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Sample records for response selection manipulation

  1. Selective microrobot control using a thermally responsive microclamper for microparticle manipulation

    Go, Gwangjun; Choi, Hyunchul; Ko, Seong Young; Park, Jong-Oh; Park, Sukho; Jeong, Semi

    2016-01-01

    Microparticle manipulation using a microrobot in an enclosed environment, such as a lab-on-a-chip, has been actively studied because an electromagnetic actuated microrobot can have accurate motility and wireless controllability. In most studies on electromagnetic actuated microrobots, only a single microrobot has been used to manipulate cells or microparticles. However, the use of a single microrobot can pose several limitations when performing multiple roles in microparticle manipulation. To overcome the limitations associated with using a single microrobot, we propose a new method for the control of multiple microrobots. Multiple microrobots can be controlled independently by an electromagnetic actuation system and multiple microclampers combined with microheaters. To select a specific microrobot among multiple microrobots, we propose a microclamper composed of a clamper structure using thermally responsive hydrogel and a microheater for controlling the microclamper. A fundamental test of the proposed microparticle manipulation system is performed by selecting a specific microrobot among multiple microrobots. Through the independent locomotion of multiple microrobots with U- and V-shaped tips, heterogeneous microparticle manipulation is demonstrated in the creation of a two-dimensional structure. In the future, our proposed multiple-microrobot system can be applied to tasks that are difficult to perform using a single microrobot, such as cell manipulation, cargo delivery, tissue assembly, and cloning. (paper)

  2. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    Anderson, Robert J.; Morse, William D.; Shirey, David L.; Cdebaca, DanielL M.; Hoffman, John P. Jr.; Lucy, William E.

    2000-01-01

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS

  3. Selective manipulation of superparamagnetic beads by a magnetic microchip

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Yassine, Omar; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a magnetic microchip (MMC) is presented, to first trap and then selectively manipulate individual, superparamagnetic beads (SPBs) to another trapping site. Trapping sites are realized through soft magnetic micro disks made of Ni80Fe20

  4. Selective manipulation of superparamagnetic beads by a magnetic microchip

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a magnetic microchip (MMC) is presented, to first trap and then selectively manipulate individual, superparamagnetic beads (SPBs) to another trapping site. Trapping sites are realized through soft magnetic micro disks made of Ni80Fe20, and SPB motion is controlled by current-carrying, tapered, conducting lines made of Au. The MMC was realized using standard microfabrication techniques and provides a cheap and versatile platform for microfluidic systems for cell manipulation. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Active manipulation of the selective alignment by two laser pulses

    Zeng-Qiang, Yang; Zhi-Rong, Guo; Gui-Xian, Ge

    2010-01-01

    This paper solves numerically the full time-dependent Schrödinger equation based on the rigid rotor model, and proposes a novel strategy to determine the optimal time delay of the two laser pulses to manipulate the molecular selective alignment. The results illustrate that the molecular alignment generated by the first pulse can be suppressed or enhanced selectively, the relative populations of even and odd rotational states in the final rotational wave packet can be manipulated selectively by precisely inserting the peak of the second laser pulse at the time when the slope for the alignment parameter by the first laser locates a local maximum for the even rotational states and a local minimum for the odds, and vice versa. The selective alignment can be further optimised by selecting the intensity ratio of the two laser pulses on the condition that the total laser intensity and pulse duration are kept constant. (atomic and molecular physics)

  6. Manipulating affective state influences conditioned appetitive responses.

    Arnaudova, Inna; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2017-10-06

    Affective states influence how individuals process information and behave. Some theories predict emotional congruency effects (e.g. preferential processing of negative information in negative affective states). Emotional congruency should theoretically obstruct the learning of reward associations (appetitive learning) and their ability to guide behaviour under negative mood. Two studies tested the effects of the induction of a negative affective state on appetitive Pavlovian learning, in which neutral stimuli were associated with chocolate (Experiment 1) or alcohol (Experiment 2) rewards. In both experiments, participants showed enhanced approach tendencies towards predictors of reward after a negative relative to a positive performance feedback manipulation. This increase was related to a reduction in positive affect in Experiment 1 only. No effects of the manipulation on conditioned reward expectancies, craving, or consumption were observed. Overall, our findings support the idea of counter-regulation, rather than emotional congruency effects. Negative affective states might therefore serve as a vulnerability factor for addiction, through increasing conditioned approach tendencies.

  7. Manipulators

    Wilcock, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    The patent concerns a manipulator, which enables operations to be carried out remotely from the operator. The device is suitable for use in handling of radioactive materials and other hazardous liquids or gases. The specifications are given, and the movements of the manipulator arm described. (U.K.)

  8. Manipulators

    Andre, Y.; Routelous, F.; Spina, G.; Perpina, J.; Suquet, J.; Rossi, M.; Zanca, M.; Billiet, A.; Madec, L.; Lemoine, T.; Gaboriaud, G.; Aubert, B.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Neuenschwander, S.; Brisse, H.; Rehel, J.L.; Rebibo, G.; Bensimon, J.L.; Kulski, A.; Serhal, M.; Nguyen, K.V.; Lescure, R.; Cymbalista, M.

    2005-01-01

    Three articles have for purpose the radiation doses optimization in medical imaging. The first one concerns the radiation protection of manipulators working at a PET scan post, the second one concerns more particularly the optimization of doses delivered in pediatric computerized tomography, the third one is devoted to a comparison between radiation dose and image quality through scanners of adult temporal bone. (N.C.)

  9. Perceptual load manipulation reveals sensitivity of the face-selective N170 to attention.

    Mohamed, Tarik N; Neumann, Markus F; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2009-05-27

    It has been controversial whether the face-sensitive N170 is affected by selective attention. We manipulated attention sensu Lavie's perceptual load theory to short (200 ms) presentations of task-irrelevant unfamiliar faces or houses, while participants identified superimposed target letters 'X' versus 'N'. These targets were strings of either six identical (low load) or six different letters (high load). Under low load, we found a prominent face-selective N170 response. Under high load, however, we not only observed a dramatic reduction of the face N170 but also an unexpected enhancement of the house N170, such that face selectivity was almost completely lost. We conclude that the early stages of face processing indexed by the N170 strongly depend on selective attention.

  10. Experimental removal and elevation of sexual selection: does sexual selection generate manipulative males and resistant females?

    Crudgington, Helen S; Beckerman, Andrew P; Brüstle, Lena; Green, Kathleen; Snook, Rhonda R

    2005-05-01

    Sexual conflict over reproduction can occur between males and females. In several naturally promiscuous insect species, experimental evolution studies that have enforced monogamy found evidence for sexual conflict. Here, we subjected the naturally promiscuous, sperm-heteromorphic fruit fly Drosophila pseudoobscura to enforced monogamy, standard levels of promiscuity, and elevated opportunities for promiscuity in four replicate lines. We examined the effect of male and female selection history and the proximate effect of variation in male density on female fitness parameters. We found that male density rather than male selection history explained a greater degree of female fecundity, egg hatching success, and productivity. Additionally, females selected under elevated promiscuity had greater fecundity and hatching success than did enforced monogamy females. Selection line males do not differ in their capacity to coerce females to remate, suggesting no divergence in precopulatory manipulative ability. However, these males did vary in their ability to suppress female remating, suggesting postcopulatory manipulation. These results indicate that sexual conflict can be manifested through both the proximate effects of male density and the historical levels of sexual selection and that the sexes respond differentially to these factors and further stress the multifarious channels of sexual communication that contribute to fitness.

  11. Design of a High Power Robotic Manipulator for Emergency Response to the Nuclear Accidents

    Park, Jongwon; Bae, Yeong-Geol; Kim, Myoung Ho; Choi, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    An accident in a nuclear facility causes a great social cost. To prevent an unexpected nuclear accident from spreading to the catastrophic disaster, emergency response action in early stage is required. However, high radiation environment has been proved as a challenging obstacle for human workers to access to the accident site and take an action in previous accident cases. Therefore, emergency response robotic technology to be used in a nuclear accident site instead of human workers are actively conducted in domestically and internationally. Robots in an accident situation are required to carry out a variety of tasks depend on the types and patterns of accidents. An emergency response usually includes removing of debris, make an access road to a certain place and handling valves. These tasks normally involve high payload handling. A small sized high power robotic manipulator can be an appropriate candidate to deal with a wide spectrum of tasks in an emergency situation. In this paper, we discuss about the design of a high power robotic manipulator, which is capable of handling high payloads for an initial response action to the nuclear facility accident. In this paper, we presented a small sized high power robotic manipulator design. Actuator types of manipulator was selected and mechanical structure was discussed. In the future, the servo valve and hydraulic pump systems will be determined. Furthermore, control algorithms and test bed experiments will be also conducted

  12. Design of a High Power Robotic Manipulator for Emergency Response to the Nuclear Accidents

    Park, Jongwon; Bae, Yeong-Geol; Kim, Myoung Ho; Choi, Young Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    An accident in a nuclear facility causes a great social cost. To prevent an unexpected nuclear accident from spreading to the catastrophic disaster, emergency response action in early stage is required. However, high radiation environment has been proved as a challenging obstacle for human workers to access to the accident site and take an action in previous accident cases. Therefore, emergency response robotic technology to be used in a nuclear accident site instead of human workers are actively conducted in domestically and internationally. Robots in an accident situation are required to carry out a variety of tasks depend on the types and patterns of accidents. An emergency response usually includes removing of debris, make an access road to a certain place and handling valves. These tasks normally involve high payload handling. A small sized high power robotic manipulator can be an appropriate candidate to deal with a wide spectrum of tasks in an emergency situation. In this paper, we discuss about the design of a high power robotic manipulator, which is capable of handling high payloads for an initial response action to the nuclear facility accident. In this paper, we presented a small sized high power robotic manipulator design. Actuator types of manipulator was selected and mechanical structure was discussed. In the future, the servo valve and hydraulic pump systems will be determined. Furthermore, control algorithms and test bed experiments will be also conducted.

  13. An overview of the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS)

    Morse, W.D.; Hayward, D.R.; Jones, D.P.; Sanchez, A.; Shirey, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a high mobility platform integrated with high strength manipulation is under development at Sandia National Laboratories. The mobility platform used is a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV). Manipulation is provided by two Titan 7F Schilling manipulators integrated onboard the HMMWV. The current state of development is described and future plans are discussed

  14. Professional responsibility in relation to cervical spine manipulation.

    Refshauge, Kathryn M; Parry, Sharon; Shirley, Debra; Larsen, Dale; Rivett, Darren A; Boland, Rob

    2002-01-01

    Manipulation of the cervical spine is one of the few potentially life-threatening procedures performed by physiotherapists. Is it worth the risk? A comparison of risks versus benefits indicates that at present, the risks of cervical manipulation outweigh the benefits: manipulation has yet to be shown to be more effective for neck pain and headache than other interventions such as mobilisation, whereas the risks, although infrequent, are serious. This analysis is of particular concern because the conditions for which manipulation is indicated are benign and usually self-limiting. Because physiotherapists have legal and ethical obligations to the community to avoid foreseeable harm and provide optimum care, it may be prudent to determine who in our profession should perform cervical manipulation. That is, the profession could restrict the practice of cervical spine manipulation. Although all registered physiotherapists in Australia are entitled to perform cervical manipulation, few choose to use this intervention. Therefore, it might be feasible to encourage those practitioners who wish to use cervical manipulation to undertake formal education programs. Such a requirement could be embodied in a code of practice that discourages those without formal training from performing cervical manipulation. By taking such measures, we could ensure that our profession exercises wisdom in its monitoring and use of cervical manipulation.

  15. Manipulations of the immune response in the chicken

    Bixler, G.S. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The chicken with its dissociation of immune responses in cell-mediated immunity, dependent on the thymus, and humoral immunity, dependent on the bursa of Fabricius, provides a unique model for studying the two components of the immune system. While there are methods of obtaining selective, profound deficiency of humoral immunity, in this species, methods for obtaining a consistent, profound selective deficiency of cell-mediated immunity have been lacking. Oxisuran, 2[(methylsulfinyl)acetal] pyridine, has been reported to have the unique ability to differentially suppress cell-mediated immunity in several species of mammals without a concomitant reduction in antibody forming capacity. The effect of this compound on two parameters of cell-mediated immune responses in chickens was investigated. In further attempts to create a deficiency of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity, the effects of a combination of cyclophosphamide treatment and x-irradiation early in life on immune responses were studied

  16. Dopamine Manipulation Affects Response Vigor Independently of Opportunity Cost.

    Zénon, Alexandre; Devesse, Sophie; Olivier, Etienne

    2016-09-14

    Dopamine is known to be involved in regulating effort investment in relation to reward, and the disruption of this mechanism is thought to be central in some pathological situations such as Parkinson's disease, addiction, and depression. According to an influential model, dopamine plays this role by encoding the opportunity cost, i.e., the average value of forfeited actions, which is an important parameter to take into account when making decisions about which action to undertake and how fast to execute it. We tested this hypothesis by asking healthy human participants to perform two effort-based decision-making tasks, following either placebo or levodopa intake in a double blind within-subject protocol. In the effort-constrained task, there was a trade-off between the amount of force exerted and the time spent in executing the task, such that investing more effort decreased the opportunity cost. In the time-constrained task, the effort duration was constant, but exerting more force allowed the subject to earn more substantial reward instead of saving time. Contrary to the model predictions, we found that levodopa caused an increase in the force exerted only in the time-constrained task, in which there was no trade-off between effort and opportunity cost. In addition, a computational model showed that dopamine manipulation left the opportunity cost factor unaffected but altered the ratio between the effort cost and reinforcement value. These findings suggest that dopamine does not represent the opportunity cost but rather modulates how much effort a given reward is worth. Dopamine has been proposed in a prevalent theory to signal the average reward rate, used to estimate the cost of investing time in an action, also referred to as opportunity cost. We contrasted the effect of dopamine manipulation in healthy participants in two tasks, in which increasing response vigor (i.e., the amount of effort invested in an action) allowed either to save time or to earn more

  17. Vegetation in group selection openings: ecology and manipulation

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler

    1991-01-01

    Group selection openings ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 acres in mixed conifer stands in northern and central California were evaluated for effect of site preparation, opening size, kind and amount of vegetation, and release treatment. Small openings, in general, are characterized by less sunlight and lower temperature extremes than clearcuttings. Roots from border trees...

  18. River food web response to large-scale riparian zone manipulations.

    J Timothy Wootton

    Full Text Available Conservation programs often focus on select species, leading to management plans based on the autecology of the focal species, but multiple ecosystem components can be affected both by the environmental factors impacting, and the management targeting, focal species. These broader effects can have indirect impacts on target species through the web of interactions within ecosystems. For example, human activity can strongly alter riparian vegetation, potentially impacting both economically-important salmonids and their associated river food web. In an Olympic Peninsula river, Washington state, USA, replicated large-scale riparian vegetation manipulations implemented with the long-term (>40 yr goal of improving salmon habitat did not affect water temperature, nutrient limitation or habitat characteristics, but reduced canopy cover, causing reduced energy input via leaf litter, increased incident solar radiation (UV and PAR and increased algal production compared to controls. In response, benthic algae, most insect taxa, and juvenile salmonids increased in manipulated areas. Stable isotope analysis revealed a predominant contribution of algal-derived energy to salmonid diets in manipulated reaches. The experiment demonstrates that riparian management targeting salmonids strongly affects river food webs via changes in the energy base, illustrates how species-based management strategies can have unanticipated indirect effects on the target species via the associated food web, and supports ecosystem-based management approaches for restoring depleted salmonid stocks.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System for accident site salvage operations

    Trujillo, J.M.; Morse, W.D.; Jones, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates operational experiences with the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) during simulated accident site salvage operations which might involve nuclear weapons. The ARMMS is based upon a teleoperated mobility platform with two Schilling Titan 7F Manipulators

  20. ERP Response Unveils Effect of Second Language Manipulation on First Language Processing.

    Elvira Khachatryan

    Full Text Available Lexical access in bilinguals has been considered either selective or non-selective and evidence exists in favor of both hypotheses. We conducted a linguistic experiment to assess whether a bilingual's language mode influences the processing of first language information. We recorded event related potentials during a semantic priming paradigm with a covert manipulation of the second language (L2 using two types of stimulus presentations (short and long. We observed a significant facilitation of word pairs related in L2 in the short version reflected by a decrease in N400 amplitude in response to target words related to the English meaning of an inter-lingual homograph (homograph-unrelated group. This was absent in the long version, as the N400 amplitude for this group was similar to the one for the control-unrelated group. We also interviewed the participants whether they were aware of the importance of L2 in the experiment. We conclude that subjects participating in the long and short versions were in different language modes: closer to monolingual mode for the long and closer to bilingual mode for the short version; and that awareness about covert manipulation of L2 can influence the language mode, which in its turn influences the processing of the first language.

  1. Effect of Sacroiliac Joint Manipulation on Selected Gait Parameters in Healthy Subjects.

    Wójtowicz, Sebastian; Sajko, Igor; Hadamus, Anna; Mosiołek, Anna; Białoszewski, Dariusz

    2017-08-31

    The sacroiliac joints have complicated biomechanics. While the movements in the joints are small, they exert a significant effect on gait. This study aimed to assess how sacroiliac joint manipulation influences selected gait parameters. The study enrolled 57 healthy subjects. The experimental group consisted of 26 participants diagnosed with dysfunction of one sacroiliac joint. The control group was composed of 31 persons. All subjects from the experimental group underwent sacroiliac joint manipulation. The experimental group showed significant lengthening of the step on both sides and the stride length in this group increased as well. Moreover, the duration of the stride increased (p=0.000826). The maximum midfoot pressure was higher and maximum heel pressure decreased. The differences were statistically significant. 1. Subclinical dysfunctions of the sacroiliac joints may cause functional gait disturbance. 2. Manipulation of the iliosacral joint exerts a significant effect on gait parameters, which may lead to improved gait economy and effec-tiveness. 3. Following manipulation of one iliosacral joint, altered gait parameters are noted on both the manipulated side and the contralateral side, which may translate into improved quality of locomotion.

  2. Manipulation of the metabolic response in clinical practice

    Kehlet, H

    2000-01-01

    morbidity. Effective afferent neural blockade with continuous epidural local anesthetic techniques inhibits a major part of the endocrine metabolic response, leading to improved protein economy but without important effects on inflammatory or immunologic responses. In contrast, pain treatment with other...... modalities such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids has only a small inhibitory effect on endocrine metabolic responses. Preoperative high-dose glucocorticoid therapy provides additional pain relief and improves pulmonary function, but it reduces the inflammatory response (acute......-phase proteins, cytokines, hyperthermia) and immune function. Minimally invasive surgery leaves the endocrine metabolic responses largely unaltered but reduces the inflammatory response and immune suppression. Thus several techniques are available to modify the stress responses in elective surgery patients...

  3. Hierarchical Robot Control System and Method for Controlling Select Degrees of Freedom of an Object Using Multiple Manipulators

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having manipulators for grasping an object using one of a plurality of grasp types during a primary task, and a controller. The controller controls the manipulators during the primary task using a multiple-task control hierarchy, and automatically parameterizes the internal forces of the system for each grasp type in response to an input signal. The primary task is defined at an object-level of control, e.g., using a closed-chain transformation, such that only select degrees of freedom are commanded for the object. A control system for the robotic system has a host machine and algorithm for controlling the manipulators using the above hierarchy. A method for controlling the system includes receiving and processing the input signal using the host machine, including defining the primary task at the object-level of control, e.g., using a closed-chain definition, and parameterizing the internal forces for each of grasp type.

  4. Evolutionary context for understanding and manipulating plant responses to past, present and future atmospheric [CO2].

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Lau, Jennifer A

    2012-02-19

    Variation in atmospheric [CO(2)] is a prominent feature of the environmental history over which vascular plants have evolved. Periods of falling and low [CO(2)] in the palaeo-record appear to have created selective pressure for important adaptations in modern plants. Today, rising [CO(2)] is a key component of anthropogenic global environmental change that will impact plants and the ecosystem goods and services they deliver. Currently, there is limited evidence that natural plant populations have evolved in response to contemporary increases in [CO(2)] in ways that increase plant productivity or fitness, and no evidence for incidental breeding of crop varieties to achieve greater yield enhancement from rising [CO(2)]. Evolutionary responses to elevated [CO(2)] have been studied by applying selection in controlled environments, quantitative genetics and trait-based approaches. Findings to date suggest that adaptive changes in plant traits in response to future [CO(2)] will not be consistently observed across species or environments and will not be large in magnitude compared with physiological and ecological responses to future [CO(2)]. This lack of evidence for strong evolutionary effects of elevated [CO(2)] is surprising, given the large effects of elevated [CO(2)] on plant phenotypes. New studies under more stressful, complex environmental conditions associated with climate change may revise this view. Efforts are underway to engineer plants to: (i) overcome the limitations to photosynthesis from today's [CO(2)] and (ii) benefit maximally from future, greater [CO(2)]. Targets range in scale from manipulating the function of a single enzyme (e.g. Rubisco) to adding metabolic pathways from bacteria as well as engineering the structural and functional components necessary for C(4) photosynthesis into C(3) leaves. Successfully improving plant performance will depend on combining the knowledge of the evolutionary context, cellular basis and physiological integration

  5. Evolutionary context for understanding and manipulating plant responses to past, present and future atmospheric [CO2

    Leakey, Andrew D. B.; Lau, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in atmospheric [CO2] is a prominent feature of the environmental history over which vascular plants have evolved. Periods of falling and low [CO2] in the palaeo-record appear to have created selective pressure for important adaptations in modern plants. Today, rising [CO2] is a key component of anthropogenic global environmental change that will impact plants and the ecosystem goods and services they deliver. Currently, there is limited evidence that natural plant populations have evolved in response to contemporary increases in [CO2] in ways that increase plant productivity or fitness, and no evidence for incidental breeding of crop varieties to achieve greater yield enhancement from rising [CO2]. Evolutionary responses to elevated [CO2] have been studied by applying selection in controlled environments, quantitative genetics and trait-based approaches. Findings to date suggest that adaptive changes in plant traits in response to future [CO2] will not be consistently observed across species or environments and will not be large in magnitude compared with physiological and ecological responses to future [CO2]. This lack of evidence for strong evolutionary effects of elevated [CO2] is surprising, given the large effects of elevated [CO2] on plant phenotypes. New studies under more stressful, complex environmental conditions associated with climate change may revise this view. Efforts are underway to engineer plants to: (i) overcome the limitations to photosynthesis from today's [CO2] and (ii) benefit maximally from future, greater [CO2]. Targets range in scale from manipulating the function of a single enzyme (e.g. Rubisco) to adding metabolic pathways from bacteria as well as engineering the structural and functional components necessary for C4 photosynthesis into C3 leaves. Successfully improving plant performance will depend on combining the knowledge of the evolutionary context, cellular basis and physiological integration of plant responses to varying

  6. Response terminated displays unload selective attention.

    Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual load theory successfully replaced the early vs. late selection debate by appealing to adaptive control over the efficiency of selective attention. Early selection is observed unless perceptual load (p-Load) is sufficiently low to grant attentional "spill-over" to task-irrelevant stimuli. Many studies exploring load theory have used limited display durations that perhaps impose artificial limits on encoding processes. We extended the exposure duration in a classic p-Load task to alleviate temporal encoding demands that may otherwise tax mnemonic consolidation processes. If the load effect arises from perceptual demands alone, then freeing-up available mnemonic resources by extending the exposure duration should have little effect. The results of Experiment 1 falsify this prediction. We observed a reliable flanker effect under high p-Load, response-terminated displays. Next, we orthogonally manipulated exposure duration and task-relevance. Counter-intuitively, we found that the likelihood of observing the flanker effect under high p-Load resides with the duration of the task-relevant array, not the flanker itself. We propose that stimulus and encoding demands interact to produce the load effect. Our account clarifies how task parameters differentially impinge upon cognitive processes to produce attentional "spill-over" by appealing to visual short-term memory as an additional processing bottleneck when stimuli are briefly presented.

  7. Response terminated displays unload selective attention

    Zachary Joseph Jackson Roper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual load theory successfully replaced the early versus late selection debate by appealing to adaptive control over the efficiency of selective attention. Early selection is observed unless perceptual load (p-Load is sufficiently low to grant attentional ‘spill-over‘ to task-irrelevant stimuli. Many studies exploring load theory have used limited display durations that perhaps impose artificial limits on encoding processes. We extended the exposure duration in a classic p-Load task to alleviate temporal encoding demands that may otherwise tax mnemonic consolidation processes. If the load effect arises from perceptual demands alone, then freeing-up available mnemonic resources by extending the exposure duration should have little effect. The results of Experiment 1 falsify this prediction. We observed a reliable flanker effect under high p-Load, response-terminated displays. Next, we orthogonally manipulated exposure duration and task-relevance. Counter-intuitively, we found that the likelihood of observing the flanker effect under high p-Load resides with the duration of the task-relevant array, not the flanker itself. We propose that stimulus and encoding demands interact to produce the load effect. Our account clarifies how task parameters differentially impinge upon cognitive processes to produce attentional ‘spill-over’ by appealing to visual short-term memory as an additional processing bottleneck when stimuli are briefly presented.

  8. Manipulating the in vivo immune response by targeted gene knockdown.

    Lieberman, Judy

    2015-08-01

    Aptamers, nucleic acids selected for high affinity binding to proteins, can be used to activate or antagonize immune mediators or receptors in a location and cell-type specific manner and to enhance antigen presentation. They can also be linked to other molecules (other aptamers, siRNAs or miRNAs, proteins, toxins) to produce multifunctional compounds for targeted immune modulation in vivo. Aptamer-siRNA chimeras (AsiCs) that induce efficient cell-specific knockdown in immune cells in vitro and in vivo can be used as an immunological research tool or potentially as an immunomodulating therapeutic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja

    2016-01-01

    's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo...... or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map...

  10. Response of Alteromonadaceae and Rhodobacteriaceae to glucose and phosphorus manipulation in marine mesocosms.

    Allers, Elke; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Pinhassi, Jarone; Gasol, Josep M; Simek, Karel; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2007-10-01

    Microbial successions were studied in experimental mesocosms of marine water in the presence of additional organic carbon (glucose), phosphorus (P) or both. P addition lead to pronounced blooms of phytoplankton and to significantly enhanced bacterial production. Characteristic succession patterns were observed for two phylogenetic groups of bacteria that both transiently formed > 50% of total cells. An initial bloom of bacteria affiliated to the Alteromonadaceae could not be assigned to any specific treatment and was interpreted as a response to the manipulations during mesocosm set-up. These bacteria rapidly declined with the appearance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates, suggesting a negative effect of selective grazing. The persistence of Alteromonadaceae in the microbial assemblages was significantly favored by the presence of additional glucose. During the second half of the experiment, bacteria affiliated to Rhodobacteriaceae formed a dominant component of the experimental assemblages in treatments with addition of P. The community contribution of Rhodobacteriaceae was significantly correlated with chlorophyll a concentrations only in the P-amended mesocosms (r(2) = 0.58). This was more pronounced in the absence of glucose (r(2) = 0.85). The phylogenetic and morphological diversity among Rhodobacteriaceae was high, and treatment-specific temporal successions of genotypes related to Rhodobacteriaceae were observed. We suggest that the observed succession patterns reflect different niche preferences: Alteromonadaceae rapidly responded to disturbance and profited from allochthonous glucose input, whereas Rhodobacteriaceae benefited from the phytoplankton bloom.

  11. Asymmetric responses of primary productivity to precipitation extremes: A synthesis of grassland precipitation manipulation experiments.

    Wilcox, Kevin R; Shi, Zheng; Gherardi, Laureano A; Lemoine, Nathan P; Koerner, Sally E; Hoover, David L; Bork, Edward; Byrne, Kerry M; Cahill, James; Collins, Scott L; Evans, Sarah; Gilgen, Anna K; Holub, Petr; Jiang, Lifen; Knapp, Alan K; LeCain, Daniel; Liang, Junyi; Garcia-Palacios, Pablo; Peñuelas, Josep; Pockman, William T; Smith, Melinda D; Sun, Shanghua; White, Shannon R; Yahdjian, Laura; Zhu, Kai; Luo, Yiqi

    2017-10-01

    Climatic changes are altering Earth's hydrological cycle, resulting in altered precipitation amounts, increased interannual variability of precipitation, and more frequent extreme precipitation events. These trends will likely continue into the future, having substantial impacts on net primary productivity (NPP) and associated ecosystem services such as food production and carbon sequestration. Frequently, experimental manipulations of precipitation have linked altered precipitation regimes to changes in NPP. Yet, findings have been diverse and substantial uncertainty still surrounds generalities describing patterns of ecosystem sensitivity to altered precipitation. Additionally, we do not know whether previously observed correlations between NPP and precipitation remain accurate when precipitation changes become extreme. We synthesized results from 83 case studies of experimental precipitation manipulations in grasslands worldwide. We used meta-analytical techniques to search for generalities and asymmetries of aboveground NPP (ANPP) and belowground NPP (BNPP) responses to both the direction and magnitude of precipitation change. Sensitivity (i.e., productivity response standardized by the amount of precipitation change) of BNPP was similar under precipitation additions and reductions, but ANPP was more sensitive to precipitation additions than reductions; this was especially evident in drier ecosystems. Additionally, overall relationships between the magnitude of productivity responses and the magnitude of precipitation change were saturating in form. The saturating form of this relationship was likely driven by ANPP responses to very extreme precipitation increases, although there were limited studies imposing extreme precipitation change, and there was considerable variation among experiments. This highlights the importance of incorporating gradients of manipulations, ranging from extreme drought to extreme precipitation increases into future climate change

  12. Response of soil CO2 efflux to precipitation manipulation in a semiarid grassland.

    Wei, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yanjiang; Liu, Jian; Gao, Hailong; Fan, Jun; Jia, Xiaoxu; Cheng, Jimin; Shao, Mingan; Zhang, Xingchang

    2016-07-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (SCE) is an important component of ecosystem CO2 exchange and is largely temperature and moisture dependent, providing feedback between C cycling and the climate system. We used a precipitation manipulation experiment to examine the effects of precipitation treatment on SCE and its dependences on soil temperature and moisture in a semiarid grassland. Precipitation manipulation included ambient precipitation, decreased precipitation (-43%), or increased precipitation (+17%). The SCE was measured from July 2013 to December 2014, and CO2 emission during the experimental period was assessed. The response curves of SCE to soil temperature and moisture were analyzed to determine whether the dependence of SCE on soil temperature or moisture varied with precipitation manipulation. The SCE significantly varied seasonally but was not affected by precipitation treatments regardless of season. Increasing precipitation resulted in an upward shift of SCE-temperature response curves and rightward shift of SCE-moisture response curves, while decreasing precipitation resulted in opposite shifts of such response curves. These shifts in the SCE response curves suggested that increasing precipitation strengthened the dependence of SCE on temperature or moisture, and decreasing precipitation weakened such dependences. Such shifts affected the predictions in soil CO2 emissions for different precipitation treatments. When considering such shifts, decreasing or increasing precipitation resulted in 43 or 75% less change, respectively, in CO2 emission compared with changes in emissions predicted without considering such shifts. Furthermore, the effects of shifts in SCE response curves on CO2 emission prediction were greater during the growing than the non-growing season. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Characterization of the cellular response triggered by gold nanoparticle-mediated laser manipulation.

    Kalies, Stefan; Keil, Sebastian; Sender, Sina; Hammer, Susanne C; Antonopoulos, Georgios C; Schomaker, Markus; Ripken, Tammo; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Meyer, Heiko; Heinemann, Dag

    2015-11-01

    Laser-based transfection techniques have proven high applicability in several cell biologic applications. The delivery of different molecules using these techniques has been extensively investigated. In particular, new high-throughput approaches such as gold nanoparticle–mediated laser transfection allow efficient delivery of antisense molecules or proteins into cells preserving high cell viabilities. However, the cellular response to the perforation procedure is not well understood. We herein analyzed the perforation kinetics of single cells during resonant gold nanoparticle–mediated laser manipulation with an 850-ps laser system at a wavelength of 532 nm. Inflow velocity of propidium iodide into manipulated cells reached a maximum within a few seconds. Experiments based on the inflow of FM4-64 indicated that the membrane remains permeable for a few minutes for small molecules. To further characterize the cellular response postmanipulation, we analyzed levels of oxidative heat or general stress. Although we observed an increased formation of reactive oxygen species by an increase of dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, heat shock protein 70 was not upregulated in laser-treated cells. Additionally, no evidence of stress granule formation was visible by immunofluorescence staining. The data provided in this study help to identify the cellular reactions to gold nanoparticle–mediated laser manipulation.

  14. Surgical manipulation compromises leukocyte mobilisation responses and inflammation after experimental cerebral ischaemia in mice

    Adam eDenes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute brain injury results in peripheral inflammatory changes, although the impact of these processes on neuronal death and neuroinflammation is currently unclear. To facilitate the translation of experimental studies to clinical benefit, it is vital to characterize the mechanisms by which acute brain injury induces peripheral inflammatory changes, and how these are affected by surgical manipulation in experimental models. Here we show that in mice, even mild surgical manipulation of extracranial tissues induced marked granulocyte mobilisation (300% and systemic induction of cytokines. However, intracranial changes induced by craniotomy, or subsequent induction of focal cerebral ischaemia were required to induce egress of CXCR2-positive granulocytes from the bone marrow. CXCR2 blockade resulted in reduced mobilisation of granulocytes from the bone marrow, caused an unexpected increase in circulating granulocytes, but failed to effect brain injury induced by cerebral ischaemia. We also demonstrate that isoflurane anaesthesia interferes with circulating leukocyte responses, which could contribute to the reported vascular and neuroprotective effects of isoflurane. In addition, no immunosuppression develops in the bone marrow after experimental stroke. Thus, experimental models of cerebral ischaemia are compromised by surgery and anaesthesia in proportion to the severity of surgical stress and overall tissue injury. Understanding the inherent confounding effects of surgical manipulation and development of new models of cerebral ischaemia with minimal surgical intervention could facilitate better understanding of interactions between inflammation and brain injury.

  15. Trajectories of grassland ecosystem change in response to experimental manipulations of precipitation

    Knapp, Alan; Smith, Melinda; Collins, Scott; Blair, John; Briggs, John

    2010-05-01

    Understanding and predicting the dynamics of ecological systems has always been central to Ecology. Today, ecologists recognize that in addition to natural and human-caused disturbances, a fundamentally different type of ecosystem change is being driven by the combined and cumulative effects of anthropogenic activities affecting earth's climate and biogeochemical cycles. This type of change is historically unprecedented in magnitude, and as a consequence, such alterations are leading to trajectories of change in ecological responses that differ radically from those observed in the past. Through both short- and long-term experiments, we have been trying to better understand the mechanisms and consequences of ecological change in grassland ecosystems likely to result from changes in precipitation regimes. We have manipulated a key resource for most grasslands (water) and modulators of water availability (temperature) in field experiments that vary from 1-17 years in duration, and used even longer-term monitoring data from the Konza Prairie LTER program to assess how grassland communities and ecosystems will respond to changes in water availability. Trajectories of change in aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in sites subjected to 17 years of soil water augmentation were strongly non-linear with a marked increase in the stimulation of ANPP after year 8 (from 25% to 65%). Lags in alterations in grassland community composition are posited to be responsible for the form of this trajectory of change. In contrast, responses in ANPP to chronic increases in soil moisture variability appear to have decreased over a 10-yr period of manipulation, although the net effects of more variable precipitation inputs were to reduce ANPP, alter the genetic structure of the dominant grass species, increase soil nitrogen availability and reduce soil respiration. The loss of sensitivity to increased resource variability was not reflected in adjacent plots where precipitation was

  16. Increased multiaxial lumbar motion responses during multiple-impulse mechanical force manually assisted spinal manipulation

    Gunzburg Robert

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal manipulation has been found to create demonstrable segmental and intersegmental spinal motions thought to be biomechanically related to its mechanisms. In the case of impulsive-type instrument device comparisons, significant differences in the force-time characteristics and concomitant motion responses of spinal manipulative instruments have been reported, but studies investigating the response to multiple thrusts (multiple impulse trains have not been conducted. The purpose of this study was to determine multi-axial segmental and intersegmental motion responses of ovine lumbar vertebrae to single impulse and multiple impulse spinal manipulative thrusts (SMTs. Methods Fifteen adolescent Merino sheep were examined. Tri-axial accelerometers were attached to intraosseous pins rigidly fixed to the L1 and L2 lumbar spinous processes under fluoroscopic guidance while the animals were anesthetized. A hand-held electromechanical chiropractic adjusting instrument (Impulse was used to apply single and repeated force impulses (13 total over a 2.5 second time interval at three different force settings (low, medium, and high along the posteroanterior axis of the T12 spinous process. Axial (AX, posteroanterior (PA, and medial-lateral (ML acceleration responses in adjacent segments (L1, L2 were recorded at a rate of 5000 samples per second. Peak-peak segmental accelerations (L1, L2 and intersegmental acceleration transfer (L1–L2 for each axis and each force setting were computed from the acceleration-time recordings. The initial acceleration response for a single thrust and the maximum acceleration response observed during the 12 multiple impulse trains were compared using a paired observations t-test (POTT, alpha = .05. Results Segmental and intersegmental acceleration responses mirrored the peak force magnitude produced by the Impulse Adjusting Instrument. Accelerations were greatest for AX and PA measurement axes. Compared to

  17. Experimental determination of frequency response function estimates for flexible joint industrial manipulators with serial kinematics

    Saupe, Florian; Knoblach, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Two different approaches for the determination of frequency response functions (FRFs) are used for the non-parametric closed loop identification of a flexible joint industrial manipulator with serial kinematics. The two applied experiment designs are based on low power multisine and high power chirp excitations. The main challenge is to eliminate disturbances of the FRF estimates caused by the numerous nonlinearities of the robot. For the experiment design based on chirp excitations, a simple iterative procedure is proposed which allows exploiting the good crest factor of chirp signals in a closed loop setup. An interesting synergy of the two approaches, beyond validation purposes, is pointed out.

  18. Estimating uncertainty in multivariate responses to selection.

    Stinchcombe, John R; Simonsen, Anna K; Blows, Mark W

    2014-04-01

    Predicting the responses to natural selection is one of the key goals of evolutionary biology. Two of the challenges in fulfilling this goal have been the realization that many estimates of natural selection might be highly biased by environmentally induced covariances between traits and fitness, and that many estimated responses to selection do not incorporate or report uncertainty in the estimates. Here we describe the application of a framework that blends the merits of the Robertson-Price Identity approach and the multivariate breeder's equation to address these challenges. The approach allows genetic covariance matrices, selection differentials, selection gradients, and responses to selection to be estimated without environmentally induced bias, direct and indirect selection and responses to selection to be distinguished, and if implemented in a Bayesian-MCMC framework, statistically robust estimates of uncertainty on all of these parameters to be made. We illustrate our approach with a worked example of previously published data. More generally, we suggest that applying both the Robertson-Price Identity and the multivariate breeder's equation will facilitate hypothesis testing about natural selection, genetic constraints, and evolutionary responses. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Density mediates grasshopper performance in response to temperature manipulation and spider predation in tallgrass prairie.

    Laws, A N; Joern, A

    2017-04-01

    Species interactions are often context-dependent, where outcomes require an understanding of influences among multiple biotic and abiotic factors. However, it remains unclear how abiotic factors such as temperature combine with important biotic factors such as density-dependent food limitation and predation to influence species interactions. Using a native grassland - grasshopper - wolf spider model food chain in tallgrass prairie, we conducted a manipulative field experiment to examine how predator-prey interactions respond to manipulations of temperature, grasshopper density, and food chain length. We find that grasshopper performance responses to temperature and predator treatments were density dependent. At high densities, grasshopper survival decreased with increased temperature when no spiders were present. When spiders were present, grasshopper survival was reduced, and this effect was strongest in the cooled treatment. In contrast, grasshopper survival did not vary significantly with spider presence or among temperature treatments at low grasshopper densities. Our results indicate that context-dependent species interactions are common and highlight the importance of understanding how and when key biotic and abiotic factors combine to influence species interactions.

  20. Grin and bear it: the influence of manipulated facial expression on the stress response.

    Kraft, Tara L; Pressman, Sarah D

    2012-01-01

    In the study reported here, we investigated whether covertly manipulating positive facial expressions would influence cardiovascular and affective responses to stress. Participants (N = 170) naive to the purpose of the study completed two different stressful tasks while holding chopsticks in their mouths in a manner that produced a Duchenne smile, a standard smile, or a neutral expression. Awareness was manipulated by explicitly asking half of all participants in the smiling groups to smile (and giving the other half no instructions related to smiling). Findings revealed that all smiling participants, regardless of whether they were aware of smiling, had lower heart rates during stress recovery than the neutral group did, with a slight advantage for those with Duchenne smiles. Participants in the smiling groups who were not explicitly asked to smile reported less of a decrease in positive affect during a stressful task than did the neutral group. These findings show that there are both physiological and psychological benefits from maintaining positive facial expressions during stress.

  1. Role of Serotonin Transporter Changes in Depressive Responses to Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Pinborg, Anja; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2015-01-01

    .6 ± 2.2) and at follow-up (16.2 ± 2.6 days after intervention start). RESULTS: Sex hormone manipulation with GnRHa significantly triggered subclinical depressive symptoms within-group (p = .003) and relative to placebo (p = .02), which were positively associated with net decreases in estradiol levels (p......BACKGROUND: An adverse response to acute and pronounced changes in sex-hormone levels during, for example, the perimenopausal or postpartum period appears to heighten risk for major depression in women. The underlying risk mechanisms remain elusive but may include transiently compromised...... serotonergic brain signaling. Here, we modeled a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and evaluated if emergence of depressive symptoms was associated with change in cerebral serotonin transporter (SERT) binding following intervention. METHODS...

  2. Multiple bottlenecks in hierarchical control of action sequences: what does "response selection" select in skilled typewriting?

    Yamaguchi, Motonori; Logan, Gordon D; Li, Vanessa

    2013-08-01

    Does response selection select words or letters in skilled typewriting? Typing performance involves hierarchically organized control processes: an outer loop that controls word level processing, and an inner loop that controls letter (or keystroke) level processing. The present study addressed whether response selection occurs in the outer loop or the inner loop by using the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm in which Task1 required typing single words and Task2 required vocal responses to tones. The number of letters (string length) in the words was manipulated to discriminate selection of words from selection of keystrokes. In Experiment 1, the PRP effect depended on string length of words in Task1, suggesting that response selection occurs in the inner loop. To assess contributions of the outer loop, the influence of string length was examined in a lexical-decision task that also involves word encoding and lexical access (Experiment 2), or to-be-typed words were preexposed so outer-loop processing could finish before typing started (Experiment 3). Response time for Task2 (RT2) did not depend on string length with lexical decision, and RT2 still depended on string length with typing preexposed strings. These results support the inner-loop locus of the PRP effect. In Experiment 4, typing was performed as Task2, and the effect of string length on typing RT interacted with stimulus onset asynchrony superadditively, implying that another bottleneck also exists in the outer loop. We conclude that there are at least two bottleneck processes in skilled typewriting. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Selectively starving cancer cells through dietary manipulation: methods and clinical implications.

    Simone, Brittany A; Champ, Colin E; Rosenberg, Anne L; Berger, Adam C; Monti, Daniel A; Dicker, Adam P; Simone, Nicole L

    2013-07-01

    As the link between obesity and metabolic syndrome and cancer becomes clearer, the need to determine the optimal way to incorporate dietary manipulation in the treatment of cancer patients becomes increasingly important. Metabolic-based therapies, such as caloric restriction, intermittent fasting and a ketogenic diet, have the ability to decrease the incidence of spontaneous tumors and slow the growth of primary tumors, and may have an effect on distant metastases in animal models. Despite the abundance of preclinical data demonstrating the benefit of dietary modification for cancer, to date there are few clinical trials targeting diet as an intervention for cancer patients. We hypothesize that this may be due, in part, to the fact that several different types of diet modification exist with no clear recommendations regarding the optimal method. This article will delineate three commonly used methods of dietary manipulation to assess the potential of each as a regimen for cancer therapy.

  4. Manipulation and selective exercises decrease pelvic anteversion and low-back pain: a pilot study.

    Barbosa, Alexandre Carvalho; Martins, Fábio Luiz Mendonça; Barbosa, Michelle Cristina Sales Almeida; Dos Santos, Rúbia Tenile

    2013-01-01

    To study the effect of a protocol involving joint manipulation and specific exercises for pelvic stability to influence proprioceptive input to the spinal tissues and to observe the effects on sensorimotor function. Seven patients with pelvic anteversion and low back pain participated in an eight-week protocol (three sessions per week/nonconsecutive days). At each session, a high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulative thrust was applied to the sacroiliac joint, followed by quadriceps eccentric and hamstring concentric contractions. The perceived pain symptoms, pelvic anteversion as determined by photogrammetry analysis, and the electromyographic activity of the rectus femoris and lateral and medial hamstrings during flexion and extension exercises were assessed before and after treatment. Non-parametric tests were used to compare the groups before and after treatment with α=0.05. Perceived pain symptoms decreased after treatment (p=0.0007). The differences in the pelvis angles (p=0.0130) suggested significant differences between the assessments, and the electromyographic activities of all the muscles during isometric voluntary contraction increased. The eight-week manipulation/exercise protocol was effective for these subjects' needs. Further research should include a greater sample size to confirm the results and to determine the lead factors of pelvic stability.

