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Sample records for responsive instruction lisa

  1. Rightsizing LISA

    Stebbins, R T

    2009-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) science requirements and conceptual design have been fairly stable for over a decade. In the interest of reducing costs, the LISA Project at NASA has looked for simplifications of the architecture, at downsizing of subsystems and at descopes of the entire mission. This is a natural activity of the formulation phase and one that is particularly timely in the current NASA budgetary context. There is, and will continue to be, enormous pressure for cost reduction from both ESA and NASA, reviewers and the broader research community. Here, the rationale for the baseline architecture is reviewed, and recent efforts to find simplifications and other reductions that might lead to savings are reported. A few possible simplifications have been found in the LISA baseline architecture. In the interest of exploring cost sensitivity, one moderate and one aggressive descope have been evaluated; the cost savings are modest and the loss of science is not.

  2. Synthetic LISA: Simulating time delay interferometry in a model LISA

    Vallisneri, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We report on three numerical experiments on the implementation of Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI) for LISA, performed with Synthetic LISA, a C++/Python package that we developed to simulate the LISA science process at the level of scientific and technical requirements. Specifically, we study the laser-noise residuals left by first-generation TDI when the LISA armlengths have a realistic time dependence; we characterize the armlength-measurement accuracies that are needed to have effective laser-noise cancellation in both first- and second-generation TDI; and we estimate the quantization and telemetry bitdepth needed for the phase measurements. Synthetic LISA generates synthetic time series of the LISA fundamental noises, as filtered through all the TDI observables; it also provides a streamlined module to compute the TDI responses to gravitational waves according to a full model of TDI, including the motion of the LISA array and the temporal and directional dependence of the armlengths. We discuss the theoretical model that underlies the simulation, its implementation, and its use in future investigations on system-characterization and data-analysis prototyping for LISA

  3. LISA Pathfinder and eLISA news

    Thorpe, James Ira; Mueller, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Two important gatherings of the space-based gravitational-wave detector community were held in Zurich, Switzerland this past March. The first was a meeting of the Science Working Team for LISA Pathfinder (LPF), a dedicated technology demonstrator mission for a future LISA-like gravitational wave observatory. LPF is entering an extremely exciting phase with launch less than 15 months away. All flight components for both the European science payload, known as the LISA Technology Package (LTP), and the NASA science payload, known as the Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System (ST7-DRS), have been delivered and are undergoing integration. The final flight component for the spacecraft bus, a cold-gas thruster based on the successful GAIA design, will be delivered later this year. Current focus is on completing integration of the science payload (see Figures 1 and 2) and preparation for operations and data analysis. After a launch in Summer 2015, LPF will take approximately 90 days to reach its operational orbit around the Earth-Sun Lagrange point (L1), where it will begin science operations. After 90 days of LTP operations followed by 90 days of DRS operations, LPF will have completed its prime mission of paving the way for a space-based observatory of gravitational waves in the milliHertz band. Immediately following the meeting of the LPF team, the eLISA consortium held its third progress meeting. The consortium (www.elisascience.org) is the organizing body of the European space-based gravitational-wave community, and it was responsible for the "The Gravitational Universe" whitepaper that resulted in the November 2013 election of a gravitational-wave science theme for ESA's Cosmic Visions L3 opportunity. In preparation for an L3 mission concept call, which is expected later this decade, and for launch in the mid 2030s, the eLISA consortium members are coordinating technology development and mission study activities which will build on the LPF results. The final

  4. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    Armano, M; Audley, H; Born, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Auger, G; Binetruy, P; Baird, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Fitzsimons, E; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Dolesi, R; Ferroni, V; Cruise, M; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L

    2015-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter.The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper (paper)

  5. LISA system design highlights

    Sallusti, M [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk ZH (Netherlands); Gath, P; Weise, D; Berger, M; Schulte, H R, E-mail: marcello.sallusti@esa.in, E-mail: peter.gath@astrium.eads.ne, E-mail: dennis.weise@astrium.eads.ne, E-mail: marcel.berger@astrium.eads.ne, E-mail: Hans.Reiner.Schulte@astrium.eads.ne [Astrium GmbH Satellites, Claude-Dornier-Str., 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-05-07

    A contract, started in January 2005, was awarded to a consortium of Astrium GmbH and Astrium Ltd for the LISA Mission Formulation. The scope of the contract was the development of a reference design for the mission architecture and for the mission elements (with particular focus on the payload) and a successive phase of derivation of requirements, to be concluded with a mission design review. The technical starting point was the output of the previous LISA study formalized in the Final Technical Report, issued in the year 2000. During the design phase, different architecture concepts were identified and traded off, including the LISA orbits, the measurement scheme and the opto-mechanical architecture. During the Mission Design Review (July 2008) the consolidated mission baseline design, and the specifications of the flight elements and of the payload subsystem and major components were presented. This paper gives a brief overview of the major design points of the latest design of the LISA system.

  6. LISA system design highlights

    Sallusti, M; Gath, P; Weise, D; Berger, M; Schulte, H R

    2009-01-01

    A contract, started in January 2005, was awarded to a consortium of Astrium GmbH and Astrium Ltd for the LISA Mission Formulation. The scope of the contract was the development of a reference design for the mission architecture and for the mission elements (with particular focus on the payload) and a successive phase of derivation of requirements, to be concluded with a mission design review. The technical starting point was the output of the previous LISA study formalized in the Final Technical Report, issued in the year 2000. During the design phase, different architecture concepts were identified and traded off, including the LISA orbits, the measurement scheme and the opto-mechanical architecture. During the Mission Design Review (July 2008) the consolidated mission baseline design, and the specifications of the flight elements and of the payload subsystem and major components were presented. This paper gives a brief overview of the major design points of the latest design of the LISA system.

  7. LISA and asteroids

    Vinet, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    LISA is a joint ESA-NASA mission aiming for cosmic gravitational wave detection and analysis. We address here the question of a special kind of signal caused by asteroid encounters. We present a short theory of the detection of such signals

  8. LISA and the LTP

    Jennrich, O.

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of the LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna mission is the detection and observation of gravitational waves from massive black holes (MBH) and galactic binaries in the frequency range 10 -4 Hz ... 10 -1 Hz. This low-frequency range is inaccessible to ground-based interferometers due to the background of local gravitational noise and because ground-based interferometers are limited in length to a few kilometres. LISA is envisaged as an ESA/NASA collaborative project, selected an ESA cornerstone mission and included in NASA's strategic plan and with a nominal launch date in 2011. SMART-2 is primarily intended to demonstrate the key technologies for the ESA/NASA collaborative LISA cornerstone mission. The synergy with the technology being used for Darwin motivates the utilization of SMART-2 for both missions. To this end, SMART-2 will accommodate a LISA technology package (LTP), provided by European institutes and industry and possibly also a Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) that is very similar to the LTP and has the same goals but is provided by US institutes and industry

  9. Charge Management in LISA Pathfinder: The Continuous Discharging Experiment

    Ewing, Becca Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Test mass charging is a significant source of excess force and force noise in LISA Pathfinder (LPF). The planned design scheme for mitigation of charge induced force noise in LISA is a continuous discharge by UV light illumination. We report on analysis of a charge management experiment on-board LPF conducted during December 2016. We discuss the measurement of test mass charging noise with and without continuous UV illumination, in addition to the dynamic response in the continuous discharge scheme. Results of the continuous discharge system will be discussed for their application to operating LISA with lower test mass charge.

  10. Constructed-Response Matching to Sample and Spelling Instruction.

    Dube, William V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-based spelling program grounded in programed instructional techniques and using constructed-response matching-to-sample procedures. Following use of the program, two mentally retarded men successfully spelled previously misspelled words. (JDD)

  11. LISA Pathfinder: A Mission Status

    Hewitson, Martin; LISA Pathfinder Team Team

    2016-03-01

    On December 3rd at 04:04 UTC, The European Space Agency launched the LISA Pathfinder satellite on board a VEGA rocket from Kourou in French Guiana. After a series of orbit raising manoeuvres and a 2 month long transfer orbit, LISA Pathfinder arrived at L1. Following a period of commissioning, the science operations commenced at the start of March, beginning the demonstration of technologies and methodologies which pave the way for a future large-scale gravitational wave observatory in space. This talk will present the scientific goals of the mission, discuss the technologies being tested, elucidate the link to a future space-based observatory, such as LISA, and present preliminary results from the in-orbit operations and experiments.

  12. Improving the sensitivity of LISA

    Nayak, K Rajesh; Pai, A; Dhurandhar, S V; Vinet, J-Y

    2003-01-01

    It has been shown in several recent papers that the six Doppler data streams obtained from a triangular LISA configuration can be combined by appropriately delaying the data streams for cancelling the laser frequency noise. Raw laser noise is several orders of magnitude above the other noises and thus it is essential to bring it down to the level of other noises such as shot, acceleration, etc. A rigorous and systematic formalism using the powerful techniques of computational commutative algebra was developed, which generates in principle all the data combinations cancelling the laser frequency noise. The relevant data combinations form a first module of syzygies. In this paper, we use this formalism to advantage for optimizing the sensitivity of LISA by analysing the noise and signal covariance matrices. The signal covariance matrix is calculated for binaries whose frequency changes at most adiabatically and the signal is averaged over polarizations and directions. We then present the extremal SNR curves for all the data combinations in the module. They correspond to the eigenvectors of the noise and signal covariance matrices. A LISA 'network' SNR is also computed by combining the outputs of the eigenvectors. We show that substantial gains in sensitivity can be obtained by employing these strategies. The maximum SNR curve can yield an improvement up to 70% over the Michelson, mainly at high frequencies, while the improvement using the network SNR ranges from 40% to over 100%. Finally, we describe a simple toy model, in which LISA rotates in a plane. In this analysis, we estimate the improvement in the LISA sensitivity, if one switches from one data combination to another as it rotates. Here the improvement in sensitivity, if one switches optimally over three cyclic data combinations of the eigenvector, is about 55% on average over the LISA bandwidth. The corresponding SNR improvement increases to 60%, if one maximizes over the module

  13. Molecular laser stabilization for LISA

    Halloin, Hubert; Acef, Ouali; Argence, Berengere; Jeannin, Olivier; Prat, Pierre; de Vismes, Eden; Plagnol, Eric; Brillet, Alain; Mondin, Linda; Berthon, Jacques; Turazza, Oscar

    2017-11-01

    The expected performance of LISA relies on two main technical challenges: the ability for the spacecrafts to precisely follow the free-flying masses and the outstanding precision of the phase shift measurement. This latter constraint requires frequency stabilized lasers and efficient numerical algorithms to account for the redundant, delayed noise propagation, thus cancelling laser phase noise by many orders of magnitude (TDI methods). Recently involved in the technical developments for LISA, the goal of our team at APC (France) is to contribute on these two subjects: frequency reference for laser stabilization and benchtop simulation of the interferometer. In the present design of LISA, two stages of laser stabilization are used (not accounting for the "post-processed" TDI algorithm): laser pre-stabilization on a frequency reference and lock on the ultra stable distance between spacecrafts (arm-locking). While the foreseen (and deeply studied) laser reference consists of a Fabry-Perot cavity, other techniques may be suitable for LISA or future metrology missions. In particular, locking to a molecular reference (namely iodine in the case of the LISA Nd:YAG laser) is an interesting alternative. It offers the required performance with very good long-term stability (absolute frequency reference) though the reference can be slightly tuned to account for arm-locking. This technique is currently being investigated by our team and optimized for LISA (compactness, vacuum compatibility, ease of use and initialization, etc.). A collaboration with a French laboratory (the SYRTE) had been started aiming to study a second improved technique consisting in inserting the iodine cell in a Fabry-Perot cavity. Ongoing results and prospects to increase the performance of the system are presented in the present article.

  14. Culturally Responsive Social Skill Instruction for Latino Male Students

    Lo, Ya-yu; Correa, Vivian I.; Anderson, Adrienne L.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural friendships and peer interactions are important skills for Latino students to become socially adjusted in U.S. schools. Culturally responsive social skill instruction allows educators to teach essential social skills while attending to the native culture and personal experiences of the students. The present study examined the…

  15. Laser modulator for LISA pathfinder

    Voland, C.; Lund, G.; Coppoolse, W.; Crosby, P.; Stadler, M.; Kudielka, K.; Özkan, C.

    2017-11-01

    LISA Pathfinder is an ESA experiment to demonstrate the key technologies needed for the LISA mission to detect gravitational waves in space. The LISA Pathfinder spacecraft represents one arm of the LISA interferometer, containing an optical metrology system and two proof masses as inertial references for the drag-free control system. The LISA Pathfinder payload consists of two drag-free floating test masses located in the inertial sensors with their control electronics and an optical metrology subsystem. The optical metrology subsystem monitors the movement of both test masses relative to each other and to the spacecraft with very high sensitivity and resolution. This is achieved with a heterodyne Mach- Zehnder interferometer. This interferometer requires as input two coherent laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference of a few kHz. To generate the two laser beams with a heterodyne frequency difference a Nd:YAG laser is used together with the Laser Modulator. The Nd:YAG laser generates a single coherent laser signal at a wavelength of 1064nm which is fibre coupled to the Laser Modulator. The Laser Modulator then generates the two optical beams with the required heterodyne frequency offset. In addition, the Laser Modulator is required to perform laser amplitude stabilization and optical path difference control for the two optical signals. The Laser Modulator consists of an optical unit - the LMU - and RF synthesiser, power amplification and control electronics. These electronics are all housed in the Laser Modulator Electronics (LME). The LMU has four primary functions: • Splitting of the input laser beam into two paths for later superposition in the interferometer. • Applying different frequency shifts to each of the beams. • Providing amplitude modulation control to each of the beams. • Providing active control of the optical path length difference between the two optical paths. The present paper describes the design and performance of the LMU

  16. Response switching and self-efficacy in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Miller, Kelly; Schell, Julie; Ho, Andrew; Lukoff, Brian; Mazur, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Peer Instruction, a well-known student-centered teaching method, engages students during class through structured, frequent questioning and is often facilitated by classroom response systems. The central feature of any Peer Instruction class is a conceptual question designed to help resolve student misconceptions about subject matter. We provide students two opportunities to answer each question—once after a round of individual reflection and then again after a discussion round with a peer. The second round provides students the choice to "switch" their original response to a different answer. The percentage of right answers typically increases after peer discussion: most students who answer incorrectly in the individual round switch to the correct answer after the peer discussion. However, for any given question there are also students who switch their initially right answer to a wrong answer and students who switch their initially wrong answer to a different wrong answer. In this study, we analyze response switching over one semester of an introductory electricity and magnetism course taught using Peer Instruction at Harvard University. Two key features emerge from our analysis: First, response switching correlates with academic self-efficacy. Students with low self-efficacy switch their responses more than students with high self-efficacy. Second, switching also correlates with the difficulty of the question; students switch to incorrect responses more often when the question is difficult. These findings indicate that instructors may need to provide greater support for difficult questions, such as supplying cues during lectures, increasing times for discussions, or ensuring effective pairing (such as having a student with one right answer in the pair). Additionally, the connection between response switching and self-efficacy motivates interventions to increase student self-efficacy at the beginning of the semester by helping students develop early mastery or

  17. Lisa Jevbratt / Lisa Jevbratt ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Jevbratt, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    1967. a. Rootsis sündinud ja USA-s elavast kunstnikust Lisa Jevbrattist ning tema loomingust, 2000. a. jaanuaris tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. L. Jevbratt kuulub rühmitusse C5, tema teosed keskenduvad pigem Interneti struktuurile kui selle sisule. Pikemalt võrguteosest "1:1" (2000), mille teemaks on IP-aadressid., lühidalt tööst "The Stillman Project" (1997), kunstniku galeriist "Non-Site"

  18. Data analysis and source modelling for LISA

    Shang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The gravitational waves are one of the most important predictions in general relativity. Besides of the directly proof of the existence of GWs, there are already several ground based detectors (such as LIGO, GEO, etc) and the planed future space mission (such as: LISA) which are aim to detect the GWs directly. GW contain a large amount of information of its source, extracting these information can help us dig out the physical property of the source, even open a new window for understanding the Universe. Hence, GW data analysis will be a challenging task in seeking the GWs. In this thesis, I present two works about the data analysis for LISA. In the first work, we introduce an extended multimodal genetic algorithm which utilizes the properties of the signal and the detector response function to analyze the data from the third round of mock LISA data challenge. We have found all five sources present in the data and recovered the coalescence time, chirp mass, mass ratio and sky location with reasonable accuracy. As for the orbital angular momentum and two spins of the Black Holes, we have found a large number of widely separated modes in the parameter space with similar maximum likelihood values. The performance of this method is comparable, if not better, to already existing algorithms. In the second work, we introduce an new phenomenological waveform model for the extreme mass ratio inspiral system. This waveform consists of a set of harmonics with constant amplitude and slowly evolving phase which we decompose in a Taylor series. We use these phenomenological templates to detect the signal in the simulated data, and then, assuming a particular EMRI model, estimate the physical parameters of the binary with high precision. The results show that our phenomenological waveform is very feasible in the data analysis of EMRI signal.

  19. White-dwarf-white-dwarf galactic background in the LISA data

    Edlund, Jeffrey A.; Tinto, Massimo; Krolak, Andrzej; Nelemans, Gijs

    2005-01-01

    LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) is a proposed space mission, which will use coherent laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation. In the low part of its frequency band, the LISA strain sensitivity will be dominated by the incoherent superposition of hundreds of millions of gravitational wave signals radiated by inspiraling white-dwarf binaries present in our own Galaxy. In order to estimate the magnitude of the LISA response to this background, we have simulated a synthesized population that recently appeared in the literature. Our approach relies on entirely analytic expressions of the LISA time-delay interferometric responses to the gravitational radiation emitted by such systems, which allows us to implement a computationally efficient and accurate simulation of the background in the LISA data. We find the amplitude of the galactic white-dwarf binary background in the LISA data to be modulated in time, reaching a minimum equal to about twice that of the LISA noise for a period of about two months around the time when the Sun-LISA direction is roughly oriented towards the Autumn equinox. This suggests that, during this time period, LISA could search for other gravitational wave signals incoming from directions that are away from the galactic plane. Since the galactic white-dwarf background will be observed by LISA not as a stationary but rather as a cyclostationary random process with a period of 1 yr, we summarize the theory of cyclostationary random processes, present the corresponding generalized spectral method needed to characterize such process, and make a comparison between our analytic results and those obtained by applying our method to the simulated data. We find that, by measuring the generalized spectral components of the white-dwarf background, LISA will be able to infer properties of the distribution of the white-dwarf binary systems present in our Galaxy

  20. Aligning Objectives and Assessment in Responsible Conduct of Research Instruction

    Antes, Alison L.; DuBois, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to advance research integrity in light of concerns about misbehavior in research rely heavily on education in the responsible conduct of research (RCR). However, there is limited evidence for the effectiveness of RCR instruction as a remedy. Assessment is essential in RCR education if the research community wishes to expend the effort of instructors, students, and trainees wisely. This article presents key considerations that instructors and course directors must consider in aligning learning objectives with instructional methods and assessment measures, and it provides illustrative examples. Above all, in order for RCR educators to assess outcomes more effectively, they must align assessment to their learning objectives and attend to the validity of the measures used. PMID:25574258

  1. Ninth Grade Student Responses to Authentic Science Instruction

    Ellison, Michael Steven

    science classwork was also measured. In addition, direct observation measures of student behavioral engagement showed that behavioral engagement was generally high, but not associated with the authenticity of the pedagogy. Direct observation measures of student self-regulation found evidence that when instruction focused on core science and engineering concepts and made stronger connections to the student's world beyond the classroom, student self-regulated learning was greater, and included evidence of student ownership. In light of the alignment between the model of authenticity used in this study and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the results suggest that further research on the value beyond school component of the model could improve understanding of student engagement and performance in response to the implementation of the NGSS. In particular, it suggests a unique role environmental education can play in affording student success in K-12 science and a tool to measure that role.

  2. Micrometeorite Science with LISA Pathfinder

    Pagane, Nicole; Thorpe, James Ira; Littenberg, Tyson; Littenberg, Tyson; Baker, John; Slutsky, Jacob; Hourihane, Sophie; LISA Pathfinder Team

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of LISA Pathfinder (LPF) was to demonstrate drag-free control of test masses—along with the technology necessary to maintain the inertial motion—that LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) would later utilize as a space-based gravitational wave observatory. Due to the precise interferometry used during the mission, LPF could be employed as an accelerometer and used to detect micrometeorite impacts while in orbit about the Sun-Earth Lagrange Point L1. To infer micrometeorite impacts, the flight data was processed for event reconstruction to determine external acceleration of LPF; impact parameters were then estimated through a Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) tool via Bayesian analysis by fitting delta functions in the acceleration domain. As impact candidates were collected, a catalog of event data was curated with the reconstructed estimated parameters, among which were impact sky localizations that were later rotated into more intuitive reference frames. To infer the results of this dust modeling technique, current micrometeorite models were compared to the impact data. In the final reference frame common to the available micrometeorite models, the reconstructed impacts appear to cluster at (±90°, 0°)—where impacts prograde in this longitude-latitude frame were at (-90°, 0°), retrograde were (90°, 0°), and the sun was centered at the origin. The two available models used for comparison were of the Jupiter-family comets (JFC) and Halley-type comets (HTC), which clustered primarily around (±90°, 0°) and (0°, ±20°) respectively. This suggests that the JFC population seems to account for the majority of the impacts detected by LPF. The models’ expected rates given localization and velocity are currently being compared to the reconstructed data to further characterize the micrometeorite populations at L1. We will present our current analysis of this data set and discuss possibilities of extending such an analysis for LISA.

  3. LISA Pathfinder: OPD loop characterisation

    Born, Michael; LPF Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    The optical metrology system (OMS) of the LISA Pathfinder mission is measuring the distance between two free-floating test masses with unprecedented precision. One of the four OMS heterodyne interferometers reads out the phase difference between the reference and the measurement laser beam. This phase from the reference interferometer is common to all other longitudinal interferometer read outs and therefore subtracted. In addition, the phase is fed back via the digital optical pathlength difference (OPD) control loop to keep it close to zero. Here, we analyse the loop parameters and compare them to on-ground measurement results.

  4. Observing a Gravitational Wave Background With Lisa

    Tinto, M; Armstrong, J; Estabrook, F

    2000-01-01

    ... formation of several observables. All are independent of lasers and frequency standard phase fluctuations, but have different couplings to gravitational waves and to the various LISA instrumental noises...

  5. Mona Lisa, lesbiahvid ja seksilaulud / Kaivo Kopli

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2003-01-01

    Ameerika Teaduse Edendamise Assotsiatsiooni (AAA) konverentsil esitatud uusimatest teadusuuringutest. Artiklid: Mona Lisa naeratuse saladus paljastatud ; Lesbilised Jaapani makaagid seljatavad Darwini ; Linnud õpivad uusi laule uue partneri leidmiseks

  6. Conceptual question response times in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Kelly Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.

  7. LISA Pathfinder instrument data analysis

    Guzman, Felipe

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is an ESA-launched demonstration mission of key technologies required for the joint NASA-ESA gravitational wave observatory in space, LISA. As part of the LPF interferometry investigations, analytic models of noise sources and corresponding noise subtrac-tion techniques have been developed to correct for effects like the coupling of test mass jitter into displacement readout, and fluctuations of the laser frequency or optical pathlength difference. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Optical Metrology Subsystem is currently ongoing at the Albert Einstein Institute Hannover. In collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the LPF mission data analysis tool LTPDA is being used to analyze the data product of these tests. Furthermore, the noise subtraction techniques and in-flight experiment runs for noise characterization are being defined as part of the mission experiment master plan. We will present the data analysis outcome of pre-flight hardware ground tests and possible noise subtraction strategies for in-flight instrument operations.

  8. Lisa Woodward | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    Lisa Woodward is Special Advisor to the President. Before joining IDRC, Lisa held positions in strategic planning, performance measurement, evaluation, risk management, and policy development in federal organizations, including Fisheries and Oceans Canada, the Canadian International Development Agency, and the ...

  9. LISA: Probing the Universe with Gravitational Waves

    Prince, T.A.; Binetruy, P.; Centrella, J.; Finn, L.S.; Hogan, C.; Nelemans, G.A.; Phinney, E.S.; Schutz, B.; Team, L.I.S.

    2006-01-01

    LISA is a joint NASA/ESA space mission for detection and study of low-frequency gravitational waves in the band from 0.1 mHz to 0.1 Hz. The mission consists of three satellites separated by a nominal distance of 5 million kilometers, with precision metrology provided by laser ranging. LISA will

  10. Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and LISA

    Baker, John

    2009-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are central to many key science objectives of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). For many systems the strongest part of the signal is only understood by numerical simulations. Gravitational wave emissions are understood by simulations of vacuum General Relativity (GR). I discuss numerical simulation results from the perspective of LISA's needs, with indications of work that remains to be done. Some exciting scientific opportunities associated with LISA observations would be greatly enhanced if prompt electromagnetic signature could be associated. I discuss simulations to explore this possibility. Numerical simulations are important now for clarifying LISA's science potential and planning the mission. We also consider how numerical simulations might be applied at the time of LISA's operation.

  11. Possible LISA Technology Applications for Other Missions

    Livas, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has been selected as the third large class mission launch opportunity of the Cosmic Visions Program by the European Space Agency (ESA). LISA science will explore a rich spectrum of astrophysical gravitational-wave sources expected at frequencies between 0.0001 and 0.1 Hz and complement the work of other observatories and missions, both space and ground-based, electromagnetic and non-electromagnetic. Similarly, LISA technology may find applications for other missions. This paper will describe the capabilities of some of the key technologies and discuss possible contributions to other missions.

  12. Lisa's Lemonade Stand: Exploring Algebraic Ideas.

    Billings, Esther M. H.; Lakatos, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity, "Lisa's Lemonade Stand," that actively engages students in algebraic thinking as they analyze change by investigating relationships between variables and gain experience describing and representing these relationships graphically. (YDS)

  13. Optimizing the Earth-LISA 'rendezvous'

    De Marchi, Fabrizio; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Bassan, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    We present a general survey of heliocentric LISA orbits, hoping that it might help in the exercise of rescoping the mission. We try to semi-analytically optimize the orbital parameters in order to minimize the disturbances coming from the Earth-LISA interaction. In a set of numerical simulations, we include non-autonomous perturbations and provide an estimate of Doppler shift and breathing as a function of the trailing angle. (paper)

  14. Novel Payload Architectures for LISA

    Johann, Ulrich A.; Gath, Peter F.; Holota, Wolfgang; Schulte, Hans Reiner; Weise, Dennis

    2006-11-01

    As part of the current LISA Mission Formulation Study, and based on prior internal investigations, Astrium Germany has defined and preliminary assessed novel payload architectures, potentially reducing overall complexity and improving budgets and costs. A promising concept is characterized by a single active inertial sensor attached to a single optical bench and serving both adjacent interferometer arms via two rigidly connected off-axis telescopes. The in-plane triangular constellation ``breathing angle'' compensation is accomplished by common telescope in-field of view pointing actuation of the transmit/received beams line of sight. A dedicated actuation mechanism located on the optical bench is required in addition to the on bench actuators for differential pointing of the transmit and receive direction perpendicular to the constellation plane. Both actuators operate in a sinusoidal yearly period. A technical challenge is the actuation mechanism pointing jitter and the monitoring and calibration of the laser phase walk which occurs while changing the optical path inside the optical assembly during re-pointing. Calibration or monitoring of instrument internal phase effects e.g. by a laser metrology truss derived from the existing interferometry is required. The architecture exploits in full the two-step interferometry (strap down) concept, separating functionally inter spacecraft and intra-spacecraft interferometry (reference mass laser metrology degrees of freedom sensing). The single test mass is maintained as cubic, but in free-fall in the lateral degrees of freedom within the constellation plane. Also the option of a completely free spherical test mass with full laser interferometer readout has been conceptually investigated. The spherical test mass would rotate slowly, and would be allowed to tumble. Imperfections in roundness and density would be calibrated from differential wave front sensing in a tetrahedral arrangement, supported by added attitude

  15. Confusion noise from LISA capture sources

    Barack, Leor; Cutler, Curt

    2004-01-01

    Captures of compact objects (COs) by massive black holes (MBHs) in galactic nuclei will be an important source for LISA, the proposed space-based gravitational wave (GW) detector. However, a large fraction of captures will not be individually resolvable - either because they are too distant, have unfavorable orientation, or have too many years to go before final plunge - and so will constitute a source of 'confusion noise', obscuring other types of sources. In this paper we estimate the shape and overall magnitude of the GW background energy spectrum generated by CO captures. This energy spectrum immediately translates to a spectral density S h capt (f) for the amplitude of capture-generated GWs registered by LISA. The overall magnitude of S h capt (f) is linear in the CO capture rates, which are rather uncertain; therefore we present results for a plausible range of rates. S h capt (f) includes the contributions from both resolvable and unresolvable captures, and thus represents an upper limit on the confusion noise level. We then estimate what fraction of S h capt (f) is due to unresolvable sources and hence constitutes confusion noise. We find that almost all of the contribution to S h capt (f) coming from white dwarf and neutron star captures, and at least ∼30% of the contribution from black hole captures, is from sources that cannot be individually resolved. Nevertheless, we show that the impact of capture confusion noise on the total LISA noise curve ranges from insignificant to modest, depending on the rates. Capture rates at the high end of estimated ranges would raise LISA's overall (effective) noise level [fS h eff (f)] 1/2 by at most a factor ∼2 in the frequency range 1-10 mHz, where LISA is most sensitive. While this slightly elevated noise level would somewhat decrease LISA's sensitivity to other classes of sources, we argue that, overall, this would be a pleasant problem for LISA to have: It would also imply that detection rates for CO captures

  16. Free-flight experiments in LISA Pathfinder

    Armano, M; Audley, H; Born, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Auger, G; Binetruy, P; Baird, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Dolesi, R; Ferroni, V; Cruise, M; Cutler, C; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L

    2015-01-01

    The LISA Pathfinder mission will demonstrate the technology of drag-free test masses for use as inertial references in future space-based gravitational wave detectors. To accomplish this, the Pathfinder spacecraft will perform drag-free flight about a test mass while measuring the acceleration of this primary test mass relative to a second reference test mass. Because the reference test mass is contained within the same spacecraft, it is necessary to apply forces on it to maintain its position and attitude relative to the spacecraft. These forces are a potential source of acceleration noise in the LISA Pathfinder system that are not present in the full LISA configuration. While LISA Pathfinder has been designed to meet it's primary mission requirements in the presence of this noise, recent estimates suggest that the on-orbit performance may be limited by this ‘suspension noise’. The drift-mode or free-flight experiments provide an opportunity to mitigate this noise source and further characterize the underlying disturbances that are of interest to the designers of LISA-like instruments. This article provides a high-level overview of these experiments and the methods under development to analyze the resulting data. (paper)

  17. Data analysis for the LISA Technology Package

    Hewitson, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; GarcIa, A; Armano, M; Fauste, J; Benedetti, M; Bogenstahl, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Bosetti, P; Cristofolini, I; Brandt, N; Cavalleri, A; Ciani, G; Dolesi, R; Ferraioli, L; Cruise, M; Fertin, D; GarcIa, C; Fichter, W

    2009-01-01

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA Pathfinder mission aims to demonstrate some key concepts for LISA which cannot be tested on ground. The mission consists of a series of preplanned experimental runs. The data analysis for each experiment must be designed in advance of the mission. During the mission, the analysis must be carried out promptly so that the results can be fed forward into subsequent experiments. As such a robust and flexible data analysis environment needs to be put in place. Since this software is used during mission operations and effects the mission timeline, it must be very robust and tested to a high degree. This paper presents the requirements, design and implementation of the data analysis environment (LTPDA) that will be used for analysing the data from LTP. The use of the analysis software to perform mock data challenges (MDC) is also discussed, and some highlights from the first MDC are presented.

  18. Data analysis for the LISA Technology Package

    Hewitson, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; GarcIa, A [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik und Universitaet Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Armano, M; Fauste, J [European Space Agency, ESAC, Villanueva de la Canada, 28692 Madrid (Spain); Benedetti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e Tecnologie Industriali, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Bogenstahl, J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bortoluzzi, D; Bosetti, P; Cristofolini, I [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Strutturale, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Brandt, N [Astrium GmbH, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Cavalleri, A; Ciani, G; Dolesi, R; Ferraioli, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Cruise, M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fertin, D; GarcIa, C [European Space Agency, ESTEC, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Fichter, W, E-mail: martin.hewitson@aei.mpg.d [Institut fuer Flugmechanik und Flugregelung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-05-07

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA Pathfinder mission aims to demonstrate some key concepts for LISA which cannot be tested on ground. The mission consists of a series of preplanned experimental runs. The data analysis for each experiment must be designed in advance of the mission. During the mission, the analysis must be carried out promptly so that the results can be fed forward into subsequent experiments. As such a robust and flexible data analysis environment needs to be put in place. Since this software is used during mission operations and effects the mission timeline, it must be very robust and tested to a high degree. This paper presents the requirements, design and implementation of the data analysis environment (LTPDA) that will be used for analysing the data from LTP. The use of the analysis software to perform mock data challenges (MDC) is also discussed, and some highlights from the first MDC are presented.

  19. Reconstructing the dark sector interaction with LISA

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Tao [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100190 (China); Tamanini, Nicola, E-mail: cairg@itp.ac.cn, E-mail: nicola.tamanini@cea.fr, E-mail: yangtao@itp.ac.cn [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA-Saclay, CNRS UMR 3681, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-05-01

    We perform a forecast analysis of the ability of the LISA space-based interferometer to reconstruct the dark sector interaction using gravitational wave standard sirens at high redshift. We employ Gaussian process methods to reconstruct the distance-redshift relation in a model independent way. We adopt simulated catalogues of standard sirens given by merging massive black hole binaries visible by LISA, with an electromagnetic counterpart detectable by future telescopes. The catalogues are based on three different astrophysical scenarios for the evolution of massive black hole mergers based on the semi-analytic model of E. Barausse, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 423 (2012) 2533. We first use these standard siren datasets to assess the potential of LISA in reconstructing a possible interaction between vacuum dark energy and dark matter. Then we combine the LISA cosmological data with supernovae data simulated for the Dark Energy Survey. We consider two scenarios distinguished by the time duration of the LISA mission: 5 and 10 years. Using only LISA standard siren data, the dark sector interaction can be well reconstructed from redshift z ∼1 to z ∼3 (for a 5 years mission) and z ∼1 up to z ∼5 (for a 10 years mission), though the reconstruction is inefficient at lower redshift. When combined with the DES datasets, the interaction is well reconstructed in the whole redshift region from 0 z ∼ to z ∼3 (5 yr) and z ∼0 to z ∼5 (10 yr), respectively. Massive black hole binary standard sirens can thus be used to constrain the dark sector interaction at redshift ranges not reachable by usual supernovae datasets which probe only the z ∼< 1.5 range. Gravitational wave standard sirens will not only constitute a complementary and alternative way, with respect to familiar electromagnetic observations, to probe the cosmic expansion, but will also provide new tests to constrain possible deviations from the standard ΛCDM dynamics, especially at high redshift.

  20. Complex patterns of response to oral hygiene instructions: longitudinal evaluation of periodontal patients.

    Amoo-Achampong, Felice; Vitunac, David E; Deeley, Kathleen; Modesto, Adriana; Vieira, Alexandre R

    2018-05-02

    Oral hygiene instruction is an intervention widely practiced but increased knowledge about oral health does not necessarily dramatically impact oral disease prevalence in populations. We aimed to measure plaque and bleeding in periodontal patients over time to determine patterns of patient response to oral hygiene instructions. Longitudinal plaque and bleeding index data were evaluated in 227 periodontal patients to determine the impact of oral hygiene instructions. Over multiple visits, we determined relative plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding for each patient. Subsequently, we grouped them in three types of oral hygiene status in response to initial instructions, using the longitudinal data over the period they were treated and followed for their periodontal needs. These patterns of oral hygiene based on the plaque and gingival bleeding indexes were evaluated based on age, sex, ethnic background, interleukin 1 alpha and beta genotypes, diabetes status, smoking habits, and other concomitant diseases. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to determine if any differences between these variables were statistically significant with alpha set at 0.05. Three patterns in response to oral hygiene instructions emerged. Plaque and gingival bleeding indexes improved, worsened, or fluctuated over time in the periodontal patients studied. Out of all the confounders considered, only ethnic background showed statistically significant differences. White individuals more often than other ethnic groups fluctuated in regards to oral hygiene quality after instructions. There are different responses to professional oral hygiene instructions. These responses may be related to ethnicity.

  1. LISA Mission and System architectures and performances

    Gath, Peter F; Weise, Dennis; Schulte, Hans-Reiner; Johann, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the LISA Mission Formulation Study, the LISA System was studied in detail and a new baseline architecture for the whole mission was established. This new baseline is the result of trade-offs on both, mission and system level. The paper gives an overview of the different mission scenarios and configurations that were studied in connection with their corresponding advantages and disadvantages as well as performance estimates. Differences in the required technologies and their influence on the overall performance budgets are highlighted for all configurations. For the selected baseline concept, a more detailed description of the configuration is given and open issues in the technologies involved are discussed.

  2. LISA Mission and System architectures and performances

    Gath, Peter F; Weise, Dennis; Schulte, Hans-Reiner; Johann, Ulrich, E-mail: peter.gath@astrium.eads.ne [Astrium GmbH Satellites, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    In the context of the LISA Mission Formulation Study, the LISA System was studied in detail and a new baseline architecture for the whole mission was established. This new baseline is the result of trade-offs on both, mission and system level. The paper gives an overview of the different mission scenarios and configurations that were studied in connection with their corresponding advantages and disadvantages as well as performance estimates. Differences in the required technologies and their influence on the overall performance budgets are highlighted for all configurations. For the selected baseline concept, a more detailed description of the configuration is given and open issues in the technologies involved are discussed.

  3. Galactic binaries with eLISA

    Nelemans, G.

    2013-01-01

    I review what eLISA will see from Galactic binaries -- double stars with orbital periods less than a few hours and white dwarf (or neutron star/black hole) components. I discuss the currently known binaries that are guaranteed (or verification) sources and explain why the expected total number of eLISA Galactic binaries is several thousand, even though there are large uncertainties in our knowledge of this population, in particular that of the interacting AM CVn systems. I very briefly sketch...

  4. Culturally Responsive Social Skills Instruction for Adolescent Black Males

    Robinson-Ervin, Porsha; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Keyes, Starr

    2011-01-01

    The cultural disconnect between black males and the school environment has been correlated with poor academic achievement and high discipline rates for Black males. Instructional strategies that draw upon the learner?s cultural background hold promise as one means for intervention. This paper addresses the social skills needs of black adolescent…

  5. Teaching for Diversity: Addressing Diversity Issues in Responsive ESL Instruction

    Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Student diversity has become a typical phenomenon in American public schools. The impact of increasing diversity on literacy instruction is unchallenged. Teachers reinforce this message by often citing ESL student diversity as a barrier for literacy teaching. In order to better understand the complexity of diversity issues, I explored two ESL…

  6. Games in Instruction Leading To Environmentally Responsible Behavior.

    Hewitt, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on instructional games designed to teach about environmental topics such as wetlands, pollution, endangered species, population, energy, and individual effects on the environment. Fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students (N=295) were tested, and significant results were found between students who played four games and those who did not…

  7. Culturally Responsive Reading Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Kourea, Lefki; Gibson, Lenwood; Werunga, Robai

    2018-01-01

    As student populations are becoming more diverse in ability and ethnicity across American classrooms, teachers are faced with instructional challenges in meeting their students' learning needs. Challenges are heightened for general and special education teachers who teach students with learning disabilities (LD) and have a culturally and…

  8. Mona Lisa kuulsa naeratuse saladus leidis lahenduse / Johannes Saar

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2004-01-01

    Firenze kunstiajalooõpetaja Giuseppe Pallanti jõudis 25-aastase arhiivitöö tulemusena järeldusele, et Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa modelliks on siidikaupmehe Francesco del Giocondo abikaasa Lisa Gerardini

  9. The Mona Lisa of modern science.

    Kemp, Martin

    2003-01-23

    No molecule in the history of science has reached the iconic status of the double helix of DNA. Its image has been imprinted on all aspects of society, from science, art, music, cinema, architecture and advertising. This review of the Mona Lisa of science examines the evolution of its form at the hands of both science and art.

  10. A noise simulator for eLISA: Migrating LISA Pathfinder knowledge to the eLISA mission

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, Michael; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, Karsten; Diepholz, I.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new technical simulator for the eLISA mission, based on state space modeling techniques and developed in MATLAB. This simulator computes the coordinate and velocity over time of each body involved in the constellation, i.e. the spacecraft and its test masses, taking into account the different disturbances and actuations. This allows studying the contribution of instrumental noises and system imperfections on the residual acceleration applied on the TMs, the latter reflecting the ...

  11. Time-delay interferometry for LISA

    Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, F.B.; Armstrong, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) is a mission to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation through its influence on the phases or frequencies of laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft. We previously showed how, with lasers of identical frequencies on stationary spacecraft, the measurement of twelve time series of Doppler shifts could be combined to cancel exactly the phase noise of the lasers and the Doppler fluctuations due to noninertial motions of the six optical benches, while preserving gravitational wave signals. Here we generalize those results on gravitational wave detection with time-delay interferometry to the expected LISA instrument. The six lasers have different center frequencies (in the nominal LISA configuration these center frequencies may well differ by several hundred megahertz) and the distances between spacecraft pairs will change with time (these slowly varying orbital Doppler shifts are expected to be up to tens of megahertz). We develop time-delay data combinations which, as previously, preserve gravitational waves and exactly cancel the leading noise source (phase fluctuations of the six lasers); these data combinations then imply transfer functions for the remaining system noises. Using these, we plot frequency and phase power spectra for modeled system noises in the unequal Michelson combination X and the symmetric Sagnac combination ζ. Although optical bench noise can no longer be cancelled exactly, with the current LISA specifications it is suppressed to negligible levels. It is known that the presently anticipated laser center frequency differences and the orbital Doppler drifts introduce another source of phase noise, arising from the onboard oscillators required to track the photodetector fringes. For the presently planned mission, our analysis indeed demonstrates that noise from current-generation ultrastable oscillators would, if uncorrected, dominate the LISA noise budget. To meet the

  12. LISA Sources in Milky Way Globular Clusters

    Kremer, Kyle; Chatterjee, Sourav; Breivik, Katelyn; Rodriguez, Carl L.; Larson, Shane L.; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2018-05-01

    We explore the formation of double-compact-object binaries in Milky Way (MW) globular clusters (GCs) that may be detectable by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). We use a set of 137 fully evolved GC models that, overall, effectively match the properties of the observed GCs in the MW. We estimate that, in total, the MW GCs contain ˜21 sources that will be detectable by LISA. These detectable sources contain all combinations of black hole (BH), neutron star, and white dwarf components. We predict ˜7 of these sources will be BH-BH binaries. Furthermore, we show that some of these BH-BH binaries can have signal-to-noise ratios large enough to be detectable at the distance of the Andromeda galaxy or even the Virgo cluster.

  13. Weak-light phase locking for LISA

    McNamara, Paul W

    2005-01-01

    The long armlengths of the LISA interferometer, and the finite aperture of the telescope, lead to an optical power attenuation of ∼10 -10 of the transmitted to received light. Simple reflection at the end of the arm is therefore not an optimum interferometric design. Instead, a local laser is offset phase locked to the weak incoming beam, transferring the phase information of the incoming to the outgoing light. This paper reports on an experiment to characterize a weak-light phase-locking scheme suitable for LISA in which a diode-pumped, Nd:YAG, non-planar ring oscillator (NPRO) is offset phase locked to a low-power (13 pW) frequency stabilized master NPRO. Preliminary results of the relative phase noise of the slave laser shows shot noise limited performance above 0.4 Hz. Excess noise is observed at lower frequencies, most probably due to thermal effects in the optical arrangement and phase-sensing electronics

  14. Children Evoke Similar Affective and Instructional Responses from Their Teachers and Mothers

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Dietrich, Julia; Pakarinen, Eija; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Hirvonen, Riikka; Muotka, Joona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the extent to which the responses of teachers and mothers toward a particular child are similar in respect to their instructional support and affect, and whether child characteristics predict these responses. The data of 373 Finnish child-teacher-mother triads (178 girls, 195 boys) were analysed. Teachers and…

  15. Instructional Reasoning about Interpretations of Student Thinking That Supports Responsive Teaching in Secondary Mathematics

    Dyer, Elizabeth B.; Sherin, Miriam Gamoran

    2016-01-01

    Basing instruction on the substance of student thinking, or responsive teaching, is a critical strategy for supporting student learning. Previous research has documented responsive teaching by identifying observable teaching practices in a broad range of disciplines and classrooms. However, this research has not provided access to the teacher…

  16. Data Analysis for the LISA Pathfinder Mission

    Thorpe, James Ira

    2009-01-01

    The LTP (LISA Technology Package) is the core part of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder mission. The main goal of the mission is to study the sources of any disturbances that perturb the motion of the freely-falling test masses from their geodesic trajectories as well as 10 test various technologies needed for LISA. The LTP experiment is designed as a sequence of experimental runs in which the performance of the instrument is studied and characterized under different operating conditions. In order to best optimize subsequent experimental runs, each run must be promptly analysed to ensure that the following ones make best use of the available knowledge of the instrument ' In order to do this, all analyses must be designed and tested in advance of the mission and have sufficient built-in flexibility to account for unexpected results or behaviour. To support this activity, a robust and flexible data analysis software package is also required. This poster presents two of the main components that make up the data analysis effort: the data analysis software and the mock-data challenges used to validate analysis procedures and experiment designs.

  17. An NCME Instructional Module on Polytomous Item Response Theory Models

    Penfield, Randall David

    2014-01-01

    A polytomous item is one for which the responses are scored according to three or more categories. Given the increasing use of polytomous items in assessment practices, item response theory (IRT) models specialized for polytomous items are becoming increasingly common. The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an accessible overview of…

  18. LISA and LISA PathFinder, the endeavour to detect low frequency GWs

    Araujo, H [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Boatella, C [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Chmeissani, M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Conchillo, A [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia-Berro, E [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Grimani, C [Universita degli Studi di Urbino, and INFN Florence, Istituto di Fisica, Via Santa Chiara 27, 61029 Urbino (Italy); Hajdas, W [Department of Particles and Matter, Paul Scherrer Institut, ODRA 120, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Lobo, A [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Martinez, L [AtIpic, Parc Tecnologic del Valles, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Nofrarias, M [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ortega, J A [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Puigdengoles, C [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Ramos-Castro, J [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, UPC, Campus Nord, Edif. C4, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Sanjuan, J [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Wass, P [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Xirgu, X [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    This is a review about LISA and its technology demonstrator, LISAPathFinder. We first describe the conceptual problems which need to be overcome in order to set up a working interferometric detector of low frequency Gravitational Waves (GW), then summarise the solutions to them as currently conceived by the LISA mission team. This will show that some of these solutions require new technological abilities which are still under development, and which need proper test before being fully implemented. LISAPathFinder (LPF) is the the testbed for such technologies. The final part of the paper will address the ideas and concepts behind the PathFinder as well as their impact on LISA.

