time could reflect differences in the temporal characteristics of glucose metabolism as measured with PET-FDG and brain activation as measured with rfMRI.

  17. Resting state brain networks in the prairie vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Juan J; Portillo, Wendy; Paredes, Raul G; Young, Larry J; Alcauter, Sarael

    2018-01-19

    Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has shown the hierarchical organization of the human brain into large-scale complex networks, referred as resting state networks. This technique has turned into a promising translational research tool after the finding of similar resting state networks in non-human primates, rodents and other animal models of great value for neuroscience. Here, we demonstrate and characterize the presence of resting states networks in Microtus ochrogaster, the prairie vole, an extraordinary animal model to study complex human-like social behavior, with potential implications for the research of normal social development, addiction and neuropsychiatric disorders. Independent component analysis of rsfMRI data from isoflurane-anestethized prairie voles resulted in cortical and subcortical networks, including primary motor and sensory networks, but also included putative salience and default mode networks. We further discuss how future research could help to close the gap between the properties of the large scale functional organization and the underlying neurobiology of several aspects of social cognition. These results contribute to the evidence of preserved resting state brain networks across species and provide the foundations to explore the use of rsfMRI in the prairie vole for basic and translational research.

  18. Early processing variations in selective attention to the color and direction of moving stimuli during 30 days head-down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; He, Si-Yang; Niu, Dong-Bin; Guo, Jian-Ping; Xu, Yun-Long; Wang, De-Sheng; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Tan, Cheng; Li, Zhi-Li; Tang, Guo-Hua; Li, Yin-Hui; Bai, Yan-Qiang

    2013-11-01

    Dynamic variations in early selective attention to the color and direction of moving stimuli were explored during a 30 days period of head-down bed rest. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded at F5, F6, P5, P6 scalp locations in seven male subjects who attended to pairs of bicolored light emitting diodes that flashed sequentially to produce a perception of movement. Subjects were required to attend selectively to a critical feature of the moving target, e.g., color or direction. The tasks included: a no response task, a color selective response task, a moving direction selective response task, and a combined color-direction selective response task. Subjects were asked to perform these four tasks on: the 3rd day before bed rest; the 3rd, 15th and 30th day during the bed rest; and the 5th day after bed rest. Subjects responded quickly to the color than moving direction and combined color-direction response. And they had a longer reaction time during bed rest on the 15th and 30th day during bed rest after a relatively quicker response on the 3rd day. Using brain event-related potentials technique, we found that in the color selective response task, the mean amplitudes of P1 and N1 for target ERPs decreased in the 3rd day during bed rest and 5th day after bed rest in comparison with pre-bed rest, 15th day and 30th day during bed rest. In the combined color-direction selective response task, the P1 latencies for target ERPs on the 3rd and 30th day during bed rest were longer than on the 15th day during bed rest. As 3rd day during bed rest was in the acute adaptation period and 30th day during bed rest was in the relatively adaptation stage of head-down bed rest, the results help to clarify the effects of bed rest on different task loads and patterns of attention. It was suggested that subjects expended more time to give correct decision in the head-down tilt bed rest state. A difficulty in the recruitment of brain resources was found in feature selection task

  19. Numerical Modelling of Electrical Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durán-Olivencia, F J; Pontiga, F; Castellanos, A

    2014-01-01

    The problem of the propagation of an electrical discharge between a spherical electrode and a plane has been solved by means of finite element methods (FEM) using a fluid approximation and assuming weak ionization and local equilibrium with the electric field. The numerical simulation of this type of problems presents the usual difficulties of convection-diffusion-reaction problems, in addition to those associated with the nonlinearities of the charged species velocities, the formation of steep gradients of the electric field and particle densities, and the coexistence of very different temporal scales. The effect of using different temporal discretizations for the numerical integration of the corresponding system of partial differential equations will be here investigated. In particular, the so-called θ-methods will be used, which allows to implement implicit, semi-explicit and fully explicit schemes in a simple way

  20. DISCHARGE VALVE FOR GRANULAR MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, L.D.; Robinson, S.T.

    1962-05-15

    A gravity-red dispenser or valve is designed for discharging the fueled spherical elements used in a pebble bed reactor. The dispenser consists of an axially movable tube terminating under a hood having side walls with openings. When the tube is moved so that its top edge is above the tops of the side openings the elements will not flow. As the tube is moved downwardly, the elements flow into the hood through the side openings and over the top edge into the tube at an increasing rate as the tube is lowered further. The tube is spaced at all times from the hood and side walls a distance greater than the diameter of the largest element to prevent damaging of the elements when the dispenser is closed to flow. (AEC)