  5. Dissociating the influence of response selection and task anticipation on corticospinal suppression during response preparation.

    Duque, Julie; Labruna, Ludovica; Cazares, Christian; Ivry, Richard B

    2014-12-01

    Motor behavior requires selecting between potential actions. The role of inhibition in response selection has frequently been examined in tasks in which participants are engaged in some advance preparation prior to the presentation of an imperative signal. Under such conditions, inhibition could be related to processes associated with response selection, or to more general inhibitory processes that are engaged in high states of anticipation. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the degree of anticipatory preparation. Participants performed a choice reaction time task that required choosing between a movement of the left or right index finger, and used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the left hand agonist. In high anticipation blocks, a non-informative cue (e.g., fixation marker) preceded the imperative; in low anticipation blocks, there was no cue and participants were required to divide their attention between two tasks to further reduce anticipation. MEPs were substantially reduced before the imperative signal in high anticipation blocks. In contrast, in low anticipation blocks, MEPs remained unchanged before the imperative signal but showed a marked suppression right after the onset of the imperative. This effect occurred regardless of whether the imperative had signalled a left or right hand response. After this initial inhibition, left MEPs increased when the left hand was selected and remained suppressed when the right hand was selected. We obtained similar results in Experiment 2 except that the persistent left MEP suppression when the left hand was not selected was attenuated when the alternative response involved a non-homologous effector (right foot). These results indicate that, even in the absence of an anticipatory period, inhibitory mechanisms are engaged during response selection, possibly to prevent the occurrence of premature and inappropriate responses during a competitive selection process. Copyright

  6. Dissociating the Influence of Response Selection and Task Anticipation on Corticospinal Suppression During Response Preparation

    Duque, Julie; Labruna, Ludovica; Cazares, Christian; Ivry, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Motor behavior requires selecting between potential actions. The role of inhibition in response selection has frequently been examined in tasks in which participants are engaged in some advance preparation prior to the presentation of an imperative signal. Under such conditions, inhibition could be related to processes associated with response selection, or to more general inhibitory processes that are engaged in high states of anticipation. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the degree of anticipatory preparation. Participants performed a choice reaction time task that required choosing between a movement of the left or right index finger, and used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the left hand agonist. In high anticipation blocks, a non-informative cue (e.g., fixation marker) preceded the imperative; in low anticipation blocks, there was no cue and participants were required to divide their attention between two tasks to further reduce anticipation. MEPs were substantially reduced before the imperative signal in high anticipation blocks. In contrast, in low anticipation blocks, MEPs remained unchanged before the imperative signal but showed a marked suppression right after the onset of the imperative. This effect occurred regardless of whether the imperative had signaled a left or right hand response. After this initial inhibition, left MEPs increased when the left hand was selected and remained suppressed when the right hand was selected. We obtained similar results in Experiment 2 except that the persistent left MEP suppression when the left hand was not selected was attenuated when the alternative response involved a non-homologous effector (right foot). These results indicate that, even in the absence of an anticipatory period, inhibitory mechanisms are engaged during response selection, possibly to prevent the occurrence of premature and inappropriate responses during a competitive selection process. PMID

  7. Short term response of a peatland to warming and drought - climate manipulation experiment in W Poland

    Juszczak, Radosław; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Urbaniak, Marek; Leśny, Jacek; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Basińska, Anna; Gąbka, Maciej; Stróżecki, Marcin; Samson, Mateusz; Łuców, Dominika; Józefczyk, Damian; Hoffmann, Mathias; Olejnik, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    conditions led to increases in NDVI and LAI, whilst the site exposed to only drought exhibited the lowest LAI. Warming shifted the vegetation species composition by promoting vascular plants (mainly Carex rostrata and C. limosa), which result also correlates positively with nutrient (Ptot, Mn, F, Na, Zn) availability in the peat water. Here, we report short-term responses to increased temperature and diminished precipitation, showing that the combination of these to stressors leads to very different scenario than their individual impacts. Our results further emphasize the need for long term records from field manipulation site on peatland response to climate changes. The Research was co-founded by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development within the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme within the WETMAN project (Central European Wetland Ecosystem Feedbacks to Changing Climate - Field Scale Manipulation, Project ID: 203258, contract No. Pol-Nor/203258/31/2013 (www.wetman.pl). References Fenner N., Freeman Ch. (2011). Nature Geoscience, 4, 895-900 Hoffmann M., et al. (2015). Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 200, 30-45 Kimball BA. (2005). Global Change Biology, 11, 2041-2056

  8. Manipulating the kinetics of seeded growth for edge-selective metal deposition and the formation of concave au nanocrystals.

    Laskar, Moitree; Zhong, Xiaolan; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2013-10-01

    By manipulating the kinetics of seeded growth through judicious control of reaction conditions, edge-selective metal deposition can be achieved to synthesize new Au nanostructures with face-centered concavities, referred to herein as Au overgrown trisoctahedra. These nanostructures display higher sensitivity to changes in refractive index compared to both Au traditional trisoctahedra and the Au nanocube seeds from which they are grown. Often, concave nanostructures are achieved by selective etching processes or corner-selective overgrowth and adopt a stellated profile rather than a profile with face-centered concavities. The presented results illustrate another strategy toward concave nanostructures and can facilitate the synthesis of new concave nanostructures for applications in catalysis and chemical sensing. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Lignocellulose mineralization by Arctic lake sediments in response to nutrient manipulation

    Federle, T.W.; Vestal, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Mineralization of specifically labeled 14 C-cellulose- and 14 C-lignin-labeled lignocelluloses by Toolik Lake, Alaska, sediments was examined in response to manipulation of various environmental factors. Mineralization was measured by quantifying the amount of labeled CO 2 released from the specifically labeled substrates. Nitrogen (NH 4 NO 3 ) and, to a greater degree, phosphorus (PO 4 -3 ) additions enhanced the mineralization of white pine (Pinus strobus) cellulose during the summer of 1978. Nitrogen and phosphorus together had no cumulative effect. During the summer of 1979, nitrogen or phosphorus alone had only a slight stimulatory effect on the mineralization of a sedge (Carex aquatilis) cellulose; however, together, they had a dramatic effect. This variable response of mineralization to nutrient addition between 1978 and 1979 was probably attributable to year-to-year variation in nutrient availability within the lake. Cellobiose addition and oxygen depletion inhibited the amount of pine cellulose mineralized. Whereas addition of nitrogen to oxygen-depleted treatments had limited effect, addition of phosphorus resulted in mineralizations equal to or greater than that of the controls. Nitrogen had no effect on mineralization of pine or Carex lignins. Phosphorus, however, inhibited mineralization of both lignins. With Carex lignin, the phosphorus inhibition occurred at a concentration as low as 0.1 μM. The antagonistic role of phosphorus in cellulose and lignin mineralizations may be of significance in understanding the increased proportion of lignin relative to cellulose in decomposing litter

  10. Site-selective substitutional doping with atomic precision on stepped Al (111) surface by single-atom manipulation.

    Chen, Chang; Zhang, Jinhu; Dong, Guofeng; Shao, Hezhu; Ning, Bo-Yuan; Zhao, Li; Ning, Xi-Jing; Zhuang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In fabrication of nano- and quantum devices, it is sometimes critical to position individual dopants at certain sites precisely to obtain the specific or enhanced functionalities. With first-principles simulations, we propose a method for substitutional doping of individual atom at a certain position on a stepped metal surface by single-atom manipulation. A selected atom at the step of Al (111) surface could be extracted vertically with an Al trimer-apex tip, and then the dopant atom will be positioned to this site. The details of the entire process including potential energy curves are given, which suggests the reliability of the proposed single-atom doping method.

  11. Rain forest nutrient cycling and productivity in response to large-scale litter manipulation.

    Wood, Tana E; Lawrence, Deborah; Clark, Deborah A; Chazdon, Robin L

    2009-01-01

    Litter-induced pulses of nutrient availability could play an important role in the productivity and nutrient cycling of forested ecosystems, especially tropical forests. Tropical forests experience such pulses as a result of wet-dry seasonality and during major climatic events, such as strong El Niños. We hypothesized that (1) an increase in the quantity and quality of litter inputs would stimulate leaf litter production, woody growth, and leaf litter nutrient cycling, and (2) the timing and magnitude of this response would be influenced by soil fertility and forest age. To test these hypotheses in a Costa Rican wet tropical forest, we established a large-scale litter manipulation experiment in two secondary forest sites and four old-growth forest sites of differing soil fertility. In replicated plots at each site, leaves and twigs (forest floor. We analyzed leaf litter mass, [N] and [P], and N and P inputs for addition, removal, and control plots over a two-year period. We also evaluated basal area increment of trees in removal and addition plots. There was no response of forest productivity or nutrient cycling to litter removal; however, litter addition significantly increased leaf litter production and N and P inputs 4-5 months following litter application. Litter production increased as much as 92%, and P and N inputs as much as 85% and 156%, respectively. In contrast, litter manipulation had no significant effect on woody growth. The increase in leaf litter production and N and P inputs were significantly positively related to the total P that was applied in litter form. Neither litter treatment nor forest type influenced the temporal pattern of any of the variables measured. Thus, environmental factors such as rainfall drive temporal variability in litter and nutrient inputs, while nutrient release from decomposing litter influences the magnitude. Seasonal or annual variation in leaf litter mass, such as occurs in strong El Niño events, could positively

  12. Habitat change and restoration: responses of a forest-floor mammal species to manipulations of fallen timber in floodplain forests

    Mac Nally, R

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In forests and woodlands, fallen timber (logs and large branches is an important habitat element for many species of animals. Fallen timber has been systematically stripped in many forests, eliminating an important structural element. This study describes results of a ‘meso-scale’ experiment in which fallen timber was manipulated in a floodplain forest of the Murray River in south-eastern Australia. A thousand tons of wood were redistributed after one-year’s pre-manipulation monitoring, while a further two-year’s post-manipulation monitoring was conducted. The response of the main forest-floor small-mammal species, the Yellow-footed Antechinus Antechinus flavipes, to alterations of fallen-wood loads is documented. Results of the experiment will help to frame guidelines for fallen-timber management in these extensive floodplain forests.

  13. Distinct responses of soil respiration to experimental litter manipulation in temperate woodland and tropical forest.

    Bréchet, Laëtitia M; Lopez-Sangil, Luis; George, Charles; Birkett, Ali J; Baxendale, Catherine; Castro Trujillo, Biancolini; Sayer, Emma J

    2018-04-01

    Global change is affecting primary productivity in forests worldwide, and this, in turn, will alter long-term carbon (C) sequestration in wooded ecosystems. On one hand, increased primary productivity, for example, in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), can result in greater inputs of organic matter to the soil, which could increase C sequestration belowground. On other hand, many of the interactions between plants and microorganisms that determine soil C dynamics are poorly characterized, and additional inputs of plant material, such as leaf litter, can result in the mineralization of soil organic matter, and the release of soil C as CO 2 during so-called "priming effects". Until now, very few studies made direct comparison of changes in soil C dynamics in response to altered plant inputs in different wooded ecosystems. We addressed this with a cross-continental study with litter removal and addition treatments in a temperate woodland (Wytham Woods) and lowland tropical forest (Gigante forest) to compare the consequences of increased litterfall on soil respiration in two distinct wooded ecosystems. Mean soil respiration was almost twice as high at Gigante (5.0 μmol CO 2  m -2  s -1 ) than at Wytham (2.7 μmol CO 2  m -2  s -1 ) but surprisingly, litter manipulation treatments had a greater and more immediate effect on soil respiration at Wytham. We measured a 30% increase in soil respiration in response to litter addition treatments at Wytham, compared to a 10% increase at Gigante. Importantly, despite higher soil respiration rates at Gigante, priming effects were stronger and more consistent at Wytham. Our results suggest that in situ priming effects in wooded ecosystems track seasonality in litterfall and soil respiration but the amount of soil C released by priming is not proportional to rates of soil respiration. Instead, priming effects may be promoted by larger inputs of organic matter combined with slower turnover rates.

  14. Solid phosphoric acid oligomerisation: Manipulating diesel selectivity by controlling catalyst hydration

    Prinsloo, Nicolaas M.

    2006-01-01

    Solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalyst is traditionally used in crude oil refineries to produce unhydrogenated motor-gasoline by propene and butene oligomerisation. SPA is also used in High-Temperature Fischer-Tropsch refineries (HTFT) to produce synthetic fuels albeit with a different emphasis. The petrol/diesel ratio of an HTFT refinery is very different from crude refining and it is often necessary to shift this ratio depending on market requirements. The influence of hydration was investigated as a means of improving diesel selectivity. This was achieved by studying SPA over a hydration range of 99-110% H 3 PO 4 , a temperature range of 140-230 o C and using C 3 -C 6 model and synthetic FT-derived olefinic feedstocks. A direct correlation was found between the selectivity towards diesel range products and the distribution of the phosphoric acid species viz. H 3 PO 4 , H 4 P 2 O 7 and H 5 P 3 O 10 . For various olefinic feedstocks, diesel selectivity increased with decreasing catalyst hydration with a maximum around 108% H 3 PO 4 for propene oligomerisation. Commercial tests confirmed the increase in diesel selectivity with lowered catalyst hydration. (author)

  15. Ecosystem and Community Responses to Rainfall Manipulations in Shrublands Depends on Dominant Vegetation Cover

    Esch, E. H.; Lipson, D.; Kim, J. B.; Cleland, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    Southern California is predicted to face decreasing precipitation with increased interannual variability in the coming century. Native shrublands in this area are increasingly invaded by exotic annual grasses, though invasion dynamics can vary by rainfall scenario, with wet years generally associated with high invasion pressure. Interplay between rainfall and invasion scenarios can influence carbon stocks and community composition. Here we asked how invasion alters ecosystem and community responses in drought versus high rainfall scenarios, as quantified by community identity, biomass production, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). To do this, we performed a rainfall manipulation experiment with paired plots dominated either by native shrubs or exotic herbaceous species, subjected to treatments of 50%, 100%, or 150% of ambient rainfall. The study site was located in a coastal sage scrub ecosystem, with patches dominated by native shrubs and exotic grasses located in San Diego County, USA. During two growing seasons, we found that native, herbaceous biomass production was significantly affected by rainfall treatment (p<0.05 for both years), though was not affected by dominant community composition. Photosynthetic biomass production of shrub species also varied by treatment (p=0.035). Exotic biomass production showed a significant interaction between dominant community composition and rainfall treatment, and both individual effects (p<0.001 for all). NDVI showed similar results, but also indicated the importance of rainfall timing on overall biomass production between years. Community composition data showed certain species, of both native and exotic identities, segregating by treatment. These results indicate that exotic species are more sensitive to rainfall, and that increased rainfall may promote greater carbon storage in annual dominated communities when compared to shrub dominated communities in high rainfall years, but with drought, this

  16. Quantitative changes in adipocyte plasma membrane in response to nutritional manipulations

    Lewis, D.S.; Masoro, E.J.; Yu, B.P.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of changes in adipocyte size and the effects of nutritional manipulations on the quantity of plasma membrane per adipocyte were investigated. A method for estimating the quantity of plasma membrane was developed based on the specific labeling of adipocyte plasma membrane protein with the nonpermeable labeling agent 125I-labeled diazotized diiodosulfanilic acid. By studying rats (ranging in age from 50 to 125 days) fed a standard laboratory chow or a low fat diet or a high fat diet, a wide range of mean fat cell sizes was obtained. It was found that as the volume of the fat cell increased, the amount of plasma membrane increased in a linear fashion and that this linear relationship had the same slope whether the size of the adipocyte increased slowly with age or rapidly in response to a high fat diet. In contrast, fasting for up to 3 days caused a marked decrease in the mean volume of the adipocytes, but either no change or much less change in the amount of plasma membrane per cell than would have been predicted from the linear relationship between adipocytes, but either no change or much less change in the amount of plasma membrane per cell than would have been predicted form the linear relationship between adipocyte volume and amount of plasma membrane per cell obtained with fed rats, i.e., adipocytes from fasted rats contain more plasma membrane per cell than do fat cells of the same size from fed rats. Neither feeding a high fat diet nor fasting caused detectable changes in the protein and lipid composition of the adipocyte plasma membrane

  17. BODY SIZE AND HAREM SIZE IN MALE RED-WINGED BLACKBIRDS: MANIPULATING SELECTION WITH SEX-SPECIFIC FEEDERS.

    Rohwer, Sievert; Langston, Nancy; Gori, Dave

    1996-10-01

    We experimentally manipulated the strength of selection in the field on red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) to test hypotheses about contrasting selective forces that favor either large or small males in sexually size dimorphic birds. Selander (1972) argued that sexual selection favors larger males, while survival selection eventually stabilizes male size because larger males do not survive as well as smaller males during harsh winters. Searcy (1979a) proposed instead that sexual selection may be self limiting: male size might be stabilized not by overwinter mortality, but by breeding-season sexual selection that favors smaller males. Under conditions of energetic stress, smaller males should be able to display more and thus achieve higher reproductive success. Using feeders that provisioned males or females but not both, we produced conditions that mimicked the extremes of natural conditions. We found experimental support for the hypothesis that when food is abundant, sexual selection favors larger males. But even under conditions of severe energetic stress, smaller males did not gain larger harems, as the self-limiting hypothesis predicted. Larger males were more energetically stressed than smaller males, but in ways that affected their future reproductive output rather than their current reproductive performance. Stressed males that returned had smaller wings and tails than those that did not return; among returning stressed males, relative harem sizes were inversely related to wing and tail length. Thus, male body size may be stabilized not by survival costs during the non-breeding season, nor by energetic costs during the breeding season, but by costs of future reproduction that larger males pay for their increased breeding-season effort. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Non-collocated fuzzy logic and input shaping control strategy for elastic joint manipulator: vibration suppression and time response analysis

    Rashidifar, Mohammed Amin [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, SHADEGAN (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidifar, Ali Amin, E-mail: rashidifar_58@yahoo.com [Computer Science, Islamic Azad University, SHADEGAN (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Conventional model-based control strategies are very complex and difficult to synthesize due to high complexity of the dynamics of robots manipulator considering joint elasticity. This paper presents investigations into the development of hybrid control schemes for trajectory tracking and vibration control of a flexible joint manipulator. To study the effectiveness of the controllers, initially a collocated proportional-derivative (P D)-type Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is developed for tip angular position control of a flexible joint manipulator. This is then extended to incorporate a non-collocated Fuzzy Logic Controller and input shaping scheme for vibration reduction of the flexible joint system. The positive zero-vibration-derivative-derivative (ZVDD) shaper is designed based on the properties of the system. Simulation results of the response of the flexible joint manipulator with the controllers are presented in time and frequency domains. The performances of the hybrid control schemes are examined in terms of input tracking capability, level of vibration reduction and time response specifications. Finally, a comparative assessment of the control techniques is presented and discussed. (Author)

  19. Manipulation of innate immunity by a bacterial secreted peptide: Lantibiotic nisin Z is selectively immunomodulatory

    Kindrachuk, J.; Jenssen, H.; Elliott, M.; Breukink, E.J.; Hancock, R.E.W.; et al., [No Value

    2013-01-01

    Innate immunity is triggered by a variety of bacterial molecules, resulting in both protective and potentially harmful proinflammatory responses. Further, innate immunity also provides a mechanism for the maintenance of homeostasis between the host immune system and symbiotic or non-pathogenic

  20. Nitrogen transformations in response to temperature and rainfall manipulation in oak savanna: A global change experiment

    Wellman, R. L.; Boutton, T. W.; Tjoelker, M. G.; Volder, A.; Briske, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are projected to elevate global surface air temperatures by 1.1 to 6.4°C by the end of the century, and potentially magnify the intensity and variability of seasonal precipitation distribution. The mid-latitude grasslands of North America are predicted to experience substantial modification in precipitation regimes, with a shift towards drier summers and wetter spring and fall seasons. Despite these predictions, little is known concerning the effects of these global climate change drivers or their potential interactive effects on nitrogen (N) cycling processes. The purpose of this study is to quantify seasonal variation in rates of N-mineralization, nitrification, and N-losses via leaching in soil subjected to experimental warming and rainfall manipulation. Research was conducted at the Texas A&M Warming and Rainfall Manipulation (WaRM) Site in College Station where eight 9x18m rainout shelters and two unsheltered controls were established in post oak savanna in 2003. Replicate annual rainfall redistribution treatments (n = 4) are applied at the shelter level (long term mean vs. 40% of summer redistributed to fall and spring with same annual total). Warming treatments (ambient vs. 24-hr IR canopy warming of 1-3°C) were applied to planted monocultures of juniper and little bluestem, and a juniper-grass combination. Both juniper and little bluestem are key species within the post oak savanna region. Plots were sampled from the full factorial design during years six and seven of the WaRM experiment. Soil N-mineralization, nitrification, and N-losses via leaching were assessed quarterly for two years using the resin core incubation method. Rainfall, species composition, and time interacted significantly to influence both ammonification and nitrification. Highest rates of ammonification (0.115 mg NH4+ -N/ kg soil/day) occurred in grass monocultures during summer in the control rainfall plots, whereas highest rates of

  1. Dryland ecosystem responses to precipitation extremes and wildfire at a long-term rainfall manipulation experiment

    Brown, R. F.; Collins, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    Climate is becoming increasingly more variable due to global environmental change, which is evidenced by fewer, but more extreme precipitation events, changes in precipitation seasonality, and longer, higher severity droughts. These changes, combined with a rising incidence of wildfire, have the potential to strongly impact net primary production (NPP) and key biogeochemical cycles, particularly in dryland ecosystems where NPP is sequentially limited by water and nutrient availability. Here we utilize a ten-year dataset from an ongoing long-term field experiment established in 2007 in which we experimentally altered monsoon rainfall variability to examine how our manipulations, along with naturally occurring events, affect NPP and associated biogeochemical cycles in a semi-arid grassland in central New Mexico, USA. Using long-term regional averages, we identified extremely wet monsoon years (242.8 mm, 2013), and extremely dry monsoon years (86.0 mm, 2011; 80.0 mm, 2015) and water years (117.0 mm, 2011). We examined how changes in precipitation variability and extreme events affected ecosystem processes and function particularly in the context of ecosystem recovery following a 2009 wildfire. Response variables included above- and below-ground plant biomass (ANPP & BNPP) and abundance, soil nitrogen availability, and soil CO2 efflux. Mean ANPP ranged from 3.6 g m-2 in 2011 to 254.5 g m-2 in 2013, while BNPP ranged from 23.5 g m-2 in 2015 to 194.2 g m-2 in 2013, demonstrating NPP in our semi-arid grassland is directly linked to extremes in both seasonal and annual precipitation. We also show increased nitrogen deposition positively affects NPP in unburned grassland, but has no significant impact on NPP post-fire except during extremely wet monsoon years. While soil respiration rates reflect lower ANPP post-fire, patterns in CO2 efflux have not been shown to change significantly in that efflux is greatest following large precipitation events preceded by longer drying

  2. John Dewey's Pragmatic Ethics and "Manipulation": A Response to Walter Feinberg and Clarence Karier.

    Pyong, Gap Min

    1979-01-01

    Dewey's emphasis on the individual as the determiner for moral judgments and his consideration of the general welfare as the standard is the focus for argument against the interpretation that his ethical theory supports the possibility of the manipulation of the masses by liberal reformers. (JN)

  3. Response of anaerobic carbon cycling to water table manipulation in an Alaskan rich fen

    E.S. Kane; M.R. Chivers; M.S. Turetsky; C.C. Treat; D.G. Petersen; M. Waldrop; J.W. Harden; A.D. McGuire

    2013-01-01

    To test the effects of altered hydrology on organic soil decomposition, we investigated CO2 and CH4 production potential of rich-fen peat (mean surface pH = 6.3) collected from a field water table manipulation experiment including control, raised and lowered water table treatments. Mean anaerobic CO2...

  4. The impact of search engine selection and sorting criteria on vaccination beliefs and attitudes: two experiments manipulating Google output.

    Allam, Ahmed; Schulz, Peter Johannes; Nakamoto, Kent

    2014-04-02

    During the past 2 decades, the Internet has evolved to become a necessity in our daily lives. The selection and sorting algorithms of search engines exert tremendous influence over the global spread of information and other communication processes. This study is concerned with demonstrating the influence of selection and sorting/ranking criteria operating in search engines on users' knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of websites about vaccination. In particular, it is to compare the effects of search engines that deliver websites emphasizing on the pro side of vaccination with those focusing on the con side and with normal Google as a control group. We conducted 2 online experiments using manipulated search engines. A pilot study was to verify the existence of dangerous health literacy in connection with searching and using health information on the Internet by exploring the effect of 2 manipulated search engines that yielded either pro or con vaccination sites only, with a group receiving normal Google as control. A pre-post test design was used; participants were American marketing students enrolled in a study-abroad program in Lugano, Switzerland. The second experiment manipulated the search engine by applying different ratios of con versus pro vaccination webpages displayed in the search results. Participants were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk platform where it was published as a human intelligence task (HIT). Both experiments showed knowledge highest in the group offered only pro vaccination sites (Z=-2.088, P=.03; Kruskal-Wallis H test [H₅]=11.30, P=.04). They acknowledged the importance/benefits (Z=-2.326, P=.02; H5=11.34, P=.04) and effectiveness (Z=-2.230, P=.03) of vaccination more, whereas groups offered antivaccination sites only showed increased concern about effects (Z=-2.582, P=.01; H₅=16.88, P=.005) and harmful health outcomes (Z=-2.200, P=.02) of vaccination. Normal Google users perceived information quality to be positive despite a

  5. On a problematic procedure to manipulate response biases in recognition experiments: the case of "implied" base rates.

    Bröder, Arndt; Malejka, Simone

    2017-07-01

    The experimental manipulation of response biases in recognition-memory tests is an important means for testing recognition models and for estimating their parameters. The textbook manipulations for binary-response formats either vary the payoff scheme or the base rate of targets in the recognition test, with the latter being the more frequently applied procedure. However, some published studies reverted to implying different base rates by instruction rather than actually changing them. Aside from unnecessarily deceiving participants, this procedure may lead to cognitive conflicts that prompt response strategies unknown to the experimenter. To test our objection, implied base rates were compared to actual base rates in a recognition experiment followed by a post-experimental interview to assess participants' response strategies. The behavioural data show that recognition-memory performance was estimated to be lower in the implied base-rate condition. The interview data demonstrate that participants used various second-order response strategies that jeopardise the interpretability of the recognition data. We thus advice researchers against substituting actual base rates with implied base rates.

  6. Response characteristics of selected personnel neutron dosimeters

    McDonald, J.C.; Fix, J.J.; Hadley, R.T.; Holbrook, K.L.; Yoder, R.C.; Roberson, P.L.; Endres, G.W.R.; Nichols, L.L.; Schwartz, R.B.

    1983-09-01

    Performance characteristics of selected personnel neutron dosimeters in current use at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities were determined from their evaluation of neutron dose equivalent received after irradiations with specific neutron sources at either the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) or the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The characteristics assessed included: lower detection level, energy response, precision and accuracy. It was found that when all of the laboratories employed a common set of calibrations, the overall accuracy was approximately +-20%, which is within uncertainty expected for these dosimeters. For doses above 80 mrem, the accuracy improved to better than 10% when a common calibration was used. Individual differences found in this study may reflect differences in calibration technique rather than differences in the dose rates of actual calibration standards. Second, at dose rates above 100 mrem, the precision for the best participants was generally below +-10% which is also within expected limits for these types of dosimeters. The poorest results had a standard deviation of about +-25%. At the lowest doses, which were sometimes below the lower detection limit, the precision often approached or exceeded +-100%. Third, the lower level of detection for free field 252 Cf neutrons generally ranged between 20 and 50 mrem. Fourth, the energy dependence study provided a characterization of the response of the dosimeters to neutron energies far from the calibration energy. 11 references, 22 figures, 26 tables

  7. The effects of testosterone on immune function in quail selected for divergent plasma corticosterone response.

    Roberts, Mark L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Evans, Matthew R; Marin, Raul H; Satterlee, Daniel G

    2009-10-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) suggests that the male sex hormone testosterone has a dual effect; it controls the development and expression of male sexually selected signals, and it suppresses the immune system. Therefore only high quality males are able to fully express secondary sexual traits because only they can tolerate the immunosuppressive qualities of testosterone. A modified version of the ICHH suggests that testosterone causes immunosuppression indirectly by increasing the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Lines of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) selected for divergent responses in levels of plasma CORT were used to test these hypotheses. Within each CORT response line (as well as in a control stock) we manipulated levels of testosterone in castrated quail by treatment with zero (sham), low or high testosterone implants, before testing the birds' humoral immunity and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced immune response, as well as body condition. The PHA-induced response was not significantly affected by CORT selected line, testosterone treatment or their interaction. There was, however, a significant effect of CORT line on humoral immunity in that the control birds exhibited the greatest antibody production, but there was no significant effect of testosterone manipulation on humoral immunity. The males in the sham implant treatment group had significantly greater mass than the males in the high testosterone group, suggesting a negative effect of high testosterone on general body condition. We discuss these results in the context of current hypotheses in the field of sexual selection.

  8. Growth responses of mature loblolly pine to dead wood.manipulations.

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale manipulations of dead wood in mature Pinus taeda L. stands in the southeastern United States included a major one-time input of logs (fivefold increase in log volume) created by felling trees onsite, annual removals of all dead wood above >10 cm in diameter and >60 cm in length, and a reference in which no manipulations took place. We returned over a decade later to determine how these treatments affected tree growth using increment cores. There were no significant differences in tree density, basal area or tree diameters among treatments at the time of sampling. Although tree growth was consistently higher in the log-input plots and lower in the removal plots, this was true even during the 5 year period before the experiment began. When growth data from this initial period were included in the model as a covariate, no differences in post-treatment tree growth were detected. It is possible that treatment effects will become apparent after more time has passed, however.

  9. The Missing Response to Selection in the Wild

    Pujol, Benoit; Blanchet, Simon; Charmantier, Anne; Danchin, Etienne; Facon, Benoit; Marrot, Pascal; Roux, Fabrice; Scotti, Ivan; Teplitsky, Céline; Thomson, Caroline E.; Winney, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Although there are many examples of contemporary directional selection, evidence for responses to selection that match predictions are often missing in quantitative genetic studies of wild populations. This is despite the presence of genetic variation and selection pressures – theoretical prerequisites for the response to selection. This conundrum can be explained by statistical issues with accurate parameter estimation, and by biological mechanisms that interfere with the response to selecti...

  10. Contrasting response to nutrient manipulation in Arctic mesocosms are reproduced by a minimum microbial food web model.

    Larsen, Aud; Egge, Jorun K; Nejstgaard, Jens C; Di Capua, Iole; Thyrhaug, Runar; Bratbak, Gunnar; Thingstad, T Frede

    2015-03-01

    A minimum mathematical model of the marine pelagic microbial food web has previously shown to be able to reproduce central aspects of observed system response to different bottom-up manipulations in a mesocosm experiment Microbial Ecosystem Dynamics (MEDEA) in Danish waters. In this study, we apply this model to two mesocosm experiments (Polar Aquatic Microbial Ecology (PAME)-I and PAME-II) conducted at the Arctic location Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. The different responses of the microbial community to similar nutrient manipulation in the three mesocosm experiments may be described as diatom-dominated (MEDEA), bacteria-dominated (PAME-I), and flagellated-dominated (PAME-II). When allowing ciliates to be able to feed on small diatoms, the model describing the diatom-dominated MEDEA experiment give a bacteria-dominated response as observed in PAME I in which the diatom community comprised almost exclusively small-sized cells. Introducing a high initial mesozooplankton stock as observed in PAME-II, the model gives a flagellate-dominated response in accordance with the observed response also of this experiment. The ability of the model originally developed for temperate waters to reproduce population dynamics in a 10°C colder Arctic fjord, does not support the existence of important shifts in population balances over this temperature range. Rather, it suggests a quite resilient microbial food web when adapted to in situ temperature. The sensitivity of the model response to its mesozooplankton component suggests, however, that the seasonal vertical migration of Arctic copepods may be a strong forcing factor on Arctic microbial food webs.

  11. Manipulation of the response of human endothelial colony-forming cells by focal adhesion assembly using gradient nanopattern plates.

    Cui, Long-Hui; Joo, Hyung Joon; Kim, Dae Hwan; Seo, Ha-Rim; Kim, Jung Suk; Choi, Seung-Cheol; Huang, Li-Hua; Na, Ji Eun; Lim, I-Rang; Kim, Jong-Ho; Rhyu, Im Joo; Hong, Soon Jun; Lee, Kyu Back; Lim, Do-Sun

    2018-01-01

    Nanotopography plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cellular responses. Nonetheless, little is known about how the gradient size of nanostructural stimuli alters the responses of endothelial progenitor cells without chemical factors. Herein, the fabrication of gradient nanopattern plates intended to mimic microenvironment nanotopography is described. The gradient nanopattern plates consist of nanopillars of increasing diameter ranges [120-200 nm (GP 120/200), 200-280 nm (GP 200/280), and 280-360 nm (GP 280/360)] that were used to screen the responses of human endothelial colony-forming cells (hECFCs). Nanopillars with a smaller nanopillar diameter caused the cell area and perimeter of hECFCs to decrease and their filopodial outgrowth to increase. The structure of vinculin (a focal adhesion marker in hECFCs) was also modulated by nanostructural stimuli of the gradient nanopattern plates. Moreover, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) gene expression was significantly higher in hECFCs cultured on GP 120/200 than in those on flat plates (no nanopillars), and ROCK suppression impaired the nanostructural-stimuli-induced vinculin assembly. These results suggest that the gradient nanopattern plates generate size-specific nanostructural stimuli suitable for manipulation of the response of hECFCs, in a process dependent on ROCK signaling. This is the first evidence of size-specific nanostructure-sensing behavior of hECFCs. Nano feature surfaces are of growing interest as materials for a controlled response of various cells. In this study, we successfully fabricated gradient nanopattern plates to manipulate the response of blood-derived hECFCs without any chemical stimulation. Interestingly, we find that the sensitive nanopillar size for manipulation of hECFCs is range between 120 nm and 200 nm, which decreased the area and increased the filopodial outgrowth of hECFCs. Furthermore, we only modulate the nanopillar size to increase ROCK expression can be an

  12. Children’s Feedback Preferences in Response to an Experimentally Manipulated Peer Evaluation Outcome: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Dekovic, Maja; Vermande, Marjolijn; Telch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the linkage between pre-adolescent children’s depressive symptoms and their preferences for receiving positive vs. negative feedback subsequent to being faced with an experimentally manipulated peer evaluation outcome in real time. Participants (n = 142) ages 10 to 13, played a computer contest based on the television show Survivor and were randomized to either a peer rejection (i.e., receiving the lowest total ‘likeability’ score from a group of peer-judges), a peer success (i.e., receiving the highest score), or a control peer evaluation condition. Children’s self-reported feedback preferences were then assessed. Results revealed that participants assigned to the negative evaluation outcome, relative to either the success or the control outcome, showed a significantly higher subsequent preference for negatively tuned feedback. Contrary to previous work and predictions derived from self-verification theory, children higher in depressive symptoms were only more likely to prefer negative feedback in response to the negative peer evaluation outcome. These effects for depression were not accounted for by either state mood at baseline or mood change in response to the feedback manipulation. PMID:17279340

  13. Can current moisture responses predict soil CO2 efflux under altered precipitation regimes? A synthesis of manipulation experiments

    Vicca, S.; Bahn, M.; Estiarte, M.

    2014-01-01

    to fluctuations in soil temperature and soil water content can be used to predict SCE under altered rainfall patterns. Of the 58 experiments for which we gathered SCE data, 20 were discarded because either too few data were available or inconsistencies precluded their incorporation in the analyses. The 38...... remaining experiments were used to test the hypothesis that a model parameterized with data from the control plots (using soil temperature and water content as predictor variables) could adequately predict SCE measured in the manipulated treatment. Only for 7 of these 38 experiments was this hypothesis...... strongly on establishing response functions across a broader range of precipitation regimes and soil moisture conditions. Such experiments should make accurate measurements of water availability, should conduct high-frequency SCE measurements, and should consider both instantaneous responses...

  14. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds’ glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology.

  15. Response of forest soil Acari to prescribed fire following stand structure manipulation in the southern Cascade Range.Can

    Michael A. Camann; Nancy E. Gillette; Karen L. Lamoncha; Sylvia R. Mori

    2008-01-01

    We studied responses of Acari, especially oribatid mites, to prescribed low-intensity fire in an east side pine site in the southern Cascade Range in California. We compared oribatid population and assemblage responses to prescribed fire in stands that had been selectively logged to enhance old growth characteristics, in logged stands to minimize old growth...

  16. Categorization difficulty modulates the mediated route for response selection in task switching.

    Schneider, Darryl W

    2017-12-22

    Conflict during response selection in task switching is indicated by the response congruency effect: worse performance for incongruent targets (requiring different responses across tasks) than for congruent targets (requiring the same response). The effect can be explained by dual-task processing in a mediated route for response selection, whereby targets are categorized with respect to both tasks. In the present study, the author tested predictions for the modulation of response congruency effects by categorization difficulty derived from a relative-speed-of-processing hypothesis. Categorization difficulty was manipulated for the relevant and irrelevant task dimensions in a novel spatial task-switching paradigm that involved judging the locations of target dots in a grid, without repetition of dot configurations. Response congruency effects were observed and they varied systematically with categorization difficulty (e.g., being larger when irrelevant categorization was easy than when it was hard). These results are consistent with the relative-speed-of-processing hypothesis and suggest that task-switching models that implement variations of the mediated route for response selection need to address the time course of categorization.

  17. Understanding inhibitory mechanisms of lumbar spinal manipulation using H-reflex and F-wave responses: a methodological approach.

    Dishman, J Donald; Weber, Kenneth A; Corbin, Roger L; Burke, Jeanmarie R

    2012-09-30

    The purpose of this research was to characterize unique neurophysiologic events following a high velocity, low amplitude (HVLA) spinal manipulation (SM) procedure. Descriptive time series analysis techniques of time plots, outlier detection and autocorrelation functions were applied to time series of tibial nerve H-reflexes that were evoked at 10-s intervals from 100 s before the event until 100 s after three distinct events L5-S1 HVLA SM, or a L5-S1 joint pre-loading procedure, or the control condition. Sixty-six subjects were randomly assigned to three procedures, i.e., 22 time series per group. If the detection of outliers and correlograms revealed a pattern of non-randomness that was only time-locked to a single, specific event in the normalized time series, then an experimental effect would be inferred beyond the inherent variability of H-reflex responses. Tibial nerve F-wave responses were included to determine if any new information about central nervous function following a HVLA SM procedure could be ascertained. Time series analyses of H(max)/M(max) ratios, pre-post L5-S1 HVLA SM, substantiated the hypothesis that the specific aspects of the manipulative thrust lead to a greater attenuation of the H(max)/M(max) ratio as compared to the non-specific aspects related to the postural perturbation and joint pre-loading. The attenuation of the H(max)/M(max) ratio following the HVLA SM procedure was reliable and may hold promise as a translational tool to measure the consistency and accuracy of protocol implementation involving SM in clinical trials research. F-wave responses were not sensitive to mechanical perturbations of the lumbar spine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological response of selected eragrostis species to water ...

    Physiological response of selected eragrostis species to water-deficit stress. ... performing crop variety of Eragrostis tef under this stress, the responses of two varieties, ... Comparative study of closely related plant species might be a better ...

  19. Response of anaerobic carbon cycling to water table manipulation in an Alaskan rich fen

    Kane, E.S.; Chivers, M.R.; Turetsky, M.R.; Treat, C.C.; Petersen, D.G.; Waldrop, M.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    To test the effects of altered hydrology on organic soil decomposition, we investigated CO2 and CH4 production potential of rich-fen peat (mean surface pH = 6.3) collected from a field water table manipulation experiment including control, raised and lowered water table treatments. Mean anaerobic CO2 production potential at 10 cm depth (14.1 ± 0.9 μmol C g−1 d−1) was as high as aerobic CO2 production potential (10.6 ± 1.5 μmol C g−1 d−1), while CH4 production was low (mean of 7.8 ± 1.5 nmol C g−1 d−1). Denitrification enzyme activity indicated a very high denitrification potential (197 ± 23 μg N g−1 d−1), but net NO-3 reduction suggested this was a relatively minor pathway for anaerobic CO2 production. Abundances of denitrifier genes (nirK and nosZ) did not change across water table treatments. SO2-4 reduction also did not appear to be an important pathway for anaerobic CO2 production. The net accumulation of acetate and formate as decomposition end products in the raised water table treatment suggested that fermentation was a significant pathway for carbon mineralization, even in the presence of NO-3. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were the strongest predictors of potential anaerobic and aerobic CO2 production. Across all water table treatments, the CO2:CH4 ratio increased with initial DOC leachate concentrations. While the field water table treatment did not have a significant effect on mean CO2 or CH4 production potential, the CO2:CH4 ratio was highest in shallow peat incubations from the drained treatment. These data suggest that with continued drying or with a more variable water table, anaerobic CO2 production may be favored over CH4 production in this rich fen. Future research examining the potential for dissolved organic substances to facilitate anaerobic respiration, or alternative redox processes that limit the effectiveness of organic acids as substrates in anaerobic metabolism, would help explain additional

  20. Over-Selectivity as a Learned Response

    Reed, Phil; Petrina, Neysa; McHugh, Louise

    2011-01-01

    An experiment investigated the effects of different levels of task complexity in pre-training on over-selectivity in a subsequent match-to-sample (MTS) task. Twenty human participants were divided into two groups; exposed either to a 3-element, or a 9-element, compound stimulus as a sample during MTS training. After the completion of training,…

  1. Textbook Evaluation and Selection: A Professional Responsibility.

    Kachaturoff, Grace

    1982-01-01

    Discusses why teachers must help to review and/or select textbooks on a regular basis and how they can participate in this process. A slightly revised edition of the criteria used by the State of Michigan Social Studies Review Steering Committee illustrates critical factors that must be considered in evaluating textbooks. (SR)

  2. RNAseq reveals weed-induced PIF3-like as a candidate target to manipulate weed stress response in soybean.

    Horvath, David P; Hansen, Stephanie A; Moriles-Miller, Janet P; Pierik, Ronald; Yan, Changhui; Clay, David E; Scheffler, Brian; Clay, Sharon A

    2015-07-01

    Weeds reduce yield in soybeans (Glycine max) through incompletely defined mechanisms. The effects of weeds on the soybean transcriptome were evaluated in field conditions during four separate growing seasons. RNASeq data were collected from six biological samples of soybeans growing with or without weeds. Weed species and the methods to maintain weed-free controls varied between years to mitigate treatment effects, and to allow detection of general soybean weed responses. Soybean plants were not visibly nutrient- or water-stressed. We identified 55 consistently downregulated genes in weedy plots. Many of the downregulated genes were heat shock genes. Fourteen genes were consistently upregulated. Several transcription factors including a PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3-like gene (PIF3) were included among the upregulated genes. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated roles for increased oxidative stress and jasmonic acid signaling responses during weed stress. The relationship of this weed-induced PIF3 gene to genes involved in shade avoidance responses in Arabidopsis provide evidence that this gene may be important in the response of soybean to weeds. These results suggest that the weed-induced PIF3 gene will be a target for manipulating weed tolerance in soybean. No claim to original US government works New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. The effect of a primary sexual reward manipulation on cortisol responses to psychosocial stress in men.

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Denson, Thomas F; Satyshur, Maureen

    2013-05-01

    Although previous research provides evidence for the role of rewarding activities in reducing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress, no studies have tested whether rewards can buffer cortisol responses in humans undergoing social stressors. This study experimentally investigated whether viewing appetitive rewarding pictures reduces cortisol responses to an acute stress challenge. Fifty-four heterosexual men were randomly assigned to view either mildly erotic (reward) or neutral images (control) of mixed-sex couples before completing the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Participants in the reward condition had significantly lower area-under-the-curve cortisol reactivity to the TSST (mean [M] = 363.46) in comparison with participants in the control group (M = 807.06; F(1,46) = 4.84, p = .033, η(2) = 0.095). Reward participants also had improved cognitive performance on the math portion of the TSST (M = 20.74) in comparison with control participants (M = 13.82; F(44) = 5.44, p = .024, η(2) = 0.11). The stress-buffering effects of reward were specific to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity: the reward and control groups did not differ on psychological perceptions of anticipatory or poststress perceptions, heart rate, or blood pressure responses. This research provides the first evidence linking the experience of reward with reduced stress reactivity in humans and suggests a potential novel reward pathway for coping under stress.

  4. Manipulating the jasmonate response: How do methyl jasmonate additions mediate characteristics of aboveground and belowground mutualisms?