  19. LISA and LISA PathFinder, the endeavour to detect low frequency GWs

    Araujo, H; Boatella, C; Chmeissani, M; Conchillo, A; Garcia-Berro, E; Grimani, C; Hajdas, W; Lobo, A; Martinez, L; Nofrarias, M; Ortega, J A; Puigdengoles, C; Ramos-Castro, J; Sanjuan, J; Wass, P; Xirgu, X

    2007-01-01

    This is a review about LISA and its technology demonstrator, LISAPathFinder. We first describe the conceptual problems which need to be overcome in order to set up a working interferometric detector of low frequency Gravitational Waves (GW), then summarise the solutions to them as currently conceived by the LISA mission team. This will show that some of these solutions require new technological abilities which are still under development, and which need proper test before being fully implemented. LISAPathFinder (LPF) is the the testbed for such technologies. The final part of the paper will address the ideas and concepts behind the PathFinder as well as their impact on LISA

  20. Ground-based self-gravity tests for LISA Pathfinder and LISA

    Trenkel, C; Warren, C; Wealthy, D

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational coupling between the free-falling test masses and the surrounding spacecraft is one of the dominant noise sources for both LISA Pathfinder and LISA. At present, there are no plans to verify any of the self-gravity requirements by test, on the ground. Here, we explore the possibilities of conducting such tests, using a customised torsion balance. We discuss the main sources of systematic and statistical uncertainty present in such a set-up. Our preliminary assessment indicates that the sensitivity is sufficient to carry out meaningful self-gravity tests.

  1. LISA technologies in new light: exploring alternatives for charge management and optical bench construction

    Ciani, Giacomo; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo; Apple, Stephen; Conklin, John W.; Mueller, Guido

    2015-08-01

    A LISA-like gravitational wave observatory is the choice candidate for ESA's L3 large mission scheduled to launch in 2034. The LISA Test Package (LTP) mission will launch later this year and test many critical technologies needed for such an observatory, among which are picometer interferometry in space and UV charge management of the Test Mass (TM). The design of these subsystems has been frozen many years ago during the final formulation of the LTP mission; since then, the LISA mission concept has evolved and new technologies have become available, making it possible to re-think the way these subsystem are implemented. With the final formulation of the L3 mission still years in the future and the LTP results expected in about one year, now is an ideal time look for areas of possible improvement and explore alternative implementations that can enhance performance, reduce costs or mitigate risks.Recently developed UV LED are lighter, cheaper and more powerful than traditional mercury lamps; in addition, their fast response time can be used to implement AC discharge techniques that can save even more space and power, and provide a more precise control of the charge.The most recent iteration of the mission baseline design allows for eliminating some of the optical components initially deemed essential; paired with the use of polarization multiplexing, this permits a redesign of the optical bench that simplifies the layout and enables a modular approach to machining and assembly, thus reducing the risks and costs associated with the current monolithic design without compromising the picometer stability of the optical path.Leveraging on extensive previous experience with LISA interferometry and the availability of a torsion pendulum-based LISA test-bed, the University of Florida LISA group is working at developing, demonstrating and optimizing both these technologies. I will describe the most recent advancements and results.

  2. Performance of arm locking in LISA

    McKenzie, Kirk; Spero, Robert E.; Shaddock, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    For the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) to reach its design sensitivity, the coupling of the free-running laser frequency noise to the signal readout must be reduced by more than 14 orders of magnitude. One technique employed to reduce the laser frequency noise will be arm locking, where the laser frequency is locked to the LISA arm length. In this paper we detail an implementation of arm locking. We investigate orbital effects (changing arm lengths and Doppler frequencies), the impact of errors in the Doppler knowledge that can cause pulling of the laser frequency, and the noise limit of arm locking. Laser frequency pulling is examined in two regimes: at lock acquisition and in steady state. The noise performance of arm locking is calculated with the inclusion of the dominant expected noise sources: ultrastable oscillator (clock) noise, spacecraft motion, and shot noise. We find that clock noise and spacecraft motion limit the performance of dual arm locking in the LISA science band. Studying these issues reveals that although dual arm locking [A. Sutton and D. A. Shaddock, Phys. Rev. D 78, 082001 (2008)] has advantages over single (or common) arm locking in terms of allowing high gain, it has disadvantages in both laser frequency pulling and noise performance. We address this by proposing a modification to the dual arm-locking sensor, a hybrid of common and dual arm-locking sensors. This modified dual arm-locking sensor has the laser frequency pulling characteristics and low-frequency noise coupling of common arm locking, but retains the control system advantages of dual arm locking. We present a detailed design of an arm-locking controller and perform an analysis of the expected performance when used with and without laser prestabilization. We observe that the sensor phase changes beneficially near unity-gain frequencies of the arm-locking controller, allowing a factor of 10 more gain than previously believed, without degrading stability. With a time

  3. The LISA Pathfinder DMU and Radiation Monitor

    Canizares, P; Conchillo, A; Gesa, L; Lloro, I; Lobo, A; Mateos, I; Sopuerta, Carlos F [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, CSIC, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5 parell, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Chmeissani, M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Edifici CN, UAB Campus, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Diaz-Aguilo, M; GarcIa-Berro, E; Gibert, F [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Grimani, C [Universita degli Studi di Urbino, MFI Department, Via Santa Chiara 27, 61029 Urbino, and INFN Florence (Italy); Nofrarias, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Ramos-Castro, J [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, UPC, Campus Nord, Edifici C4, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Sanjuan, J [Department of Physics, University of Florida, NPB-22258 PO Box 118 440, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States); Araujo, H M; Wass, P, E-mail: lobo@ieec.fcr.es [High Energy Physics Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-07

    The LISA Pathfinder DMU (Data Management Unit) flight model was formally accepted by ESA and ASD on 11 February 2010, after all hardware and software tests had been successfully completed. The diagnostics items are scheduled to be delivered by the end of 2010. In this paper, we review the requirements and performance of this instrumentation, specially focusing on the Radiation Monitor and the DMU, as well as the status of their programmed use during mission operations, on which work is ongoing at the time of writing.

  4. Student Response to Faculty Instruction (SRFI): An Empirically Derived Instrument to Measure Student Evaluations of Teaching

    Beitzel, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    The Student Response to Faculty Instruction (SRFI) is an instrument designed to measure the student perspective on courses in higher education. The SRFI was derived from decades of empirical studies of student evaluations of teaching. This article describes the development of the SRFI and its psychometric attributes demonstrated in two pilot study…

  5. An NCME Instructional Module on Item-Fit Statistics for Item Response Theory Models

    Ames, Allison J.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing valid inferences from item response theory (IRT) models is contingent upon a good fit of the data to the model. Violations of model-data fit have numerous consequences, limiting the usefulness and applicability of the model. This instructional module provides an overview of methods used for evaluating the fit of IRT models. Upon completing…

  6. ESL and Content Area Teacher Responses to Discussions on English Language Learner Instruction

    Pawan, Faridah; Craig, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study compares the responses and statements of English as a second language (ESL) and content area teachers in discussions about the instruction of English language learners (ELLs). A study on how these two sets of teachers understand the field is important because commonalities and differences in their opinions may have an impact on…

  7. LISA Beyond Einstein: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. LISA Technology Development at GSFC

    Thorpe, James Ira

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work that has been ongoing at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in the development of the technology to be used in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) spacecrafts. The prime focus of LISA technology development efforts at NASA/GSFC has been in LISA interferometry. Specifically efforts have been made in the area of laser frequency noise mitigation. Laser frequency noise is addressed through a combination of stabilization and common-mode rejection. Current plans call for two stages of stabilization, pre-stabilization to a local frequency reference and further stabilization using the constellation as a frequency reference. In order for these techniques to be used simultaneously, the pre-stabilization step must provide an adjustable frequency offset. This presentation reports on a modification to the standard modulation/demodulation technique used to stabilize to optical cavities that generates a frequency-tunable reference from a fixed length cavity. This technique requires no modifications to the cavity itself and only minor modifications to the components. The measured noise performance and dynamic range of the laboratory prototype meet the LISA requirements.

  8. “Clicking” with your audience: Evaluating the use of personal response systems in library instruction

    Emily K. Chan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available University of the Pacific librarians used personal response systems (PRS or clickers in first-year mandatory library instructional sessions to assess their effects on student engagement and retention of learning outcomes. Students who utilized clickers during their library session reported greater enjoyment and encouragement to participate (n=291. Students in the sessions not utilizing the clickers achieved better learning outcomes than their counterparts who utilized clickers (n=326. The implications of these results are discussed, specifically within the context of pedagogy and tailoring instruction to the Millennial generation.

  9. Evaluating the effects that existing instruction on responsible conduct of research has on ethical decision making.

    Antes, Alison L; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D; Brown, Ryan P; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D

    2010-03-01

    To examine the effects that existing courses on the responsible conduct of research (RCR) have on ethical decision making by assessing the ethicality of decisions made in response to ethical problems and the underlying processes involved in ethical decision making. These processes included how an individual thinks through ethical problems (i.e., meta-cognitive reasoning strategies) and the emphasis placed on social dimensions of ethical problems (i.e., social-behavioral responses). In 2005-2007, recruitment announcements were made, stating that a nationwide, online study was being conducted to examine the impact of RCR instruction on the ethical decision making of scientists. Recruitment yielded contacts with over 200 RCR faculty at 21 research universities and medical schools; 40 (20%) RCR instructors enrolled their courses in the current study. From those courses, 173 participants completed an ethical decision-making measure. A mixed pattern of effects emerged. The ethicality of decisions did not improve as a result of RCR instruction and even decreased for decisions pertaining to business aspects of research, such as contract bidding. Course participants improved on some meta-cognitive reasoning strategies, such as awareness of the situation and consideration of personal motivations, but declined for seeking help and considering others' perspectives. Participants also increased their endorsement of detrimental social-behavioral responses, such as deception, retaliation, and avoidance of personal responsibility. These findings indicated that RCR instruction may not be as effective as intended and, in fact, may even be harmful. Harmful effects might result if instruction leads students to overstress avoidance of ethical problems, be overconfident in their ability to handle ethical problems, or overemphasize their ethical nature. Future research must examine these and other possible obstacles to effective RCR instruction.

  10. Optical testbed for the LISA phasemeter

    Schwarze, T S; Fernández Barranco, G; Penkert, D; Gerberding, O; Heinzel, G; Danzmann, K

    2016-01-01

    The planned spaceborne gravitational wave detector LISA will allow the detection of gravitational waves at frequencies between 0.1 mHz and 1 Hz. A breadboard model for the metrology system aka the phasemeter was developed in the scope of an ESA technology development project by a collaboration between the Albert Einstein Institute, the Technical University of Denmark and the Danish industry partner Axcon Aps. It in particular provides the electronic readout of the main interferometer phases besides auxiliary functions. These include clock noise transfer, ADC pilot tone correction, inter-satellite ranging and data transfer. Besides in LISA, the phasemeter can also be applied in future satellite geodesy missions. Here we show the planning and advances in the implementation of an optical testbed for the full metrology chain. It is based on an ultra-stable hexagonal optical bench. This bench allows the generation of three unequal heterodyne beatnotes with a zero phase combination, thus providing the possibility to probe the phase readout for non-linearities in an optical three signal test. Additionally, the utilization of three independent phasemeters will allow the testing of the auxiliary functions. Once working, components can individually be replaced with flight-qualified hardware in this setup. (paper)

  11. Optical testbed for the LISA phasemeter

    Schwarze, T. S.; Fernández Barranco, G.; Penkert, D.; Gerberding, O.; Heinzel, G.; Danzmann, K.

    2016-05-01

    The planned spaceborne gravitational wave detector LISA will allow the detection of gravitational waves at frequencies between 0.1 mHz and 1 Hz. A breadboard model for the metrology system aka the phasemeter was developed in the scope of an ESA technology development project by a collaboration between the Albert Einstein Institute, the Technical University of Denmark and the Danish industry partner Axcon Aps. It in particular provides the electronic readout of the main interferometer phases besides auxiliary functions. These include clock noise transfer, ADC pilot tone correction, inter-satellite ranging and data transfer. Besides in LISA, the phasemeter can also be applied in future satellite geodesy missions. Here we show the planning and advances in the implementation of an optical testbed for the full metrology chain. It is based on an ultra-stable hexagonal optical bench. This bench allows the generation of three unequal heterodyne beatnotes with a zero phase combination, thus providing the possibility to probe the phase readout for non-linearities in an optical three signal test. Additionally, the utilization of three independent phasemeters will allow the testing of the auxiliary functions. Once working, components can individually be replaced with flight-qualified hardware in this setup.

  12. Detection of Micrometeoroids with LISA Pathfinder

    Thorpe, Ira; Littenberg, Tyson; Janchez, Diego; Baker, John; The LISA Pathfinder Team Team

    2017-01-01

    The LISA Pathfinder mission (LPF), a joint ESA/NASA technology demonstration mission currently operating at the Sun-Earth L1 point, contains the most precise accelerometry system ever flown. Analysis suggests that LPF should have sufficient sensitivity to detect impacts of small micrometeoroids and dust through their transfer of momentum to the spacecraft. Moreover, LPF's ability to fully resolve both the linear and angular momentum transfer in three dimensions allows a magnitude, direction, and location to be estimated for each impact. We present preliminary results from a systematic search of the LISA Pathfinder data for such impacts and discuss the prospects for using these and future results to inform models of the formation and evolution of dust populations in the inner solar system. These models have wide applicability to both pure and applied space science, ranging from the physics of planet formation and dynamics of minor Solar System bodies to estimates of the micrometeorite hazard for future spacecraft. 2017 NASA Science Innovation Fund.

  13. LISA as a dark energy probe

    Arun, K G; Mishra, Chandra Kant; Iyer, B R; Sinha, Siddhartha; Van Den Broeck, Chris; Sathyaprakash, B S

    2009-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the inclusion of higher signal harmonics in the inspiral signals of binary supermassive black holes (SMBH) leads to dramatic improvements in the parameter estimation with Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). In particular, the angular resolution becomes good enough to identify the host galaxy or galaxy cluster, in which case the redshift can be determined by electromagnetic means. The gravitational wave signal also provides the luminosity distance with high accuracy, and the relationship between this and the redshift depends sensitively on the cosmological parameters, such as the equation-of-state parameter w = p DE /ρ DE of dark energy. Using binary SMBH events at z < 1 with appropriate masses and orientations, one would be able to constrain w to within a few per cent. We show that, if the measured sky location is folded into the error analysis, the uncertainty on w goes down by an additional factor of 2-3, leaving weak lensing as the only limiting factor in using LISA as a dark energy probe.

  14. Electrodermal responses during appetitive conditioning are sensitive to contingency instruction ambiguity.

    van den Akker, Karolien; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Jansen, Anita

    2017-08-01

    Studies on human appetitive conditioning using food rewards can benefit from including psychophysiological outcome measures. The present study tested whether the skin conductance response can function as a measure of differential responding in an appetitive conditioning paradigm including an acquisition and extinction phase, and examined which time window during a trial is most sensitive to conditioning effects. As a secondary aim, the effects of ambiguous vs. non-ambiguous contingency instructions on conditioned responses (skin conductance responses, US expectancies, chocolate desires, and CS evaluations) were assessed. Results indicated differential skin conductance responses in an anticipatory time window and during unexpected omission of the US in early extinction. Interestingly however, anticipatory responses were only found for participants who received ambiguous contingency instructions - possibly indicating a call for additional processing resources in response to the ambiguous CS+. Further, ambiguous instructions slowed the extinction of US expectancies but did not influence chocolate desires and CS evaluations. It is concluded that skin conductance can function as a sensitive measure of differential responding in appetitive conditioning, though its sensitivity might depend on the specific task context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Only reappraisers profit from reappraisal instructions: Effects of instructed and habitual reappraisal on stress responses during interpersonal conflicts.

    Mauersberger, Heidi; Hoppe, Annekatrin; Brockmann, Gudrun; Hess, Ursula

    2018-04-22

    Conflicts are an undesirable yet common aspect of daily interactions with wide-ranging negative consequences. The present research aimed to examine the buffering effect of experimentally instructed reappraisal on self-reported, physiological and behavioral stress indices during interpersonal conflicts, taking into account habitual emotion regulation strategies. For this, 145 participants experienced a standardized laboratory conflict with the instruction to either reappraise (n = 48), to suppress (n = 50), or with no instruction (n = 47) while cardiovascular and neuroendocrine measures were taken. Participants were allowed to eat sweet and salty snacks during the conflict situation. Prior to as well as after the conflict, participants reported on their subjective stress level. Reappraisal instructions were only effective for high habitual reappraisers who exhibited lower cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity and demonstrated fewer snack-eating behaviors under reappraisal instructions than under suppression or no instructions. The opposite pattern emerged for low habitual reappraisers. Neither experimentally instructed nor habitual reappraisal by itself reduced the negative effects of conflicts. Our findings complement the literature on the diverging effects of instructed reappraisal in tense social interactions. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Interferometry for the LISA technology package LTP: an update

    Heinzel, G; Bogenstahl, J; Braxmaier, C; Danzmann, K; Garcia, A; Guzman, F; Hough, J; Hoyland, D; Jennrich, O; Killow, C; Robertson, D; Sodnik, Z; Steier, F; Ward, H; Wand, V

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives an update on the status of the LISA technology package (LTP) which is to be launched in 2009 by ESA as a technology demonstration mission for the spaceborne gravitational wave observatory LISA. The dominant noise source in the interferometer prototype has been investigated and improved such that it is now comfortably below its budget at all frequencies

  17. Influence of encoding instructions and response bias on cross-cultural differences in specific recognition.

    Paige, Laura E; Amado, Selen; Gutchess, Angela H

    2017-10-01

    Prior cross-cultural research has reported cultural variations in memory. One study revealed that Americans remembered images with more perceptual detail than East Asians (Millar et al. in Cult Brain 1(2-4):138-157, 2013). However, in a later study, this expected pattern was not replicated, possibly due to differences in encoding instructions (Paige et al. in Cortex 91:250-261, 2017). The present study sought to examine when cultural variation in memory-related decisions occur and the role of instructions. American and East Asian participants viewed images of objects while making a Purchase decision or an Approach decision and later completed a surprise recognition test. Results revealed Americans had higher hit rates for specific memory, regardless of instruction type, and a less stringent response criterion relative to East Asians. Additionally, a pattern emerged where the Approach decision enhanced hit rates for specific memory relative to the Purchase decision only when administered first; this pattern did not differ across cultures. Results suggest encoding instructions do not magnify cross-cultural differences in memory. Ultimately, cross-cultural differences in response bias, rather than memory sensitivity per se, may account for findings of cultural differences in memory specificity.

  18. Envisioning Instructional Communication Research as a Multi-Paradigmatic Response to Neoliberalism's Effect on Instruction. Forum: The Future of Instructional Communication

    Kahl, David H., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Throughout its history, instructional communication research has played an important role in the discipline of Communication. In tracing its lineage, Myers (2010) explains that instructional communication research has focused on communicative behaviors that instructors use with their students to better understand and facilitate affective and…

  19. Sky Localization of Complete Inspiral-Merger-Ringdown Signals for Nonspinning Black Hole Binaries with LISA

    McWilliams, Sean T.; Lang, Ryan N.; Baker, John G.; Thorpe, James Ira

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the capability of LISA to measure the sky position of equal-mass, nonspinning black hole binaries, including for the first time the entire inspiral-merger-ringdown signal, the effect of the LISA orbits, and the complete three-channel LISA response. For an ensemble of systems near the peak of LISA's sensitivity band, with total rest mass of 2 x l0(exp 6) Stellar Mass at a redshift of z = 1 with random orientations and sky positions, we find median sky localization errors of approximately approx. 3 arcminutes. This is comparable to the field of view of powerful electromagnetic telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, that could be used to search for electromagnetic signals associated with merging black holes. We investigate the way in which parameter errors decrease with measurement time, focusing specifically on the additional information provided during the merger-ringdown segment of the signal. We find that this information improves all parameter estimates directly, rather than through diminishing correlations with any subset of well-determined parameters.

  20. Fundamentals of the LISA stable flight formation

    Dhurandhar, S V; Nayak, K Rajesh; Koshti, S; Vinet, J-Y

    2005-01-01

    The joint NASA-ESA mission, LISA, relies crucially on the stability of the three-spacecraft constellation. Each of the spacecraft is in heliocentric orbit forming a stable triangle. In this paper we explicitly show with the help of the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations that any configuration of spacecraft lying in the planes making angles of ±60 0 with the ecliptic and given suitable initial velocities within the plane, can be made stable in the sense that the inter-spacecraft distances remain constant to first order in the dimensions of the configuration compared with the distance to the Sun. Such analysis would be useful in order to carry out theoretical studies on the optical links, simulators, etc

  1. arXiv Probing non-Gaussian Stochastic Gravitational Wave Backgrounds with LISA

    Bartolo, Nicola; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Peloso, Marco; Pieroni, Mauro; Ricciardone, Angelo; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Sorbo, Lorenzo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    The stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB) contains a wealth of information on astrophysical and cosmological processes. A major challenge of upcoming years will be to extract the information contained in this background and to disentangle the contributions of different sources. In this paper we provide the formalism to extract, from the correlation of three signals in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), information about the tensor three-point function, which characterizes the non-Gaussian properties of the SGWB. Compared to the two-point function, the SGWB three-point function has a richer dependence on the gravitational wave momenta and chiralities, and a larger number of signal channels. It can be used therefore as a powerful discriminator between different models. We provide LISA's response functions to a general SGWB three-point function. As examples, we study in full detail the cases of an equilateral and squeezed SGWB bispectra, and provide the explicit form of the response functio...

  2. Rapid prototyping and evaluation of programmable SIMD SDR processors in LISA

    Chen, Ting; Liu, Hengzhu; Zhang, Botao; Liu, Dongpei

    2013-03-01

    With the development of international wireless communication standards, there is an increase in computational requirement for baseband signal processors. Time-to-market pressure makes it impossible to completely redesign new processors for the evolving standards. Due to its high flexibility and low power, software defined radio (SDR) digital signal processors have been proposed as promising technology to replace traditional ASIC and FPGA fashions. In addition, there are large numbers of parallel data processed in computation-intensive functions, which fosters the development of single instruction multiple data (SIMD) architecture in SDR platform. So a new way must be found to prototype the SDR processors efficiently. In this paper we present a bit-and-cycle accurate model of programmable SIMD SDR processors in a machine description language LISA. LISA is a language for instruction set architecture which can gain rapid model at architectural level. In order to evaluate the availability of our proposed processor, three common baseband functions, FFT, FIR digital filter and matrix multiplication have been mapped on the SDR platform. Analytical results showed that the SDR processor achieved the maximum of 47.1% performance boost relative to the opponent processor.

  3. Dual-Cylinder Laser Reference Cavities for LISA Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "Summary: The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is under consideration by NASA and ESA as a joint mission to study gravitational wave signals from a...

  4. Gravitational Reference Sensor Front-End Electronics Simulator for LISA

    Meshksar, Neda; Ferraioli, Luigi; Mance, Davor; Zweifel, Peter; Giardini, Domenico; Ten Pierick, Jan

    2017-01-01

    At the ETH Zurich we are developing a modular simulator that provides a realistic simulation of the Front End Electronics (FEE) for LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor (GRS). It is based on the GRS FEE-simulator already implemented for LISA Pathfinder. It considers, in particular, the non-linearity and the critical details of hardware, such as the non-linear multiplicative noise caused by voltage reference instability, test mass charging and detailed actuation and sensing algorithms. We present the simulation modules, considering the above-mentioned features. Based on the ETH GRS FEE-simulator for LISA Pathfinder we aim to develop a modular simulator that provides a realistic simulation of GRS FEE for LISA. (paper)

  5. Defining genes using "blueprint" versus "instruction" metaphors: effects for genetic determinism, response efficacy, and perceived control.

    Parrott, Roxanne; Smith, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Evidence supports mixed attributions aligned with personal and/or clinical control and gene expression for health in this era of genomic science and health care. We consider variance in these attributions and possible relationships to individual mind sets associated with essentialist beliefs that genes determine health versus threat beliefs that genes increase susceptibility for disease and severity linked to gene-environment interactions. Further, we contribute to theory and empirical research to evaluate the use of metaphors to define genes. Participants (N = 324) read a message that varied the introduction by providing a definition of genes that used either an "instruction" metaphor or a "blueprint" metaphor. The "instruction" metaphor compared to the "blueprint" metaphor promoted stronger threat perceptions, which aligned with both belief in the response efficacy of genetic research for health and perceived behavioral control linked to genes and health. The "blueprint" metaphor compared to the "instruction" metaphor promoted stronger essentialist beliefs, which aligned with more intense positive regard for the efficacy of genetic research and human health. Implications for health communicators include societal effects aligned with stigma and discrimination that such findings portend.

  6. Instruction in the responsible conduct of research: an inventory of programs and materials within CTSAs.

    DuBois, James M; Schilling, Debie A; Heitman, Elizabeth; Steneck, Nicholas H; Kon, Alexander A

    2010-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) require instruction in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as a component of any Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). The Educational Materials Group of the NIH CTSA Consortium's Clinical Research Ethics Key Function Committee (CRE-KFC) conducted a survey of the 38 institutions that held CTSA funding as of January 2009 to determine how they satisfy RCR training requirements. An 8-item questionnaire was sent by email to directors of the Clinical Research Ethics, the Educational and Career Development, and the Regulatory Knowledge cores. We received 78 completed surveys from 38 CTSAs (100%). We found that there is no unified approach to RCR training across CTSAs, many programs lack a coherent plan for RCR instruction, and most CTSAs have not developed unique instructional materials tailored to the needs of clinical and translational scientists. We recommend collaboration among CTSAs and across CTSA key function committees to address these weaknesses. We also requested that institutions send electronic copies of original RCR training materials to share among CTSAs via the CTSpedia website. Twenty institutions submitted at least one educational product. The CTSpedia now contains more than 90 RCR resources.

  7. LISA and its in-flight test precursor SMART-2

    Vitale, S.; Bender, P.; Brillet, A.; Buchman, S.; Cavalleri, A.; Cerdonio, M.; Cruise, M.; Cutler, C.; Danzmann, K.; Dolesi, R.; Folkner, W.; Gianolio, A.; Jafry, Y.; Hasinger, G.; Heinzel, G.; Hogan, C.; Hueller, M.; Hough, J.; Phinney, S.; Prince, T.; Richstone, D.; Robertson, D.; Rodrigues, M.; Ruediger, A.; Sandford, M.; Schilling, R.; Shoemaker, D.; Schutz, B.; Stebbins, R.; Stubbs, C.; Sumner, T.; Thorne, K.; Tinto, M.; Touboul, P.; Ward, H.; Weber, W.; Winkler, W.

    2002-01-01

    LISA will be the first space-home gravitational wave observatory. It aims to detect gravitational waves in the 0.1 mHz/1 Hz range from sources including galactic binaries, super-massive black-hole binaries, capture of objects by super-massive black-holes and stochastic background. LISA is an ESA approved Cornerstone Mission foreseen as a joint ESA-NASA endeavour to be launched in 2010-11. The principle of operation of LISA is based on laser ranging of test-masses under pure geodesic motion. Achieving pure geodesic motion at the level requested for LISA, 3x10 -15 ms -2 /√Hz at 0.1 mHz, is considered a challenging technological objective. To reduce the risk, both ESA and NASA are pursuing an in-flight test of the relevant technology. The goal of the test is to demonstrate geodetic motion within one order of magnitude from the LISA performance. ESA has given this test as the primary goal of its technology dedicated mission SMART-2 with a launch in 2006. This paper describes the basics of LISA, its key technologies, and its in-flight precursor test on SMART-2

  8. A UV LED-based Charge Management System for LISA

    Conklin, John W.; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo Janet; Apple, Stephen; Parry, Samantha; Ciani, Giacomo; Wass, Peter; Mueller, Guido

    2018-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be the first space instrument to observe gravitational waves in the millihertz frequency band. LISA consists of three Sun-orbiting spacecraft that form an equilateral triangle, with each side measuring 2.5 million kilometers in length. Each spacecraft houses two free-floating test masses, which are protected from all disturbing forces so that they follow pure geodesics in spacetime. A drag-free control system commands micronewton thrusters to force the spacecraft to fly in formation with the test masses and laser interferometers measure the minute variations in the distance, or light travel time, between these free-falling test masses caused by gravitational waves. The LISA observatory, with a planned launch in the early 2030s, is led by the European Space Agency with significant contributions from NASA. Recently, NASA has initiated strategic investments in key LISA technologies that will likely become U.S. flight hardware contributions to this ground-breaking mission. One of these payload elements is the Charge Management System (CMS), which controls the electric potential of the test masses relative to their housings to reduce spurious force noise acting on the test masses to below the required level. This talk, presented by University of Florida team that leads the CMS development, will describe this vital U.S. contribution to the LISA mission in the context of the envisioned LISA payload architecture and its in-flight sensitivity to gravitational waves.

  9. Response to Instruction in Preschool: Results of Two Randomized Studies with Children At Significant Risk of Reading Difficulties

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.

    2015-01-01

    Although response-to-instruction (RTI) approaches have received increased attention, few studies have evaluated the potential impacts of RTI approaches with preschool populations. This manuscript presents results of two studies examining impacts of Tier II instruction with preschool children. Participating children were identified as substantially delayed in the acquisition of early literacy skills despite exposure to high-quality, evidence-based classroom instruction. Study 1 included 93 children (M age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.62) attending 12 Title I preschools. Study 2 included 184 children (M age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.38) attending 19 Title I preschools. The majority of children were Black/African American, and about 60% were male. In both studies, eligible children were randomized to receive either 11 weeks of need-aligned, small-group instruction or just Tier I. Tier II instruction in Study 1 included variations of activities for code- and language-focused domains with prior evidence of efficacy in non-RTI contexts. Tier II instruction in Study 2 included instructional activities narrower in scope, more intensive, and delivered to smaller groups of children. Impacts of Tier II instruction in Study 1 were minimal; however, there were significant and moderate-to-large impacts in Study 2. These results identify effective Tier II instruction but indicate that the context in which children are identified may alter the nature of Tier II instruction that is required. Children identified as eligible for Tier II in an RTI framework likely require more intensive and more narrowly focused instruction than do children at general risk of later academic difficulties. PMID:26869730

  10. Distinguishing Between Formation Channels for Binary Black Holes with LISA

    Breivik, Katelyn; Rodriguez, Carl L.; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2017-01-01

    The recent detections of GW150914 and GW151226 imply an abundance of stellar-mass binary-black-hole mergers in the local universe. While ground-based gravitational-wave detectors are limited to observing the final moments before a binary merges, space-based detectors, such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), can observe binaries at lower orbital frequencies where such systems may still encode information about their formation histories. In particular, the orbital eccentricity and mass of binary black holes in the LISA frequency band can be used together to discriminate between binaries formed in isolation in galactic fields and those formed in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters. In this letter, we explore the orbital eccentricity and mass of binary-black-hole populations as they evolve through the LISA frequency band. Overall we find that there are two distinct populations discernible by LISA. We show that up to ~90% of binaries formed either dynamically or in isolation have eccentricities measurable by LISA. Finally, we note how measured eccentricities of low-mass binary black holes evolved in isolation could provide detailed constraints on the physics of black-hole natal kicks and common-envelope evolution.

  11. LISA Pathfinder: hardware tests and their input to the mission

    Audley, Heather

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint ESA-NASA mission for the first space-borne gravitational wave detector. LISA aims to detect sources in the 0.1mHz to 1Hz range, which include supermassive black holes and galactic binary stars. Core technologies required for the LISA mission, including drag-free test mass control, picometre interferometry and micro-Newton thrusters, cannot be tested on-ground. Therefore, a precursor satellite, LISA Pathfinder, has been developed as a technology demonstration mission. The preparations for the LISA Pathfinder mission have reached an exciting stage. Tests of the engineering model of the optical metrology system have recently been completed at the Albert Einstein Institute, Hannover, and flight model tests are now underway. Significantly, they represent the first complete integration and testing of the space-qualified hardware and are the first tests on system level. The results and test procedures of these campaigns will be utilised directly in the ground-based flight hardware tests, and subsequently within in-flight operations. In addition, they allow valuable testing of the data analysis methods using the MatLab based LTP data analysis toolbox. This contribution presents an overview of the test campaigns calibration, control and perfor-mance results, focusing on the implications for the Experimental Master Plan which provides the basis for the in-flight operations and procedures.

  12. Accreting Double White Dwarf Binaries: Implications for LISA

    Kremer, Kyle; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki, E-mail: kremer@u.northwestern.edu, E-mail: katelyn.breivik@northwestern.edu, E-mail: vicky@northwestern.edu, E-mail: s.larson@northwestern.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60201 (United States)

    2017-09-10

    We explore the long-term evolution of mass-transferring white dwarf (WD) binaries undergoing both direct-impact and disk accretion and explore implications of such systems to gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. We cover a broad range of initial component masses and show that these systems, the majority of which lie within the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna ( LISA ) sensitivity range, exhibit prominent negative orbital frequency evolution (chirp) for a significant fraction of their lifetimes. Using a galactic population synthesis, we predict ∼2700 of these systems will be observable with a negative chirp of 0.1 yr{sup −2} by a space-based GW detector like LISA . We also show that detections of mass-transferring double WD systems by LISA may provide astronomers with unique ways of probing the physics governing close compact object binaries.

  13. Accreting Double White Dwarf Binaries: Implications for LISA

    Kremer, Kyle; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2017-09-01

    We explore the long-term evolution of mass-transferring white dwarf (WD) binaries undergoing both direct-impact and disk accretion and explore implications of such systems to gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. We cover a broad range of initial component masses and show that these systems, the majority of which lie within the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) sensitivity range, exhibit prominent negative orbital frequency evolution (chirp) for a significant fraction of their lifetimes. Using a galactic population synthesis, we predict ˜2700 of these systems will be observable with a negative chirp of 0.1 yr-2 by a space-based GW detector like LISA. We also show that detections of mass-transferring double WD systems by LISA may provide astronomers with unique ways of probing the physics governing close compact object binaries.

  14. Bayesian statistics for the calibration of the LISA Pathfinder experiment

    Armano, M; Freschi, M; Audley, H; Born, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Auger, G; Binetruy, P; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Fitzsimons, E; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Dolesi, R; Ferroni, V; Cruise, M; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission is to estimate the acceleration noise models of the overall LISA Technology Package (LTP) experiment on-board. This will be of crucial importance for the future space-based Gravitational-Wave (GW) detectors, like eLISA. Here, we present the Bayesian analysis framework to process the planned system identification experiments designed for that purpose. In particular, we focus on the analysis strategies to predict the accuracy of the parameters that describe the system in all degrees of freedom. The data sets were generated during the latest operational simulations organised by the data analysis team and this work is part of the LTPDA Matlab toolbox. (paper)

  15. Accreting Double White Dwarf Binaries: Implications for LISA

    Kremer, Kyle; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    We explore the long-term evolution of mass-transferring white dwarf (WD) binaries undergoing both direct-impact and disk accretion and explore implications of such systems to gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. We cover a broad range of initial component masses and show that these systems, the majority of which lie within the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna ( LISA ) sensitivity range, exhibit prominent negative orbital frequency evolution (chirp) for a significant fraction of their lifetimes. Using a galactic population synthesis, we predict ∼2700 of these systems will be observable with a negative chirp of 0.1 yr −2 by a space-based GW detector like LISA . We also show that detections of mass-transferring double WD systems by LISA may provide astronomers with unique ways of probing the physics governing close compact object binaries.

  16. LISA package user guide. Part II: LISA (Long Term Isolation Safety Assessment) program description and user guide

    Prado, P.; Saltelli, A.; Homma, T.

    1992-01-01

    This manual is subdivided into three parts. In this second part, this document describes the LISA (Long term Isolation Safety Assessment) Code and its submodels. LISA is a tool for analysis of the safety of an underground disposal of nuclear waste. It has the capability to handle nuclide chain of arbitrary length and to evaluate the migration of nuclide through a geosphere medium composed of an arbitrary number of segments. LISA makes use of Monte Carlo methodology to evaluate the uncertainty in the quantity being assessed (eg dose) arising from the uncertainty in the model input parameters. In the present version LISA is equipped with a very simple source term submodel, a relatively complex geosphere and a simplified biosphere. The code is closely associated with its statistical pre-processor code (PREP), which generates the input Monte Carlo sample from the assigned parameter probability density functions and with its post-processor code (SPOP) which provides useful statistics on the output sample (uncertainty and sensitivity analysis). This report describes the general structure of LISA, its subroutines and submodels, the code input ant output files. It is intended to provide the user with enough information to know and run the code as well as the capacity to incorporate different submodels. 15 refs., 6 figs

  17. The Breadboard model of the LISA telescope assembly

    Lucarelli, S.; Scheulen, D.; Kemper, D.; Sippel, R.; Verlaan, A.; Hogenhuis, H.; Ende, D.

    2017-11-01

    The primary goal of the LISA mission is the detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources in a frequency range of 10-4 to 1 Hz. This requires operational stabilities in the picometer range as well as highly predictable mechanical distortions upon cooling down, outgassing in space, and gravity release. In March 2011 ESA announced a new way forward for the Lclass candidate missions, including LISA. ESA and the scientific community are now studying options for European-only missions that offer a significant reduction of the costs, while maintaining their core science objectives. In this context LISA has become the New Gravitational wave Observatory (NGO). Despite this reformulation, the need for dimensional stability in the picometer range remains valid, and ESA have continued the corresponding LISA Technology Development Activities (TDA's) also in view of NGO. In such frame Astrium GmbH and xperion (Friedrichshafen, Germany) have designed and manufactured an ultra-stable CFRP breadboard of the LISA telescope in order to experimentally demonstrate that the structure and the M1 & M2 mirror mounts are fulfilling the LISA requirements in the mission operational thermal environment. Suitable techniques to mount the telescope mirrors and to support the M1 & M2 mirrors have been developed, with the aim of measuring a system CTE of less than 10-7 K-1 during cooling down to -80°C. Additionally to the stringent mass and stiffness specifications, the required offset design makes the control of relative tilts and lateral displacements between the M1 and M2 mirrors particularly demanding. The thermo-elastic performance of the telescope assembly is going to be experimentally verified by TNO (Delft, The Netherlands) starting from the second half of 2012. This paper addresses challenges faced in the design phase, shows the resulting hardware and present first outcomes of the test campaign performed at TNO.

  18. A Nordic comparison of national objectives for reading instruction and teachers' responses about actual reading practice

    Rønberg, Louise; Mejding, Jan

    2014-01-01

    and functional goals in Finland. It appears that the Finnish descriptions are more aligned with current empirical research on reading comprehension. Swedish and Norwegian teachers have the most varied used of both literary and informational text types during a week, whereas Finnish teachers give informational...... texts a higher priority than literary texts – and the opposite is apparent for Danish teachers. The Finnish and Norwegian teachers prioritise activities that enhance students’ oral reading fluency, which is important for reading comprehension development, to a greater extent than teachers in Denmark......This article presents a comparison of the Nordic countries’ official objectives for reading and analyses of 1005 Nordic teachers’ responses regarding their reading instruction. The specificity and transparency vary greatly in the objectives, from broad outlines in Norway to more specific...

  19. Inference on inspiral signals using LISA MLDC data

    Roever, Christian; Stroeer, Alexander; Bloomer, Ed; Christensen, Nelson; Clark, James; Hendry, Martin; Messenger, Chris; Meyer, Renate; Pitkin, Matt; Toher, Jennifer; Umstaetter, Richard; Vecchio, Alberto; Veitch, John; Woan, Graham

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a Bayesian inference framework for the analysis of data obtained by LISA. We set up a model for binary inspiral signals as defined for the Mock LISA Data Challenge 1.2 (MLDC), and implemented a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to facilitate exploration and integration of the posterior distribution over the nine-dimensional parameter space. Here, we present intermediate results showing how, using this method, information about the nine parameters can be extracted from the data

  20. LISA Pathfinder: Optical Metrology System monitoring during operations

    Audley, Heather E.; LISA Pathfinder Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    The LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission has demonstrated excellent performance. In addition to having surpassed the main mission goals, data has been collected from the various subsystems throughout the duration of the mission. This data is a valuable resource, both for a more complete understanding of the LPF satellite and the differential acceleration measurements, as well as for the design of the future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. Initial analysis of the Optical Metrology System (OMS) data was performed as part of daily system monitoring, and more in-depth analyses are ongoing. This contribution presents an overview of these activities along with an introduction to the OMS.

  1. E. Yiannopoulou on Lisa Blackman’s The Body.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackman, Lisa. The Body. Oxford and New York: Berg, 2008. 160 pp. “Is there anything natural about the human body?” (1. This is how Lisa Blackman begins her all too daunting task of reviewing and critically evaluating what has come to be known as “body theory” in the field of sociology. Carefully picking her way among numerous theories on the corporeal that have been produced across the humanities in the last twenty years, Blackman lays out her problematic from the start by asking to know w...

  2. The Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT): the dimensionality of student perceptions of the instructional environment.

    Nelson, Peter M; Demers, Joseph A; Christ, Theodore J

    2014-06-01

    This study details the initial development of the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teachers (REACT). REACT was developed as a questionnaire to evaluate student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment. Researchers engaged in an iterative process to develop, field test, and analyze student responses on 100 rating-scale items. Participants included 1,465 middle school students across 48 classrooms in the Midwest. Item analysis, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, was used to refine a 27-item scale with a second-order factor structure. Results support the interpretation of a single general dimension of the Classroom Teaching Environment with 6 subscale dimensions: Positive Reinforcement, Instructional Presentation, Goal Setting, Differentiated Instruction, Formative Feedback, and Instructional Enjoyment. Applications of REACT in research and practice are discussed along with implications for future research and the development of classroom environment measures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. 240 nm UV LEDs for LISA test mass charge control

    Olatunde, Taiwo; Shelley, Ryan; Chilton, Andrew; Serra, Paul; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2015-05-01

    Test Masses inside the LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor must maintain almost pure geodesic motion for gravitational waves to be successfully detected. LISA requires residual test mass accelerations below 3 fm/s2/√Hz at all frequencies between 0.1 and 3 mHz. One of the well-known noise sources is associated with the charges on the test masses which couple to stray electrical potentials and external electromagnetic fields. LISA Pathfinder will use Hg-discharge lamps emitting mostly around 254 nm to discharge the test masses via photoemission in its 2015/16 flight. A future LISA mission launched around 2030 will likely replace the lamps with newer UV-LEDs. Presented here is a preliminary study of the effectiveness of charge control using latest generation UV-LEDs which produce light at 240 nm with energy above the work function of pure Au. Their lower mass, better power efficiency and small size make them an ideal replacement for Hg lamps.

  4. 240 nm UV LEDs for LISA test mass charge control

    Olatunde, Taiwo; Shelley, Ryan; Chilton, Andrew; Serra, Paul; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2015-01-01

    Test Masses inside the LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor must maintain almost pure geodesic motion for gravitational waves to be successfully detected. LISA requires residual test mass accelerations below 3 fm/s 2 /√Hz at all frequencies between 0.1 and 3 mHz. One of the well-known noise sources is associated with the charges on the test masses which couple to stray electrical potentials and external electromagnetic fields. LISA Pathfinder will use Hg-discharge lamps emitting mostly around 254 nm to discharge the test masses via photoemission in its 2015/16 flight. A future LISA mission launched around 2030 will likely replace the lamps with newer UV-LEDs. Presented here is a preliminary study of the effectiveness of charge control using latest generation UV-LEDs which produce light at 240 nm with energy above the work function of pure Au. Their lower mass, better power efficiency and small size make them an ideal replacement for Hg lamps. (paper)

  5. Multi-Messenger Astronomy: White Dwarf Binaries, LISA and GAIA

    Bueno, Michael; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves has ushered in a new era in astronomy. The low-frequency band covered by the future LISA detector provides unprecedented opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy. With the Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics (GAIA) mission, we expect to discover about 1,000 eclipsing binary systems composed of a WD and a main sequence star - a sizeable increase from the approximately 34 currently known binaries of this type. In advance of the first GAIA data release and the launch of LISA within the next decade, we used the Binary Stellar Evolution (BSE) code simulate the evolution of White Dwarf Binaries (WDB) in a fixed galaxy population of about 196,000 sources. Our goal is to assess the detectability of a WDB by LISA and GAIA using the parameters from our population synthesis, we calculate GW strength h, and apparent GAIA magnitude G. We can then use a scale factor to make a prediction of how many multi- messenger sources we expect to be detectable by both LISA and GAIA in a galaxy the size of the Milky Way. We create binaries 10 times to ensure randomness in distance assignment and average our results. We then determined whether or not astronomical chirp is the difference between the total chirp and the GW chirp. With Astronomical chirp and simulations of mass transfer and tides, we can gather more information about the internal astrophysics of stars in ultra-compact binary systems.

  6. Professor Lisa Aranson on JA Green (a pioonier artist photographer ...

    Jonathan Adagogo Green's photographic and artistic contributions working in his countryside, the Niger Delta of Nigeria is reviewed by Professor Lisa Aranson. Aranson in a public lecture presentation on the stand-point of art history thinks of J.A. Green as having operated in two worlds of which he is said to have initiated in ...

  7. 77 FR 56647 - Lisa Jean Sharp: Debarment Order

    2012-09-13

    ... Act (the FD&C Act) permanently debarring Lisa Jean Sharp from providing services in any capacity to a...&C Act. Ms. Sharp was given notice of the proposed permanent debarment and an opportunity to request... drug product under the FD&C Act. The factual basis for this conviction is as follows: Ms. Sharp was the...

  8. Sensitivity and parameter-estimation precision for alternate LISA configurations

    Vallisneri, Michele; Crowder, Jeff; Tinto, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    We describe a simple framework to assess the LISA scientific performance (more specifically, its sensitivity and expected parameter-estimation precision for prescribed gravitational-wave signals) under the assumption of failure of one or two inter-spacecraft laser measurements (links) and of one to four intra-spacecraft laser measurements. We apply the framework to the simple case of measuring the LISA sensitivity to monochromatic circular binaries, and the LISA parameter-estimation precision for the gravitational-wave polarization angle of these systems. Compared to the six-link baseline configuration, the five-link case is characterized by a small loss in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the high-frequency section of the LISA band; the four-link case shows a reduction by a factor of √2 at low frequencies, and by up to ∼2 at high frequencies. The uncertainty in the estimate of polarization, as computed in the Fisher-matrix formalism, also worsens when moving from six to five, and then to four links: this can be explained by the reduced SNR available in those configurations (except for observations shorter than three months, where five and six links do better than four even with the same SNR). In addition, we prove (for generic signals) that the SNR and Fisher matrix are invariant with respect to the choice of a basis of TDI observables; rather, they depend only on which inter-spacecraft and intra-spacecraft measurements are available

  9. GRS vs. OMS Calibration in LISA Pathfinder Data Analysis

    Meshksar, Neda; Ferraioli, Luigi; Mance, Davor; Zweifel, Peter; Giardini, Domenico; Ten Pierick, Jan

    2017-01-01

    On board LISA Pathfinder spacecraft the test mass displacement along the main measurement axis is sensed in two different ways: optically and electrostatically. We have monitored the relative calibration between the two measurements during the mission science phase. The trend sensitivity of the relative calibration has been computed for different physical parameters, such as temperature, magnetic field, test mass bias voltage and current. (paper)

  10. LISA data analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods

    Cornish, Neil J.; Crowder, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to simultaneously detect many thousands of low-frequency gravitational wave signals. This presents a data analysis challenge that is very different to the one encountered in ground based gravitational wave astronomy. LISA data analysis requires the identification of individual signals from a data stream containing an unknown number of overlapping signals. Because of the signal overlaps, a global fit to all the signals has to be performed in order to avoid biasing the solution. However, performing such a global fit requires the exploration of an enormous parameter space with a dimension upwards of 50 000. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods offer a very promising solution to the LISA data analysis problem. MCMC algorithms are able to efficiently explore large parameter spaces, simultaneously providing parameter estimates, error analysis, and even model selection. Here we present the first application of MCMC methods to simulated LISA data and demonstrate the great potential of the MCMC approach. Our implementation uses a generalized F-statistic to evaluate the likelihoods, and simulated annealing to speed convergence of the Markov chains. As a final step we supercool the chains to extract maximum likelihood estimates, and estimates of the Bayes factors for competing models. We find that the MCMC approach is able to correctly identify the number of signals present, extract the source parameters, and return error estimates consistent with Fisher information matrix predictions

  11. GRS vs. OMS Calibration in LISA Pathfinder Data Analysis

    Meshksar, Neda; Ferraioli, Luigi; Mance, Davor; ten Pierick, Jan; Zweifel, Peter; Giardini, Domenico; ">LISA Pathfinder colaboration, LISA Pathfinder spacecraft the test mass displacement along the main measurement axis is sensed in two different ways: optically and electrostatically. We have monitored the relative calibration between the two measurements during the mission science phase. The trend sensitivity of the relative calibration has been computed for different physical parameters, such as temperature, magnetic field, test mass bias voltage and current.

  12. FORUM: Instructional Communication and Millennial Students: The Power of Language: A Constitutive Response to Millennial Student Research

    Rudick, Kyle C.; Ellison, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In response to the articles in this forum, the authors write that they were struck by the way most of the authors assumed that generations are stable entities characterized by readily identifiable factors, such as age, attitudes or circumstances. Following a constitutive philosophy of communication and instruction (Fassett & Warren, 2007;…

  13. Social Skills Instruction for Urban Learners with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Culturally Responsive and Computer-Based Intervention

    Robinson-Ervin, Porsha; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.; Keyes, Starr E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of culturally relevant/responsive, computer-based social skills instruction on the social skill acquisition and generalization of 6 urban African American sixth graders with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A multiple-probe across participants design was used to evaluate the effects of the social skills…

  14. Provocation to Learn - A Study in the Use of Personal Response Systems in Information Literacy Instruction

    Maura Alicia Matesic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of Personal Response Systems (PRS or “clickers” in universityclassrooms has opened an avenue for new forms of communication betweeninstructors and students in large-enrolment classes. Because it allows instructorsto pose questions and receive tabulated responses from students in real-time,proponents of this technology herald it as an innovative means for encouraginghigher levels of participation, fostering student engagement, and streamlining theassessment process. Having already been experimentally deployed acrossdisciplines ranging from business to the arts and sciences, it is also beginning tobe used in the context of information literacy instruction. In this project weemployed the technology not to transfer actual skills, but to advertise theexistence of online library guides, promote the use of the library within thecontext of the course itself, and “provoke” students to adopt a more activeapproach to research as a recursive process. Our findings suggest that studentsadapt easily to the use of this technology and feel democratically empowered torespond to their instructors in a variety of ways that include anonymous clickerresponses as well as more traditional means such as the raising of hands andposing questions verbally. The particular value of this study was to show thatthese broader findings seem equally applicable to pedagogical settings in whichlearning objectives are built around and integrated with the principles ofinformation literacy.

  15. The Engineering of LISA Pathfinder – the quietest Laboratory ever flown in Space

    Trenkel, Christian; Wealthy, Dave; Dunbar, Neil; Warren, Carl; Schleicher, Alexander; Ziegler, Tobias; Brandt, Nico; Gerndt, Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    We review the engineering approach adopted to ensure the required gravitational, magnetic, thermal and residual acceleration stability on-board LISA Pathfinder, and present the in-flight results that have been achieved. Arguably, this stability makes LISA Pathfinder the quietest laboratory ever flown in space. The implications for LISA are also discussed. (paper)

  16. Responsive Guided Reading in Grades K-5: Simplifying Small-Group Instruction

    Berne, Jennifer; Degener, Sophie C.

    2010-01-01

    Guided reading is a staple of elementary literacy instruction, yet planning and conducting reading groups can be time consuming and challenging. This hands-on book presents an innovative approach to guided reading that is manageable even for teachers who are new to small-group, differentiated reading instruction. Numerous classroom examples…

  17. The LISA zero-signal solution

    Tinto, Massimo; Larson, Shane L

    2005-01-01

    We derive a time-delay interferometric (TDI) combination that has zero-response to a gravitational wave signal. This combination, which we have called the zero-signal solution, is a two-parameter family of linear combinations of the generators of the TDI space that has null gravitational wave response when its two parameters coincide with the values of the angles of the source location in the sky. Remarkably, the zero-signal solution does not rely on any assumptions about the gravitational waveform, and in fact it works for waveforms of any kind

  18. Programme [11. international LISA symposium, Zurich (Switzerland), 5-9 September 2016

    2017-01-01

    Monday, 5th of September 2016 Chair: M. Colpi S. Vitale The LTP experiment on LISA Pathfinder and its first results K. Dooley Advanced LIGO: news from the dark universe B. Schutz LIGOs Black Holes and Science in the LISA Era P. McNamara LISA Pathfinder: First steps to observing gravitational waves from space M. Hewitson In-flight Performance of the Optical Metrology System on LISA Pathfinder W. Weber Physical model of the LISA Pathfinder differential acceleration measurement and its application to LISA K. Danzmann The Status of LISA Chair: O. Jennrich J. Martino On-flight characterization of Coldgas micro-Newton thrusters for Lisa Pathfinder M. Nofrarias Magnetic force noise in LISA Pathfinder L. Ferraioli The LISA Pathfinder GRS Front-End Electronics D. Vetrugno The Δ g workflow: from measured displacements to the differential external acceleration. A. Wittchen Coupling of relative intensity noise and pathlength noise to the length measurement in the optical metrology system of LISA Pathfinder S. Paczkowski Laser frequency stabilisation and interferometer path length differences on LISA Pathfinder R. Giusteri The free-fall mode experiment on LISA Pathfinder: first results P. Wass Electrostatic test-mass force-noise disturbances as measured by LISA Pathfinder R. Dolesi The contribution of Brownian noise from viscous gas damping to the differential acceleration noise measured in LISA Pathfinder between two nominally free falling test masses C. Trenkel The engineering of LISA Pathfinder – the quietest laboratory ever flown in space W. Klipstein LISA-derived Flight Phasemeter on the GRACE Follow-On Mission P. Laufer MEMS Ion Thruster Chips to Significantly Enhance Cold Gas Thruster Lifetime for LISA M. Tinto Enhanced Gravitational Wave Science with LISA and gLISA Tuesday, 6th of September 2016 Chair: P. McNamara F. Ricci Advanced VIRGO: State of the Art C. Belczynski Evolutionary predictions in the advanced LIGO/Virgo era A. Sesana The promise of multi

  19. Description of charging/discharging processes of the LISA sensors

    Sumner, Tim; Araujo, Henrique; Davidge, David; Howard, Alex; Lee, Chris; Rochester, Geoff; Shaul, Diana; Wass, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The next generation of gravitational experiments in space is likely to use completely isolated proof-masses. For example, LISA uses proof-masses as mirrors in interferometers for gravitational wave astronomy (Bender et al 1998 Pre-phase A report MPG-233 pp 1-191) and STEP uses proof-masses in Earth orbit for an equivalence principle test (Sumner et al 2003 at press). Nongravitational forces will act on these proof-masses if they become charged, through the action of cosmic rays and solar flare particles for example. This paper examines the consequences of proof-mass charging for LISA, and presents results from using GEANT4 to assess the charging processes. Finally, there is a brief discussion of a means of controlling the charge down to an acceptable level

  20. LISA Sources in Milky Way Globular Clusters.

    Kremer, Kyle; Chatterjee, Sourav; Breivik, Katelyn; Rodriguez, Carl L; Larson, Shane L; Rasio, Frederic A

    2018-05-11

    We explore the formation of double-compact-object binaries in Milky Way (MW) globular clusters (GCs) that may be detectable by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). We use a set of 137 fully evolved GC models that, overall, effectively match the properties of the observed GCs in the MW. We estimate that, in total, the MW GCs contain ∼21 sources that will be detectable by LISA. These detectable sources contain all combinations of black hole (BH), neutron star, and white dwarf components. We predict ∼7 of these sources will be BH-BH binaries. Furthermore, we show that some of these BH-BH binaries can have signal-to-noise ratios large enough to be detectable at the distance of the Andromeda galaxy or even the Virgo cluster.

  1. The first mock data challenge for LISA Pathfinder

    Monsky, A; Hewitson, M; Wanner, G; Nofrarias, M; Diepholz, I; Danzmann, K [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik und Universitaet Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Ferraioli, L; Hueller, M; Cavalleri, A; Ciani, G; Dolesi, R [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Grynagier, A [Institut fuer Flugmechanik und Flugregelung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Armano, M [European Space Agency, ESAC, Villanueva de la Canada, 28692 Madrid (Spain); Benedetti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e Tecnologie Industriali, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Bogenstahl, J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bortoluzzi, D; Bosetti, P; Cristofolini, I [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Strutturale, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Brandt, N [Astrium GmbH, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Cruise, M, E-mail: anneke.monsky@aei.mpg.d [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-07

    The data analysis of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) will comprise a series of discrete experiments, each focusing on a particular noise measurement or characterization of the instrument in various operating modes. Each of these experiments must be analysed and planned in advance of the mission because the results of a given experiment will have an impact on those that follow. As such, a series of mock data challenges (MDCs) will be developed and carried out with the aim of preparing the analysis tools and optimizing the various planned analyses. The first of these MDCs (MDC1) is a simplified treatment of the dynamics along the axis joining the two test masses onboard LISA Pathfinder. The validation of the dynamical model by predicting the spectra of the interferometer output data is shown, a prediction for the data analysis is calculated and, finally, several simulated interferometer data sets are analysed and calibrated to equivalent out-of-loop test mass acceleration.

  2. Alternative opto-mechanical architectures for the LISA instrument

    Weise, Dennis R; Marenaci, Pierangelo; Weimer, Peter; Schulte, Hans Reiner; Gath, Peter; Johann, Ulrich, E-mail: dennis.weise@astrium.eads.ne [EADS Astrium GmbH, Claude-Dornier-Str., 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    As part of the on-going LISA Mission Formulation study under ESA contract, EADS Astrium has recently suggested and investigated a variety of novel LISA payload architectures utilizing so-called 'In-Field Pointing' for accommodation of seasonal constellation dynamics. Here, the annual variation in the angle between the interferometer arms of roughly +-1 deg. is compensated by steering the lines of sight of the individual telescopes with a small actuated mirror located in an intermediate pupil plane inside the telescopes. This introduces a certain flexibility for the overall payload configuration and allows for very compact designs. In particular, it enables a 'single active proof mass' mode with a true cold redundancy between a nominal and a backup GRS system on board each spacecraft, and thus enhances mission robustness.

  3. Recent progress at NASA in LISA formulation and technology development

    Stebbins, R T

    2008-01-01

    Over the last year, the NASA half of the joint LISA project has focused its efforts on responding to a major review, and advancing the formulation and technology development of the mission. The NAS/NRC Beyond Einstein program assessment review will be described, including the outcome. The basis of the LISA science requirements has changed from detection determined by integrated signal-to-noise ratio to observation determined by uncertainty in the estimation of astrophysical source parameters. The NASA team has further defined the spacecraft bus design, participated in many design trade studies and advanced the requirements flow down and the associated current best estimates of performance. Recent progress in technology development is also summarized

  4. Report on the second Mock LISA data challenge

    Babak, Stanislav; Porter, Edward K; Baker, John G; Benacquista, Matthew J; Cornish, Neil J; Littenberg, Tyson B; Crowder, Jeff; Cutler, Curt; Vallisneri, Michele; Larson, Shane L; Vecchio, Alberto; Auger, Gerard; Barack, Leor; Blaut, Arkadiusz; Bloomer, Ed; Clark, James; Brown, Duncan A; Fairhurst, Stephen; Christensen, Nelson; Gair, Jonathan R

    2008-01-01

    The Mock LISA data challenges are a program to demonstrate LISA data-analysis capabilities and to encourage their development. Each round of challenges consists of several data sets containing simulated instrument noise and gravitational waves from sources of undisclosed parameters. Participants are asked to analyze the data sets and report the maximum information about the source parameters. The challenges are being released in rounds of increasing complexity and realism: here we present the results of Challenge 2, issued in Jan 2007, which successfully demonstrated the recovery of signals from nonspinning supermassive-black-hole binaries with optimal SNRs between ∼10 and 2000, from ∼20 000 overlapping galactic white-dwarf binaries (among a realistically distributed population of 26 million), and from the extreme-mass-ratio inspirals of compact objects into central galactic black holes with optimal SNRs ∼100

  5. The Effectiveness of Library Instruction: Do Student Response Systems (Clickers Enhance Learning?

    Katherine McGuire

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we were interested in determining if library instruction would be more effective if personal response systems (clickers were used during instruction. Furthermore we were interested in examining if students in a class could benefit from clicker technology even if they did not have access to a personal clicker. To examine these issues, we conducted 3 library instruction sessions: Session 1-half of the students were randomly assigned a clicker; Session 2-all students had individual clickers; and Session 3-clickers were not used. Although half of the students in Session 1 did not have clickers, they were presented with all of the information, were aware of the clicker questions, and were presented with the graphs of responses. Students in all 3 sessions completed a pretest and posttest and difference scores were calculated such that positive numbers indicated higher scores. Overall, scores were significantly higher for students who had access to clickers. A comparison of specific clicker use showed that both the individual and group clicker sessions led to significantly higher difference scores. Results indicated that the benefits of clickers are not limited to individual access and group clicker use was as effective. Overall, these results confirm research supporting the integration of technology into classroom instruction.Dans cette étude, nous avons cherché à déterminer si la formation en recherche documentaire était plus efficace lorsqu’on utilisait des systèmes de réponse personnelle (télévoteur. De plus, nous voulions savoir si les étudiants en classe profiteraient de cette technologie même s’ils n’avaient pas accès à un télévoteur individuel. Pour ce faire, nous avons organisé trois séances de formation en recherche documentaire. Pendant la première, nous avons distribué un télévoteur à la moitié des étudiants choisis au hasard. Pendant la deuxième séance, chaque étudiant disposait d

  6. Impact of Practice-Based Instruction on Graduate Programs in the Pharmaceutical Sciences--A Response.

    Gourley, Dick R.

    1979-01-01

    Issues concerning graduate programs in the pharmaceutical sciences are discussed, including: recent trends, recruitment, clinical instruction, doctoral programs, graduate faculty, master's programs, competition, supply and demand, and professional education of professionals. (SF)

  7. Possible LISA follow-on mission scientific objectives

    Bender, Peter L; Begelman, Mitchell C; Gair, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    A major objective that has been suggested for a follow-on mission to a Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA)-type mission is to investigate more completely how intermediate mass black holes were formed and grew in the early universe, before they evolved into the much more massive black holes at the centers of many galaxies today. The actual design of such a follow-on mission will of course depend on what is observed by a LISA-type mission, such as the recently modified proposal for an evolved LISA mission, with the interferometer arm lengths between spacecraft reduced from 5 million to 1 million km. However, the sensitivity goals of a follow-on mission are likely to be influenced strongly by the desire to be able to see mergers of 10 M ⊙ black holes with roughly 3000 M ⊙ or larger intermediate mass black holes out to as large redshifts as possible. Approximate calculations of the expected signal-to-noise have been made for a possible LISA follow-on mission that was suggested about eight years ago (Bender and Begelman 2005 Trends in Space Science and Cosmic Vision 2020 (Noordwijk: ESA Publications Division) pp 33–38), and was called the Advanced Laser Interferometer Antenna. Based on the calculations, it appears that detections out to a redshift of 10 would be possible for 10 M ⊙ black holes spiraling into perhaps 5000 M ⊙ or larger intermediate mass black holes if the extragalactic gravitational wave background due to close white dwarf binaries is in the currently estimated range. (paper)

  8. Cosmological Backgrounds of Gravitational Waves and eLISA

    Dufaux, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    We review cosmological backgrounds of gravitational waves with a particular attention to the scientific potential of the eLISA/NGO mission. After an overview of cosmological backgrounds and detectors, we consider different cosmological sources that could lead to an observable signal. We then study the backgrounds produced by first-order phase transitions and networks of cosmic strings, assessing the prospects for their detection.

  9. Implementation of time-delay interferometry for LISA

    Tinto, Massimo; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Sylvestre, Julien; Armstrong, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the baseline optical configuration for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, in which the lasers are not free-running, but rather one of them is used as the main frequency reference generator (the master) and the remaining five as slaves, these being phase-locked to the master (the master-slave configuration). Under the condition that the frequency fluctuations due to the optical transponders can be made negligible with respect to the secondary LISA noise sources (mainly proof-mass and shot noises), we show that the entire space of interferometric combinations LISA can generate when operated with six independent lasers (the one-way method) can also be constructed with the master-slave system design. The corresponding hardware trade-off analysis for these two optical designs is presented, which indicates that the two sets of systems needed for implementing the one-way method, and the master-slave configuration, are essentially identical. Either operational mode could therefore be implemented without major implications on the hardware configuration. We then derive the required accuracies of armlength knowledge, time synchronization of the onboard clocks, sampling times and time-shifts needed for effectively implementing time-delay interferometry for LISA. We find that an armlength accuracy of about 16 meters, a synchronization accuracy of about 50 ns, and the time jitter due to a presently existing space qualified clock will allow the suppression of the frequency fluctuations of the lasers below to the level identified by the secondary noise sources. A new procedure for sampling the data in such a way to avoid the problem of having time shifts that are not integer multiples of the sampling time is also introduced, addressing one of the concerns about the implementation of time-delay interferometry

  10. LISA time-delay interferometry zero-signal solution: Geometrical properties

    Tinto, Massimo; Larson, Shane L.

    2004-01-01

    Time-delay interferometry (TDI) is the data processing technique needed for generating interferometric combinations of data measured by the multiple Doppler readouts available onboard the three Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) spacecraft. Within the space of all possible interferometric combinations TDI can generate, we have derived a specific combination that has zero response to the gravitational wave signal, and called it the zero-signal solution (ZSS). This is a two-parameter family of linear combinations of the generators of the TDI space, and its response to a gravitational wave becomes null when these two parameters coincide with the values of the angles of the source location in the sky. Remarkably, the ZSS does not rely on any assumptions about the gravitational waveform, and in fact it works for waveforms of any kind. Our approach is analogous to the data analysis method introduced by Guersel and Tinto in the context of networks of Earth-based, wideband, interferometric gravitational wave detectors observing in coincidence a gravitational wave burst. The ZSS should be regarded as an application of the Guersel and Tinto method to the LISA data

  11. UV-LED-based charge control for LISA

    Olatunde, Taiwo; Shelley, Ryan; Chilton, Andrew; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2014-03-01

    The test masses inside the LISA gravitational reference sensors (GRS) must maintain almost pure geodesic motion for gravitational waves to be successfully detected. The residual accelerations have to stay below 3fm/s2/rtHz at all frequencies between 0.1 and 3 mHz. One of the well known noise sources is associated with the charges on the test masses which couple to stray electrical potentials and external electro-magnetic fields. The LISA pathfinder (LPF) will use Hg-discharge lamps emitting mostly around 253 nm to discharge the test masses via photoemission in its 2015/16 flight. A future LISA mission launched around 2030 will likely replace the lamps with newer UV-LEDs. UV-LEDs have a lower mass, a better power efficiency, and are smaller than their Hg counterparts. Furthermore, the latest generation produces light at 240 nm, with energy well above the work function of pure gold. I will describe a preliminary design for effective charge control through photoelectric effect by using these LEDs. The effectiveness of this method is verified by taking Quantum Efficiency (QE) measurements which relate the number of electrons emitted to the number of photons incident on the Au test mass surface. This presentation addresses our initial results and future plans which includes implementation and testing in the UF torsion pendulum and space-qualification in a small satellite mission which will launch in the summer of 2014, through a collaboration with Stanford, KACST, and NASA Ames Research Center.

  12. Nested sampling as a tool for LISA data analysis

    Gair, Jonathan R; Feroz, Farhan; Graff, Philip; Hobson, Michael P; Babak, Stanislav; Petiteau, Antoine; Porter, Edward K

    2010-01-01

    Nested sampling is a technique for efficiently computing the probability of a data set under a particular hypothesis, also called the Bayesian Evidence or Marginal Likelihood, and for evaluating the posterior. MULTINEST is a multi-modal nested sampling algorithm which has been designed to efficiently explore and characterize posterior probability surfaces containing multiple secondary solutions. We have applied the MULTINEST algorithm to a number of problems in gravitational wave data analysis. In this article, we describe the algorithm and present results for several applications of the algorithm to analysis of mock LISA data. We summarise recently published results for a test case in which we searched for two non-spinning black hole binary merger signals in simulated LISA data. We also describe results obtained with MULTINEST in the most recent round of the Mock LISA Data Challenge (MLDC), in which the algorithm was used to search for and characterise both spinning supermassive black hole binary inspirals and bursts from cosmic string cusps. In all these applications, the algorithm found the correct number of signals and efficiently recovered the posterior probability distribution. Moreover, in most cases the waveform corresponding to the best a-posteriori parameters had an overlap in excess of 99% with the true signal.

  13. Nested sampling as a tool for LISA data analysis

    Gair, Jonathan R [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, CB3 0HA, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Feroz, Farhan; Graff, Philip; Hobson, Michael P [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Babak, Stanislav; Petiteau, Antoine [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476, Potsdam (Germany); Porter, Edward K, E-mail: jgair@ast.cam.ac.u [APC, UMR 7164, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2010-05-01

    Nested sampling is a technique for efficiently computing the probability of a data set under a particular hypothesis, also called the Bayesian Evidence or Marginal Likelihood, and for evaluating the posterior. MULTINEST is a multi-modal nested sampling algorithm which has been designed to efficiently explore and characterize posterior probability surfaces containing multiple secondary solutions. We have applied the MULTINEST algorithm to a number of problems in gravitational wave data analysis. In this article, we describe the algorithm and present results for several applications of the algorithm to analysis of mock LISA data. We summarise recently published results for a test case in which we searched for two non-spinning black hole binary merger signals in simulated LISA data. We also describe results obtained with MULTINEST in the most recent round of the Mock LISA Data Challenge (MLDC), in which the algorithm was used to search for and characterise both spinning supermassive black hole binary inspirals and bursts from cosmic string cusps. In all these applications, the algorithm found the correct number of signals and efficiently recovered the posterior probability distribution. Moreover, in most cases the waveform corresponding to the best a-posteriori parameters had an overlap in excess of 99% with the true signal.

  14. Constraints on LISA Pathfinder's Self-Gravity: Design Requirements, Estimates and Testing Procedures

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, M.; Brandt, Nico; Bursi, Alessandro; Slutsky. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder satellite was launched on 3 December 2015 toward the Sun Earth first Lagrangian point (L1) where the LISA Technology Package (LTP), which is the main science payload, will be tested. LTP achieves measurements of differential acceleration of free-falling test masses (TMs) with sensitivity below 3 x 10(exp -14) m s(exp -2) Hz(exp - 1/2) within the 130 mHz frequency band in one dimension. The spacecraft itself is responsible for the dominant differential gravitational field acting on the two TMs. Such a force interaction could contribute a significant amount of noise and thus threaten the achievement of the targeted free-fall level. We prevented this by balancing the gravitational forces to the sub nm s(exp -2) level, guided by a protocol based on measurements of the position and the mass of all parts that constitute the satellite, via finite element calculation tool estimates. In this paper, we will introduce the gravitational balance requirements and design, and then discuss our predictions for the balance that will be achieved in flight.

  15. Instructional Leadership Responsibilities of Assistant Principals in Large Texas High Schools

    Howard-Schwind, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent secondary assistant principals in large Texas high schools demonstrate behaviors consistent with what the literature describes as instructional leadership. Three hundred seventy principals and assistant principals of large Texas high schools participated in this study. The Principal…

  16. Student and Instructor Responses to Emotional Motivational Feedback Messages in an Online Instructional Environment

    Sarsar, Firat

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Emotional Motivational Feedback Message (EMFEM) in an online learning environment. This exploratory research was conducted using mixed method single case study design. Participants were 15 undergraduate students enrolled in an instructional technology course in a large state…

  17. Towards Cultural Responsiveness in Music Instruction with Black Detained Youth: An Analytic Autoethnography

    Thompson, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased interest in music instruction and research with incarcerated populations. Amid this attention is a need to learn more about how music teachers develop competencies for working with juvenile offenders and navigate this unfamiliar context, how they come to learn more about culturally diverse music, and how they become aware of…

  18. The Relationship of Instructional Methods with Student Responses to the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics.

    Faghihi, Foroozandeh; Rakow, Ernest A.

    This study, conducted at the University of Memphis (Tennessee), compared the effects of a self-paced method of instruction on the attitudes and perceptions of students enrolled in an undergraduate statistics course with those of a comparable group of students taking statistics in a traditional lecture setting. The non-traditional course used a…

  19. An Alternative View of the Instructional Design Process: A Response to Smith and Boling

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Yanchar, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    A recent literature review by Smith and Boling (2009) critically examines the received view of instructional design in educational technology. Smith and Boling conclude that the foundational literature characterizes design in a way that leads to a constrained understanding of design, especially by novices. They suggest that as a field we move…

  20. Is a Response to Intervention (RTI) Approach to Preschool Language and Early Literacy Instruction Needed?

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.; Atwater, Jane; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth; McConnell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Preschool experience plays a role in children's development. However, for programs with language and early literacy goals, the question remains whether preschool instructional experiences are sufficiently effective to achieve these goals for all children. In a multisite study, the authors conducted a process-product description of preschool…

  1. Algebraic approach to time-delay data analysis for LISA

    Dhurandhar, S.V.; Nayak, K. Rajesh; Vinet, J.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    Cancellation of laser frequency noise in interferometers is crucial for attaining the requisite sensitivity of the triangular three-spacecraft LISA configuration. Raw laser noise is several orders of magnitude above the other noises and thus it is essential to bring it down to the level of other noises such as shot, acceleration, etc. Since it is impossible to maintain equal distances between spacecrafts, laser noise cancellation must be achieved by appropriately combining the six beams with appropriate time delays. It has been shown in several recent papers that such combinations are possible. In this paper, we present a rigorous and systematic formalism based on algebraic geometrical methods involving computational commutative algebra, which generates in principle all the data combinations canceling the laser frequency noise. The relevant data combinations form the first module of syzygies, as it is called in the literature of algebraic geometry. The module is over a polynomial ring in three variables, the three variables corresponding to the three time delays around the LISA triangle. Specifically, we list several sets of generators for the module whose linear combinations with polynomial coefficients generate the entire module. We find that this formalism can also be extended in a straightforward way to cancel Doppler shifts due to optical bench motions. The two modules are in fact isomorphic. We use our formalism to obtain the transfer functions for the six beams and for the generators. We specifically investigate monochromatic gravitational wave sources in the LISA band and carry out the maximization over linear combinations of the generators of the signal-to-noise ratios with the frequency and source direction angles as parameters

  2. GCR flux 9-day variations with LISA Pathfinder

    Grimani, C; Benella, S; Fabi, M; Finetti, N; Telloni, D

    2017-01-01

    Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) energy spectra in the heliosphere vary on the basis of the level of solar activity, the status of solar polarity and interplanetary transient magnetic structures of solar origin. A high counting rate particle detector (PD) aboard LISA Pathfinder (LPF) allows for the measurement of galactic cosmic-ray and solar energetic particle (SEP) integral fluxes at energies > 70 MeV n −1 up to 6500 counts s −1 . Data are gathered with a sampling time of 15 s. A study of GCR flux depressions associated with the third harmonic of the Sun rotation period (∼ 9 days) is presented here. (paper)

  3. Energy transport in mirror machine LISA at electron cyclotron resonance

    Cunha Rapozo, C. da; Serbeto, A.; Torres-Silva, H.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that a classical transport calculation is adequate to predict the steady state temperature of the RF produced plasma in LISA machine for both large and small resonant volumes. Temperature anisotropy ranging from 55 to 305 was found which was larger for small resonant volume, and the temperature relaxation was larger at large resonant one. This agrees with the fact that there is a Coulomb relaxation ν c which is proportional to T e -3/2 . It is also shown that the fitting parameter alpha is larger for large resonant volume than for small resonant one. (L.C.J.A.)

  4. A study on the radionuclide migration by means of the code LISA

    Frenquellucci, F.; Deserti, M.

    1989-01-01

    LISA code (Long Term Isolation Safety Assessment) has been developed by J.R.C. EUROATOM Ispra (Radiochemistry Division) and it's utilized in order to study migration of radionuclides through porous media. Aim of the present work is to analyze LISA's input and output files. A brief description of the code is also performed. As LISA is a research and in development code, its structure is rather complex and an exhaustive description of input/output files is helpful for the user. Version 3 of LISA code, loaded on ENEA's IBM 3090, is avaylable by ENEA-VEL Bologna

  5. Prospects of eLISA for Detecting Galactic Binary Black Holes Similar to GW150914

    Seto, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the prospects of eLISA for detecting gravitational waves (GWs) from Galactic binary black holes (BBHs) similar to GW150914. For a comoving merger rate that is consistent with current observation, eLISA is likely to identify at least one BBH with a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, eLISA has a potential to measure the eccentricity of the BBH as small as $e\\sim 0.02$, corresponding to the residual value $e\\sim 10^{-6}$ at 10Hz. Therefore, eLISA could provide us with a cr...

  6. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION.

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION. APPROXIMATELY 85 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, TEACHING MACHINES, RESPONSE MODE, SELF-INSTRUCTION, AND COMPUTER-ASSISTED…

  7. The Instructional Capacitor

    Walton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Many administrators are so overwhelmed by the basic responsibilities of their daily work that there seems to be little or no time left for providing quality leadership in instruction. Instead, schools employ department chairs, instructional specialists, and coordinators to provide instructional leadership. How can administrators find time in the…

  8. Towards a politics of disaster response: presidential disaster instructions in China, 1998-2012.

    Tao, Peng; Chen, Chunliang

    2018-04-01

    China's disaster management system contains no law-based presidential disaster declarations; however, the national leader's instructions (pishi in Chinese) play a similar role to disaster declarations, which increase the intensity of disaster relief. This raises the question of what affects presidential disaster instructions within an authoritarian regime. This research shows that China's disaster politics depend on a crisis threshold system for operation and that the public and social features of disasters are at the core of this system. China's political cycle has no significant impact on disaster politics. A change in the emergency management system has a significant bearing on presidential disaster instructions, reflecting the strong influence of the concept of rule of law and benefiting the sustainable development of the emergency management system. In terms of disaster politics research, unlocking the black box of China's disaster politics and increasing the number of comparative political studies will benefit the development of empirical and theoretical study. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  9. The magnetic diagnostics subsystem of the LISA Technology Package

    Diaz-Aguilo, M; Garcia-Berro, E [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades, 5, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Lobo, A; Mateos, N; Sanjuan, J, E-mail: marc.diaz.aguilo@fa.upc.ed [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, c/Gran Capita 2-4, Edif. Nexus 104, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    The Magnetic Diagnostics Subsystem of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft includes a set of four tri-axial fluxgate magnetometers, intended to measure with high precision the magnetic field at the positions they occupy. However, their readouts do not provide a direct measurement of the magnetic field at the positions of the test masses. Therefore, an interpolation method must be implemented to obtain this information. However, such interpolation process faces serious difficulties. Indeed, the size of the interpolation region is excessive for a linear interpolation to be reliable, and the number of magnetometer channels does not provide sufficient data to go beyond that poor approximation. Recent research points to a possible alternative to address the magnetic interpolation problem by means of neural network algorithms. The key point of this approach is the ability neural networks have to learn from suitable training data representing the magnetic field behaviour. Despite the large distance to the test masses and the insufficient magnetic readings, artificial neural networks are able to significantly reduce the estimation error to acceptable levels. The learning efficiency can be best improved by making use of data obtained from on-ground measurements prior to mission launch in all relevant satellite locations and under real operation conditions. Reliable information on that appears to be essential for a meaningful assessment of magnetic noise in the LTP.

  10. Towards an improved magnetic diagnostic system for LISA

    Mateos, I; Lobo, A; Sanjuan, J; Ramos-Castro, J; Nofrarias, M

    2009-01-01

    The current design, and material implementation of the magnetic field sensing in the LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board LISA Pathfinder (LPF), is based on a set of 4 high-precision 3-axis fluxgate magnetometers. In order to avoid magnetic disturbances on the LTP proof masses (TM 's), originated by the sensors themselves, these are placed somewhat far from the TM's, which results in partial field information losses. We are currently investigating alternative magnetic sensing techniques, based on AMR (Anisotropic Magnetoresistive) devices. These are much smaller in size than fluxgates, therefore a more numerous array can be thought of for flight. In addition, there is a chance that they may be attached closer to the TM's, thereby enhancing magnetic field sensing spacial resolution. Several issues need to be addressed, such as real sensitivity (including electronics noise) and set/reset trigger procedures. A brief overview about the stability of the magnetic fields and gradients generated in the LTP by means of the coil will also be given. This paper show the latest results of our research.

  11. The magnetic diagnostics subsystem of the LISA Technology Package

    Diaz-Aguilo, M; Garcia-Berro, E; Lobo, A; Mateos, N; Sanjuan, J

    2010-01-01

    The Magnetic Diagnostics Subsystem of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft includes a set of four tri-axial fluxgate magnetometers, intended to measure with high precision the magnetic field at the positions they occupy. However, their readouts do not provide a direct measurement of the magnetic field at the positions of the test masses. Therefore, an interpolation method must be implemented to obtain this information. However, such interpolation process faces serious difficulties. Indeed, the size of the interpolation region is excessive for a linear interpolation to be reliable, and the number of magnetometer channels does not provide sufficient data to go beyond that poor approximation. Recent research points to a possible alternative to address the magnetic interpolation problem by means of neural network algorithms. The key point of this approach is the ability neural networks have to learn from suitable training data representing the magnetic field behaviour. Despite the large distance to the test masses and the insufficient magnetic readings, artificial neural networks are able to significantly reduce the estimation error to acceptable levels. The learning efficiency can be best improved by making use of data obtained from on-ground measurements prior to mission launch in all relevant satellite locations and under real operation conditions. Reliable information on that appears to be essential for a meaningful assessment of magnetic noise in the LTP.

  12. Classifying LISA gravitational wave burst signals using Bayesian evidence

    Feroz, Farhan; Graff, Philip; Hobson, Michael P; Lasenby, Anthony; Gair, Jonathan R

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of characterization of burst sources detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) using the multi-modal nested sampling algorithm, MultiNest. We use MultiNest as a tool to search for modelled bursts from cosmic string cusps, and compute the Bayesian evidence associated with the cosmic string model. As an alternative burst model, we consider sine-Gaussian burst signals, and show how the evidence ratio can be used to choose between these two alternatives. We present results from an application of MultiNest to the last round of the Mock LISA Data Challenge, in which we were able to successfully detect and characterize all three of the cosmic string burst sources present in the release data set. We also present results of independent trials and show that MultiNest can detect cosmic string signals with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as low as ∼7 and sine-Gaussian signals with SNR as low as ∼8. In both cases, we show that the threshold at which the sources become detectable coincides with the SNR at which the evidence ratio begins to favour the correct model over the alternative.

  13. Disentangling the magnetic force noise contribution in LISA Pathfinder

    Armano, M; Audley, H; Born, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Auger, G; Binetruy, P; Baird, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Fitzsimons, E; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Dolesi, R; Ferroni, V; Cruise, M; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L

    2015-01-01

    Magnetically-induced forces on the inertial masses on-board LISA Pathfinder are expected to be one of the dominant contributions to the mission noise budget, accounting for up to 40%. The origin of this disturbance is the coupling of the residual magnetization and susceptibility of the test masses with the environmental magnetic field. In order to fully understand this important part of the noise model, a set of coils and magnetometers are integrated as a part of the diagnostics subsystem. During operations a sequence of magnetic excitations will be applied to precisely determine the coupling of the magnetic environment to the test mass displacement using the on-board magnetometers. Since no direct measurement of the magnetic field in the test mass position will be available, an extrapolation of the magnetic measurements to the test mass position will be carried out as a part of the data analysis activities. In this paper we show the first results on the magnetic experiments during an end- to-end LISA Pathfinder simulation, and we describe the methods under development to map the magnetic field on-board. (paper)

  14. Revised electrostatic model of the LISA Pathfinder inertial sensor

    Brandt, Nico [Astrium GmbH, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Fichter, Walter, E-mail: nico.brandt@astrium.eads.ne [iFR, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 7a, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    A comprehensive electrostatic finite-element (FE) analysis of the LISA Pathfinder Inertial Sensor (IS) has been carried out at Astrium GmbH. Starting with a detailed geometrical model of the IS housing and test mass (TM) flight units, FE results were derived from multiple analyses runs applying the Maxwell 3D field simulation software. The electrostatic forces and torques on the TM in 6DoF, as well as all non-negligible capacitances between the TM, the 18 electrodes, and the housing, have been extracted for different TM translations and rotations. The results of the FE analyses were expected to confirm the existing IS electrostatic model predictions used for performance analysis, simulations, and on-board algorithms. Major discrepancies were found, however, between the results and the model used so far. In general, FE results give considerably larger capacitance values than the equivalent infinite non-parallel plate estimates. In contrast, the FE derived forces and torques are in general significantly lower compared to the analytic IS electrostatic model predictions. In this paper, these results are discussed in detail and the reasons for the deviations are elaborated. Based on these results, an adapted analytic IS electrostatic model is proposed that reflects the electrostatic forces, torques, and stiffness values in the LISA Pathfinder IS significantly more accurate.

  15. Revised electrostatic model of the LISA Pathfinder inertial sensor

    Brandt, Nico; Fichter, Walter

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive electrostatic finite-element (FE) analysis of the LISA Pathfinder Inertial Sensor (IS) has been carried out at Astrium GmbH. Starting with a detailed geometrical model of the IS housing and test mass (TM) flight units, FE results were derived from multiple analyses runs applying the Maxwell 3D field simulation software. The electrostatic forces and torques on the TM in 6DoF, as well as all non-negligible capacitances between the TM, the 18 electrodes, and the housing, have been extracted for different TM translations and rotations. The results of the FE analyses were expected to confirm the existing IS electrostatic model predictions used for performance analysis, simulations, and on-board algorithms. Major discrepancies were found, however, between the results and the model used so far. In general, FE results give considerably larger capacitance values than the equivalent infinite non-parallel plate estimates. In contrast, the FE derived forces and torques are in general significantly lower compared to the analytic IS electrostatic model predictions. In this paper, these results are discussed in detail and the reasons for the deviations are elaborated. Based on these results, an adapted analytic IS electrostatic model is proposed that reflects the electrostatic forces, torques, and stiffness values in the LISA Pathfinder IS significantly more accurate.

  16. T.D Lee and Lisa Randall visit ATLAS

    Pauline Gagnon

    Professor Tsung-Dao Lee, who received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1957 for postulating that parity is not conserved in weak interactions, visited the ATLAS detector this month. He is seen here in the company of Peter Jenni, spokesperson for ATLAS. T.D. Lee is still very active at over 80, pursuing his theory work to this day. Professor Lisa Randall from Harvard University, the well-known theorist behind the Randall-Sundrum theory for extra dimensions, was also part of the group visiting the ATLAS detector. She is seen here with Fabiola Gianotti, deputy spokesperson for ATLAS. Lisa Randall's two initial papers have been quoted both more than 2500 times, making her the most cited theoretical physicist in the world in the last five years as of last autumn - a total of about 10,000 citations! One wonders here if Peter is pointing to a CP-violating graviton spotted in the ATLAS cavern... From left to right: Fabiola Gianotti, Gustaaf Brooijmans, convener of the ATLAS Exotics physics gro...

  17. MONA, LISA and VINCI Soon Ready to Travel to Paranal

    2000-11-01

    Spatiale (DESPA) of the Paris Observatory. It was used in 1991 at the Kitt Peak National Observatory (Arizona, USA), for the first (coherent) combination of the light beams from two independent telescopes by means of optical fibers of fluoride glass. It has since been in operation for five years as a focal instrument at the IOTA Interferometer (Mount Hopkins, Arizona, USA) within a collaboration with the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), producing a rich harvest of scientific data. The VINCI partners The VINCI instrument is constructed in a collaboration between ESO (that also finances it) and the following laboratories and institutes: * DESPA (Paris Observatory) provides the expertise, the general concept, the development and integration of the optomechanics (with the exception of the camera) and the electronics, * Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées that produces the control software * The LISA infrared camera is developed by the Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany), and * ESO provides the IR camera electronics and the overall observational software and is also responsible for the final integration. DESPA delivered VINCI to ESO in Garching on September 27, 2000, and is now assembling the instrument in the ESO optical workshop. It will stay here during three months, until it has been fully integrated and thoroughly tested. It will then be shipped to Paranal at the beginning of next year. After set-up and further tests, the first observations on the sky are expected in late March 2001. Fluoride fibers guide the light The heart of VINCI - named MONA - is a fiber optics beam combine unit. It is the outcome of a fertile, 10-year research partnership between Science (DESPA) and Industry ("Le Verre Fluoré" [2]). Optical fibers will be used to combine the light from two telescopes inside VINCI . Since the instrument will be working in the near-infrared region of the spectrum (wavelength 2-2.5 µm), it is necessary to use optical fibers

  18. Beyond the Required LISA Free-Fall Performance: New LISA Pathfinder Results down to 20 μ Hz

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Castelli, E.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, A. M.; Danzmann, K.; de Deus Silva, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Freschi, M.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Grzymisch, J.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C. J.; Lobo, J. A.; Lloro, I.; Liu, L.; López-Zaragoza, J. P.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Mance, D.; Meshksar, N.; Martín, V.; Martin-Polo, L.; Martino, J.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Robertson, D. I.; Rivas, F.; Russano, G.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J. I.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Wass, P. J.; Weber, W. J.; Wissel, L.; Wittchen, A.; Zweifel, P.

    2018-02-01

    In the months since the publication of the first results, the noise performance of LISA Pathfinder has improved because of reduced Brownian noise due to the continued decrease in pressure around the test masses, from a better correction of noninertial effects, and from a better calibration of the electrostatic force actuation. In addition, the availability of numerous long noise measurement runs, during which no perturbation is purposely applied to the test masses, has allowed the measurement of noise with good statistics down to 20 μ Hz . The Letter presents the measured differential acceleration noise figure, which is at (1.74 ±0.01 ) fm s-2/√{Hz } above 2 mHz and (6 ±1 ) ×10 fm s-2/√{Hz } at 20 μ Hz , and discusses the physical sources for the measured noise. This performance provides an experimental benchmark demonstrating the ability to realize the low-frequency science potential of the LISA mission, recently selected by the European Space Agency.

  19. Probing the Universe with Gravitational Waves: the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA)

    Prince, T.A.; Binetruy, P.; Centrella, J.; Finn, L.; Hogan, C.; Nelemans, G.A.; Phinney, S.

    2007-01-01

    - For the LISA International Science Team: LISA is a joint NASA/ESA space mission designed to measure gravitational waves in the band from 0.1 mHz to 0.1 Hz, a band that is richly populated by strong sources of gravitational waves. Signals will come from a wider range of sources: massive black holes

  20. Caring Enough to Teach Science. Helping Pre-service Teachers View Science Instruction as an Ethical Responsibility

    Grinell, Smith; Rabin, Colette

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this project was to motivate pre-service elementary teachers to commit to spending significant instructional time on science in their future classrooms despite their self-assessed lack of confidence about teaching science and other impediments (e.g., high-stakes testing practices that value other subjects over science). Pre-service teachers in science methods courses explored connections between science and ethics, specifically around issues of ecological sustainability, and grappled with their ethical responsibilities as teachers to provide science instruction. Survey responses, student "quick-writes," interview transcripts, and field notes were analyzed. Findings suggest that helping pre-service teachers see these connections may shape their beliefs and dispositions in ways that may motivate them to embark on the long road toward improving their science pedagogical content knowledge and ultimately to teach science to their students more often and better than they otherwise might. The approach may also offer a way for teachers to attend to the moral work of teaching.

  1. Control system design for the constellation acquisition phase of the LISA mission

    Cirillo, Francesca; Gath, Peter F, E-mail: francesca.cirillo@astrium.eads.ne, E-mail: peter.gath@astrium.eads.ne [Astrium GmbH Satellites, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the constellation acquisition phase for the LISA mission is to establish the three laser links between the three spacecraft of the LISA constellation so that the interferometric measurements for the science experiment can commence. The laser beam acquisition for LISA is extremely challenging given the 5 million km distance between the spacecraft, the inherent limits of the attitude sensors accuracy, the orbit determination accuracy issues and the time required to phase-lock the incoming and outgoing laser signals. This paper presents the design of the control system for the acquisition phase of the LISA constellation: the acquisition operational procedure is outlined, guidance laws are defined together with the Gyro Mode attitude control principle, which implements a Kalman filter for disturbances rejection purposes. Constellation-wide non-linear simulations demonstrate that the LISA constellation acquisition phase is feasible by means of the proposed control strategy.

  2. Control system design for the constellation acquisition phase of the LISA mission

    Cirillo, Francesca; Gath, Peter F

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the constellation acquisition phase for the LISA mission is to establish the three laser links between the three spacecraft of the LISA constellation so that the interferometric measurements for the science experiment can commence. The laser beam acquisition for LISA is extremely challenging given the 5 million km distance between the spacecraft, the inherent limits of the attitude sensors accuracy, the orbit determination accuracy issues and the time required to phase-lock the incoming and outgoing laser signals. This paper presents the design of the control system for the acquisition phase of the LISA constellation: the acquisition operational procedure is outlined, guidance laws are defined together with the Gyro Mode attitude control principle, which implements a Kalman filter for disturbances rejection purposes. Constellation-wide non-linear simulations demonstrate that the LISA constellation acquisition phase is feasible by means of the proposed control strategy.