    Kiers, E.T.; Adler, L.S.; Grman, E.L.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Plants use a range of sophisticated strategies to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens, such as the production of jasmonates, a group of plant hormones that prime the plant's defense system upon attack. However, defense-related mechanisms, such as the jasmonate response, play a more

  5. Cardiac autonomic response following high-intensity running work-to-rest interval manipulation.

    Cipryan, Lukas; Laursen, Paul B; Plews, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    The cardiorespiratory, cardiac autonomic (via heart rate variability (HRV)) and plasma volume responses to varying sequences of high-intensity interval training (HIT) of consistent external work were investigated. Twelve moderately trained males underwent three HIT bouts and one control session. The HIT trials consisted of warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s work:relief HIT sequences at an exercise intensity of 100% of the individual velocity at [Formula: see text]O2max (v[Formula: see text]O2max), interspersed by relief intervals at 60% [Formula: see text]O2max (work/relief ratio = 1). HRV was evaluated via the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R-R intervals (rMSSD) before, 1 h, 3 h and 24 h after the exercise. Plasma volume was assessed before, immediately after, and 3 h and 24 h after. There were no substantial between-trial differences in acute cardiorespiratory responses. The rMSSD values remained decreased 1 h after the exercise cessation in all exercise groups. The rMSSD subsequently increased between 1 h and 3 h after exercise, with the most pronounced change in the 15/15 group. There were no relationships between HRV and plasma volume. All HIT protocols resulted in similar cardiorespiratory responses with slightly varying post-exercise HRV responses, with the 30/30 protocol eliciting the least disruption to post-exercise HRV. These post-exercise HRV findings suggest that the 30/30 sequence may be the preferable HIT prescription when the between-training period is limited.

  6. Dissociation of face-selective cortical responses by attention.

    Furey, Maura L; Tanskanen, Topi; Beauchamp, Michael S; Avikainen, Sari; Uutela, Kimmo; Hari, Riitta; Haxby, James V

    2006-01-24

    We studied attentional modulation of cortical processing of faces and houses with functional MRI and magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG detected an early, transient face-selective response. Directing attention to houses in "double-exposure" pictures of superimposed faces and houses strongly suppressed the characteristic, face-selective functional MRI response in the fusiform gyrus. By contrast, attention had no effect on the M170, the early, face-selective response detected with MEG. Late (>190 ms) category-related MEG responses elicited by faces and houses, however, were strongly modulated by attention. These results indicate that hemodynamic and electrophysiological measures of face-selective cortical processing complement each other. The hemodynamic signals reflect primarily late responses that can be modulated by feedback connections. By contrast, the early, face-specific M170 that was not modulated by attention likely reflects a rapid, feed-forward phase of face-selective processing.

  7. The Effects of Experimental Manipulation of Sleep Duration on Neural Response to Food Cues.

    Demos, Kathryn E; Sweet, Lawrence H; Hart, Chantelle N; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Williams, Samantha E; Mailloux, Kimberly A; Trautvetter, Jennifer; Owens, Max M; Wing, Rena R

    2017-11-01

    Despite growing literature on neural food cue responsivity in obesity, little is known about how the brain processes food cues following partial sleep deprivation and whether short sleep leads to changes similar to those observed in obesity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that short sleep leads to increased reward-related and decreased inhibitory control-related processing of food cues.In a within-subject design, 30 participants (22 female, mean age = 36.7 standard deviation = 10.8 years, body mass index range 20.4-40.7) completed four nights of 6 hours/night time-in-bed (TIB; short sleep) and four nights of 9 hours/night TIB (long sleep) in random counterbalanced order in their home environments. Following each sleep condition, participants completed an fMRI scan while viewing food and nonfood images.A priori region of interest analyses revealed increased activity to food in short versus long sleep in regions of reward processing (eg, nucleus accumbens/putamen) and sensory/motor signaling (ie, right paracentral lobule, an effect that was most pronounced in obese individuals). Contrary to the hypothesis, whole brain analyses indicated greater food cue responsivity during short sleep in an inhibitory control region (right inferior frontal gyrus) and ventral medial prefrontal cortex, which has been implicated in reward coding and decision-making (false discovery rate corrected q = 0.05).These findings suggest that sleep restriction leads to both greater reward and control processing in response to food cues. Future research is needed to understand the dynamic functional connectivity between these regions during short sleep and whether the interplay between these neural processes determines if one succumbs to food temptation. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Manipulation of Auxin Response Factor 19 affects seed size in the woody perennial Jatropha curcas

    Sun, Yanwei; Wang, Chunming; Wang, Ning; Jiang, Xiyuan; Mao, Huizhu; Zhu, Changxiang; Wen, Fujiang; Wang, Xianghua; Lu, Zhijun; Yue, Genhua; Xu, Zengfu; Ye, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Seed size is a major determinant of seed yield but few is known about the genetics controlling of seed size in plants. Phytohormones cytokinin and brassinosteroid were known to be involved in the regulation of herbaceous plant seed development. Here we identified a homolog of Auxin Response Factor 19 (JcARF19) from a woody plant Jatropha curcas and genetically demonstrated its functions in controlling seed size and seed yield. Through Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), we found that JcARF19 was a positive upstream modulator in auxin signaling and may control plant organ size in J. curcas. Importantly, transgenic overexpression of JcARF19 significantly increased seed size and seed yield in plants Arabidopsis thaliana and J. curcas, indicating the importance of auxin pathway in seed yield controlling in dicot plants. Transcripts analysis indicated that ectopic expression of JcARF19 in J. curcas upregulated auxin responsive genes encoding essential regulators in cell differentiation and cytoskeletal dynamics of seed development. Our data suggested the potential of improving seed traits by precisely engineering auxin signaling in woody perennial plants. PMID:28102350

  9. Using Manipulatives in Math Instruction.

    Marzola, Eileen S.

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines for teachers to better use manipulatives in the teaching of mathematics to learning disabled learners are offered including a rationale for manipulatives, selection crteria, principles underlying productive use of manipulatives, and making the transition from the concrete to the symbolic. Suggested materials and distributors are listed.…

  10. Selection of a design for response surface

    Ranade, Shruti Sunil; Thiagarajan, Padma

    2017-11-01

    Box-Behnken, Central-Composite, D and I-optimal designs were compared using statistical tools. Experimental trials for all designs were generated. Random uniform responses were simulated for all models. R-square, Akaike and Bayesian Information Criterion for the fitted models were noted. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison test were performed on these parameters. These models were evaluated based on the number of experimental trials generated in addition to the results of the statistical analyses. D-optimal design generated 12 trials in its model, which was lesser in comparison to both Central Composite and Box-Behnken designs. The R-square values of the fitted models were found to possess a statistically significant difference (P<0.0001). D-optimal design not only had the highest mean R-square value (0.7231), but also possessed the lowest means for both Akaike and Bayesian Information Criterion. The D-optimal design was recommended for generation of response surfaces, based on the assessment of the above parameters.

  11. The Missing Response to Selection in the Wild.

    Pujol, Benoit; Blanchet, Simon; Charmantier, Anne; Danchin, Etienne; Facon, Benoit; Marrot, Pascal; Roux, Fabrice; Scotti, Ivan; Teplitsky, Céline; Thomson, Caroline E; Winney, Isabel

    2018-05-01

    Although there are many examples of contemporary directional selection, evidence for responses to selection that match predictions are often missing in quantitative genetic studies of wild populations. This is despite the presence of genetic variation and selection pressures - theoretical prerequisites for the response to selection. This conundrum can be explained by statistical issues with accurate parameter estimation, and by biological mechanisms that interfere with the response to selection. These biological mechanisms can accelerate or constrain this response. These mechanisms are generally studied independently but might act simultaneously. We therefore integrated these mechanisms to explore their potential combined effect. This has implications for explaining the apparent evolutionary stasis of wild populations and the conservation of wildlife. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Manipulating beaver (Castor canadensis) feeding responses to invasive tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).

    Kimball, Bruce A; Perry, Kelly R

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate methods for promoting consumption of tamarisk plants by beavers (Castor canadensis), we determined the feeding responses by captive beavers to diets that contained tannins and sodium chloride (hereafter referred to as tamarisk diet). In two-choice tests, beavers consumed equivalent quantities of tamarisk diet and control diet. Treatment with polyethylene glycol and fructose did not increase beaver preferences for the tamarisk diet. When offered the choice of control diet and casein hydrolysate-treated control diet, beavers strongly avoided the latter, showing feeding deterring activity of casein hydrolysate. However, when tamarisk diet was the alternative to the deterrent treatment, beavers consumed similar quantities of the two diets. Finally, beaver foraging preferences for actual plant cuttings were assessed. Casein hydrolysate application to cuttings of black poplar (Populus nigra) and Scouler's willow (Salix scouleriana) reduced browsing of these highly preferred species and promoted a marked increase in browsing of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima). These results suggest that casein hydrolysate treatment of desirable riparian plant species such as Salix and Populus may promote beaver foraging of invasive tamarisk.

  13. Near-Infrared-Light-Responsive Magnetic DNA Microgels for Photon- and Magneto-Manipulated Cancer Therapy.

    Wang, Yitong; Wang, Ling; Yan, Miaomiao; Dong, Shuli; Hao, Jingcheng

    2017-08-30

    Functional DNA molecules have been introduced into polymer-based nanocarrier systems to incorporate chemotherapy drugs for cancer therapy. Here is the first report of dual-responsive microgels composed of a core of Au nanorods and a shell of magnetic ionic liquid and DNA moieties in the cross-linking network simultaneously, as effective drug delivery vectors. TEM images indicated a magnetic polymer shell has an analogous "doughnut" shape which loosely surround the AuNRs core. When irradiated with a near-infrared-light (near-IR) laser, Au nanorods are the motors which convert the light to heat, leading to the release of the encapsulated payloads with high controllability. DNA acts not only as a cross-linker agent, but also as a gatekeeper to regulate the release of drugs. The internalization study and MTT assay confirm that these core-shell DNA microgels are excellent candidates which can enhance the cytotoxicity of cancer cells controlled by near-IR laser and shield the high toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents to improve the killing efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents efficiently in due course.

  14. A manipulator

    Cole, G.V.; Hofmann, D.A.; Ashby, R.

    1984-01-01

    A manipulator is described, for remote handling of objects within an enclosure, by an operator outside the enclosure. The manipulator consists of a telescopically extensible arm member, the action of which is controlled by a motor-driven lead screw. (U.K.)

  15. Feeding manipulation elicits different proliferative responses in the gastrointestinal tract of suckling and weanling rats

    Palanch A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Food deprivation has been found to stimulate cell proliferation in the gastric mucosa of suckling rats, whereas the weanling period has been reported to be unresponsive in terms of proliferative activity. In the present study we analyze regional differences in the effect of milk or food deprivation on cell proliferation of the epithelia of the esophagus and of five segments of small intestine in suckling, weanling and newly weaned Wistar rats of both sexes. DNA synthesis was determined using tritiated thymidine to obtain labeling indices (LI; crypt depth and villus height were also determined. Milk deprivation decreased LI by 50% in the esophagus (from 15 to 8.35% and small intestine (from 40 to 20% of 14-day-old rats. In 18-day-old rats, milk and food deprivation decreased LI in the esophagus (from 13 to 5% and in the distal segments of the small intestine (from 36-40 to 24-32%. In contrast, the LI of the epithelia of the esophagus (5% and of all small intestine segments (around 30% of 22-day-old rats were not modified by food deprivation. Crypt depth did not change after treatment (80 to 120 µm in 14- and 22-day-old rats, respectively. Villus height decreased in some small intestine segments of unfed 14- (from 400 to 300 µm and 18-day-old rats (from 480 to 360 µm. The results show that, contrary to the stomach response, milk deprivation inhibited cell proliferation in the esophagus and small intestine of suckling rats, demonstrating the regional variability of each segment of the gastrointestinal tract in suckling rats. In newly weaned rats, food deprivation did not alter the proliferation of these epithelia, similarly to the stomach, indicating that weanling is a period marked by the insensitivity of gastrointestinal epithelia to dietary alterations

  16. Dissociating action-effect activation and effect-based response selection.

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried

    2018-05-25

    Anticipated action effects have been shown to govern action selection and initiation, as described in ideomotor theory, and they have also been demonstrated to determine crosstalk between different tasks in multitasking studies. Such effect-based crosstalk was observed not only in a forward manner (with a first task influencing performance in a following second task) but also in a backward manner (the second task influencing the preceding first task), suggesting that action effect codes can become activated prior to a capacity-limited processing stage often denoted as response selection. The process of effect-based response production, by contrast, has been proposed to be capacity-limited. These observations jointly suggest that effect code activation can occur independently of effect-based response production, though this theoretical implication has not been tested directly at present. We tested this hypothesis by employing a dual-task set-up in which we manipulated the ease of effect-based response production (via response-effect compatibility) in an experimental design that allows for observing forward and backward crosstalk. We observed robust crosstalk effects and response-effect compatibility effects alike, but no interaction between both effects. These results indicate that effect activation can occur in parallel for several tasks, independently of effect-based response production, which is confined to one task at a time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. PEAK SHIFTS PRODUCED BY CORRELATED RESPONSE TO SELECTION.

    Price, Trevor; Turelli, Michael; Slatkin, Montgomery

    1993-02-01

    Traits may evolve both as a consequence of direct selection and also as a correlated response to selection on other traits. While correlated response may be important for both the production of evolutionary novelty and in the build-up of complex characters, its potential role in peak shifts has been neglected empirically and theoretically. We use a quantitative genetic model to investigate the conditions under which a character, Y, which has two alternative optima, can be dragged from one optimum to the other as a correlated response to selection on a second character, X. High genetic correlations between the two characters make the transition, or peak shift, easier, as does weak selection tending to restore Y to the optimum from which it is being dragged. When selection on Y is very weak, the conditions for a peak shift depend only on the location of the new optimum for X and are independent of the strength of selection moving it there. Thus, if the "adaptive valley" for Y is very shallow, little reduction in mean fitness is needed to produce a shift. If the selection acts strongly to keep Y at its current optimum, very intense directional selection on X, associated with a dramatic drop in mean fitness, is required for a peak shift. When strong selection is required, the conditions for peak shifts driven by correlated response might occur rarely, but still with sufficient frequency on a geological timescale to be evolutionarily important. © 1993 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Callous-unemotional, impulsive-irresponsible, and grandiose-manipulative traits: Distinct associations with heart rate, skin conductance, and startle responses to violent and erotic scenes.

    Fanti, Kostas A; Kyranides, Melina N; Georgiou, Giorgos; Petridou, Maria; Colins, Olivier F; Tuvblad, Catherine; Andershed, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible dimensions of psychopathy are differentially related to various affective and physiological measures, assessed at baseline and in response to violent and erotic movie scenes. Data were collected from young adults (N = 101) at differential risk for psychopathic traits. Findings from regression analyses revealed a unique predictive contribution of grandiose-manipulative traits in particular to higher ratings of positive valence for violent scenes. Callous-unemotional traits were uniquely associated with lower levels of sympathy toward victims and lower ratings of fear and sadness during violent scenes. All three psychopathy dimensions and the total psychopathy scale showed negative zero-order correlations with heart rate at baseline, but regression analyses revealed that only grandiose manipulation was uniquely predictive of lower baseline heart rate. Grandiose manipulation was also significantly associated with lower baseline skin conductance. Regarding autonomic activity, findings resulted in a unique negative association between grandiose manipulation and heart rate activity in response to violent scenes. In contrast, the impulsive-irresponsible dimension was positively related with heart rate activity to violent scenes. Finally, findings revealed that only callous-unemotional traits were negatively associated with startle potentiation in response to violent scenes. No associations during erotic scenes were identified. These findings point to unique associations between the three assessed dimensions of psychopathy with physiological measures, indicating that grandiose manipulation is associated with hypoarousal, impulsive irresponsibility with hyperarousal, and callous-unemotional traits with low emotional and fear responses to violent scenes. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Significance of manipulating tumour hypoxia and radiation dose rate in terms of local tumour response and lung metastatic potential, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations

    Masunaga, S; Matsumoto, Y; Kashino, G; Hirayama, R; Liu, Y; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Suzuki, M; Kinashi, Y; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of manipulating intratumour oxygenation status and radiation dose rate on local tumour response and lung metastases following radiotherapy, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations within irradiated tumours. B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. They received γ-ray irradiation at high dose rate (HDR) or reduced dose rate (RDR) following treatment with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide or local hyperthermia at mild temperatures (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the quiescent (Q) and total (proliferating + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumour-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Following HDR irradiation, nicotinamide and MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the total and Q-cell populations, respectively. The decrease in sensitivity at RDR irradiation compared with HDR irradiation was slightly inhibited by MTH, especially in Q cells. Without γ-ray irradiation, nicotinamide treatment tended to reduce the number of lung metastases. With γ-rays, in combination with nicotinamide or MTH, especially the former, HDR irradiation decreased the number of metastases more remarkably than RDR irradiation. Manipulating both tumour hypoxia and irradiation dose rate have the potential to influence lung metastasis. The combination with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide may be more promising in HDR than RDR irradiation in terms of reducing the number of lung metastases. PMID:20739345

  20. The direct manipulation shell

    Allen, M.E.; Christiansen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerator controls systems provide parameter display pages which allow the operator to monitor and manipulate selected control points in the system. Display pages are generally implemented as either hand-crafted, purpose-built programs; or by using a specialized display page layout tool. These two methods of display page development exhibit the classic trade-off between functionality vs. ease of implementation. In the Direct Manipulation Shell we approach the process of developing a display page in a manifestly object-oriented manner. This is done by providing a general framework for interactively instantiating and manipulating display objects. (author)

  1. Responses of selected biota after biostimulation of a vegetable oil ...

    Responses of selected biota after biostimulation of a vegetable oil spill in the Con Joubert Bird Sanctuary wetland: A pilot study. Mapurunyane C Selala, Paul J Oberholster, Karen AK Surridge, Arno R de Klerk, Anna-Maria Botha ...

  2. Selective response of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid ...

    Selective response of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid at gold nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes grafted with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid modified electrode.

  3. Processing and Integration of Contextual Information in Monkey Ventrolateral Prefrontal Neurons during Selection and Execution of Goal-Directed Manipulative Actions.

    Bruni, Stefania; Giorgetti, Valentina; Bonini, Luca; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2015-08-26

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is deemed to underlie the complexity, flexibility, and goal-directedness of primates' behavior. Most neurophysiological studies performed so far investigated PFC functions with arm-reaching or oculomotor tasks, thus leaving unclear whether, and to which extent, PFC neurons also play a role in goal-directed manipulative actions, such as those commonly used by primates during most of their daily activities. Here we trained two macaques to perform or withhold grasp-to-eat and grasp-to-place actions, depending on the combination of two subsequently presented cues: an auditory go/no-go cue (high/low tone) and a visually presented target (food/object). By varying the order of presentation of the two cues, we could segment and independently evaluate the processing and integration of contextual information allowing the monkey to make a decision on whether or not to act, and what action to perform. We recorded 403 task-related neurons from the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC): unimodal sensory-driven (37%), motor-related (21%), unimodal sensory-and-motor (23%), and multisensory (19%) neurons. Target and go/no-go selectivity characterized most of the recorded neurons, particularly those endowed with motor-related discharge. Interestingly, multisensory neurons appeared to encode a behavioral decision independently from the sensory modality of the stimulus allowing the monkey to make it: some of them reflected the decision to act or refraining from acting (56%), whereas others (44%) encoded the decision to perform (or withhold) a specific action (e.g., grasp-to-eat). Our findings indicate that VLPFC neurons play a role in the processing of contextual information underlying motor decision during goal-directed manipulative actions. We demonstrated that macaque ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) neurons show remarkable selectivity for different aspects of the contextual information allowing the monkey to select and execute goal

  4. Use of an automated digital images system for detecting plant status changes in response to climate change manipulations

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-01

    climate manipulations: control (no manipulation), warming (overnight cover), and drought (interception of the periodic precipitation) treatments (36 shots x panorama (3 rows x 12 columns) with a degree of overlapping equal to 30%). On each panorama, ROIs (Regions of Interest) focusing major species of the shrubland ecosystem were identified. Then, image analysis was performed to obtain information on vegetation status (i.e. color signals and phenology). The color channel information (digital numbers; DNs) were extracted from the RAW file. The overall brightness (i.e., total RGB DN, green excess index) was also calculated. Finally, the RGB value was correlated with the pattern of phenological development. Preliminary results of this study show that the use of digital images are well-suited to identify phenological pattern of the Mediterranean species. Results of digital images analysis can be a valuable support for ecologists, environmental scientists, and land managers providing information useful to interpret phenological responses of plants to climate change, to validate satellite-based phenology data, and to provide input to adaption strategies plans to climate change.

  5. The Neural Basis of Cognitive Control: Response Selection and Inhibition

    Goghari, Vina M.; MacDonald, Angus W., III

    2009-01-01

    The functional neuroanatomy of tasks that recruit different forms of response selection and inhibition has to our knowledge, never been directly addressed in a single fMRI study using similar stimulus-response paradigms where differences between scanning time and sequence, stimuli, and experimenter instructions were minimized. Twelve right-handed…

  6. Bacteria modulate the CD8+ T cell epitope repertoire of host cytosol-exposed proteins to manipulate the host immune response.

    Yaakov Maman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main adaptive immune response to bacteria is mediated by B cells and CD4+ T-cells. However, some bacterial proteins reach the cytosol of host cells and are exposed to the host CD8+ T-cells response. Both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria can translocate proteins to the cytosol through type III and IV secretion and ESX-1 systems, respectively. The translocated proteins are often essential for the bacterium survival. Once injected, these proteins can be degraded and presented on MHC-I molecules to CD8+ T-cells. The CD8+ T-cells, in turn, can induce cell death and destroy the bacteria's habitat. In viruses, escape mutations arise to avoid this detection. The accumulation of escape mutations in bacteria has never been systematically studied. We show for the first time that such mutations are systematically present in most bacteria tested. We combine multiple bioinformatic algorithms to compute CD8+ T-cell epitope libraries of bacteria with secretion systems that translocate proteins to the host cytosol. In all bacteria tested, proteins not translocated to the cytosol show no escape mutations in their CD8+ T-cell epitopes. However, proteins translocated to the cytosol show clear escape mutations and have low epitope densities for most tested HLA alleles. The low epitope densities suggest that bacteria, like viruses, are evolutionarily selected to ensure their survival in the presence of CD8+ T-cells. In contrast with most other translocated proteins examined, Pseudomonas aeruginosa's ExoU, which ultimately induces host cell death, was found to have high epitope density. This finding suggests a novel mechanism for the manipulation of CD8+ T-cells by pathogens. The ExoU effector may have evolved to maintain high epitope density enabling it to efficiently induce CD8+ T-cell mediated cell death. These results were tested using multiple epitope prediction algorithms, and were found to be consistent for most proteins tested.

  7. Manipulation of the osteoblast response to a Ti 6Al 4V titanium alloy using a high power diode laser

    Hao, L.; Lawrence, J.; Li, L.

    2005-07-01

    To improve the bone integration of titanium-based implants a high power diode laser (HPDL) was used to modify the material for improved osteoblast cell response. The surface properties of un-treated and HPDL treated samples were characterized. Contact angles for the un-treated and the HPDL modified titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) were determined with selected biological liquids by the sessile drop technique. The analysis revealed that the wettability of the Ti-6Al-4V improved after HPDL laser treatment, indicating that better interaction with the biological liquids occurred. Moreover, an in vitro human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB 1.19) evaluation revealed a more favourable cell response on the HPDL laser treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy than on either un-treated sample or a mechanically roughened sample. It was consequently determined that the HPDL provides more a controllable and effective technique to improve the biocompatibility of bio-metals.

  8. Selective processing of smoking-related cues in smokers: manipulation of deprivation level and comparison of three measures of processing bias.

    Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P

    2002-12-01

    Recent theories of addiction suggest that an attentional bias for drug-related cues plays an important role in maintaining drug-taking behaviours. A key feature of the present study is that it used three different measures of processing bias for linguistic and pictorial smoking-related cues: masked and unmasked conditions of the modified Stroop task, and a pictorial version of the visual probe task. Participants were smokers (n = 27), who were tested twice, with deprivation level manipulated as a within-subjects variable. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 h before one session, and to smoke normally before the other. Results were consistent with an attentional bias for smoking-related pictures on the visual probe task, and for smoking-related words in the unmasked condition of the modified Stroop task. The latter bias was most strongly predicted by self-reported urge to smoke, rather than by the deprivation manipulation. There was no evidence of a preconscious bias for smoking cues. The three measures of cognitive bias (from masked and unmasked Stroop and visual probe tasks) were not significantly correlated with each other, which suggests they may tap different underlying mechanisms. We discuss the results with respect to conceptualizations of selective attention, addiction and motivational states in general.

  9. Mahalanobis distance and variable selection to optimize dose response

    Moore, D.H. II; Bennett, D.E.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kranzler, D.

    1979-01-01

    A battery of statistical techniques are combined to improve detection of low-level dose response. First, Mahalanobis distances are used to classify objects as normal or abnormal. Then the proportion classified abnormal is regressed on dose. Finally, a subset of regressor variables is selected which maximizes the slope of the dose response line. Use of the techniques is illustrated by application to mouse sperm damaged by low doses of x-rays

  10. Manipulatives Work!

    Moch, Peggy L.

    2001-01-01

    Fifth graders (n=16) engaged in manipulative activities to improve their grasp of math concepts; one-third were identified as exceptional children. Posttest results after 12 lessons showed the overall class average increased from 49% to 59% and all areas improved compared to pretest scores. Attitude changes were also apparent. (Contains 24…

  11. Stroop interference and the timing of selective response activation.

    Lansbergen, M.M.; Kenemans, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the exact timing of selective response activation in a manual color-word Stroop task. METHODS: Healthy individuals performed two versions of a manual color-word Stroop task, varying in the probability of incongruent color-words, while EEG was recorded. RESULTS: Stroop

  12. Rural Women\\'s Response To Selected Crop Production ...

    The study centered on rural women's response to selected crop production technologies in Imo State with a view to making policy recommendations. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were administered through the assistance of extension agents to 258 randomly sampled rural women farmers from the three ...

  13. Responses of arthropods to large-scale manipulations of dead wood in loblolly pine stands of the Southeastern United States

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale experimental manipulations of deadwood are needed to better understand its importance to animal communities in managed forests. In this experiment, we compared the abundance, species richness, diversity, and composition of arthropods in 9.3-ha plots in which either (1) all coarse woody debris was removed, (2) a large number of logs were added, (3) a large...

  14. Can current moisture responses predict soil CO2 efflux under altered precipitation regimes? A synthesis of manipulation experiments

    As a key component of the carbon cycle, soil respiration (Rsoil) is being excessively studied with the aim of improving our understanding as well as our ability to predict Rsoil when climate changes. Many manipulation experiments have been performed to test how Rsoil and other carbon fluxes and ecos...

  15. Currency Manipulation

    Weithing Zhang; Thomas Mertens; Tarek Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Many central banks manage the stochastic behavior of their currencies' exchange rates by imposing pegs relative to a target currency. We study the effects of such currency manipulation in a multi-country model of exchange rate determination with endogenous capital accumulation. We find that the imposition of an exchange rate peg relative to a given target currency increases the volatility of consumption in the target country and decreases the volatility of the target currency's exchange rate ...

  16. Hydraulic manipulator

    Sinha, A.K.; Srikrishnamurty, G.

    1990-01-01

    Successful operation of nuclear plant is largely dependent on safe handling of radio-active material. In order to reduce this handling problem and minimise the exposure of radiation, various handling equipment and manipulators have been developed according to the requirements. Manufacture of nuclear fuel, which is the most important part of the nuclear industry, involves handling of uranium ingots weighing approximately 250 kg. This paper describes a specially designed hydraulic manipulator for handling of the ingots in a limited space. It was designed to grab and handle the ingots in any position. This has following drive motions: (1)gripping and releasing, (2)lifting and lowering (z-motion), (3)rotation about the horizontal axis (azimuth drive), (4)rotation about the job axis, and (5)rotation about the vertical axis. For horizontal motion (X and Y axis motion) this equipment is mounted on a motorised trolley, so that it can move inside the workshop. For all drives except the rotation about the job axis, hydraulic cylinders have been used with a battery operated power pack. Trolley drive is also given power from same battery. This paper describes the design aspects of this manipulator. (author). 4 figs

  17. The immune response to parasitic helminths of veterinary importance and its potential manipulation for future vaccine control strategies.

    Foster, Neil; Elsheikha, Hany M

    2012-05-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the immunobiology and epidemiology of parasitic helminths of the gastrointestinal system and the cardiorespiratory system, complications arising from infections of animals and humans with these parasites are a major clinical and economic problem. This has been attributed to the high incidence of these parasites, the widespread emergence of multi-drug resistant parasite strains and the lack of effective vaccines. Efforts to develop and produce vaccines against virtually all helminths (with the exception of Dictyocaulus viviparus and some cestode species) have been hindered by the complexity of the host-parasite relationship, and incomplete understanding of the molecular and immune regulatory pathways associated with the development of protective immunity against helminths. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and characterisation of effector mechanisms and molecules that govern the host-parasite interactions in these two body systems. Such knowledge provided clues on how appropriate and protective responses are elicited against helminths and, thus, may lead to the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Here, we review advances in the immune response to selected helminths of animal health significance, and subsequent vaccine potential. The topics addressed are important for understanding how helminths interact with host immune defences and also are relevant for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases caused by helminths.

  18. Children?s Feedback Preferences in Response to an Experimentally Manipulated Peer Evaluation Outcome: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Reijntjes, Albert; Dekovic, Maja; Vermande, Marjolijn; Telch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the linkage between pre-adolescent children?s depressive symptoms and their preferences for receiving positive vs. negative feedback subsequent to being faced with an experimentally manipulated peer evaluation outcome in real time. Participants (n?=?142) ages 10 to 13, played a computer contest based on the television show Survivor and were randomized to either a peer rejection (i.e., receiving the lowest total ?likeability? score from a group of peer-judges), a pee...

  19. Corporate Social Responsability: Selected Theoretical and Empirical Aspects

    Witkowska Janina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The notion of Corporate social responsibility (CSR is still stirring debate over how it should be interpreted, what models of CSR dominate in business practice, and consequences of enterprises’ engagement into socially responsible actions. While business practice demonstrates that companies voluntarily include social and environmental issues into their activities and into their relations with stakeholders, it is hard to determine what intentions motivate them to do so. This paper analyses selected aspects of discussions focused on the notion of CSR and identifies controversies over the standardisation of ethical and social business activities.

  20. Stress responsiveness predicts individual variation in mate selectivity.

    Vitousek, Maren N; Romero, L Michael

    2013-06-15

    Steroid hormones, including glucocorticoids, mediate a variety of behavioral and physiological processes. Circulating hormone concentrations vary substantially within populations, and although hormone titers predict reproductive success in several species, little is known about how individual variation in circulating hormone concentrations is linked with most reproductive behaviors in free-living organisms. Mate choice is an important and often costly component of reproduction that also varies substantially within populations. We examined whether energetically costly mate selection behavior in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) was associated with individual variation in the concentrations of hormones previously shown to differ between reproductive and non-reproductive females during the breeding season (corticosterone and testosterone). Stress-induced corticosterone levels - which are suppressed in female marine iguanas during reproduction - were individually repeatable throughout the seven-week breeding period. Mate selectivity was strongly predicted by individual variation in stress-induced corticosterone: reproductive females that secreted less corticosterone in response to a standardized stressor assessed more displaying males. Neither baseline corticosterone nor testosterone predicted variation in mate selectivity. Scaled body mass was not significantly associated with mate selectivity, but females that began the breeding period in lower body condition showed a trend towards being less selective about potential mates. These results provide the first evidence that individual variation in the corticosterone stress response is associated with how selective females are in their choice of a mate, an important contributor to fitness in many species. Future research is needed to determine the functional basis of this association, and whether transient acute increases in circulating corticosterone directly mediate mate choice behaviors

  1. Host response to biomaterials the impact of host response on biomaterial selection

    Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    Host Response to Biomaterials: The Impact of Host Response on Biomaterial Selection explains the various categories of biomaterials and their significance for clinical applications, focusing on the host response to each biomaterial. It is one of the first books to connect immunology and biomaterials with regard to host response. The text also explores the role of the immune system in host response, and covers the regulatory environment for biomaterials, along with the benefits of synthetic versus natural biomaterials, and the transition from simple to complex biomaterial solutions. Fiel

  2. Role of emotional processing in depressive responses to sex-hormone manipulation: a pharmacological fMRI study

    Henningsson, S.; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Pinborg, A.

    2015-01-01

    resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate if sex-steroid hormone manipulation with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) influences emotional processing. Fifty-six healthy women were investigated twice: at baseline (follicular phase of menstrual cycle) and 16 +/- 3 days post intervention. At both...... sessions, fMRI-scans during exposure to faces expressing fear, anger, happiness or no emotion, depressive symptom scores and estradiol levels were acquired. The fMRI analyses focused on regions of interest for emotional processing. As expected, GnRHa initially increased and subsequently reduced estradiol...

  3. Responses of arthropods to large-scale manipulations of dead wood in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern United States.

    Ulyshen, Michael D; Hanula, James L

    2009-08-01

    Large-scale experimental manipulations of dead wood are needed to better understand its importance to animal communities in managed forests. In this experiment, we compared the abundance, species richness, diversity, and composition of arthropods in 9.3-ha plots in which either (1) all coarse woody debris was removed, (2) a large number of logs were added, (3) a large number of snags were added, or (4) no coarse woody debris was added or removed. The target taxa were ground-dwelling arthropods, sampled by pitfall traps, and saproxylic beetles (i.e., dependent on dead wood), sampled by flight intercept traps and emergence traps. There were no differences in total ground-dwelling arthropod abundance, richness, diversity, or composition among treatments. Only the results for ground beetles (Carabidae), which were more species rich and diverse in log input plots, supported our prediction that ground-dwelling arthropods would benefit from additions of dead wood. There were also no differences in saproxylic beetle abundance, richness, diversity, or composition among treatments. The findings from this study are encouraging in that arthropods seem less sensitive than expected to manipulations of dead wood in managed pine forests of the southeastern United States. Based on our results, we cannot recommend inputting large amounts of dead wood for conservation purposes, given the expense of such measures. However, the persistence of saproxylic beetles requires that an adequate amount of dead wood is available in the landscape, and we recommend that dead wood be retained whenever possible in managed pine forests.

  4. Genomic selection improves response to selection in resilience by exploiting genotype by environment interactions

    Han Mulder

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genotype by environment interactions (GxE are very common in livestock and hamper genetic improvement. On the other hand, GxE is a source of genetic variation: genetic variation in response to environment, e.g. environmental perturbations such as heat stress or disease. In livestock breeding, there is tendency to ignore GxE because of increased complexity of models for genetic evaluations and lack of accuracy in extreme environments. GxE, however, creates opportunities to increase resilience of animals towards environmental perturbations. The main aim of the paper is to investigate to which extent GxE can be exploited with traditional and genomic selection methods. Furthermore, we investigated the benefit of reaction norm models compared to conventional methods ignoring GxE. The questions were addressed with selection index theory. GxE was modelled according to a linear reaction norm model in which the environmental gradient is the contemporary group mean. Economic values were based on linear and non-linear profit equations.Accuracies of environment-specific (GEBV were highest in intermediate environments and lowest in extreme environments. Reaction norm models had higher accuracies of (GEBV in extreme environments than conventional models ignoring GxE. Genomic selection always resulted in higher response to selection in all environments than sib or progeny testing schemes. The increase in response was with genomic selection between 9% and 140% compared to sib testing and between 11% and 114% compared to progeny testing when the reference population consisted of 1 million animals across all environments. When the aim was to decrease environmental sensitivity, the response in slope of the reaction norm model with genomic selection was between 1.09 and 319 times larger than with sib or progeny testing and in the right direction in contrast to sib and progeny testing that still increased environmental sensitivity. This shows that genomic selection

  5. Selective responsiveness: Online public demands and government responsiveness in authoritarian China.

    Su, Zheng; Meng, Tianguang

    2016-09-01

    The widespread use of information and communication technology (ICT) has reshaped the public sphere in the digital era, making online forums a new channel for political participation. Using big data analytics of full records of citizen-government interactions from 2008 to early 2014 on a nationwide political forum, we find that authoritarian China is considerably responsive to citizens' demands with a rapid growth of response rate; however, government responsiveness is highly selective, conditioning on actors' social identities and the policy domains of their online demands. Results from logistic and duration models suggest that requests which made by local citizens, expressed collectively, focused on the single task issue, and are closely related to economic growth are more likely to be responded to. These strategies adopted by Chinese provincial leaders reveal the scope and selectivity of authoritarian responsiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Subalpine Conifer Seedling Demographics: Species Responses to Climate Manipulations Across an Elevational Gradient at Niwot Ridge, Colorado

    Castanha, C.; Germino, M. J.; Torn, M. S.; Ferrenberg, S.; Harte, J.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    The effect of climate change on future ranges of treeline species is poorly understood. For example, it is not known whether trees will recruit into the alpine, above the current treeline, and whether population-level differences in trees will mediate range shifts. At Niwot Ridge, Colorado, we used common gardens and climate manipulations to test predictions that warming will lead to greater recruitment at and beyond the cold edge of these species ranges, and will reduce recruitment at the warm edge. Seed from local populations of limber pine and Englemann spruce was harvested and reciprocally planted in 3 experimental sites spanning an elevation gradient from lower subalpine forest (10,000’), to the upper subalpine treeline ecotone (11,000’), to the alpine tundra (11,300’). In Fall 2009 seeds were sown into 20 plots at each site. Overhead infrared heaters targeted increases in growing season surface soil temperature of 4-5°C. The heating treatment, which began in October 2009, was crossed with manual watering, which was initiated following snowmelt in 2010. Over the 2010 growing season, we surveyed seedling germination and mortality weekly. Germination began in early May at the forest site, in early June at the krummholz site, and in early July at the alpine site. Depending on the site and plot, heating accelerated germination by 1 to 4 weeks. Seed source elevation, species, and site all affected germination, with effects for the two species also depending on site. At all sites, lower elevation, warm-edge populations had higher germination rates than high-elevation, cool-edge populations, indicating a potential bottleneck for germination of the high elevation seed sources in the adjacent alpine tundra. At all sites, survival was generally higher for pine than for spruce. Watering tended to enhance pine germinant survival while heating tended to depress spruce germinant survival. Our results indicate that the alpine tundra, generally considered an

  7. Conflicts during response selection affect response programming: reactions toward the source of stimulation.

    Buetti, Simona; Kerzel, Dirk

    2009-06-01

    In the Simon effect, participants make a left or right keypress in response to a nonspatial attribute (e.g., color) that is presented on the left or right. Reaction times (RTs) increase when the response activated by the irrelevant stimulus location and the response retrieved by instruction are in conflict. The authors measured RTs and movement parameters (MPs) of pointing responses in a typical Simon task. Their results show that the trajectories veer toward the imperative stimulus. This bias decreased as RTs increased. The authors suggest that the time course of trajectory deviations reflects the resolution of the response conflict over time. Further, time pressure did not affect the size of the Simon effect in MPs or its time course, but strongly reduced the Simon effect in RTs. In contrast, response selection before the onset of a go signal on the left or right did not affect the Simon effect in RTs, but reduced the Simon effect in MPs and reversed the time course. The authors speculate about independent Simon effects associated with response selection and programming. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Oak Forest Responses to Episodic-Seasonal-Drought, Chronic Multi-year Precipitation Change and Acute Drought Manipulations in a Region With Deep Soils and High Precipitation

    Hanson, Paul J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Todd, Donald E.; Auge, Robert M.; Froberg, Mats; Johnson, Dale W.

    2010-05-01

    Implications of episodic-seasonal drought (extremely dry late summers), chronic multi-year precipitation manipulations (±33 percent over 12 years) and acute drought (-100 percent over 3 years) were evaluated for the response of vegetation and biogeochemical cycles for an upland-oak forest. The Quercus-Acer forest is located in eastern Tennessee on deep acidic soils with mean annual temperatures of 14.2 °C and abundant precipitation (1352 mm y-1). The multi-year observations and chronic manipulations were conducted from 1993 through 2005 using understory throughfall collection troughs and redistribution gutters and pipes. Acute manipulations of dominant canopy trees (Quercus prinus; Liriodendron tulipifera) were conducted from 2003 through 2005 using full understory tents. Regional and severe late-summer droughts were produced reduced stand water use and photosynthetic carbon gain as expected. Likewise, seedlings and saplings exhibited reduced survival and cumulative growth reductions. Conversely, multi-year chronic increases or decreases in precipitation and associated soil water deficits did not reduce large tree basal area growth for the tree species present. The resilience of canopy trees to chronic-change was the result of a disconnect between carbon allocation to tree growth (an early-season phenomenon) and late-season drought occurrence. Acute precipitation exclusion from the largest canopy trees also produced limited physiological responses and minimal cumulative growth reductions. Lateral root water sources were removed through trenching and could not explain the lack of response to extreme soil drying. Therefore, deep rooting the primary mechanism for large-tree resilience to severe drought. Extensive trench-based assessments of rooting depth suggested that ‘deep' water supplies were being obtained from limited numbers of deep fine roots. Observations of carbon stocks in organic horizons demonstrated accumulation with precipitation reductions and

  9. Selection of technical risk responses for efficient contingencies

    Kujawski, Edouard

    2002-02-28

    The primary goal of good project risk management should be to successfully deliver projects for the lowest cost at an acceptable level of risk. This requires the systematic development and implementation of a set of Risk Response Actions (RRA) that achieves the lowest total project cost for a given probability of success while meeting technical performance and schedule. We refer to this set as the ''efficient RRA set''. This work presents a practical and mathematically sound approach for determining the efficient RRA set. It builds on some of Markowitz's portfolio selection principles and introduces several conceptual and modeling differences to properly treat project technical risks. The set of RRAs is treated as whole and not just individual risks. The efficient RRA set is determined based on ''Outcome Cost Vs Probability of Success''. The risks and RRAs are characterized using scenarios, decision trees, and cumulative probability distributions. The analysis provides information that enables decision-makers to select the efficient RRA set that explicitly takes their attitude toward project risk into account. Decision-makers should find it both useful and practical for sound decision-making under uncertainty/risk and efficiently optimizing project success. The computations are readily performed using commercially available Monte Carlo simulation tools. The approach is detailed using a realistic but simplified case of a project with two technical risks.

  10. An evolutionary resolution of manipulation conflict.

    González-Forero, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Individuals can manipulate the behavior of social partners. However, manipulation may conflict with the fitness interests of the manipulated individuals. Manipulated individuals can then be favored to resist manipulation, possibly reducing or eliminating the manipulated behavior in the long run. I use a mathematical model to show that conflicts where manipulation and resistance coevolve can disappear as a result of the coevolutionary process. I find that while manipulated individuals are selected to resist, they can simultaneously be favored to express the manipulated behavior at higher efficiency (i.e., providing increasing fitness effects to recipients of the manipulated behavior). Efficiency can increase to a point at which selection for resistance disappears. This process yields an efficient social behavior that is induced by social partners, and over which the inducing and induced individuals are no longer in conflict. A necessary factor is costly inefficiency. I develop the model to address the evolution of advanced eusociality via maternal manipulation (AEMM). The model predicts AEMM to be particularly likely in taxa with ancestrally imperfect resistance to maternal manipulation. Costly inefficiency occurs if the cost of delayed dispersal is larger than the benefit of exploiting the maternal patch. I discuss broader implications of the process. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Response of .i.Alteromonadaceae./i. and .i.Rhodobacteriaceae./i. to glucose and phosphorus manipulation in marine mesocosms

    Allers, E.; Gómez-Consarnau, L.; Pinhassi, J.; Gasol, J.M.; Šimek, Karel; Pernthaler, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 10 (2007), s. 2417-2429 ISSN 1462-2912 Grant - others:EU(XE) EVK3-2001-00194 BASICS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : bacterial community composition * Alteromonadaceae * Rhodobacteriaceae * responses to phosphorus and glucose additions * protozoan bacterivory Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.929, year: 2007

  12. Can current moisture responses predict soil CO2 efflux under altered precipitation regimes? A synthesis of manipulation experiments

    S. Vicca; M. Bahn; M. Estiarte; E. E. van Loon; R. Vargas; G. Alberti; P. Ambus; M. A. Arain; C. Beier; L. P. Bentley; W. Borken; N. Buchmann; S. L. Collins; G. de Dato; J. S. Dukes; C. Escolar; P. Fay; G. Guidolotti; P. J. Hanson; A. Kahmen; G. Kröel-Dulay; T. Ladreiter-Knauss; K. S. Larsen; E. Lellei-Kovacs; E. Lebrija-Trejos; F. T. Maestre; S. Marhan; M. Marshall; P. Meir; Y. Miao; J. Muhr; P. A. Niklaus; R. Ogaya; J. Peñuelas; C. Poll; L. E. Rustad; K. Savage; A. Schindlbacher; I. K. Schmidt; A. R. Smith; E. D. Sotta; V. Suseela; A. Tietema; N. van Gestel; O. van Straaten; S. Wan; U. Weber; I. A. Janssens

    2014-01-01

    As a key component of the carbon cycle, soil CO2 efflux (SCE) is being increasingly studied to improve our mechanistic understanding of this important carbon flux. Predicting ecosystem responses to climate change often depends an extrapolation of current relationships between ecosystem processes and their climatic drivers to conditions not yet experienced by the...

  13. Can current moisture responses predict soil CO2 efflux under altered precipitation regimes? A synthesis of manipulation experiments

    Vicca, S.; Bahn, M.; Estiarte, M.

    2014-01-01

    dependencies of SCE. Hence, the most justified answer to the question of whether current moisture responses of SCE can be extrapolated to predict SCE under altered precipitation regimes is 'no' - as based on the most reliable data sets available. We strongly recommend that future experiments focus more...

  14. Responses of nestling black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) to aquatic and terrestrial recreational activities: a manipulative study

    Esteban Fernandez-Juricic; Patrick A. Zollner; Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Lynne M. Westphal

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the effects of the presence and the frequency of canoe and pedestrian disturbance during two breeding seasons on multiple behavioral responses (scanning, freezing, grooming, sleeping, moving, wing-raising, and standing-up) of Black-crowned Night Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax ) nestlings in a breeding colony in southeast Chicago. Short-...

  15. Bayesian selective response-adaptive design using the historical control.

    Kim, Mi-Ok; Harun, Nusrat; Liu, Chunyan; Khoury, Jane C; Broderick, Joseph P

    2018-06-13

    High quality historical control data, if incorporated, may reduce sample size, trial cost, and duration. A too optimistic use of the data, however, may result in bias under prior-data conflict. Motivated by well-publicized two-arm comparative trials in stroke, we propose a Bayesian design that both adaptively incorporates historical control data and selectively adapt the treatment allocation ratios within an ongoing trial responsively to the relative treatment effects. The proposed design differs from existing designs that borrow from historical controls. As opposed to reducing the number of subjects assigned to the control arm blindly, this design does so adaptively to the relative treatment effects only if evaluation of cumulated current trial data combined with the historical control suggests the superiority of the intervention arm. We used the effective historical sample size approach to quantify borrowed information on the control arm and modified the treatment allocation rules of the doubly adaptive biased coin design to incorporate the quantity. The modified allocation rules were then implemented under the Bayesian framework with commensurate priors addressing prior-data conflict. Trials were also more frequently concluded earlier in line with the underlying truth, reducing trial cost, and duration and yielded parameter estimates with smaller standard errors. © 2018 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Genome-wide DNA methylation alterations of Alternanthera philoxeroides in natural and manipulated habitats: implications for epigenetic regulation of rapid responses to environmental fluctuation and phenotypic variation.

    Gao, Lexuan; Geng, Yupeng; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiakuan; Yang, Ji

    2010-11-01

    Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) is an invasive weed that can colonize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Individuals growing in different habitats exhibit extensive phenotypic variation but little genetic differentiation in its introduced range. The mechanisms underpinning the wide range of phenotypic variation and rapid adaptation to novel and changing environments remain uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the epigenetic variation and its correlation with phenotypic variation in plants exposed to natural and manipulated environmental variability. Genome-wide methylation profiling using methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) revealed considerable DNA methylation polymorphisms within and between natural populations. Plants of different source populations not only underwent significant morphological changes in common garden environments, but also underwent a genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming in response to different treatments. Methylation alterations associated with response to different water availability were detected in 78.2% (169/216) of common garden induced polymorphic sites, demonstrating the environmental sensitivity and flexibility of the epigenetic regulatory system. These data provide evidence of the correlation between epigenetic reprogramming and the reversible phenotypic response of alligator weed to particular environmental factors. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Relationship between neural response and adaptation selectivity to form and color: an ERP study

    Ilias eRentzeperis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is widely used as a tool for studying selectivity to visual features. In these studies it is usually assumed that the loci of feature selective neural responses and adaptation coincide. We used an adaptation paradigm to investigate the relationship between response and adaptation selectivity in event-related potentials (ERP. ERPs were evoked by the presentation of colored Glass patterns in a form discrimination task. Response selectivities to form and, to some extent, color of the patterns were reflected in the C1 and N1 ERP components. Adaptation selectivity to color was reflected in N1 and was followed by a late (300-500 ms after stimulus onset effect of form adaptation. Thus for form, response and adaptation selectivity were manifested in non-overlapping intervals. These results indicate that adaptation and response selectivity can be associated with different processes. Therefore inferring selectivity from an adaptation paradigm requires analysis of both adaptation and neural response data.

  18. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, Per; Donovan, E R

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection...... on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols...... and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR...

  19. Response to multi-generational selection under elevated [CO2] in two temperature regimes suggests enhanced carbon assimilation and increased reproductive output in Brassica napus L

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    different temperature regimes. To reveal phenotypic divergence at the manipulated [CO2] and temperature conditions, a full-factorial natural selection regime was established in a phytotron environment over the range of four generations. It is demonstrated that a directional response to selection at elevated......Functional plant traits are likely to adapt under the sustained pressure imposed by environmental changes through natural selection. Employing Brassica napus as a model, a multi-generational study was performed to investigate the potential trajectories of selection at elevated [CO2] in two...... subjected to increased levels of CO2 over the generational range investigated. The results of this study suggest that phenotypic divergence of plants selected under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration may drive the future functions of plant productivity to be different from projections that do...

  20. Manipulation of the apoplastic pH of intact plants mimics stomatal and growth responses to water availability and microclimatic variation.

    Wilkinson, Sally; Davies, William J

    2008-01-01

    The apoplastic pH of intact Forsythiaxintermedia (cv. Lynwood) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants has been manipulated using buffered foliar sprays, and thereby stomatal conductance (g(s)), leaf growth rate, and plant water loss have been controlled. The more alkaline the pH of the foliar spray, the lower the g(s) and/or leaf growth rate subsequently measured. The most alkaline pH that was applied corresponds to that measured in sap extracted from shoots of tomato and Forsythia plants experiencing, respectively, soil drying or a relatively high photon flux density (PFD), vapour pressure deficit (VPD), and temperature in the leaf microclimate. The negative correlation between PFD/VPD/temperature and g(s) determined in well-watered Forsythia plants exposed to a naturally varying summer microclimate was eliminated by spraying the plants with relatively alkaline but not acidic buffers, providing evidence for a novel pH-based signalling mechanism linking the aerial microclimate with stomatal aperture. Increasing the pH of the foliar spray only reduced g(s) in plants of the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient flacca mutant of tomato when ABA was simultaneously sprayed onto leaves or injected into stems. In well-watered Forsythia plants exposed to a naturally varying summer microclimate (variable PFD, VPD, and temperature), xylem pH and leaf ABA concentration fluctuated but were positively correlated. Manipulation of foliar apoplastic pH also affected the response of g(s) and leaf growth to ABA injected into stems of intact Forsythia plants. The techniques used here to control physiology and water use in intact growing plants could easily be applied in a horticultural context.

  1. Category-specific visual responses: an intracranial study comparing gamma, beta, alpha and ERP response selectivity

    Juan R Vidal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The specificity of neural responses to visual objects is a major topic in visual neuroscience. In humans, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have identified several regions of the occipital and temporal lobe that appear specific to faces, letter-strings, scenes, or tools. Direct electrophysiological recordings in the visual cortical areas of epileptic patients have largely confirmed this modular organization, using either single-neuron peri-stimulus time-histogram or intracerebral event-related potentials (iERP. In parallel, a new research stream has emerged using high-frequency gamma-band activity (50-150 Hz (GBR and low-frequency alpha/beta activity (8-24 Hz (ABR to map functional networks in humans. An obvious question is now whether the functional organization of the visual cortex revealed by fMRI, ERP, GBR, and ABR coincide. We used direct intracerebral recordings in 18 epileptic patients to directly compare GBR, ABR, and ERP elicited by the presentation of seven major visual object categories (faces, scenes, houses, consonants, pseudowords, tools, and animals, in relation to previous fMRI studies. Remarkably both GBR and iERP showed strong category-specificity that was in many cases sufficient to infer stimulus object category from the neural response at single-trial level. However, we also found a strong discrepancy between the selectivity of GBR, ABR, and ERP with less than 10% of spatial overlap between sites eliciting the same category-specificity. Overall, we found that selective neural responses to visual objects were broadly distributed in the brain with a prominent spatial cluster located in the posterior temporal cortex. Moreover, the different neural markers (GBR, ABR, and iERP that elicit selectivity towards specific visual object categories present little spatial overlap suggesting that the information content of each marker can uniquely characterize high-level visual information in the brain.

  2. Hurricane Effects on a Shallow Lake Ecosystem and Its Response to a Controlled Manipulation of Water Level

    Karl E. Havens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reverse the damage to aquatic plant communities caused by multiple years of high water levels in Lake Okeechobee, Florida (U.S., the Governing Board of the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD authorized a "managed recession" to substantially lower the surface elevation of the lake in spring 2000. The operation was intended to achieve lower water levels for at least 8 weeks during the summer growing season, and was predicted to result in a large-scale recovery of submerged vascular plants. We treated this operation as a whole ecosystem experiment, and assessed ecological responses using data from an existing network of water quality and submerged plant monitoring sites. As a result of large-scale discharges of water from the lake, coupled with losses to evaporation and to water supply deliveries to agriculture and other regional users, the lake surface elevation receded by approximately 1 m between April and June. Water depths in shoreline areas that historically supported submerged plant communities declined from near 1.5 m to below 0.5 m. Low water levels persisted for the entire summer. Despite shallow depths, the initial response (in June 2000 of submerged plants was very limited and water remained highly turbid (due at first to abiotic seston and later to phytoplankton blooms. Turbidity decreased in July and the biomass of plants increased. However, submerged plant biomass did not exceed levels observed during summer 1999 (when water depths were greater until August. Furthermore, a vascular plant-dominated assemblage (Vallisnera, Potamogeton, and Hydrilla that occurred in 1999 was replaced with a community of nearly 98% Chara spp. (a macro-alga in 2000. Hence, the lake’s submerged plant community appeared to revert to an earlier successional stage despite what appeared to be better conditions for growth. To explain this unexpected response, we evaluated the impacts that Hurricane Irene may have had on the lake in the

  3. Hurricane effects on a shallow lake ecosystem and its response to a controlled manipulation of water level.

    Havens, K E; Jin, K R; Rodusky, A J; Sharfstein, B; Brady, M A; East, T L; Iricanin, N; James, R T; Harwell, M C; Steinman, A D

    2001-04-04

    In order to reverse the damage to aquatic plant communities caused by multiple years of high water levels in Lake Okeechobee, Florida (U.S.), the Governing Board of the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) authorized a "managed recession" to substantially lower the surface elevation of the lake in spring 2000. The operation was intended to achieve lower water levels for at least 8 weeks during the summer growing season, and was predicted to result in a large-scale recovery of submerged vascular plants. We treated this operation as a whole ecosystem experiment, and assessed ecological responses using data from an existing network of water quality and submerged plant monitoring sites. As a result of large-scale discharges of water from the lake, coupled with losses to evaporation and to water supply deliveries to agriculture and other regional users, the lake surface elevation receded by approximately 1 m between April and June. Water depths in shoreline areas that historically supported submerged plant communities declined from near 1.5 m to below 0.5 m. Low water levels persisted for the entire summer. Despite shallow depths, the initial response (in June 2000) of submerged plants was very limited and water remained highly turbid (due at first to abiotic seston and later to phytoplankton blooms). Turbidity decreased in July and the biomass of plants increased. However, submerged plant biomass did not exceed levels observed during summer 1999 (when water depths were greater) until August. Furthermore, a vascular plant-dominated assemblage (Vallisneria, Potamogeton, and Hydrilla) that occurred in 1999 was replaced with a community of nearly 98% Chara spp. (a macro-alga) in 2000. Hence, the lake"s submerged plant community appeared to revert to an earlier successional stage despite what appeared to be better conditions for growth. To explain this unexpected response, we evaluated the impacts that Hurricane Irene may have had on the lake in the previous

  4. MicroRNAs regulate the main events in rice drought stress response by manipulating the water supply to shoots.

    Fard, Ehsan Mohseni; Bakhshi, Behnam; Farsi, Mohammad; Kakhki, Amin Mirshamsi; Nikpay, Nava; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Ali; Mardi, Mohsen; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2017-10-24

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous regulatory RNAs that are involved in a variety of biological processes related to proliferation, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. miRNA profiles of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64.) leaves in a partial root zone drying (PRD) system were analysed using a high-throughput sequencing approach to identify miRNAs associated with drought signalling. The treatments performed in this study were as follows: well-watered ("wet" roots, WW), wherein both halves of the pot were watered daily; drought ("dry" roots, DD), wherein water was withheld from both halves of the pot; and well-watered/drought ("wet" and "dry" roots, WD), wherein one half of each pot was watered daily, the same as in WW, and water was withheld from the other part, the same as in DD. High-throughput sequencing enabled us to detect novel miRNAs and study the differential expression of known miRNAs. A total of 209 novel miRNAs were detected in this study. Differential miRNA profiling of the DD, WD and WW conditions showed differential expression of 159 miRNAs, among which 83, 44 and 32 miRNAs showed differential expression under both DD and WD conditions. The detection of putative targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs and investigation of their functions showed that most of these genes encode transcription factors involved in growth and development, leaf morphology, regulation of hormonal homeostasis, and stress response. The most important differences between the DD and WD conditions involved regulation of the levels of hormones such as auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid, and jasmonic acid and also regulation of phosphor homeostasis. Overall, differentially expressed miRNAs under WD conditions were found to differ from those under DD conditions, with such differences playing a role in adaptation and inducing the normal condition. The mechanisms involved in regulating hormonal homeostasis and involved in energy production and consumption

  5. Combining short-term manipulative experiments with long-term palaeoecological investigations at high resolution to assess the response of Sphagnum peatlands to drought, fire and warming

    M. Lamentowicz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Northern hemisphere peatlands are substantial carbon stores. However, recent climate change and human impacts (e.g., drainage and atmospheric nutrient deposition may trigger the emission of their stored carbon to the atmosphere. Biodiversity losses are also an important consequence of those changes. Therefore, there is a need to recognise these processes in space and time. Global change experiments are often conducted to improve our understanding of the potential responses of various ecosystems to global warming and drought. Most of the experiments carried out in peatlands are focused on carbon balance and nitrogen deposition. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how fast peatlands respond to temperature changes and water-table lowering in the continental climate setting. This is important because continental regions account for a significant proportion of all northern hemisphere peatlands. A combination of short-term and long-term approaches in a single research project is especially helpful because it facilitates the correct interpretation of experimental data. Here we describe the CLIMPEAT project - a manipulative field experiment in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland supported by a high-resolution multi-proxy palaeoecological study. The design of the field experiment (e.g., treatments, methodology and biogeographical setting are presented. We suggest it is beneficial to support field experiments with an investigation of past environmental changes in the studied ecosystem, as human impacts during the past 300 years have already caused substantial changes in ecosystem functioning which may condition the response in experimental studies.

  6. Short-term spatial memory responses in aged Japanese quail selected for divergent adrenocortical stress responsiveness.

    Suhr, C L; Schmidt, J B; Treese, S T; Satterlee, D G

    2010-04-01

    Stress-induced glucocorticoids can dampen learning and spatial memory via neuronal damage to the hippocampus. Cognition losses can be transient (associated with acute stress episodes) or permanent as in aged individuals who show chronic glucocorticoid-induced accelerated brain aging and neurodegeneration (dementia). Thus, chronic versus acute stress effects on spatial memory responses of quail selected for reduced (low stress, LS) or exaggerated (high stress, HS) plasma corticosterone (B) response to brief restraint were assessed. Aged food-motivated male LS and HS quail were tested for 10 min in a feed-baited 8-arm radial arm maze (RAM) 1) at 255 d of age (quail who had experienced lifelong management stressors but who were otherwise never intentionally stressed; that is, chronically stressed birds), 2) on the next day post-acute stressor treatment (5 min of restraint), and 3) on the next day without treatment (acute stress recovery). The RAM tests used the win-shift procedure in which visited arms were not rebaited. Radial arm maze performance was measured by determination of the total number of arm choices made, the number of correct entries made into baited arms out of the first 8 choices, the time required to make a choice, and the number of pellets eaten. Line effects (P LS), and number of pellets eaten (HS RAM testing nor its interaction with line further influenced these variables. Thus, although selection for divergent plasma B responsiveness to an acute stressor was found to be associated with severe impairment of spatial memory in aged male HS compared with LS quail, the observed spatial memory impairments (HS > LS) could not be further altered by acute stressor treatment. Line differences in cognition may reflect lifelong management-induced stress episodes that periodically produce higher plasma B responses in HS than LS quail, which underlie HS quail memory deficits, or other etiologies, or both.

  7. The obesity epidemic: from the environment to epigenetics – not simply a response to dietary manipulation in a thermoneutral environment

    Michael Edward Symonds

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity continues to increase particularly in developed countries. To establish the primary mechanisms involved, relevant animal models which track the developmental pathway to obesity are required. This need is emphasised by the substantial rise in the number of overweight and obese children, of which a majority will remain obese through adulthood. The past half century has been accompanied with unprecedented transitions in our lifestyle. Each of these changes substantially contributes to enhancing our capacity to store energy into adipose tissues. The complex aetiology of adiposity is critical as a majority of models investigating obesity utilise a simplistic high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet, fed over a short time period to comparatively young inbred animals maintained in fixed environment. The natural history of obesity is much more complex involving many other mechanisms and this type of challenge may not be the optimal experimental intervention. Such processes include changes in adipose tissue composition with time and the transition from brown to white adipose tissue. Brown adipose tissue, due its unique ability to rapidly produce large amounts of heat could have a pivital role in energy balance and is under epigenetic regulation mediated by the histone H3k9-specific demethylase Jhdma2a. Furthermore, day length has a potential role in determining endocrine and metabolic responses in brown fat. The potential to utilise novel models and interventions across a range of animal species in adipose tissue development may finally start to yield sustainable strategies by which excess fat mass can, at last, be avoided in humans.

  8. Response to selection and genetic parameters of body and carcass weights in Japanese quail selected for 4-week body weight

    Khaldari, M; Pakdel, A; Yegane, H Mehrabani

    2010-01-01

    , respectively. There was a significant effect of sex, generation, and line (P difference for BW and carcass weights but not for carcass percentage components between sexes (P ... to improve carcass traits. Also, intense selection resulting in high rates of inbreeding might result in decreased response to selection due to inbreeding depression....

  9. Response to selection in finite locus models with nonadditive effects

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Henryon, Mark; Berg, Peer; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Bijma, Piter; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    2017-01-01

    Under the finite-locus model in the absence of mutation, the additive genetic variation is expected to decrease when directional selection is acting on a population, according to quantitative-genetic theory. However, some theoretical studies of selection suggest that the level of additive

  10. The Role of Emotions in Reinforcement: Response Selection in Humans

    Overskeid, Geir

    2012-01-01

    Historically, researchers have never quite been able to agree as to the role of emotions, if any, when behavior is selected by its consequences. A brief review of findings from several fields suggests that in contingency-shaped behavior, motivating events, often unconscious, seem needed for reinforcement to select behavior. In rule-governed…

  11. Effects of employing a 10B-carrier and manipulating intratumour hypoxia on local tumour response and lung metastatic potential in boron neutron capture therapy

    Masunaga, S; Sakurai, Y; Tanaka, H; Suzuki, M; Liu, Y; Kondo, N; Maruhashi, A; Kinashi, Y; Ono, K

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of employing a 10B-carrier and manipulating intratumour hypoxia on local tumour response and lung metastatic potential in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by measuring the response of intratumour quiescent (Q) cells. Methods B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. The tumours received reactor thermal neutron beam irradiation following the administration of a 10B-carrier [L-para-boronophenylalanine-10B (BPA) or sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate-10B (BSH)] in combination with an acute hypoxia-releasing agent (nicotinamide) or mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (P+Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumour-bearing mice, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated 17 days after irradiation. Results BPA-BNCT increased the sensitivity of the total tumour cell population more than BSH-BNCT. However, the sensitivity of Q cells treated with BPA was lower than that of BSH-treated Q cells. With or without a 10B–carrier, MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the Q cell population. Without irradiation, nicotinamide treatment decreased the number of lung metastases. With irradiation, BPA-BNCT, especially in combination with nicotinamide treatment, showed the potential to reduce the number of metastases more than BSH-BNCT. Conclusion BSH-BNCT in combination with MTH improves local tumour control, while BPA-BNCT in combination with nicotinamide may reduce the number of lung metastases. PMID:22391496

  12. Multiplicative Genotype-Environment Interaction as a Cause of Reversed Response to Directional Selection

    Gimelfarb, A.

    1986-01-01

    In experiments with directional selection on a quantitative character a "reversed response" to selection is occasionally observed, when selection of individuals for a higher (lower) value of the character results in a lower (higher) value of the character among their offspring. A sudden change in environments or random drift is often assumed to be responsible for this. It is demonstrated in this paper that these two causes cannot account for the reversed response at least in some of the exper...

  13. Contrasting response of coexisting plant’s water-use patterns to experimental precipitation manipulation in an alpine grassland community of Qinghai Lake watershed, China

    Li, Xiao-Yan; He, Bin; Liu, Jinzhao; Jiang, Zhiyun; Zhang, Cicheng

    2018-01-01

    Understanding species-specific changes in water-use patterns under recent climate scenarios is necessary to predict accurately the responses of seasonally dry ecosystems to future climate. In this study, we conducted a precipitation manipulation experiment to investigate the changes in water-use patterns of two coexisting species (Achnatherum splendens and Allium tanguticum) to alterations in soil water content (SWC) resulting from increased and decreased rainfall treatments. The results showed that the leaf water potential (Ψ) of A. splendens and A. tanguticum responded to changes in shallow and middle SWC at both the control and treatment plots. However, A. splendens proportionally extracted water from the shallow soil layer (0–10cm) when it was available but shifted to absorbing deep soil water (30–60 cm) during drought. By contrast, the A. tanguticum did not differ significantly in uptake depth between treatment and control plots but entirely depended on water from shallow soil layers. The flexible water-use patterns of A.splendens may be a key factor facilitating its dominance and it better acclimates the recent climate change in the alpine grassland community around Qinghai Lake. PMID:29677195

  14. More insight into the interplay of response selection and visual attention in dual-tasks: masked visual search and response selection are performed in parallel.

    Reimer, Christina B; Schubert, Torsten

    2017-09-15

    Both response selection and visual attention are limited in capacity. According to the central bottleneck model, the response selection processes of two tasks in a dual-task situation are performed sequentially. In conjunction search, visual attention is required to select the items and to bind their features (e.g., color and form), which results in a serial search process. Search time increases as items are added to the search display (i.e., set size effect). When the search display is masked, visual attention deployment is restricted to a brief period of time and target detection decreases as a function of set size. Here, we investigated whether response selection and visual attention (i.e., feature binding) rely on a common or on distinct capacity limitations. In four dual-task experiments, participants completed an auditory Task 1 and a conjunction search Task 2 that were presented with an experimentally modulated temporal interval between them (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony, SOA). In Experiment 1, Task 1 was a two-choice discrimination task and the conjunction search display was not masked. In Experiment 2, the response selection difficulty in Task 1 was increased to a four-choice discrimination and the search task was the same as in Experiment 1. We applied the locus-of-slack method in both experiments to analyze conjunction search time, that is, we compared the set size effects across SOAs. Similar set size effects across SOAs (i.e., additive effects of SOA and set size) would indicate sequential processing of response selection and visual attention. However, a significantly smaller set size effect at short SOA compared to long SOA (i.e., underadditive interaction of SOA and set size) would indicate parallel processing of response selection and visual attention. In both experiments, we found underadditive interactions of SOA and set size. In Experiments 3 and 4, the conjunction search display in Task 2 was masked. Task 1 was the same as in Experiments 1 and 2

  15. Responses to selection for body weight in descendants of x-irradiated rats

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Th effectiveness of selection for high and low body weight at six weeks of age was studied in descendants of x-irradiated (R) and nonirradiated (C) inbred rats. There were two replicates of each of the direction of selection--irradiation treatments. In C lines, there were no consistent responses to selection, probably due to a low level of genetic variability. In R rats, selection was effective only for decreased body weight. The results of this experiment do not suggest the use of irradiation combined with selection as a means of enhancing responses to selection in animals

  16. Response to family selection and genetic parameters in Japanese quail selected for four week breast weight

    Khaldari, Majid; Yeganeh, Hassan Mehrabani; Pakdel, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term selection for 4 week breast weight (4wk BRW), and to estimate genetic parameters of body weight, and carcass traits. A selection (S) line and control (C) line was randomly selected from a base population. Data were collected over...... was 0.35±0.06. There were a significant difference for BW, and carcass weights but not for carcass percent components between lines (Pcarcass and leg weights were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.47, and 13.2, 16.2, 4.4 %, respectively....... The genetic correlations of BRW with BW, carcass, leg, and back weights were 0.85, 0.88 and 0.72, respectively. Selection for 4 wk BRW improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) about 0.19 units over the selection period. Inbreeding caused an insignificant decline of the mean of some traits. Results from...

  17. Selection of response criteria for clinical trials of sarcoma treatment.

    Schuetze, Scott M; Baker, Laurence H; Benjamin, Robert S; Canetta, Renzo

    2008-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from mesenchymal tissues. A large number of new therapies are being evaluated in patients with sarcomas, and consensus criteria defining treatment responses are essential for comparison of results from studies completed by different research groups. The 1979 World Health Organization (WHO) handbook set forth operationally defined criteria for response evaluation in solid tumors that were updated in 2000 with the publication of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). There have been significant advances in tumor imaging, however, that are not reflected in the RECIST. For example, computed tomography (CT) slice thickness has been reduced from 10 mm to < or =2.5 mm, allowing for more reproducible and accurate measurement of smaller lesions. Combination of imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG-PET) and CT can provide investigators and clinicians with both anatomical and functional information regarding tumors, and there is now a large body of evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of PET/CT and other newer imaging methods for the detection and staging of tumors as well as early determination of responses to therapy. The application of newer imaging methods has the potential to decrease both the sample sizes required for, and duration of, clinical trials by providing an early indication of therapeutic response that is well correlated with clinical outcomes, such as time to tumor progression or overall survival. The results summarized in this review support the conclusion that the RECIST and the WHO criteria for evaluation of response in solid tumors need to be modernized. In addition, there is a current need for prospective trials to compare new response criteria with established endpoints and to validate imaging-based response rates as surrogate endpoints for clinical trials of new agents for sarcoma and other solid

  18. Soil Nutrient Responses to Disturbance in a Northern Temperate Forest: The Influence of an Ice Storm Manipulation Experiment on Belowground Biogeochemical Cycling

    Wiley, E.; King, C.; Richardson, A. D.; Landhäusser, S.

    2016-12-01

    Temperate forest ecosystems are increasingly impacted by human-induced changes in climate, which have the ability to alter the prevalence, severity, and extent of extreme weather events. Ice storms, an example of such extreme events, tend to be rarer and often occur as localized events, making them difficult to predict. As such, their impacts on ecosystem structure and functioning are poorly understood. We utilized a field manipulation experiment that effectively simulated natural ice storms of varying intensities to mechanistically understand the short-term nitrogen (N) responses to such extreme weather events. Net N mineralization and nitrification were quantified for both the organic and mineral soil horizons via 30-day in situ incubations of intact soil cores, while gross N transformations were measured in short-term laboratory incubations using the 15N pool dilution technique. Net C mineralization and N and C microbial biomass were also measured on disturbed soil cores via the chloroform fumigation incubation method. All microbial transformation measurements were carried out in the fall of the pre-treatment year (2015), and the spring and fall of the post-treatment years (2016 and 2017). We found that the availability of inorganic N to the microbial community did not significantly change immediately following the simulated ice storms. Over longer time-scales, however, we expect that N loss (mineralization, nitrification, denitrification) and conservation (immobilization) processes will be controlled more by the flow and availability of labile C from newly decaying fine and coarse woody debris that was dropped immediately following the ice storm. We hypothesize that the forested ecosystem is now in a state of N oligotrophy, and thus less likely to show any N response to disturbance in the short-term. This suggests that recovery of the forest over the long-term may be slower than that observed following a natural ice storm event that took place in 1998 in the

  19. Utilizing Response Time Distributions for Item Selection in CAT

    Fan, Zhewen; Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua; Douglas, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Traditional methods for item selection in computerized adaptive testing only focus on item information without taking into consideration the time required to answer an item. As a result, some examinees may receive a set of items that take a very long time to finish, and information is not accrued as efficiently as possible. The authors propose two…

  20. Manipulating heat shock protein expression in laboratory animals.

    Tolson, J Keith; Roberts, Stephen M

    2005-02-01

    Upregulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps) has been observed to impart resistance to a wide variety of physical and chemical insults. Elucidation of the role of Hsps in cellular defense processes depends, in part, on the ability to manipulate Hsp expression in laboratory animals. Simple methods of inducing whole body hyperthermia, such as warm water immersion or heating pad application, are effective in producing generalized expression of Hsps. Hsps can be upregulated locally with focused direct or indirect heating, such as with ultrasound or with laser or microwave radiation. Increased Hsp expression in response to toxic doses of xenobiotics has been commonly observed. Some pharmacologic agents are capable of altering Hsps more specifically by affecting processes involved in Hsp regulation. Gene manipulation offers the ability to selectively increase or decrease individual Hsps. Knockout mouse strains and Hsp-overexpressing transgenics have been used successfully to examine the role of specific Hsps in protection against hyperthermia, chemical insults, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Gene therapy approaches also offer the possibility of selective alteration of Hsp expression. Some methods of increasing Hsp expression have application in specialized areas of research, such cold response, myocardial protection from exercise, and responses to stressful or traumatic stimuli. Each method of manipulating Hsp expression in laboratory animals has advantages and disadvantages, and selection of the best method depends upon the experimental objectives (e.g., the alteration in Hsp expression needed, its timing, and its location) and resources available.

  1. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs

  2. Currency Manipulation versus Current Account Manipulation

    Junning Cai

    2005-01-01

    It is said that a country’s currency peg can become currency manipulation representing protracted government intervention in the foreign exchange market that gives it unfair competitive advantage in international trade yet prevents effective balance of payments in its trade partners. Regarding this widespread fallacy, this paper explains why currency peg is not currency manipulation even when it keeps a country’s currency undervalued. We clarify that 1) government is inherently a major player...

  3. How Do Parameters of Motor Response Influence Selective Inhibition? Evidence from the Stop-Signal Paradigm

    Chien Hui Tang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to selectively inhibit the execution of an action while performing other ones is crucial in humans' multitasking daily life. The current study aims to compare selective inhibition for choice reaction involving two effectors or response directions. We adopted a variation of the stop-signal paradigm to examine how selective inhibition is modulated by the way potential motor responses are combined and inhibited. Experiment 1 investigated selective inhibition under different combinations of effectors, namely “index and middle fingers” versus “hand and foot”. The results showed SSRT of the index finger was longer when the other response option was the foot than the middle finger. Experiment 2 examined how selective inhibition differs between selective stopping of effectors and movement directions, and that for most of the situations SSRT is longer for stopping a response based on its direction than effector. After equating complexity of response mapping between direction and effector conditions in Experiment 2, Experiment 3 still showed that SSRT differs between selecting direction or effectors. To summarize, SSRT varies depending on the way response effectors are paired and selectively stopped. Selective inhibition is thus likely not amodal and may involve different inhibitory mechanisms depending on parameters specifying the motor response.

  4. Experimental Observations on Dynamic Response of Selected Transparent Armor Materials

    2014-07-01

    Monolithic single crystal sapphire plates (100×100× 10 mm), from GT Crystal Systems, Inc., Salem , MA, in crystallographically controlled directions...Future Army Applications (2011) The National Academies Press , Washington, D.C. 5. Graff KF (1991) Wave motion in elastic solids, Dover Publications 6...2004) Visualization of impact damage in ceramics using the edge-on impact technique. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 1 (3):235–242 Fig. 38 Selection of a

  5. Medium-term responses to and changes in fitness with selection for ...

    It was postulated that poor fit of the model in later generations, a lack of genetic variance, mutation, genetic drift and / or natural selection may be causing these discrepancies. The selection responses were accompanied by losses of fitness during certain generations, while in others, the responses disappeared altogether.

  6. Medium-term responses to and changes in fitness with selection for ...

    generations, however, fitness was regained and this was followed by renewed appearance of responses. This pattern of response points to the presence of natural selection, which was corroborated by the differences between the effective and expected selection intensities. It was concluded that the slope of the allometric.

  7. Selecting a Response in Task Switching: Testing a Model of Compound Cue Retrieval

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2009-01-01

    How can a task-appropriate response be selected for an ambiguous target stimulus in task-switching situations? One answer is to use compound cue retrieval, whereby stimuli serve as joint retrieval cues to select a response from long-term memory. In the present study, the authors tested how well a model of compound cue retrieval could account for a…

  8. Direct and correlated responses to selection for total weight of lamb ...

    The estimated selection responses indicate that direct selection for TWW would be the most suitable selection criterion for improving reproductive performance in flocks with a high reproduction rate where an increase in the number of lambs would be undesirable. (South African Journal of Animal Science, 2001, 31(2): ...

  9. Accuracy and responses of genomic selection on key traits in apple breeding

    Muranty, Hélène; Troggio, Michela; Sadok, Ben Inès; Rifaï, Al Mehdi; Auwerkerken, Annemarie; Banchi, E.; Velasco, Riccardo; Stevanato, P.; Weg, van de W.E.; Guardo, Di M.; Kumar, S.; Laurens, François; Bink, M.C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The application of genomic selection in fruit tree crops is expected to enhance breeding efficiency by increasing prediction accuracy, increasing selection intensity and decreasing generation interval. The objectives of this study were to assess the accuracy of prediction and selection response in

  10. Selective Biological Responses of Phagocytes and Lungs to Purified Histones.

    Fattahi, Fatemeh; Grailer, Jamison J; Lu, Hope; Dick, Rachel S; Parlett, Michella; Zetoune, Firas S; Nuñez, Gabriel; Ward, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    Histones invoke strong proinflammatory responses in many different organs and cells. We assessed biological responses to purified or recombinant histones, using human and murine phagocytes and mouse lungs. H1 had the strongest ability in vitro to induce cell swelling independent of requirements for toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 or 4. These responses were also associated with lactate dehydrogenase release. H3 and H2B were the strongest inducers of [Ca2+]i elevations in phagocytes. Cytokine and chemokine release from mouse and human phagocytes was predominately a function of H2A and H2B. Double TLR2 and TLR4 knockout (KO) mice had dramatically reduced cytokine release induced in macrophages exposed to individual histones. In contrast, macrophages from single TLR-KO mice showed few inhibitory effects on cytokine production. Using the NLRP3 inflammasome protocol, release of mature IL-1β was predominantly a feature of H1. Acute lung injury following the airway delivery of histones suggested that H1, H2A, and H2B were linked to alveolar leak of albumin and the buildup of polymorphonuclear neutrophils as well as the release of chemokines and cytokines into bronchoalveolar fluids. These results demonstrate distinct biological roles for individual histones in the context of inflammation biology and the requirement of both TLR2 and TLR4. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. A links manipulator simulation program interim report

    Noble, R.A.

    1987-04-01

    A computer program to simulate the performance of the Heysham II rail-following manipulator has been developed. The program is being used to develop and test the rail-following control algorithms which will be used to control movements of the manipulator when it is operating below the gas baffle dome. The simulation includes the dynamic responses of the manipulator joint drives, excluding friction, backlash and compliance. It also includes full details of the manipulator's geometry. A method is given whereby the actual manipulator dynamics can be written into the program once these have been established by measurement. The program is written in FORTRAN and runs on a Perkin-Elmer 3220 mini-computer. The simulation program responds to velocity demands on the individual joints. These will normally come from the control program, in which they will be manually controlled by a joystick. A sigma 5664 colour graphics generator is programmed to display the current position of the manipulator. (UK)

  12. Selecting protective gloves for oil spill response and cleanup

    McDermott, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Oil spill responders and cleanup workers must be provided with gloves that prevent skin contact while permitting them to do their job safely and efficiently. Glove selection is largely based on professional judgment, considering permeation, resistance to puncture and abrasion, and whether the material gets slick when coated with oil. This paper consolidates the most useful information from various studies and presents a selection rationale. In general, we found neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and nitrile to be the glove materials of choice for protection in oil spills. The skin toxicity potential for most petroleum materials encountered in a spill is low. Some fresh crudes may contain hydrocarbon molecules that may penetrate the skin and cause some systemic toxicity with high enough exposure. However, as crude weathers, the more volatile hydrocarbons evaporate rapidly, leaving behind the heavier fraction, which often contains polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds. Some PNAs have caused skin cancer in animals after prolonged and repeated contact. As a reference, most weathered crude is similar to used motor oil in skin toxicity; prolonged and repeated skin contact should be avoided, but there is no cause for concern if some gets on the skin. The typical skin problems from excessive skin contact are drying and cracking from the defatting action of the oil itself or from the soap or hand cleaners used to remove the oil, and pustules (similar to boils) if the oil plugs the sweat glands in the skin

  13. Hormone response to bidirectional selection on social behavior.

    Amdam, Gro V; Page, Robert E; Fondrk, M Kim; Brent, Colin S

    2010-01-01

    Behavior is a quantitative trait determined by multiple genes. Some of these genes may have effects from early development and onward by influencing hormonal systems that are active during different life-stages leading to complex associations, or suites, of traits. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been used extensively in experiments on the genetic and hormonal control of complex social behavior, but the relationships between their early developmental processes and adult behavioral variation are not well understood. Bidirectional selective breeding on social food-storage behavior produced two honey bee strains, each with several sublines, that differ in an associated suite of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits found in unselected wild type bees. Using these genotypes, we document strain-specific changes during larval, pupal, and early adult life-stages for the central insect hormones juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids. Strain differences correlate with variation in female reproductive anatomy (ovary size), which can be influenced by JH during development, and with secretion rates of ecdysteroid from the ovaries of adults. Ovary size was previously assigned to the suite of traits of honey bee food-storage behavior. Our findings support that bidirectional selection on honey bee social behavior acted on pleiotropic gene networks. These networks may bias a bee's adult phenotype by endocrine effects on early developmental processes that regulate variation in reproductive traits. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Comparison of short-term response to two spinal manipulation techniques for patients with low back pain in a military beneficiary population.

    Sutlive, Thomas G; Mabry, Lance M; Easterling, Emmanuel J; Durbin, Jose D; Hanson, Stephen L; Wainner, Robert S; Childs, John D

    2009-07-01

    To determine whether military health care beneficiaries with low back pain (LBP) who are likely to respond successfully to spinal manipulation experience a difference in short-term clinical outcomes based on the manipulation technique that is used. Sixty patients with LBP identified as likely responders to manipulation underwent a standardized clinical examination and were randomized to receive a lumbopelvic (LP) or lumbar neutral gap (NG) manipulation technique. Outcome measures were a numeric pain rating scale and the modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire. Both the LP and NG groups experienced statistically significant reductions in pain and disability at 48 hours postmanipulation. The improvements seen in each group were small because of the short follow-up. There were no statistically significant or clinically meaningful differences in pain or disability between the two groups. The two manipulation techniques used in this study were equally effective at reducing pain and disability when compared at 48 hours posttreatment. Clinicians may employ either technique for the treatment of LBP and can expect similar outcomes in those who satisfy the clinical prediction rule (CPR). Further research is required to determine whether differences exist at longer-term follow-up periods, after multiple treatment sessions, or in different clinical populations.

  15. Response to selection under controlled environment versus natural selection in diverse regions across Canada

    Red clover is a widely adaptable and productive forage legume species found in most temperate regions of the world. To date, specific selection techniques for identifying genotypes with superior persistence have not been successful in improving the general adaptation and the long-term persistence o...

  16. Food selection criteria for disaster response planning in urban societies.

    Wien, Michelle; Sabaté, Joan

    2015-05-12

    Nutrition professionals that have menu planning and disaster management responsibilities should consider factors that have transcended from ancient to current times, in addition to recognizing societal trends that have led to our current increased vulnerability in the event of a disaster. Hence, we proceeded to develop a set of "Disaster Response Diets" (DRDs) for use in urban societies inclusive of the aforementioned considerations. A three-phase multidimensional approach was used to identify food groups suitable for creating a set of DRDs. Phase One consisted of calculating the percent daily nutrient intake and Drewnowski's naturally nutrient rich (NNR) score for an individual or mean composite for one serving of food from 11 specific food groups. In Phase Two, in addition to nutrient density, the 11 food groups were evaluated and scored based on the following DRD planning criteria: storage and handling properties, preparation ease and, cultural acceptance/individual tolerance. During Phase Three, three DRDs were developed based upon the data retrieved from Phases one and two. In Phase One, the NNR scores ranged from 2.1 for fresh fruits to 28.1 for dry cereals, a higher score indicating a higher nutrient density. During Phase Two, a maximum score of 12 was possible based on appropriateness for a disaster situation. Five plant-based food groups (dry cereals, nuts, dried fruits, grains and legumes) achieved a score ranging between 7 and 12, whereas the five fresh food groups were deemed ineligible due to sanitation and perishability concerns. During Phase Three, three DRDs (milk-inclusive, milk-free and Grab-and-Go) were developed as benchmarks for disaster response planning. Plant-based DRDs are universally acceptable and tolerated across cultures and religions. Therefore, we suggest nutrition professionals consider using a plant-based approach for creating DRDs for public health institutions and organizations.

  17. What Is "Natural"? Consumer Responses to Selected Ingredients.

    Chambers, Edgar; Chambers, Edgar; Castro, Mauricio

    2018-04-23

    Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female) online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests. No ingredient was considered natural by more than 69% of respondents. We found evidence that familiarity may play a major role in consumers’ determination of naturalness. We also found evidence that chemical sounding names and the age of the consumer have an effect on whether an ingredient and potentially a food is considered natural. Interestingly, a preference towards selecting GMO (genetically modified organisms) foods had no significant impact on perceptions of natural.

  18. What Is “Natural”? Consumer Responses to Selected Ingredients

    Edgar Chambers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests. No ingredient was considered natural by more than 69% of respondents. We found evidence that familiarity may play a major role in consumers’ determination of naturalness. We also found evidence that chemical sounding names and the age of the consumer have an effect on whether an ingredient and potentially a food is considered natural. Interestingly, a preference towards selecting GMO (genetically modified organisms foods had no significant impact on perceptions of natural.

  19. What Is “Natural”? Consumer Responses to Selected Ingredients

    Chambers, Edgar; Castro, Mauricio

    2018-01-01

    Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female) online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests. No ingredient was considered natural by more than 69% of respondents. We found evidence that familiarity may play a major role in consumers’ determination of naturalness. We also found evidence that chemical sounding names and the age of the consumer have an effect on whether an ingredient and potentially a food is considered natural. Interestingly, a preference towards selecting GMO (genetically modified organisms) foods had no significant impact on perceptions of natural. PMID:29690627

  20. APC selectively mediates response to chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer

    VanKlompenberg, Monica K.; Bedalov, Claire O.; Soto, Katia Fernandez; Prosperi, Jenifer R.

    2015-01-01

    The Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) tumor suppressor is mutated or hypermethylated in up to 70 % of sporadic breast cancers depending on subtype; however, the effects of APC mutation on tumorigenic properties remain unexplored. Using the Apc Min/+ mouse crossed to the Polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) transgenic model, we identified enhanced breast tumorigenesis and alterations in genes critical in therapeutic resistance independent of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Apc mutation changed the tumor histopathology from solid to squamous adenocarcinomas, resembling the highly aggressive human metaplastic breast cancer. Mechanistic studies in tumor-derived cell lines demonstrated that focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Src/JNK signaling regulated the enhanced proliferation downstream of Apc mutation. Despite this mechanistic information, the role of APC in mediating breast cancer chemotherapeutic resistance is currently unknown. We have examined the effect of Apc loss in MMTV-PyMT mouse breast cancer cells on gene expression changes of ATP-binding cassette transporters and immunofluorescence to determine proliferative and apoptotic response of cells to cisplatin, doxorubicin and paclitaxel. Furthermore we determined the added effect of Src or JNK inhibition by PP2 and SP600125, respectively, on chemotherapeutic response. We also used the Aldefluor assay to measure the population of tumor initiating cells. Lastly, we measured the apoptotic and proliferative response to APC knockdown in MDA-MB-157 human breast cancer cells after chemotherapeutic treatment. Cells obtained from MMTV-PyMT;Apc Min/+ tumors express increased MDR1 (multidrug resistance protein 1), which is augmented by treatment with paclitaxel or doxorubicin. Furthermore MMTV-PyMT;Apc Min/+ cells are more resistant to cisplatin and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, and show a larger population of ALDH positive cells. In the human metaplastic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-157, APC knockdown led to paclitaxel and cisplatin

  1. Efficient Customer Selection for Sustainable Demand Response in Smart Grids

    Zois, Vasileios; Frincu, Marc; Chelmis, Charalambos; Saeed, Muhammad Rizwan; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2014-11-03

    Regulating the power consumption to avoid peaks in demand is a common practice. Demand Response(DR) is being used by utility providers to minimize costs or ensure system reliability. Although it has been used extensively there is a shortage of solutions dealing with dynamic DR. Past attempts focus on minimizing the load demand without considering the sustainability of the reduced energy. In this paper an efficient algorithm is presented which solves the problem of dynamic DR scheduling. Data from the USC campus micro grid were used to evaluate the efficiency as well as the robustness of the proposed solution. The targeted energy reduction is achieved with a maximum average approximation error of ≈ 0.7%. Sustainability of the reduced energy is achieved with respect to the optimal available solution providing a maximum average error less than 0.6%. It is also shown that a solution is provided with a low computational cost fulfilling the requirements of dynamic DR.