  3. Relativistic analysis of the LISA long range optical links

    Chauvineau, Bertrand; Regimbau, Tania; Vinet, Jean-Yves; Pireaux, Sophie

    2005-01-01

    The joint ESA/NASA LISA mission consists of three spacecraft on heliocentric orbits, flying in a triangular formation of 5 Mkm each side, linked by infrared optical beams. The aim of the mission is to detect gravitational waves in a low frequency band. For properly processing the scientific data, the propagation delays between spacecraft must be accurately known. We thus analyze the propagation of light between spacecraft in order to systematically derive the relativistic effects due to the static curvature of the Schwarzschild space-time in which the spacecraft are orbiting with time-varying light distances. In particular, our analysis allows us to evaluate rigorously the Sagnac effect, and the gravitational (Einstein) redshift

  4. LISA Pathfinder drag-free control and system implications

    Fichter, Walter; Gath, Peter; Vitale, Stefano; Bortoluzzi, Daniele

    2005-01-01

    The top-level requirement of the LISA Pathfinder mission is the verification of pure relative free fall between two test masses with an accuracy of about 3 x 10 -14 m s -2 Hz -1/2 in a measurement bandwidth between 1 mHz and 30 mHz. The drag-free control system is one of the key technology elements that shall be verified. Its design is strongly connected to the overall system and experimental design, in particular, via the following issues: the differential test mass motion and thus the science measurements depend on the control system; design constraints, such as negative stiffness of test masses and electrostatic actuation cross-talk, have an impact on science and control system performance; derived requirements for control system components, in particular, the micro-propulsion system, must be within reasonable and feasible limits. In this paper, the control design approach is outlined and the system-related issues are addressed

  5. The LISA Pathfinder interferometry-hardware and system testing

    Audley, H; Danzmann, K; MarIn, A Garcia; Heinzel, G; Monsky, A; Nofrarias, M; Steier, F; Bogenstahl, J [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik und Universitaet Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Gerardi, D; Gerndt, R; Hechenblaikner, G; Johann, U; Luetzow-Wentzky, P; Wand, V [EADS Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Antonucci, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Armano, M [European Space Astronomy Centre, European Space Agency, Villanueva de la Canada, 28692 Madrid (Spain); Auger, G; Binetruy, P [APC UMR7164, Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Benedetti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e Tecnologie Industriali, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Boatella, C, E-mail: antonio.garcia@aei.mpg.de [CNES, DCT/AQ/EC, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse, Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-05-07

    Preparations for the LISA Pathfinder mission have reached an exciting stage. Tests of the engineering model (EM) of the optical metrology system have recently been completed at the Albert Einstein Institute, Hannover, and flight model tests are now underway. Significantly, they represent the first complete integration and testing of the space-qualified hardware and are the first tests on an optical system level. The results and test procedures of these campaigns will be utilized directly in the ground-based flight hardware tests, and subsequently during in-flight operations. In addition, they allow valuable testing of the data analysis methods using the MATLAB-based LTP data analysis toolbox. This paper presents an overview of the results from the EM test campaign that was successfully completed in December 2009.

  6. Commissioning and operating experience with the LISA superconducting accelerator

    Castellano, M.; Ferrario, M.; Minestrini, M.; Patteri, P.; Tazzioli, F.; Kulinski, S.

    1996-06-01

    The commissioning of the LISA superconducting (SC) RF electron linac at INFN Frascati Laboratories has been concluded although, due to a change in program priorities, the full possibilities of the machine have not been exploited. In this report the authors illustrate the results achieved so far and the difficulties encountered in commissioning, with the hope that this material might be some of help to those who intend to start the enterprise of building a SC linac in a non specialized environment. The part concerning the SC system is particularly stressed, but a relevant attention is also devoted to the traditional room temperature injector, the proper setting of which is fundamental to achieving the high beam quality that such a machine allows

  7. Detecting white dwarf binaries in Mock LISA Data Challenge 3

    Blaut, A; Krolak, A; Babak, S

    2009-01-01

    We present a strategy for detecting gravitational wave signals from the Galactic white dwarf binaries in the Mock LISA Data Challenge 3 (MLDC3) and estimate their parameters. Our method is based on the matched filtering in the form of the F-statistic. We perform the search on three-dimensional space (sky coordinate and frequency of gravitational wave) below 3 mHz and include the fourth parameter (frequency derivative) at high frequencies. A template bank is used to search for the strongest signal in the data, then we remove it and repeat the search until we do not have signals in the data above a preselected threshold. For the template bank, we construct an optimal grid that realizes the best lattice covering with a constraint such that the nodes of the grid coincide with the Fourier frequencies. This enables the use of the fast Fourier transform algorithm to calculate the F-statistic.

  8. Strong lensing of gravitational waves as seen by LISA.

    Sereno, M; Sesana, A; Bleuler, A; Jetzer, Ph; Volonteri, M; Begelman, M C

    2010-12-17

    We discuss strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from the merging of massive black hole binaries in the context of the LISA mission. Detection of multiple events would provide invaluable information on competing theories of gravity, evolution and formation of structures and, possibly, constraints on H0 and other cosmological parameters. Most of the optical depth for lensing is provided by intervening massive galactic halos, for which wave optics effects are negligible. Probabilities to observe multiple events are sizable for a broad range of formation histories. For the most optimistic models, up to ≲ 4 multiple events with a signal to noise ratio ≳ 8 are expected in a 5-year mission. Chances are significant even for conservative models with either light (≲ 60%) or heavy (≲ 40%) seeds. Because of lensing amplification, some intrinsically too faint signals are brought over threshold (≲ 2 per year).

  9. Interferometry for the LISA technology package (LTP) aboard SMART-2

    Heinzel, G; Braxmaier, C; Schilling, R; Ruediger, A; Robertson, D; Plate, M te; Wand, V; Arai, K; Johann, U; Danzmann, K

    2003-01-01

    The interferometer of the LISA technology package (LTP) on SMART-2 is needed to verify the performance of the gravitational sensors by monitoring the distance between two test masses with a noise level of 10 pm Hz -1/2 between 3 mHz and 30 mHz. It must continuously track the motion of the test mass distance while that distance changes by many μm with a speed of up to 20 μm s -1 , without losing track of the sign of the motion and without exerting any influence on the test masses that might lead to a motion above that level. As a result of a detailed comparison study, a heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometer was selected as the baseline for the SMART-2 mission. Its design and expected performance are described in this paper

  10. The effects of orbital motion on LISA time delay interferometry

    Cornish, Neil J; Hellings, Ronald W

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to eliminate laser phase noise in laser interferometer spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, several combinations of signals have been found that allow the laser noise to be cancelled out while gravitational wave signals remain. This process is called time delay interferometry (TDI). In the papers that defined the TDI variables, their performance was evaluated in the limit that the gravitational wave detector is fixed in space. However, the performance depends on certain symmetries in the armlengths that are available if the detector is fixed in space, but that will be broken in the actual rotating and flexing configuration produced by the LISA orbits. In this paper we investigate the performance of these TDI variables for the real LISA orbits. First, addressing the effects of rotation, we verify Daniel Shaddock's result that the Sagnac variables α (t), β (t) and γ (t) will not cancel out the laser phase noise, and we also find the same result for the symmetric Sagnac variable ζ (t). The loss of the latter variable would be particularly unfortunate since this variable also cancels out gravitational wave signal, allowing instrument noise in the detector to be isolated and measured. Fortunately, we have found a set of more complicated TDI variables, which we call Δ Sagnac variables, one of which accomplishes the same goal as ζ (t) to good accuracy. Finally, however, as we investigate the effects of the flexing of the detector arms due to non-circular orbital motion, we show that all variables, including the interferometer variables, X(t), Y(t) and Z(t), which survive the rotation-induced loss of direction symmetry, will not completely cancel laser phase noise when the armlengths are changing with time. This unavoidable problem will place a stringent requirement on laser stability of ∼5 Hz Hz -1/2

  11. The extent to which Latina/o preservice teachers demonstrate culturally responsive teaching practices during science and mathematics instruction

    Hernandez, Cecilia M.

    2011-12-01

    Complex social, racial, economic, and political issues involved in the practice of teaching today require beginning teachers to be informed, skilled, and culturally responsive when entering the classroom. Teacher educators must educate future teachers in ways that will help them teach all children regardless of language, cultural background, or prior knowledge. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) novice teachers described and demonstrated culturally responsive teaching strategies using their students' cultural and academic profiles to inform practice in science and mathematics instruction. This qualitative exploratory case study considered the culturally responsive teaching practices of 12, non-traditional, Latina/o students as they progressed through a distance-based collaborative teacher education program. Qualitative techniques used throughout this exploratory case study investigated cultural responsiveness of these student teachers as they demonstrated their abilities to: a) integrate content and facilitate knowledge construction; b) illustrate social justice and prejudice reduction; and c) develop students academically. In conclusion, student teachers participating in this study demonstrated their ability to integrate content by: (1) including content from other cultures, (2) building positive teacher-student relationships, and (3) holding high expectations for all students. They also demonstrated their ability to facilitate knowledge construction by building on what students knew. Since there is not sufficient data to support the student teachers' abilities to assist students in learning to be critical, independent thinkers who are open to other ways of knowing, no conclusions regarding this subcategory could be drawn. Student teachers in this study illustrated prejudice reduction by: (1) using native language support to assist students in learning and understanding science and math content

  12. The influences of task repetition, napping, time of day, and instruction on the Sustained Attention to Response Task.

    van Schie, Mojca K M; Alblas, Eva E; Thijs, Roland D; Fronczek, Rolf; Lammers, Gert Jan; van Dijk, J Gert

    2014-01-01

    The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) helps to quantify vigilance impairments.Previous studies, in which five SART sessions on one day were administered, demonstrated worse performance during the first session than during the others. The present study comprises two experiments to identify a cause of this phenomenon. Experiment 1, counting eighty healthy participants, assessed effects of repetition,napping, and time of day on SART performance through a between-groups design. The SART was performed twice in the morning or twice in the afternoon; half of the participants took a 20-minute nap before the second SART. A strong correlation between error count and reaction time (RT) suggested effects of test instruction. Participants gave equal weight to speed and accuracy in Experiment 1; therefore, results of 20 participants were compared to those of 20 additional participants who were told to prefer accuracy (Experiment 2). The average SART error count in Experiment 1 was 10.1; the median RT was 280 ms. Neither repetition nor napping influenced error count or RT. Time of day did not influence error count, but RT was significantly longer for morning than for afternoon SARTs. The additional participants in Experiment 2 had a 49% lower error count and a 14% higher RT than the participants in Experiment 1. Error counts reduced by 50% from the first to the second session of Experiment 2, irrespective of napping or time of day. Preferring accuracy over speed was associated with a significantly lower error count. The data suggest that a worse performance in the first SART session only occurs when instructing participants to prefer accuracy, which is caused by repetition, not by napping or time of day. We advise that participants are instructed to prefer accuracy over speed when performing the SART and that a full practice session is included.

  13. Selection-Based Instruction with Touch-Screen Video and the Emergence of Exact, Recombinative, and Novel Topography-Based Responses to Interview Questions

    O'Neill, John; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to replicate and extend the literature on using selection-based instruction to teach responses to interview questions by (a) evaluating the emergence of recombinative (i.e., combinations of taught) and novel (i.e., untaught) topography-based intraverbal responses, in addition to exact repetitions of taught…

  14. THE LISA GRAVITATIONAL WAVE FOREGROUND: A STUDY OF DOUBLE WHITE DWARFS

    Ruiter, Ashley J.; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Benacquista, Matthew; Williams, Gabriel; Larson, Shane L.

    2010-01-01

    Double white dwarfs (WDs) are expected to be a source of confusion-limited noise for the future gravitational wave observatory LISA. In a specific frequency range, this 'foreground noise' is predicted to rise above the instrumental noise and hinder the detection of other types of signals, e.g., gravitational waves arising from stellar-mass objects inspiraling into massive black holes. In many previous studies, only detached populations of compact object binaries have been considered in estimating the LISA gravitational wave foreground signal. Here, we investigate the influence of compact object detached and Roche-Lobe overflow (RLOF) Galactic binaries on the shape and strength of the LISA signal. Since >99% of remnant binaries that have orbital periods within the LISA sensitivity range are WD binaries, we consider only these binaries when calculating the LISA signal. We find that the contribution of RLOF binaries to the foreground noise is negligible at low frequencies, but becomes significant at higher frequencies, pushing the frequency at which the foreground noise drops below the instrumental noise to >6 mHz. We find that it is important to consider the population of mass-transferring binaries in order to obtain an accurate assessment of the foreground noise on the LISA data stream. However, we estimate that there still exists a sizeable number (∼11,300) of Galactic double WD binaries that will have a signal-to-noise ratio >5, and thus will be potentially resolvable with LISA. We present the LISA gravitational wave signal from the Galactic population of WD binaries, show the most important formation channels contributing to the LISA disk and bulge populations, and discuss the implications of these new findings.

  15. Annual modulation of the galactic binary confusion noise background and LISA data analysis

    Seto, Naoki

    2004-01-01

    We study the anisotropies of the galactic confusion noise background and its effects on LISA data analysis. LISA has two data streams of gravitational wave signals relevant for the low frequency regime. Because of the anisotropies of the background, the matrix for their confusion noises has off-diagonal components and depends strongly on the orientation of the detector plane. We find that the sky-averaged confusion noise level √(S(f)) could change by a factor of 2 in 3 months and would be minimum when the orbital position of LISA is around either the spring or autumn equinox

  16. Science with the space-based interferometer LISA. IV: probing inflation with gravitational waves

    Bartolo, Nicola; Guzzetti, Maria Chiara; Liguori, Michele; Matarrese, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the potential for the LISA space-based interferometer to detect the stochastic gravitational wave background produced from different mechanisms during inflation. Focusing on well-motivated scenarios, we study the resulting contributions from particle production during inflation, inflationary spectator fields with varying speed of sound, effective field theories of inflation with specific patterns of symmetry breaking and models leading to the formation of primordial black holes. The projected sensitivities of LISA are used in a model-independent way for various detector designs and configurations. We demonstrate that LISA is able to probe these well-motivated inflationary scenarios beyond the irreducible vacuum tensor modes expected from any inflationary background.

  17. Science with the space-based interferometer LISA. IV: Probing inflation with gravitational waves

    Bartolo, Nicola; Domcke, Valerie; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Guzzetti, Maria Chiara; Liguori, Michele; Matarrese, Sabino; Peloso, Marco; Petiteau, Antoine; Ricciardone, Angelo; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Sorbo, Lorenzo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the potential for the LISA space-based interferometer to detect the stochastic gravitational wave background produced from different mechanisms during inflation. Focusing on well-motivated scenarios, we study the resulting contributions from particle production during inflation, inflationary spectator fields with varying speed of sound, effective field theories of inflation with specific patterns of symmetry breaking and models leading to the formation of primordial black holes. The projected sensitivities of LISA are used in a model-independent way for various detector designs and configurations. We demonstrate that LISA is able to probe these well-motivated inflationary scenarios beyond the irreducible vacuum tensor modes expected from any inflationary background.

  18. Radiation pressure calibration and test mass reflectivities for LISA Pathfinder

    Korsakova, Natalia; Kaune, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments which were carried out during the main operations of LISA Pathfinder. These experiments were performed by modulating the power of the measurement and reference beams. In one series of experiments the beams were sequentially switched on and off. In the other series of experiments the powers of the beams were modulated within 0.1% and 1% of the constant power. These experiments use recordings of the total power measured on the photodiodes to infer the properties of the Optical Metrology System (OMS), such as reflectivities of the test masses and change of the photodiode efficiencies with time. In the first case the powers are back propagated from the different photodiodes to the same place on the optical bench to express the unknown quantities in the measurement with the complimentary photodiode measurements. They are combined in the way that the only unknown left is the test mass reflectivities. The second experiment compared two estimates of the force applied to the test masses due to the radiation pressure that appears because of the beam modulations. One estimate of the force is inferred from the measurements of the powers on the photodiodes and propagation of this measurement to the test masses. The other estimation of the force is done by calculating it from the change in the main scientific output of the instrument – differential displacement of the two test masses. (paper)

  19. Analog phase lock between two lasers at LISA power levels

    Diekmann, Christian; Steier, Frank; Sheard, Benjamin; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an analog optical phase-locked-loop with an offset frequency of about 20MHz between two lasers, where the detected light powers were of the order of 31 pW and 200 μW. The goal of this setup was the design and characterization of a photodiode transimpedance amplifier for application in LISA. By application of a transimpedance amplifier designed to have low noise and low power consumption, the phase noise between the two lasers was a factor of two above the shot noise limit down to 60mHz. The achievable phase sensitivity depends ultimately on the available power of the highly attenuated master laser and on the input current noise of the transimpedance amplifier of the photodetector. The limiting noise source below 60mHz was the analog phase measurement system that was used in this experiment. A digital phase measurement system that is currently under development at the AEI will be used in the near future. Its application should improve the sensitivity.

  20. Analog phase lock between two lasers at LISA power levels

    Diekmann, Christian; Steier, Frank; Sheard, Benjamin; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten, E-mail: Christian.Diekmann@aei.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Callinstr. 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an analog optical phase-locked-loop with an offset frequency of about 20MHz between two lasers, where the detected light powers were of the order of 31 pW and 200 muW. The goal of this setup was the design and characterization of a photodiode transimpedance amplifier for application in LISA. By application of a transimpedance amplifier designed to have low noise and low power consumption, the phase noise between the two lasers was a factor of two above the shot noise limit down to 60mHz. The achievable phase sensitivity depends ultimately on the available power of the highly attenuated master laser and on the input current noise of the transimpedance amplifier of the photodetector. The limiting noise source below 60mHz was the analog phase measurement system that was used in this experiment. A digital phase measurement system that is currently under development at the AEI will be used in the near future. Its application should improve the sensitivity.

  1. Radiation pressure calibration and test mass reflectivities for LISA Pathfinder

    Korsakova, Natalia; Kaune, Brigitte; LPF Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments which were carried out during the main operations of LISA Pathfinder. These experiments were performed by modulating the power of the measurement and reference beams. In one series of experiments the beams were sequentially switched on and off. In the other series of experiments the powers of the beams were modulated within 0.1% and 1% of the constant power. These experiments use recordings of the total power measured on the photodiodes to infer the properties of the Optical Metrology System (OMS), such as reflectivities of the test masses and change of the photodiode efficiencies with time. In the first case the powers are back propagated from the different photodiodes to the same place on the optical bench to express the unknown quantities in the measurement with the complimentary photodiode measurements. They are combined in the way that the only unknown left is the test mass reflectivities. The second experiment compared two estimates of the force applied to the test masses due to the radiation pressure that appears because of the beam modulations. One estimate of the force is inferred from the measurements of the powers on the photodiodes and propagation of this measurement to the test masses. The other estimation of the force is done by calculating it from the change in the main scientific output of the instrument - differential displacement of the two test masses.

  2. Planning for chemical disasters at Point Lisas, Trinidad and Tobago

    Mathur, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    No major chemical disaster has taken place so far in Trinidad and Tobago. Even so, in view of the numerous hazards that the various chemical handling plants deal with at Point Lisas, the country has to be prepared to deal with chemical disasters. The country's emergency preparedness plan for chemical disasters aims to localize the emergency, if possible, eliminate it and minimize the effects of the accident on people and property. The hazards of ammonia, hydrogen, chlorine, hydrocarbons and methanol release can have devastating effects on the workers and the residents in the vicinity of the plants. The Emergency Plan identifies an Emergency Co-ordinating Officer who would take command of the off-site activities and coordinate the activities of Works Management, Local Authority, Police, Fire Services, Defence Force, Health Authority and Factory Inspectorate. Resources of fire fighting, medical treatment, telecommunications, waste management and public education have to be enhanced immediately. In the long term a new fire station and a new county hospital have to be built, some housing settlements have to be phased out and non-essential staff relocated

  3. LISA Pathfinder: An important first step towards a space-based gravitational wave observatory

    Thorpe, James

    2017-08-01

    ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission was launched on Dec 3rd, 2015 and completed earlier this Summer. During this relatively short mission, Pathfinder at its two science payloads, Europe's LISA Technology Package and NASA's Disturbance Reduction System, demonstrated several techniques and technologies that enable development of a future space-based gravitational wave observatory. Most notably, Pathfinder demonstrated that the technique of drag-free flight could be utilized to place a test mass in near-perfect free-fall, with residual accelerations at the femto-g level in the milliHertz band. Additionally, technologies such as precision bonded optical structures for metrology, micropropulsion systems, and non-contact charge control, were successfully tested, retiring risk for LISA. In this talk, I will present an overview of Pathfinder's results to date and some perspective on how this success will be leveraged into realizing LISA.

  4. Report on the first round of the Mock LISA Data Challenges

    Arnaud, K A; Auger, G; Babak, S

    2007-01-01

    The Mock LISA Data Challenges (MLDCs) have the dual purpose of fostering the development of LISA data analysis tools and capabilities, and demonstrating the technical readiness already achieved by the gravitational-wave community in distilling a rich science payoff from the LISA data output. The first round of MLDCs has just been completed: nine challenges consisting of data sets containing simulated gravitational-wave signals produced either by galactic binaries or massive black hole binaries embedded in simulated LISA instrumental noise were released in June 2006 with deadline for submission of results at the beginning of December 2006. Ten groups have participated in this first round of challenges. All of the challenges had at least one entry which successfully characterized the signal to better than 95% when assessed via a correlation with phasing ambiguities accounted for. Here, we describe the challenges, summarize the results and provide a first critical assessment of the entries

  5. "Can't Nobody Sleep" and Other Characteristics of Culturally Responsive English Instruction

    Adkins, Theresa A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author presents a collective case study of two English teachers identified as particularly successful with Black students. Through the use of ethnographic techniques, the study provides a snapshot of how these teachers facilitated academic gains in urban high schools through their use of culturally responsive English…

  6. Stellar binary black holes in the LISA band: a new class of standard sirens

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Sesana, Alberto; Klein, Antoine

    2018-04-01

    The recent Advanced LIGO detections of coalescing black hole binaries (BHBs) imply a large population of such systems emitting at milli-Hz frequencies, accessible to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). We show that these systems provide a new class of cosmological standard sirens. Direct LISA luminosity distance - Dl - measurements, combined with the inhomogeneous redshift - z - distribution of possible host galaxies provide an effective way to populate the Dl-z diagram at z arm-length, respectively.

  7. LISA extreme-mass-ratio inspiral events as probes of the black hole mass function

    Gair, Jonathan R.; Tang, Christopher; Volonteri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    One of the sources of gravitational waves for the proposed space-based gravitational wave detector, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), are the inspirals of compact objects into supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies--extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs). Using LISA observations, we will be able to measure the parameters of each EMRI system detected to very high precision. However, the statistics of the set of EMRI events observed by LISA will be more important in constraining astrophysical models than extremely precise measurements for individual systems. The black holes to which LISA is most sensitive are in a mass range that is difficult to probe using other techniques, so LISA provides an almost unique window onto these objects. In this paper we explore, using Bayesian techniques, the constraints that LISA EMRI observations can place on the mass function of black holes at low redshift. We describe a general framework for approaching inference of this type--using multiple observations in combination to constrain a parametrized source population. Assuming that the scaling of the EMRI rate with the black-hole mass is known and taking a black-hole distribution given by a simple power law, dn/dlnM=A 0 (M/M * ) α 0 , we find that LISA could measure the parameters to a precision of Δ(lnA 0 )∼0.08, and Δ(α 0 )∼0.03 for a reference model that predicts ∼1000 events. Even with as few as 10 events, LISA should constrain the slope to a precision ∼0.3, which is the current level of observational uncertainty in the low-mass slope of the black-hole mass function. We also consider a model in which A 0 and α 0 evolve with redshift, but find that EMRI observations alone do not have much power to probe such an evolution.

  8. Constraining stellar binary black hole formation scenarios with eLISA eccentricity measurements

    Nishizawa, Atsushi; Sesana, Alberto; Berti, Emanuele; Klein, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    A space-based interferometer such as eLISA could observe few to few thousands progenitors of black hole binaries (BHBs) similar to those recently detected by Advanced LIGO. Gravitational radiation circularizes the orbit during inspiral, but some BHBs retain a measurable eccentricity at the low frequencies where eLISA is most sensitive. The eccentricity of a BHB carries precious information about its formation channel: BHBs formed in the field, in globular clusters, or close to a massive black...

  9. Making instruction and assessment responsive to diverse students' progress: group-administered dynamic assessment in teaching mathematics.

    Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2011-01-01

    This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) × 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control instruction, and (c) standard-control instruction. The assessment-type consisted between subjects of either (a) a group-administered dynamic posttest or (b) the same group-administered posttest interspersed with a control filler activity. Performance in different mathematics content areas taught in fourth grade was investigated. In total, 1,332 students and 63 classroom teachers in 24 schools across six school districts participated in the study. The results indicate the advantages of using dynamic instruction and assessment in regular classrooms while teaching mathematics, especially when the student body is highly ethnically diverse.

  10. Optimal statistic for detecting gravitational wave signals from binary inspirals with LISA

    Rogan, A

    2004-01-01

    A binary compact object early in its inspiral phase will be picked up by its nearly monochromatic gravitational radiation by LISA. But even this innocuous appearing candidate poses interesting detection challenges. The data that will be scanned for such sources will be a set of three functions of LISA's twelve data streams obtained through time-delay interferometry, which is necessary to cancel the noise contributions from laser-frequency fluctuations and optical-bench motions to these data streams. We call these three functions pseudo-detectors. The sensitivity of any pseudo-detector to a given sky position is a function of LISA's orbital position. Moreover, at a given point in LISA's orbit, each pseudo-detector has a different sensitivity to the same sky position. In this work, we obtain the optimal statistic for detecting gravitational wave signals, such as from compact binaries early in their inspiral stage, in LISA data. We also present how the sensitivity of LISA, defined by this optimal statistic, vari...

  11. Constraining stellar binary black hole formation scenarios with eLISA eccentricity measurements

    Nishizawa, Atsushi; Sesana, Alberto; Berti, Emanuele; Klein, Antoine

    2017-03-01

    A space-based interferometer such as the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA) could observe a few to a few thousands of progenitors of black hole binaries (BHBs) similar to those recently detected by Advanced LIGO. Gravitational radiation circularizes the orbit during inspiral, but some BHBs retain a measurable eccentricity at the low frequencies where eLISA is the most sensitive. The eccentricity of a BHB carries precious information about its formation channel: BHBs formed in the field, in globular clusters, or close to a massive black hole (MBH) have distinct eccentricity distributions in the eLISA band. We generate mock eLISA observations, folding in measurement errors, and using a Bayesian model selection, we study whether eLISA measurements can identify the BHB formation channel. We find that a handful of observations would suffice to tell whether BHBs were formed in the gravitational field of an MBH. Conversely, several tens of observations are needed to tell apart field formation from globular cluster formation. A 5-yr eLISA mission with the longest possible armlength is desirable to shed light on BHB formation scenarios.

  12. Nrp2 is sufficient to instruct circuit formation of mitral-cells to mediate odour-induced attractive social responses.

    Inokuchi, Kasumi; Imamura, Fumiaki; Takeuchi, Haruki; Kim, Ryang; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Nishizumi, Hirofumi; Bito, Haruhiko; Kikusui, Takefumi; Sakano, Hitoshi

    2017-07-21

    Odour information induces various innate responses that are critical to the survival of the individual and for the species. An axon guidance molecule, Neuropilin 2 (Nrp2), is known to mediate targeting of olfactory sensory neurons (primary neurons), to the posteroventral main olfactory bulb (PV MOB) in mice. Here we report that Nrp2-positive (Nrp2 + ) mitral cells (MCs, second-order neurons) play crucial roles in transmitting attractive social signals from the PV MOB to the anterior part of medial amygdala (MeA). Semaphorin 3F, a repulsive ligand to Nrp2, regulates both migration of Nrp2 + MCs to the PV MOB and their axonal projection to the anterior MeA. In the MC-specific Nrp2 knockout mice, circuit formation of Nrp2 + MCs and odour-induced attractive social responses are impaired. In utero, electroporation demonstrates that activation of the Nrp2 gene in MCs is sufficient to instruct their circuit formation from the PV MOB to the anterior MeA.

  13. Measuring Changes in Interest in Science and Technology at the College Level in Response to Two Instructional Interventions

    Romine, William L.; Sadler, Troy D.

    2016-06-01

    Improving interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is crucial to widening participation and success in STEM studies at the college level. To understand how classroom and extracurricular interventions affect interest, it is necessary to have appropriate measurement tools. We describe the adaptation and revalidation of a previously existing multidimensional instrument to the end of measuring interest in environmental science and technology in college nonscience majors. We demonstrate the revised instrument's ability to detect change in this group over an 8-week time period. While collection of demographic information was not part of the study design, participating students were similar in that they hailed from three environmental science nonmajor classes sharing a common syllabus and instructional delivery method. Change in interest was measured in response to two types of scientific literature-based learning approaches: a scientific practice approach and a traditional, quiz-driven approach. We found that both approaches led to moderate gains in interest in learning environmental science and careers in environmental science across an 8-week time period. Interest in using technology for learning increased among students using the scientific practice approach; in contrast, the same measure decreased among students using the reading/quiz approach. This result invites the possibility that interest in using technology as a learning tool may relate to technological literacy, which must be taught explicitly in the context of authentic inquiry experiences.

  14. Students' attitude-related responses to inquiry learning in undergraduate kinesiology laboratory instruction

    Henige, Kimberly Ann

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the student attitudes are impacted when teaching methods in an undergraduate Kinesiology lab course shift from a traditional, cookbook-style, low inquiry-level to an investigative, high inquiry-level approach. Students participated in five weeks of Level 0-1 (low) inquiry activities, followed by five weeks of a Level 3 (high) inquiry project. The same Likert-scale survey was administered to students before and after each 5-week period. The attitudes measured by the survey included students' (a) attitude to scientific inquiry, (b) adoption of scientific attitudes, (c) enjoyment of science lessons, and (d) motivation in science. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed no significant change in any of the attitude measures when the survey results from the different time points were compared. An open-ended qualitative survey was given to the students at the end of the semester and provided more insight. When asked to compare the low and high-level inquiry experiences, most students reported enjoying the higher level of inquiry more. On the other hand, most students felt they learned more during the low inquiry-level activities. The reported level of motivation in lab was about the same for both levels. When asked what they liked most about the high-level inquiry project, students favored aspects such as the independence, responsibility, and personal relevance. When asked what they liked the least, most students said there was nothing they disliked. Of the minority of students who did not like the high-level of inquiry, most claimed to be uncomfortable with the lack of structure and guidance. Other findings were that many students expressed a new or increased respect and appreciation for what scientists do. Some students experienced a decrease in their reliance on science to be true and correct. While some students thought the high-level inquiry was harder, others perceived it as being easier. These findings illustrate

  15. Quantitative analysis of LISA pathfinder test-mass noise

    Ferraioli, Luigi; Congedo, Giuseppe; Hueller, Mauro; Vitale, Stefano; Hewitson, Martin; Nofrarias, Miquel; Armano, Michele

    2011-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is a mission aiming to test the critical technology for the forthcoming space-based gravitational-wave detectors. The main scientific objective of the LPF mission is to demonstrate test masses free falling with residual accelerations below 3x10 -14 m s -2 /√(Hz) at 1 mHz. Reaching such an ambitious target will require a significant amount of system optimization and characterization, which will in turn require accurate and quantitative noise analysis procedures. In this paper, we discuss two main problems associated with the analysis of the data from LPF: i) excess noise detection and ii) noise parameter identification. The mission is focused on the low-frequency region ([0.1, 10] mHz) of the available signal spectrum. In such a region, the signal is dominated by the force noise acting on test masses. At the same time, the mission duration is limited to 90 days and typical data segments will be 24 hours in length. Considering those constraints, noise analysis is expected to deal with a limited amount of non-Gaussian data, since the spectrum statistics will be far from Gaussian and the lowest available frequency is limited by the data length. In this paper, we analyze the details of the expected statistics for spectral data and develop two suitable excess noise estimators. One is based on the statistical properties of the integrated spectrum, the other is based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The sensitivity of the estimators is discussed theoretically for independent data, then the algorithms are tested on LPF synthetic data. The test on realistic LPF data allows the effect of spectral data correlations on the efficiency of the different noise excess estimators to be highlighted. It also reveals the versatility of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov approach, which can be adapted to provide reasonable results on correlated data from a modified version of the standard equations for the inversion of the test statistic. Closely related to excess noise

  16. Verification of time-delay interferometry techniques using the University of Florida LISA interferometry simulator

    Mitryk, Shawn J; Wand, Vinzenz; Mueller, Guido, E-mail: smitryk@phys.ufl.ed, E-mail: mueller@phys.ufl.ed [Department of Physics, University of Florida, PO Box 118440, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States)

    2010-04-21

    Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a cooperative NASA/ESA mission proposed to directly measure gravitational waves (GW) in the frequency range from 30 muHz to 1 Hz with an optimal strain sensitivity of 10{sup -21}/sq root(Hz) at 3 mHz. LISA will utilize a modified Michelson interferometer to measure length changes of 40 pm/sq root(Hz) between drag-free proof masses located on three separate spacecraft (SC) separated by a distance of 5 Gm. The University of Florida has developed a hardware-in-the-loop simulator of the LISA constellation to verify the laser noise cancellation technique known as time-delay interferometry (TDI). We replicate the frequency stabilization of the laser on the local SC and the phase-locking of the lasers on the far SC. The laser photodetector beatnotes are electronically delayed, Doppler shifted and applied with a mock GW signal to simulate the laser link between the SC. The beatnotes are also measured with a LISA-like phasemeter and the data are used to extract the laser phase and residual phase-lock loop noise in post-processing through TDI. This uncovers the GW modulation signal buried under the laser noise. The results are then compared to the requirements defined by the LISA science collaboration.

  17. LISA Pathfinder test-mass charging during galactic cosmic-ray flux short-term variations

    Grimani, C.; Fabi, M.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.; Telloni, D.

    2015-02-01

    Metal free-floating test masses aboard the future interferometers devoted to gravitational wave detection in space are charged by galactic and solar cosmic rays with energies \\gt 100 MeV/n. This process represents one of the main sources of noise in the lowest frequency band (\\lt 10-3 Hz) of these experiments. We study here the charging of the LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF) gold-platinum test masses due to galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) protons and helium nuclei with the Fluka Monte Carlo toolkit. Projections of the energy spectra of GCRs during the LISA-PF operations in 2015 are considered. This work was carried out on the basis of the solar activity level and solar polarity epoch expected for LISA-PF. The effects of GCR short-term variations are evaluated here for the first time. Classical Forbush decreases, GCR variations induced by the Sun rotation, and fluctuations in the LISA-PF frequency bandwidth are discussed.

  18. Sensing and actuation system for the University of Florida Torsion Pendulum for LISA

    Chilton, Andrew; Shelley, Ryan; Olatunde, Taiwo; Ciani, Giacomo; Conklin, John; Mueller, Guido

    2014-03-01

    Space-based gravitational wave detectors like LISA are a necessity for understanding the low-frequency portion of the gravitational universe. They use test masses (TMs) which are separated by Gm and are in free fall inside their respective spacecraft. Their relative distance is monitored with laser interferometry at the pm/rtHz level in the LISA band, ranging from 0.1 to 100 mHz. Each TM is enclosed in a housing that provides isolation, capacitive sensing, and electrostatic actuation capabilities. The electronics must both be sensitive at the 1 nm/rtHz level and not induce residual acceleration noise above the requirement for LISA Pathfinder (3*10-15 m/sec2Hz1/2at 3 mHz). Testing and developing this technology is one of the roles of the University of Florida Torsion Pendulum, the only US testbed for LISA-like gravitational reference sensor technology. Our implementation of the sensing system functions by biasing our hollow LISA-like TMs with a 100 kHz sine wave and coupling a pair surrounding electrodes as capacitors to a pair of preamps and a differential amplifier; all other processing is done digitally. Here we report on the design of, implementation of, and preliminary results from the UF Torsion Pendulum.

  19. Distinct fronto-striatal couplings reveal the double-faced nature of response-outcome relations in instruction-based learning.

    Ruge, Hannes; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2015-06-01

    Higher species commonly learn novel behaviors by evaluating retrospectively whether actions have yielded desirable outcomes. By relying on explicit behavioral instructions, only humans can use an acquisition shortcut that prospectively specifies how to yield intended outcomes under the appropriate stimulus conditions. A recent and largely unexplored hypothesis suggests that striatal areas interact with lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) when novel behaviors are learned via explicit instruction, and that regional subspecialization exists for the integration of differential response-outcome contingencies into the current task model. Behaviorally, outcome integration during instruction-based learning has been linked to functionally distinct performance indices. This includes (1) compatibility effects, measured in a postlearning test procedure probing the encoding strength of outcome-response (O-R) associations, and (2) increasing response slowing across learning, putatively indicating active usage of O-R associations for the online control of goal-directed action. In the present fMRI study, we examined correlations between these behavioral indices and the dynamics of fronto-striatal couplings in order to mutually constrain and refine the interpretation of neural and behavioral measures in terms of separable subprocesses during outcome integration. We found that O-R encoding strength correlated with LPFC-putamen coupling, suggesting that the putamen is relevant for the formation of both S-R habits and habit-like O-R associations. By contrast, response slowing as a putative index of active usage of O-R associations correlated with LPFC-caudate coupling. This finding highlights the relevance of the caudate for the online control of goal-directed action also under instruction-based learning conditions, and in turn clarifies the functional relevance of the behavioral slowing effect.

  20. Reducing tilt-to-length coupling for the LISA test mass interferometer

    Tröbs, M.; Schuster, S.; Lieser, M.; Zwetz, M.; Chwalla, M.; Danzmann, K.; Fernández Barránco, G.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Gerberding, O.; Heinzel, G.; Killow, C. J.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Robertson, D. I.; Schwarze, T. S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.

    2018-05-01

    Objects sensed by laser interferometers are usually not stable in position or orientation. This angular instability can lead to a coupling of angular tilt to apparent longitudinal displacement—tilt-to-length coupling (TTL). In LISA this is a potential noise source for both the test mass interferometer and the long-arm interferometer. We have experimentally investigated TTL coupling in a setup representative for the LISA test mass interferometer and used this system to characterise two different imaging systems (a two-lens design and a four-lens design) both designed to minimise TTL coupling. We show that both imaging systems meet the LISA requirement of  ±25 μm rad‑1 for interfering beams with relative angles of up to  ±300 μrad. Furthermore, we found a dependency of the TTL coupling on beam properties such as the waist size and location, which we characterised both theoretically and experimentally.

  1. In-flight thermal experiments for LISA Pathfinder: Simulating temperature noise at the Inertial Sensors

    Armano, M; Audley, H; Born, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Auger, G; Binetruy, P; Baird, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Fitzsimons, E; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Dolesi, R; Ferroni, V; Cruise, M; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Diagnostics experiments to be carried out on board LISA Pathfinder (LPF) will yield a detailed characterisation of how temperature fluctuations affect the LTP (LISA Technology Package) instrument performance, a crucial information for future space based gravitational wave detectors as the proposed eLISA. Amongst them, the study of temperature gradient fluctuations around the test masses of the Inertial Sensors will provide as well information regarding the contribution of the Brownian noise, which is expected to limit the LTP sensitivity at frequencies close to 1 mHz during some LTP experiments. In this paper we report on how these kind of Thermal Diagnostics experiments were simulated in the last LPF Simulation Campaign (November, 2013) involving all the LPF Data Analysis team and using an end-to-end simulator of the whole spacecraft. Such simulation campaign was conducted under the framework of the preparation for LPF operations. (paper)

  2. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSouice, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Laue, Greg; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans.

  3. The Mock LISA Data Challenges: from challenge 3 to challenge 4

    Babak, Stanislav; Petiteau, Antoine; Robinson, Emma L; Baker, John G; McWilliams, Sean T; Arnaud, Keith A; Benacquista, Matthew J; Cornish, Neil J; Adams, Matt; Larson, Shane L; Mandel, Ilya; Porter, Edward K; Vallisneri, Michele; Cutler, Curt; Vecchio, Alberto; Blaut, Arkadiusz; Bridges, Michael; Feroz, Farhan; Cohen, Michael; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    The Mock LISA Data Challenges are a program to demonstrate LISA data-analysis capabilities and to encourage their development. Each round of challenges consists of one or more datasets containing simulated instrument noise and gravitational waves from sources of undisclosed parameters. Participants analyze the datasets and report best-fit solutions for the source parameters. Here we present the results of the third challenge, issued in April 2008, which demonstrated the positive recovery of signals from chirping galactic binaries, from spinning supermassive-black-hole binaries (with optimal SNRs between ∼10 and 2000), from simultaneous extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (SNRs of 10-50), from cosmic-string-cusp bursts (SNRs of 10-100), and from a relatively loud isotropic background with Ω gw (f) ∼ 10 -11 , slightly below the LISA instrument noise.

  4. The Mock LISA Data Challenges: from challenge 3 to challenge 4

    Babak, Stanislav; Petiteau, Antoine; Robinson, Emma L [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm bei Potsdam (Germany); Baker, John G; McWilliams, Sean T; Arnaud, Keith A [Gravitational Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Benacquista, Matthew J [Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Cornish, Neil J; Adams, Matt [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Larson, Shane L [Department of Physics, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States); Mandel, Ilya [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Porter, Edward K [APC, UMR 7164, University Paris 7 Denis Diderot, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75025 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Vallisneri, Michele; Cutler, Curt [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Vecchio, Alberto [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B152TT (United Kingdom); Blaut, Arkadiusz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Bridges, Michael; Feroz, Farhan [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB30HE (United Kingdom); Cohen, Michael [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gair, Jonathan R., E-mail: Michele.Vallisneri@jpl.nasa.go [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB30HA (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-21

    The Mock LISA Data Challenges are a program to demonstrate LISA data-analysis capabilities and to encourage their development. Each round of challenges consists of one or more datasets containing simulated instrument noise and gravitational waves from sources of undisclosed parameters. Participants analyze the datasets and report best-fit solutions for the source parameters. Here we present the results of the third challenge, issued in April 2008, which demonstrated the positive recovery of signals from chirping galactic binaries, from spinning supermassive-black-hole binaries (with optimal SNRs between approx10 and 2000), from simultaneous extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (SNRs of 10-50), from cosmic-string-cusp bursts (SNRs of 10-100), and from a relatively loud isotropic background with OMEGA{sub gw}(f) approx 10{sup -11}, slightly below the LISA instrument noise.

  5. LTP - LISA technology package: Development challenges of a spaceborne fundamental physics experiment

    Gerndt, R

    2009-01-01

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) is the main payload onboard the LISA Pathfinder Spacecraft. The LTP Instrument together with the Drag-Free Attitude Control System (DFACS) and the respective LTP and DFACS operational software forms the LTP Experiment. It is completed by the FEEPs of the LPF spacecraft that are controlled by DFACS in order to control the spacecraft's attitude along with the experiment's needs. This article concentrates on aspects of the Industrial development of the LTP Instrument items and on essential performance issues of LTP. Examples of investigations on specific issue will highlight the kind of special problems to be solved for LTP in close cooperation with the Scientific Community.

  6. Acoustic waves and the detectability of first-order phase transitions by eLISA

    Weir, David J.

    2017-05-01

    In various extensions of the Standard Model it is possible that the electroweak phase transition was first order. This would have been a violent process, involving the formation of bubbles and associated shock waves. Not only would the collision of these bubbles and shock waves be a detectable source of gravitational waves, but persistent acoustic waves could enhance the signal and improve prospects of detection by eLISA. I summarise the results of a recent campaign to model such a phase transition based on large-scale hydrodynamical simulations, and its implications for the eLISA mission.

  7. From LPF to eLISA: new approach in payload software

    Gesa, Ll.; Martin, V.; Conchillo, A.; Ortega, J. A.; Mateos, I.; Torrents, A.; Lopez-Zaragoza, J. P.; Rivas, F.; Lloro, I.; Nofrarias, M.; Sopuerta, CF.

    2017-05-01

    eLISA will be the first observatory in space to explore the Gravitational Universe. It will gather revolutionary information about the dark universe. This implies a robust and reliable embedded control software and hardware working together. With the lessons learnt with the LISA Pathfinder payload software as baseline, we will introduce in this short article the key concepts and new approaches that our group is working on in terms of software: multiprocessor, self-modifying-code strategies, 100% hardware and software monitoring, embedded scripting, Time and Space Partition among others.

  8. Doing Science with eLISA: Astrophysics and Cosmology in the Millihertz Regime

    Amaro, Seoane, Pau; Aoudia, Sofiane; Babak, Stanislav; Binetruy, Pierre; Berti, Amanuele; Bohe, Alejandro; Caprini, Chiara; Colpi, Monica; Cornish, Neil J.; Danzmann, Karsten; hide

    2012-01-01

    This document introduces the exciting and fundamentally new science and astronomy that the European New Gravitational Wave Observatory (NGO) mission (derived from the previous LISA proposal) will deliver. The mission (which we will refer to by its informal name eLISA ) will survey for the first time the low-frequency gravitational wave band (about 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz), with sufficient sensitivity to detect interesting individual astrophysical sources out to z = 15. The measurements described here will address the basic scientific goals that have been captured in ESA s New Gravitational Wave Observatory Science Requirements Document ; they are presented here so that the wider scientific community can have access to them. The eLISA mission will discover and study a variety of cosmic events and systems with high sensitivity: coalescences of massive black holes binaries, brought together by galaxy mergers; mergers of earlier, less-massive black holes during the epoch of hierarchical galaxy and black-hole growth; stellar-mass black holes and compact stars in orbits just skimming the horizons of massive black holes in galactic nuclei of the present era; extremely compact white dwarf binaries in our Galaxy, a rich source of information about binary evolution and about future Type Ia supernovae; and possibly most interesting of all, the uncertain and unpredicted sources, for example relics of inflation and of the symmetry-breaking epoch directly after the Big Bang. eLISA s measurements will allow detailed studies of these signals with high signal-to-noise ratio, addressing most of the key scientific questions raised by ESA s Cosmic Vision programme in the areas of astrophysics and cosmology. They will also provide stringent tests of general relativity in the strong-field dynamical regime, which cannot be probed in any other way. This document not only describes the science but also gives an overview on the mission design and orbits. LISA s heritage in the eLISA design will be

  9. eLISA eccentricity measurements as tracers of binary black hole formation

    Nishizawa, Atsushi; Berti, Emanuele; Klein, Antoine; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Up to hundreds of black hole binaries individually resolvable by eLISA will coalesce in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo band within ten years, allowing for multi-band gravitational wave observations. Binaries formed via dynamical interactions in dense star clusters are expected to have eccentricities $e_0\\sim 10^{-3}$-$10^{-1}$ at the frequencies $f_0=10^{-2}$ Hz where eLISA is most sensitive, while binaries formed in the field should have negligible eccentricity in both frequency bands. We estimate ...

  10. Caring Enough to Teach Science: Helping Pre-Service Teachers View Science Instruction as an Ethical Responsibility

    Grinell, Smith; Rabin, Colette

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this project was to motivate pre-service elementary teachers to commit to spending significant instructional time on science in their future classrooms despite their self-assessed lack of confidence about teaching science and other impediments (e.g., high-stakes testing practices that value other subjects over science). Pre-service…

  11. Estudo bibliométrico do descritor “Ergonomia” na base LISA

    Eliana Maria dos Santos Bahia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O estudo analisa a produção científica sobre ergonomia utilizando a base de dados Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA. A base de dados LISA, iniciada em 1969, mantém sua cobertura temática na área de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação.Método: No estudo utilizou-se o método da bibliometria aplicada para verificar a produção científica indexada.Resultados: Entre os resultados da busca de termos indexados na base de dados LISA, encontraram-se 503 artigos com o termo “Ergonomic”; 352 artigos, com a expressão “Design”; 111 artigos com o descritor “Systems”; 110 artigos com o termo “Work”; e , 98 artigos com o termo “Evaluation”. Dentre os 34 títulos de periódicos, 4 títulos cobrem 79% dos artigos que tratam sobre Ergonomia na base LISA. Os demais 30 títulos de periódicos cobrem 21% dos artigos indexados sob essa temática.Conclusões: O presente estudo bibliométrico oferece possibilita um panorama de como a ergonomia é percebida na área da Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação.