  2. Genomic selection improves response to selection in resilience by exploiting genotype by environment interactions

    Mulder, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Genotype by environment interactions (GxE) are very common in livestock and hamper genetic improvement. On the other hand, GxE is a source of genetic variation: genetic variation in response to environment, e.g., environmental perturbations such as heat stress or disease. In livestock breeding,

  3. Response selection difficulty modulates the behavioral impact of rapidly learnt action effects.

    Uta eWolfensteller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that we can pick up action effect associations when acting in a free-choice intentional mode. However, it is less clear whether and when action effect associations are learnt and actually affect behavior if we are acting in a forced-choice mode, applying a specific stimulus-response (S-R rule. In the present study, we investigated whether response selection difficulty imposed by S-R rules influences the initial rapid learning and the behavioral expression of previously learnt but weakly practiced action effect associations when those are re-activated by effect exposure. Experiment 1 showed that the rapid acquisition of action effect associations is not directly influenced by response selection difficulty. By contrast, the behavioral expression of re-activated action effect associations is prevented when actions are directly activated by highly over-learnt response cues and thus response selection difficulty is low. However, all three experiments showed that if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high during re-activation, the same action effect associations do influence behavior. Experiment 2 and 3 revealed that the effect of response selection difficulty cannot be fully reduced to giving action effects more time to prime an action, but seems to reflect competition during response selection. Finally, the present data suggest that when multiple novel rules are rapidly learnt in succession, which requires a lot of flexibility, action effect associations continue to influence behavior only if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high. Thus, response selection difficulty might modulate the impact of experiencing multiple learning episodes on action effect expression and learning, possibly via inducing different strategies.

  4. Selective Killing of Prostate Tumor Cells by Cytocidal Viruses

    Lyles, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    .... The novelty in our approach is our ability to enhance the selectivity of killing of tumor cells versus normal cells by manipulating the viral genes that control the antiviral interferon response...

  5. Selective Killing of Prostate Tumor Cells by Cytocidal Viruses

    Lyles, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    .... The novelty in our approach is our ability to enhance the selectivity of killing of tumor cells versus normal cells by manipulating the viral genes that control the antiviral interferon response...

  6. Selective Killing of Prostate Tumor Cells by Cytocidal Viruses

    Lyles, Douglas S

    2005-01-01

    ...). The novelty in our approach is our ability to enhance the selectivity of VSV-induced killing of tumor cells versus normal cells by manipulating the viral genes that control the antiviral interferon response...

  7. Getting Manipulative about Math.

    Scheer, Janet K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Math manipulatives that are made from inexpensive, common items help students understand basic mathematics concepts. Learning activities using Cheerios, jellybeans, and clay as teaching materials are suggested. (DF)

  8. Manipulators in teleoperation

    Hamel, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Teleoperated manipulators represent a mature technology which has evolved over nearly 40 years of applications experience. The wide range of manipulator concepts developed thus far reflect differing applications, priorities, and philosophies. The technology of teleoperated manipulators is in a rapid state of change (just as are industrial robotics) fueled by microelectronics and materials advances. Large strides in performance and dexterity are now practical and advantageous. Even though improved controls and sensory feedback will increase functionality, overall costs should be reduced as manipulator fabrication and assembly labor costs are reduced through improved manufacturing technology. As these advances begin to materialize, broader applications in nonnuclear areas should occur

  9. Selected physiotherapeutic techniques and immune response in low back pain

    Piotr Gawda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Physiotherapy, as an element of medical rehabilitation, comprises such methods of function improvement as: massage, kinesiotherapy, physical therapy or manual therapy. In this area, medicine offers a wide range of treatment methods, practically at every stage of a patient’s recovery. Physiotherapy is used to enhance quality of life of people with disabilities, chronic diseases or after injuries, but also as a form of prevention of dysfunctions. The aim of the study  is to present the influence of physiotherapy of low back pain on factors of immune response based on literature review. Effectiveness of a given treatment is most easily noticeable in clinical practice. It is usually the patient who evaluates the efficiency of treatment, through experiencing less pain, easier performance of certain actions or overall better functioning in everyday life. Apart from registering the subjective experience of patients, the focus is on finding objective methods of evaluating effectiveness of physiotherapy and on attempts at scientific explanation of noticeable and perceptible influence of rehabilitation treatment. This also applies to the treatment of lumbar-sacral pain. The involvement of many inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, interleukins, matrix metalloproteinases, prostaglandin , tumor necrosis factor alpha and a group of cytokines. and a variety of cytokines have already been  identified in the dysfunction of this region.

  10. Macroeconomic implications of population ageing and selected policy responses.

    Bloom, David E; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; McKee, Martin; Rechel, Bernd; Rosenberg, Larry; Smith, James P

    2015-02-14

    Between now and 2030, every country will experience population ageing-a trend that is both pronounced and historically unprecedented. Over the past six decades, countries of the world had experienced only a slight increase in the share of people aged 60 years and older, from 8% to 10%. But in the next four decades, this group is expected to rise to 22% of the total population-a jump from 800 million to 2 billion people. Evidence suggests that cohorts entering older age now are healthier than previous ones. However, progress has been very uneven, as indicated by the wide gaps in population health (measured by life expectancy) between the worst (Sierra Leone) and best (Japan) performing countries, now standing at a difference of 36 years for life expectancy at birth and 15 years for life expectancy at age 60 years. Population ageing poses challenges for countries' economies, and the health of older populations is of concern. Older people have greater health and long-term care needs than younger people, leading to increased expenditure. They are also less likely to work if they are unhealthy, and could impose an economic burden on families and society. Like everyone else, older people need both physical and economic security, but the burden of providing these securities will be falling on a smaller portion of the population. Pension systems will be stressed and will need reassessment along with retirement policies. Health systems, which have not in the past been oriented toward the myriad health problems and long-term care needs of older people and have not sufficiently emphasised disease prevention, can respond in different ways to the new demographic reality and the associated changes in population health. Along with behavioural adaptations by individuals and businesses, the nature of such policy responses will establish whether population ageing will lead to major macroeconomic difficulties. Copyright © 2015 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  11. Understanding pharmaceutical research manipulation in the context of accounting manipulation.

    Brown, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The problem of the manipulation of data that arises when there is both opportunity and incentive to mislead is better accepted and studied - though by no means solved - in financial accounting than in medicine. This article analyzes pharmaceutical company manipulation of medical research as part of a broader problem of corporate manipulation of data in the creation of accounting profits. The article explores how our understanding of accounting fraud and misinformation helps us understand the risk of similar information manipulation in the medical sciences. This understanding provides a framework for considering how best to improve the quality of medical research and analysis in light of the current system of medical information production. I offer three possible responses: (1) use of the Dodd-Frank whistleblower provisions to encourage reporting of medical research fraud; (2) a two-step academic journal review process for clinical trials; and (3) publicly subsidized trial-failure insurance. These would improve the release of negative information about drugs, thereby increasing the reliability of positive information. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  12. A shuttle and space station manipulator system for assembly, docking, maintenance, cargo handling and spacecraft retrieval (preliminary design). Volume 2: Concept development and selection

    1972-01-01

    The overall program background, the various system concepts considered, and the rationale for the selected design are described. The concepts for each subsystem are also described and compared. Details are given for the requirements, boom configuration and dynamics, actuators, man/machine interface and control, visual system, control system, environmental control and life support, data processing, and materials.

  13. Responses of Hexaplex (Murex) trunculus to selected pollutants

    Romeo, M.; Gharbi-Bouraoui, S.; Gnassia-Barelli, M.; Dellali, M.; Aissa, P.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium, copper and zinc concentrations (in whole soft body and in tissues) were measured in Hexaplex trunculus collected from the Bizerta lagoon in Tunisia. An evaluation of the biological effects of the most toxic metals (cadmium and copper) and of two organics (carbofuran and lindane), present in the sediments of the Bizerta lagoon, was attempted by measuring biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase: AChE, catalase: CAT and glutathione S-transferase: GST activities) in animals experimentally exposed for 48 or 72 h. The concentration ranges as follows: Zn > Cu > Cd. Copper concentrations are highly variable (8.0 to 235 μg g -1 d.w.) whereas cadmium (range 1.35-4.86 μg g -1 ) and zinc (range 360-1320 μg g -1 ) concentrations are less variable. The digestive gland and the gill take up more metal than the muscle. AChE activity in H. trunculus is decreased by exposure to carbofuran or the mixture carbofuran and cadmium, in the digestive gland and muscle and by copper and by lindane in the digestive gland. AChE is generally inhibited by carbamates but some other compounds may also decrease this activity as observed in this paper. An increase in CAT activity associated with a decrease in GST activity is noted in the muscle of H. trunculus exposed to cadmium, to carbofuran and to the mixture of cadmium and carbofuran, and in the digestive gland of animals exposed to lindane. These pollutants may act upon glutathione and decrease the GST activity that cannot detoxify them and CAT activity has a protective effect. On the contrary, copper increases CAT and GST activities in the digestive gland of exposed gastropods; these enzymes seem to cooperate and play together their role of anti-oxidant enzymes. If H. trunculus is not a bioindicator species for metal concentrations, due to a high variability in metal concentrations, nevertheless the biochemical responses to pollutants (cadmium, copper, carbofuran and lindane) represented by AChE, CAT and GST activities may act as

  14. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate.

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, P; Donovan, E R; Labocha, M K; Sears, M W; Downs, C J; Sorensen, D A; Hayes, J P

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, higher (2.5%). Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (5.3%) in antagonistically selected lines, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, lower (4.2%). Analysis of breeding values revealed no positive genetic trend for elevated BMR in high-MMR lines. A weak positive genetic correlation was detected between MMR and BMR. That weak positive genetic correlation supports the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy in the sense that it fails to falsify a key model assumption. Overall, the results suggest that at least in these mice there is significant capacity for independent evolution of metabolic traits. Whether that is true in the ancestral animals that evolved endothermy remains an important but unanswered question.

  15. Master-slave manipulator

    Haaker, L.W.; Jelatis, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A remote control master-slave manipulator for performing work on the opposite side of a barrier wall, is described. The manipulator consists of a rotatable horizontal support adapted to extend through the wall and two longitudinally extensible arms, a master and a slave, pivotally connected one to each end of the support. (U.K.)

  16. In Praise of Manipulation

    Dowding, Keith; Van Hees, Martin

    Many theorists believe that the manipulation of voting procedures is a serious problem. Accordingly, much of social choice theory examines the conditions under which strategy-proofness can be ensured, and what kind of procedures do a better job of preventing manipulation. This article argues that

  17. Segregating Top-Down Selective Attention from Response Inhibition in a Spatial Cueing Go/NoGo Task: An ERP and Source Localization Study.

    Hong, Xiangfei; Wang, Yao; Sun, Junfeng; Li, Chunbo; Tong, Shanbao

    2017-08-29

    Successfully inhibiting a prepotent response tendency requires the attentional detection of signals which cue response cancellation. Although neuroimaging studies have identified important roles of stimulus-driven processing in the attentional detection, the effects of top-down control were scarcely investigated. In this study, scalp EEG was recorded from thirty-two participants during a modified Go/NoGo task, in which a spatial-cueing approach was implemented to manipulate top-down selective attention. We observed classical event-related potential components, including N2 and P3, in the attended condition of response inhibition. While in the ignored condition of response inhibition, a smaller P3 was observed and N2 was absent. The correlation between P3 and CNV during the foreperiod suggested an inhibitory role of P3 in both conditions. Furthermore, source analysis suggested that P3 generation was mainly localized to the midcingulate cortex, and the attended condition showed increased activation relative to the ignored condition in several regions, including inferior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, insula and uncus, suggesting that these regions were involved in top-down attentional control rather than inhibitory processing. Taken together, by segregating electrophysiological correlates of top-down selective attention from those of response inhibition, our findings provide new insights in understanding the neural mechanisms of response inhibition.

  18. Metabolomic analysis of the selection response of Drosophila melanogaster to environmental stress

    Malmendal, Anders; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Overgaard, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    -regulated in response to selection for some of the stresses in this study. Overall, the results illustrate that selection markedly alters the metabolite profile and that the coupling between different levels of biological organization indeed is present though not very strong for stress selection at this level......We investigated the global metabolite response to artificial selection for tolerance to stressful conditions such as cold, heat, starvation, and desiccation, and for longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Our findings were compared to data from other levels of biological organization, including gene...... expression, physiological traits, and organismal stress tolerance phenotype. Overall, we found that selection for environmental stress tolerance changes the metabolomic (1)H NMR fingerprint largely in a similar manner independent of the trait selected for, indicating that experimental evolution led...

  19. Cell manipulation in microfluidics

    Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available. (topical review)

  20. Manipulator comparative testing program

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program examined differences among manipulator systems from the United States and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Model M-2 of Central Research Laboratories Division of Sargent Industries (CRL), and the GCA Corporation PaR Systems Model 6000. The site of testing was the Remote Operations Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) facility, operated by the Fuel Recycle Division in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In all stages of testing, operators using the CRL Model M-2 manipulator had consistently lower times to completion and error rates than they did using other machines. Performance was second best with the Meidensha BILARM 83A in master-slave mode. Performance with the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR 6000 manipulator was approximately equivalent in terms of criteria recorded in testing. These data show no impact of force reflection on task performance

  1. Directional Selection for Specific Sheep Cell Antibody Responses Affects Natural Rabbit Agglutinins of Chickens

    Cotter, P.F.; Ayoub, J.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2005-01-01

    Agglutination data from generations 8 through 19 indicate that bidirectional selection for specific SRBC antibody responses was successful in a line cross of ISA × Warren medium heavy layers. After 11 generations titers of the high SRBC selected line (H line) were nearly 1:32,000; those of the low

  2. Prior Cocaine Self-Administration Increases Response-Outcome Encoding That Is Divorced from Actions Selected in Dorsal Lateral Striatum.

    Burton, Amanda C; Bissonette, Gregory B; Zhao, Adam C; Patel, Pooja K; Roesch, Matthew R

    2017-08-09

    Dorsal lateral striatum (DLS) is a highly associative structure that encodes relationships among environmental stimuli, behavioral responses, and predicted outcomes. DLS is known to be disrupted after chronic drug abuse; however, it remains unclear what neural signals in DLS are altered. Current theory suggests that drug use enhances stimulus-response processing at the expense of response-outcome encoding, but this has mostly been tested in simple behavioral tasks. Here, we investigated what neural correlates in DLS are affected by previous cocaine exposure as rats performed a complex reward-guided decision-making task in which predicted reward value was independently manipulated by changing the delay to or size of reward associated with a response direction across a series of trial blocks. After cocaine self-administration, rats exhibited stronger biases toward higher-value reward and firing in DLS more strongly represented action-outcome contingencies independent from actions subsequently taken rather than outcomes predicted by selected actions (chosen-outcome contingencies) and associations between stimuli and actions (stimulus-response contingencies). These results suggest that cocaine self-administration strengthens action-outcome encoding in rats (as opposed to chosen-outcome or stimulus-response encoding), which abnormally biases behavior toward valued reward when there is a choice between two options during reward-guided decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Current theories suggest that the impaired decision-making observed in individuals who chronically abuse drugs reflects a decrease in goal-directed behaviors and an increase in habitual behaviors governed by neural representations of response-outcome (R-O) and stimulus-response associations, respectively. We examined the impact that prior cocaine self-administration had on firing in dorsal lateral striatum (DLS), a brain area known to be involved in habit formation and affected by drugs of abuse

  3. Genetic manipulation of Francisella tularensis

    Xhavit eZogaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease tularemia. F. tularensis subsp. tularensis causes the most severe disease in humans and has been classified as a select A agent and potential bioweapon. There is currently no vaccine approved for human use, making genetic manipulation of this organism critical to unraveling the genetic basis of pathogenesis and developing countermeasures against tularemia. The development of genetic techniques applicable to F. tularensis have lagged behind those routinely used for other bacteria, primarily due to lack of research and the restricted nature of the biocontainment required for studying this pathogen. However, in recent years, genetic techniques, such as transposon mutagenesis and targeted gene disruption, have been developed, that have had a dramatic impact on our understanding of the genetic basis of F. tularensis virulence. In this review, we describe some of the methods developed for genetic manipulation of F. tularensis.

  4. Stimulation of the subthalamic region facilitates the selection and inhibition of motor responses in Parkinson's disease

    van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; van Boxtel, Geert J. M.; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Bosch, D. Andries; Speelman, Johannes D.; Brunia, Cornelis H. M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to specify the involvement of the basal ganglia in motor response selection and response inhibition. Two samples were studied. The first sample consisted of patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) who received deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic

  5. Diminished performance on response-selection tasks in type-2 diabetes

    H.A. Keizer; P.C. Groot; J.J. Adam; dr. Lars B. Borghouts

    2003-01-01

    Comparisons of visual perception, response-selection, and response-execution performance were made between Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and a matched nondiabetic control group. 10 well-controlled male patients with Type 2 diabetes without diabetic complications (M age 58 yr.) and an age and

  6. Manipulation, salience, and nudges.

    Noggle, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Cass Sunstein and Richard Thaler recommend helping people make better decisions by employing 'nudges', which they define as noncoercive methods of influencing choice for the better. Not surprisingly, healthcare practitioners and public policy professionals have become interested in whether nudges might be a promising method of improving health-related behaviors without resorting to heavy-handed methods such as coercion, deception, or government regulation. Many nudges seem unobjectionable as they merely improve the quality and quantity available for the decision-maker. However, other nudges influence decision-making in ways that do not involve providing more and better information. Nudges of this sort raise concerns about manipulation. This paper will focus on noninformational nudges that operate by changing the salience of various options. It will survey two approaches to understanding manipulation, one which sees manipulation as a kind of pressure, and one that sees it as a kind of trickery. On the pressure view, salience nudges do not appear to be manipulative. However, on the trickery view (which the author favors), salience nudges will be manipulative if they increase the salience so that it is disproportionate to that fact's true relevance and importance for the decision at hand. By contrast, salience nudges will not be manipulative if they merely highlight some fact that is true and important for the decision at hand. The paper concludes by providing examples of both manipulative and nonmanipulative salience nudges. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Weaving Together Space Biology and the Human Research Program: Selecting Crops and Manipulating Plant Physiology to Produce High Quality Food for ISS Astronauts

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Douglas, Grace; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Researchers from the Human Research Program (HRP) have teamed up with plant biologists at KSC to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the international space station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC Space Biology (SB) brings a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for station and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC HRP brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP). The Veggie plant growth hardware on the ISS is the platform that first drove these interactions. As we prepared for the VEG-01 validation test of Veggie, we engaged with BHP to explore questions that could be asked of the crew that would contribute both to plant and to behavioral health research. AFT, AEH and BHP stakeholders were engaged immediately after the return of the Veggie flight samples of space-grown lettuce, and this team worked with the JSC human medical offices to gain approvals for crew consumption of the lettuce on ISS. As we progressed with Veggie testing we began performing crop selection studies for Veggie that were initiated through AFT. These studies consisted of testing and down selecting leafy greens, dwarf tomatoes, and dwarf pepper crops based on characteristics of plant growth and nutritional levels evaluated at KSC, and organoleptic quality evaluated at JSCs Sensory Analysis lab. This work has led to a successful collaborative proposal to the International Life Sciences Research Announcement for a jointly funded HRP-SB investigation of the impacts of light quality and fertilizer on salad crop productivity, nutrition, and flavor in Veggie on the ISS. With this work, and potentially with other pending joint projects, we will continue the synergistic research that will advance the space biology knowledge base, help close gaps in the human research roadmap, and enable humans to venture out to Mars and beyond.

  8. Sexual selection predicts advancement of avian spring migration in response to climate change

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Tøttrup, Anders P; Coppack, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Global warming has led to earlier spring arrival of migratory birds, but the extent of this advancement varies greatly among species, and it remains uncertain to what degree these changes are phenotypically plastic responses or microevolutionary adaptations to changing environmental conditions. We...... suggest that sexual selection could help to understand this variation, since early spring arrival of males is favoured by female choice. Climate change could weaken the strength of natural selection opposing sexual selection for early migration, which would predict greatest advancement in species...... in the timing of first-arriving individuals, suggesting that selection has not only acted on protandrous males. These results suggest that sexual selection may have an impact on the responses of organisms to climate change, and knowledge of a species' mating system might help to inform attempts at predicting...

  9. Manipulators for production and research

    Munro, Ian

    1987-01-01

    The development of caves or cells and master-slave manipulators to handle radioactive materials is discussed. Some of the most recent advances are described. A manipulator arm, a master-slave manipulator and a servomanipulator mounted on a manipulator are illustrated. Future developments are discussed - these include resolved tip control for the manipulator. (UK)

  10. Powered manipulator control arm

    Le Mouee, Theodore; Vertut, Jean; Marchal, Paul; Germon, J.C.; Petit, Michel

    1975-01-01

    A remote operated control arm for powered manipulators is described. It includes an assembly allowing several movements with position sensors for each movement. The number of possible arm movements equals the number of possible manipulator movements. The control systems may be interrupted as required. One part of the arm is fitted with a system to lock it with respect to another part of the arm without affecting the other movements, so long as the positions of the manipulator and the arm have not been brought into complete coincidence. With this system the locking can be ended when complete concordance is achieved [fr

  11. Simulation of robot manipulators

    Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Bills, K.C.; Kwon, D.S.; Schoenwald, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory's development of an environment for the simulation of robotic manipulators. Simulation includes the modeling of kinematics, dynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, operators, and environments. Models will be used for manipulator design, proposal evaluation, control system design and analysis, graphical preview of proposed motions, safety system development, and training. Of particular interest is the development of models for robotic manipulators having at least one flexible link. As a first application, models have been developed for the Pacific Northwest Laboratories' Flexible Beam Testbed which is a one-Degree-Of-Freedom, flexible arm with a hydraulic base actuator. Initial results show good agreement between model and experiment

  12. Selective laser melting of Ni-rich NiTi: selection of process parameters and the superelastic response

    Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Saedi, Soheil; Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Saghaian, Ehsan; Jahadakbar, Ahmadreza; Karaca, Haluk; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    Material and mechanical properties of NiTi shape memory alloys strongly depend on the fabrication process parameters and the resulting microstructure. In selective laser melting, the combination of parameters such as laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing determine the microstructural defects, grain size and texture. Therefore, processing parameters can be adjusted to tailor the microstructure and mechanical response of the alloy. In this work, NiTi samples were fabricated using Ni50.8Ti (at.%) powder via SLM PXM by Phenix/3D Systems and the effects of processing parameters were systematically studied. The relationship between the processing parameters and superelastic properties were investigated thoroughly. It will be shown that energy density is not the only parameter that governs the material response. It will be shown that hatch spacing is the dominant factor to tailor the superelastic response. It will be revealed that with the selection of right process parameters, perfect superelasticity with recoverable strains of up to 5.6% can be observed in the as-fabricated condition.

  13. Modification of the radiation response of pig skin by manipulation of tissue oxygen tension using anesthetics and administration of BW12C

    van den Aardweg, G.J.; Hopewell, J.W.; Barnes, D.W.; Sansom, J.M.; Nethersell, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of tissue oxygen tension on radiosensitivity was studied by examining modifications in the incidence of moist desquamation in pig skin after irradiation with strontium-90 plaques. The effects were analyzed using quantal dose-response data and comparisons were made using ED50 values for moist desquamation. Under standard anesthetic conditions of 2% halothane, approximately 70% oxygen, and approximately 30% nitrous oxide, the ED50 value (+/- SE) for moist desquamation was 27.32 +/- 0.52 Gy with no significant variation in radiosensitivity between dorsal, lateral, and ventral skin sites on the flank. Irradiation with 2% halothane and air increased the ED50 to 31.25 +/- 0.94 Gy, primarily due to an increased radioresistance of the dorsal sites. When combined with BW12C, a drug which binds oxygen selectively to hemoglobin and hence reduced the oxygen availability to tissues, a further increase in the ED50 values was observed. This was approximately 39 Gy with BW12C concentrations of 30 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg b.w. of BW12C, indicating a dose modification factor (DMF) of approximately 1.26. However, when animals were breathing the standard gas mixture, this DMF was reduced to 1.15 for 30 mg/kg of BW12C, indicating that a higher level of oxygen partly counteracted the effects of the drug in these studies with BW12C. The greatest variability in radiosensitivity was seen in the dorsal fields. This suggested complex physiological adaptation, a phenomenon that might also explain the absence of any modification of the radiation response when 100 mg/kg of BW12C was used

  14. Sex differences in immune responses: Hormonal effects, antagonistic selection, and evolutionary consequences.

    Roved, Jacob; Westerdahl, Helena; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    Males and females differ in both parasite load and the strength of immune responses and these effects have been verified in humans and other vertebrates. Sex hormones act as important modulators of immune responses; the male sex hormone testosterone is generally immunosuppressive while the female sex hormone estrogen tends to be immunoenhancing. Different sets of T-helper cells (Th) have important roles in adaptive immunity, e.g. Th1 cells trigger type 1 responses which are primarily cell-mediated, and Th2 cells trigger type 2 responses which are primarily humoral responses. In our review of the literature, we find that estrogen and progesterone enhance type 2 and suppress type 1 responses in females, whereas testosterone suppresses type 2 responses and shows an inconsistent pattern for type 1 responses in males. When we combine these patterns of generally immunosuppressive and immunoenhancing effects of the sex hormones, our results imply that the sex differences in immune responses should be particularly strong in immune functions associated with type 2 responses, and less pronounced with type 1 responses. In general the hormone-mediated sex differences in immune responses may lead to genetic sexual conflicts on immunity. Thus, we propose the novel hypothesis that sexually antagonistic selection may act on immune genes shared by the sexes, and that the strength of this sexually antagonistic selection should be stronger for type 2- as compared with type 1-associated immune genes. Finally, we put the consequences of sex hormone-induced effects on immune responses into behavioral and ecological contexts, considering social mating system, sexual selection, geographical distribution of hosts, and parasite abundance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Geometric control of manipulators

    Thiruarooran, C.

    1996-01-01

    Resolved motion control enables the end effector to be moved as a rigid body in space without having to work out manually the joint combinations needed. Since a rigid body in space has three independent translational and three independent rotational movements, a manipulator with at least six joints can be controlled in this way. Normally the manipulator has more than six joints providing an infinite number of ways of moving the tip in the desired direction and this redundancy can be exploited in a variety of ways. Resolved motion tests performed on a hydraulically operated heavy duty manipulator at the Dungeness nuclear power plant are described. The results have shown that manipulators with as many as ten joints can be controlled under resolved tip motion and the areas which are critical to the performance of this type of control have been identified. (UK)

  16. MATHEMATICAL MODEL MANIPULATOR ROBOTS

    O. N. Krakhmalev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model to describe the dynamics of manipulator robots. Mathematical model are the implementation of the method based on the Lagrange equation and using the transformation matrices of elastic coordinates. Mathematical model make it possible to determine the elastic deviations of manipulator robots from programmed motion trajectories caused by elastic deformations in hinges, which are taken into account in directions of change of the corresponding generalized coordinates. Mathematical model is approximated and makes it possible to determine small elastic quasi-static deviations and elastic vibrations. The results of modeling the dynamics by model are compared to the example of a two-link manipulator system. The considered model can be used when performing investigations of the mathematical accuracy of the manipulator robots.

  17. Compliant Aerial Manipulators

    Bartelds, T.; Capra, A.; Hamaza, S.

    2016-01-01

    joints. The approach aims at limiting the influence of impacts on the controlled attitude dynamics in order to allow the aerial manipulator to remain stable during and after impact. The developed concept is intended to convert kinetic energy into potential energy, which is permanently stored into elastic...... elements by means of directional locking mechanisms. The proposed approach has been tested on a 2 d.o.f. manipulator mounted on a quadrotor UAV. The manipulation system has one active rotational d.o.f. compensating for pitch movements of the UAV and one passive linear joint which is in charge of absorbing...... the impact energy. The device has been used to validate the method through experiments, in comparison with a rigid manipulator. The results show that the proposed approach and the developed mechanical system achieve stable impact absorption without bouncing away from the interacting environment. Our work has...

  18. Genetic and Genomic Response to Selection for Food Consumption in Drosophila melanogaster

    Garlapow, Megan E.; Everett, Logan J.; Zhou, Shanshan; Gearhart, Alexander W.; Fay, Kairsten A.; Huang, Wen; Morozova, Tatiana V.; Arya, Gunjan H.; Turlapati, Lavanya; Armour, Genevieve St.; Hussain, Yasmeen N.; McAdams, Sarah E.; Fochler, Sophia; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2016-01-01

    Food consumption is an essential component of animal fitness; however, excessive food intake in humans increases risk for many diseases. The roles of neuroendocrine feedback loops, food sensing modalities, and physiological state in regulating food intake are well understood, but not the genetic basis underlying variation in food consumption. Here, we applied ten generations of artificial selection for high and low food consumption in replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster. The phenotypic response to selection was highly asymmetric, with significant responses only for increased food consumption and minimal correlated responses in body mass and composition. We assessed the molecular correlates of selection responses by DNA and RNA sequencing of the selection lines. The high and low selection lines had variants with significantly divergent allele frequencies within or near 2,081 genes and 3,526 differentially expressed genes in one or both sexes. A total of 519 genes were both genetically divergent and differentially expressed between the divergent selection lines. We performed functional analyses of the effects of RNAi suppression of gene expression and induced mutations for 27 of these candidate genes that have human orthologs and the strongest statistical support, and confirmed that 25 (93%) affected the mean and/or variance of food consumption. PMID:27704301

  19. Manipulating Strings in Python

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  20. Transient response of nonideal ion-selective microchannel-nanochannel devices

    Leibowitz, Neta; Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad

    2018-04-01

    We report evidence of variation in ion selectivity of a fabricated microchannel-nanochannel device resulting in the appearance of a distinct local maximum in the overlimiting chronopotentiometric response. In this system consisting of shallow microchannels joined by a nanochannel, viscous shear at the microchannel walls suppresses the electro-osmotic instability and prevents any associated contribution to the nonmonotonic response. Thus, this response is primarily electrodiffusive. Numerical simulations indicate that concentration polarization develops not only within the microchannel but also within the nanochannel itself, with a local voltage maximum in the chronopotentiometric response correlated with interfacial depletion and having the classic i-2 Sands time dependence. Furthermore, the occurrence of the local maxima is correlated with the change in selectivity due to internal concentration polarization. Understanding the transient nonideal permselective response is essential for obtaining fundamental insight and for optimizing efficient operation of practical fabricated nanofluidic and membrane devices.

  1. Evidence for selection in response to radiation exposure: Pinus sylvestris in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Kuchma, Oleksandra; Finkeldey, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    Changes of genetic structures due to viability selection are likely to occur in populations exposed to rapidly and extremely changing environmental conditions after catastrophic events. However, very little is known about the extent of selective responses and in particular the proportion of the genome involved in putatively adaptive reactions for non-model plants. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) in order to investigate genetic differences between pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees which were partially exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation in the Chernobyl exclusion zone with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees with a similar origin. Six percent of the investigated loci (15 of 222 loci) were identified as candidates for selective responses. Moderate differentiation was observed between groups of trees showing either weak or strong phenotypic responses to high radiation levels. - Highlights: → Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation were investigated. → Pines with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees. → AFLP markers were used to reveal evidences of selection processes. → 15 of 222 loci are identified as candidates for selective responses. → Moderate differentiation is observed between irradiated and control trees. - Genetic responses to the exposure of trees to radiation in the Chernobyl zone may involve adaptive changes at a comparatively large part of the genome.

  2. Testing for a genetic response to sexual selection in a wild Drosophila population.

    Gosden, T P; Thomson, J R; Blows, M W; Schaul, A; Chenoweth, S F

    2016-06-01

    In accordance with the consensus that sexual selection is responsible for the rapid evolution of display traits on macroevolutionary scales, microevolutionary studies suggest sexual selection is a widespread and often strong form of directional selection in nature. However, empirical evidence for the contemporary evolution of sexually selected traits via sexual rather than natural selection remains weak. In this study, we used a novel application of quantitative genetic breeding designs to test for a genetic response to sexual selection on eight chemical display traits from a field population of the fly, Drosophila serrata. Using our quantitative genetic approach, we were able to detect a genetically based difference in means between groups of males descended from fathers who had either successfully sired offspring or were randomly collected from the same wild population for one of these display traits, the diene (Z,Z)-5,9-C27 : 2 . Our experimental results, in combination with previous laboratory studies on this system, suggest that both natural and sexual selection may be influencing the evolutionary trajectories of these traits in nature, limiting the capacity for a contemporary evolutionary response. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Direct and indirect selection responses for seed yield and its components in

    rasoul dehghan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding based on selection indices is an effective method for improving complex traits such as yield. To assess the efficiency of different selection method, 83 exotic along with 17 Iranian safflower genotypes were evaluated at the research farm of Isfahan University of Technology using 10×10 simple lattice design with three replications in 2011. In this study, the selection indices of Smith-Hazel and Pesek-Baker were determined based on the number of capitulum per plant, number of seeds per capitulum and 1000-seed weight. Also response to selection and relative selection efficiency were estimated for traits under study and seed yield. The highest estimated selection efficiency for genetic improvement of seed yield was obtained via selection for number of capitulum per plant. Therefore, this trait can be used as an appropriate selection criterion for improvement of seed yield. The results showed that seed yield was highly correlated with each of these indices and the estimated efficiency of indirect selection via these indices was relatively high. Thus, it seems that these selection indices can be effectively used for seed yield improvement. Results of present study showed that the efficiency of Smith-Hazel indices for simultaneous improvement of number of capitulum per plant, number of seeds per capitulum and 1000-seed weight was higher than that of Pesek-Baker index.

  4. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    Sarosh Patel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified.

  5. Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    Hudson, Thomas C.; Heiser, Aron T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a system supporting remote collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. To be accepted by users, the shared nanoManipulator application had to have the same high...... level of interactivity as the single user system and the application had to support a user's ability to interleave working privately and working collaboratively. This paper briefly describes the entire collaboration system, but focuses on the shared nanoManipulator application. Based on our experience...... developing the CnM, we present: a method of analyzing applications to characterize the requirements for sharing data between collaborating sites, examples of data structures that support collaboration, and guidelines for selecting appropriate synchronization and concurrency control schemes....

  6. Site quality in Appalachian hardwoods: the biological and economic response under selection silviculture

    Orris D. McCauley; George R., Jr. Trimble

    1975-01-01

    The relative or percentage value response after 12 years of selective cutting practices on low- and high-quality sites in Appalachian hardwoods amounted to a 119-percent increase on the low-quality site and 145 percent on the high-quality site. The absolute value or actual dollar response, on the other hand, showed that the low-quality site increased in value only $76/...

  7. Variance components and selection response for feather-pecking behavior in laying hens.

    Su, G; Kjaer, J B; Sørensen, P

    2005-01-01

    Variance components and selection response for feather pecking behavior were studied by analyzing the data from a divergent selection experiment. An investigation indicated that a Box-Cox transformation with power lambda = -0.2 made the data approximately normally distributed and gave the best fit for the model. Variance components and selection response were estimated using Bayesian analysis with Gibbs sampling technique. The total variation was rather large for the investigated traits in both the low feather-pecking line (LP) and the high feather-pecking line (HP). Based on the mean of marginal posterior distribution, in the Box-Cox transformed scale, heritability for number of feather pecking bouts (FP bouts) was 0.174 in line LP and 0.139 in line HP. For number of feather-pecking pecks (FP pecks), heritability was 0.139 in line LP and 0.105 in line HP. No full-sib group effect and observation pen effect were found in the 2 traits. After 4 generations of selection, the total response for number of FP bouts in the transformed scale was 58 and 74% of the mean of the first generation in line LP and line HP, respectively. The total response for number of FP pecks was 47 and 46% of the mean of the first generation in line LP and line HP, respectively. The variance components and the realized selection response together suggest that genetic selection can be effective in minimizing FP behavior. This would be expected to reduce one of the major welfare problems in laying hens.

  8. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats.

    Gunia, M; Phocas, F; Gourdine, J-L; Bijma, P; Mandonnet, N

    2013-02-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasite resistance and resilience traits. The overall breeding goal included traits for production, reproduction, and parasite resilience and resistance to ensure a balanced selection outcome. The production traits were BW and dressing percentage (DP). The reproduction trait was fertility (FER), which was the number of doe kiddings per mating. The resistance trait was worm fecal egg count (FEC), which is a measurement of the number of gastro-intestinal parasite eggs found in the feces. The resilience trait was the packed cell volume (PCV), which is a measurement of the volume of red blood cells in the blood. Dressing percentage, BW, and FEC were measured at 11 mo of age, which is the mating or selling age. Fertility and PCV were measured on females at each kidding period. The breeding program accounting for the overall breeding goal and a selection index including all traits gave annual selection responses of 800 g for BW, 3.75% for FER, 0.08% for DP, -0.005 ln(eggs/g) for FEC, and 0.28% for PCV. The expected selection responses for BW and DP in this breeding program were reduced by 2% and 6%, respectively, compared with a breeding program not accounting for FEC and PCV. The overall breeding program, proposed for the Creole breed, offers the best breeding strategy in terms of expected selection responses, making it possible to improve all traits together. It offers a good balance between production and adaptation traits and may present some interest for the selection of other goat breeds in the tropics.

  9. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  10. Balanced articulated manipulator

    Francois, Daniel; Germond, J.-C.; Marchal, Paul; Vertut, Jean.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a manipulator of the type comprising a master arm and a slave arm, capable of working in a containment restricted by a wall fitted with an aperture to introduce the slave arm into the containment. According to the invention this manipulator is permanently balanced irrespective of its distortions when it is secured to the wall of the containment in which it is desired to work. The entire manipulator is also balanced when being set up and when moved outside the containment, in relation to a supporting axle. This result is achieved in a simplified manner by giving homothetic shapes to the various component parts of the slave and master arms, the master arm having at least one balancing weight [fr

  11. Stainless steel decontamination manipulators

    Sullivan, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three, large-volume coverage manipulator systems were designed and built for the Defense Water Processing Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory. These stainless steel systems will be used for high-pressure spray decontamination of waste containers and large process equipment modules. Each system has a manipulator arm, folding boom, and vertical drive and guide structure. Handling capacity is 45 kg, horizontal reach is 4.6 m with a 180-deg swing motion, and the vertical travel is 6 m. The system is remotely removable and replaceable in modules using an overhead crane and an impact wrench. The manipulator arm has seven motions: Shoulder rotation and pivot, elbow pivot, wrist pivot and rotation, and grip open-close. All motions are variable speed and are slip-clutch protected to prevent overloading from external forces (collisions)

  12. Data manipulation with R

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2014-01-01

    This book is a step-by step, example-oriented tutorial that will show both intermediate and advanced users how data manipulation is facilitated smoothly using R.This book is aimed at intermediate to advanced level users of R who want to perform data manipulation with R, and those who want to clean and aggregate data effectively. Readers are expected to have at least an introductory knowledge of R and some basic administration work in R, such as installing packages and calling them when required.

  13. Tree regeneration response to the group selection method in southern Indiana

    Dale R. Weigel; George R. Parker

    1997-01-01

    Tree regeneration response following the use of the group selection method was studied within 36 group openings on the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division in south central Indiana. Two different aspects and three time periods since cutting were examined. The objectives were to determine whether aspect, age, species group, location within the opening, or their...

  14. Blindness and Selective Mutism: One Student's Response to Voice-Output Devices

    Holley, Mary; Johnson, Ashli; Herzberg, Tina

    2014-01-01

    This case study was designed to measure the response of one student with blindness and selective mutism to the intervention of voice-output devices across two years and two different teachers in two instructional settings. Before the introduction of the voice output devices, the student did not choose to communicate using spoken language or…

  15. The effect of size-selective samplers (cyclones) on XRD response

    Pretorius, CJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated five size-selective samplers used in the South African mining industry to determine how their performance affects the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) response when respirable dust samples are analysed for quartz using direct...

  16. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats

    Gunia, M.; Phocas, F.; Gourdine, J.L.; Bijma, P.; Mandonnet, N.

    2013-01-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasites resistance

  17. Advertising to Italian English Bilinguals in Australia: Attitudes and Response to Language Selection

    Santello, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This article explores attitudes and response to language selection in advertising targeting Italian bilinguals who belong to a defined speech community. The research builds upon (i) research on multilingual advertising by investigating its attitudinal correlates, and (ii) studies on advertising to bilinguals through the verification of the…

  18. Application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation software in solving applied mechanics problems

    Tsai, Wen-Lang; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    As its name implies, symbolic and algebraic manipulation is an operational tool which not only can retain symbols throughout computations but also can express results in terms of symbols. This report starts with a history of symbolic and algebraic manipulators and a review of the literatures. With the help of selected examples, the capabilities of symbolic and algebraic manipulators are demonstrated. These applications to problems of applied mechanics are then presented. They are the application of automatic formulation to applied mechanics problems, application to a materially nonlinear problem (rigid-plastic ring compression) by finite element method (FEM) and application to plate problems by FEM. The advantages and difficulties, contributions, education, and perspectives of symbolic and algebraic manipulation are discussed. It is well known that there exist some fundamental difficulties in symbolic and algebraic manipulation, such as internal swelling and mathematical limitation. A remedy for these difficulties is proposed, and the three applications mentioned are solved successfully. For example, the closed from solution of stiffness matrix of four-node isoparametrical quadrilateral element for 2-D elasticity problem was not available before. Due to the work presented, the automatic construction of it becomes feasible. In addition, a new advantage of the application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation found is believed to be crucial in improving the efficiency of program execution in the future. This will substantially shorten the response time of a system. It is very significant for certain systems, such as missile and high speed aircraft systems, in which time plays an important role.

  19. Distinct Biomarker Profiles in Ex Vivo T Cell Depletion Graft Manipulation Strategies: CD34+ Selection versus CD3+/19+ Depletion in Matched Sibling Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Cantilena, Caroline R; Ito, Sawa; Tian, Xin; Jain, Prachi; Chinian, Fariba; Anandi, Prathima; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Draper, Debbie; Koklanaris, Eleftheria; Hauffe, Sara; Superata, Jeanine; Stroncek, David; Muranski, Pawel; Barrett, A John; Battiwalla, Minoo

    2018-03-01

    Various approaches have been developed for ex vivo T cell depletion in allogeneic stem cell transplantation to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Direct comparisons of T cell depletion strategies have not been well studied, however. We evaluated cellular and plasma biomarkers in 2 different graft manipulation strategies, CD3 + CD19 + cell depletion (CD3/19D) versus CD34 + selection (CD34S), and their associations with clinical outcomes. Identical conditions, including the myeloablative preparative regimen, HLA-identical sibling donor, GVHD prophylaxis, and graft source, were used in the 2 cohorts. Major clinical outcomes were similar in the 2 groups in terms of overall survival, nonrelapse mortality, and cumulative incidence of relapse; however, the cumulative incidence of acute GVHD trended to be higher in the CD3/19D cohort compared with the CD34S cohort. A distinct biomarker profile was noted in the CD3/19D cohort: higher levels of ST2, impaired Helios - FoxP3 + Treg reconstitution, and rapid reconstitution of naïve, Th2, and Th17 CD4 cells in the early post-transplantation period. In vitro graft replication studies confirmed that CD3/19D disproportionately depleted Tregs and other CD4 subset repertoires in the graft. This study confirms the utility of biomarker monitoring, which can be directly correlated with biological consequences and possible future therapeutic indications. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance.

  1. Acute pharmacologically induced shifts in serotonin availability abolish emotion-selective responses to negative face emotions in distinct brain networks

    Grady, Cheryl Lynn; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hornboll, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonin availability can alter the processing of facial expressions of emotion. Using a within-subject design, we measured the effect of serotonin on the brain's response to aversive face emotions with functional MRI while 20 participants judged the gender...... of neutral, fearful and angry faces. In three separate and counterbalanced sessions, participants received citalopram (CIT) to raise serotonin levels, underwent acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower serotonin, or were studied without pharmacological challenge (Control). An analysis designed to identify...

  2. The human auditory brainstem response to running speech reveals a subcortical mechanism for selective attention.

    Forte, Antonio Elia; Etard, Octave; Reichenbach, Tobias

    2017-10-10

    Humans excel at selectively listening to a target speaker in background noise such as competing voices. While the encoding of speech in the auditory cortex is modulated by selective attention, it remains debated whether such modulation occurs already in subcortical auditory structures. Investigating the contribution of the human brainstem to attention has, in particular, been hindered by the tiny amplitude of the brainstem response. Its measurement normally requires a large number of repetitions of the same short sound stimuli, which may lead to a loss of attention and to neural adaptation. Here we develop a mathematical method to measure the auditory brainstem response to running speech, an acoustic stimulus that does not repeat and that has a high ecological validity. We employ this method to assess the brainstem's activity when a subject listens to one of two competing speakers, and show that the brainstem response is consistently modulated by attention.