  12. LISA detection of massive black hole binaries: imprint of seed populations and extreme recoils

    Sesana, A; Volonteri, M; Haardt, F

    2009-01-01

    All the physical processes involved in the formation, merging and accretion history of massive black holes along the hierarchical build-up of cosmic structures are likely to leave an imprint on the gravitational waves detectable by future space-borne missions, such as LISA. We report here the results of recent studies, carried out by means of dedicated simulations of black hole build-up, aiming at understanding the impact on LISA observations of two ingredients that are crucial in every massive black hole formation scenario, namely: (i) the nature and abundance of the first black hole seeds and (ii) the large gravitational recoils following the merger of highly spinning black holes. We predict LISA detection rates spanning two orders of magnitude, in the range 3-300 events per year, depending on the detail of the assumed massive black hole seed model. On the other hand, large recoil velocities do not dramatically compromise the efficiency of LISA observations. The number of detections may drop substantially (by ∼60%), in scenarios characterized by abundant light seeds, but if seeds are already massive and/or relatively rare, the detection rate is basically unaffected.

  13. Numerical code to determine the particle trapping region in the LISA machine

    Azevedo, M.T. de; Raposo, C.C. de; Tomimura, A.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical code is constructed to determine the trapping region in machine like LISA. The variable magnetic field is two deimensional and is coupled to the Runge-Kutta through the Tchebichev polynomial. Various particle orbits including particle interactions were analysed. Beside this, a strong electric field is introduced to see the possible effects happening inside the plasma. (Author) [pt

  14. Interpolation of the magnetic field at the test masses in eLISA

    Mateos, I; Díaz-Aguiló, M; Ramos-Castro, J; García-Berro, E; Lobo, A

    2015-01-01

    A feasible design for a magnetic diagnostics subsystem for eLISA will be based on that of its precursor mission, LISA Pathfinder. Previous experience indicates that magnetic field estimation at the positions of the test masses has certain complications. This is due to two reasons. The first is that magnetometers usually back-act due to their measurement principles (i.e., they also create their own magnetic fields), while the second is that the sensors selected for LISA Pathfinder have a large size, which conflicts with space resolution and with the possibility of having a sufficient number of them to properly map the magnetic field around the test masses. However, high-sensitivity and small-sized sensors that significantly mitigate the two aforementioned limitations exist, and have been proposed to overcome these problems. Thus, these sensors will be likely selected for the magnetic diagnostics subsystem of eLISA. Here we perform a quantitative analysis of the new magnetic subsystem, as it is currently conceived, and assess the feasibility of selecting these sensors in the final configuration of the magnetic diagnostic subsystem. (paper)

  15. Modulation of LISA free-fall orbits due to the Earth-Moon system

    Cerdonio, Massimo; Marzari, Francesco [Department of Physics, University of Padova and INFN Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); De Marchi, Fabrizio [Department of Physics, University of Trento and INFN Trento, I-38100 Povo (Trento) (Italy); De Pietri, Roberto [Department of Physics, University of Parma and INFN Parma I-43100 Parma (Italy); Jetzer, Philippe [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich, Winterhurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Mazzolo, Giulio [Max Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Callinstrasse 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Ortolan, Antonello [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell' Universita 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Sereno, Mauro, E-mail: fdemarchi@science.unitn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2010-08-21

    We calculate the effect of the Earth-Moon (EM) system on the free-fall motion of LISA test masses. We show that the periodic gravitational pulling of the EM system induces a resonance with fundamental frequency 1 yr{sup -1} and a series of periodic perturbations with frequencies equal to integer harmonics of the synodic month ({approx_equal} 3.92 x 10{sup -7} Hz). We then evaluate the effects of these perturbations (up to the 6th harmonics) on the relative motions between each test mass couple, finding that they range between 3 mm and 10 pm for the 2nd and 6th harmonic, respectively. If we take the LISA sensitivity curve, as extrapolated down to 10{sup -6} Hz in Bender (2003 Class. Quantum Grav. 20 301-10), we obtain that a few harmonics of the EM system can be detected in the Doppler data collected by the LISA space mission. This suggests that the EM system gravitational near field could provide an additional crosscheck to the calibration of LISA, as extended to such low frequencies.

  16. Modulation of LISA free-fall orbits due to the Earth-Moon system

    Cerdonio, Massimo; Marzari, Francesco; De Marchi, Fabrizio; De Pietri, Roberto; Jetzer, Philippe; Mazzolo, Giulio; Ortolan, Antonello; Sereno, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the effect of the Earth-Moon (EM) system on the free-fall motion of LISA test masses. We show that the periodic gravitational pulling of the EM system induces a resonance with fundamental frequency 1 yr -1 and a series of periodic perturbations with frequencies equal to integer harmonics of the synodic month (≅ 3.92 x 10 -7 Hz). We then evaluate the effects of these perturbations (up to the 6th harmonics) on the relative motions between each test mass couple, finding that they range between 3 mm and 10 pm for the 2nd and 6th harmonic, respectively. If we take the LISA sensitivity curve, as extrapolated down to 10 -6 Hz in Bender (2003 Class. Quantum Grav. 20 301-10), we obtain that a few harmonics of the EM system can be detected in the Doppler data collected by the LISA space mission. This suggests that the EM system gravitational near field could provide an additional crosscheck to the calibration of LISA, as extended to such low frequencies.

  17. Playing Harry Potter: Essays and interviews on fandom and performance, edited by Lisa S. Brenner

    Abigail De Kosnik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lisa S. Brenner, editor. Playing Harry Potter: Essays and interviews on fandom and performance. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2015, paperback, $29.95 (238p ISBN 978-0-7864-9657-0; e-book $14.43 (5374 KB ISBN 978-1-4766-2136-4, ASIN B012E9G0R6.

  18. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 7th International LISA Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June 2008

    Lobo, Alberto; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2009-07-01

    In June 2006 the LISA International Science Team (LIST) accepted the bid presented by the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC) to host the 7th International LISA Symposium. This was during its 11th meeting at the University of Maryland, just before the 6th edition of the Symposium started in NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The 7th International LISA Symposium took place at the city of Barcelona, Spain, from 16-20 June 2008, in the premises of CosmoCaixa, a modern Science Museum located in the hills near Tibidabo. Almost 240 delegates registered for the event, a record breaking figure compared to previous editions of the Symposium. Many of the most renowned world experts in LISA, Gravitational Wave Science, and Astronomy, as well as Engineers, attended LISA 7 and produced state-of-the-art presentations, while everybody benefited from the opportunity to have live discussions during the week in a friendly environment. The programme included 31 invited plenary lectures in the mornings, and 8 parallel sessions in the afternoons. These were classified into 7 major areas of research: LISA Technology, LISA PathFinder, LISA PathFinder Data Analysis, LISA Data Analysis, Gravitational Wave sources, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with LISA and Other Gravitational Wave Detectors. 138 abstracts for communications were received, of which a selection was made by the session convenors which would fit time constraints. Up to 63 posters completed the scientific programme. More details on the programme, including some of the talks, can be found at the Symposium website: http://www.ice.cat/research/LISA_Symposium. There was however a remarkable add-on: Professor Clifford Will delivered a startling presentation to the general public, who completely filled the Auditori—the main Conference Room, 320 seats—and were invited to ask questions to the speaker who had boldly guided them through the daunting world of Black Holes, Waves of Gravity, and other Warped Ideas of

  19. Massive black-hole binary inspirals: results from the LISA parameter estimation taskforce

    Arun, K G; Babak, Stas; Porter, Edward K; Sintes, Alicia M; Berti, Emanuele; Cutler, Curt; Cornish, Neil; Gair, Jonathan; Hughes, Scott A; Lang, Ryan N; Iyer, Bala R; Sinha, Siddhartha; Mandel, Ilya; Sathyaprakash, Bangalore S; Van Den Broeck, Chris; Trias, Miquel; Volonteri, Marta

    2009-01-01

    The LISA Parameter Estimation Taskforce was formed in September 2007 to provide the LISA Project with vetted codes, source distribution models and results related to parameter estimation. The Taskforce's goal is to be able to quickly calculate the impact of any mission design changes on LISA's science capabilities, based on reasonable estimates of the distribution of astrophysical sources in the universe. This paper describes our Taskforce's work on massive black-hole binaries (MBHBs). Given present uncertainties in the formation history of MBHBs, we adopt four different population models, based on (i) whether the initial black-hole seeds are small or large and (ii) whether accretion is efficient or inefficient at spinning up the holes. We compare four largely independent codes for calculating LISA's parameter-estimation capabilities. All codes are based on the Fisher-matrix approximation, but in the past they used somewhat different signal models, source parametrizations and noise curves. We show that once these differences are removed, the four codes give results in extremely close agreement with each other. Using a code that includes both spin precession and higher harmonics in the gravitational-wave signal, we carry out Monte Carlo simulations and determine the number of events that can be detected and accurately localized in our four population models.

  20. The end-to-end testbed of the optical metrology system on-board LISA Pathfinder

    Steier, F; Cervantes, F Guzman; Marin, A F GarcIa; Heinzel, G; Danzmann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Gerardi, D, E-mail: frank.steier@aei.mpg.d [EADS Astrium Satellites GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-05-07

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The main experiment on-board LISA Pathfinder is the so-called LISA Technology Package (LTP) which has the aim to measure the differential acceleration between two free-falling test masses with an accuracy of 3 x 10{sup -14} ms{sup -2} Hz{sup -1/2} between 1 mHz and 30 mHz. This measurement is performed interferometrically by the optical metrology system (OMS) on-board LISA Pathfinder. In this paper, we present the development of an experimental end-to-end testbed of the entire OMS. It includes the interferometer and its sub-units, the interferometer backend which is a phasemeter and the processing of the phasemeter output data. Furthermore, three-axes piezo-actuated mirrors are used instead of the free-falling test masses for the characterization of the dynamic behaviour of the system and some parts of the drag-free and attitude control system (DFACS) which controls the test masses and the satellite. The end-to-end testbed includes all parts of the LTP that can reasonably be tested on earth without free-falling test masses. At its present status it consists mainly of breadboard components. Some of those have already been replaced by engineering models of the LTP experiment. In the next steps, further engineering and flight models will also be inserted in this testbed and tested against well-characterized breadboard components. The presented testbed is an important reference for the unit tests and can also be used for validation of the on-board experiment during the mission.

  1. EFFECTS OF TWO METHODS OF INSTRUCTION ON STUDENTS’ CRITICAL RESPONSE TO PROSE LITERATURE TEXT IN ENGLISH IN SOME SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BENIN CITY

    F. O. EZEOKOLI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of two methods of instruction on secondary school students’ critical response to Prose Literature text. The study adopted a pretest, posttest, control group quasi experimental design. The participants in the study were 84 Senior Secondary II students of Literature-in-English purposively selected from four Schools in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. Two intact classes were randomly assigned to each of the treatment and control groups. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level. The instruments used were: Critical Response to Prose Literature Test (r = .75, Questionnaire on Home Background of Students (r = .82, and Critical Response to Prose Literature Test Marking Guide. Data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Covariance and graph. The results showed significant main effect of treatment on students’ critical response to Prose Literature (F (1, 77 = 44.731; p < .05. Students exposed to Engagement Strategies Method performed better than those exposed to the Conventional Method of instruction. Further, home background of students had no significant effect on students’ critical response to Prose Literature text (F (2, 77 = 4.902; p < .05. There was significant interaction effect of treatment and home background of students on students’ critical response to Prose Literature text (F (2, 77 = 3.508; p < .05. It was concluded that Engagement Strategies Method is effective in promoting students’ critical response to Prose Literature text. Teachers of Literature-in-English should employ Engagement Strategies Method in teaching Prose Literature to students in Senior Secondary Schools.

  2. Study of test-mass charging process in the LISA missions due to diffuse γ-rays

    Finetti, N; Scrimaglio, R; Grimani, C; Fabi, M

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational inertial sensors will be placed on board the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and aboard its precursor mission LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF) in order to detect low frequency gravitational waves in space. Free-floating test-masses (Au 7 Pt 3 cubes) will be housed in inertial sensors for detecting possible laser signal variations induced by gravitational waves. Charging of the LISA test-masses due to exposure of the spacecraft to cosmic radiation and energetic solar particles will affect operation of gravitational inertial sensors. In this paper we report on the role of diffuse γ-rays in charging the LISA and LISA-PF test-masses with respect to protons and helium nuclei. The diffuse γ-ray flux in the Galaxy has been interpolated taking into account the outcomes of recent calculations. A comparison with γ-ray observations gathered by different experiments (COMPTEL and EGRET, Milagro, Whipple, HEGRA, TIBET) has been carried out. Simulations of the test-mass charging process have been performed by means of the FLUKA2006.3b package. Monte Carlo simulations of the interaction of cosmic particles with the LISA spacecraft indicate that the diffuse γ-ray contribution to the average steady-state test-mass charging rate and to the single-sided power spectrum of the charge rate noise is marginal with respect to that due to galactic cosmic-rays.

  3. Demonstrating Empathy: A Phenomenological Study of Instructional Designers Making Instructional Strategy Decisions for Adult Learners

    Vann, Linda S.

    2017-01-01

    Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…

  4. In-orbit performance of the LISA Pathfinder drag-free and attitude control system

    Schleicher, A.; Ziegler, T.; Schubert, R.; Brandt, N.; Bergner, P.; Johann, U.; Fichter, W.; Grzymisch, J.

    2018-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstrator mission that was funded by the European Space Agency and that was launched on December 3, 2015. LISA Pathfinder has been conducting experiments to demonstrate key technologies for the gravitational wave observatory LISA in its operational orbit at the L1 Lagrange point of the Earth-Sun system until final switch off on July 18, 2017. These key technologies include the inertial sensors, the optical metrology system, a set of µ-propulsion cold gas thrusters and in particular the high performance drag-free and attitude control system (DFACS) that controls the spacecraft in 15 degrees of freedom during its science phase. The main goal of the DFACS is to shield the two test masses inside the inertial sensors from all external disturbances to achieve a residual differential acceleration between the two test masses of less than 3 × 10-14 m/s2/√Hz over the frequency bandwidth of 1-30 mHz. This paper focuses on two important aspects of the DFACS that has been in use on LISA Pathfinder: the DFACS Accelerometer mode and the main DFACS Science mode. The Accelerometer mode is used to capture the test masses after release into free flight from the mechanical grabbing mechanism. The main DFACS Science Mode is used for the actual drag-free science operation. The DFACS control system has very strong interfaces with the LISA Technology Package payload which is a key aspect to master the design, development, and analysis of the DFACS. Linear as well as non-linear control methods are applied. The paper provides pre-flight predictions for the performance of both control modes and compares these predictions to the performance that is currently achieved in-orbit. Some results are also discussed for the mode transitions up to science mode, but the focus of the paper is on the Accelerometer mode performance and on the performance of the Science mode in steady state. Based on the achieved results, some lessons learnt are formulated to extend

  5. Review: Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday (2011 Buchbesprechung: Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday (2011

    Jigal Beez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday, Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8300-5806-9, 216 pagesBesprechung der Monographie:Lisa Mackenrodt, Swahili Spirit Possession and Islamic Healing in Contemporary Tanzania: The Jinn Fly on Friday, Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8300-5806-9, 216 Seiten

  6. LISA Pathfinder E2E performance simulation: optical and self-gravity stability analysis

    Brandt, N.; Fichter, W.; Kersten, M.; Lucarelli, S.; Montemurro, F.

    2005-05-01

    End-to-end (E2E) modelling and simulation, i.e. verifying the science performance of LISA Pathfinder (spacecraft and payload), is mandatory in order to minimize mission risks. In this paper, focus is on two particular applications of the E2E performance simulator currently being developed at EADS Astrium GmbH: the opto-dynamical stability and the self-gravity disturbance stability analysis. The E2E models applied here comprise the opto-dynamical modelling of the optical metrology systems (OMS) laser interferometry, the thermo-elastic distortion modelling of the OMS optical elements and the self-gravity disturbance model accounting for structural distortions. Preliminary analysis results are presented in detail, identifying shortcomings of the current LISA technology package (LTP) mounting baseline. As a consequence, the design is now being revised.

  7. LISA Pathfinder E2E performance simulation: optical and self-gravity stability analysis

    Brandt, N; Fichter, W; Kersten, M; Lucarelli, S; Montemurro, F

    2005-01-01

    End-to-end (E2E) modelling and simulation, i.e. verifying the science performance of LISA Pathfinder (spacecraft and payload), is mandatory in order to minimize mission risks. In this paper, focus is on two particular applications of the E2E performance simulator currently being developed at EADS Astrium GmbH: the opto-dynamical stability and the self-gravity disturbance stability analysis. The E2E models applied here comprise the opto-dynamical modelling of the optical metrology systems (OMS) laser interferometry, the thermo-elastic distortion modelling of the OMS optical elements and the self-gravity disturbance model accounting for structural distortions. Preliminary analysis results are presented in detail, identifying shortcomings of the current LISA technology package (LTP) mounting baseline. As a consequence, the design is now being revised

  8. Lifetime testing UV LEDs for use in the LISA charge management system

    Hollington, D.; Baird, J. T.; Sumner, T. J.; Wass, P. J.

    2017-10-01

    As a future charge management light source, UV light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) offer far superior performance in a range of metrics compared to the mercury lamps used in the past. As part of a qualification program a number of short wavelength UV LEDs have been subjected to a series of lifetime tests for potential use on the laser interferometer space antenna (LISA) mission. These tests were performed at realistic output levels for both fast and continuous discharging in either a DC or pulsed mode of operation and included a DC fast discharge test spanning 50 days, a temperature dependent pulsed fast discharge test spanning 21 days and a pulsed continuous discharge test spanning 507 days. Two types of UV LED have demonstrated lifetimes equivalent to over 25 years of realistic mission usage with one type providing a baseline for LISA and the other offering a backup solution.

  9. Lifetime testing UV LEDs for use in the LISA charge management system

    Hollington, D; Baird, J T; Sumner, T J; Wass, P J

    2017-01-01

    As a future charge management light source, UV light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) offer far superior performance in a range of metrics compared to the mercury lamps used in the past. As part of a qualification program a number of short wavelength UV LEDs have been subjected to a series of lifetime tests for potential use on the laser interferometer space antenna (LISA) mission. These tests were performed at realistic output levels for both fast and continuous discharging in either a DC or pulsed mode of operation and included a DC fast discharge test spanning 50 days, a temperature dependent pulsed fast discharge test spanning 21 days and a pulsed continuous discharge test spanning 507 days. Two types of UV LED have demonstrated lifetimes equivalent to over 25 years of realistic mission usage with one type providing a baseline for LISA and the other offering a backup solution. (paper)

  10. LISA: A performance assessment code for geological repositories of radioactive waste

    Bertozzi, G.; Saltelli, A.

    1985-01-01

    LISA, developed at JRC-Ispra, is a statistical code, which calculates the radiation exposures and risks associated with radionuclide releases from geological repositories of nuclear waste. The assessment methodology is described briefly. It requires that a number of probabilistic components be quantified and introduced in the analysis; the results are thus expressed in terms of risk. The subjective judgment of experts may be necessary to quantify the probabilities of occurrence of rare geological events. Because of large uncertainties in input data, statistical treatment of the Monte Carlo type is utilized for the analysis; thus, the output from LISA is obtained in the form of distributions. A few results of an application to a probabilistic scenario for a repository mined in a clay bed are illustrated

  11. Construction of an optical test-bed for eLISA

    Lieser, Maike; Isleif, K-S; Schuster, S; Tröbs, M; Veith, S; Heinzel, G; Danzmann, K; Fitzsimons, E; Killow, C; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Robertson, D; Ward, H

    2016-01-01

    In the planned eLISA mission a key part of the system is the optical bench that holds the interferometers for reading out the inter-spacecraft distance and the test mass position. We report on ongoing technology development for the eLISA optical system like the back-link between the optical benches and the science interferometer where the local beam is interfered with the received beam from the distant spacecraft. The focus will be on a setup to investigate the tilt-to-pathlength coupling in the science interferometer. To test the science interferometer in the lab a second bench providing a laser beam and a reference interferometer is needed. We present a setup with two ultra-stable low expansion glass benches and bonded optics. To suppress the tilt-to-pathlength coupling to the required level (few μm/rad) imaging optics are placed in front of the interferometer photo diodes. (paper)

  12. The Mock LISA Data Challenges: from Challenge 1B to Challenge 3

    Babak, Stanislav; Porter, Edward K; Gair, Jonathan; Baker, John G; Arnaud, Keith; Benacquista, Matthew J; Cornish, Neil J; Crowder, Jeff; Vallisneri, Michele; Cutler, Curt; Larson, Shane L; Plagnol, Eric; Vecchio, Alberto; Barack, Leor; Blaut, Arkadiusz; Fairhurst, Stephen; Harry, Ian; Gong Xuefei; Khurana, Deepak; Krolak, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The Mock LISA Data Challenges are a programme to demonstrate and encourage the development of LISA data-analysis capabilities, tools and techniques. At the time of this workshop, three rounds of challenges had been completed, and the next was about to start. In this paper we provide a critical analysis of the entries to the latest completed round, Challenge 1B. The entries confirm the consolidation of a range of data-analysis techniques for galactic and massive-black-hole binaries, and they include the first convincing examples of detection and parameter estimation of extreme-mass-ratio inspiral sources. In this paper we also introduce the next round, Challenge 3. Its data sets feature more realistic waveform models (e.g., galactic binaries may now chirp, and massive-black-hole binaries may precess due to spin interactions), as well as new source classes (bursts from cosmic strings, isotropic stochastic backgrounds) and more complicated nonsymmetric instrument noise

  13. LTP - LISA technology package: Development challenges of a spaceborne fundamental physics experiment

    Gerndt, R, E-mail: ruediger.gerndt@astrium.eads.ne [Astrium Satellites GmbH, Claude-Dornier-Str., 88090 Immenstaad (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) is the main payload onboard the LISA Pathfinder Spacecraft. The LTP Instrument together with the Drag-Free Attitude Control System (DFACS) and the respective LTP and DFACS operational software forms the LTP Experiment. It is completed by the FEEPs of the LPF spacecraft that are controlled by DFACS in order to control the spacecraft's attitude along with the experiment's needs. This article concentrates on aspects of the Industrial development of the LTP Instrument items and on essential performance issues of LTP. Examples of investigations on specific issue will highlight the kind of special problems to be solved for LTP in close cooperation with the Scientific Community.

  14. Detection of Double White Dwarf Binaries with Gaia, LSST and eLISA

    Korol, V.; Rossi, E. M.; Groot, P. J.

    2017-03-01

    According to simulations around 108 double degenerate white dwarf binaries are expected to be present in the Milky Way. Due to their intrinsic faintness, the detection of these systems is a challenge, and the total number of detected sources so far amounts only to a few tens. This will change in the next two decades with the advent of Gaia, the LSST and eLISA. We present an estimation of how many compact DWDs with orbital periods less than a few hours we will be able to detect 1) through electromagnetic radiation with Gaia and LSST and 2) through gravitational wave radiation with eLISA. We find that the sample of simultaneous electromagnetic and gravitational waves detections is expected to be substantial, and will provide us a powerful tool for probing the white dwarf astrophysics and the structure of the Milky Way, letting us into the era of multi-messenger astronomy for these sources.

  15. Possible Periodic Orbit Control Maneuvers for an eLISA Mission

    Bender, Peter L.; Welter, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible application of periodic orbit control maneuvers for so-called evolved-LISA (eLISA) missions, i.e., missions for which the constellation arm lengths and mean distance from the Earth are substantially reduced. We find that for missions with arm lengths of 106 km and Earth-trailing distance ranging from approx. 12deg to 20deg over the science lifetime, the occasional use of the spacecraft micro-Newton thrusters for constellation configuration maintenance should be able to essentially eliminate constellation distortion caused by Earth-induced tidal forces at a cost to science time of only a few percent. With interior angle variation kept to approx. +/-0:1deg, the required changes in the angles between the laser beam pointing directions for the two arms from any spacecraft could be kept quite small. This would considerably simplify the apparatus necessary for changing the transmitted beam directions.

  16. Searching for massive black hole binaries in the first Mock LISA Data Challenge

    Cornish, Neil J; Porter, Edward K

    2007-01-01

    The Mock LISA Data Challenge is a worldwide effort to solve the LISA data analysis problem. We present here our results for the massive black hole binary (BBH) section of round 1. Our results cover challenge 1.2.1, where the coalescence of the binary is seen, and challenge 1.2.2, where the coalescence occurs after the simulated observational period. The data stream is composed of Gaussian instrumental noise plus an unknown BBH waveform. Our search algorithm is based on a variant of the Markov chain Monte Carlo method that uses Metropolis-Hastings sampling and thermostated frequency annealing. We present results from the training data sets where we know the parameter values a priori and the blind data sets where we were informed of the parameter values after the challenge had finished. We demonstrate that our algorithm is able to rapidly locate the sources, accurately recover the source parameters and provide error estimates for the recovered parameters

  17. Supermassive Black Holes as Revealed by LISA: How Gravitational Wave Astronomy Will be a Game Changer

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly

    2018-04-01

    Astronomers now know that supermassive black holes are in nearly every galaxy.Though these black holes are an observational certainty, nearly every aspect of their evolution -- from their birth, to their fuel source, to their basic dynamics -- is a matter of lively debate. Fortunately, LISA, a space-based gravitational wave observatory set to launch in 2034, will revolutionize this field by providing data that is complementary to electromagnetic observations as well as data in regimes that are electromagnetically dark. This talk will touch on our current understanding of how SMBHs form, evolve, and alter their galaxy host, and will outline the theoretical, computational and observational work needed to make the most of LISA observations.

  18. Lisa B Signorello, ScD, ScM | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Lisa Signorello is the Director and Chief of the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) Branch in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Prevention. Dr. Signorello served as Deputy Director of the CPFP from August 2014 to November 2017 and came to the NCI after having held academic positions at the Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard Medical School, and Vanderbilt University, as well as having had significant private sector research experience. |

  19. Laser frequency stabilization and stray light issues for LISA and other future multi-spacecraft missions Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint NASA/ESA project which will use laser interferometry between drag-free proof masses to measure...

  20. Demonstration of AC and DC charge control for the LISA test masses

    Olatunde, Taiwo Janet

    2018-01-01

    Taiwo Olatunde, Stephen Apple, Andrew Chilton, Samantha Parry, Peter Wass, Guido Mueller, John W. Conklin The residual test mass acceleration in LISA must be below 3 fm/s2/√Hz at all frequencies between 0.1 and 3 mHz. Test mass charge coupled with stray electrical potentials and external electromagnetic fields is a well-known source of acceleration noise. LISA Pathfinder uses Hg lamps emitting mostly around 254 nm to discharge the test masses via photoemission, but a future LISA mission launched around 2030 will likely replace the lamps with newer UV LEDs with lower mass, better power efficiency, smaller size and higher bandwidth. This presentation will discuss charge control demonstrated on the torsion pendulum in AC and DC modes at the University of Florida using latest generation UV LEDs producing light at 240 nm with energy above the work function of pure Au. Initial results of Au quantum efficiency measurements (number of emitted electrons per incident photons) which is critical for bi-polar charge control will also be presented.

  1. Renormalized second post-Newtonian spin contributions to the accumulated orbital phase for LISA sources

    Gergely, Laszlo Arpad; Mikoczi, Balazs

    2009-01-01

    We give here a new third post-Newtonian (3PN) spin-spin contribution (in the PN parameter ε) to the accumulated orbital phase of a compact binary, arising from the spin-orbit precessional motion of the spins. In the equal mass case, this contribution vanishes, but Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) sources of merging supermassive binary black holes have typically a mass ratio of 1:10. For such nonequal masses, this 3PN correction is periodic in time, with a period approximately ε -1 times larger than the period of gravitational waves. We derive a renormalized and simpler expression of the spin-spin coefficient at 2PN, as an average over the time scale of this period of the combined 2PN and 3PN contribution. We also find that for LISA sources the quadrupole-monopole contribution to the phase dominates over the spin-spin contribution, while the self-spin contribution is negligible even for the dominant spin. Finally, we define a renormalized total spin coefficient σ to be employed in the search for gravitational waves emitted by LISA sources.

  2. Low-Frequency Gravitational-Wave Science with eLISA/ NGO

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Aoudia, Sofiane; Babak, Stanislav; Binetruy, Pierre; Berti, Emanuele; Bohe, Alejandro; Caprini, Chiara; Colpi, Monica; Cornish, Neil J.; Danzmann, Karsten; hide

    2011-01-01

    We review the expected science performance of the New Gravitational-Wave Observatory (NGO, a.k.a. eLISA), a mission under study by the European Space Agency for launch in the early 2020s. eLISA will survey the low-frequency gravitational-wave sky (from 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz), detecting and characterizing a broad variety of systems and events throughout the Universe, including the coalescences of massive black holes brought together by galaxy mergers; the inspirals of stellar-mass black holes and compact stars into central galactic black holes; several millions of ultracompact binaries, both detached and mass transferring, in the Galaxy; and possibly unforeseen sources such as the relic gravitational-wave radiation from the early Universe. eLISA's high signal-to-noise measurements will provide new insight into the structure and history of the Universe, and they will test general relativity in its strong-field dynamical regime.

  3. Sub-pm{{\\sqrt{Hz}^{-1}}} non-reciprocal noise in the LISA backlink fiber

    Fleddermann, Roland; Diekmann, Christian; Steier, Frank; Tröbs, Michael; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2018-04-01

    The future space-based gravitational wave detector laser interferometer space antenna (LISA) requires bidirectional exchange of light between its two optical benches on board of each of its three satellites. The current baseline foresees a polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber for this backlink connection. Phase changes which are common in both directions do not enter the science measurement, but differential (‘non-reciprocal’) phase fluctuations directly do and must thus be guaranteed to be small enough. We have built a setup consisting of a Zerodur baseplate with fused silica components attached to it using hydroxide-catalysis bonding and demonstrated the reciprocity of a polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber at the 1 pm \\sqrt{Hz}-1 level as is required for LISA. We used balanced detection to reduce the influence of parasitic optical beams on the reciprocity measurement and a fiber length stabilization to avoid nonlinear effects in our phase measurement system (phase meter). For LISA, a different phase meter is planned to be used that does not show this nonlinearity. We corrected the influence of beam angle changes and temperature changes on the reciprocity measurement in post-processing.

  4. Thermal diagnostic of the optical window on board LISA Pathfinder

    Nofrarias, M; MarIn, A F GarcIa; Lobo, A; Heinzel, G; Ramos-Castro, J; Sanjuan, J; Danzmann, K

    2007-01-01

    Vacuum conditions inside the LTP gravitational reference sensor must be under 10 -5 Pa, a rather demanding requirement. The optical window (OW) is an interface which seals the vacuum enclosure and, at the same time, lets the laser beam go through for interferometric metrology with the test masses. The OW is a plane-parallel plate clamped in a titanium flange, and is considerably sensitive to thermal and stress fluctuations. It is critical for the required precision measurements, hence its temperature will be carefully monitored in flight. This paper reports on the results of a series of OW characterization laboratory runs, intended to study its response to selected thermal signals, as well as their fit to numerical models, and the meaning of the latter. We find that a single-pole ARMA transfer function provides a consistent approximation to the OW response to thermal excitations, and derive a relationship with the physical processes taking place in the OW. We also show how the system noise reduction can be accomplished by means of that transfer function

  5. Editorial - Instructions

    Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise

    2007-01-01

    Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....

  6. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Insolves LLC, Piketon, OH (United States)

    2014-04-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  7. Measurement Control Workshop Instructional Materials

    Gibbs, Philip; Crawford, Cary; McGinnis, Brent

    2014-01-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  8. A response to Steubing et al., "Effects of systematic phonics instruction are practically significant": The origins of the National Reading Panel.

    Gregory Camilli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent article by Stuebing, Barth, Cirino, Francis and Fletcher critiqued the findings of Camilli, Vargas, and Yurecko (2003 and Camilli, Wolfe, and Smith (2006. With a methodological argument, they attempted to resolve the conflict between these studies and the original report Teaching Children to Read (National Reading Panel, 2000. In response, it is argued that three issues must be considered in a fair assessment of the NRP report—program labels or bins, alternative bins, and the role of literacy activities in reading instruction. In this light, three hypotheses ventured by Stuebing et al. are analyzed. It is concluded that the argument by Stuebing et al. does not reveal flaws in the original NRP report by Camilli et al. (2003, though some points of agreement are acknowledged.

  9. Automatic system for quantification and visualization of lung aeration on chest computed tomography images: the Lung Image System Analysis - LISA

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo Cesar, E-mail: jhsfelix@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Teleinformatica; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Walter Cantidio. Dept. de Medicina Clinica

    2010-12-15

    High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the exam of choice for the diagnostic evaluation of lung parenchyma diseases. There is an increasing interest for computational systems able to automatically analyze the radiological densities of the lungs in CT images. The main objective of this study is to present a system for the automatic quantification and visualization of the lung aeration in HRCT images of different degrees of aeration, called Lung Image System Analysis (LISA). The secondary objective is to compare LISA to the Osiris system and also to specific algorithm lung segmentation (ALS), on the accuracy of the lungs segmentation. The LISA system automatically extracts the following image attributes: lungs perimeter, cross sectional area, volume, the radiological densities histograms, the mean lung density (MLD) in Hounsfield units (HU), the relative area of the lungs with voxels with density values lower than -950 HU (RA950) and the 15th percentile of the least density voxels (PERC15). Furthermore, LISA has a colored mask algorithm that applies pseudo-colors to the lung parenchyma according to the pre-defined radiological density chosen by the system user. The lungs segmentations of 102 images of 8 healthy volunteers and 141 images of 11 patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were compared on the accuracy and concordance among the three methods. The LISA was more effective on lungs segmentation than the other two methods. LISA's color mask tool improves the spatial visualization of the degrees of lung aeration and the various attributes of the image that can be extracted may help physicians and researchers to better assess lung aeration both quantitatively and qualitatively. LISA may have important clinical and research applications on the assessment of global and regional lung aeration and therefore deserves further developments and validation studies. (author)

  10. Automatic system for quantification and visualization of lung aeration on chest computed tomography images: the Lung Image System Analysis - LISA

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo Cesar; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2010-01-01

    High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the exam of choice for the diagnostic evaluation of lung parenchyma diseases. There is an increasing interest for computational systems able to automatically analyze the radiological densities of the lungs in CT images. The main objective of this study is to present a system for the automatic quantification and visualization of the lung aeration in HRCT images of different degrees of aeration, called Lung Image System Analysis (LISA). The secondary objective is to compare LISA to the Osiris system and also to specific algorithm lung segmentation (ALS), on the accuracy of the lungs segmentation. The LISA system automatically extracts the following image attributes: lungs perimeter, cross sectional area, volume, the radiological densities histograms, the mean lung density (MLD) in Hounsfield units (HU), the relative area of the lungs with voxels with density values lower than -950 HU (RA950) and the 15th percentile of the least density voxels (PERC15). Furthermore, LISA has a colored mask algorithm that applies pseudo-colors to the lung parenchyma according to the pre-defined radiological density chosen by the system user. The lungs segmentations of 102 images of 8 healthy volunteers and 141 images of 11 patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) were compared on the accuracy and concordance among the three methods. The LISA was more effective on lungs segmentation than the other two methods. LISA's color mask tool improves the spatial visualization of the degrees of lung aeration and the various attributes of the image that can be extracted may help physicians and researchers to better assess lung aeration both quantitatively and qualitatively. LISA may have important clinical and research applications on the assessment of global and regional lung aeration and therefore deserves further developments and validation studies. (author)

  11. A Study of the Emergence of Student Tacit Knowledge in Response to Environmental Images and Science Instruction

    Glass, Rory J.

    The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of students' tacit understandings as they apply to environmental science content, and to discover how these understandings emerge and are viewed and interpreted by teachers. Towards that end over ten hours of classroom video was recorded and analyzed, from both large urban and smaller urban classrooms. Additionally, interviews were conducted with 15 students and two teachers to gain insight into their thinking on an array of topics related to the environment and environmental reasoning. It was hypothesized that students' understandings and teachers' interpretations of them may be influenced by their personal experiences with the natural world. For that reason, demographic information and self-reports of experiences were used to determine the extent to which tacit understandings are influenced by environmental experiences, and whether tacit understandings differed significantly by gender. The results indicate that there are significant differences between students from larger and smaller urban school districts, and males and females, in their interpretation of various environmental scenes. The data suggests that at least some of these differences are directly related to the students' experiences. The data also suggests that teachers are well aware of the importance of these less formal understandings though they are not always able to integrate them into their instruction in a timely manner. It is argued here that science education must change its focus if it is going to meet the needs of a 21st Century citizenship, making it necessary to find ways to embrace the understandings that students bring with them to school; including those, perhaps even especially those, that are mainly tacit.

  12. Non-linear quantization error reduction for the temperature measurement subsystem on-board LISA Pathfinder

    Sanjuan, J.; Nofrarias, M.

    2018-04-01

    Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder is a mission to test the technology enabling gravitational wave detection in space and to demonstrate that sub-femto-g free fall levels are possible. To do so, the distance between two free falling test masses is measured to unprecedented sensitivity by means of laser interferometry. Temperature fluctuations are one of the noise sources limiting the free fall accuracy and the interferometer performance and need to be known at the ˜10 μK Hz-1/2 level in the sub-millihertz frequency range in order to validate the noise models for the future space-based gravitational wave detector LISA. The temperature measurement subsystem on LISA Pathfinder is in charge of monitoring the thermal environment at key locations with noise levels of 7.5 μK Hz-1/2 at the sub-millihertz. However, its performance worsens by one to two orders of magnitude when slowly changing temperatures are measured due to errors introduced by analog-to-digital converter non-linearities. In this paper, we present a method to reduce this effect by data post-processing. The method is applied to experimental data available from on-ground validation tests to demonstrate its performance and the potential benefit for in-flight data. The analog-to-digital converter effects are reduced by a factor between three and six in the frequencies where the errors play an important role. An average 2.7 fold noise reduction is demonstrated in the 0.3 mHz-2 mHz band.

  13. Modulator noise suppression in the LISA time-delay interferometric combinations

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J W; Estabrook, Frank B

    2008-01-01

    Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a mission to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation through its influence on the phases of six modulated laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft. We previously showed how the measurements of some 18 time series of relative frequency or phase shifts could be combined (1) to cancel the phase noise of the lasers, (2) to cancel the Doppler fluctuations due to non-inertial motions of the six optical benches and (3) to remove the phase noise of the onboard reference oscillators required to track the photodetector fringes, all the while preserving signals from passing gravitational waves. Here we analyze the effect of the additional noise due to the optical modulators used for removing the phase fluctuations of the onboard reference oscillators. We use the recently measured noise spectrum of an individual modulator (Klipstein et al 2006 Proc. 6th Int. LISA Symp. (Greenbelt, MA) (AIP Conf. Proc. vol 873) ed S M Merkowitz and J C Livas pp 19-23) to quantify the contribution of modulator noise to the first and second-generation time-delay interferometric (TDI) combinations as a function of the modulation frequency. We show that modulator noise can be made smaller than the expected proof-mass acceleration and optical-path noises if the modulation frequencies are larger than ∼682 MHz in the case of the unequal-arm Michelson TDI combination X 1 , ∼ 1.08 GHz for the Sagnac TDI combination α 1 , and ∼706 MHz for the symmetrical Sagnac TDI combination ζ 1 . These modulation frequencies are substantially smaller than previously estimated and may lead to less stringent requirements on the LISA's oscillator noise calibration subsystem. The measurements in Klipstein et al were performed in a laboratory experiment for a range of modulation frequencies, but we emphasize that, for the reference oscillator noise calibration algorithm to work, the modulation frequencies must be equal to the

  14. Massive Black Hole Mergers: Can We "See" what LISA will "Hear"?

    Centrella, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of massive black holes produces strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. If the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We will review current efforts to simulate these systems, and discuss possibilities for observing the electromagnetic signals they produce.

  15. LISA - a powerful program package for LIstmode and Spectral data Analysis

    Oberstedt, A.; Hambsch, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    LISA is a graphical program package which enables both off-line listmode and spectral data evaluation as well as on-line monitoring while multi-parameter experiments are running. It can be executed on every computer with a UNIX operating system and an X-WINDOW environment, running PV-WAVE from Visual Numerics Incorporation. This package is basically written in the language PV-WAVE CL, but integration of procedures written in the C-language and execution of UNIX shell commands lead to an additional increase of performance. (orig.)

  16. On-orbit alignment and diagnostics for the LISA Technology Package

    MarIn, A F GarcIa; Wand, V; Steier, F; Cervantes, F Guzman; Bogenstahl, J; Jennrich, O; Heinzel, G; Danzmann, K

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure to perform fully autonomous on-orbit alignment of the interferometer on board the LISA Technology Package (LTP). LTP comprises two free-floating test masses as inertial sensors that additionally serve as end mirrors of a set of interferometers. From the output signals of the interferometers, a subset has been selected to obtain alignment information of the test masses. Based on these signals, an alignment procedure was developed and successfully tested on the engineering model of the optical bench. Furthermore, operation procedures for the characterization of critical on-orbit properties of the optical metrology system (e.g. fibre noise) have been established

  17. After-dinner speech: the path of LISA to become ‘L3’

    Huber, M. C. E.

    2017-05-01

    We describe the state of fundamental-physics experiments in space in the mid 1980s on both sides of the Atlantic, and then follow the development of this field within ESA’s Scientific Programme. The special case of LISA — a fundamental physics experiment in space also supported by astronomers, and now, following the ground-based detection of gravitational waves, the means to extend the observable spectrum of such waves towards lower frequencies and long-lasting signals — is then followed in its rise to become the ‘Large Project L3’ of ESA.

  18. Observing extreme-mass-ratio inspirals with eLISA/NGO

    Gair, Jonathan R; Porter, Edward K

    2012-01-01

    The extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar mass compact objects into massive black holes in the centres of galaxies are an important source of low-frequency gravitational waves for space-based detectors. We discuss the prospects for detecting these sources with the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), recently proposed as an ESA mission candidate under the name NGO. We show that NGO could observe a few tens of EMRIs over its two year mission lifetime at redshifts z < 0...

  19. LISA. A code for safety assessment in nuclear waste disposals program description and user guide

    Saltelli, A.; Bertozzi, G.; Stanners, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The code LISA (Long term Isolation Safety Assessment), developed at the Joint Research Centre, Ispra is a useful tool in the analysis of the hazard due to the disposal of nuclear waste in geological formations. The risk linked to preestablished release scenarios is assessed by the code in terms of dose rate to a maximum exposed individual. The various submodels in the code simulate the system of barriers -both natural and man made- which are interposed between the contaminants and man. After a description of the code features a guide for the user is supplied and then a test case is presented

  20. Effects of different eLISA-like configurations on massive black hole parameter estimation

    Porter, Edward K.

    2015-09-01

    As the theme for the future L3 Cosmic Vision mission, ESA has recently chosen the "Gravitational Wave Universe." Within this program, a mission concept called eLISA has been proposed. This observatory has a current initial configuration consisting of four laser links between the three satellites, which are separated by a distance of one million kilometers, constructing a single-channel Michelson interferometer. However, the final configuration for the observatory will not be fixed until the end of this decade. With this in mind, we investigate the effect of different eLISA-like configurations on massive black hole detections. This work compares the results of a Bayesian inference study of 120 massive black hole binaries out to a redshift of z ˜13 for a 106 km arm length eLISA with four and six links, as well as a 2 ×106 km arm length observatory with four links. We demonstrate that the original eLISA configuration should allow us to recover the luminosity distance of the source with an error of less than 10% out to a redshift of z ˜4 , and a sky error box of Δ Ω ≤102 deg2 out to z ˜0.1 . In contrast, both alternative configurations suggest that we should be able to conduct the same parameter recovery with errors of less than 10% in luminosity distance out to z ˜12 and Δ Ω ≤102 deg2 out to z ˜0.4 . Using the information from these studies, we also infer that if we were able to construct a 2 Gm, six-link detector, the above values would shift to z ˜20 for luminosity distance and z ˜0.9 for sky error. While the final configuration will also be dependent on both technological and financial considerations, our study suggests that increasing the size of a two-arm detector is a viable alternative to the inclusion of a third arm in a smaller detector. More importantly, this work further suggests no clear scientific loss between either choice.

  1. Constraining early and interacting dark energy with gravitational wave standard sirens: the potential of the eLISA mission

    Caprini, Chiara; Tamanini, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    We perform a forecast analysis of the capability of the eLISA space-based interferometer to constrain models of early and interacting dark energy using gravitational wave standard sirens. We employ simulated catalogues of standard sirens given by merging massive black hole binaries visible by eLISA, with an electromagnetic counterpart detectable by future telescopes. We consider three-arms mission designs with arm length of 1, 2 and 5 million km, 5 years of mission duration and the best-level low frequency noise as recently tested by the LISA Pathfinder. Standard sirens with eLISA give access to an intermediate range of redshift 1 ∼< z ∼< 8, and can therefore provide competitive constraints on models where the onset of the deviation from ΛCDM (i.e. the epoch when early dark energy starts to be non-negligible, or when the interaction with dark matter begins) occurs relatively late, at z ∼< 6. If instead early or interacting dark energy is relevant already in the pre-recombination era, current cosmological probes (especially the cosmic microwave background) are more efficient than eLISA in constraining these models, except possibly in the interacting dark energy model if the energy exchange is proportional to the energy density of dark energy.

  2. RTI and the Adolescent Reader: Responsive Literacy Instruction in Secondary Schools (Middle and High School). Language & Literacy Series Practitioners Bookshelf

    Brozo, William G.

    2011-01-01

    "RTI and the Adolescent Reader" focuses exclusively on Response to Intervention (RTI) for literacy at the secondary level. In this accessible guide, William Brozo defines RTI and explains why and how it is considered a viable intervention model for adolescent readers. He analyzes the authentic structural, political, cultural, and teacher…

  3. The influences of task repetition, napping, time of day, and instruction on the Sustained Attention to Response Task

    Schie, M.K.M. van; Alblas, E.E.; Thijs, R.D.; Fronczek, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) helps to quantify vigilance impairments. Previous studies, in which five SART sessions on one day were administered, demonstrated worse performance during the first session than during the others. The present study comprises two

  4. Effectiveness of Instruction and Video Feedback on Staff's Use of Prompts and Children's Adaptive Responses during One-to-One Training in Children with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability

    van Vonderen, Annemarie; de Swart, Charlotte; Didden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Although relatively many studies have addressed staff training and its effect on trainer behavior, the effects of staff training on trainee's adaptive behaviors have seldomly been examined. We therefore assessed effectiveness of staff training, consisting of instruction and video feedback, on (a) staff's response prompting, and (b) staff's trainer…

  5. Instructional Partners, Principals, Teachers, and Instructional Assistants.

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    This handbook examines various topics of interest and concern to teachers as they work with instructional assistants forming a classroom instructional partnership and functioning as a team. These topics include: (1) instructional assistant qualifications; (2) duties--instructional, classroom clerical, auxillary; (3) factors to be considered when…

  6. Compact laser interferometer for translation and tilt measurement as optical readout for the LISA inertial sensor

    Schuldt, Thilo; Gohlke, Martin; Weise, Dennis; Johann, Ulrich; Peters, Achim; Braxmaier, Claus

    2007-10-01

    The space mission LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) aims at detecting gravitational waves in the frequency range 30 μ Hz to 1Hz. Free flying proof masses inside the satellites act as inertial sensors and represent the end mirrors of the interferometer. In the current baseline design, LISA utilizes an optical readout of the position and tilt of the proof mass with respect to the satellite housing. This readout must have ~ 5pm/√Hz sensitivity for the translation measurement (for frequencies above 2.8mHz with an ƒ -2 relaxation down to 30 μHz) and ~ 10 nrad/√Hz sensitivity for the tilt measurement (for frequencies above 0.1mHz with an ƒ -1 relaxation down to 30 μHz). The University of Applied Sciences Konstanz (HTWG) - in collaboration with Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen, and the Humboldt-University Berlin - therefore develops a highly symmetric heterodyne interferometer implementing differential wavefront sensing for the tilt measurement. We realized a mechanically highly stable and compact setup. In a second, improved setup we measured initial noise levels below 5 pm/√Hz and 10 nrad/√Hz, respectively, for frequencies above 10mHz.