  3. Evolution of boldness and life-history in response to selective harvesting

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Marty, Lise; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Whether intensive harvesting alters the behavioral repertoire of exploited fishes is currently unknown, but plausible. We extend a fish life-history model to account for boldness as a personality trait that affects foraging intensity, which affects energy intake and risk from predation and fishing...... gear. We systematically investigate life-history and behavioral trait evolution along the boldness–timidity axis in response to the full range of common selectivity and exploitation patterns in fisheries. In agreement with previous studies, we find that any type of harvesting selects for fast life...... histories and that merely elevated, yet unselective, fishing mortality favors boldness. We also find that timid-selective fishing (which can be expected in species targeted by active gear types) selects for increased boldness. By contrast, increased timidity is predicted when fishing targets bolder...

  4. Mouse manipulation through single-switch scanning.

    Blackstien-Adler, Susie; Shein, Fraser; Quintal, Janet; Birch, Shae; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Given the current extensive reliance on the graphical user interface, independent access to computer software requires that users be able to manipulate a pointing device of some type (e.g., mouse, trackball) or be able to emulate a mouse by some other means (e.g., scanning). The purpose of the present study was to identify one or more optimal single-switch scanning mouse emulation strategies. Four alternative scanning strategies (continuous Cartesian, discrete Cartesian, rotational, and hybrid quadrant/continuous Cartesian) were selected for testing based on current market availability as well as on theoretical considerations of their potential speed and accuracy. Each strategy was evaluated using a repeated measures study design by means of a test program that permitted mouse emulation via any one of four scanning strategies in a motivating environment; response speed and accuracy could be automatically recorded and considered in view of the motor, cognitive, and perceptual demands of each scanning strategy. Ten individuals whose disabilities required them to operate a computer via single-switch scanning participated in the study. Results indicated that Cartesian scanning was the preferred and most effective scanning strategy. There were no significant differences between results from the Continuous Cartesian and Discrete Cartesian scanning strategies. Rotational scanning was quite slow with respect to the other strategies, although it was equally accurate. Hybrid Quadrant scanning improved access time but at the cost of fewer correct selections. These results demonstrated the importance of testing and comparing alternate single-switch scanning strategies.

  5. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  6. Manipulating the Gradient

    Gaze, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

  7. Microrobots to Manipulate Cells

    Glückstad, Jesper

    At DTU Fotonik we developed and harnessed the new and emerging research area of so-called Light Robotics including the 3D-printed micro-tools coined Wave-guided Optical Waveguides that can be real-time laser-manipulated in a 3D-volume with six-degrees-of-freedom. To be exploring the full potentia...

  8. Automated visual attention manipulation

    Bosse, T.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a system for visual attention manipulation is introduced and formally described. This system is part of the design of a software agent that supports naval crew in her task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in hich the system is used

  9. Data manipulation with R

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2015-01-01

    This book is for all those who wish to learn about data manipulation from scratch and excel at aggregating data effectively. It is expected that you have basic knowledge of R and have previously done some basic administration work with R.

  10. The TFTR maintenance manipulator

    Kungl, D.; Loesser, D.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Cerdan, G.

    1989-01-01

    TFTR plans to begin D-T experiments in mid 1990. The D-T experimental program will produce approximately one hundred shots, with a neutron generation rate of 10 19 neutrons per shot. This will result in high levels of activation in TFTR, especially in the vacuum vessel. The primary purpose of the Maintenance Manipulator is to provide a means of remotely performing certain defined maintenance and inspection tasks inside the vacuum torus so as to minimize personnel exposure to radiation. The manipulator consists of a six-link folding boom connected to a fixed boom on a movable carriage. The entire manipulator is housed in a vacuum antechamber connected to the vacuum torus, through a port formerly used for a vacuum pumping duct. The configuration extends 180 0 in either direction to provide complete coverage of the torus. The four 3500 l/s turbopumps which were formerly used in the pumping duct will be mounted on the antechamber. The manipulator will utilize two end effectors. The first, called a General Inspection Arm (GIA) provides a movable platform to an inspection camera and an in-vacuum leak detector. The second is a bilateral, force-reflecting pair of slave arms which utilize specially developed tools to perform several maintenance functions. All components except the slave arms are capable of operating in TFTR's vacuum environment and during 150 0 C bakeout of the torus. (orig.)

  11. Manipulating Combinatorial Structures.

    Labelle, Gilbert

    This set of transparencies shows how the manipulation of combinatorial structures in the context of modern combinatorics can easily lead to interesting teaching and learning activities at every level of education from elementary school to university. The transparencies describe: (1) the importance and relations of combinatorics to science and…

  12. Technical Note: Response measurement for select radiation detectors in magnetic fields

    Reynolds, M., E-mail: michaelreynolds@ualberta.net [Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Fallone, B. G. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Departments of Oncology and Physics, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Rathee, S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division,University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dose response to applied magnetic fields for ion chambers and solid state detectors has been investigated previously for the anticipated use in linear accelerator–magnetic resonance devices. In this investigation, the authors present the measured response of selected radiation detectors when the magnetic field is applied in the same direction as the radiation beam, i.e., a longitudinal magnetic field, to verify previous simulation only data. Methods: The dose response of a PR06C ion chamber, PTW60003 diamond detector, and IBA PFD diode detector is measured in a longitudinal magnetic field. The detectors are irradiated with buildup caps and their long axes either parallel or perpendicular to the incident photon beam. In each case, the magnetic field dose response is reported as the ratio of detector signals with to that without an applied longitudinal magnetic field. The magnetic field dose response for each unique orientation as a function of magnetic field strength was then compared to the previous simulation only studies. Results: The measured dose response of each detector in longitudinal magnetic fields shows no discernable response up to near 0.21 T. This result was expected and matches the previously published simulation only results, showing no appreciable dose response with magnetic field. Conclusions: Low field longitudinal magnetic fields have been shown to have little or no effect on the dose response of the detectors investigated and further lend credibility to previous simulation only studies.

  13. High-capacity thermo-responsive magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction of curcuminoids.

    You, Qingping; Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Qingwen; Guo, Junfang; Huang, Weihua; Shi, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoqin

    2014-08-08

    Thermo-responsive magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (TMMIPs) for selective recognition of curcuminoids with high capacity and selectivity have firstly been developed. The resulting TMMIPs were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA, VSM and UV, which indicated that TMMIPs showed thermo-responsiveness [lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at 33.71°C] and rapid magnetic separation (5s). The polymerization, adsorption and release conditions were optimized in detail to obtain the highest binding capacity, selectivity and release ratio. We found that the adopted thermo-responsive monomer [N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm)] could be considered not only as inert polymer backbone for thermo-responsiveness but also as functional co-monomers combination with basic monomer (4-VP) for more specific binding sites when ethanol was added in binding solution. The maximum adsorption capacity with highest selectivity of curcumin was 440.3μg/g (1.93 times that on MMIPs with no thermosensitivity) at 45°C (above LCST) in 20% (v/v) ethanol solution on shrunk TMMIPs, and the maximum release proportion was about 98% at 20°C (below LCST) in methanol-acetic acid (9/1, v/v) solution on swelled TMMIPs. The adsorption process between curcumin and TMMIPs followed Langumuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The prepared TMMIPs also showed high reproducibility (RSD<6% for batch-to-batch evaluation) and stability (only 7% decrease after five cycles). Subsequently, the TMMIPs were successfully applied for selective extraction of curcuminoids from complex natural product, Curcuma longa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of preweaning nutritional management on yearling weight response in an open-herd selection program.

    Hough, J D; Benyshek, L L

    1988-10-01

    Records on 276 progeny were collected in the final 2 yr (1984 and 1985) of an 8-yr Hereford cattle selection project. Selection was practiced using the top sires from the American Hereford Association's National Cattle Evaluation based on yearling weight expected progeny difference. An unselected control line was maintained to monitor environmental change. One-half of each line was creep-fed during the preweaning period for the last 2 yr to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Direct response to yearling weight selection averaged 28 +/- 8 kg. Correlated response to selection amounted to .057 +/- .028 kg/d in preweaning ADG, 14 +/- 6 kg in weaning weight, .085 +/- .033 kg/d in postweaning ADG, 4.6 +/- 1.5 cm in yearling hip height and 11.2 +/- 3.0 cm2 in yearling pelvic area. Yearling fat thickness and scrotal circumference were not significantly affected by selection. Significant effects of creep feeding were observed for yearling weight (15 +/- 3 kg), preweaning ADG (.067 +/- .012 kg/d), weaning weight (13 +/- 2 kg), yearling hip height (1.2 +/- .5 cm) and yearling fat thickness (.07 +/- .03 cm). Postweaning ADG, yearling pelvic area and yearling scrotal circumference were not affected by creep feeding. No significant genetic group x creep feeding effects were found for any of the traits analyzed, indicating calves genetically superior for growth did not gain any additional advantage from creep feeding.

  15. Selective attention modulates human auditory brainstem responses: relative contributions of frequency and spatial cues.

    Alexandre Lehmann

    Full Text Available Selective attention is the mechanism that allows focusing one's attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, for instance, on a single conversation in a noisy room. Attending to one sound source rather than another changes activity in the human auditory cortex, but it is unclear whether attention to different acoustic features, such as voice pitch and speaker location, modulates subcortical activity. Studies using a dichotic listening paradigm indicated that auditory brainstem processing may be modulated by the direction of attention. We investigated whether endogenous selective attention to one of two speech signals affects amplitude and phase locking in auditory brainstem responses when the signals were either discriminable by frequency content alone, or by frequency content and spatial location. Frequency-following responses to the speech sounds were significantly modulated in both conditions. The modulation was specific to the task-relevant frequency band. The effect was stronger when both frequency and spatial information were available. Patterns of response were variable between participants, and were correlated with psychophysical discriminability of the stimuli, suggesting that the modulation was biologically relevant. Our results demonstrate that auditory brainstem responses are susceptible to efferent modulation related to behavioral goals. Furthermore they suggest that mechanisms of selective attention actively shape activity at early subcortical processing stages according to task relevance and based on frequency and spatial cues.

  16. Medial prefrontal-perirhinal cortical communication is necessary for flexible response selection.

    Hernandez, Abbi R; Reasor, Jordan E; Truckenbrod, Leah M; Lubke, Katelyn N; Johnson, Sarah A; Bizon, Jennifer L; Maurer, Andrew P; Burke, Sara N

    2017-01-01

    The ability to use information from the physical world to update behavioral strategies is critical for survival across species. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) supports behavioral flexibility; however, exactly how this brain structure interacts with sensory association cortical areas to facilitate the adaptation of response selection remains unknown. Given the role of the perirhinal cortex (PER) in higher-order perception and associative memory, the current study evaluated whether PFC-PER circuits are critical for the ability to perform biconditional object discriminations when the rule for selecting the rewarded object shifted depending on the animal's spatial location in a 2-arm maze. Following acquisition to criterion performance on an object-place paired association task, pharmacological blockade of communication between the PFC and PER significantly disrupted performance. Specifically, the PFC-PER disconnection caused rats to regress to a response bias of selecting an object on a particular side regardless of its identity. Importantly, the PFC-PER disconnection did not interfere with the capacity to perform object-only or location-only discriminations, which do not require the animal to update a response rule across trials. These findings are consistent with a critical role for PFC-PER circuits in rule shifting and the effective updating of a response rule across spatial locations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Plasma turbulence. Structure formation, selection rule, dynamic response and dynamics transport

    Ito, Sanae I.

    2010-01-01

    The five-year project of Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research entitled general research on the structure formation and selection rule in plasma turbulence had brought many outcomes. Based on these outcomes, the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) program entitled general research on dynamic response and dynamic transport in plasma turbulence has started. In the present paper, the state-of-the-art of the research activities on the structure formation, selection rule and dynamics in plasma turbulence are reviewed with reference to outcomes of these projects. (author)

  18. Integration of laser trapping for continuous and selective monitoring of photothermal response of a single microparticle.

    Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George C K; Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh

    2008-12-01

    Photothermal response (PTR) is an established pump and probe technique for real-time sensing of biological assays. Continuous and selective PTR monitoring is difficult owing to the Brownian motion changing the relative position of the target with respect to the beams. Integration of laser trapping with PTR is proposed as a solution. The proposed method is verified on red polystyrene microparticles. PTR is continuously monitored for 30 min. Results show that the mean relaxation time variation of the acquired signals is less than 5%. The proposed method is then applied to human red blood cells for continuous and selective PTR.

  19. Effects of prolonged running in the heat and cool environments on selected physiological parameters and salivary lysozyme responses

    Nur S. Ibrahim

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: This study found similar lysozyme responses between both hot and cool trials. Thus, room/ambient temperature did not affect lysozyme responses among recreational athletes. Nevertheless, the selected physiological parameters were significantly affected by room temperature.

  20. Inferring the Mode of Selection from the Transient Response to Demographic Perturbations

    Balick, Daniel; Do, Ron; Reich, David; Sunyaev, Shamil

    2014-03-01

    Despite substantial recent progress in theoretical population genetics, most models work under the assumption of a constant population size. Deviations from fixed population sizes are ubiquitous in natural populations, many of which experience population bottlenecks and re-expansions. The non-equilibrium dynamics introduced by a large perturbation in population size are generally viewed as a confounding factor. In the present work, we take advantage of the transient response to a population bottleneck to infer features of the mode of selection and the distribution of selective effects. We develop an analytic framework and a corresponding statistical test that qualitatively differentiates between alleles under additive and those under recessive or more general epistatic selection. This statistic can be used to bound the joint distribution of selective effects and dominance effects in any diploid sexual organism. We apply this technique to human population genetic data, and severely restrict the space of allowed selective coefficients in humans. Additionally, one can test a set of functionally or medically relevant alleles for the primary mode of selection, or determine the local regional variation in dominance coefficients along the genome.

  1. Motivational changes in response to blocked goals and foreshortened time: testing alternatives to socioemotional selectivity theory.

    Fung, Helene H; Carstensen, Laura L

    2004-03-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory contends that when people perceive time as limited, they prioritize emotionally meaningful goals. Although empirical support for the theory has been found in several studies, 2 alternative explanations for the pattern of findings remain: (a) emotional goals are pursued by default because nonemotional goals are blocked, and (b) emotional goals are pursued in search of emotional support rather than emotional meaning. This study tested these alternatives by examining social goals in response to blocked goals and foreshortened time. Findings reveal distinct motivational patterns, as reflected in social preferences and self-reported social goals, in response to the 2 types of constraints.

  2. A universal microscope manipulator

    Peter S. Boyadzhiev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A modified and improved model of a mechanical manipulator for observation of pinned and mounted insects is described. This device allows movement of the observed object around three perpendicular axes in the field of vision at all magnifications of stereomicroscopes. The main improvement of this new model is positioning of the guiding knobs for rotating around two of the axes next to each other, allowing faster and easier manipulation of the studied object. Thus, one of the main advantages of this device is the possibility to rotate the specimen without the need to refocus. The device enables easily reaching a precession deviation in the intersection point of axes up to 0.5 mm in the process of assembling.

  3. Dynamic selection of ship responses for estimation of on-site directional wave spectra

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Storhaug, Gaute

    2012-01-01

    -estimate of the wave spectrum is suggested. The selection method needs to be robust for what reason a parameterised uni-directional, two-parameter wave spectrum is treated. The parameters included are the zero up-crossing period, the significant wave height and the main wave direction relative to the ship’s heading...... with the best overall agreement are selected for the actual estimation of the directional wave spectrum. The transfer functions for the ship responses can be determined using different computational methods such as striptheory, 3D panel codes, closed form expressions or model tests. The uncertainty associated......Knowledge of the wave environment in which a ship is operating is crucial for most on-board decision support systems. Previous research has shown that the directional wave spectrum can be estimated by the use of measured global ship responses and a set of transfer functions determined...

  4. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    Singleton, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres

  5. Manipulation of quantum evolution

    Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan

    1994-01-01

    The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.

  6. Manipulating atoms with photons

    Cohen-Tannoudji, C.N.

    1998-01-01

    The article is a translation of the lecture delivered on the occasion of the 1997 Nobel Prize awarding ceremony. The physical mechanisms which allow manipulating of neutral atoms with laser photons are described. A remark is also made concerning several possible applications of ultra-cool atoms and streams of future research. The article is completed by Prof. Cohen-Tannoudji's autobiography. (Z.J.)

  7. Sympathoadrenal, cardiovascular and blood gas responses to highly selective mu and delta opioid peptides.

    Kiritsy-Roy, J A; Marson, L; Van Loon, G R

    1989-12-01

    The relative importance of mu and delta opioid receptors in brain regulation of sympathoadrenal, cardiovascular and respiratory function was investigated using highly selective mu and delta opioid peptide analogs. Groups of conscious rats received i.c.v. injections of either the mu-selective agonist, [D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) or the delta-selective agonist, [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE). Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded continuously via a chronic catheter in the carotid artery, and arterial blood samples were taken at intervals through the same catheter for determination of blood pH, pCO2, pO2 and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Both DAMGO and DPDPE increased plasma catecholamine levels and blood pressure in a dose-related manner. The slopes of the dose-response lines were parallel, but the delta compound was about 250 times less potent than DAMGO. Only the highest dose of 5 nmol of DAMGO caused a significant bradycardia, mediated by parasympathetic (vagal) activation. DAMGO and DPDPE also induced dose-dependent acidosis, with DAMGO again being much more potent than DPDPE. The effects of both DAMGO and DPDPE on plasma catecholamines, blood pressure and blood gases were antagonized by a mu-selective dose of naloxone (0.4 mg/kg i.a.). Intracerebroventricular administration of the delta-selective antagonist, ICI 174,864, only partially attenuated sympathoadrenal and blood gas responses to DAMGO or DPDPE. The pressor responses to DAMGO or DPDPE were resistant to antagonism by ICI 174,864. These results indicate that brain opioid receptors regulating autonomic outflow, cardiovascular and respiratory function are mainly of the mu type, although a delta opioid system may contribute to sympathoadrenal and respiratory effects of opioids.

  8. Female responses to experimental removal of sexual selection components in Drosophila melanogaster

    Innocenti, Paolo; Flis, Ilona; Morrow, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the common assumption that multiple mating should in general be favored in males, but not in females, to date there is no consensus on the general impact of multiple mating on female fitness. Notably, very little is known about the genetic and physiological features underlying the female response to sexual selection pressures. By combining an experimental evolution approach with genomic techniques, we investigated the effects of single and multiple matings on female fecundi...

  9. Protozoa manipulation by ultrasound

    Yancy Milena Porras Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganism manipulation, considered as controlled motion and positioning, is one of the most important activities in microbiology and medicine. To achieve this goal there are some techniques such as those which and optical forces, among others. These techniques are usually sophisticated, and some of them can induce irreversible alterations on the microorganisms which prevents their use in another tests. Thus, there is justified the study of technological alternatives to manipulate microorganisms in an easy and cost-effective way. This work shows the interaction between protozoa and air microbubbles when they are under the influence of an ultrasonic field of 5.8 mW. At the microbubbles resonant frequencies, microorganisms were attracted toward the bubbles' frontier remaining there while the ultrasonic field was applied. Once the ultrasound disappears, protozoa recover their freedom of movement. The observed effects could be used as the actuation principle of devices capable to trap, hold and release microorganisms of high mobility without any apparent damage. Microbubbles are generated by electrolysis which take place on the surface of an electrode array, while the ultrasound is originated by means of a piezoelectric transducer. As microorganisms there were employed those present in stagnated water, and were observed through an stereomicroscope. Key words: manipulator; protozoa; ultrasonic; transducer; piezoelectric.

  10. Pose Space Surface Manipulation

    Yusuke Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Example-based mesh deformation techniques produce natural and realistic shapes by learning the space of deformations from examples. However, skeleton-based methods cannot manipulate a global mesh structure naturally, whereas the mesh-based approaches based on a translational control do not allow the user to edit a local mesh structure intuitively. This paper presents an example-driven mesh editing framework that achieves both global and local pose manipulations. The proposed system is built with a surface deformation method based on a two-step linear optimization technique and achieves direct manipulations of a model surface using translational and rotational controls. With the translational control, the user can create a model in natural poses easily. The rotational control can adjust the local pose intuitively by bending and twisting. We encode example deformations with a rotation-invariant mesh representation which handles large rotations in examples. To incorporate example deformations, we infer a pose from the handle translations/rotations and perform pose space interpolation, thereby avoiding involved nonlinear optimization. With the two-step linear approach combined with the proposed multiresolution deformation method, we can edit models at interactive rates without losing important deformation effects such as muscle bulging.

  11. The response to selection in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 13 structures: A comparative quantitative genetics approach.

    Jose Sergio Hleap

    Full Text Available The Glycoside Hydrolase Family 13 (GH13 is both evolutionarily diverse and relevant to many industrial applications. Its members hydrolyze starch into smaller carbohydrates and members of the family have been bioengineered to improve catalytic function under industrial environments. We introduce a framework to analyze the response to selection of GH13 protein structures given some phylogenetic and simulated dynamic information. We find that the TIM-barrel (a conserved protein fold consisting of eight α-helices and eight parallel β-strands that alternate along the peptide backbone, common to all amylases is not selectable since it is under purifying selection. We also show a method to rank important residues with higher inferred response to selection. These residues can be altered to effect change in properties. In this work, we define fitness as inferred thermodynamic stability. We show that under the developed framework, residues 112Y, 122K, 124D, 125W, and 126P are good candidates to increase the stability of the truncated α-amylase protein from Geobacillus thermoleovorans (PDB code: 4E2O; α-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.1. Overall, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of a framework for the analysis of protein structures for any other fitness landscape.

  12. Influence of nonionic surfactants on the potentiometric response of hydrogen ion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes.

    Espadas-Torre, C; Bakker, E; Barker, S; Meyerhoff, M E

    1996-05-01

    The influence of poly(ethylene oxide)-based nonionic surfactants (i.e., Triton X-100 and Brij 35) in the sample phase on the response properties of hydrogen ion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes containing mobile (lipophilic amines) or covalently bound (aminated-poly-(vinyl chloride)) hydrogen ion carriers is reported. In the presence of these nonionic surfactants, membrane electrode response toward interfering cation activity (e.g., Na+) in the sample phase is increased substantially and the pH measuring range shortened. The degree of cation interference for pH measurements is shown to correlate with the basicity of the hydrogen ion carrier doped within the membrane phase. The observed deterioration in selectivity arises from the partitioning of the surfactant into the membrane and concomitant extraction of metal cations by the surfactants in the organic phase. The effect of nonionic surfactants on pH electrodes prepared with aminated-PVC membranes is shown to be more complex, with additional large shifts in EMF values apparently arising from multidentate interactions between the surfactant molecules and the polymeric amine in the membrane, leading to a change in the apparent pKa values for the amine sites. The effects induced by nonionic surfactants on the EMF response function of hydrogen ion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes are modeled, and experimental results are shown to correlate well with theoretical predictions.

  13. Artificial Selection Response due to Polygenic Adaptation from a Multilocus, Multiallelic Genetic Architecture.

    Zan, Yanjun; Sheng, Zheya; Lillie, Mette; Rönnegård, Lars; Honaker, Christa F; Siegel, Paul B; Carlborg, Örjan

    2017-10-01

    The ability of a population to adapt to changes in their living conditions, whether in nature or captivity, often depends on polymorphisms in multiple genes across the genome. In-depth studies of such polygenic adaptations are difficult in natural populations, but can be approached using the resources provided by artificial selection experiments. Here, we dissect the genetic mechanisms involved in long-term selection responses of the Virginia chicken lines, populations that after 40 generations of divergent selection for 56-day body weight display a 9-fold difference in the selected trait. In the F15 generation of an intercross between the divergent lines, 20 loci explained >60% of the additive genetic variance for the selected trait. We focused particularly on fine-mapping seven major QTL that replicated in this population and found that only two fine-mapped to single, bi-allelic loci; the other five contained linked loci, multiple alleles or were epistatic. This detailed dissection of the polygenic adaptations in the Virginia lines provides a deeper understanding of the range of different genome-wide mechanisms that have been involved in these long-term selection responses. The results illustrate that the genetic architecture of a highly polygenic trait can involve a broad range of genetic mechanisms, and that this can be the case even in a small population bred from founders with limited genetic diversity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Biological responsiveness to the phorbol esters and specific binding of [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a manipulable genetic system

    Lew, K.K.; Chritton, S.; Blumberg, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because of its suitability for genetic studies, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was examined for its responsiveness to the phorbol esters. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate had three effects. It inhibited the increase in animal size during growth; it decreased the yield of progeny; and it caused uncoordinated movement of the adult. The effects on nematode size, progeny yield, and movement were quantitated. Concentrations of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate yielding half-maximal responses were 440, 460, and 170 nM, respectively. As was expected from the biological responsiveness of the nematodes, specific, saturable binding of phorbol ester to nematode extracts was found. [ 3 H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate bound with a dissociation constant of 26.8 +/- 3.9 nM. At saturation, 5.7 +/- 1.4 pmole/mg protein was bound

  15. Simple additive effects are rare: a quantitative review of plant biomass and soil process responses to combined manipulations of CO2 and temperature

    Dieleman, Wouter I. J.; Vicca, Sara; Dijkstra, Feike A.

    2012-01-01

    , possibly due to the warming‐induced acceleration of decomposition, implying that progressive nitrogen limitation (PNL) may not occur as commonly as anticipated from single factor [ CO2 ] treatment studies. Responses of total plant biomass, especially of aboveground biomass, revealed antagonistic...

  16. Evidence of market manipulation in the financial crisis

    Vedant Misra; Marco Lagi; Yaneer Bar-Yam

    2011-01-01

    We provide direct evidence of market manipulation at the beginning of the financial crisis in November 2007. The type of manipulation, a "bear raid," would have been prevented by a regulation that was repealed by the Securities and Exchange Commission in July 2007. The regulation, the uptick rule, was designed to prevent manipulation and promote stability and was in force from 1938 as a key part of the government response to the 1929 market crash and its aftermath. On November 1, 2007, Citigr...

  17. Numerical study of the mode selection in response spectrum analysis-condensed version

    Ng, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    For quality assurance of the dynamic response spectrum analysis, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) recommends retaining all modes below the cutoff frequency at which the spectral acceleration (S/sub a/) returns to the peak zero period acceleration (ZPA). It also suggests that modes accounting for at least 90 percent of the structural masses be included in the analysis. A simple frame-type structure is generated as a baseline frame. Then groups of oscillators representing substructure are added onto the frame to study substructure behavior. A base case is established for each frame by including the specific number of modes used. The tests are conducted by incrementing the number of modes in the response spectrum analyses starting with one mode. The structural response of each modal increment is compared with the base case to identify the efficiency of mode selection method. All three methods are then applied to the MFTF-B Axicell Vacuum Vessel. The responses in critical components of the vessel, such as hangers and foundations, will be analyzed to confirm the accuracy of the selected method

  18. ZnO-carbon nanofibers for stable, high response, and selective H2S sensors.

    Zhang, Jitao; Zhu, Zijian; Chen, Changmiao; Chen, Zhi; Cai, Mengqiu; Qu, Baihua; Wang, Taihong; Zhang, Ming

    2018-07-06

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), as a typical atmospheric pollutant, is neurotoxic and flammable even at a very low concentration. In this study, we design stable H 2 S sensors based on ZnO-carbon nanofibers. Nanofibers with 30.34 wt% carbon are prepared by a facial electrospinning route followed by an annealing treatment. The resulting H 2 S sensors show excellent selectivity and response compared to the pure ZnO nanofiber H 2 S sensors, particularly the response in the range of 102-50 ppm of H 2 S. Besides, they exhibited a nearly constant response of approximately 40-20 ppm of H 2 S over 60 days. The superior performance of these H 2 S sensors can be attributed to the protection of carbon, which ensures the high stability of ZnO, and oxygen vacancies that improve the response and selectivity of H 2 S. The good performance of ZnO-carbon H 2 S sensors suggests that composites with oxygen vacancies prepared by a facial electrospinning route may provide a new research strategy in the field of gas sensors, photocatalysts, and semiconductor devices.

  19. Temperature manipulation during layer chick embryogenesis

    Walstra, I.; Napel, ten J.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of temperature manipulation (TM) during late embryogenesis on temperature preference, response to high environmental temperature, behavior, and performance in young layer chicks. Control (CC) embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8°C eggshell temperature

  20. Engineering the temporal response of photoconductive photodetectors via selective introduction of surface trap states.

    Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Levina, Larissa; Fischer, Armin; Sargent, Edward H

    2008-05-01

    Photoconductive photodetectors fabricated using simple solution-processing have recently been shown to exhibit high gains (>1000) and outstanding sensitivities ( D* > 10(13) Jones). One ostensible disadvantage of exploiting photoconductive gain is that the temporal response is limited by the release of carriers from trap states. Here we show that it is possible to introduce specific chemical species onto the surfaces of colloidal quantum dots to produce only a single, desired trap state having a carefully selected lifetime. In this way we demonstrate a device that exhibits an attractive photoconductive gain (>10) combined with a response time ( approximately 25 ms) useful in imaging. We achieve this by preserving a single surface species, lead sulfite, while eliminating lead sulfate and lead carboxylate. In doing so we preserve the outstanding sensitivity of these devices, achieving a specific detectivity of 10(12) Jones in the visible, while generating a temporal response suited to imaging applications.

  1. Sistem kontrol gerak kinematika robot gripper manipulator

    Wayan Widhiada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Sistem robot manipulator ini merupakan mekanisme lengan yang terdiri dari serangkaian segmen yang digunakan untuk menangkap dan memindahkan benda dengan beberapa derajat kebebasan. Dalam perkembangannya, robot manipulator telah digunakan dalam melaksanakan misi tertentu dan membantu operasi di ruang angkasa. Robot biasanya berinteraksi dengan sistem tangan, dan dalam kegiatan industri tangan biasanya disebut sebagai gripper. Penulis menggunakan metode simulasi teknik yang dapat menentukan sistem gerak kinematika robot. Simulasi teknik adalah metode yang digunakan untuk mendesain dan menganalisa gerakan robot dimana hasil dari respon gerakan robot yang didapat mendekati hasil dalam keadaan sebenarnya. Simulasi juga dapat menghemat waktu dan biaya yang digunakan dalam mendesain robot gripper manipulator lima jari dengan elemen prismatik. Dengan menggunakan kontrol PID diharapkan respon gerak kinematik dari setiap joint robot manipulator mencapai perfomance yang terbaik seperti overshoot yang kecil, dan kondisi tenang (steady state dalam waktu yang singkat disertai dengan keselahan penggerak yang kecil. Melalui proses Advance tuning pada PID kontrol selesai didapatkan parameter penguat pada PID kontrol yaitu Kp = 0.7194, Ki = 8.306 dan Kd = 0.0061sehingga tercapai performance gerakan kinematika robot gripper manipulator yang terbaik sesuai yang dikehendaki oleh user dengan rise time yang singkat 0.52 detik, waktu puncak yang singkat 0.52 detik, maksimum overshoot yang kecil 1,8%, kesetebailan response dicapai pada 0.76 detik dan kesalahan penggerak yang sangat kecil 0.32%. Kata kunci: Robot gripper manipulator, PID control, gerakan kinematika Abstract A robot gripper manipulator system mechanism comprising a series of segments that are used to capture and move objects with multiple degrees of freedom. In the process, the robot manipulator has been used in carrying out the specific mission and assist operations in space. Robot manipulator

  2. Using the Animal Model to Accelerate Response to Selection in a Self-Pollinating Crop

    Cowling, Wallace A.; Stefanova, Katia T.; Beeck, Cameron P.; Nelson, Matthew N.; Hargreaves, Bonnie L. W.; Sass, Olaf; Gilmour, Arthur R.; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.

    2015-01-01

    We used the animal model in S0 (F1) recurrent selection in a self-pollinating crop including, for the first time, phenotypic and relationship records from self progeny, in addition to cross progeny, in the pedigree. We tested the model in Pisum sativum, the autogamous annual species used by Mendel to demonstrate the particulate nature of inheritance. Resistance to ascochyta blight (Didymella pinodes complex) in segregating S0 cross progeny was assessed by best linear unbiased prediction over two cycles of selection. Genotypic concurrence across cycles was provided by pure-line ancestors. From cycle 1, 102/959 S0 plants were selected, and their S1 self progeny were intercrossed and selfed to produce 430 S0 and 575 S2 individuals that were evaluated in cycle 2. The analysis was improved by including all genetic relationships (with crossing and selfing in the pedigree), additive and nonadditive genetic covariances between cycles, fixed effects (cycles and spatial linear trends), and other random effects. Narrow-sense heritability for ascochyta blight resistance was 0.305 and 0.352 in cycles 1 and 2, respectively, calculated from variance components in the full model. The fitted correlation of predicted breeding values across cycles was 0.82. Average accuracy of predicted breeding values was 0.851 for S2 progeny of S1 parent plants and 0.805 for S0 progeny tested in cycle 2, and 0.878 for S1 parent plants for which no records were available. The forecasted response to selection was 11.2% in the next cycle with 20% S0 selection proportion. This is the first application of the animal model to cyclic selection in heterozygous populations of selfing plants. The method can be used in genomic selection, and for traits measured on S0-derived bulks such as grain yield. PMID:25943522

  3. Effect of feature-selective attention on neuronal responses in macaque area MT

    Chen, X.; Hoffmann, K.-P.; Albright, T. D.

    2012-01-01

    Attention influences visual processing in striate and extrastriate cortex, which has been extensively studied for spatial-, object-, and feature-based attention. Most studies exploring neural signatures of feature-based attention have trained animals to attend to an object identified by a certain feature and ignore objects/displays identified by a different feature. Little is known about the effects of feature-selective attention, where subjects attend to one stimulus feature domain (e.g., color) of an object while features from different domains (e.g., direction of motion) of the same object are ignored. To study this type of feature-selective attention in area MT in the middle temporal sulcus, we trained macaque monkeys to either attend to and report the direction of motion of a moving sine wave grating (a feature for which MT neurons display strong selectivity) or attend to and report its color (a feature for which MT neurons have very limited selectivity). We hypothesized that neurons would upregulate their firing rate during attend-direction conditions compared with attend-color conditions. We found that feature-selective attention significantly affected 22% of MT neurons. Contrary to our hypothesis, these neurons did not necessarily increase firing rate when animals attended to direction of motion but fell into one of two classes. In one class, attention to color increased the gain of stimulus-induced responses compared with attend-direction conditions. The other class displayed the opposite effects. Feature-selective activity modulations occurred earlier in neurons modulated by attention to color compared with neurons modulated by attention to motion direction. Thus feature-selective attention influences neuronal processing in macaque area MT but often exhibited a mismatch between the preferred stimulus dimension (direction of motion) and the preferred attention dimension (attention to color). PMID:22170961

  4. Best-Response Distributed Subchannel Selection for Minimizing Interference in Femtocell Networks}

    Somsak Kittipiyakul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We study a distributed channel allocation problem of non-cooperative OFDMA femtocells in two-tiered macro-femto networks. The objective is to maximize the total capacity of uplink macro users and femto users. We assume a time-slotted system, a time-invariant channel model (no fading, each user knows the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR of all channels, and the channel selection happens only at the beginning of each time-slot. We study the performance of a best-response strategy where each user chooses to transmit in the highest-SINR channel. For simplicity, we focus on the homogeneous 3-link, 2-channel case and show that if all users update their actions every time-slot (i.e., all users make simultaneous moves, an oscillation can occur and result in the worst performance. To avoid the oscillation and achieve the highest total capacity, while still assuming no coordination among the users, we propose a stochastic best-response algorithm, where each user updates its channel selection with a selection probability p. We use a Markov chain to analyze the average capacity performance and use simulation results to confirm our analysis and also provide performance of other homogeneous cases with more number of links and channels. It is shown that the highest total capacity can be achieved when the selection probability p is very small. This stochastic best response with small p in effect provides a sequential move mechanism which requires no coordination.

  5. Burkholderia thailandensis: Genetic Manipulation.

    Garcia, Erin C

    2017-05-16

    Burkholderia thailandensis is a Gram-negative bacterium endemic to Southeast Asian and northern Australian soils. It is non-pathogenic; therefore, it is commonly used as a model organism for the related human pathogens Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. B. thailandensis is relatively easily genetically manipulated and a variety of robust genetic tools can be used in this organism. This unit describes protocols for conjugation, natural transformation, mini-Tn7 insertion, and allelic exchange in B. thailandensis. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  7. Indomethacin causes prostaglandin D(2)-like and eotaxin-like selective responses in eosinophils and basophils.

    Stubbs, Victoria E L; Schratl, Petra; Hartnell, Adele; Williams, Timothy J; Peskar, Bernhard A; Heinemann, Akos; Sabroe, Ian

    2002-07-19

    We investigated the actions of a panel of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, and monocytes. Indomethacin alone was a potent and selective inducer of eosinophil and basophil shape change. In eosinophils, indomethacin induced chemotaxis, CD11b up-regulation, respiratory burst, and L-selectin shedding but did not cause up-regulation of CD63 expression. Pretreatment of eosinophils with indomethacin also enhanced subsequent eosinophil shape change induced by eotaxin, although treatment with higher concentrations of indomethacin resulted in a decrease in the expression of the major eosinophil chemokine receptor, CCR3. Indomethacin activities and cell selectivity closely resembled those of prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)). Eosinophil shape change in response to eotaxin was inhibited by pertussis toxin, but indomethacin- and PGD(2)-induced shape change responses were not. Treatment of eosinophils with specific inhibitors of phospholipase C (U-73122), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (LY-294002), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (SB-202190) revealed roles for these pathways in indomethacin signaling. Indomethacin and its analogues may therefore provide a structural basis from which selective PGD(2) receptor small molecule antagonists may be designed and which may have utility in the treatment of allergic inflammatory disease.

  8. Effects of systemic glutamatergic manipulations on conditioned eyeblink responses and hyperarousal in a rabbit model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Burhans, Lauren B; Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2017-10-01

    Glutamatergic dysfunction is implicated in many neuropsychiatric conditions, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Glutamate antagonists have shown some utility in treating PTSD symptoms, whereas glutamate agonists may facilitate cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes. We have developed an animal model of PTSD, based on conditioning of the rabbit's eyeblink response, that addresses two key features: conditioned responses (CRs) to cues associated with an aversive event and a form of conditioned hyperarousal referred to as conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM). The optimal treatment to reduce both CRs and CRM is unpaired extinction. The goals of the study were to examine whether treatment with the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist ketamine could reduce CRs and CRM, and whether the N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist D-cycloserine combined with unpaired extinction treatment could enhance the extinction of both. Administration of a single dose of subanesthetic ketamine had no significant immediate or delayed effect on CRs or CRM. Combining D-cycloserine with a single day of unpaired extinction facilitated extinction of CRs in the short term while having no impact on CRM. These results caution that treatments may improve one aspect of the PTSD symptomology while having no significant effects on other symptoms, stressing the importance of a multiple-treatment approach to PTSD and of animal models that address multiple symptoms.

  9. Evolution in response to social selection: the importance of interactive effects of traits on fitness.

    Westneat, David F

    2012-03-01

    Social interactions have a powerful effect on the evolutionary process. Recent attempts to synthesize models of social selection with equations for indirect genetic effects (McGlothlin et al. 2010) provide a broad theoretical base from which to study selection and evolutionary response in the context of social interactions. However, this framework concludes that social selection will lead to evolution only if the traits carried by social partners are nonrandomly associated. I suggest this conclusion is incomplete, and that traits that do not covary between social partners can nevertheless lead to evolution via interactive effects on fitness. Such effects occur when there are functional interactions between traits, and as an example I use the interplay in water striders (Gerridae) between grasping appendages carried by males and spines by females. Functional interactive effects between traits can be incorporated into both the equations for social selection and the general model of social evolution proposed by McGlothlin et al. These expanded equations would accommodate adaptive coevolution in social interactions, integrate the quantitative genetic approach to social evolution with game theoretical approaches, and stimulate some new questions about the process of social evolution. © 2011 The Author. Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Remote control manipulator

    Sugawara, T

    1970-02-28

    A prior-art remote control manipulator comprises a horizontal suspension section, a master arm and a slave arm which are coupled to ends of the suspension section in a manner to pivotally move relative to the suspension section, and a connecting device which includes a tape and which joins both the arms. When the connecting device malfunctions, the slave arm can neither be extended nor contracted. Means to keep the tension of the tape is required which restricts the extension length of the slave arm. Further, the slave arm can be moved only in the axial direction. The invention described provides an improved remote control manipulator of the specified type. A moving device which moves the slave arm relative to the master arm without the intervention of the connecting device is mounted on a movable part of the slave arm, while pulleys which maintain the joining relationship of the connecting device are mounted on the movable part and fixed part of the slave arm. Owing to this construction, movement of the slave arm is assured despite troubles which may arise in the connecting device. In addition, no slack arises in the tape. By applying a similar construction to the horizontal suspension section, the suspension section can be stretched, and hence, the slave arm can be moved in a direction orthogonal to its axis.

  11. Host-selective toxins of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis induce common responses associated with host susceptibility.

    Iovanna Pandelova

    Full Text Available Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr, a necrotrophic fungus and the causal agent of tan spot of wheat, produces one or a combination of host-selective toxins (HSTs necessary for disease development. The two most studied toxins produced by Ptr, Ptr ToxA (ToxA and Ptr ToxB (ToxB, are proteins that cause necrotic or chlorotic symptoms respectively. Investigation of host responses induced by HSTs provides better insight into the nature of the host susceptibility. Microarray analysis of ToxA has provided evidence that it can elicit responses similar to those associated with defense. In order to evaluate whether there are consistent host responses associated with susceptibility, a similar analysis of ToxB-induced changes in the same sensitive cultivar was conducted. Comparative analysis of ToxA- and ToxB-induced transcriptional changes showed that similar groups of genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, RLKs, PRs, components of the phenylpropanoid and jasmonic acid pathways are activated. ROS accumulation and photosystem dysfunction proved to be common mechanism-of-action for these toxins. Despite similarities in defense responses, transcriptional and biochemical responses as well as symptom development occur more rapidly for ToxA compared to ToxB, which could be explained by differences in perception as well as by differences in activation of a specific process, for example, ethylene biosynthesis in ToxA treatment. Results of this study suggest that perception of HSTs will result in activation of defense responses as part of a susceptible interaction and further supports the hypothesis that necrotrophic fungi exploit defense responses in order to induce cell death.

  12. Angular and dose dependence of CR-39 neutron response for shape-selected tracks

    Tam, N C; Lakosi, L

    1999-01-01

    A shape selection method corresponding to an energy discrimination was used to eliminate unwanted events disturbing evaluation of CR-39 detectors in detecting tracks induced by particles both of perpendicular and oblique incidence. The angular dependence of the response was examined, detecting fast neutrons from sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf with shape selection technique at various angles and distances. Also, the CR-39 track detectors with the sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf source were exposed to high gamma-intensity of a sup 6 sup 0 Co irradiation facility in the range 0.1 to 4.5 kGy, similar to the exposures inside spent fuel assemblies. Using the two functions the lower limit of burnup could be determined by the method.

  13. Local and systemic response to intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge during long-term manipulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in dairy cows.

    Vernay, M C M B; Wellnitz, O; Kreipe, L; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2012-05-01

    The metabolic load during periods of high milk production in dairy cows causes a variety of changes of metabolite blood concentrations including dramatically decreased glucose levels. These changes supposedly impair the immune system. The goal of this study was, therefore, to evaluate adaptations of the cow's immune system in response to an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation during a 3-d modification of plasma glucose and insulin induced by different clamp infusions. Seventeen midlactating dairy cows received a hypoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp induced by insulin infusion (HypoG; n=5), a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp induced by insulin and glucose infusion (EuG; n=6), or infusion of saline solution (NaCl; n=6) for 56 h. At 48 h of infusion, 2 udder quarters were challenged with 200 μg of Escherichia coli LPS. At 48 h of infusion (immediately before LPS challenge), tumor necrosis factor α, lactoferrin, and serum amyloid A (SAA) mRNA abundance was increased in HypoG and Il-1β mRNA abundance was decreased in EuG. After LPS challenge, plasma glucose concentration did not decrease, although plasma insulin increased simultaneously in all groups either due to enhanced endogenous release (NaCl) or due to increased insulin infusion rate (HypoG; EuG). Plasma cortisol, rectal temperatures, and milk somatic cell count of challenged quarters increased, whereas plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were similarly decreased across treatments. In mammary biopsies, increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10, and SAA were observed in LPS-treated quarters of all groups, with a more pronounced increase in IL-1β, IL-10, and SAA expression in EuG. Nuclear factor-κB mRNA expression was upregulated in NaCl and EuG but not in HypoG in response to LPS. Lactoferrin, toll-like receptor 4, and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression was increased in LPS-treated quarters of EuG only, and 5-lipoxygenase mRNA expression was decreased

  14. Highly selective and rapidly responsive fluorescent probe for hydrogen sulfide detection in wine.

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Jialin; Yang, Shaoxiang; Tian, Hongyu; Liu, Yongguo; Sun, Baoguo

    2018-08-15

    A new fluorescent probe 6-(2, 4-dinitrophenoxy)-2-naphthonitrile (probe 1) was designed and synthesized for the selective detection of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). The addition of H 2 S to a solution of probe 1 resulted in a marked fluorescence turn-on alongside a visual color change from colorless to light yellow. Importantly, this distinct color response indicated that probe 1 could be used as a visual sensor for H 2 S. Moreover, probe 1 was successfully used as a signal tool to determine the H 2 S levels in beer and red wine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Selection of the optimum combination of responses for Wave Buoy Analogy - An approach based on local sensitivity analysis

    Montazeri, Najmeh; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2016-01-01

    One method to estimate the wave spectrum onboard ships is to use measured ship responses. In this method, known also as Wave Buoy Analogy, amongst various responses that are available from sensor measurements, a couple of responses (at least three) are usually utilized. Selec-tion of the best com...

  16. Microanalysis on selected video clips with focus on communicative response in music therapy

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes a five-step procedure for video analysis where the topic of investigation is the communicative response of clients in music therapy. In this microanalysis procedure only very short video clips are used, and in order to select these clips an overview of each music therapy...... session is obtained with the help of a session-graph that is a systematic way of collecting video observations from one music therapy session and combining the data in one figure. The systematic procedures do not demand sophisticated computer equipment; only standard programmes such as Excel and a media...... player. They are based on individual music therapy work with a population who are difficult to engage in joint activities and who show little response (e.g. persons suffering from severe dementia). The video analysis tools might be relevant to other groups of clients where it is important to form a clear...

  17. Changes in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Abundance and Community Structure in Response to the Long-Term Manipulation of Inorganic Nutrients in a Lowland Tropical Forest

    Sheldrake, Merlin; Rosenstock, Nicholas; Tanner, Ed

    2014-05-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is considered primarily mutualistic. In exchange for up to 30% of plants' total photosynthate, AM provide improved access to mineral nutrients. While there is evidence that AM fungi provide nitrogen, potassium and other nutrients to their host plants, most research has focused on their effect on plant phosphorus uptake. Pot experiments have shown, and field experiments have provided further support, that nutrient availability (primarily P, but also N) is inversely correlated with mycorrhizal colonization, indicating plant control over carbon losses to AM fungi. Yet pot experiments have also shown that some fungal species are more mutualistic than others and that AM colonization may cause decreased plant growth, suggesting that plant control is not absolute. AMF communities are diverse, and it is poorly understood how factors such as adaptation to local soil environment, fungal-plant compatibility, and plant nutrient status combine to shape AMF community structure. We conducted a study to examine the relative effects of N, P, and K addition on the AMF community in a plant species rich tropical forest, given the long-held belief that AMF are primarily involved in plant P uptake, particularly on weathered tropical soils. Our study site is the Barro Colorado Nature Monument in Panama. It is a 13 year-old factorial N, P, and K addition experiment (40 m x 40m plots; n=4) in an AMF dominated, old (>200 yr), secondary, tropical forest. Previous research has shown co-limitation by N, P, and K, but the strongest plant growth responses were obtained with K additions. We analyzed the AMF community using 454 pyrosequencing of the ribosomal small subunit (SSU) on both soils and the roots of the 6 dominant AMF tree species. Additionally, we used the AMF-specific neutral lipid fatty acid (NLFA) biomarker as a measure of AMF biomass. Both AMF biomass and community structure were altered by nutrient additions. AMF biomass in soil was reduced

  18. Effect of dietary restriction on immune response of laboratory mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate.

    Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    To study whether dietary restriction (DR; 70% of ad lib. feeding)-elicited immunosuppression results from the trade-off between the costs of mounting an immune response and the metabolic costs of maintenance, we subjected mice from two divergent lines selected for high basal metabolic rate (H-BMR) and low BMR (L-BMR) to 4 wk of DR and then challenged them with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen. Those line types differ genetically with respect to BMR and to the mass of metabolically expensive internal organs, which are larger in H-BMR mice. In mice of both line types, DR resulted in a significant reduction of body mass, an immune response, and the downsizing of spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, heart, and kidneys but not small intestines. DR resulted in a greater reduction of the spleen and lymph nodes in mice of the H-BMR line type, whereas the thymus was more affected in L-BMR line type. In contrast, immunization resulted in an increase of liver mass in DR mice of both line types. A comparison of the results of current and earlier studies on the same mouse line types suggests that metabolic trade-offs involving the costs of an immune response are more apparent when animals are forced to increase energy demands (e.g., by cold exposure) compared to when energy demands are decreased through DR. Our findings also suggest that divelrgent selection on BMR resulted in between-line-type differences in T-cell- and B-cell-mediated types of an immune response. More generally, our results indicate that production of a wide repertoire of antibodies is not correlated with high BMR.

  19. Selective vibration sensing: a new concept for activity-sensing rate-responsive pacing.

    Lau, C P; Stott, J R; Toff, W D; Zetlein, M B; Ward, D E; Camm, A J

    1988-09-01

    A clinically available model of an activity-sensing, rate-responsive pacemaker (Activitrax, Medtronic) utilizes body vibration during exercise as an indicator of the need for a rate increase. Although having the advantage of rapid onset of rate response, this system lacks specificity and the rate response does not closely correlate with the level of exertion. In addition, this pacemaker is susceptible to the effects of extraneous vibration. In this study involving 20 normal subjects fitted with an external Activitrax pacemaker, the rate responses to a variety of exercises were studied and were compared with the corresponding sinus rates. The vibration generated at the level of the pacemaker was also measured by accelerometers in three axes. Only a fair correlation (r = 0.51) was achieved between the pacemaker rate and the sinus rate. The total root mean square value of acceleration in either the anteroposterior or the vertical axes was found to have a better correlation (r = 0.8). As the main accelerations during physical activities were in the lower frequency range (0.1-4 Hz), a low-pass filter was used to reduce the influence of extraneous vibration. Selective sensing of the acceleration level may be usefully implemented in an algorithm for activity pacing.

  20. Postprandial glucose response to selected tropical fruits in normal glucose-tolerant Nigerians.

    Edo, A; Eregie, A; Adediran, O; Ohwovoriole, A; Ebengho, S

    2011-01-01

    The glycemic response to commonly eaten fruits in Nigeria has not been reported. Therefore, this study assessed the plasma glucose response to selected fruits in Nigeria. Ten normal glucose-tolerant subjects randomly consumed 50 g carbohydrate portions of three fruits: banana (Musa paradisiaca), pineapple (Ananus comosus), and pawpaw (Carica papaya), and a 50-g glucose load at 1-week intervals. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state and half-hourly over a 2-h period post-ingestion of the fruits or glucose. The samples were analyzed for plasma glucose concentrations. Plasma glucose responses were assessed by the peak plasma glucose concentration, maximum increase in plasma glucose, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose level, and incremental area under the glucose curve and glycemic index (GI). The results showed that the blood glucose response to these three fruits was similar in terms of their incremental areas under the glucose curve, maximum increase in plasma glucose, and glycemic indices (GIs). The 2-h postprandial plasma glucose level of banana was significantly higher than that of pineapple, P < 0.025. The mean ± SEM GI values were as follows: pawpaw; 86 ± 26.8%; banana, 75.1 ± 21.8%; pineapple, 64.5 ± 11.3%. The GI of glucose is taken as 100. The GI of pineapple was significantly lower than that of glucose (P < 0.05). Banana, pawpaw, and pineapple produced a similar postprandial glucose response. Measured portions of these fruits may be used as fruit exchanges with pineapple having the most favorable glycemic response.

  1. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL's flexible/prismatic test stand

  2. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  3. Cliquer, glisser, dactylographier ou sélectionner dans un menu déroulant : manipulations préférées des étudiants universitaires Click, slide, type or select in a pop-up menu: Favourite manipulations of French-as-a-second-language university students

    Nandini Sarma

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Résumé:Cet article présente les résultats d`une recherche sur les préférences d’étudiants universitaires de français langue seconde en ce qui a trait aux différentes manipulations faites lors d’activités de grammaire informatisées. Dans un contexte d’activités à choix multiples, les étudiants ont indiqué leurs préférences envers les quatre manipulations proposées (cliquer, glisser, sélectionner dans un menu déroulant et dactylographier. Nos résultats, appuyés des commentaires des étudiants, démontrent en général que leurs préférences reflètent les caractéristiques des « enfants-roi » qui préfèrent des activités ludiques, faciles et rapides qui nécessitent peu d’investissement de leur part et ont un impact direct sur leurs notes. Abstract This article presents the results of a study on the preferences of French-as-a second-language university students towards different manipulations used in computerized grammar activities. Students indicated their preferences for the four manipulations offered (click, scroll-down menu, drag-and-drop, keyboard entry while doing multiple-choice activities. Our results, backed up by student comments, show that their preferences reflect the traits of the “spoiled child” who prefers activities that are fun, easy and fast and that will have a direct impact on grades.

  4. Withdrawal rates as a consequence of disclosure of risk associated with manipulation of the cervical spine

    Forrest Lianne

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk associated with cervical manipulation is controversial. Research in this area is widely variable but as yet the risk is not easily quantifiable. This presents a problem when informing the patient of risks when seeking consent and information may be withheld due to the fear of patient withdrawal from care. As yet, there is a lack of research into the frequency of risk disclosure and consequent withdrawal from manipulative treatment as a result. This study seeks to investigate the reality of this and to obtain insight into the attitudes of chiropractors towards informed consent and disclosure. Methods Questionnaires were posted to 200 UK chiropractors randomly selected from the register of the General Chiropractic Council. Results A response rate of 46% (n = 92 was achieved. Thirty-three per cent (n = 30 respondents were female and the mean number of years in practice was 10. Eighty-eight per cent considered explanation of the risks associated with any recommended treatment important when obtaining informed consent. However, only 45% indicated they always discuss this with patients in need of cervical manipulation. When asked whether they believed discussing the possibility of a serious adverse reaction to cervical manipulation could increase patient anxiety to the extent there was a strong possibility the patient would refuse treatment, 46% said they believed this could happen. Nonetheless, 80% said they believed they had a moral/ethical obligation to disclose risk associated with cervical manipulation despite these concerns. The estimated number of withdrawals throughout respondents' time in practice was estimated at 1 patient withdrawal for every 2 years in practice. Conclusion The withdrawal rate from cervical manipulation as a direct consequence of the disclosure of associated serious risks appears unfounded. However, notwithstanding legal obligations, reluctance to disclose risk due to fear of increasing patient

  5. [Language Manipulation, Surrogacy, Altruism].

    Serrano Ruiz-Calderón, José Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The Newspeak propitiates a change of the sense of the words and next to the double thinking forms the picture of totalitarianism described by Orwell in 1984. The purpose of the Newspeak is to make all other forms of thought impossible. In bioethics the Newspeak is applied, not because Bioethics is a new science but by the manipulative intention. The twentieth-century political language has, according to Orwell, the intention to remove the ″mental image ″ of what really happens. This is clear in the terms ″surrogacy ″. On the one hand, the mother is deprived of her child. On the other, there is no legal subrogation. As has been said the technique reduces a woman to the condition of a vessel. The excuse of gratuity does not change the exploitative relationship, since gratuitousness in the provision of women is not the altruism of all those involved in surrogacy.

  6. Media and manipulation

    Kovačević Braco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the media are huge, both in everyday life and in cultural, spiritual and political life of modern man. Their power in the sense of political shaping of people and shaping of public opinion is very distinctive. In the process of propaganda to influence public opinion, they use various manipulative procedures in order to accomplish certain interests and objectives. Through the media, politics realizes its economic, ideological, political and even military activities. The war in the former Yugoslavia and former Bosnia and Herzegovina was also waged through the media. This media war still is spreading the hate speech, thus still causing conflicts and disintegration processes in the Balkans.

  7. Interactive protein manipulation

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  8. Interactive protein manipulation

    2003-01-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures

  9. Selective adsorption of oppositely charged PNIPAAM on halloysite surfaces: a route to thermo-responsive nanocarriers.

    Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Lisuzzo, Lorenzo; Milioto, Stefana; Parisi, Filippo

    2018-05-17

    Halloysite nanotubes were functionalized with stimuli-responsive macromolecules to generate smart nanohybrids. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-methacrylic acid (PNIPAAM-co-MA) was selectively adsorbed into halloysite lumen by exploiting electrostatic interactions. Amine-terminated PNIPAAM polymer was also investigated that selectively interacts with the outer surface of the nanotubes. The adsorption site has a profound effect on the thermodynamic behavior and therefore temperature responsive features of the hybrid material. The drug release kinetics was investigated by using Diclofenac as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug model. The release kinetics depends on the nanoarchitecture of the PNIPAAM/Halloysite based material. In particular, diclofenac release was slowed down above the LCST for PNIPAAM-co-MA/Halloysite. Opposite trends occurred for Halloysite functionalized with PNIPAAM at the outer surface. This work represents a further step toward the opportunity to extend and control the delivery conditions of active species, which represent a key point in technological applications. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Nutrient Content and Nutritional Water Productivity of Selected Grain Legumes in Response to Production Environment.

    Chibarabada, Tendai Polite; Modi, Albert Thembinkosi; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2017-10-26

    There is a need to incorporate nutrition into aspects of crop and water productivity to tackle food and nutrition insecurity (FNS). The study determined the nutritional water productivity (NWP) of selected major (groundnut, dry bean) and indigenous (bambara groundnut and cowpea) grain legumes in response to water regimes and environments. Field trials were conducted during 2015/16 and 2016/17 at three sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Ukulinga, Fountainhill and Umbumbulu). Yield and evapotranspiration (ET) data were collected. Grain was analysed for protein, fat, Ca, Fe and Zn nutrient content (NC). Yield, ET and NC were then used to compute NWP. Overall, the major legumes performed better than the indigenous grain legumes. Groundnut had the highest NWP fat . Groundnut and dry bean had the highest NWP protein . For NWP Fe, Zn and Ca , dry bean and cowpea were more productive. Yield instability caused fluctuations in NWP. Water treatments were not significant ( p > 0.05). While there is scope to improve NWP under rainfed conditions, a lack of crop improvement currently limits the potential of indigenous grain legumes. This provides an initial insight on the nutrient content and NWP of a limited number of selected grain legumes in response to the production environment. There is a need for follow-up research to include cowpea data. Future studies should provide more experimental data and explore effects of additional factors such as management practices (fertiliser levels and plant density), climate and edaphic factors on nutrient content and NWP of crops.

  11. Characteristics of manipulative in mathematics laboratory

    Istiandaru, A.; Istihapsari, V.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Setyawan, F.; Hendroanto, A.

    2017-12-01

    A manipulative is a teaching aid designed such that students could understand mathematical concepts by manipulating it. This article aims to provide an insight to the characteristics of manipulatives produced in the mathematics laboratory of Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Indonesia. A case study was conducted to observe the existing manipulatives produced during the latest three years and classified the manipulatives based on the characteristics found. There are four kinds of manipulatives: constructivism manipulative, virtual manipulative, informative manipulative, and game-based manipulative. Each kinds of manipulative has different characteristics and impact towards the mathematics learning.

  12. Perceptions of similarity and response to selected comparison targets in type 2 diabetes.

    Arigo, Danielle; Smyth, Joshua M; Suls, Jerry M

    2015-01-01

    Social comparisons (i.e. self-evaluations relative to others) may affect motivation for diabetes self-care behaviours. Comparisons can have either positive or negative effects, but it is not clear what differentiates these responses. This study tested the effect of a patient's perceived similarity to a comparison target on motivation for self-care. Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n = 180, MA1c = 7.59%) selected to read one of four brief descriptions of a patient with diabetes. Participants rated their motivation for self-care behaviours prior and subsequent to reading and reported the extent to which they focused on similarities between the self and the selected patient while reading. Perceived similarity moderated the effect of selection on motivation for self-care (p = .01, η2 = .06). Increased motivation was observed if participants focused on similarities with patients 'doing better' (i.e. high coping effectiveness/low symptom severity) and decreased motivation if they focused on similarities with patients 'doing worse' (low coping effectiveness/high symptom severity). Providing social comparison information in diabetes management (and perhaps other chronic diseases) may improve motivation for self-care among some patients. A subset of patients, however, may benefit from guidance to focus on similarities with certain targets.

  13. Objective Model Selection for Identifying the Human Feedforward Response in Manual Control.

    Drop, Frank M; Pool, Daan M; van Paassen, Marinus Rene M; Mulder, Max; Bulthoff, Heinrich H

    2018-01-01

    Realistic manual control tasks typically involve predictable target signals and random disturbances. The human controller (HC) is hypothesized to use a feedforward control strategy for target-following, in addition to feedback control for disturbance-rejection. Little is known about human feedforward control, partly because common system identification methods have difficulty in identifying whether, and (if so) how, the HC applies a feedforward strategy. In this paper, an identification procedure is presented that aims at an objective model selection for identifying the human feedforward response, using linear time-invariant autoregressive with exogenous input models. A new model selection criterion is proposed to decide on the model order (number of parameters) and the presence of feedforward in addition to feedback. For a range of typical control tasks, it is shown by means of Monte Carlo computer simulations that the classical Bayesian information criterion (BIC) leads to selecting models that contain a feedforward path from data generated by a pure feedback model: "false-positive" feedforward detection. To eliminate these false-positives, the modified BIC includes an additional penalty on model complexity. The appropriate weighting is found through computer simulations with a hypothesized HC model prior to performing a tracking experiment. Experimental human-in-the-loop data will be considered in future work. With appropriate weighting, the method correctly identifies the HC dynamics in a wide range of control tasks, without false-positive results.

  14. Application of drug selective electrode in the drug release study of pH-responsive microgels.

    Tan, Jeremy P K; Tam, Kam C

    2007-03-12

    The colloidal phenomenon of soft particles is becoming an important field of research due to the growing interest in using polymeric system in drug delivery. Previous studies have focused on techniques that require intermediate process step such as dialysis or centrifugation, which introduces additional errors in obtaining the diffusion kinetic data. In this study, a drug selective electrode was used to directly measure the concentration of procaine hydrochloride (PrHy) released from methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate (MAA-EA) microgel, thereby eliminating the intermediate process step. PrHy selective membrane constructed using a modified poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane and poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate-co-carbon monoxide) as plasticizer exhibited excellent reproducibility and stability. The response was reproducible at pH of between 3 to 8.5 and the selectivity coefficients against various organic and inorganic cations were evaluated. Drug release was conducted using the drug electrode under different pHs and the release rate increased with pH. The release behavior of the system under different pH exhibited obvious gradient release characteristics.

  15. Non-ignorable missingness item response theory models for choice effects in examinee-selected items.

    Liu, Chen-Wei; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2017-11-01

    Examinee-selected item (ESI) design, in which examinees are required to respond to a fixed number of items in a given set, always yields incomplete data (i.e., when only the selected items are answered, data are missing for the others) that are likely non-ignorable in likelihood inference. Standard item response theory (IRT) models become infeasible when ESI data are missing not at random (MNAR). To solve this problem, the authors propose a two-dimensional IRT model that posits one unidimensional IRT model for observed data and another for nominal selection patterns. The two latent variables are assumed to follow a bivariate normal distribution. In this study, the mirt freeware package was adopted to estimate parameters. The authors conduct an experiment to demonstrate that ESI data are often non-ignorable and to determine how to apply the new model to the data collected. Two follow-up simulation studies are conducted to assess the parameter recovery of the new model and the consequences for parameter estimation of ignoring MNAR data. The results of the two simulation studies indicate good parameter recovery of the new model and poor parameter recovery when non-ignorable missing data were mistakenly treated as ignorable. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  16. An ILP based Algorithm for Optimal Customer Selection for Demand Response in SmartGrids

    Kuppannagari, Sanmukh R. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kannan, Rajgopal [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-12-07

    Demand Response (DR) events are initiated by utilities during peak demand periods to curtail consumption. They ensure system reliability and minimize the utility’s expenditure. Selection of the right customers and strategies is critical for a DR event. An effective DR scheduling algorithm minimizes the curtailment error which is the absolute difference between the achieved curtailment value and the target. State-of-the-art heuristics exist for customer selection, however their curtailment errors are unbounded and can be as high as 70%. In this work, we develop an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulation for optimally selecting customers and curtailment strategies that minimize the curtailment error during DR events in SmartGrids. We perform experiments on real world data obtained from the University of Southern California’s SmartGrid and show that our algorithm achieves near exact curtailment values with errors in the range of 10-7 to 10-5, which are within the range of numerical errors. We compare our results against the state-of-the-art heuristic being deployed in practice in the USC SmartGrid. We show that for the same set of available customer strategy pairs our algorithm performs 103 to 107 times better in terms of the curtailment errors incurred.

  17. Adaptive control of robotic manipulators

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents a novel approach to adaptive control of manipulators to achieve trajectory tracking by the joint angles. The central concept in this approach is the utilization of the manipulator inverse as a feedforward controller. The desired trajectory is applied as an input to the feedforward controller which behaves as the inverse of the manipulator at any operating point; the controller output is used as the driving torque for the manipulator. The controller gains are then updated by an adaptation algorithm derived from MRAC (model reference adaptive control) theory to cope with variations in the manipulator inverse due to changes of the operating point. An adaptive feedback controller and an auxiliary signal are also used to enhance closed-loop stability and to achieve faster adaptation. The proposed control scheme is computationally fast and does not require a priori knowledge of the complex dynamic model or the parameter values of the manipulator or the payload.

  18. Bayesian estimation of direct and correlated responses to selection on linear or ratio expressions of feed efficiency in pigs

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Varley, Patrick Francis; Jensen, Just

    2018-01-01

    meat percentage (LMP) along with the derived traits of RFI and FCR; and (3) deriving Bayesian estimates of direct and correlated responses to selection on RFI, FCR, ADG, ADFI, and LMP. Response to selection was defined as the difference in additive genetic mean of the selected top individuals, expected......, respectively. Selection against RFIG showed a direct response of − 0.16 kg/d and correlated responses of − 0.16 kg/kg for FCR and − 0.15 kg/d for ADFI, with no effect on other production traits. Selection against FCR resulted in a direct response of − 0.17 kg/kg and correlated responses of − 0.14 kg/d for RFIG......, − 0.18 kg/d for ADFI, and 0.98% for LMP. Conclusions: The Bayesian methodology developed here enables prediction of breeding values for FCR and RFI from a single multi-variate model. In addition, we derived posterior distributions of direct and correlated responses to selection. Genetic parameter...

  19. Evolution of the metabolome in response to selection for increased immunity in populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Gogna, Navdeep; Sharma, Rakesh; Gupta, Vanika; Dorai, Kavita; Prasad, N G

    2017-01-01

    We used NMR-based metabolomics to test two hypotheses-(i) there will be evolved differences in the metabolome of selected and control populations even under un-infected conditions and (ii) post infection, the metabolomes of the selected and control populations will respond differently. We selected replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster for increased survivorship (I) against a gram-negative pathogen. We subjected the selected (I) and their control populations (S) to three different treatments: (1) infected with heat-killed bacteria (i), (2) sham infected (s), and (3) untreated (u). We performed 1D and 2D NMR experiments to identify the metabolic differences. Multivariate analysis of the metabolic profiles of the untreated (Iu and Su) flies yielded higher concentrations of lipids, organic acids, sugars, amino acids, NAD and AMP in the Iu treatment as compared to the Su treatment, showing that even in the absence of infection, the metabolome of the I and S regimes was different. In the S and I regimes, post infection/injury, concentration of metabolites directly or indirectly associated with energy related pathways (lipids, organic acids, sugars) declined while the concentration of metabolites that are probably associated with immune response (amino acids) increased. However, in most cases, the I regime flies had a higher concentration of such metabolites even under un-infected conditions. The change in the metabolite concentration upon infection/injury was not always comparable between I and S regimes (in case of lactate, alanine, leucine, lysine, threonine) indicating that the I and S regimes had evolved to respond differentially to infection and to injury.

  20. HERITABILITY AND RESPONSE TO SELECTION FOR GROWTH IN THE F1 GENERATION OF CRAYFISH Procambarus acanthophorus

    Carlos Perez Rostro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The crayfish Procambarus (A. acanthophorus is a crustacean relevant for regional fisheries in Veracruz, Mexico, with ideal aquaculture characteristics, except for its small size. Thus, a study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the response to selection in the first generation (F1 and heritability (h2 of the crayfish. A group of 2135 organisms with average weight (±S.D. 4.1 ± 1.79 g were captured from the wild (G0, and 10 % (i = 1,755 of the population was selected with the highest body weight by gender: 140 females (5.62 ± 1.97 g and 48 males (6.02 ± 1.9 g, forming the progenitors of the selection line (LS. The control line (LC was formed from a batch obtained at random. Thirty full-sib families were obtained per line (F1, and cultured individually for five months in a recirculation system with mechanical and biological filtration under laboratory conditions and supplied with food twice a day (Camaronina 35 % protein. Monthly heritability (h2 in broad sense was estimated using a full-sib design, based on the components of variance (ANOVA REML method and the growth was compared between lines in the F1. The mean h2's for weight after five months of culture were 0.27±0.11 for LC and 0.34±0.12 for LS, being the LS in F1 9.6 % heavier than the LC, with 84 and 88 % survival at the end of the study. It is possible to implement a breeding program based on selection for species growth.

  1. Planning Robotic Manipulation Strategies for Sliding Objects

    Peshkin, Michael A.

    Automated planning of grasping or manipulation requires an understanding of both the physics and the geometry of manipulation, and a representation of that knowledge which facilitates the search for successful strategies. We consider manipulation on a level conveyor belt or tabletop, on which a part may slide when touched by a robot. Manipulation plans for a given part must succeed in the face of two types of uncertainty: that of the details of surfaces in contact, and that of the initial configuration of the part. In general the points of contact between the part and the surface it slides on will be unknown, so the motion of the part in response to a push cannot be predicted exactly. Using a simple variational principle (which is derived), we find the set of possible motions of a part for a given push, for all collections of points of contact. The answer emerges as a locus of centers of rotation (CORs). Manipulation plans made using this locus will succeed despite unknown details of contact. Results of experimental tests of the COR loci are presented. Uncertainty in the initial configuration of a part is usually also present. To plan in the presence of uncertainty, configuration maps are defined, which map all configurations of a part before an elementary operation to all possible outcomes, thus encapsulating the physics and geometry of the operation. The configuration map for an operation sequence is a product of configuration maps of elementary operations. Using COR loci we compute configuration maps for elementary sliding operations. Appropriate search techniques are applied to find operation sequences which succeed in the presence of uncertainty in the initial configuration and unknown details of contact. Such operation sequences may be used as parts feeder designs or as manipulation or grasping strategies for robots. As an example we demonstrate the automated design of a class of passive parts feeders consisting of multiple sequential fences across a conveyor

  2. Image manipulation as research misconduct.

    Parrish, Debra; Noonan, Bridget

    2009-06-01

    A growing number of research misconduct cases handled by the Office of Research Integrity involve image manipulations. Manipulations may include simple image enhancements, misrepresenting an image as something different from what it is, and altering specific features of an image. Through a study of specific cases, the misconduct findings associated with image manipulation, detection methods and those likely to identify such manipulations, are discussed. This article explores sanctions imposed against guilty researchers and the factors that resulted in no misconduct finding although relevant images clearly were flawed. Although new detection tools are available for universities and journals to detect questionable images, this article explores why these tools have not been embraced.

  3. The Manipulative Discourse of Gandalf

    Farid Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to investigate discursive, cognitive and social aspects of manipulation in regard to the dialogues of the literary fictional character of Gandalf in the trilogy of The Lord of the Rings. Accordingly, the researcher has taken a multidisciplinary approach to an account of discursive manipulation, and focuses on the cognitive dimensions of manipulation. As a result, the researcher demonstrates meticulously how manipulation involves intensifying the power, moral superiority and the credibility of the speaker(s, while abusing the others (recipients, along with an emotional and attractive way of expression, and supplemented by reasonable facts and documents in regard to a specific issue.

  4. Integrated watershed-scale response to climate change for selected basins across the United States

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Ward-Garrison, D. Christian; Risley, John C.; Battaglin, William A.; Bjerklie, David M.; Chase, Katherine J.; Christiansen, Daniel E.; Dudley, Robert W.; Hunt, Randall J.; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Mastin, Mark C.; Regan, R. Steven; Viger, Roland J.; Vining, Kevin C.; Walker, John F.

    2012-01-01

    A study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) evaluated the hydrologic response to different projected carbon emission scenarios of the 21st century using a hydrologic simulation model. This study involved five major steps: (1) setup, calibrate and evaluated the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model in 14 basins across the United States by local USGS personnel; (2) acquire selected simulated carbon emission scenarios from the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project; (3) statistical downscaling of these scenarios to create PRMS input files which reflect the future climatic conditions of these scenarios; (4) generate PRMS projections for the carbon emission scenarios for the 14 basins; and (5) analyze the modeled hydrologic response. This report presents an overview of this study, details of the methodology, results from the 14 basin simulations, and interpretation of these results. A key finding is that the hydrological response of the different geographical regions of the United States to potential climate change may be different, depending on the dominant physical processes of that particular region. Also considered is the tremendous amount of uncertainty present in the carbon emission scenarios and how this uncertainty propagates through the hydrologic simulations.

  5. Acoustic stimulation can induce a selective neural network response mediated by piezoelectric nanoparticles

    Rojas, Camilo; Tedesco, Mariateresa; Massobrio, Paolo; Marino, Attilio; Ciofani, Gianni; Martinoia, Sergio; Raiteri, Roberto

    2018-06-01

    Objective. We aim to develop a novel non-invasive or minimally invasive method for neural stimulation to be applied in the study and treatment of brain (dys)functions and neurological disorders. Approach. We investigate the electrophysiological response of in vitro neuronal networks when subjected to low-intensity pulsed acoustic stimulation, mediated by piezoelectric nanoparticles adsorbed on the neuronal membrane. Main results. We show that the presence of piezoelectric barium titanate nanoparticles induces, in a reproducible way, an increase in network activity when excited by stationary ultrasound waves in the MHz regime. Such a response can be fully recovered when switching the ultrasound pulse off, depending on the generated pressure field amplitude, whilst it is insensitive to the duration of the ultrasound pulse in the range 0.5 s–1.5 s. We demonstrate that the presence of piezoelectric nanoparticles is necessary, and when applying the same acoustic stimulation to neuronal cultures without nanoparticles or with non-piezoelectric nanoparticles with the same size distribution, no network response is observed. Significance. We believe that our results open up an extremely interesting approach when coupled with suitable functionalization strategies of the nanoparticles in order to address specific neurons and/or brain areas and applied in vivo, thus enabling remote, non-invasive, and highly selective modulation of the activity of neuronal subpopulations of the central nervous system of mammalians.

  6. Tree manipulation experiment

    Nishina, K.; Takenaka, C.; Ishizuka, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Yagai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Some forest operations such as thinning and harvesting management could cause changes in N cycling and N2O emission from soils, since thinning and harvesting managements are accompanied with changes in aboveground environments such as an increase of slash falling and solar radiation on the forest floor. However, a considerable uncertainty exists in effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O fluxes regarding changes in belowground environments by cutting trees. To focus on the effect of changes in belowground environments on the N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction and slash falling near the chambers and measured N2O flux at 50 cm and 150 cm distances from the tree trunk (stump) before and after cutting. We targeted 5 trees for the manipulation and established the measurement chambers to the 4 directions around each targeted tree relative to upper slope (upper, left, right, lower positions). We evaluated the effect of logging on the emission by using hierarchical Bayesian model. HB model can evaluate the variability in observed data and their uncertainties in the estimation with various probability distributions. Moreover, the HB model can easily accommodate the non-linear relationship among the N2O emissions and the environmental factors, and explicitly take non-independent data (nested structure of data) for the estimation into account by using random effects in the model. Our results showed tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soils, and also that the increase of N2O flux depended on the distance from the trunk (stump): the increase of N2O flux at 50 cm from the trunk (stump) was greater than that of 150 cm from the trunk. The posterior simulation of the HB model indicated that the stimulation of N2O emission by tree cut- ting could reach up to 200 cm in our experimental plot. By tree cutting, the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the trunk doubled

  7. Remote inspection manipulators for AGR II: Babcock Power's interstitial manipulator

    Whyley, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The interstitial manipulator has been designed and built by Babcock Power for the remote visual inspection of AGR II reactors at Heysham and Torness. Its five drives are operated from a console local to the manipulator on the pile cap, or from a similar console located remotely. The need to operate from an interstitial ISI standpipe has restricted the size of the components entering the reactor, and this has consequently provided the major design constraint. A detailed structural assessment of the manipulator was carried out to demonstrate the ability to operate with payloads in excess of the largest camera weight of 13.6 kg. The manipulator finite element model was also used to determine static deflections, and, as a consequence, has provided data from which the control system is able to predict accurately the camera's position. Other computer aided design techniques have enabled the step by step sequences of manipulator deployment, in the restricted space available, to be successfully demonstrated. (author)

  8. Age-related slowing of response selection and production in a visual choice reaction time task

    David L Woods

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with delayed processing in choice reaction time (CRT tasks, but the processing stages most impacted by aging have not been clearly identified. Here, we analyzed CRT latencies in a computerized serial visual feature-conjunction task. Participants responded to a target letter (probability 40% by pressing one mouse button, and responded to distractor letters differing either in color, shape, or both features from the target (probabilities 20% each, by pressing the other mouse button. Stimuli were presented randomly to the left and right visual fields and stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs were adaptively reduced following correct responses using a staircase procedure. In Experiment 1, we tested 1466 participants who ranged in age from 18 to 65 years. CRT latencies increased significantly with age (r = 0.47, 2.80 ms/year. Central processing time (CPT, isolated by subtracting simple reaction times (obtained in a companion experiment performed on the same day from CRT latencies, accounted for more than 80% of age-related CRT slowing, with most of the remaining increase in latency due to slowed motor responses. Participants were faster and more accurate when the stimulus location was spatially compatible with the mouse button used for responding, and this effect increased slightly with age. Participants took longer to respond to distractors with target color or shape than to distractors with no target features. However, the additional time needed to discriminate the more target-like distractors did not increase with age. In Experiment 2, we replicated the findings of Experiment 1 in a second population of 178 participants (ages 18-82 years. CRT latencies did not differ significantly in the two experiments, and similar effects of age, distractor similarity, and stimulus-response spatial compatibility were found. The results suggest that the age-related slowing in visual CRT latencies is largely due to delays in response selection and

  9. Selection for increased desiccation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster: Additive genetic control and correlated responses for other stresses

    Hoffmann, A.A.; Parsons, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Previously we found that Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for increased desiccation resistance have lowered metabolic rate and behavioral activity levels, and show correlated responses for resistance to starvation and a toxic ethanol level. These results were consistent with a prediction that increased resistance to many environmental stresses may be genetically correlated because of a reduction in metabolic energy expenditure. Here we present experiments on the genetic basis of the selection response and extend the study of correlated responses to other stresses. The response to selection was not sex-specific and involved X-linked and autosomal genes acting additively. Activity differences contributed little to differences in desiccation resistance between selected and control lines. Selected lines had lower metabolic rates than controls in darkness when activity was inhibited. Adults from selected lines showed increased resistance to a heat shock, 60 Co-gamma-radiation, and acute ethanol and acetic acid stress. The desiccation, ethanol and starvation resistance of isofemale lines set up from the F2s of a cross between one of the selected and one of the control lines were correlated. Selected and control lines did not differ in ether-extractable lipid content or in resistance to acetone, ether or a cold shock

  10. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. ADVERTISING AND LANGUAGE MANIPULATION

    Cristina-Maria PRELIPCEANU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research has revealed that much of what happens in our minds as a result of language use is still hidden from our conscious awareness. Advertisers know this phenomenon better. They use the manipulation of language to suggest something about their products without directly claiming it to be true. Although the advertisers use colours, symbols, and imagery in advertisements, “the most direct way to study ads is through an analysis of the language employed” as all the other aspects are meant to reinforce the language message. Ads are designed to have an effect on consumers while being laughed at, belittle and all but ignored. Some modern advertisements appear to be almost dissuading consumers from the product – but this is just a modern technique. This paper is going to analyze a series of language techniques used by advertisers to arrest our attention, to arouse our interest, to stimulate desire for a product and ultimately to motivate us to buy it. Once we become familiar with the language strategies used in advertising messages we will be more able to make our own buying decisions.

  12. Stud manipulating device

    Bunyan, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    A device for inserting and removing studs from bores in a workpiece, for example a nuclear reactor vessel, comprises manipulating devices for operating on individual studs, each capable of tensioning a stud slackening a working nut on the stud, and subsequently removing the stud from the bore. A ring has dogs which can engage working nut recesses to interlock with the nut against relative rotation. Motors coupled to the ring rotate the working nut. A top nut is coupled to the motors to rotate the nut and screw it onto the stud. The top nut with other device parts can be raised and lowered on a tube by a hydraulic actuator. A hydraulic load cell between the top nut and a stool on the workpiece is pressurised to tension the stud by means of the top nut and thus facilitate rotation of the working nut when tightening or slackening. A dog clutch mechanism engages a stud end fitting against relative axial and rotational movement. The mechanism is raised and lowered on a guide member by an actuator. The mechanism has a tubular member and the drive coupling for the motors to the top nut includes a tubular member. Tubular members carry teeth which are engaged when the top nut is raised and the clutch mechanism is lowered, to provide a coupling between the motors and the mechanism for rotating the stud. (U.K.)

  13. Bacterial pathogen manipulation of host membrane trafficking.

    Asrat, Seblewongel; de Jesús, Dennise A; Hempstead, Andrew D; Ramabhadran, Vinay; Isberg, Ralph R

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens use a vast number of strategies to alter host membrane dynamics. Targeting the host membrane machinery is important for the survival and pathogenesis of several extracellular, vacuolar, and cytosolic bacteria. Membrane manipulation promotes bacterial replication while suppressing host responses, allowing the bacterium to thrive in a hostile environment. This review provides a comprehensive summary of various strategies used by both extracellular and intracellular bacteria to hijack host membrane trafficking machinery. We start with mechanisms used by bacteria to alter the plasma membrane, delve into the hijacking of various vesicle trafficking pathways, and conclude by summarizing bacterial adaptation to host immune responses. Understanding bacterial manipulation of host membrane trafficking provides insights into bacterial pathogenesis and uncovers the molecular mechanisms behind various processes within a eukaryotic cell.

  14. Comparison of Portfolio Selection and Performance: Shari’ah-Compliant and Socially Responsible Investment Portfolios

    Mehmet Asutay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of Islamic screening criteria on Shari’ah-compliant portfolio selection and performance compared to Socially Responsible Investment (SRI portfolio. Each portfolio constructed from 15 stocks based on FTSE 100 using data from year 1997. Mean-variance portfolio optimization is employed with some financial ratios added as constraints for the Shari’ah portfolio. Annual expected return of each portfolio from 2008 to 2013 is used to calculate Sharpe’s ratio, Treynor ratio and Jensen’s alpha as the performance measurement tools. Macroeconomic variables are assessed using ordinary least square to examine whether they influence the portfolios’ expected returns or not. The result finds that Shari’ah portfolio has a better performance than SRI from year 2008 to 2010 shown by higher value of the measurement tools. However, from 2011 to 2013, SRI portfolio has better performance than Shari’ah portfolio. 

  15. Did You Listen to the Beat? Auditory Steady-State Responses in the Human Electroencephalogram at 4 and 7 Hz Modulation Rates Reflect Selective Attention.

    Jaeger, Manuela; Bleichner, Martin G; Bauer, Anna-Katharina R; Mirkovic, Bojana; Debener, Stefan

    2018-02-27

    The acoustic envelope of human speech correlates with the syllabic rate (4-8 Hz) and carries important information for intelligibility, which is typically compromised in multi-talker, noisy environments. In order to better understand the dynamics of selective auditory attention to low frequency modulated sound sources, we conducted a two-stream auditory steady-state response (ASSR) selective attention electroencephalogram (EEG) study. The two streams consisted of 4 and 7 Hz amplitude and frequency modulated sounds presented from the left and right side. One of two streams had to be attended while the other had to be ignored. The attended stream always contained a target, allowing for the behavioral confirmation of the attention manipulation. EEG ASSR power analysis revealed a significant increase in 7 Hz power for the attend compared to the ignore conditions. There was no significant difference in 4 Hz power when the 4 Hz stream had to be attended compared to when it had to be ignored. This lack of 4 Hz attention modulation could be explained by a distracting effect of a third frequency at 3 Hz (beat frequency) perceivable when the 4 and 7 Hz streams are presented simultaneously. Taken together our results show that low frequency modulations at syllabic rate are modulated by selective spatial attention. Whether attention effects act as enhancement of the attended stream or suppression of to be ignored stream may depend on how well auditory streams can be segregated.

  16. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.

  17. Maternal and ambient environmental effects of light on germination in Plantago lanceolata: correlated responses to selection on leaf length

    Hinsberg, A. van

    1998-01-01

    1. Seeds from artificial selection lines were exposed to different maternal and ambient conditions, simulating sunlight and vegetation shade. 2. Lines selected for longer leaves also produced larger seeds, indicating a positive genetic correlation between leaf length and seed size. 3. Light conditions during maturation had no large effect on seed size. 4. Seed germination was reduced by a low ratio of red to far-red light (R/FR ratio) in the ambient environment. 5. Seeds maturated under simulated vegetation shade germinated less readily and were more inhibited by a low ambient R/FR ratio than seeds maturated under full sunlight or R/FR-neutral shade. Thus, low R/FR-ratios in the maternal and ambient environment operated synergistically. 6. Large genotypic variation in the germination responses to both maternal and ambient light conditions was found among and within selection lines, indicating that such responses might have the potential to evolve in response to natural selection. 7. Artificial selection for leaf length had affected seed germination characteristics but correlated responses and thus genetic correlations largely depended on light conditions in the selective environment. Selection for longer leaves under a low R/FR ratio increased seed dormancy and plasticity of germination in response to the R/FR ratio. However, in the opposite selective environment selection for longer leaves reduced seed dormancy and plasticity to the R/FR ratio. It is argued that leaf length and seed germination characteristics are somehow linked by shared physiological mechanisms, which may facilitate concerted changes in shade avoidance responses

  18. Effect of selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors on the rat eosinophil chemotactic response in vitro

    Alves Alessandra C

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have performed a comparative analysis of the effect of selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase (PDE type III, IV and V on eosinophil chemotaxis triggered by platelet activating factor (PAF and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 in vitro. The effect of the analogues N6-2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (Bt2 cyclic AMP and N2-2'-O- dibutyrylguanosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (Bt2 cyclic GMP has also been determined. The eosinophils were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of naive Wistar rats and purified in discontinuous Percoll gradients to 85-95% purity. We observed that pre-incubation of eosinophils with the PDE type IV inhibitor rolipram suppressed the chemotactic response triggered by PAF and LTB4, in association with an increase in the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. In contrast, neither zaprinast (type V inhibitor nor type III inhibitors milrinone and SK&F 94836 affected the eosinophil migration. Only at the highest concentration tested did the analogue Bt2 cyclic AMP suppress the eosinophil chemotaxis, under conditions where Bt2 cyclic GMP was ineffective. We have concluded that inhibition of PDE IV, but not PDE III or V, was able to block the eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro, suggesting that the suppressive activity of selective PDE IV inhibitors on tissue eosinophil accumulation may, at least, be partially dependent on their ability to directly inhibit the eosinophil migration.

  19. Practical guidelines to select and scale earthquake records for nonlinear response history analysis of structures

    Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Earthquake engineering practice is increasingly using nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) to demonstrate performance of structures. This rigorous method of analysis requires selection and scaling of ground motions appropriate to design hazard levels. Presented herein is a modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) method to scale ground motions for use in nonlinear RHA of buildings and bridges. In the MPS method, the ground motions are scaled to match (to a specified tolerance) a target value of the inelastic deformation of the first-'mode' inelastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) system whose properties are determined by first-'mode' pushover analysis. Appropriate for first-?mode? dominated structures, this approach is extended for structures with significant contributions of higher modes by considering elastic deformation of second-'mode' SDF system in selecting a subset of the scaled ground motions. Based on results presented for two bridges, covering single- and multi-span 'ordinary standard' bridge types, and six buildings, covering low-, mid-, and tall building types in California, the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are established and its superiority over the ASCE/SEI 7-05 scaling procedure is demonstrated.

  20. Distributed BOLD-response in association cortex vector state space predicts reaction time during selective attention.