  7. Principles, operations, and expected performance of the LISA Pathfinder charge management system

    Ziegler, T [Astrium GmbH, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Fichter, W [iFR, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 7a, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Schulte, M [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Vitale, S, E-mail: tobias.ziegler@astrium.eads.ne [Department of Physics, University of Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2009-03-01

    The test masses of LISA Pathfinder are free flying and therefore not grounded to the spacecraft by a wire. Because of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and unknown microscopic surface effects during initial test mass release, an unacceptable level of absolute charge might be present on the test masses. A charged test mass can endanger transition to high accuracy control modes which are required for science experiments. Furthermore, charged test masses introduce unwanted disturbance accelerations for example due to Coulomb interactions with surrounding conducting surfaces. The charge management system is designed to discharge the test masses up to a tolerable level of absolute charge such that the mission goal can be achieved. It is therefore an essential part of the experiments to be performed with the LISA Technology Package. The paper describes charge management tasks to be performed on board the spacecraft and summarizes the principles of charge measurement and discharge control. An overview of the experiment operations is given where the interconnection of operational charge management system modes and operational modes of the drag-free, suspension and attitude control system is considered. Simulated performance results are presented.

  8. Metal-amplified Density Assays, (MADAs), including a Density-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DeLISA).

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Gonidec, Mathieu; Shapiro, Nathan D; Kresse, Kayleigh M; Whitesides, George M

    2015-02-21

    This paper reports the development of Metal-amplified Density Assays, or MADAs - a method of conducting quantitative or multiplexed assays, including immunoassays, by using Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) to measure metal-amplified changes in the density of beads labeled with biomolecules. The binding of target analytes (i.e. proteins, antibodies, antigens) to complementary ligands immobilized on the surface of the beads, followed by a chemical amplification of the binding in a form that results in a change in the density of the beads (achieved by using gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules, and electroless deposition of gold or silver), translates analyte binding events into changes in density measureable using MagLev. A minimal model based on diffusion-limited growth of hemispherical nuclei on a surface reproduces the dynamics of the assay. A MADA - when performed with antigens and antibodies - is called a Density-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, or DeLISA. Two immunoassays provided a proof of principle: a competitive quantification of the concentration of neomycin in whole milk, and a multiplexed detection of antibodies against Hepatitis C virus NS3 protein and syphilis T. pallidum p47 protein in serum. MADAs, including DeLISAs, require, besides the requisite biomolecules and amplification reagents, minimal specialized equipment (two permanent magnets, a ruler or a capillary with calibrated length markings) and no electrical power to obtain a quantitative readout of analyte concentration. With further development, the method may be useful in resource-limited or point-of-care settings.

  9. Parasites and hepatic histopathological lesions in lisa (Mugil incilis from Totumo mash, North of Colombia

    Jesús Olivero V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the levels of parasitism by nematodes and trematodes, as well as the hepatic histopathological alterations present in Mugil incilis (Lisa from Totumo marsh, North of Colombia. Materials and methods. Between July 2004 and June 2005, 500 fish were collected at Totumo Marsh (75°16’W and 10°44´N, North of Colombia. Morphometric and parasitic parameters were determined for each specimen, and the hepatic histopathological status of the liver was assessed by analyzing liver slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results. Nematode larvae isolated from Mugil incilis corresponded to Contracaecum spp. Parasite prevalence was 60.49%. Parasitic mean abundance and mean intensity were 4.8±1.05 and 7.02±1.49, nematodes per fish, respectively. The correlation between nematode mean abundance and fish length was significant and positive (r=0.525, p<0.0001, but negative for condition factor (r=-0.109, p=0.014. Hepatic histopathological analysis revealed the presence of encapsulated trematode larvae as the main finding. However, the presence of inflammation, granulomas, steatosis and necrosis, were also registered as secondary alterations. Conclusions. Lisas collected at Totumo Marsh are parasitized with nematodes and trematodes. These fish have different histopathological lesions in the liver tissue, being the most important the presence of trematode encapsulated cyst that generate inflammatory reactions, and negatively correlate with morphometric markers of fish health.

  10. Simulation of the charging process of the LISA test masses due to solar flares

    Vocca, H; Grimani, C; Amico, P; Bosi, L; Marchesoni, F; Punturo, M; Travasso, F; Barone, M; Stanga, R; Vetrano, F; Vicere, A

    2004-01-01

    Cosmic-ray and solar high energy particles penetrate the LISA experiment test masses. Consequently, an electric charge accumulates in the bodies of the masses, generating spurious Coulomb forces between the masses and the surrounding electrodes. This process increases the noise level of the experiment. We have estimated the amount of charge deposited per second on the LISA test masses by solar flares and primary cosmic-ray protons at solar minimum. The simulation has been carried out with the Fluka Monte Carlo program. A simplified geometry for the experiment has been considered. We have found a net charging rate of 37 ± 1 e + /s for primary protons at solar minimum between 0.1 and 1000 GeV/n. The amount of charge released by a medium-strong solar flare, like that of 16 February 1984, is 10 732 ± 30 e + /s in the energy range 0.1-10 GeV/n. This value increases or decreases by approximately one order of magnitude for strong (weak) solar flares

  11. Science with the space-based interferometer eLISA. II. Gravitational waves from cosmological phase transitions

    Caprini, Chiara; Hindmarsh, Mark; Helsinki Univ.; Huber, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the potential for the eLISA space-based interferometer to detect the stochastic gravitational wave background produced by strong first-order cosmological phase transitions. We discuss the resulting contributions from bubble collisions, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, and sound waves to the stochastic background, and estimate the total corresponding signal predicted in gravitational waves. The projected sensitivity of eLISA to cosmological phase transitions is computed in a model-independent way for various detector designs and configurations. By applying these results to several specific models, we demonstrate that eLISA is able to probe many well-motivated scenarios beyond the Standard Model of particle physics predicting strong first-order cosmological phase transitions in the early Universe.

  12. Facility transition instruction

    Morton, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facility transition instruction was initiated in response to the need for a common, streamlined process for facility transitions and to capture the knowledge and experience that has accumulated over the last few years. The instruction serves as an educational resource and defines the process for transitioning facilities to long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M). Generally, these facilities do not have identified operations missions and must be transitioned from operational status to a safe and stable configuration for long-term S and M. The instruction can be applied to a wide range of facilities--from process canyon complexes like the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility or B Plant, to stand-alone, lower hazard facilities like the 242B/BL facility. The facility transition process is implemented (under the direction of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office [RL] Assistant Manager-Environmental) by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. management, with input and interaction with the appropriate RL division and Hanford site contractors as noted in the instruction. The application of the steps identified herein and the early participation of all organizations involved are expected to provide a cost-effective, safe, and smooth transition from operational status to deactivation and S and M for a wide range of Hanford Site facilities

  13. Reorganizing the Instructional Reading Components: Could There Be a Better Way to Design Remedial Reading Programs to Maximize Middle School Students with Reading Disabilities' Response to Treatment?

    Calhoon, Mary Beth; Sandow, Alexia; Hunter, Charles V.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to explore if there could be a more beneficial method in organizing the individual instructional reading components (phonological decoding, spelling, fluency, and reading comprehension) within a remedial reading program to increase sensitivity to instruction for middle school students with reading disabilities…

  14. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 7th International LISA Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June 2008 Proceedings of the 7th International LISA Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June 2008

    Lobo, Alberto; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2009-05-01

    In June 2006 the LISA International Science Team (LIST) accepted the bid presented by the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC) to host the 7th International LISA Symposium. This was during its 11th meeting at the University of Maryland, just before the 6th edition of the symposium started at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The 7th International LISA Symposium took place in the city of Barcelona, Spain, 16-20 June, 2008, in the premises of CosmoCaixa, a modern science museum located in the hills near Tibidabo. Almost 240 delegates registered for the event, a record breaking figure compared to previous editions of the symposium. Many of the most renowned world experts in LISA, gravitational wave science, and astronomy, as well as engineers, attended LISA #7 and produced state of the art presentations, while everybody benefited from the opportunity to have live discussions during the week in a friendly environment. The programme included 31 invited plenary lectures in the mornings, and eight parallel sessions in the afternoons. These were classified into seven major areas of research: LISA Technology, LISA PathFinder, LISA PathFinder Data Analysis, LISA Data Analysis, Gravitational Wave Sources, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with LISA and Other Gravitational Wave Detectors. Abstracts for 138 communications were received, from which a selection was made by the session convenors which would fit time constraints. Up to 63 posters completed the scientific programme. More details on the programme, including some of the talks, can be found at the symposium website:http://www.ice.cat/research/LISA_Symposium. There was, however, a remarkable add-on: Professor Clifford Will delivered a startling presentation to the general public, who completely filled the Auditori—the main conference room, 320 seats—and were invited to ask questions to the speaker who boldly guided them through the daunting world of Black Holes, Waves of Gravity, and other Warped Ideas

  15. Instructional immediacy in elearning.

    Walkem, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Instructor immediacy has been positively associated with many desirable academic outcomes including increased student learning. This study extends existing understanding of instructional immediacy behaviours in elearning by describing postgraduate nursing students' reflections on their own experience. An exploratory, descriptive survey design was used to collect qualitative data. Participants were asked what behaviours or activities help to create rapport or a positive interpersonal connection (immediacy) between students and their online teacher(s). Thematic analysis of the data revealed three main themes: acknowledging and affirming student's personal and professional responsibilities; providing clear and timely information; and utilising rich media. These findings give lecturers insight into instructional strategies they may adopt to increase immediacy in elearning and hence improve student learning outcomes.

  16. "Hold up..do pigs eat bacon?!" An investigation of science instruction for urban Black youth and the need for a culturally considerate response

    Ridgeway, Monica Lynn

    As a critical race ethnography, this dissertation attempts to foreground the richness of Black urban youth culture during and around science classroom instruction. Ironically, during an era of much diversity rhetoric in the United States, the culture of urban Black youth is rarely reflected in mainstream public school culture. I attempt to explicate such a worldview compassionately and authentically for both insiders and outsiders of the lived experiences of Black America. Education in the United States can be damning for Black youth who do not fit the mainstream mold, and several authors have provided detailed critique of mechanisms that shape, direct, and marginalize outliers to the successful academic cultural model. The U.S. through this lens is experiencing an opportunity gap, not an achievement gap--one which equitable educational experience can best be viewed through the richness of critical ethnographic methods. This methodical approach allowed me as a researcher to listen to marginalized voices and to incorporate lived interactions with youth, their parents, and community stakeholders all committed to provide support for the today's youth. As a Black female science educator, I explore the evidence for reform impact as I examine in school experiences and science teaching of culturally relevant pedagogies for urban, working-class and poor families of color in grades six-eight who participated in a Western New York academic enrichment program. Findings suggest that skepticism of reform efforts and new pedagogical approaches existed for all stakeholders aforementioned, but that students were the most amenable and responsive to alternative educational approaches. Specific recommendations for engaging students in inquiry processes are given for teachers, institutions, parents and students on the basis of videotaped lessons, interviews, and instructional artifacts. Implications include the recommendations that educators working with youth of color need to be

  17. The low emittance 2.5 GeV synchrotron light source LISA

    Einfeld, D.; Hormes, J.; Husmann, D.

    1992-01-01

    LISA, a Light source for Industrial and Scientific Applications, has been proposed. Due to the intention to use the source above all for the LIGA (Lithographie, Galvanik, Abformtechnik) method to produce micromechanical structures, the critical wavelength of the synchrotron radiation spectrum is foreseen to be 0.2 nm. Therefore, the electron energy and the field strength of the ring dipoles have been chosen to be 2.5 GeV and 1.5 T, respectively. It is proposed to make use of a modified 'quadrupole ben achromat' (QBA) lattice. The novel feature of this lattice is the application of two types of bending magnets of different lengths, i.e. different bending angels. (author) 9 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Metaphors Expressing Emotions in Lisa Kleypas’s Rainshadow Road Novel

    Novi Liana Ko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors have been always interesting to explore since they are able to represent many things, one of which is feelings. Article examined the metaphorical sentences which expressed emotions found in Lisa Kleypas’s the Rainshadow Road. Library research was conducted to find the kinds of emotions which were expressed by the metaphorical sentences. It was also done to figure out what the metaphors refered to. Another objective was to reveal the most dominant emotion which appeared through the metaphors expressed in the novel. The analysis used metaphor theory to compare the dictionary meaning and the metaphorical one. The result shows that there are various emotions which are expressed through the metaphorical sentences. Happiness is found as the most dominant emotion which appears in the novel.

  19. Actuation stability test of the LISA pathfinder inertial sensor front-end electronics

    Mance, Davor; Gan, Li; Weber, Bill; Weber, Franz; Zweifel, Peter

    In order to limit the residual stray forces on the inertial sensor test mass in LISA pathfinder, √ it is required that the fluctuation of the test mass actuation voltage is within 2ppm/ Hz. The actuation voltage stability test on the flight hardware of the inertial sensor front-end electronics (IS FEE) is presented in this paper. This test is completed during the inertial sensor integration at EADS Astrium Friedrichshafen, Germany. The standard measurement method using voltmeter is not sufficient for verification, since the instrument low frequency √ fluctuation is higher than the 2ppm/ Hz requirement. In this test, by using the differential measurement method and the lock-in amplifier, the actuation stability performance is verified and the quality of the IS FEE hardware is confirmed by the test results.

  20. Inference on white dwarf binary systems using the first round Mock LISA Data Challenges data sets

    Stroeer, Alexander; Veitch, John; Roever, Christian; Bloomer, Ed; Clark, James; Christensen, Nelson; Hendry, Martin; Messenger, Chris; Meyer, Renate; Pitkin, Matthew; Toher, Jennifer; Umstaetter, Richard; Vecchio, Alberto; Woan, Graham

    2007-01-01

    We report on the analysis of selected single source data sets from the first round of the mock LISA data challenges (MLDC) for white dwarf binaries. We implemented an end-to-end pipeline consisting of a grid-based coherent pre-processing unit for signal detection and an automatic Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) post-processing unit for signal evaluation. We demonstrate that signal detection with our coherent approach is secure and accurate, and is increased in accuracy and supplemented with additional information on the signal parameters by our Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach. We also demonstrate that the Markov Chain Monte Carlo routine is additionally able to determine accurately the noise level in the frequency window of interest

  1. Auxiliary functions of the LISA laser link: ranging, clock noise transfer and data communication

    Heinzel, Gerhard; Esteban, Juan Jose; Barke, Simon; Otto, Markus; Wang Yan; Garcia, Antonio F; Danzmann, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is required to reduce two important noise sources by post-processing on the ground using time-delay interferometry (TDI): phase noise of the on-board reference clocks and laser frequency noise. To achieve the desired suppression, the TDI algorithm needs measurements of the differential clock noise between any two spacecraft and inter-spacecraft ranging measurements with at least 1 m accuracy, which is beyond the precision of ground-based measurements for deep space missions. Therefore, we need on-board measurements by transmitting clock noise and ranging information between the spacecraft as auxiliary functions of the laser link. This paper reports our current experimental results in clock noise transfer and ranging for noise subtraction via post-processing as well as additional data transfer.

  2. Massive Black Hole Mergers: Can we see what LISA will hear?

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Coalescing massive black hole binaries are formed when galaxies merge. The final stages of this coalescence produce strong gravitational wave signals that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. When the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a first step towards this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We report on the results of these initial simulations and discuss their likely importance for future hydrodynamical simulations.

  3. eLISA Telescope In-field Pointing and Scattered Light Study

    Livas, J.; Sankar, S.; West, G.; Seals, L.; Howard, J.; Fitzsimons, E.

    2017-05-01

    The orbital motion of the three spacecraft that make up the eLISA Observatory constellation causes long-arm line of sight variations of approximately ± one degree over the course of a year. The baseline solution is to package the telescope, the optical bench, and the gravitational reference sensor (GRS) into an optical assembly at each end of the measurement arm, and then to articulate the assembly. An optical phase reference is exchanged between the moving optical benches with a single mode optical fiber (“backlink” fiber). An alternative solution, referred to as in-field pointing, embeds a steering mirror into the optical design, fixing the optical benches and eliminating the backlink fiber, but requiring the additional complication of a two-stage optical design for the telescope. We examine the impact of an in-field pointing design on the scattered light performance.

  4. A constrained Metropolis-Hastings search for EMRIs in the Mock LISA Data Challenge 1B

    Gair, Jonathan R; Porter, Edward; Babak, Stanislav; Barack, Leor

    2008-01-01

    We describe a search for the extreme-mass-ratio inspiral sources in the Round 1B Mock LISA Data Challenge data sets. The search algorithm is a Monte Carlo search based on the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, but also incorporates simulated, thermostated and time annealing, plus a harmonic identification stage designed to reduce the chance of the chain locking onto secondary maxima. In this paper, we focus on describing the algorithm that we have been developing. We give the results of the search of the Round 1B data, although parameter recovery has improved since that deadline. Finally, we describe several modifications to the search pipeline that we are currently investigating for incorporation in future searches

  5. Bell's palsy: the answer to the riddle of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Mona Lisa'.

    Maloney, W J

    2011-05-01

    The smile of the famed portrait 'The Mona Lisa' has perplexed both art historians and researchers for the past 500 years. There has been a multitude of theories expounded to explain the nature of the model's enigmatic smile. The origin of the model's wry smile can be demonstrated through a careful analysis of both documented facts concerning the portrait--some gathered only recently through the use of modern technology--and a knowledge of the clinical presentation of Bell's palsy. Bell's palsy is more prevalent in women who are either pregnant or who have recently given birth. This paper postulates that the smile of the portrait's model was due to Leonardo da Vinci's anatomically precise representation of a new mother affected by Bell's palsy subsequent to her recent pregnancy.

  6. Selective metallization of polymers using laser induced surface activation (LISA)—characterization and optimization of porous surface topography

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Grave, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Laser induced selective activation (LISA) is a molded interconnected devices technique for selective metallization of polymers. On the working piece, only the laser-machined area can be metalized in the subsequent plating. The principle of the technology is introduced. Surface analysis was perfor...

  7. Simple Enough--Even for Web Virgins: Lisa Mitten's Access to Native American Web Sites. Web Site Review Essay.

    Belgarde, Mary Jiron

    1998-01-01

    A mixed-blood Mohawk urban Indian and university librarian, Lisa Mitten provides access to Web sites with solid information about American Indians. Links are provided to 10 categories--Native nations, Native organizations, Indian education, Native media, powwows and festivals, Indian music, Native arts, Native businesses, and Indian-oriented home…

  8. Search for a stochastic gravitational-wave signal in the second round of the Mock LISA Data Challenges

    Robinson, E L; Vecchio, A; Romano, J D

    2008-01-01

    The analysis method currently proposed to search for isotropic stochastic radiation with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) relies on the combined use of two LISA channels, one of which is insensitive to gravitational waves, such as the symmetrized Sagnac. For this method to work, it is essential to know how the instrumental noise power in the two channels are related to one another; however, no quantitative estimates of this key information are available to date. The purpose of our study is to assess the performance of the symmetrized Sagnac method for different levels of prior information regarding the instrumental noise. We develop a general approach in the framework of Bayesian inference and an end-to-end analysis algorithm based on Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to compute the posterior probability density functions of the relevant model parameters. We apply this method to data released as part of the second round of the Mock LISA Data Challenges. For the selected (and somewhat idealized) example cases considered here, we find that for a signal whose amplitude dominates the instrumental noise by a factor ∼25, a prior uncertainty of a factor ∼2 in the ratio between the power of the instrumental noise contributions in the two channels allows for the detection of isotropic stochastic radiation. More importantly, we provide a framework for more realistic studies of LISA's performance and development of analysis techniques in the context of searches for stochastic signals

  9. Playing Harry Potter: Essays and interviews on fandom and performance, edited by Lisa S. Brenner [book review

    Abigail De Kosnik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of Lisa S. Brenner, editor. Playing Harry Potter: Essays and interviews on fandom and performance. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2015, paperback, $29.95 (238p ISBN 978-0-7864-9657-0, e-book $14.43 (5374 KB ISBN 978-1-4766-2136-4, ASIN B012E9G0R6.

  10. Theory and modelling of the magnetic field measurement in LISA PathFinder

    Diaz-Aguilo, M; Garcia-Berro, E [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades, 5, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Lobo, A, E-mail: marc.diaz.aguilo@fa.upc.ed [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, c/Gran Capita 2-4, Edif. Nexus 104, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-02-07

    The magnetic diagnostics subsystem of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA PathFinder (LPF) spacecraft includes a set of four tri-axial fluxgate magnetometers, intended to measure with high precision the magnetic field at their respective positions. However, their readouts do not provide a direct measurement of the magnetic field at the positions of the test masses, and hence an interpolation method must be designed and implemented to obtain the values of the magnetic field at these positions. However, such an interpolation process faces serious difficulties. Indeed, the size of the interpolation region is excessive for a linear interpolation to be reliable while, on the other hand, the number of magnetometer channels do not provide sufficient data to go beyond the linear approximation. We describe an alternative method to address this issue, by means of neural network algorithms. The key point in this approach is the ability of neural networks to learn from suitable training data representing the behaviour of the magnetic field. Despite the relatively large distance between the test masses and the magnetometers, and the insufficient number of data channels, we find that our artificial neural network algorithm is able to reduce the estimation errors of the field and gradient down to levels below 10%, a quite satisfactory result. Learning efficiency can be best improved by making use of data obtained in on-ground measurements prior to mission launch in all relevant satellite locations and in real operation conditions. Reliable information on that appears to be essential for a meaningful assessment of magnetic noise in the LTP.

  11. Theory and modelling of the magnetic field measurement in LISA PathFinder

    Diaz-Aguilo, M; Garcia-Berro, E; Lobo, A

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic diagnostics subsystem of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) on board the LISA PathFinder (LPF) spacecraft includes a set of four tri-axial fluxgate magnetometers, intended to measure with high precision the magnetic field at their respective positions. However, their readouts do not provide a direct measurement of the magnetic field at the positions of the test masses, and hence an interpolation method must be designed and implemented to obtain the values of the magnetic field at these positions. However, such an interpolation process faces serious difficulties. Indeed, the size of the interpolation region is excessive for a linear interpolation to be reliable while, on the other hand, the number of magnetometer channels do not provide sufficient data to go beyond the linear approximation. We describe an alternative method to address this issue, by means of neural network algorithms. The key point in this approach is the ability of neural networks to learn from suitable training data representing the behaviour of the magnetic field. Despite the relatively large distance between the test masses and the magnetometers, and the insufficient number of data channels, we find that our artificial neural network algorithm is able to reduce the estimation errors of the field and gradient down to levels below 10%, a quite satisfactory result. Learning efficiency can be best improved by making use of data obtained in on-ground measurements prior to mission launch in all relevant satellite locations and in real operation conditions. Reliable information on that appears to be essential for a meaningful assessment of magnetic noise in the LTP.

  12. Elimination of vibrio cholerae in lisa fillets (Mugil cephalus) by gamma radiation

    Torres, Z.

    1999-03-01

    The elimination of Vibrio cholerae 01 biotype El Tor (1,87 8 cuf/g) in fresh lisa fillets (Mugil cephalus) with radiation doses of 0 and 0,5 kGy was investigated. Furthermore, in order to evaluate physical, chemical and sensory changes, doses of 1,2,3 and 4 kGy were applied to non inoculated fillets of lisa. Finally, D 10 for Vibrio cholerae was determined in a saline suspension (5,2x10 8 cfu/ml) based on the Most Probable Number (MPN) method and radiation doses of 0,5, 0,75, 1,0, 1,25 and 1,5 kGy. D value found in a 1,87 8 cfu/g concentration of fillet was 0,13 kGy. Humidity, protein, fat and ash contents were not affected significantly and remained around 73 to 75,5, 3,8 to 4,2 and 1% respectively. Control samples showed a 'drip' variation ranging between 0,82 and 0,88% and a N-BVT variation between 1,77 and 1,56, 0,89 and 1,99, 2,13 and 2,47, 1,86 and 2,10%, and a N-BVT variation between 17,79 and 30,16, 16,37 and 26,88 16,33 and 25,12, 15,31 and 33,54 mg N/100 g, respectively. The highest life span for the appearance characteristic was obtained by control samples (23 days) and the lowest by samples radiated at 3 and 4 kGy (28 days). 4 kGy dose resulted in organoleptic changes perceived by panelists during tasting of cooked fish. D 10 found in a saline suspension was 0,13 kGy

  13. Editorial. Special issue of Classical and Quantum Gravity on the proceedings of the 4th international LISA symposium

    Finn, Lee Samuel

    2003-01-01

    The 4th International LISA Symposium was held at the National Science Foundation Physics Frontier Center for Gravitational Wave Physics at The Pennsylvania State University on 19-24 July 2002. This special issue of Classical and Quantum Gravity is the proceedings of this meeting. LISA - the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna - is part of an international effort to open a new window on the universe. Not all things radiate light, but everything gravitates. Observations of the gravitational waves radiated by black holes and compact binary star systems, in our galaxy and beyond, can reveal details about these systems and their environments that are otherwise inaccessible. The international effort, of which LISA is a part, includes ground-based detectors, and the relationship between LISA and its ground-based detector 'cousins' was an important theme for this Symposium. LISA will observe gravitational waves in the 0.1 mHz to 0.1 Hz band, complementing observations made by ground-based detectors in the 10 Hz to several KHz band. Together they will explore nearly six decades of bandwidth in the gravitational-wave sky. LISA in particular will observe the gravitational waves radiated by the coalescence of black holes at the centres of colliding galaxies, and the inspiral of compact neutron stars or stellar-mass black holes onto these black holes, virtually anywhere in the universe. It will take a census of neutron star or close white dwarf binaries in our own galaxy and observe the formation of large black holes from the very first structures to form and collapse in our universe. In doing all these things, it will shed new 'light' on the first structures to form in the universe, explore the evolution of galaxies and the roles that black holes play in their structure, test relativity near the 'edges' of a black hole, and deepen our understanding of stellar and binary system evolution. A successful conference - and this LISA Symposium, like its predecessors, was very

  14. Makiguchi Tsunesaburo and Language, Value-Creative Composition Instruction, and the Geography of Identity in Community Studies: A Response to Politicized Imagining and Ineffective Critical Approaches

    Goulah, Jason

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author examines Makiguchi Tsunesaburo's philosophy and practice of human geography ("jinsei chirigaku"), community studies ("kyodoka"), and composition instruction based on "value-creating pedagogy" ("soka kyoikugaku") for thinking through and responding to two competing trends…

  15. Responding to Reading Instruction in a Primary-Grade Classroom

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Porter, Leah; Edwards, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a snapshot of how one kindergarten and Reading Recovery teacher organized instruction in her classroom, enabling her to provide constructively responsive reading assessment and instruction for her developing and struggling readers. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Strategy Instruction in Mathematics.

    Goldman, Susan R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments in strategy instruction for mathematics have been conducted using three models (direct instruction, self-instruction, and guided learning) applied to the tasks of computation and word problem solving. Results have implications for effective strategy instruction for learning disabled students. It is recommended that strategy instruction…

  17. Making the Most of Instructional Coaches

    Kane, Britnie Delinger; Rosenquist, Brooks

    2018-01-01

    Although coaching holds great promise for professional development, instructional coaches are often asked to take on responsibilities that are not focused on improving instruction. The authors discuss a quantitative study of four school districts and a qualitative analysis of a single district that, together, reveal how hiring practices and school…

  18. The Future of Instructional Teacher Leader Roles

    Mangin, Melinda M.; Stoelinga, Sara Ray

    2010-01-01

    In response to increased performance expectations, schools and districts are turning to nonsupervisory, school-based, instructional teacher leader roles to help improve teachers' instruction and enhance student learning. Increased opportunities to learn about teacher leadership may facilitate the implementation and institutionalization of…

  19. Library Instruction. SPEC Kit 17.

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    At the request of the Pennsylvania State University Library, the Office of Management Studies surveyed Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members requesting information and documentation illustrating the organization, nature, and level of the library instruction function at their institutions. A review of the responses from 64 of the 94 ARL…

  20. Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Hays, Tricia

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  1. Optical metrology alignment and impact on the measurement performance of the LISA Technology Package

    Hirth, M; Fichter, W; Brandt, N; Gerardi, D [iFR, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 7a, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Schleicher, A [Astrium GmbH, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Wanner, G, E-mail: marc.hirth@ifr.uni-stuttgart.d [Albert Einstein Institut, Callinstrasse 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    Aside from LISA Pathfinder's top-level acceleration requirement, there is a stringent independent requirement for the accuracy of the optical metrology system. In case of a perfectly aligned metrology system (optical bench and test masses) it should rather be independent of residual displacement jitter due to control. However, this ideal case will not be achieved as mechanical tolerances and uncertainties lead to a direct impact of test mass and spacecraft displacement jitter on the optical measurement accuracy. In this paper, we present a strategy how to cover these effects for a systematic requirement breakdown. We use a simplified nonlinear geometrical model for the differential distance measurement of the test masses which is linearized and linked to the equations of motion for both the spacecraft and the two test masses. This leads from test mass relative displacement to a formulation in terms of applied force/torque and thus allows to distinguish the absolute motion of each of the three bodies. It further shows how motions in each degree of freedom couple linearly into the optical measurement via DC misalignments of the laser beam and the test masses. This finally allows for deriving requirements on the alignment accuracy of components and on permittable closed-loop acceleration noise. In the last part a budget for the expected measurement performance is compiled from simulations as no measurement data is available yet.

  2. The late inspiral of supermassive black hole binaries with circumbinary gas discs in the LISA band

    Tang, Yike; Haiman, Zoltán; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of 2D, moving-mesh, viscous hydrodynamical simulations of an accretion disc around a merging supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB). The simulation is pseudo-Newtonian, with the BHs modelled as point masses with a Paczynski-Wiita potential, and includes viscous heating, shock heating, and radiative cooling. We follow the gravitational inspiral of an equal-mass binary with a component mass Mbh = 106 M⊙ from an initial separation of 60rg (where rg ≡ GMbh/c2 is the gravitational radius) to the merger. We find that a central, low-density cavity forms around the binary, as in previous work, but that the BHs capture gas from the circumbinary disc and accrete efficiently via their own minidiscs, well after their inspiral outpaces the viscous evolution of the disc. The system remains luminous, displaying strong periodicity at twice the binary orbital frequency throughout the entire inspiral process, all the way to the merger. In the soft X-ray band, the thermal emission is dominated by the inner edge of the circumbinary disc with especially clear periodicity in the early inspiral. By comparison, harder X-ray emission is dominated by the minidiscs, and the light curve is initially more noisy but develops a clear periodicity in the late inspiral stage. This variability pattern should help identify the electromagnetic counterparts of SMBHBs detected by the space-based gravitational-wave detector LISA.

  3. Optical metrology alignment and impact on the measurement performance of the LISA Technology Package

    Hirth, M; Fichter, W; Brandt, N; Gerardi, D; Schleicher, A; Wanner, G

    2009-01-01

    Aside from LISA Pathfinder's top-level acceleration requirement, there is a stringent independent requirement for the accuracy of the optical metrology system. In case of a perfectly aligned metrology system (optical bench and test masses) it should rather be independent of residual displacement jitter due to control. However, this ideal case will not be achieved as mechanical tolerances and uncertainties lead to a direct impact of test mass and spacecraft displacement jitter on the optical measurement accuracy. In this paper, we present a strategy how to cover these effects for a systematic requirement breakdown. We use a simplified nonlinear geometrical model for the differential distance measurement of the test masses which is linearized and linked to the equations of motion for both the spacecraft and the two test masses. This leads from test mass relative displacement to a formulation in terms of applied force/torque and thus allows to distinguish the absolute motion of each of the three bodies. It further shows how motions in each degree of freedom couple linearly into the optical measurement via DC misalignments of the laser beam and the test masses. This finally allows for deriving requirements on the alignment accuracy of components and on permittable closed-loop acceleration noise. In the last part a budget for the expected measurement performance is compiled from simulations as no measurement data is available yet.

  4. Picometer stable scan mechanism for gravitational wave detection in space: LISA PAAM

    Pijnenburg, J. A. C. M.; Rijnveld, N.

    2017-11-01

    Detection and observation of gravitational waves requires extreme stability in the frequency range 0.03 mHz to 1 Hz. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission will attain this by creating a giant interferometer in space, based on free floating proof masses in three spacecrafts. Due to orbit evolution and time delay in the interferometer arms, the direction of transmitted light changes. To solve this problem, a picometer stable Point-Ahead Angle Mechanism (PAAM) was designed, realized and successfully tested. The PAAM concept is based on a rotatable mirror. The critical requirements are the contribution to the optical path length (less than 1.4 pm / rt Hz) and the angular jitter (less than 8 nrad / rt Hz). Extreme dimensional stability is achieved by manufacturing a monolithical Haberland hinge mechanism out of Ti6Al4V, through high precision wire erosion. Extreme thermal stability is realized by placing the thermal center on the surface of the mirror. Because of piezo actuator noise and leakage, the PAAM has to be controlled in closed-loop. To meet the requirements in the low frequencies, an active target capacitance-to-digital converter is used. Interferometric measurements with a triangular resonant cavity in vacuum proved that the PAAM meets the requirements.

  5. Testing and Characterization of a Prototype Telescope for the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA)

    Sankar, S.; Livas, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe our efforts to fabricate, test and characterize a prototype telescope for the eLISA mission. Much of our work has centered on the modeling and measurement of scattered light performance. This work also builds on a previous demonstration of a high dimensional stability metering structure using particular choices of materials and interfaces. We will discuss ongoing plans to merge these two separate demonstrations into a single telescope design demonstrating both stray light and dimensional stability requirements simultaneously.

  6. Teachers' Implicit Attitudes, Explicit Beliefs, and the Mediating Role of Respect and Cultural Responsibility on Mastery and Performance-Focused Instructional Practices

    Kumar, Revathy; Karabenick, Stuart A.; Burgoon, Jacob N.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior and the dual process attitude-to-behavior MODE model framed an examination of how White teachers' (N = 241) implicit and explicit attitudes toward White versus non-White students were related to their classroom instructional practices in 2 school districts with a high percentage of Arab American and Chaldean American…

  7. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 4: The Roles and Responsibilities of the Financial Aid Office. Second Edition.

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The fourth module in a self-instructional course for student financial aid administrator neophytes provides an introduction to the management of federal financial aid programs authorized by the Higher Education Act Title IV with an emphasis on the role of the financial aid office. Areas covered in Module 4 include how to recognize the basic areas…

  8. Physical Activity Levels and Motivational Responses of Boys and Girls: A Comparison of Direct Instruction and Tactical Games Models of Games Teaching in Physical Education

    Smith, Lindsey; Harvey, Stephen; Savory, Louise; Fairclough, Stuart; Kozub, Stephen; Kerr, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to independently determine the levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and self-determined motivation of both boys and girls as they participated in prolonged units of invasion games (i.e. 6-12 lessons) through two pedagogical models: direct instruction and the tactical games model (TGM). It was…

  9. The Center for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood: Developing Evidence-Based Tools for a Multi-Tier Approach to Preschool Language and Early Literacy Instruction

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth A.; McConnell, Scott R.; Atwater, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of struggling readers by third grade nationwide is estimated at one in three. Reports trace the roots of this problem to early childhood and the opportunity to learn language and early literacy skills at home and in preschool. Reports also indicate that one-size-fits-all preschool language and literacy instruction is beneficial for…

  10. The End of Panopticon/panopticism in William Gibson’s Mona Lisa Overdrive : A Baudrillardian Reading

    Hanieh Zaltash

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine William Gibson’s Mona Lisa Overdrive as a cyberpunk novel in the light of Baudrillard’s theory of “Simulation”. Jean Baudrillard believes that reality is replaced by “hyperreality” and human beings live in a total “simulation” in which everything, such as power might be simulated. Thus, according to Baudrillard, power exists just as “the simulation of power” which is the result of “the circularization of power” between the dominator and the dominated. Baudrillard delineates “the circularization of power” through criticizing Michel Foucault’s theories regarding power and panopticon, and introduces “the end of panopticon” which is centered upon the reversibility of the positions of the observer and the observed. In a meticulous analysis of TV performance of the Loud family in 1971, Baudrillard claims that the panoptic system is ended through playing on the opposition of seeing and being seen. The findings suggest that Mona Lisa Overdrive depicts “the end of panopticon,” in a sense that Angie Mitchell in this novel can be considered as a counterpart for Baudrillard’s instance of the Loud family. Indeed, this study attempts to elucidate “the end of panopticon” in Mona Lisa Overdrive (1988 through scrutinizing Angie Mitchell’s way of living.

  11. Instructional Coaching Implementation: Considerations for K-12 Administrators

    Johnson, Kelly Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Instructional coaching is a reality in many schools today, yet administrators often lack experience or background on how to utilize this professional development model effectively. Instructional coaching can help administrators balance the managerial and instructional leadership responsibilities required of their role. As districts adopt the…

  12. Instructional Leadership in Primary and Secondary Schools in Western Australia.

    Wildy, Helen; Dimmock, Clive

    1993-01-01

    Investigates teachers' and principals' perceptions of instructional leadership in a sample of Western Australian government primary and secondary schools, using the Instructional Leadership Questionnaire. Instructional leadership was viewed as a shared responsibility; teachers felt principals were less involved than principals felt they were.…

  13. Eventos adversos temporalmente asociados a VAMENGOC- BC®. Municipio La Lisa, 1998-1999

    Iván Edelberto Cuevas

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de describir la frecuencia de eventos temporalmente asociados a la vacuna cubana VAMENGOC- BC®, se realizó un estudio observacional de tipo descriptivo, cuyo universo estuvo constituido por los lactantes en las edades comprendidas de tres (3549 y cinco meses (3832 de edad de las áreas de salud del Municipio La Lisa en Ciudad de La Habana. Hubo un 3,21% de niños con eventos adversos, con una mayor frecuencia después de la primera dosis; sin diferencias apreciables por sexo. La clasificación fue de un 52% de tipo sistémico, locales un 19% y no solicitados un 29%. La mayor parte de los niños afectados fue en las primeras 72 horas posteriores a la vacunación, y desaparecieron antes de 72 horas desde su comienzo. Las manifestaciones más frecuentes fueron fiebre (predominó entre todos los eventos adversos con 1,53 casos por 100 vacunados; la induración (0,31 por 100 vacunados, eritema (0,30 por 100 vacunados y el dolor (0,136 por 100 vacunados en el sitio de administración de la vacuna; irritabilidad (0,244 por 100 vacunados y pérdida de apetito (0,311 por 100 vacunados. Los eventos no solicitados más frecuentes fueron la Enfermedad Respiratoria Aguda (0,637 por 100 vacunados, la Enfermedad Diarreica Aguda (0,311 por 100 vacunados y la Otitis Media (0,176 por 100 vacunados. Los eventos adversos serios fueron infrecuentes. No hubo fallecidos y todos los casos se recuperaron en menos de diez días, sin secuelas, discapacidades ni minusvalías

  14. Universal Design for Instruction: The Paradigm, Its Principles, and Products for Enhancing Instructional Access

    McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.; Shaw, Stan F.

    2003-01-01

    Universal Design for Instruction (UDI), a construct that serves as the foundation for the work of a federally funded project at the University of Connecticut, offers an approach to inclusive instruction that is responsive to the diverse learning needs of a changing postsecondary population. In this article elements relating to the implementation…

  15. Scientific reasoning during adolescence: The influence of instruction in science knowledge and reasoning strategies

    Linn, M. C.; Clement, C.; Pulos, S.; Sullivan, P.

    The mechanism linking instruction in scientific topics and instruction in logical reasoning strategies is not well understood. This study assesses the role of science topic instruction combined with logical reasoning strategy instruction in teaching adolescent students about blood pressure problems. Logical reasoning instruction for this study emphasizes the controlling-variables strategy. Science topic instruction emphasizes variables affecting blood pressure. Subjects receiving logical reasoning instruction link their knowledge of blood pressure variables to their knowledge of controlling variables more effectively than those receiving science topic instruction alone - their specific responses show how they attempt to integrate their understanding.Received: 15 April 1988

  16. Poster session in instructional technology course

    Diniaty, Artina; Fauzi'ah, Lina; Wulan Febriana, Beta; Arlianty, Widinda Normalia

    2017-12-01

    Instructional technology course must be studied by students in order to 1) understand the role of technology in learning, 2) capable of analyzing advantages and disadvantages of using technology in teaching, 3) capable of performing technology in teaching. A poster session in instructional technology course was performed to 1) enhance students' interest in this course and develop students' creativity. The step of this research includes: planning, implementation, and evaluation. The result showed that students' responses towards poster session in instructional technology course were good.

  17. Long multiplication by instruction sequences with backward jump instructions

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    For each function on bit strings, its restriction to bit strings of any given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. Backward jump instructions

  18. Coupling of relative intensity noise and pathlength noise to the length measurement in the optical metrology system of LISA Pathfinder

    Wittchen, Andreas; the LPF Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission for the space-based gravitational wave observatory, LISA. It demonstrated that the performance requirements for the interferometric measurement of two test masses in free fall can be met. An important part of the data analysis is to identify the limiting noise sources. [1] This measurement is performed with heterodyne interferometry. The performance of this optical metrology system (OMS) at high frequencies is limited by sensing noise. One such noise source is Relative Intensity Noise (RIN). RIN is a property of the laser, and the photodiode current generated by the interferometer signal contains frequency dependant RIN. From this electric signal the phasemeter calculates the phase change and laser power, and the coupling of RIN into the measurement signal depends on the noise frequency. RIN at DC, at the heterodyne frequency and at two times the heterodyne frequency couples into the phase. Another important noise at high frequencies is path length noise. To reduce the impact this noise is suppressed with a control loop. Path length noise not suppressed will couple directly into the length measurement. The subtraction techniques of both noise sources depend on the phase difference between the reference signal and the measurement signal, and thus on the test mass position. During normal operations we position the test mass at the interferometric zero, which is optimal for noise subtraction purposes. This paper will show results from an in-flight experiment where the test mass position was changed to make the position dependant noise visible.

  19. Développement et exploitation d'un simulateur électro-optique pour le futur détecteur spatial à ondes gravitationnelles eLISA

    Gruning , Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves will offer a new window to the universe. Their detection by ground based detectors should arrive soon and the future space based interferometer eLISA will allow to do gravitational wave astronomy in order to get unique informations on their sources wether black holes, neutron stars, the Big Bang etc. The effect of a gravitational wave is an extremely weak variation of distance, it will require a very performant detector. That’s why eLISA should reach picometer precision wi...

  20. Programmed Instruction Revisited.

    Skinner, B. F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of teaching machines, invented to restore the important features of personalized instruction as public school class size increased. Examines teaching and learning problems over the past 50 years, including motivation, attention, appreciation, discovery, and creativity in relation to programmed instruction.…

  1. Fashions in Instructional Development.

    Knapper, Christopher K.

    This paper on instructional development notes the trend toward teaching improvement efforts, classifies instructional development centers in terms of their differing philosophies of operation, and identifies some general problems that have been encountered in institutional efforts to improve teaching and learning. Centers in North America, Europe,…

  2. Influence of verbal instructions on effect-based action control.

    Eder, Andreas B; Dignath, David

    2017-03-01

    According to ideomotor theory, people use bidirectional associations between movements and their effects for action selection and initiation. Our experiments examined how verbal instructions of action effects influence response selection without prior experience of action effects in a separate acquisition phase. Instructions for different groups of participants specified whether they should ignore, attend, learn, or intentionally produce acoustic effects produced by button presses. Results showed that explicit instructions of action-effect relations trigger effect-congruent action tendencies in the first trials following the instruction; in contrast, no evidence for effect-based action control was observed in these trials when instructions were to ignore or to attend to the action effects. These findings show that action-effect knowledge acquired through verbal instruction and direct experience is similarly effective for effect-based action control as long as the relation between the movement and the effect is clearly spelled out in the instruction.

  3. Instructed officers Radiation Protection

    2007-01-01

    This law contains instructions on the prevention of radiological and contains 4 articles Article I: describe the responsibilities of the institutions that operate within the scope of radiological protection in terms of the number of radiation protection officers and personal Supervisors who available in the practices radiation field. Article II: talking about the conditions of radiation protection officers that must be available in the main officers and working field in larg institutions and thecondition of specific requirements for large enterprises of work permits in the field of radiological work that issued by the Council. Article III: the functions and duties of officers in the prevention of radiological oversee the development of radiation protection programmes in the planning stages, construction and preparing the rules of local labour and what it lead of such tasks.Article IV: radiation protection officers powers: to modify and approve the programme of prevention and radiation safety at the company, stop any unsafe steps, amend the steps of the usage, operation of materials, devices and so on

  4. Using Principles of Programmed Instruction

    Huffman, Harry

    1971-01-01

    Although programmed instruction in accounting is available, it is limited in scope and in acceptance. Teachers, however, may apply principles of programming to the individualizing of instruction. (Author)

  5. Teaching and Reaching All Students: An Instructional Model for Closing the Gap

    Powell, Rebecca; Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Rightmyer, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model for culturally responsive instruction (CRI) that represents a synthesis of research on effective literacy and content instruction for diverse middle grades learners.The article discusses the various elements of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol (CRIOP) model. It then examines these elements by…

  6. Differentiating Writing Instruction: Meeting the Diverse Needs of Authors in a Classroom

    Shea, Mary

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines a rational for responsive, differentiated writing instruction that targets students' identified needs with respect to various dimensions of the writing process. Discussed is a cycle that requires ongoing assessment, instructional decision-making, responsive, differentiated instruction, guided practice, and assessment.…

  7. Computer-based instruction system DIDAK and its application

    Gvozdjak, L.; Hanulova, L.; Jankovicova, A.; Scepanek, L.

    1983-01-01

    The DIDAK system has been developed for the instruction and training of specialized personnel of nuclear power plants. The structure of the instruction system comprises three processes: the author process, the instruction process and the administration process. Author processes provide the didactic data structure with instruction texts. In the text data base the instruction material is stored in 6 direct access nonformatted files. The instruction system receives information from the text data base and presents it to the student. According to the student's response it creates the preconditions for the further operation of the system which it stores in the data base for administration of instruction. This base contains data on the identification of students, on the instruction process of the individual and the instruction process as a whole. Administrative processes take place in the final stage. They provide information on the general course of instruction and make final evaluations. From the data base of products of the instruction process the said administrative processes produce output information for the teacher. The subject matter of each subject is divided into a finite number of elementary units of subject matter. Each elementary unit provides basic information on the explained subject matter and is followed by a check of the student's knowledge. In dependence on the results of this check the student either advances to a higher level elementary unit or proceeds to an alternative branch of the initial unit. (E.S.)

  8. Instructional leaders for all? High school science department heads and instructional leadership across all science disciplines

    Sanborn, Stephen

    Many high school science departments are responding to changes in state standards with respect to both curricular content and instructional practices. In the typical American high school organization, the academic department head is ideally positioned to influence change in the instructional practices of teachers within the department. Even though science department heads are well situated to provide leadership during this period of transition, the literature has not addressed the question of how well science department heads believe they can provide instructional leadership for all of the teachers in their department, whether they are teaching within and outside of the head's own sub-discipline. Nor is it known how science department heads view the role of pedagogical content knowledge in teaching different science disciplines. Using an online survey comprised of 26 objective questions and one open response question, a 54-respondent sample of science department heads provided no strong consensus regarding their beliefs about the role of pedagogical content knowledge in science instruction. However, science department heads expressed a significant difference in their views about their capacity to provide instructional leadership for teachers sharing their science content area compared to teachers instructing other science content areas. Given wide-spread science education reform efforts introduced in response to the Next Generation Science Standards, these findings may serve to provide some direction for determining how to best support the work of science department heads as they strive to provide instructional leadership for the teachers in their departments.

  9. Actuation crosstalk in free-falling systems: Torsion pendulum results for the engineering model of the LISA pathfinder gravitational reference sensor

    Bassan, M.; Cavalleri, A.; De Laurentis, M.; De Marchi, F.; De Rosa, R.; Di Fiore, L.; Dolesi, R.; Finetti, N.; Garufi, F.; Grado, A.; Hueller, M.; Marconi, L.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Pucacco, G.; Stanga, R.; Vetrugno, D.; Visco, M.; Vitale, S.; Weber, W. J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we report on measurements on actuation crosstalk, relevant to the gravitational reference sensors for LISA Pathfinder and LISA. In these sensors, a Test Mass (TM) falls freely within a system of electrodes used for readout and control. These measurements were carried out on ground with a double torsion pendulum that allowed us to estimate both the torque injected into the sensor when a control force is applied and, conversely, the force leaking into the translational degree of freedom due to the applied torque.The values measured on our apparatus (the engineering model of the LISA Pathfinder sensor) agree to within 0.2% (over a maximum measured crosstalk of 1%) with predictions of a mathematical model when measuring force to torque crosstalk, while it is somewhat larger than expected (up to 3.5%) when measuring torque to force crosstalk. However, the values in the relevant range, i.e. when the TM is well centered ( ± 10 μm) in the sensor, remain smaller than 0.2%, satisfying the LISA Pathfinder requirements.

  10. Complicating Culture and Difference: Situating Asian American Youth Identities in Lisa Yee's "Millicent Min," "Girl Genius" and "Stanford Wong Flunks Big-Time"

    Endo, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This review situates how culture, difference, and identity are discursively constructed in "Millicent Min, Girl Genius" and "Stanford Wong Flunks Big-Time," two award-winning books written by critically acclaimed Asian American author Lisa Yee. Using contextual literacy approaches, the characters, cultural motifs, and physical settings in these…

  11. Using Interactive Video Instruction To Enhance Public Speaking Instruction.

    Cronin, Michael W.; Kennan, William R.

    Noting that interactive video instruction (IVI) should not and cannot replace classroom instruction, this paper offers an introduction to interactive video instruction as an innovative technology that can be used to expand pedagogical opportunities in public speaking instruction. The paper: (1) defines the distinctive features of IVI; (2) assesses…

  12. Computer Assisted Instruction

    Higgins, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Methodology for developing a computer assisted instruction (CAI) lesson (scripting, programing, and testing) is reviewed. A project done by Informatics Education Ltd. (IEL) for the Department of National Defense (DND) is used as an example. (JT)

  13. Bibliographic Instruction : A Webliography

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography about the Bibliographic Instruction, it collects a variety of internet resources divided to main categories; directories, articles, bibliographies, organization, mailing lists, and interest groups.

  14. Academic Discipline and Personal Finance Instruction in High School

    Loibl, Cäzilia; Fisher, Patti J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite public support for personal finance instruction in high school, its effectiveness has not been firmly established. The current study investigates instructional approaches as a reason for these inconsistent outcomes by comparing survey responses of business education, family and consumer sciences, and social studies/economics teachers. The…

  15. Processing Instruction and Russian: Further Evidence Is IN

    Comer, William J.; deBenedette, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    In response to Leaver, Rifkin, and Shekhtman (2004), Wong and VanPatten (2004) challenged instructors of Russian to present evidence for the claim that mechanical drills (Traditional Instruction) were necessary for second language learning, and to demonstrate empirically the claim that Processing Instruction would not be an effective intervention…

  16. Principal Instructional Leadership Behaviors: Teacher vs. Self-Perceptions

    Gurley, D. Keith; Anast-May, Linda; O'Neal, Marcia; Dozier, Randy

    2016-01-01

    In response to ever-increasing accountability of school principals to demonstrate higher levels of student achievement, instructional leadership continues to be an important focus among educational researchers. In this paper, researchers briefly review the literature base regarding instructional leadership, then present the conceptual framework…

  17. School Leadership Actions to Support Differentiated Instruction

    Byars, Jennifer Pallon

    2011-01-01

    Schools are required to meet a range of students' learning needs and effective school leadership is needed for the implementation of pedagogical practices responsive to the challenges of increasing student diversity and academic accountability. Literature on differentiated instruction and its constituent elements suggests differentiation results…

  18. An Instructional Module on Mokken Scale Analysis

    Wind, Stefanie A.

    2017-01-01

    Mokken scale analysis (MSA) is a probabilistic-nonparametric approach to item response theory (IRT) that can be used to evaluate fundamental measurement properties with less strict assumptions than parametric IRT models. This instructional module provides an introduction to MSA as a probabilistic-nonparametric framework in which to explore…

  19. Inclusive differentiated instruction

    Jerković Ljiljana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive differentiated instruction is a new model of didactic instruction, theoretically described and established in this paper for the first time, after being experimentally verified through teaching of the mother tongue (instruction in reading and literature. Inclusive individually planned instruction is based on a phenomenological and constructivist didactic instructional paradigm. This type of teaching is essentially developmental and person-oriented. The key stages of inclusive differentiated instruction of literature are: 1 recognition of individual students' potential and educational needs regarding reading and work on literary texts; 2 planning and preparation of inclusive individually planned instruction in reading and literature; 3 actual class teaching of lessons thus prepared; and 4 evaluation of the student achievement following inclusive differentiated instruction in reading and literature. A highly important element of the planning and preparation of inclusive differentiated instruction is the creation of student profiles and inclusive individualized syllabi. Individualized syllabi specify the following: 1. a brief student profile; 2. the student position on the continuum of the learning outcomes of instruction in the Serbian language; 3. reverse-engineered macro-plan stages of instruction in the Serbian language (3.1. identifying expected outcomes and fundamental qualities of learners' work, 3.2. defining acceptable proofs of their realisation, 3.3. planning learning and teaching experiences, and 3.4. providing material and technical requisites for teaching; 4 the contents and procedure of individualized lessons targeting the student; 5 a plan of syllabus implementation monitoring and evaluation. The continuum of the learning outcomes of inclusive differentiated instruction in literature exists at three main levels, A, B and C. The three levels are: A reading techniques and learning about the main literary theory concepts; B

  20. Avaliação do desempenho visual da lente intraocular difrativa multifocal - Zeiss AT Lisa 809 MTM

    Lucas Monferrari Monteiro Vianna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a função visual dos pacientes com implante bilateral da LIO multifocal difrativa AT-Lisa 809 MTM por meio dos exames de acuidade visual com e sem correção óptica, curva de sensibilidade ao contraste, curva de desfoco e questionário de qualidade de função visual (VQF39. Métodos: Estudo clínico, prospectivo e de intervenção, que avaliou os resultados de 20 olhos de 10 pacientes, submetidos à facoemulsificação e implante de LIO, entre fevereiro e junho de 2012. Resultados: A ametropia residual média pós-operatória foi de 0,05 ± 0,42 (-0,75 a +1,25 D dioptrias esféricas e -0,30 ± 0,42 (0 a -1,25 D dioptrias cilíndricas. Na curva de desenfoque mono e binocular, a melhor acuidade visual média obtida com 0.00 D de desenfoque (AV de longe. O segundo pico foi obtido com desenfoque de -3,00 D, o que equivale à visão de perto a 33 cm. Entre esses picos, observamos uma perda de desempenho visual, com desenfoque de -2,00 D, que equivale a visão intermediária a 50 cm. A sensibilidade ao contraste foi similar aos relatados na literatura com este tipo de LIO, tanto com quanto sem ofuscamento, e é mostrada em gráficos. O questionário de função visual (VFQ-39 teve valor médio de 91,91 +- 6,82. Conclusão: A LIO multifocal difrativa AT-Lisa 809MTM (Carl Zeiss Meditec Company - Alemanha apresentou resultados condizentes com a literatura quando avaliada pelos exames de acuidade visual com e sem correção óptica, sensibilidade ao contraste, curva de desfoco e questionário de qualidade de função visual (VQF 39.

  1. On-ground testing of the role of adhesion in the LISA-Pathfinder test mass injection phase

    Bortoluzzi, D.; Zanoni, C.; Conklin, J. W.

    2017-05-01

    Many space missions share the need to fly a free-falling body inside the spacecraft, as a reference for navigation and/or as a probe for the local gravitational field. When a mechanism is required to cage such an object during the launch phase, the need arises to release it to free-fall once the operational phase must be initiated in orbit. The criticality of this phase increases when the mechanical interfaces between the body and the mechanism are affected by adhesion and the actuation authority of the control system on the free-falling body is limited. Both conditions are realized in the LISA Pathfinder mission, which aims at injecting a gold-coated 2 kg cubic test mass into a nearly perfect geodesic trajectory to demonstrate the readiness of the developed technology for in-space gravity wave detection. The criticality of adhesion is widely recognized in space technology, because it can affect and jeopardize the functionality of mechanisms, when arising between moving parts. In the LISA Pathfinder case, metallic adhesion potentially plays a relevant role, mainly for two reasons. First, thanks to its properties (ductility, high surface energy) the gold coating on the proof mass easily produces cold weldings, especially in vacuum conditions. Second, the detachment of the proof mass from the releasing device occurs abruptly and a relevant influence of the separation velocity is expected on the strength of the welding. This can produce an excessive velocity of the proof mass at the retraction of the releasing device for the following capture and centring phase on behalf of the control system. A testing activity is performed to characterize the dynamic behaviour of the adhesive bonds between the proof mass and the releasing device, which can be used to predict their contribution on the residual velocity of the proof mass after in-flight release. The study of such a dynamic phenomenon sets some challenging requirements on the measurement technique, both on the

  2. Principals' Perceptions of Instructional Leadership for Middle School Students of Color with Specific Learning Disabilities

    Shannon-Luster, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    Instructional leadership is the most important responsibility for principals and the most vulnerable students in need of productive instructional leadership are students of color with specific learning disabilities. Instructional leaders are challenged with creating supportive learning environments and school cultures that promotes the education…

  3. Searching for galactic white-dwarf binaries in mock LISA data using an F-statistic template bank

    Whelan, John T; Prix, Reinhard; Khurana, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    We describe an F-statistic search for continuous gravitational waves from galactic white-dwarf binaries in simulated LISA data. Our search method employs a hierarchical template-grid-based exploration of the parameter space. In the first stage, candidate sources are identified in searches using different simulated laser signal combinations (known as TDI variables). Since each source generates a primary maximum near its true 'Doppler parameters' (intrinsic frequency and sky position) as well as numerous secondary maxima of the F-statistic in Doppler parameter space, a search for multiple sources needs to distinguish between true signals and secondary maxima associated with other 'louder' signals. Our method does this by applying a coincidence test to reject candidates which are not found at nearby parameter space positions in searches using each of the three TDI variables. For signals surviving the coincidence test, we perform a fully coherent search over a refined parameter grid to provide an accurate parameter estimation for the final candidates. Suitably tuned, the pipeline is able to extract 1989 true signals with only 5 false alarms. The use of the rigid adiabatic approximation allows recovery of signal parameters with errors comparable to statistical expectations, although there is still some systematic excess with respect to statistical errors expected from Gaussian noise. An experimental iterative pipeline with seven rounds of signal subtraction and reanalysis of the residuals allows us to increase the number of signals recovered to a total of 3419 with 29 false alarms.

  4. Measurement of the momentum transferred between contacting bodies during the LISA test-mass release phase—uncertainty estimation

    De Cecco, M; Bortoluzzi, D; Da Lio, M; Baglivo, L; Benedetti, M

    2009-01-01

    The requirements for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) test-mass (TM) release phase are analysed in view of the building up of a testing facility aimed at on-Earth qualification of the release mechanism. Accordingly, the release of the TM to free-fall must provide a linear momentum transferred to the TM not exceeding 10 −5 kg m s −1 . In order to test this requirement, a double pendulum system has been developed. The mock-ups of the TM and the release-dedicated plunger are brought into contact and then the latter is quickly retracted. During and after release, the TM motion is measured by a laser interferometer. The transferred momentum is estimated from the free oscillations following the plunger retraction by means of a Wiener–Kolmogorov optimal filter. This work is aimed at modelling the measurement chain, taking into account procedure, instruments, mechanisms and data elaboration in order to estimate the uncertainty associated with the transferred momentum measurement by means of Monte Carlo simulation

  5. Fundamental performance determining factors of the ultrahigh-precision space-borne optical metrology system for the LISA Pathfinder mission

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Flatscher, Reinhold

    2013-05-01

    The LISA Pathfinder mission to space employs an optical metrology system (OMS) at its core to measure the distance and attitude between two freely floating test-masses to picometer and nanorad accuracy, respectively, within the measurement band of [1 mHz, 30 mHz]. The OMS is based upon an ultra-stable optical bench with 4 heterodyne interferometers from which interference signals are read-out and processed by a digital phase-meter. Laser frequency noise, power fluctuations and optical path-length variations are suppressed to uncritical levels by dedicated control loops so that the measurement performance approaches the sensor limit imposed by the phasemeter. The system design is such that low frequency common mode noise which affects the read-out phase of all four interferometers is generally well suppressed by subtraction of a reference phase from the other interferometer signals. However, high frequency noise directly affects measurement performance and its common mode rejection depends strongly on the relative signal phases. We discuss how the data from recent test campaigns point towards high frequency phase noise as a likely performance limiting factor which explains some important performance features.

  6. Searching for galactic white-dwarf binaries in mock LISA data using an F-statistic template bank

    Whelan, John T [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, 85 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Prix, Reinhard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Khurana, Deepak, E-mail: john.whelan@astro.rit.ed, E-mail: reinhard.prix@aei.mpg.d [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2010-03-07

    We describe an F-statistic search for continuous gravitational waves from galactic white-dwarf binaries in simulated LISA data. Our search method employs a hierarchical template-grid-based exploration of the parameter space. In the first stage, candidate sources are identified in searches using different simulated laser signal combinations (known as TDI variables). Since each source generates a primary maximum near its true 'Doppler parameters' (intrinsic frequency and sky position) as well as numerous secondary maxima of the F-statistic in Doppler parameter space, a search for multiple sources needs to distinguish between true signals and secondary maxima associated with other 'louder' signals. Our method does this by applying a coincidence test to reject candidates which are not found at nearby parameter space positions in searches using each of the three TDI variables. For signals surviving the coincidence test, we perform a fully coherent search over a refined parameter grid to provide an accurate parameter estimation for the final candidates. Suitably tuned, the pipeline is able to extract 1989 true signals with only 5 false alarms. The use of the rigid adiabatic approximation allows recovery of signal parameters with errors comparable to statistical expectations, although there is still some systematic excess with respect to statistical errors expected from Gaussian noise. An experimental iterative pipeline with seven rounds of signal subtraction and reanalysis of the residuals allows us to increase the number of signals recovered to a total of 3419 with 29 false alarms.

  7. Design and construction of an optical test bed for LISA imaging systems and tilt-to-length coupling

    Chwalla, M; Fitzsimons, E; Danzmann, K; Fernández Barranco, G; Gerberding, O; Heinzel, G; Lieser, M; Schuster, S; Schwarze, T S; Tröbs, M; Zwetz, M; Killow, C J; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Robertson, D I; Ward, H

    2016-01-01

    The laser interferometer space antenna (LISA) is a future space-based interferometric gravitational-wave detector consisting of three spacecraft in a triangular configuration. The interferometric measurements of path length changes between satellites will be performed on optical benches in the satellites. Angular misalignments of the interfering beams couple into the length measurement and represent a significant noise source. Imaging systems will be used to reduce this tilt-to-length coupling. We designed and constructed an optical test bed to experimentally investigate tilt-to-length coupling. It consists of two separate structures, a minimal optical bench and a telescope simulator. The minimal optical bench comprises the science interferometer where the local laser is interfered with light from a remote spacecraft. In our experiment, a simulated version of this received beam is generated on the telescope simulator. The telescope simulator provides a tilting beam, a reference interferometer and an additional static beam as a phase reference. The tilting beam can either be a flat-top beam or a Gaussian beam. We avoid tilt-to-length coupling in the reference interferometer by using a small photo diode placed at an image of the beam rotation point. We show that the test bed is operational with an initial measurement of tilt-to-length coupling without imaging systems. Furthermore, we show the design of two different imaging systems whose performance will be investigated in future experiments. (paper)

  8. Apparel. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Rambo, Patti

    This instructional guide for a one-half credit technological laboratory course for grades 10-12 focuses on apparel from the perspectives of personal decision making related to apparel, the apparel industry, and career preparation. Introductory materials are a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and…

  9. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  10. Windows into Instructional Practice

    Steinbacher-Reed, Christina; Rotella, Sam A.

    2017-01-01

    Administrators are often removed from the daily instructional realities in classrooms, while teachers aren't given enough opportunities to lead in their schools, write Christina Steinbacher-Reed and Sam A. Rotella Jr. The result is a wall that prevents the two parties from collaborating in a way that improves school culture, teaching practices,…

  11. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CATALOG.

    Ohio Vocational Agriculture Instructional Materials Service, Columbus.

    THE TITLE, IDENTIFICATION NUMBER, DATE OF PUBLICATION, PAGINATION, A BRIEF DESCRIPTION, AND PRICE ARE GIVEN FOR EACH OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND AUDIOVISUAL AIDS INCLUDED IN THIS CATALOG. TOPICS COVERED ARE FIELD CORPS, HORTICULTURE, ANIMAL SCIENCE, SOILS, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, AND FARMING PROGRAMS. AN ORDER FORM IS INCLUDED. (JM)

  12. Computers in writing instruction

    Schwartz, Helen J.; van der Geest, Thea; Smit-Kreuzen, Marlies

    1992-01-01

    For computers to be useful in writing instruction, innovations should be valuable for students and feasible for teachers to implement. Research findings yield contradictory results in measuring the effects of different uses of computers in writing, in part because of the methodological complexity of

  13. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  14. Job Instruction Training.

    Pfau, Richard H.

    Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a step-by-step, relatively simple technique used to train employees on the job. It is especially suitable for teaching manual skills or procedures; the trainer is usually an employee's supervisor but can be a co-worker. The JIT technique consists of a series of steps that a supervisor or other instructor follows…

  15. Nuclear Energy. Instructional Materials.

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  16. Wind Power. Instructional Materials.

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  17. Instructional Psychology 1976 - 1981,

    1982-06-01

    business it is to carry out applied work in the design of instructional content and delivery. These organizations include specialized divisions of...34learning disabilities" label: An experimental analysis. Comtemporary Educational Psychology, 1977, 2, 292-297. Allington, R. L. Sensitivity to

  18. Reviews in instructional video

    van der Meij, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were

  19. Computer-assisted instruction

    Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss

  20. Scaffolding in Assisted Instruction

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On-The-Job Training, developed as direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training. This method is still widely in use today because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task, and the tools the person uses to do the task. This paper is intended to be a study of the methods used in education in Knowledge Society, with more specific aspects in training the trainers; as a result of this approach, it promotes scaffolding in assisted instruction as a reflection of the digital age for the learning process. Training the trainers in old environment with default techniques and designing the learning process in assisted instruction, as an application of the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD to the area of computer literacy for the younger users, generate diversity in educational communities and requires standards for technology infrastructure, standards for the content, developed as a concepts map, and applications for personalized in-struction, based on ZPD theory.

  1. Characteristics of Instructional Videos

    Beheshti, Mobina; Taspolat, Ata; Kaya, Omer Sami; Sapanca, Hamza Fatih

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, video plays a significant role in education in terms of its integration into traditional classes, the principal delivery system of information in classes particularly in online courses as well as serving as a foundation of many blended classes. Hence, education is adopting a modern approach of instruction with the target of moving away…

  2. Paratransit: An Instructional Module.

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  3. Listening strategies instruction

    Nogueroles López, Marta

    2017-01-01

    , who presented similar level of Spanish, needs, educational and cultural background, but did not receive such a training. The listening strategies instruction consisted in integrating the development of listening strategies into a regular course of Spanish as a foreign language. Data referring...

  4. Inquiry-Oriented Instruction: A Conceptualization of the Instructional Principles

    Kuster, George; Johnson, Estrella; Keene, Karen; Andrews-Larson, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Research has highlighted that inquiry-based learning (IBL) instruction leads to many positive student outcomes in undergraduate mathematics. Although this research points to the value of IBL instruction, the practices of IBL instructors are not well-understood. Here, we offer a characterization of a particular form of IBL instruction:…

  5. Diseño de un plan de marketing para el producto lisa college desarrollado por la microempresa browse Ecuador, ubicada en la ciudad de Quito.

    Coello Duque, Giomar Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims to make a marketing plan for the product developed by Lisa College microenterprise Browse Ecuador Cia. Ltd. and it will be a guide for other micros companies wishing to conduct similar research. First, we review general information about the company under study in order to identify problems, research objectives and delimitation of the research area. With this knowledge provides the theoretical and conceptual framework underpinning this research. The ...

  6. Tutorial Instruction in Science Education

    Rhea Miles

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the tutorial practices of in-service teachers to address the underachievement in the science education of K-12 students. Method: In-service teachers in Virginia and North Carolina were given a survey questionnaire to examine how they tutored students who were in need of additional instruction. Results: When these teachers were asked, “How do you describe a typical one-on-one science tutorial session?” the majority of their responses were categorized as teacher-directed. Many of the teachers would provide a science tutorial session for a student after school for 16-30 minutes, one to three times a week. Respondents also indicated they would rely on technology, peer tutoring, scientific inquiry, or themselves for one-on-one science instruction. Over half of the in-service teachers that responded to the questionnaire stated that they would never rely on outside assistance, such as a family member or an after school program to provide tutorial services in science. Additionally, very few reported that they incorporated the ethnicity, culture, or the native language of ELL students into their science tutoring sessions.

  7. Science with the space-based interferometer eLISA. III: probing the expansion of the universe using gravitational wave standard sirens

    Tamanini, Nicola; Caprini, Chiara [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA-Saclay, CNRS UMR 3681, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Barausse, Enrico [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 6, UMR 7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis Bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Sesana, Alberto [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Klein, Antoine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States); Petiteau, Antoine, E-mail: nicola.tamanini@cea.fr, E-mail: chiara.caprini@cea.fr, E-mail: barausse@iap.fr, E-mail: asesana@star.sr.bham.ac.uk, E-mail: aklein@physics.montana.edu, E-mail: antoine.petiteau@apc.univ-paris7.fr [APC, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the capability of various configurations of the space interferometer eLISA to probe the late-time background expansion of the universe using gravitational wave standard sirens. We simulate catalogues of standard sirens composed by massive black hole binaries whose gravitational radiation is detectable by eLISA, and which are likely to produce an electromagnetic counterpart observable by future surveys. The main issue for the identification of a counterpart resides in the capability of obtaining an accurate enough sky localisation with eLISA. This seriously challenges the capability of four-link (2 arm) configurations to successfully constrain the cosmological parameters. Conversely, six-link (3 arm) configurations have the potential to provide a test of the expansion of the universe up to z ∼ 8 which is complementary to other cosmological probes based on electromagnetic observations only. In particular, in the most favourable scenarios, they can provide a significant constraint on H{sub 0} at the level of 0.5%. Furthermore, (Ω{sub M}, Ω{sub Λ}) can be constrained to a level competitive with present SNIa results. On the other hand, the lack of massive black hole binary standard sirens at low redshift allows to constrain dark energy only at the level of few percent.

  8. Nested-PCR and a new ELISA-based NovaLisa test kit for malaria diagnosis in an endemic area of Thailand.

    Thongdee, Pimwan; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Kuesap, Jiraporn; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-08-01

    Microscopy is considered as the gold standard for malaria diagnosis although its wide application is limited by the requirement of highly experienced microscopists. PCR and serological tests provide efficient diagnostic performance and have been applied for malaria diagnosis and research. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of nested PCR and a recently developed an ELISA-based new rapid diagnosis test (RDT), NovaLisa test kit, for diagnosis of malaria infection, using microscopic method as the gold standard. The performance of nested-PCR as a malaria diagnostic tool is excellent with respect to its high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and ability to discriminate Plasmodium species. The sensitivity and specificity of nested-PCR compared with the microscopic method for detection of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and P. falciparum/P. vivax mixed infection were 71.4 vs 100%, 100 vs 98.7%, and 100 vs 95.0%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA-based NovaLisa test kit compared with the microscopic method for detection of Plasmodium genus were 89.0 vs 91.6%, respectively. NovaLisa test kit provided comparable diagnostic performance. Its relatively low cost, simplicity, and rapidity enables large scale field application.

  9. Instructional Leadership Practices in Singapore

    Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…

  10. Putting instruction sequences into effect

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made to define the concept of execution of an instruction sequence. It is found to be a special case of directly putting into effect of an instruction sequence. Directly putting into effect of an instruction sequences comprises interpretation as well as execution. Directly putting into

  11. The Measurement of Instructional Accomplishments.

    Fraley, Lawrence E.; Vargas, Ernest A.

    Instructional System Technology in recent years has been characterized by an increase in individualized instruction and the modularization of the curriculum. In traditional systems the learners are forced to take blocks of instruction the size of entire courses and these are much too large. The courses can now be broken down into conceptual…

  12. Intelligent Frameworks for Instructional Design.

    Spector, J. Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a taxonomy describing various uses of artificial intelligence techniques in automated instructional development systems. Instructional systems development is discussed in relation to the design of computer-based instructional courseware; two systems being developed at the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory are reviewed; and further research…

  13. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) is an instruction processing paradigm that has been in the spot- light due to its adoption by the next generation of Intel. Processors starting with the IA-64. The EPIC processing paradigm is an evolution of the Very Long Instruction. Word (VLIW) paradigm. This article gives an ...

  14. Motivational elements in user instructions

    Loorbach, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Concerning the design of user instructions, two view can be distinguished. The traditional view considers instructions as purely instrumental documents. The more and more emerging affective view still assumes that above all, instructions should enable readers to perform tasks. But in order to

  15. Instructive for disposal of fluorescent

    Salazar Vargas, Gerlin

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the management system of waste fluorescent lamps, ensuring the storage, collection, transportation, and final disposal. The lamp is changed by an official of the Seccion de Matenimiento Construccion of the Oficina de Servicios Generales or is produced with the support of an official of the unit. The fluorescent should be deposited in stock of materials of the building maintenance section or unit specified with the help of a staff and in appropriate conditions. The fluorescent lamp is transported according to the guidelines in the manual. A responsible company is contracted by la Vicerrectoria de Administracion of the Universidad de Costa Rica dedicated to the transport and proper handling of fluorescent lamps [es

  16. Ethics instruction in the dental hygiene curriculum.

    Kacerik, Mark G; Prajer, Renee G; Conrad, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Dental hygiene ethics is an essential component of the dental hygiene curriculum. The accreditation standards for dental hygiene education state that graduates must be competent in applying ethical concepts to the provision and/or support of oral health care services. Although the standards for entry into the profession of dental hygiene emphasize the importance of ethical reasoning, there is little published research specific to ethics instruction in dental hygiene programs. The purpose of this study was to assess how ethics is taught in the dental hygiene curriculum. A 17-item survey was designed and distributed to 261 accredited dental hygiene programs in the United States for a response rate of 56% (N=147). The survey requested that participants provide information on teaching and evaluation methodologies, didactic and clinical hours of instruction, individuals responsible for providing instruction, and the degree of emphasis placed on ethics and integration of ethical reasoning within the dental hygiene curriculum. Results of the survey reflect that dental hygiene programs devote a mean of 20. hours to teaching dental hygiene ethics in the didactic component of the curriculum. With regard to the clinical component of the curriculum, 63% of respondents indicated that 10 or less hours are devoted to ethics instruction. These results show an increase in didactic hours of instruction from previous studies where the mean hours of instruction ranged from 7 to 11.7 hours. Results showed 64% of respondents offered a separate course in ethics; however, 82% of programs surveyed indicated that ethics was incorporated into one or more dental hygiene courses with 98% utilizing dental hygiene faculty to provide instruction. Most programs utilized a variety of instructional methods to teach ethics with the majority employing class discussion and lecture (99% and 97% respectively). The type of institution-technical college, community college, four-year university with a

  17. A Critique of Instructional

    McKernan, James

    2010-01-01

    The ‘objectives model’ of curriculum planning, predicated upon behavioural performances, has become the dominant form of curriculum planning in Europe and elsewhere in the world. This paper argues that the objectives model is satisfactory for training or instruction, but falls down when applied to a true sense of ‘education’. The paper outlines 13 limitations on the use of educational objectives. It is argued that those interested in using objectives are guided by evaluation as assessment rat...

  18. Factors responsible for accidents in instructional mechanic ...

    Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2004) > ... The results revealed that, the use of dead or bad machines, non availability of sophisticated tools, equipment, dirty environment, improper ... Based on these findings, some recommendations were made.

  19. Effective Multicultural Instruction

    Franklin T. Thompson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The reason why the Trayvon Martin murder trial and similar court cases create a philosophical rift in our nation is due in part to flaws in the delivery of multicultural education. Traditional multicultural instruction does not prepare citizens for the subtleties and complexities of race relations. This study investigates critical strategies and practices that address multicultural missing gaps. I also seek to fill a void in the literature created by a lack of student input regarding teaching strategies that encourage lifelong learning. Students (N = 337 enrolled at a Midwestern university were asked to rate the efficacy of selected instructional strategies. Utilizing a 9-point Likert-type scale, students gave themselves a personal growth rating of 7.15 (SD = 1.47. Variables important to predicting that growth (R2 = .56, p < .0005 were a six-factor variable known as a non-color-blind instructional approach (t = 10.509, p ≤ .0005, allowing students an opportunity to form their own opinions apart from the instructor (t = 4.797, p ≤ .0005, and a state law that mandated multicultural training (t = 3.234, p = .001. Results demonstrated that utilizing a 35% traditional and 65% critical pedagogy mixture when teaching multicultural education helped promote win/win scenarios for education candidates hoping to become difference makers.

  20. Forum: Interpersonal Communication in Instructional Settings: Interpersonal Communication Research in Instructional Contexts: A Dyadic Approach

    Goodboy, Alan K.; Kashy, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    Do we study too much interpersonal communication and not enough of other topics in the instructional communication literature? This forum provides a mixed bag of both affirmative and negative responses to this question. On one hand, answering "yes" is quite defensible because there are many recent studies examining interpersonal…

  1. [Indications and instructions to patients for a positron emission tomography-PET scan. The importance of the hybridic PET/CT-computerised tomography scan and which specialty should be responsible for its function].

    Grammaticos, Philip; Datseris, Ioannis; Gerali, Sofia; Papantoniou, Vassilios; Valsamaki, Pipitsa; Boundas, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    Indications and instructions to patients for performing a positron emission tomography - PET scan are mentioned. Although PET camera was developed in 1970 its clinical indications were established in about 1998. The hybridic PET/CT- computerized tomography scanner appeared in 2001 and its clinical indications are still under discussion. These discussions refer to both the use of PET/CT as an acquisition correction and anatomic localization device for PET images (AC/A) and to its use as a diagnostic CT scan (dCT). Most of the patients submitted for a PET scan have already done a dCT scan. This was the case in 286 out of the first 300 patients referred to "Evangelismos" hospital in Athens for a PET scan. These two scans can be matched electronically. Extra cost, space, personnel and radiation absorption dose especially in children, are additional factors to be considered in using the PET/CT scanner. The specialty of Nuclear Medicine is now based on the PET camera, its best part and main equipment for molecular imaging. It is very much easier and faster for a Nuclear Medicine physician who routinely reports tomographic PET and SPET images, to be familiar with the CT images than for a Radiologist to get to "know how" about the PET camera and the whole Nuclear Medicine Department. Nuclear Medicine is about open radiation sources, molecular imaging, specific radio-pharmacology, radiobiology, radiation protection etc, while on the other hand in some countries, Nuclear Physicians have already spent, as part of their official training, six months in a Radiology Department whose function is considered to be at least 25% about the CT scanner. We come to the conclusion that the PET/CT scanner should be under the responsibility of the Nuclear Medicine Department and the Radiologist should act as an advisor.

  2. Assessment of knowledge and skills in information literacy instruction for rehabilitation sciences students: a scoping review.

    Boruff, Jill T; Harrison, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    This scoping review investigates how knowledge and skills are assessed in the information literacy (IL) instruction for students in physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language pathology, regardless of whether the instruction was given by a librarian. The objectives were to discover what assessment measures were used, determine whether these assessment methods were tested for reliability and validity, and provide librarians with guidance on assessment methods to use in their instruction in evidence-based practice contexts. A scoping review methodology was used. A systematic search strategy was run in Ovid MEDLINE and adapted for CINAHL; EMBASE; Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) (EBSCO); Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA); Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA); and Proquest Theses and Dissertations from 1990 to January 16, 2017. Forty articles were included for data extraction. Three major themes emerged: types of measures used, type and context of librarian involvement, and skills and outcomes described. Thirty-four measures of attitude and thirty-seven measures of performance were identified. Course products were the most commonly used type of performance measure. Librarians were involved in almost half the studies, most frequently as instructor, but also as author or assessor. Information literacy skills such as question formulation and database searching were described in studies that did not involve a librarian. Librarians involved in instructional assessment can use rubrics such as the Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education (VALUE) when grading assignments to improve the measurement of knowledge and skills in course-integrated IL instruction. The Adapted Fresno Test could be modified to better suit the real-life application of IL knowledge and skills.

  3. Understanding and responding the students in learning mathematics through the differentiated instruction

    Hapsari, T.; Darhim; Dahlan, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    This research discusses the differentiated instruction, a mathematic learning which is as expected by the students in connection with the differentiated instruction itself, its implementation, and the students’ responses. This research employs a survey method which involves 62 students as the research respondents. The mathematics learning types required by the students and their responses to the differentiated instruction are examined through questionnaire and interview. The mathematics learning types in orderly required by the students, from the highest frequency cover the easily understood instructions, slowly/not rushing teaching, fun, not complicated, interspersed with humour, various question practices, not too serious, and conducive class atmosphere for the instructions. Implementing the differentiated instruction is not easy. The teacher should be able to constantly assess the students, s/he should have good knowledge of relevant materials and instructions, and properly prepare the instructions, although it is time-consuming. The differentiated instruction is implemented on the instructions of numerical pattern materials. The strategies implemented are flexible grouping, tiered assignment, and compacting. The students positively respond the differentiated learning instruction that they become more motivated and involved in the instruction.

  4. Decommissioning Project Manager's Implementing Instructions (PMII)

    Mihalic, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    Decommissioning Project personnel are responsible for complying with these PMII. If at any time in the performance of their duties a conflict between these instructions and other written or verbal direction is recognized or perceived, the supervisor or worker shall place his/her work place in a safe condition, stop work, and seek resolution of the conflict from the Decommissioning Project Manager or his designee

  5. USING GOOGLE+ FOR INSTRUCTION

    Kevin YEE

    Full Text Available Introduced in July, 2011 in a beta test of invited users only, the new social media service Google+ (or G+ quickly spread by word of mouth, and Google leader Larry Page (2011 blogged that within sixteen days it had 10 million users. By August, it had 25 million users (Cashmore, 2011. Even with slower growth ahead (still with no marketing budget, the service looks likely to crest 100 million users perhaps as early as ten months, a feat that took Facebook three years. Other social networks, most notably Facebook and Twitter, have been used increasingly as instructional tools, since they are platforms with which students are already familiar (Maloney, 2007; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007. Selwyn (2009 found that students often eschew official channels for communication in favor of less formal community-based formats such as Facebook, implying a growing need for instructional communication tools that will be used willingly by students. The question is whether Google+ can be used like Twitter or Facebook to augment instruction, or even, perhaps, to improve upon those predecessors for academic purposes. Google+ is like Twitter in that anyone can follow a given user’s posts. There is no direct “friend” relationship required to read the posts written by others. However, it also approximates some features of Facebook. Rather than friends sorted into “lists” like in Facebook, Google+ allows users to place feeds into one or more “circles,” the better to monitor (or control the flow of information to and from different audiences. Circles are more intuitive, and more central to the experience, than the Facebook lists. They provide an explicit organizational structure, compared to the less-obvious listing functionality, which feels like an afterthought, found in Facebook.

  6. EST Vocabulary Instruction

    Célia D.S. Bell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the investigation on the instruction of EST (English for Science and Technology vocabulary, in terms of receptive use of the language. It evaluates the effectiveness of two teaching approaches to the acquisition of vocabulary. The first approach consisted of teaching vocabulary through the use of dictionaries, where the words were merely translated into the learners’ L1 or defined in the target language thus promoting superficial level of word processing. The second approach employed activities promoting deep level of word processing. Data were analysed quantitatively. Results indicated that the two approaches seem to have some equipotentiality, as far as EST vocabulary is concerned.

  7. The Mere Exposure Instruction Effect.

    Van Dessel, Pieter; Mertens, Gaëtan; Smith, Colin Tucker; De Houwer, Jan

    2017-09-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to the well-established finding that people evaluate a stimulus more positively after repeated exposure to that stimulus. We investigated whether a change in stimulus evaluation can occur also when participants are not repeatedly exposed to a stimulus, but are merely instructed that one stimulus will occur frequently and another stimulus will occur infrequently. We report seven experiments showing that (1) mere exposure instructions influence implicit stimulus evaluations as measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT), personalized Implicit Association Test (pIAT), or Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP), but not with an Evaluative Priming Task (EPT), (2) mere exposure instructions influence explicit evaluations, and (3) the instruction effect depends on participants' memory of which stimulus will be presented more frequently. We discuss how these findings inform us about the boundary conditions of mere exposure instruction effects, as well as the mental processes that underlie mere exposure and mere exposure instruction effects.

  8. Response

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  9. LISA Pathfinder author list

    2017-01-01

    M Armano, 1 H Audley, 2 G Auger, 3 J Baird, 4 M Bassan, 5 P Binetruy, 3 M Born, 2 D Bortoluzzi, 6 N Brandt, 7 M Caleno, 8 A Cavalleri, 9 A Cesarini, 9 M Cruise, 10 K Danzmann, 2 M de Deus Silva, 1 R De Rosa, 11 L Di Fiore, 12 I Diepholz, 2 R Dolesi, 9 N Dunbar, 13 L Ferraioli, 14 V Ferroni, 9 E Fitzsimons, 15 R Flatscher, 7 M Freschi, 1 C García Marrirodriga, 8 R Gerndt, 7 L Gesa, 16 F Gibert, 9 D Giardini, 14 R Giusteri, 9 A Grado, 11 C Grimani, 17 J Grzymisch, 8 I Harrison, 18 G Heinzel, 2 M Hewitson, 2 D Hollington, 4 D Hoyland, 10 M Hueller, 9 H Inchauspé, 3 O Jennrich, 8 P Jetzer, 19 B Johlander, 8 N Karnesis, 2 B Kaune, 2 N Korsakova, 2 C Killow, 20 A Lobo, 16 , I Lloro, 16 L Liu, 9 J.P. López-Zaragoza, 16 R Maarschalkerweerd, 18 D Mance, 14 V Martín, 16 L Martin-Polo, 1 J Martino, 3 F Martin-Porqueras, 1 S Madden, 8 I Mateos, 16 P W McNamara, 8 J Mendes, 18 L Mendes, 1 M Nofrarias, 16 S Paczkowski, 2 M Perreur-Lloyd, 20 A Petiteau, 3 P Pivato, 9 E Plagnol, 3 P Prat, 3 U Ragnit, 8 J Ramos-Castro, 21 J Reiche, 2 D I Robertson, 20 H Rozemeijer, 8 F Rivas, 16 G Russano, 9 P Sarra, 22 A Schleicher, 7 D Shaul, 4 J Slutsky, 23 C F Sopuerta, 16 R Stanga, 24 T Sumner, 4 D Texier, 1 J I Thorpe, 23 C Trenkel, 13 M Troebs, 2 D Vetrugno, 9 S Vitale, 9 G Wanner, 2 H Ward, 20 P Wass, 4 D Wealthy, 13 W J Weber, 9 L Wissel, 2 A Wittchen, 2 A Zambotti, 6 C Zanoni, 6 T Ziegler, 7 and P Zweifel 14 1 European Space Astronomy Centre, European Space Agency, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain 2 Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik und Universität Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, 30167 Hannover, Germany 3 APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, France 4 High Energy Physics Group, Physics Department, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BW, UK 5 Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, and INFN, sezione Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy 6 Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento, and Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Application / INFN 7 Airbus Defence and Space, Claude-Dornier-Strasse, 88090 Immenstaad, Germany 8 European Space Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands 9 Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento and Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Application / INFN, 38123 Povo, Trento, Italy 10 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK 11 INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, I-80131 Napoli, Italy and INFN sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli, Italy 12 INFN - Sezione di Napoli, I-80126, Napoli, Italy 13 Airbus Defence and Space, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, SG1 2AS, UK 14 Institut für Geophysik, ETH Zürich, Sonneggstrasse 5, CH-8092, Zürich, Switzerland 15 The UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, UK 16 Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans s/n, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain 17 DISPEA, Università di Urbino “Carlo Bo”, Via S. Chiara, 27 61029 Urbino/INFN, Italy 18 European Space Operations Centre, European Space Agency, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany 19 Physik Institut, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland 20 SUPA, Institute for Gravitational Research, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK 21 Department d’Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona, Spain 22 CGS S.p.A, Compagnia Generale per lo Spazio, Via Gallarate, 150 - 20151 Milano, Italy 23 Gravitational Astrophysics Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA 24 Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze and INFN - Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Firenze, Italy (paper)

  10. Cooperative learning as applied to resident instruction in radiology reporting.

    Mueller, Donald; Georges, Alexandra; Vaslow, Dale

    2007-12-01

    The study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an active form of resident instruction, cooperative learning, and the residents' response to that form of instruction. The residents dictated three sets of reports both before and after instruction in radiology reporting using the cooperative learning method. The reports were evaluated for word count, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, advancement on clinical spectrum, clarity, and comparison to prior reports. The reports were evaluated for changes in performance characteristics between the pre- and postinstruction dictations. The residents' response to this form of instruction was evaluated by means of a questionnaire. The instruction was effective in changing the resident dictations. The results became shorter (Pcooperative learning activities. The least positive responses related to the amount of time devoted to the project. Sixty-three percent of respondents stated that the time devoted to the project was appropriate. Cooperative learning can be an effective tool in the setting of the radiology residency. Instructional time requirements must be strongly considered in designing a cooperative learning program.

  11. The Instructional Network: Using Facebook to Enhance Undergraduate Mathematics Instruction

    Gregory, Peter; Gregory, Karen; Eddy, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is a website with over one billion users worldwide that is synonymous with social-networking. However, in this study, Facebook is used as an "instructional network". Two sections of an undergraduate calculus course were used to study the effects of participating in a Facebook group devoted solely to instruction. One section was…

  12. Improving Reading Instruction through Research-Based Instructional Strategies

    Nash, Vickie Lynn

    2010-01-01

    The diverse population of students in grades 1- 3 at a suburban elementary school has created a challenge for teachers when differentiating instruction in reading. The purpose of this doctoral project study was to explore the lived experiences of these teachers as they have acquired research-based instructional strategies in reading that support…

  13. Effectiveness of instruction and video feedback on staff's use of prompts and children's adaptive responses during one-to-one training in children with severe to profound intellectual disability

    Vonderen, A.M.H. van; Swart, C.C.W. de; Didden, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although relatively many studies have addressed staff training and its effect on trainer behavior, the effects of staff training on trainee's adaptive behaviors have seldomly been examined. We therefore assessed effectiveness of staff training, consisting of instruction and video feedback, on (a)

  14. Current status of information literacy instruction practices in medical libraries of Pakistan.

    Ullah, Midrar; Ameen, Kanwal

    2014-10-01

    The research explored the current practices of information literacy (IL) instruction in medical libraries of Pakistan. A semi-structured questionnaire was mailed to the head librarians of all 114 academic medical libraries in Pakistan. It investigated the types of IL instruction provided, topics covered, methods of delivery and assessment, level of integration in the curriculum, and level of collaboration with teaching staff. The study revealed that 74% of the respondents had offered some types of IL instruction in their institutions during the previous year, ranging from library orientation to research-level skills. IL instruction is typically only offered to new students or first-time library users or on demand. A majority of the respondents developed IL instruction programs without faculty involvement. Librarians were primarily responsible for offering IL instruction in medical institutions. Face-to-face instruction in computer labs or lecture halls and individual instruction at reference desks were identified as the most common IL instruction delivery methods. The data indicated that oral feedback, written feedback, and searching in a computer lab were the most popular assessment methods that medical librarians used. IL instruction activities in medical libraries of Pakistan are in their infancy. Medical librarians also lack systematic approaches to IL instruction. Medical librarians need to develop educational partnerships with faculty for integrating IL instruction into the mainstream curriculum.

  15. Language used in interaction during developmental science instruction

    Avenia-Tapper, Brianna

    The coordination of theory and evidence is an important part of scientific practice. Developmental approaches to instruction, which make the relationship between the abstract and the concrete a central focus of students' learning activity, provide educators with a unique opportunity to strengthen students' coordination of theory and evidence. Therefore, developmental approaches may be a useful instructional response to documented science achievement gaps for linguistically diverse students. However, if we are to leverage the potential of developmental instruction to improve the science achievement of linguistically diverse students, we need more information on the intersection of developmental science instruction and linguistically diverse learning contexts. This manuscript style dissertation uses discourse analysis to investigate the language used in interaction during developmental teaching-learning in three linguistically diverse third grade classrooms. The first manuscript asks how language was used to construct ascension from the abstract to the concrete. The second manuscript asks how students' non-English home languages were useful (or not) for meeting the learning goals of the developmental instructional program. The third manuscript asks how students' interlocutors may influence student choice to use an important discourse practice--justification--during the developmental teaching-learning activity. All three manuscripts report findings relevant to the instructional decisions that teachers need to make when implementing developmental instruction in linguistically diverse contexts.

  16. Multilevel library instruction for emerging nursing roles.

    Francis, B W; Fisher, C C

    1995-10-01

    As new nursing roles emerge that involve greater decision making than in the past, added responsibility for outcomes and cost control, and increased emphasis on primary care, the information-seeking skills needed by nurses change. A search of library and nursing literature indicates that there is little comprehensive library instruction covering all levels of nursing programs: undergraduate, returning registered nurses, and graduate students. The University of Florida is one of the few places that has such a multilevel, course-integrated curriculum in place for all entrants into the nursing program. Objectives have been developed for each stage of learning. The courses include instruction in the use of the online public access catalog, printed resources, and electronic databases. A library classroom equipped with the latest technology enables student interaction with electronic databases. This paper discusses the program and several methods used to evaluate it.

  17. BASIC Instructional Program: System Documentation.

    Dageforde, Mary L.

    This report documents the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP), a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language, as implemented in the MAINSAIL language, a machine-independent revision of SAIL which should facilitate implementation of BIP on other computing systems. Eight instructional modules which make up…

  18. Designing Instructional Materials: Some Guidelines.

    Burbank, Lucille; Pett, Dennis

    Guidelines for the design of instructional materials are outlined in this paper. The principles of design are presented in five major categories: (1) general design (structural appeal and personal appeal); (2) instructional design (attention, memory, concept learning, and attitude change); (3) visual design (media considerations, pictures, graphs…

  19. Cognitive Approaches to Automated Instruction.

    Regian, J. Wesley, Ed.; Shute, Valerie J., Ed.

    This book contains a snapshot of state-of-the-art research on the design of automated instructional systems. Selected cognitive psychologists were asked to describe their approach to instruction and cognitive diagnosis, the theoretical basis of the approach, its utility and applicability, and the knowledge engineering or task analysis methods…

  20. Physics Instruction for Radiologic Technologists

    Chaney, Edward L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the Denver collaborative training program in radiologic technology with emphasis upon identification of core topics, preparation of quality instructional materials, and use of innovative teaching techniques, such as computer-assisted instruction and video tape presentations. Included is a 10-week course outline. (CC)

  1. Active Learning through Online Instruction

    Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…

  2. Adaptive instruction and pupil achievement

    Houtveen, A.A M; Booy, N; de Jong, Robert (Rob); van de Grift, W.J C M

    In this article the results are reported of a quasi-experiment on effects of adaptive instruction on reading results of children in the first year of reading instruction in Dutch primary schools. The research involved 456 pupils from 23 schools (12 experimental and 11 control group schools).

  3. Instructional Theory for Teaching Statistics.

    Atwood, Jan R.; Dinham, Sarah M.

    Metatheoretical analysis of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and Gagne's Theory of Instruction using the Dickoff and James paradigm produced two instructional systems for basic statistics. The systems were tested with a pretest-posttest control group design utilizing students enrolled in an introductory-level graduate statistics…

  4. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Bertolli, Carlo; O' Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.

    2017-10-17

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  5. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Bertolli, Carlo; O'Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.

    2018-01-23

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  6. Development and validation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) based instructional material

    Gustiani, Ineu; Widodo, Ari; Suwarma, Irma Rahma

    2017-05-01

    This study is intended to examine the development and validation of simple machines instructional material that developed based on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) framework that provides guidance to help students learn and practice for real life and enable individuals to use knowledge and skills they need to be an informed citizen. Sample of this study consist of one class of 8th grader at a junior secondary school in Bandung, Indonesia. To measure student learning, a pre-test and post-test were given before and after implementation of the STEM based instructional material. In addition, a questionnaire of readability was given to examine the clarity and difficulty level of each page of instructional material. A questionnaire of students' response towards instructional material given to students and teachers at the end of instructional material reading session to measure layout aspects, content aspects and utility aspects of instructional material for being used in the junior secondary school classroom setting. The results show that readability aspect and students' response towards STEM based instructional material of STEM based instructional material is categorized as very high. Pretest and posttest responses revealed that students retained significant amounts information upon completion of the STEM instructional material. Student overall learning gain is 0.67 which is categorized as moderate. In summary, STEM based instructional material that was developed is valid enough to be used as educational materials necessary for conducting effective STEM education.

  7. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    Gemma eCameron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.

  8. Interactive Instruction in Bayesian Inference

    Khan, Azam; Breslav, Simon; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2018-01-01

    An instructional approach is presented to improve human performance in solving Bayesian inference problems. Starting from the original text of the classic Mammography Problem, the textual expression is modified and visualizations are added according to Mayer’s principles of instruction. These pri......An instructional approach is presented to improve human performance in solving Bayesian inference problems. Starting from the original text of the classic Mammography Problem, the textual expression is modified and visualizations are added according to Mayer’s principles of instruction....... These principles concern coherence, personalization, signaling, segmenting, multimedia, spatial contiguity, and pretraining. Principles of self-explanation and interactivity are also applied. Four experiments on the Mammography Problem showed that these principles help participants answer the questions...... that an instructional approach to improving human performance in Bayesian inference is a promising direction....

  9. Measuring fN force variations in the presence of constant nN forces: a torsion pendulum ground test of the LISA Pathfinder free-fall mode

    Russano, G.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Dolesi, R.; Ferroni, V.; Gibert, F.; Giusteri, R.; Hueller, M.; Liu, L.; Pivato, P.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Weber, W. J.

    2018-02-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a differential accelerometer with the main goal being to demonstrate the near perfect free-fall of reference test masses, as is needed for an orbiting gravitational wave observatory, with a target sensitivity of 30 fm s‑2 Hz-1/2 at 1 mHz. Any lasting background differential acceleration between the two test masses must be actively compensated, and noise associated with the applied actuation force can be a dominant source of noise. To remove this actuation, and the associated force noise, a ‘free-fall’ actuation control scheme has been designed; actuation is limited to brief impulses, with both test masses in free-fall in the time between the impulses, allowing measurement of the remaining acceleration noise sources. In this work, we present an on-ground torsion pendulum testing campaign of this technique and associated data analysis algorithms at a level nearing the sub-femto-g/\\sqrtHz performance required for LISA Pathfinder.

  10. A high sensitivity heterodyne interferometer as a possible optical readout for the LISA gravitational reference sensor and its application to technology verification

    Gohlke, Martin; Weise, Dennis; Johann, Ulrich; Braxmaier, Claus [EADS Astrium, Claude-Dornier-Strasse, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Schuldt, Thilo; Peters, Achim, E-mail: martin.gohlke@astrium.eads.ne [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    The space-based gravitational wave detector LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) utilizes a high performance position sensor in order to measure the translation and tilt of the free flying proof mass with respect to the optical bench. Depending on the LISA optical bench design, this position sensor must have up to pm/sq rootHz sensitivity for the translation measurement and up to nrad/sq rootHz sensitivity for the tilt measurement. We developed a heterodyne interferometer, combined with differential wavefront sensing, for the tilt measurement. The interferometer design exhibits maximum symmetry where measurement and reference arm have the same frequency and polarization and the same optical path-lengths. The interferometer can be set up free of polarizing optical components preventing possible problems with thermal dependencies not suitable for the space environment. We developed a mechanically highly stable and compact setup which is located in a vacuum chamber. We measured initial noise levels below 10 pm/sq rootHz (longitudinal measurement) for frequencies above 10 mHz and below 20 nrad/sq rootHz (tilt measurement) for frequencies above 1 mHz. This setup can also be used for other applications, for example the measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of structural materials, such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP).

  11. ARS-Media for excel instruction manual

    ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....

  12. A Comprehensive Evaluation Rubric for Assessing Instructional Apps

    Cheng-Yuan Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a pressing need for an evaluation rubric that examines all aspects of educational apps designed for instructional purposes. In past decades, many rubrics have been developed for evaluating educational computer-based programs; however, rubrics designed for evaluating the instructional implications of educational apps are scarce. When an Internet search for existing rubrics was conducted, only two such rubrics were found, and the evaluation criteria used in those rubrics was not clearly linked to previously conducted research nor were their evaluative dimensions clearly defined. These shortcomings result in reviewers being unable to use those rubrics to provide teachers with a precise analysis of an educational app’s instructional potential. In response, this paper presents a comprehensive rubric with 24-evaluative dimensions tailored specifically to analyze the educational potential of instructional apps.

  13. An overview and guide: planning instructional radio.

    Imhoof, M

    1984-03-01

    activities utilized in broadcasts which are contrary to the learners' experience will at best seem strange and at worst be incomprehensible. Curriculum development in an instructional radio project adds more complexity to the planner's task. The most important information needed is whether a new curriculum is to be developed or whether the existing curriculum is to be adapted for radio. Another major analysis task is relating the curriculum to the medium. The project planning team needs to understand the research aims and evaluation methods in instructional radio projects. Sometimes an outside evaluation specialist or team is employed, but in many projects the planning team is responsible for implementing the research design, carrying out the development activities, gathering data, and evaluating the project. Subject matter testing is another technical area of expertise needed by the project team.

  14. Intelligibility of clear speech: effect of instruction.

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris

    2013-10-01

    The authors investigated how clear speech instructions influence sentence intelligibility. Twelve speakers produced sentences in habitual, clear, hearing impaired, and overenunciate conditions. Stimuli were amplitude normalized and mixed with multitalker babble for orthographic transcription by 40 listeners. The main analysis investigated percentage-correct intelligibility scores as a function of the 4 conditions and speaker sex. Additional analyses included listener response variability, individual speaker trends, and an alternate intelligibility measure: proportion of content words correct. Relative to the habitual condition, the overenunciate condition was associated with the greatest intelligibility benefit, followed by the hearing impaired and clear conditions. Ten speakers followed this trend. The results indicated different patterns of clear speech benefit for male and female speakers. Greater listener variability was observed for speakers with inherently low habitual intelligibility compared to speakers with inherently high habitual intelligibility. Stable proportions of content words were observed across conditions. Clear speech instructions affected the magnitude of the intelligibility benefit. The instruction to overenunciate may be most effective in clear speech training programs. The findings may help explain the range of clear speech intelligibility benefit previously reported. Listener variability analyses suggested the importance of obtaining multiple listener judgments of intelligibility, especially for speakers with inherently low habitual intelligibility.

  15. Motivational Measure of the Instruction Compared: Instruction Based on the ARCS Motivation Theory vs Traditional Instruction in Blended Courses

    Colakoglu, Ozgur M.; Akdemir, Omur

    2012-01-01

    The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different…

  16. Typology of after-hours care instructions for patients

    Bordman, Risa; Bovett, Monica; Drummond, Neil; Crighton, Eric J.; Wheler, David; Moineddin, Rahim; White, David

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a typology of after-hours care (AHC) instructions and to examine physician and practice characteristics associated with each type of instruction. DESIGN Cross-sectional telephone survey. Physicians’ offices were called during evenings and weekends to listen to their messages regarding AHC. All messages were categorized. Thematic analysis of a subset of messages was conducted to develop a typology of AHC instructions. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between physician and practice characteristics and the instructions left for patients. SETTING Family practices in the greater Toronto area. PARTICIPANTS Stratified random sample of family physicians providing office-based primary care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Form of response (eg, answering machine), content of message, and physician and practice characteristics. RESULTS Of 514 after-hours messages from family physicians’ offices, 421 were obtained from answering machines, 58 were obtained from answering services, 23 had no answer, 2 gave pager numbers, and 10 had other responses. Message content ranged from no AHC instructions to detailed advice; 54% of messages provided a single instruction, and the rest provided a combination of instructions. Content analysis identified 815 discrete instructions or types of response that were classified into 7 categories: 302 instructed patients to go to an emergency department; 122 provided direct contact with a physician; 115 told patients to go to a clinic; 94 left no directions; 76 suggested calling a housecall service; 45 suggested calling Telehealth; and 61 suggested other things. About 22% of messages only advised attending an emergency department, and 18% gave no advice at all. Physicians who were female, had Canadian certification in family medicine, held hospital privileges, or had attended a Canadian medical school were more likely to be directly available to their patients. CONCLUSION Important issues identified

  17. Zoology by Self-Instruction

    Roach, Keith; Hammond, Roger

    1976-01-01

    A historical account is given of how a conventional university first-year undergraduate course in zoology has been replaced by a self-instructional one. Advantages and problems are weighed, and successful student achievement and interest are described. (LBH)

  18. A Fallibilistic Model for Instruction

    Dawson, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses models in inquiry and of instruction based on critical Fallibilistic philosophy, developed by Karl R. Popper, which holds that all knowledge grows by conjecture and refutation. Classroom applications of strategies which result from the model are presented. (JP)

  19. Instructional Style Meets Classroom Design.

    Novelli, Joan

    1991-01-01

    Nine elementary teachers explain how they design their classrooms to match and support their instructional styles. The teachers focus on whole language programs, student portfolios, science activity set-ups, technology transformation, learning center strategies, and space utilization. (SM)

  20. Intelligent Tools and Instructional Simulations

    Murray, William R; Sams, Michelle; Belleville, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This intelligent tools and instructional simulations project was an investigation into the utility of a knowledge-based performance support system to support learning and on-task performance for using...

  1. Adaptive Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing

    Talla, Surendranath

    2000-01-01

    .... With in this context, we ask ourselves the following questions. 1. Can application performance be improved if the compiler had the freedom to pick the instruction set on a per application basis? 2...

  2. Rating Instructional Conversations: A Guide

    Rueda, Robert; Goldenberg, Claude; Gallimore, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    The current focus on more effective ways to foster literacy in school-age children, especially language minority students, has led to the development of alternative instructional approaches. One such approach is the instructional conversation (IC), based on early work in the Hawaiian Kamehameha Elementary Education Project (KEEP), on neo-Vygotskian theory, and on recent classroom-based research on reading comprehension. The present report outlines preliminary efforts to operationaliz...

  3. PLE-based instruction concept

    Javorcik, Tomas

    2017-11-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of a PLE (Personal Learning Environment)-based teaching model suitable for implementation in the instruction of upper primary school students. The paper describes the individual stages of the model and its use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) tools. The Personal Learning Environment is a form of instruction which allows for the meaningful use of information and communication technologies (including mobile technologies) in their entirety.

  4. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    Wall, W.R.; Cruz, S.L.

    1985-08-01

    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND83-8036. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy 5630 series Orders, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  5. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    Wall, W.R.

    1981-03-01

    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, Building 968 at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND78-8018. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy Manual, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  6. Instructional Technology and Objectification

    Bekir S. Gur

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectification refers to the way in which everything (including human beings is treated as an object, raw material, or resource to be manipulated and used. In this article, objectification refers to the way that education is often reduced to the packaging and delivery of information. A critique of objectification in instructional technology is presented. In the context of Heidegger’s critique of technology, the authors claim that objectification in education is metaphysical in the sense that the intelligibility (being of education is equated with ready-to-use packages, and thus is reduced to delivery and transmission of objects. The embodiment dimension of teaching and learning can help us in resisting this reduction. The authors argue that objectification increases bureaucratic control over the teaching process and deskills teachers; and by which teachers are proletarianized. The authors conclude that instructional designers should create structures in which a care relation and dialogue between students and teachers can take place. Résumé: L’objectification réfère à la façon dont tout (incluant les être humains est traité comme un objet, une matière première ou une ressource qui peut être manipulée et utilisée. Dans cet article, l’objectification réfère à la façon dont l’éducation est souvent réduite à la mise en boîte et à la livraison de l’information. Une critique de l’objectification en technologie éducative est présentée. Dans le contexte de la critique de la technologie par Heidegger, les auteurs prétendent que l’objectification en éducation est métaphysique dans le sens que l’intelligibilité (être de l’éducation équivaut à la mise en boîte prêt-à –utiliser, et se résume donc à la livraison et à la transmission d’objets. L’incarnation de l’enseignement et de l’apprentissage peuvent nous aider à résister à cette réduction. Les auteurs arguent que l

  7. Biased lineup instructions and face identification from video images.

    Thompson, W Burt; Johnson, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Previous eyewitness memory research has shown that biased lineup instructions reduce identification accuracy, primarily by increasing false-positive identifications in target-absent lineups. Because some attempts at identification do not rely on a witness's memory of the perpetrator but instead involve matching photos to images on surveillance video, the authors investigated the effects of biased instructions on identification accuracy in a matching task. In Experiment 1, biased instructions did not affect the overall accuracy of participants who used video images as an identification aid, but nearly all correct decisions occurred with target-present photo spreads. Both biased and unbiased instructions resulted in high false-positive rates. In Experiment 2, which focused on video-photo matching accuracy with target-absent photo spreads, unbiased instructions led to more correct responses (i.e., fewer false positives). These findings suggest that investigators should not relax precautions against biased instructions when people attempt to match photos to an unfamiliar person recorded on video.

  8. Computerized radiology instruction

    Goldberg, M.E.; Drake, D.G.; Day, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The storage and display capabilities of a teleradiology system are used in an educational setting to allow the student (radiologist, resident, or medical student) to interactively respond to questions regarding a series of displayed images (radiographs, CT and US scans, and so forth). The computer prompts the respondent for the correct response, and both correct and incorrect responses are made known to the user. The immediate feedback to the user is a key to the student's acceptance of this form of teaching

  9. Intelligent Instructional Systems in Military Training.

    Fletcher, J.D.; Zdybel, Frank

    Intelligent instructional systems can be distinguished from more conventional approaches by the automation of instructional interaction and choice of strategy. This approach promises to reduce the costs of instructional materials preparation and to increase the adaptability and individualization of the instruction delivered. Tutorial simulation…

  10. Análise Bibliométrica da produção científica em gestão da informação na base de dados lisa / Bibliometrics analysis of scientific production in management information in the lisa database

    Luiza da Silva Kleinubing

    2010-01-01

    Descreve e analisa as principais características bibliométricas das publicações relacionadas à área de gestão da informação da base de dados Lisa, uma das bases com maior visibilidade no campo da Biblioteconomia e Ciência da Informação. Foram analisados 138 artigos. A metodologia de pesquisa combina métodos bibliométricos e softwares, a característica da pesquisa é quantitativa, pois enumera e mede, e qualitativa, pois compreende e explica. Conclui-se sinalizando que os métodos bibliométricos...

  11. The Role of Trust in Effective Instructional Leadership: Exploring the Perceptions of Educational Leaders

    Salazar, Tammie L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the dimensions and roles of trust in effective instructional leadership through a triangulation of data gathered from 78 survey responders and 35 interview participants along with a review of pertinent literature. The interviews and written free-responses related effective instructional leadership to three clear…

  12. The West Wind vs the East Wind: Instructional Leadership Model in China

    Qian, Haiyan; Walker, Allan; Li, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a preliminary model of instructional leadership in the Chinese educational context and explore the ways in which Chinese school principals locate their instructional-leadership practices in response to traditional expectations and the requirements of recent reforms. Design/methodology/approach:…

  13. Principal-Identified Challenges, Needs, and Recommendations for Instructional Leadership in Special Education

    Kraft, Rose A. Liddell

    2016-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002, added instructional responsibilities for school principals specific to students with disabilities. However, these laws did not require additional training in special education policy or instruction for principals, despite the existence of…

  14. Learning in Earth and Space Science: A Review of Conceptual Change Instructional Approaches

    Mills, Reece; Tomas, Louisa; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In response to calls for research into effective instruction in the Earth and space sciences, and to identify directions for future research, this systematic review of the literature explores research into instructional approaches designed to facilitate conceptual change. In total, 52 studies were identified and analyzed. Analysis focused on the…

  15. Using the iPad as a Tool to Support Literacy Instruction

    Hutchison, Amy; Beschorner, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine how iPads could be integrated into literacy instruction in a fourth-grade classroom in ways consistent with new conceptions of literacy and in ways that transform traditional literacy instruction by supporting readers in creating multimodal responses to reading. Results indicate that several features…

  16. Using Technology to Facilitate Differentiated High School Science Instruction

    Maeng, Jennifer L.

    2017-10-01

    This qualitative investigation explored the beliefs and practices of one secondary science teacher, Diane, who differentiated instruction and studied how technology facilitated her differentiation. Diane was selected based on the results of a previous study, in which data indicated that Diane understood how to design and implement proactively planned, flexible, engaging instructional activities in response to students' learning needs better than the other study participants. Data for the present study included 3 h of semi-structured interview responses, 37.5 h of observations of science instruction, and other artifacts such as instructional materials. This variety of data allowed for triangulation of the evidence. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results indicated that technology played an integral role in Diane's planning and implementation of differentiated science lessons. The technology-enhanced differentiated lessons employed by Diane typically attended to students' different learning profiles or interest through modification of process or product. This study provides practical strategies for science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction, and recommendations for science teacher educators and school and district administrators. Future research should explore student outcomes, supports for effective formative assessment, and technology-enhanced readiness differentiation among secondary science teachers.

  17. Patients` compliance with instructions after oral surgery in Nigeria

    2Department of Dental Surgery, Military Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. KEY WORDS: ... Objective: To prospectively study the behaviour of oral surgery patients given verbal and written instructions ..... This is intriguing in view of the general belief in the dental .... comply with the antibiotic prescription while the response.

  18. EEG Based Analysis of Cognitive Load Enhance Instructional Analysis

    Dan, Alex; Reiner, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    One of the recommended approaches in instructional design methods is to optimize the value of working memory capacity and avoid cognitive overload. Educational neuroscience offers novel processes and methodologies to analyze cognitive load based on physiological measures. Observing psychophysiological changes when they occur in response to the…

  19. DNA Damage Signaling Instructs Polyploid Macrophage Fate in Granulomas

    Herrtwich, Laura; Nanda, Indrajit; Evangelou, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    to a chronic stimulus, though critical for disease outcome, have not been defined. Here, we delineate a macrophage differentiation pathway by which a persistent Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 signal instructs polyploid macrophage fate by inducing replication stress and activating the DNA damage response. Polyploid...

  20. Middle School Foreign Language Instruction: A Missed Opportunity?

    Kissau, Scott; Adams, Mary Jo; Algozzine, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies conducted over the past decade have suggested the motivational and proficiency-related benefits of commencing language instruction at an early age. Limitations in many of these studies, however, have prevented their results from being applied to the teaching of foreign languages in the United States. In response to calls for…

  1. Creating Instructional Environments that Keep Students on TARGET

    Boyce, B. Ann

    2009-01-01

    Teachers' instructional decisions, such as lesson goals, how students are grouped, or how students are recognized and evaluated, can affect their students' level of motivation related to physical activity. A physical educator's primary responsibility is to create a classroom environment that enhances motivation and fosters positive attitudes and…

  2. A Method to Establish Stimulus Control and Compliance with Instructions

    Borgen, John G.; Mace, F. Charles; Cavanaugh, Brenna M.; Shamlian, Kenneth; Lit, Keith R.; Wilson, Jillian B.; Trauschke, Stephanie L.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated a unique procedure to establish compliance with instructions in four young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had low levels of compliance. Our procedure included methods to establish a novel therapist as a source of positive reinforcement, reliably evoke orienting responses to the therapist, increase the…

  3. Best practices in writing instruction

    Fitzgerald, Jill; MacArthur, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learner

  4. Epilogue: Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability-Implications for Assessment and Instruction.

    Kamhi, Alan G; Catts, Hugh W

    2017-04-20

    In this epilogue, we review the 4 response articles and highlight the implications of a multidimensional view of reading for the assessment and instruction of reading comprehension. We reiterate the problems with standardized tests of reading comprehension and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of recently developed authentic tests of reading comprehension. In the "Instruction" section, we review the benefits and limitations of strategy instruction and highlight suggestions from the response articles to improve content and language knowledge. We argue that the only compelling reason to administer a standardized test of reading comprehension is when these tests are necessary to qualify students for special education services. Instruction should be focused on content knowledge, language knowledge, and specific task and learning requirements. This instruction may entail the use of comprehension strategies, particularly those that are specific to the task and focus on integrating new knowledge with prior knowledge.

  5. Inquiry-Based Instruction and High Stakes Testing

    Cothern, Rebecca L.

    Science education is a key to economic success for a country in terms of promoting advances in national industry and technology and maximizing competitive advantage in a global marketplace. The December 2010 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) ranked the United States 23rd of 65 countries in science. That dismal standing in science proficiency impedes the ability of American school graduates to compete in the global market place. Furthermore, the implementation of high stakes testing in science mandated by the 2007 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has created an additional need for educators to find effective science pedagogy. Research has shown that inquiry-based science instruction is one of the predominant science instructional methods. Inquiry-based instruction is a multifaceted teaching method with its theoretical foundation in constructivism. A correlational survey research design was used to determine the relationship between levels of inquiry-based science instruction and student performance on a standardized state science test. A self-report survey, using a Likert-type scale, was completed by 26 fifth grade teachers. Participants' responses were analyzed and grouped as high, medium, or low level inquiry instruction. The unit of analysis for the achievement variable was the student scale score average from the state science test. Spearman's Rho correlation data showed a positive relationship between the level of inquiry-based instruction and student achievement on the state assessment. The findings can assist teachers and administrators by providing additional research on the benefits of the inquiry-based instructional method. Implications for positive social change include increases in student proficiency and decision-making skills related to science policy issues which can help make them more competitive in the global marketplace.

  6. Using Technology-Nested Instructional Strategies to Enhance Student Learning

    Angela Lumpkin, PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Students today expect the use of technology in their classes, rather than have to listen to less-than-engaging lectures. College students are connected electronically and incessant technology consumers. As a result, they may prefer the infusion of technologies to help them learn and enjoy the process of learning, rather than having to listen exclusively to lectures. To investigate this, the authors solicited student perceptions to assess the importance of learning through technology-nested instructional strategies. Student perceptions give direction to and affirm the benefits of instructional strategies that increase student motivation to engage more actively in their learning. Based on quantitative and qualitative responses through action research in multiple courses, students perceive their learning as more engaging and enjoyable when technology-nested instructional strategies are infused into their classes.

  7. Student performance on conceptual questions: Does instruction matter?

    Heron, Paula R. L.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the tutorial component of introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington, students take weekly pretests that consist of conceptual questions. Pretests are so named because they precede each tutorial, but they are frequently administered after lecture instruction. Many variables associated with class composition and prior instruction (if any) could, in principle, affect student performance on these questions. Nonetheless, the results are often found to be "essentially the same" in all classes. With data available from a large number of classes, it is possible to characterize the typical variation quantitatively. In this paper three questions for which we have accumulated thousands of responses, from dozens of classes representing different conditions with respect to the textbook in use, the amount of prior instruction, etc., serve as examples. For each question, we examine the variation in student performance across all classes. We also compare subsets categorized according to the amount of relevant prior instruction each class had received. A preliminary analysis suggests that the variation in performance is essentially random. No statistically significant difference is observed between results obtained before relevant instruction begins and after it has been completed. The results provide evidence that exposure to concepts in lecture and textbook is not sufficient to ensure an improvement in performance on questions that require qualitative reasoning.

  8. Assistant for instructional development (AID)

    Meer, J.P. van; Veldhuis, G.J.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Theunissen, N.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Due to periodical job rotation within the military, instructional developers are not always experts in their field and are consequently unaware of the types of educational concepts that are available to teach with (Jans & Frazer-Jans, 2004). These observations have led to the

  9. Using Observation to Improve Instruction

    Powell, William; Napoliello, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The International School of Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, which serves international students in preschool through middle school, focused a great deal of professional attention on differentiation. The administrators in Malaysian school, by making rounds of classrooms, raised teachers' awareness of differentiated instruction.

  10. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration

    Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  11. Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction

    Levin, Lena; Cromdal, Jakob; Broth, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    that the practice of unpacking the local particulars of corrections (i) provides for the instructional character of the interaction, and (ii) is highly sensitive to the relevant physical and mobile contingencies. These findings contribute to the existing literature on the interactional organisation of correction...

  12. Three Logics of Instructional Leadership

    Rigby, Jessica G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines conceptions of instructional leadership in the institutional environment. We know that principals' practices affect student learning and that principals are influenced by ideas in the broader environment. This article examines and defines the multiple conceptions of what it means for principals to be instructional…

  13. Conversation Walks: Improving Instructional Leadership

    Zepeda, Sally J.; Lanoue, Philip D.

    2017-01-01

    Principals are tasked with being the instructional leaders in their schools--developing teacher's abilities through formal and informal classroom observations and feedback. But how can school districts ensure that principals have the skills they need to fulfill this crucial role? In Clarke County School District in Georgia, central-office leaders…

  14. Understanding the Supplemental Instruction Leader

    James, Adrian; Moore, Lori

    2018-01-01

    This article explored the learning styles and leadership styles of Supplemental Instruction (SI) leaders at Texas A&M University, and the impact of those preferences on recurring attendance to their sessions. The Learning Style Inventory, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, and a demographic instrument were administered to SI leaders…

  15. Preparing Instructional Leaders: A Model

    Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article proposes a model that provides one means of making instructional leadership the central focus of leadership preparation. It draws from conceptualizations of teaching and learning as well as organizational and leadership theory to advocate for greater coherence in education leadership programs. Conceptual Argument: We begin…

  16. Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.

    Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

    To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

  17. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  18. Succession Planning for Library Instruction

    Sobel, Karen; Drewry, Josiah

    2015-01-01

    Detailed succession planning helps libraries pass information from one employee to the next. This is crucial in preparing for hiring, turnover, retirements, training of graduate teaching assistants in academic libraries, and other common situations. The authors of this article discuss succession planning for instruction programs in academic…

  19. Adaptive Instruction: Building on Diversity.

    Wang, Margaret C.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alternative instructional strategies and resources to meet the learning needs of individual students incorporates the diagnosis of student learning progress, the teaching of self-management skills, organizational supports, and family involvement into an effective educational program. (JN)

  20. Gestalt Theory and Instructional Design.

    Moore, Patrick; Fitz, Chad

    1993-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of Gestalt theory. Shows how six Gestalt principles (proximity, closure, symmetry, figure-ground segregation, good continuation, and similarity) can be applied to improve a reader's comprehension of a badly designed instruction module that uses several graphics. (SR)

  1. The Basics of Blended Instruction

    Tucker, Catlin R.

    2013-01-01

    Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…

  2. An Experiment in Museum Instruction.

    Bloomberg, Marguerite

    Various lesson plans for museum instruction were tested on fifth grade children of fair and high intelligence in an attempt to improve upon the "accepted method" of teaching, which was thought to be better suited to the child of low intelligence than to his abler classmates. The lesson plans tested were: (1) the accepted method…

  3. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  4. Instructing the Online Catalog User.

    Miller, William

    1986-01-01

    This essay offers suggestions to make online public access catalogs (OPACs) less idiosyncratic and more usable. Discussion covers qualitative difference between online catalog and predecessors, challenge of debunking assumptions, skills for success, maintaining an instructional perspective, catalog development for the people by the people, and the…

  5. Instruction of Competent Psychomotor Skill

    Olson, Valerie Dong

    2008-01-01

    Instruction of competent psychomotor skill necessitates an eclectic approach. The principles of learning, complemented with learning styles and sensory modalities preferences, provide a background for teaching physical skills. The use of the psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy as a map and corresponding behavioral objectives foster the mastery…

  6. Attrition Cost Model Instruction Manual

    Yanagiura, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    This instruction manual explains in detail how to use the Attrition Cost Model program, which estimates the cost of student attrition for a state's higher education system. Programmed with SAS, this model allows users to instantly calculate the cost of attrition and the cumulative attrition rate that is based on the most recent retention and…

  7. Women Administrators as Instructional Leaders

    Horner, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Women are under-represented in educational research and are much less likely to hold administrative positions than are men. This study, using the Liberal Feminist Theory and Structural Barrier Theory, proffers possible explanations for this phenomenon. Four women leaders were interviewed to gain insight into their instructional leadership…

  8. International Instructional Systems: Social Studies

    Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…

  9. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module.

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  10. Computer Assisted Instruction in Basic.

    1983-09-28

    LIBRARY........................16 Program Purpose.........................16 Flowcharts ..........................17 Lessons...17IFlowchart For Main Menu...............19 Flowchart for Lessons One Through Six......................20 CHAPTER Page Tests I1-6 .* 21 Flowchart For...Software support was limited to off-the-shelf packages. All of the computers were purchased with Beginners All Purpose Instruction Code (BASIC), a word

  11. Effective instruction for English learners.

    Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes

  12. Validation of a short, qualitative food frequency questionnaire in French adults participating in the MONA LISA-NUT study 2005-2007.

    Giovannelli, Jonathan; Dallongeville, Jean; Wagner, Aline; Bongard, Vanina; Laillet, Brigitte; Marecaux, Nadine; Ruidavets, Jean Bernard; Haas, Bernadette; Ferrieres, Jean; Arveiler, Dominique; Simon, Chantal; Dauchet, Luc

    2014-04-01

    Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are often used to evaluate individuals' food intakes in epidemiologic studies because of their simplicity and low cost. To assess the validity of a short (24 items), qualitative FFQ used in the MONA LISA-NUT study. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample in three French counties. The sample included 2,630 participants aged 35 to 65 years from the MONA LISA-NUT study. Food consumption was measured with the FFQ and via food records for 3 consecutive days. Plasma fatty acids were measured from a subset of participants. The FFQ items' validity was assessed by calculating crude and deattenuated Pearson correlation coefficients between frequencies reported by the FFQ and average weights reported by the food records. Furthermore, the validity of some items of the FFQ measuring the consumption of fatty foods was assessed by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients between frequencies of consumption of these foods and dosages of the corresponding plasma fatty acids: fish and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), olive oil and oleic acid, margarine and elaidic acid, and dairy products and pentadecanoic and heptadecanoic acids. The mean of the deattenuated Pearson correlation coefficients for all items was 0.46, with values ranging from 0.22 (fried food) to 0.77 (breakfast cereal). The correlation coefficient was ≤ 0.4 for one third of the 24 items. Moderate correlations were found between fish and EPA/DHA (EPA: r=0.43, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.51; DHA: r=0.39, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.47), but not for other food items. One third of the 24 items in the short, qualitative FFQ evaluated here were not sufficiently valid. However, for the food groups most commonly studied in the literature, this FFQ had the same degree of validity as other questionnaires designed to classify subjects according to their level of intake. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bibliographic Instruction in the 21st Century.

    Poirier, Gayle

    2000-01-01

    Discusses bibliographic instruction in libraries. Topics include a history of bibliographic instruction; the Internet and electronic searching; librarians' use of technology; defining information needs; locating and accessing information, including classification systems and Boolean searching; evaluating information; using and communication…

  14. Removing Administrative Impediments to Instructional Improvement Efforts.

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Pigford, Aretha B.

    1987-01-01

    Principals can and should develop strategies that will enable them to provide instructional leadership despite increased demands from other tasks. Recommended actions include: delegation; peer observation; commitment to instructional leadership; and effective communication with teachers. (CB)

  15. Small Changes: Using Assessment to Direct Instructional Practices in Large-Enrollment Biochemistry Courses

    Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Loertscher, Jennifer; Minderhout, Vicky; Tienson, Heather L.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple-choice assessments provide a straightforward way for instructors of large classes to collect data related to student understanding of key concepts at the beginning and end of a course. By tracking student performance over time, instructors receive formative feedback about their teaching and can assess the impact of instructional changes. The evidence of instructional effectiveness can in turn inform future instruction, and vice versa. In this study, we analyzed student responses on an optimized pretest and posttest administered during four different quarters in a large-enrollment biochemistry course. Student performance and the effect of instructional interventions related to three fundamental concepts—hydrogen bonding, bond energy, and pKa—were analyzed. After instructional interventions, a larger proportion of students demonstrated knowledge of these concepts compared with data collected before instructional interventions. Student responses trended from inconsistent to consistent and from incorrect to correct. The instructional effect was particularly remarkable for the later three quarters related to hydrogen bonding and bond energy. This study supports the use of multiple-choice instruments to assess the effectiveness of instructional interventions, especially in large classes, by providing instructors with quick and reliable feedback on student knowledge of each specific fundamental concept. PMID:28188280

  16. Piano instruction for nursery school trainees

    新海, 節; Makoto, SHINKAI; 藤女子大学人間生活学部保育学科

    2012-01-01

    It is important piano instruction in childcare training schools be viewed primarily as "music for childcare". To this end,it is also important that the view of piano instruction for nursery school trainees be switched from one mainly focused on the technical aspects of performance using many etudes to a form of instruction based on developing the musicality of the trainees and their ability to display emotion through music. Further, through this instruction, the trainees need to develop the a...

  17. Technology Use in Higher Education Instruction

    Elzarka, Sammy

    2012-01-01

    The significance of integrating technology use in higher education instruction is undeniable. The benefits include those related to access to instruction by underserved populations, adequately preparing students for future careers, capitalizing on best instructional practices, developing higher order thinking activities, and engaging students…

  18. On the Practice Architectures of Instructional Leadership

    Salo, Petri; Nylund, Jan; Stjernstrøm, Else

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of instructional leadership and principals' perceptions of the practices of instructional leadership. Despite the emphasis on the effects of school leadership regarding teaching practices and learning outcomes, research on direct instructional leadership is scarce. It is focused either on identifying overall…

  19. Students and Instructors Opinions about Piano Instruction

    Kilic, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the opinions of the students and piano instructors in the Turkish Education Faculties' Fine Arts Instruction Departments' music instruction programs about piano instruction. The study data were collected using a questionnaire administered to the piano instructors and the students who took lessons from them. The study results…

  20. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs

    Child, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

  1. A Performance-Based Instructional Theory

    Lawson, Tom E.

    1974-01-01

    The rationale for a performanced- based instructional theory has arisen from significant advances during the past several years in instructional psychology. Four major areas of concern are: analysis of subject-matter content in terms of performance competencies, diagnosis of pre-instructional behavior, formulation of an instructional…

  2. Effective Instruction: A Mathematics Coach's Perspective

    Nebesniak, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Effective instruction is multifaceted, dependent largely on the context and, consequently, on numerous variables. Although "effective instruction" is difficult to define, in the author's experience--and as the work of mathematics education specialists and researchers indicates--three key features of quality instruction stand out: (1) Teaching…

  3. Changing Student Teachers' Views of Comprehension Instruction ...

    At the same time research shows that little, if any, explicit and continuous strategy instruction takes place in classrooms. Reasons seem ... This article reports on the effect of a reading comprehension instruction course on university student teachers' lesson planning, strategy use and views about comprehension instruction.

  4. Instructional Cost Analysis: History and Present Inadequacies.

    Humphrey, David A.

    The cost analysis of instruction is conducted according to principles of teaching and learning that have often become historically dated. Using today's costing systems prevents determination of whether cost effectiveness actually exists. The patterns of instruction in higher education and the systems employed for instructional cost analysis are…

  5. Rapid Prototyping: An Alternative Instructional Design Strategy.

    Tripp, Steven D.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of instructional design and describes rapid prototyping as a feasible model for instructional system design (ISD). The use of prototyping in software engineering is described, similarities between software design and instructional design are discussed, and an example is given which uses rapid prototyping in designing a…

  6. Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

  7. How can we make user instructions motivational?

    Steehouder, M.F.; Loorbach, N.R.

    2004-01-01

    Good technical instructions are often viewed as 'cool, concise and professional', but there are good arguments to pay attention to their persuasive and motivational aspects as well. Until now, only analyses of existing instructions have been published, while guidelines for making instructions

  8. Direct Reading Instruction and the NYS ELA

    Jones-Carey, Margaret H.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of classroom based reading instruction ("direct instruction") on the standardized test scores of 6th grade students as measured by the New York State English Language Arts assessment (NYS ELA). It was hypothesized that the implementation of direct instruction in reading in grade 6 would improve NYS ELA…

  9. Direct Vocabulary Instruction in Preschool: A Comparison of Extended Instruction, Embedded Instruction, and Incidental Exposure

    Loftus-Rattan, Susan M.; Mitchell, Alison M.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Based on its coincidence with a significant period in language development for children, preschool provides a favorable setting to foster vocabulary growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional conditions and an incidental exposure condition for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students…

  10. 30 CFR 48.25 - Training of new miners; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction.

    2010-07-01

    ...; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction. (a) Each new miner shall receive no less than 24...: Provided, That no less than 8 hours of training shall in all cases be given to new miners before they are... instruction; hours of instruction. 48.25 Section 48.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...

  11. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-05-01

    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  12. Instruction of hematopoietic lineage choice by cytokine signaling

    Endele, Max; Etzrodt, Martin; Schroeder, Timm, E-mail: timm.schroeder@bsse.ethz.ch

    2014-12-10

    Hematopoiesis is the cumulative consequence of finely tuned signaling pathways activated through extrinsic factors, such as local niche signals and systemic hematopoietic cytokines. Whether extrinsic factors actively instruct the lineage choice of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells or are only selectively allowing survival and proliferation of already intrinsically lineage-committed cells has been debated over decades. Recent results demonstrated that cytokines can instruct lineage choice. However, the precise function of individual cytokine-triggered signaling molecules in inducing cellular events like proliferation, lineage choice, and differentiation remains largely elusive. Signal transduction pathways activated by different cytokine receptors are highly overlapping, but support the production of distinct hematopoietic lineages. Cellular context, signaling dynamics, and the crosstalk of different signaling pathways determine the cellular response of a given extrinsic signal. New tools to manipulate and continuously quantify signaling events at the single cell level are therefore required to thoroughly interrogate how dynamic signaling networks yield a specific cellular response. - Highlights: • Recent studies provided definite proof for lineage-instructive action of cytokines. • Signaling pathways involved in hematopoietic lineage instruction remain elusive. • New tools are emerging to quantitatively study dynamic signaling networks over time.

  13. Trap-efficiency investigation, Bernalillo Floodwater Retarding Reservoir No. 1 (Piedra Lisa Arroyo) near Bernalillo, New Mexico, water years 1956-1974

    Funderburg, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Soil Conservation Service, began an investigation of sedimentation of Bernalillo Floodwater Retarding Reservoir No. 1 (Piedra Lisa Arroyo) near Bernalillo, New Mexico in 1956. This investigation was part of a nationwide investigation of the trap efficiency of detention reservoirs. Reservoirs No. 1 is normally a dry reservoir and runoff from the 10.6 sq km drainage area generally occurs from high-intensity summer thundershowers. The mesa area of the drainage basin was treated to prevent erosion and gullying and to retard rapid runoff of rainfall. The land treatment consisted of pits, terraces, seeding, and restricted grazing. The total outflow recorded for the period of record (July 19, 1956 to June 30, 1974) was 133 acre-feet, yielding 1 ,439 tons of sediment. Over 99 percent of the coarse sediments and a high percentage of the silts and clays were deposited in the reservoir before reaching the outflow pipe. The determined trap efficiency of Reservoir No. 1 was 96 percent for the period of record. (Woordard-USGS)

  14. Instructional Leadership and Schools Effectiveness

    Hung, Daisy Kee Mui; Ponnusamy, Premavathy

    With the influx of information technology through the Internet and the use of ICT in our daily lives, our future generation has traversed from a mere change of era to a dynamic era of change. Thus, the role of school leaders is becoming more challenging than ever. They need to make greater strides to ensure that they are able to make adjustments and readjustments in instructional practices to cater for the changing elements in their organization. In brief, the school leaders have to be creative, innovative with entrepreneurial drive in order to steer their subordinates (teachers) towards school excellence. Leadership of principal is therefore considered as a main criterion to create successful schools in country's educational advancement. Besides, the school effectiveness plays a crucial role in country's academic advancement. This paper focuses on a comprehensive review of literature on the relationship between instructional leadership and school effectiveness.

  15. Collaboration systems for classroom instruction

    Chen, C. Y. Roger; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Chang, Martin C.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how classroom instruction can benefit from state-of-the-art technologies in networks, worldwide web access through Internet, multimedia, databases, and computing. Functional requirements for establishing such a high-tech classroom are identified, followed by descriptions of our current experimental implementations. The focus of the paper is on the capabilities of distributed collaboration, which supports both synchronous multimedia information sharing as well as a shared work environment for distributed teamwork and group decision making. Our ultimate goal is to achieve the concept of 'living world in a classroom' such that live and dynamic up-to-date information and material from all over the world can be integrated into classroom instruction on a real-time basis. We describe how we incorporate application developments in a geography study tool, worldwide web information retrievals, databases, and programming environments into the collaborative system.

  16. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  17. Instructional skills evaluation in nuclear industry training

    Mazour, T.J.; Ball, F.M.

    1985-11-01

    This report provides information to nuclear power plant training managers and their staffs concerning the job performance requirements of instructional personnel to implement prformance-based training programs (also referred to as the Systems Approach Training). The information presented in this report is a compilation of information and lessons learned in the nuclear power industry and in other industries using performance-based training programs. The job performance requirements in this report are presented as instructional skills objectives. The process used to develop the instructional skills objectives is described. Each objective includes an Instructional Skills Statement describing the behavior that is expected and an Instructional Skills Standard describing the skills/knowledge that the individual should possess in order to have achieved mastery. The instructional skills objectives are organized according to the essential elements of the Systems Approach to Training and are cross-referenced to three categories of instructional personnel: developers of instruction, instructors, and instructional managers/supervisors. Use of the instructional skills objectives is demonstrated for reviewing instructional staff training and qualification programs, developing criterion-tests, and reviewing the performance and work products of individual staff members. 22 refs

  18. Advancing Climate Literacy through Investment in Science Education Faculty, and Future and Current Science Teachers: Providing Professional Learning, Instructional Materials, and a Model for Locally-Relevant and Culturally-Responsive Content

    Halversen, C.; Apple, J. K.; McDonnell, J. D.; Weiss, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) call for 5th grade students to "obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect Earth's resources and environment". Achieving this, and other objectives in NGSS, will require changes in the educational system for both students and teachers. Teachers need access to high quality instructional materials and continuous professional learning opportunities starting in pre-service education. Students need highly engaging and authentic learning experiences focused on content that is strategically interwoven with science practices. Pre-service and early career teachers, even at the secondary level, often have relatively weak understandings of the complex Earth systems science required for understanding climate change and hold alternative ideas and naïve beliefs about the nature of science. These naïve understandings cause difficulties in portraying and teaching science, especially considering what is being called for in NGSS. The ACLIPSE program focuses on middle school pre-service science teachers and education faculty because: (1) the concepts that underlie climate change align well with the disciplinary core ideas and practices in NGSS for middle grades; and (2) middle school is a critical time for capturing students interest in science as student engagement by eighth grade is the most effective predictor of student pursuit of science in high school and college. Capturing student attention at this age is critical for recruitment to STEM careers and lifelong climate literacy. THE ACLIPSE program uses cutting edge research and technology in ocean observing systems to provide educators with new tools to engage students that will lead to deeper understanding of the interactions between the ocean and climate systems. Establishing authentic, meaningful connections between indigenous and place-based, and technological climate observations will help generate a more holistic perspective

  19. Potential risks of nanotechnology to humans and environment: implications and response mechanisms in Africa

    Musee, N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available and Nanotechnology Summer School Pretoria, South Africa, 22nd NOV? 2nd DEC 2009 Potential risks of nanotechnology to humans and the environment: implications and response mechanisms in Africa Ndeke Musee, Lucky Sikhwivhilu, Nomakhwezi Nota, Lisa Schaefer... COVISET Conference, Johannesburg, South Africa, 22-25 Nov 2011? CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Effect of SWCNT on Eschericia coli (a) SEM image of E. Coli incubated without SWCNTs for 60 min. [Source: Kang et al. / Langmuir 2007, 23...

  20. Is the psychological refractory period effect for ideomotor compatible tasks eliminated by speed-stress instructions?

    Shin, Yun Kyoung; Cho, Yang Seok; Lien, Mei-Ching; Proctor, Robert W

    2007-09-01

    It has been argued that the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect is eliminated with two ideomotor compatible tasks when instructions stress fast and simultaneous responding. Three experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In all experiments, Task 1 required spatially compatible manual responses (left or right) to the direction of an arrow, and Task 2 required saying the name of the auditory letter A or B. In Experiments 1 and 3, the manual responses were keypresses made with the left and right hands, whereas in Experiment 2 they were left-right toggle-switch movements made with the dominant hand. Instructions that stressed response speed reduced reaction time and increased error rate compared to standard instructions to respond fast and accurately, but did not eliminate the PRP effect on Task 2 reaction time. These results imply that, even when response speed is emphasized, ideomotor compatible tasks do not bypass response selection.