    Musso, Francesco; Konrad, Andreas; Vucurevic, Goran; Schäffner, Cornelius; Friedrich, Britta; Frech, Peter; Stoeter, Peter; Winterer, Georg

    2006-02-15

    Human cortical information processing is thought to be dominated by distributed activity in vector state space (Churchland, P.S., Sejnowski, T.J., 1992. The Computational Brain. MIT Press, Cambridge.). In principle, it should be possible to quantify distributed brain activation with independent component analysis (ICA) through vector-based decomposition, i.e., through a separation of a mixture of sources. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a selective attention-requiring task (visual oddball), we explored how the number of independent components within activated cortical areas is related to reaction time. Prior to ICA, the activated cortical areas were determined on the basis of a General linear model (GLM) voxel-by-voxel analysis of the target stimuli (checkerboard reversal). Two activated cortical areas (temporoparietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex) were further investigated as these cortical regions are known to be the sites of simultaneously active electromagnetic generators which give rise to the compound event-related potential P300 during oddball task conditions. We found that the number of independent components more strongly predicted reaction time than the overall level of "activation" (GLM BOLD-response) in the left temporoparietal area whereas in the medial prefrontal cortex both ICA and GLM predicted reaction time equally well. Comparable correlations were not seen when principle components were used instead of independent components. These results indicate that the number of independently activated components, i.e., a high level of cortical activation complexity in cortical vector state space, may index particularly efficient information processing during selective attention-requiring tasks. To our best knowledge, this is the first report describing a potential relationship between neuronal generators of cognitive processes, the associated electrophysiological evidence for the existence of distributed networks

  1. Tipping the balance by manipulating posttranslational modifications

    Broberg, Christopher A.; Orth, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Summary Bacteria use a variety of mechanisms during infection to ensure their survival including the delivery of virulence factors via a type III secretion system into the infected cell. The factors exhibit diverse activities that in many cases mimic eukaryotic mechanisms used by the host to defend against infection. Herein we describe a class of effectors that use posttranslational modifications, some reversible and others irreversible, to manipulate host signaling systems to subvert the host response. PMID:20071215

  2. CLIMAN - a mobile manipulator concept

    Noltingk, B.E.; Owen, C.K.V.

    With increasing age the integrity of more remote parts of reactors, such as the core restraints, is questioned so there is a need for a means of access to these places to carry out inspection, minor repairs and alterations. Conventional standpipe manipulators are about 20 m long so that extending them further presents difficulties of load capacity, rigidity, dexterity and control which must increase steeply with range. The proposal outlined here is for a mobile manipulator which can climb at the end of a cable (CLImbing MANipulator - CLIMAN) into a reactor and reach well beyond the range of a fixed base machine. In addition to virtually unlimited range such a mobile manipulator has twice as many degrees of freedom as a fixed base machine. Its body or base can be manoeuvred with six degrees of freedom so as to obtain the maximum coverage and obstacle avoidance for its manipulator. It is proposed that it should be manually controlled. (author)

  3. Anxiety-related biases in visual orienting and spatial motor response selection independently assessed by a probe-classification task

    Schrooten, M.G.S.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; Mogg, K.; Bradley, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    This dot-probe study assessed anxiety-related biases in visual attentional orienting and spatial motor response selection (motor attention) in high- and low-trait-anxious adults, and whether anxiety-related biases depend on response speed. Emotional-neutral word pairs appeared for 14 or 500 ms, with

  4. Concurrent deployment of visual attention and response selection bottleneck in a dual-task: Electrophysiological and behavioural evidence.

    Reimer, Christina B; Strobach, Tilo; Schubert, Torsten

    2017-12-01

    Visual attention and response selection are limited in capacity. Here, we investigated whether visual attention requires the same bottleneck mechanism as response selection in a dual-task of the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm. The dual-task consisted of an auditory two-choice discrimination Task 1 and a conjunction search Task 2, which were presented at variable temporal intervals (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA). In conjunction search, visual attention is required to select items and to bind their features resulting in a serial search process around the items in the search display (i.e., set size). We measured the reaction time of the visual search task (RT2) and the N2pc, an event-related potential (ERP), which reflects lateralized visual attention processes. If the response selection processes in Task 1 influence the visual attention processes in Task 2, N2pc latency and amplitude would be delayed and attenuated at short SOA compared to long SOA. The results, however, showed that latency and amplitude were independent of SOA, indicating that visual attention was concurrently deployed to response selection. Moreover, the RT2 analysis revealed an underadditive interaction of SOA and set size. We concluded that visual attention does not require the same bottleneck mechanism as response selection in dual-tasks.

  5. Bayesian dose selection design for a binary outcome using restricted response adaptive randomization.

    Meinzer, Caitlyn; Martin, Renee; Suarez, Jose I

    2017-09-08

    In phase II trials, the most efficacious dose is usually not known. Moreover, given limited resources, it is difficult to robustly identify a dose while also testing for a signal of efficacy that would support a phase III trial. Recent designs have sought to be more efficient by exploring multiple doses through the use of adaptive strategies. However, the added flexibility may potentially increase the risk of making incorrect assumptions and reduce the total amount of information available across the dose range as a function of imbalanced sample size. To balance these challenges, a novel placebo-controlled design is presented in which a restricted Bayesian response adaptive randomization (RAR) is used to allocate a majority of subjects to the optimal dose of active drug, defined as the dose with the lowest probability of poor outcome. However, the allocation between subjects who receive active drug or placebo is held constant to retain the maximum possible power for a hypothesis test of overall efficacy comparing the optimal dose to placebo. The design properties and optimization of the design are presented in the context of a phase II trial for subarachnoid hemorrhage. For a fixed total sample size, a trade-off exists between the ability to select the optimal dose and the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. This relationship is modified by the allocation ratio between active and control subjects, the choice of RAR algorithm, and the number of subjects allocated to an initial fixed allocation period. While a responsive RAR algorithm improves the ability to select the correct dose, there is an increased risk of assigning more subjects to a worse arm as a function of ephemeral trends in the data. A subarachnoid treatment trial is used to illustrate how this design can be customized for specific objectives and available data. Bayesian adaptive designs are a flexible approach to addressing multiple questions surrounding the optimal dose for treatment efficacy

  6. Dexterous Manipulation: Making Remote Manipulators Easy to Use

    HARRIGAN, RAYMOND W.; BENNETT, PHIL C.

    2001-01-01

    Perhaps the most basic barrier to the widespread deployment of remote manipulators is that they are very difficult to use. Remote manual operations are fatiguing and tedious, while fully autonomous systems are seldom able to function in changing and unstructured environments. An alternative approach to these extremes is to exploit computer control while leaving the operator in the loop to take advantage of the operator's perceptual and decision-making capabilities. This report describes research that is enabling gradual introduction of computer control and decision making into operator-supervised robotic manipulation systems, and its integration on a commercially available, manually controlled mobile manipulator

  7. Systematic Analysis of Time-Series Gene Expression Data on Tumor Cell-Selective Apoptotic Responses to HDAC Inhibitors

    Yun-feng Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid or vorinostat is the first nonselective histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA. SAHA affects histone acetylation in chromatin and a variety of nonhistone substrates, thus influencing many cellular processes. In particularly, SAHA induces selective apoptosis of tumor cells, although the mechanism is not well understood. A series of microarray experiments was recently conducted to investigate tumor cell-selective proapoptotic transcriptional responses induced by SAHA. Based on that gene expression time series, we propose a novel framework for detailed analysis of the mechanism of tumor cell apoptosis selectively induced by SAHA. Our analyses indicated that SAHA selectively disrupted the DNA damage response, cell cycle, p53 expression, and mitochondrial integrity of tumor samples to induce selective tumor cell apoptosis. Our results suggest a possible regulation network. Our research extends the existing research.

  8. Quantifying the transient carbon dynamics of ecosystem scale carbon cycle responses to piñon pine mortality using a large-scale experimental manipulation, remote sensing and model-data fusion

    Litvak, M. E.; Hilton, T. W.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Fox, A. M.; Robinson, E.; McDowell, N. G.; Rahn, T.; Sinsabaugh, R.

    2012-12-01

    The southwestern United States experienced an extended drought from 1999-2002 which led to widespread coniferous tree mortality throughout New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Colorado. Piñon-juniper (PJ) woodlands, which occupy 24 million ha throughout the Southwest, proved to be extremely vulnerable to this drought, experiencing 40 to 95% mortality of piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and 2-25% mortality of juniper (Juniperus monosperma) in less than 3 years (Breshears et al., 2005). Understanding the response trajectories of these woodlands is crucial given that climate projections for the region suggest that episodic droughts, such as the one correlated with these recent conifer mortality, are likely to increase in frequency and severity and to expand northward. We are using a combination of eddy covariance, soil respiration, sap flow and biomass carbon pool measurements made at: (i) an undisturbed PJ woodland (control) in central New Mexico and at a manipulation site within 2 miles of the control where all piñon trees greater than 7 cm diameter at breast height within the 4 ha flux footprint were girdled (decreasing LAI by ~ 1/3) to quantify the response of ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in PJ woodlands to widespread piñon mortality. As expected, piñon mortality triggered an abrupt shift in carbon stocks from productive biomass to detritus, leading to a 25% decrease in gross primary production, and >50% decrease in net ecosystem production in the two years following mortality. Because litter and course woody debris are slow to decompose in these semiarid environments, ecosystem respiration initially decreased following mortality, and only increased two years post mortality following a large monsoon precipitation event. In the three years following mortality, reduced competition for water in these water limited ecosystems and increased light availability has triggered compensatory growth in understory vegetation observed in both remote sensing and ground

  9. Dielectric nanoresonators for light manipulation

    Yang, Zhong-Jian; Jiang, Ruibin; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Xie, Ya-Ming; Wang, Jianfang; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructures made of dielectric materials with high or moderate refractive indexes can support strong electric and magnetic resonances in the optical region. They can therefore function as nanoresonators. In addition to plasmonic metal nanostructures that have been widely investigated, dielectric nanoresonators provide a new type of building blocks for realizing powerful and versatile nanoscale light manipulation. In contrast to plasmonic metal nanostructures, nanoresonators made of appropriate dielectric materials are low-cost, earth-abundant and have very small or even negligible light energy losses. As a result, they will find potential applications in a number of photonic devices, especially those that require low energy losses. In this review, we describe the recent progress on the experimental and theoretical studies of dielectric nanoresonators. We start from the basic theory of the electromagnetic responses of dielectric nanoresonators and their fabrication methods. The optical properties of individual dielectric nanoresonators are then elaborated, followed by the coupling behaviors between dielectric nanoresonators, between dielectric nanoresonators and substrates, and between dielectric nanoresonators and plasmonic metal nanostructures. The applications of dielectric nanoresonators are further described. Finally, the challenges and opportunities in this field are discussed.

  10. Manipulation of single neutral atoms in optical lattices

    Zhang Chuanwei; Das Sarma, S.; Rolston, S. L.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze a scheme to manipulate quantum states of neutral atoms at individual sites of optical lattices using focused laser beams. Spatial distributions of focused laser intensities induce position-dependent energy shifts of hyperfine states, which, combined with microwave radiation, allow selective manipulation of quantum states of individual target atoms. We show that various errors in the manipulation process are suppressed below 10 -4 with properly chosen microwave pulse sequences and laser parameters. A similar idea is also applied to measure quantum states of single atoms in optical lattices

  11. Direct Manipulation in Virtual Reality

    Bryson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.

  12. Optimal security design under asymmetric information and profit manipulation

    Koufopoulos, Kostas; Kozhan, Roman; Trigilia, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    We consider a model of external financing under ex ante asymmetric information and profit manipulation (non verifability). Contrary to conventional wisdom, the optimal contract is not standard debt, and it is not monotonic. Instead, it resembles a contingent convertible (CoCo) bond. In particular: (i) if the profit manipulation and/or adverse selection are not severe, there exists a unique separating equilibrium in CoCos; (ii) in the intermediate region, if the distribution of earnings is unb...

  13. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  14. The Impact of Varied Discrimination Parameters on Mixed-Format Item Response Theory Model Selection

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Chang, Wanchen; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2013-01-01

    Whittaker, Chang, and Dodd compared the performance of model selection criteria when selecting among mixed-format IRT models and found that the criteria did not perform adequately when selecting the more parameterized models. It was suggested by M. S. Johnson that the problems when selecting the more parameterized models may be because of the low…

  15. Physiological and perceptual responses of sedentary women while walking at a self-selected pace

    Tatiane Hallage

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and perceptual responses of sedentary women while walking at a self-selected pace. The sample was made up of forty-one women with a median age of 32.6 ± 8.6 years. Subjects underwent an incremental test until exhaustion on a treadmill in order to determine their maximum physiological and perceptual responses. The subjects then a 20-minute walking test at their self-selected pace to determine physiological and perceptual responses. Descriptive analysis was in the form of measures of central tendency, variability and relative frequency. Mean exercise intensity during the walking bout was 57.3 ± 12.1% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak and 74.4 ± 9.3% of peak heart rate (HRpeak, corresponding to 88.4 ± 19.8% and 85.6 ± 21.6% of the fi gures obtained at ventilatory threshold (VT, respectively. Nevertheless, the rating of perceived effort (RPE and affective valence (AV during the walking session returned mean values of 11.9 ± 2.1 and 2.4 ± 2.0, which correspond to 100.7 ± 20.0% and 96.0 ± 2.0% of the fi gures obtained at VT, respectively. In conclusion, the exercise intensity that was self-selected by this group of sedentary women meets current recommendations for moderate intensity exercise and was associated with increased pleasure.RESUMO O objetivo desse estudo foi verifi car os parâmetros fi siológicos e perceptivos durante a realização de caminhada de intensidade preferida por mulheres adultas, previamente sedentárias. Foram investigados 41 sujeitos (idade 32,6 ± 8,6 anos, os quais realizaram, inicialmente, um teste de esteira incremental até a exaustão para a determinação de respostas fi siológicas e perceptivas máximas e, posteriormente, um teste de caminhada em esteira por 20 minutos em uma intensidade auto-selecionada, no qual parâmetros fi siológicos e perceptivos foram obtidos. Medidas de tendência central e variabilidade foram empregadas para a an

  16. Long-term response to genomic selection: effects of estimation method and reference population structure for different genetic architectures.

    Bastiaansen, John W M; Coster, Albart; Calus, Mario P L; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Bovenhuis, Henk

    2012-01-24

    Genomic selection has become an important tool in the genetic improvement of animals and plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of breeding value estimation method, reference population structure, and trait genetic architecture, on long-term response to genomic selection without updating marker effects. Three methods were used to estimate genomic breeding values: a BLUP method with relationships estimated from genome-wide markers (GBLUP), a Bayesian method, and a partial least squares regression method (PLSR). A shallow (individuals from one generation) or deep reference population (individuals from five generations) was used with each method. The effects of the different selection approaches were compared under four different genetic architectures for the trait under selection. Selection was based on one of the three genomic breeding values, on pedigree BLUP breeding values, or performed at random. Selection continued for ten generations. Differences in long-term selection response were small. For a genetic architecture with a very small number of three to four quantitative trait loci (QTL), the Bayesian method achieved a response that was 0.05 to 0.1 genetic standard deviation higher than other methods in generation 10. For genetic architectures with approximately 30 to 300 QTL, PLSR (shallow reference) or GBLUP (deep reference) had an average advantage of 0.2 genetic standard deviation over the Bayesian method in generation 10. GBLUP resulted in 0.6% and 0.9% less inbreeding than PLSR and BM and on average a one third smaller reduction of genetic variance. Responses in early generations were greater with the shallow reference population while long-term response was not affected by reference population structure. The ranking of estimation methods was different with than without selection. Under selection, applying GBLUP led to lower inbreeding and a smaller reduction of genetic variance while a similar response to selection was

  17. Kinematic sensitivity of robot manipulators

    Vuskovic, Marko I.

    1989-01-01

    Kinematic sensitivity vectors and matrices for open-loop, n degrees-of-freedom manipulators are derived. First-order sensitivity vectors are defined as partial derivatives of the manipulator's position and orientation with respect to its geometrical parameters. The four-parameter kinematic model is considered, as well as the five-parameter model in case of nominally parallel joint axes. Sensitivity vectors are expressed in terms of coordinate axes of manipulator frames. Second-order sensitivity vectors, the partial derivatives of first-order sensitivity vectors, are also considered. It is shown that second-order sensitivity vectors can be expressed as vector products of the first-order sensitivity vectors.

  18. Modeling manipulation in medical education.

    Dailey, Jason I

    2010-05-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and professional development. Yet manipulation need not be a skill necessary to practice medicine, and steps should be taken by both individuals and institutions to combat the view that the way medicine must be practiced "in the real world" is somehow different from what one's affective moral sense implores.

  19. Matrix Manipulation Program

    Guttormsen, M.

    1994-03-01

    The computer program MAMA is an analyzing tool for experimental nuclear data. The data is represented in the form of one and two dimensional spectra (matrices). Totally, there exist about 80 commands which allow the user to read/write spectra, apply arithmetic operations on spectra, peak fit routines, smoothing procedures and (un)folding with the detector response functions. 10 figs

  20. Cereal Crop Proteomics: Systemic Analysis of Crop Drought Stress Responses Towards Marker-Assisted Selection Breeding

    Arindam Ghatak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production is the major challenge in the current global climate change scenario. Drought stress is one of the most critical abiotic factors which negatively impact crop productivity. In recent years, knowledge about molecular regulation has been generated to understand drought stress responses. For example, information obtained by transcriptome analysis has enhanced our knowledge and facilitated the identification of candidate genes which can be utilized for plant breeding. On the other hand, it becomes more and more evident that the translational and post-translational machinery plays a major role in stress adaptation, especially for immediate molecular processes during stress adaptation. Therefore, it is essential to measure protein levels and post-translational protein modifications to reveal information about stress inducible signal perception and transduction, translational activity and induced protein levels. This information cannot be revealed by genomic or transcriptomic analysis. Eventually, these processes will provide more direct insight into stress perception then genetic markers and might build a complementary basis for future marker-assisted selection of drought resistance. In this review, we survey the role of proteomic studies to illustrate their applications in crop stress adaptation analysis with respect to productivity. Cereal crops such as wheat, rice, maize, barley, sorghum and pearl millet are discussed in detail. We provide a comprehensive and comparative overview of all detected protein changes involved in drought stress in these crops and have summarized existing knowledge into a proposed scheme of drought response. Based on a recent proteome study of pearl millet under drought stress we compare our findings with wheat proteomes and another recent study which defined genetic marker in pearl millet.

  1. Single-photon manipulation in Nanophotonic Circuits

    Hansen, Sofie Lindskov

    Quantum dots in photonic nanostructures has long been known to be a very powerful and versatile solid-state platform for conducting quantum optics experiments. The present PhD thesis describes experimental demonstrations of single-photon generation and subsequent manipulation all realized...... on a gallium arsenide platform. This platform offers near-unity coupling between embedded single-photon emitters and a photonic mode, as well as the ability to suppress decoherence mechanisms, making it highly suited for quantum information applications. In this thesis we show how a single-photon router can...... be realized on a chip with embedded quantum dots. This allows for on-chip generation and manipulation of single photons. The router consists of an on-chip interferometer where the phase difference between the arms of the interferometer is controlled electrically. The response time of the device...

  2. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J. [JAYCOR, Environmental Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees.

  3. Thermal and Mechanical Buckling and Postbuckling Responses of Selected Curved Composite Panels

    Breivik, Nicole L.; Hyer, Michael W.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an experimental and numerical study of the buckling and postbuckling responses of selected unstiffened curved composite panels subjected to mechanical end shortening and a uniform temperature increase are presented. The uniform temperature increase induces thermal stresses in the panel when the axial displacement is constrained. An apparatus for testing curved panels at elevated temperature is described, numerical results generated by using a geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis code are presented. Several analytical modeling refinements that provide more accurate representation of the actual experimental conditions, and the relative contribution of each refinement, are discussed. Experimental results and numerical predictions are presented and compared for three loading conditions including mechanical end shortening alone, heating the panels to 250 F followed by mechanical end shortening, and heating the panels to 400 F. Changes in the coefficients of thermal expansion were observed as temperature was increased above 330 F. The effects of these changes on the experimental results are discussed for temperatures up to 400 F.

  4. Phosphorene as a Superior Gas Sensor: Selective Adsorption and Distinct I-V Response.

    Kou, Liangzhi; Frauenheim, Thomas; Chen, Changfeng

    2014-08-07

    Recent reports on the fabrication of phosphorene, that is, mono- or few-layer black phosphorus, have raised exciting prospects of an outstanding two-dimensional (2D) material that exhibits excellent properties for nanodevice applications. Here, we study by first-principles calculations the adsorption of CO, CO2, NH3, NO, and NO2 gas molecules on a monolayer phosphorene. Our results predict superior sensing performance of phosphorene that rivals or even surpasses that of other 2D materials such as graphene and MoS2. We determine the optimal adsorption positions of these molecules on the phosphorene and identify molecular doping, that is, charge transfer between the molecules and phosphorene, as the driving mechanism for the high adsorption strength. We further calculated the current-voltage (I-V) relation using the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The transport features show large (1-2 orders of magnitude) anisotropy along different (armchair or zigzag) directions, which is consistent with the anisotropic electronic band structure of phosphorene. Remarkably, the I-V relation exhibits distinct responses with a marked change of the I-V relation along either the armchair or the zigzag directions depending on the type of molecules. Such selectivity and sensitivity to adsorption makes phosphorene a superior gas sensor that promises wide-ranging applications.

  5. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees

  6. Metabolic Discrimination of Select List Agents by Monitoring Cellular Responses in a Multianalyte Microphysiometer

    John Wikswo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing the potential of cells as complex biosensors promises the potential to create sensitive and selective detectors for discrimination of biodefense agents. Here we present toxin detection and suggest discrimination using cells in a multianalyte microphysiometer (MMP that is capable of simultaneously measuring flux changes in four extracellular analytes (acidification rate, glucose uptake, oxygen uptake, and lactate production in real-time. Differential short-term cellular responses were observed between botulinum neurotoxin A and ricin toxin with neuroblastoma cells, alamethicin and anthrax protective antigen with RAW macrophages, and cholera toxin, muscarine, 2,4-dinitro-phenol, and NaF with CHO cells. These results and the post exposure dynamics and metabolic recovery observed in each case suggest the usefulness of cell-based detectors to discriminate between specific analytes and classes of compounds in a complex matrix, and furthermore to make metabolic inferences on the cellular effects of the agents. This may be particularly valuable for classifying unknown toxins.

  7. Computational simulator of robotic manipulators

    Leal, Alexandre S.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    1995-01-01

    Robotic application for industrial plants is discussed and a computational model for a mechanical manipulator of three links is presented. A neural network feed-forward type has been used to model the dynamic control of the manipulator. A graphic interface was developed in C programming language as a virtual world in order to visualize and simulate the arm movements handling radioactive waste environment. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs

  8. Can earnings manipulation create value?

    Anton Miglo

    2008-01-01

    Existing literature usually considers earnings manipulation to be a negative social phenomenon. We argue that earnings manipulation can be a part of the equilibrium relationships between firm's insiders and outsiders. We consider an optimal contract between an entrepreneur and an investor where the entrepreneur is subject to a double moral hazard problem (one being the choice of production effort and the other being intertemporal substitution, which consists of transferring cash flows between...

  9. Selection for stress responsiveness and slaughter stress affect flesh quality in pan-size rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Lefevre, Florence; Cos, Isabelle; Pottinger, Tom G.; Bugeon, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    The control of slaughter stress is of importance with regard to both fish welfare and flesh quality. Muscle characteristics and instrumentally measured quality parameters were determined in rainbow trout lines selected for high-responsiveness (HR) or low-responsiveness (LR) of plasma cortisol to an acute confinement stressor. Measurements were made in both unstressed and stressed fish (a 15 min period of confinement before slaughter) from both lines. Compared to LR fish, HR fish were smaller,...

  10. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit

    Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

  11. AMP (Activity Manipulation Program)

    Engle, W.W. Jr.

    1976-03-01

    AMP is a FORTRAN IV program written to handle energy-group structured activity factors such as sources, conversion factors, and response functions, as used by ANISN, DOT III, and other nuclear reactor and shielding codes. Activities may be retrieved from ANISN-type cross-section and activity sets found on cards and tapes, and from tabular-type sets on cards. They may be altered by change of group structure, multiplication by a constant, or multiplication by delta E (the group-energy interval), and then output to ANISN-type cards or tape and tabular-type cards. A full edit of input and output activities is always printed by group and activity number

  12. Authorship and citation manipulation in academic research

    2017-01-01

    Some scholars add authors to their research papers or grant proposals even when those individuals contribute nothing to the research effort. Some journal editors coerce authors to add citations that are not pertinent to their work and some authors pad their reference lists with superfluous citations. How prevalent are these types of manipulation, why do scholars stoop to such practices, and who among us is most susceptible to such ethical lapses? This study builds a framework around how intense competition for limited journal space and research funding can encourage manipulation and then uses that framework to develop hypotheses about who manipulates and why they do so. We test those hypotheses using data from over 12,000 responses to a series of surveys sent to more than 110,000 scholars from eighteen different disciplines spread across science, engineering, social science, business, and health care. We find widespread misattribution in publications and in research proposals with significant variation by academic rank, discipline, sex, publication history, co-authors, etc. Even though the majority of scholars disapprove of such tactics, many feel pressured to make such additions while others suggest that it is just the way the game is played. The findings suggest that certain changes in the review process might help to stem this ethical decline, but progress could be slow. PMID:29211744

  13. Broadband reflected wavefronts manipulation using structured phase gradient metasurfaces

    Xiao-Peng Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic metasurface (AMS is a good candidate to manipulate acoustic waves due to special acoustic performs that cannot be realized by traditional materials. In this paper, we design the AMS by using circular-holed cubic arrays. The advantages of our AMS are easy assemble, subwavelength thickness, and low energy loss for manipulating acoustic waves. According to the generalized Snell’s law, acoustic waves can be manipulated arbitrarily by using AMS with different phase gradients. By selecting suitable hole diameter of circular-holed cube (CHC, some interesting phenomena are demonstrated by our simulations based on finite element method, such as the conversion of incoming waves into surface waves, anomalous reflections (including negative reflection, acoustic focusing lens, and acoustic carpet cloak. Our results can provide a simple approach to design AMSes and use them in wavefront manipulation and manufacturing of acoustic devices.

  14. Habitat selection responses of parents to offspring predation risk: An experimental test

    Fontaine, J.J.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of nest predation to influence habitat settlement decisions in birds is widely debated, despite its importance in limiting fitness. Here, we experimentally manipulated nest predation risk across a landscape and asked the question, do migratory birds assess and respond to variation in nest predation risk when choosing breeding habitats? We examined habitat preference by quantifying the density and settlement date of eight species of migratory passerines breeding in areas with and without intact nest predator communities. We found consistently more individuals nesting in areas with reduced nest predation than in areas with intact predator assemblages, although predation risk had no influence on settlement or breeding phenology. Additionally, those individuals occupying safer nesting habitats exhibited increased singing activity. These findings support a causal relationship between habitat choice and nest predation risk and suggest the importance of nest predation risk in shaping avian community structure and breeding activity. ?? 2006 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of immune response to lipopolysaccharide of rabbit does selected for litter size at weaning or founded for reproductive longevity

    Ferrian, S; Blas, E; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate differences in maternal lines to the immune response of reproductive rabbit does, a total of 64 animals of two different lines: (1) founded for hyper-longevity and litter size criteria (LP) and (2) selected for litter size at weaning (V) were used. Females were subjected to three diff...

  16. Using response-time constraints in item selection to control for differential speededness in computerized adaptive testing

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Scrams, David J.; Schnipke, Deborah L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes an item selection algorithm that can be used to neutralize the effect of time limits in computer adaptive testing. The method is based on a statistical model for the response-time distributions of the test takers on the items in the pool that is updated each time a new item has

  17. Estimating host genetic effects on susceptibility and infectivity to infectious diseases and their contribution to response to selection

    Anche, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Mahlet Teka Anche. (2016). Estimating host genetic effects on susceptibility and infectivity to infectious diseases and their contribution to response to selection. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    Genetic approaches aiming to reduce the prevalence of an infection in a

  18. Changes in dopamine levels and locomotor activity in response to selection on virgin lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    Vermeulen, C.J.; Cremers, T.I.F.H.; Westerink, B.H.C.; van de Zande, L.; Bijlsma, R.

    Among various other mechanisms, genetic differences in the production of reactive oxygen species are thought to underlie genetic variation for longevity. Here we report on possible changes in ROS production related processes in response to selection for divergent virgin lifespan in Drosophila. The

  19. Habitat quality influences population distribution, individual space use and functional responses in habitat selection by a large herbivore.

    Bjørneraas, Kari; Herfindal, Ivar; Solberg, Erling Johan; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; van Moorter, Bram; Rolandsen, Christer Moe

    2012-01-01

    Identifying factors shaping variation in resource selection is central for our understanding of the behaviour and distribution of animals. We examined summer habitat selection and space use by 108 Global Positioning System (GPS)-collared moose in Norway in relation to sex, reproductive status, habitat quality, and availability. Moose selected habitat types based on a combination of forage quality and availability of suitable habitat types. Selection of protective cover was strongest for reproducing females, likely reflecting the need to protect young. Males showed strong selection for habitat types with high quality forage, possibly due to higher energy requirements. Selection for preferred habitat types providing food and cover was a positive function of their availability within home ranges (i.e. not proportional use) indicating functional response in habitat selection. This relationship was not found for unproductive habitat types. Moreover, home ranges with high cover of unproductive habitat types were larger, and smaller home ranges contained higher proportions of the most preferred habitat type. The distribution of moose within the study area was partly related to the distribution of different habitat types. Our study shows how distribution and availability of habitat types providing cover and high-quality food shape ungulate habitat selection and space use.

  20. Radiosensitization by hematocrit manipulation

    Hirst, D.G.; Hazlehurst, J.L.; Brown, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors show that tumors in mice adapt to anemia in a rather complex manner. Radiosensitivity may be lower, higher or equal to normal depending on when the anemia is induced prior to irradiation. The authors study these changes in radiosensitivity which occur during a period of anemia followed by the restoration of the hematocrit. When mice were made anemic immediately before irradiation, their tumors were very resistant, but the resistance was lost over the following 24 hrs even though the anemia was maintained. If mice which had been anemic for 24 hrs were retransfused to normal levels with red blood cells immediately before irradiation, their tumors were considerably more sensitive than normal. As the interval between retransfusion and irradiation was increased, sensitization was rapidly lost so that by 24 hrs sensitivity was the same as that of control tumors. They attribute this loss of sensitization to rapid tumor growth in response to a restored oxygen supply so that new hypoxic cells are created. The implications of this for the treatment of the anemic patient are discussed

  1. Neural networks engaged in tactile object manipulation: patterns of expression among healthy individuals

    Seitz Rüdiger J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatosensory object discrimination has been shown to involve widespread cortical and subcortical structures in both cerebral hemispheres. In this study we aimed to identify the networks involved in tactile object manipulation by principal component analysis (PCA of individual subjects. We expected to find more than one network. Methods Seven healthy right-handed male volunteers (aged 22 to 44 yrs manipulated with their right hand aluminium spheres during 5 s with a repetition frequency of 0.5-0.7 Hz. The correlation coefficients between the principal component temporal expression coefficients and the hemodynamic response modelled by SPM (ecc determined the task-related components. To establish reproducibility within subjects and similarity of functional connectivity patterns among subjects, regional correlation coefficients (rcc were computed between task-related component image volumes. By hierarchically categorizing, selecting and averaging the task-related component image volumes across subjects according to the rccs, mean component images (MCIs were derived describing neural networks associated with tactile object manipulation. Results Two independent mean component images emerged. Each included the primary sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the manipulating hand. The region extended to the premotor cortex in MCI 1, whereas it was restricted to the hand area of the primary sensorimotor cortex in MCI 2. MCI 1 showed bilateral involvement of the paralimbic anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, whereas MCI 2 implicated the midline thalamic nuclei and two areas of the rostral dorsal pons. Conclusions Two distinct networks participate in tactile object manipulation as revealed by the intra- and interindividual comparison of individual scans. Both were employed by most subjects, suggesting that both are involved in normal somatosensory object discrimination.

  2. Temperature manipulation during layer chick embryogenesis.

    Walstra, I; Ten Napel, J; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2010-07-01

    The current study investigated the effects of temperature manipulation (TM) during late embryogenesis on temperature preference, response to high environmental temperature, behavior, and performance in young layer chicks. Control (CC) embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8 degrees C eggshell temperature throughout incubation. Thermally manipulated embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8 degrees C eggshell temperature throughout incubation and were exposed to 40 degrees C for 4 h/d from embryonic d 14 to 18 (TM chicks). After hatch, chicks from each treatment were divided into 3 subgroups (n = 32 per group) and were subjected to a temperature preference test at d 1, 7, or 33. One day after the temperature preference test, each subgroup was exposed to 1 thermal challenge for 4 h (d 2, 40 degrees C; d 8, 40 degrees C; or d 34, 35 degrees C). Effects of TM on (fearfulness) behavior of chicks were investigated in a tonic immobility test and during home pen observations. Temperature manipulation decreased incubation time with 7 h (P preferred a lower ambient temperature in the temperature preference test (P preference and response to high environmental temperatures are only found until d 8 of age. This may suggest 1 of 3 options: a) the timing or the level, or both, of TM and duration were not at the sensitive period of embryogenesis or not sufficient, or both, respectively; b) the level of the postnatal thermal challenge was not strong enough to induce a hyperthermic response; and c) the postnatal effects of TM in layers are limited in time.

  3. Award of Construction Contracts: Public Institutions' Authority to Select the Lowest Responsible Bidder.

    Cole, Elsa Kircher; Goldblatt, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    The article describes the responsibilities of public colleges and universities to award construction contracts to the lowest responsible bidder; discusses the purpose of bid statutes; and lists the factors institutions should consider in determining a bidder's responsibility. Also covered are the standard of review and due process rights of the…

  4. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry......) with a quick and gentle overview of AIMM. Furthermore, the paper identifies key open issues and promising research directions to realize real-world integration and maturation of the AIMM technology. Originality/value - This paper reviews the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile...

  5. Direct and correlated responses to selection for total weight of lamb ...

    Unknown

    productivity and that each of these components can be used as a selection criterion, as each has a direct impact on total ewe ... of lamb weaned per ewe joined is more efficient than selection for number of lambs born, number of lambs weaned or weaning ... The estimated grazing capacity is 5.5 ha per small stock unit.

  6. Systematic differences in the response of genetic variation to pedigree and genome-based selection methods

    Heidaritabar, M.; Vereijken, A.; Muir, W.M.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Cheng, H.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Groenen, M.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a DNA-based method of selecting for quantitative traits in animal and plant breeding, and offers a potentially superior alternative to traditional breeding methods that rely on pedigree and phenotype information. Using a 60¿K SNP chip with markers spaced throughout the

  7. Learning Area and Perimeter with Virtual Manipulatives

    Bouck, Emily; Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a best practice for educating students with disabilities, but little research exists which examines virtual manipulatives as tool for supporting students in mathematics. This project investigated the use of a virtual manipulative through the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives--polynominoes (i.e., tiles)--as a…

  8. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  9. Manipulator vehicles and loading shovels

    Brudermueller, G.; Krueger, W.

    1992-01-01

    Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH (KHG) is an institution jointly founded by electricity utilities, fuel cycle industries, and national research centers to provide specialist equipment for removing the consequences of accidents inside plants and recognizing damage in the immediate vicinity of such plants, maintain such equipment in an operational condition, and provide personnel instructed in work of this kind. The specialized technical equipment developed includes carriages, carrier vehicles for manipulators, grabs, TV cameras or measuring gear. In addition to manipulator vehicles, especially loading shovels are used. Radio-controlled vehicles are used where cable operation is either not reliable enough or has failed. (orig.) [de

  10. Intelligent Switching Control of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Manipulator

    Ahn, Kyoung Kwan; Thanh, Tu Diep Cong; Ahn, Young Kong

    Problems with the control, oscillatory motion and compliance of pneumatic systems have prevented their widespread use in advanced robotics. However, their compactness, power/weight ratio, ease of maintenance and inherent safety are the factors that could potentially be exploited in sophisticated dexterous manipulator designs. These advantages have led to the development of novel actuators such as the McKibben Muscle, Rubber Actuator and Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Manipulators. However, some limitations still exist, such as deterioration of the performance of transient response due to the change of the external inertia load in the pneumatic artificial muscle manipulator. To overcome this problem, switching algorithm of control parameter using learning vector quantization neural network (LVQNN) is newly proposed, which estimates the external inertia load of the pneumatic artificial muscle manipulator. The effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm is demonstrated through experiments with different external inertia loads.

  11. The effects of stress and sex on selection, genetic covariance, and the evolutionary response.

    Holman, L; Jacomb, F

    2017-10-01

    The capacity of a population to adapt to selection (evolvability) depends on whether the structure of genetic variation permits the evolution of fitter trait combinations. Selection, genetic variance and genetic covariance can change under environmental stress, and males and females are not genetically independent, yet the combined effects of stress and dioecy on evolvability are not well understood. Here, we estimate selection, genetic (co)variance and evolvability in both sexes of Tribolium castaneum flour beetles under stressful and benign conditions, using a half-sib breeding design. Although stress uncovered substantial latent heritability, stress also affected genetic covariance, such that evolvability remained low under stress. Sexual selection on males and natural selection on females favoured a similar phenotype, and there was positive intersex genetic covariance. Consequently, sexual selection on males augmented adaptation in females, and intralocus sexual conflict was weak or absent. This study highlights that increased heritability does not necessarily increase evolvability, suggests that selection can deplete genetic variance for multivariate trait combinations with strong effects on fitness, and tests the recent hypothesis that sexual conflict is weaker in stressful or novel environments. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. New approaches to manipulating the epigenome.

    Day, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    Cellular processes that control transcription of genetic information are critical for cellular function, and are often implicated in psychiatric and neurological disease states. Among the most critical of these processes are epigenetic mechanisms, which serve to link the cellular environment with genomic material. Until recently our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms has been limited by the lack of tools that can selectively manipulate the epigenome with genetic, cellular, and temporal precision, which in turn diminishes the potential impact of epigenetic processes as therapeutic targets. This review highlights an emerging suite of tools that enable robust yet selective interrogation of the epigenome. In addition to allowing site-specific epigenetic editing, these tools can be paired with optogenetic approaches to provide temporal control over epigenetic processes, allowing unparalleled insight into the function of these mechanisms. This improved control promises to revolutionize our understanding of epigenetic modifications in human health and disease states.

  13. Systematic differences in the response of genetic variation to pedigree and genome-based selection methods.

    Heidaritabar, M; Vereijken, A; Muir, W M; Meuwissen, T; Cheng, H; Megens, H-J; Groenen, M A M; Bastiaansen, J W M

    2014-12-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a DNA-based method of selecting for quantitative traits in animal and plant breeding, and offers a potentially superior alternative to traditional breeding methods that rely on pedigree and phenotype information. Using a 60 K SNP chip with markers spaced throughout the entire chicken genome, we compared the impact of GS and traditional BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction) selection methods applied side-by-side in three different lines of egg-laying chickens. Differences were demonstrated between methods, both at the level and genomic distribution of allele frequency changes. In all three lines, the average allele frequency changes were larger with GS, 0.056 0.064 and 0.066, compared with BLUP, 0.044, 0.045 and 0.036 for lines B1, B2 and W1, respectively. With BLUP, 35 selected regions (empirical P selected regions were identified. Empirical thresholds for local allele frequency changes were determined from gene dropping, and differed considerably between GS (0.167-0.198) and BLUP (0.105-0.126). Between lines, the genomic regions with large changes in allele frequencies showed limited overlap. Our results show that GS applies selection pressure much more locally than BLUP, resulting in larger allele frequency changes. With these results, novel insights into the nature of selection on quantitative traits have been gained and important questions regarding the long-term impact of GS are raised. The rapid changes to a part of the genetic architecture, while another part may not be selected, at least in the short term, require careful consideration, especially when selection occurs before phenotypes are observed.

  14. Leadership Manipulation and Ethics in Storytelling

    Auvinen, Tommi; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Sintonen, Teppo; Takala, Tuomo

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on exerting influence in leadership, namely manipulation in storytelling. Manipulation is usually considered an unethical approach to leadership. We will argue that manipulation is a more complex phenomenon than just an unethical way of acting in leadership. We will demonstrate through an empirical qualitative study that there are various types of manipulation through storytelling. This article makes a contribution to the literature on manipulation through leadership stor...

  15. Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators

    Erling Lunde

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.

  16. Selective CD28 Antagonist Blunts Memory Immune Responses and Promotes Long-Term Control of Skin Inflammation in Nonhuman Primates.

    Poirier, Nicolas; Chevalier, Melanie; Mary, Caroline; Hervouet, Jeremy; Minault, David; Baker, Paul; Ville, Simon; Le Bas-Bernardet, Stephanie; Dilek, Nahzli; Belarif, Lyssia; Cassagnau, Elisabeth; Scobie, Linda; Blancho, Gilles; Vanhove, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Novel therapies that specifically target activation and expansion of pathogenic immune cell subsets responsible for autoimmune attacks are needed to confer long-term remission. Pathogenic cells in autoimmunity include memory T lymphocytes that are long-lived and present rapid recall effector functions with reduced activation requirements. Whereas the CD28 costimulation pathway predominantly controls priming of naive T cells and hence generation of adaptive memory cells, the roles of CD28 costimulation on established memory T lymphocytes and the recall of memory responses remain controversial. In contrast to CD80/86 antagonists (CTLA4-Ig), selective CD28 antagonists blunt T cell costimulation while sparing CTLA-4 and PD-L1-dependent coinhibitory signals. Using a new selective CD28 antagonist, we showed that Ag-specific reactivation of human memory T lymphocytes was prevented. Selective CD28 blockade controlled both cellular and humoral memory recall in nonhuman primates and induced long-term Ag-specific unresponsiveness in a memory T cell-mediated inflammatory skin model. No modification of memory T lymphocytes subsets or numbers was observed in the periphery, and importantly no significant reactivation of quiescent viruses was noticed. These findings indicate that pathogenic memory T cell responses are controlled by both CD28 and CTLA-4/PD-L1 cosignals in vivo and that selectively targeting CD28 would help to promote remission of autoimmune diseases and control chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Social Selection and Religiously Selective Faith Schools

    Pettinger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent research looking at the socio-economic profile of pupils at faith schools and the contribution religiously selective admission arrangements make. It finds that selection by faith leads to greater social segregation and is open to manipulation. It urges that such selection should end, making the state-funded school…

  18. Long-term responses to selection for parameters of the allometric ...

    lrene Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, lrene, 1675 Republic of South Africa .... infertility, the two best males and females from each family were selected as ..... mical adaptations of heavy-bodied chicks to intermittent feeding. I.

  19. Manipulations to regenerate aspen ecosystems

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative regeneration of aspen can be initiated through manipulations that provide hormonal stimulation, proper growth environment, and sucker protection - the three elements of the aspen regeneration triangle. The correct course of action depends upon a careful evaluation of the size, vigor, age, and successional status of the existing clone. Soils and site...

  20. Adaptive Control Of Remote Manipulator

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    Robotic control system causes remote manipulator to follow closely reference trajectory in Cartesian reference frame in work space, without resort to computationally intensive mathematical model of robot dynamics and without knowledge of robot and load parameters. System, derived from linear multivariable theory, uses relatively simple feedforward and feedback controllers with model-reference adaptive control.

  1. Indicial tensor manipulation on MACSYMA

    Bogen, R.A.; Pavelle, R.

    1977-01-01

    A new computational tool for physical calculations is described. It is the first computer system capable of performing indicial tensor calculus (as opposed to component tensor calculus). It is now operational on the symbolic manipulation system MACSYMA. The authors outline the capabilities of the system and describe some of the physical problems considered as well as others being examined at this time. (Auth.)

  2. Manipulations of Totalitarian Nazi Architecture

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper takes under considerations controversies surrounding German architecture designed during Nazi period between 1933-45. This architecture is commonly criticized for being out of innovation, taste & elementary sense of beauty. Moreover, it has been consequently wiped out from architectural manuals, probably for its undoubted associations with the totalitarian system considered as the most maleficent in the whole history. But in the meantime the architecture of another totalitarian system which appeared to be not less sinister than Nazi one is not stigmatized with such verve. It is Socrealism architecture, developed especially in East Europe & reportedly containing lots of similarities with Nazi architecture. Socrealism totalitarian architecture was never condemned like Nazi one, probably due to politically manipulated propaganda that influenced postwar public opinion. This observation leads to reflection that maybe in the same propaganda way some values of Nazi architecture are still consciously dissembled in order to hide the fact that some rules used by Nazi German architects have been also consciously used after the war. Those are especially manipulations that allegedly Nazi architecture consisted of. The paper provides some definitions around totalitarian manipulations as well as ideological assumptions for their implementation. Finally, the register of confirmed manipulations is provided with use of photo case study.

  3. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  4. Immunological characteristics and response to lipopolysaccharide of mouse lines selectively bred with natural and acquired immunities.

    Narahara, Hiroki; Sakai, Eri; Katayama, Masafumi; Ohtomo, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Kanako; Takemoto, Miki; Aso, Hisashi; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Mohri, Yasuaki; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Isogai, Emiko; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Fukuda, Tomokazu

    2012-05-01

    Genetic improvement of resistance to infectious diseases is a challenging goal in animal breeding. Infection resistance involves multiple immunological characteristics, including natural and acquired immunity. In the present study, we developed an experimental model based on genetic selection, to improve immunological phenotypes. We selectively established three mouse lines based on phagocytic activity, antibody production and the combination of these two phenotypes. We analyzed the immunological characteristics of these lines using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is one of the main components of Gram-negative bacteria. An intense immunological reaction was induced in each of the three mouse lines. Severe loss of body weight and liver damage were observed, and a high level of cytokine messenger RNA was detected in the liver tissue. The mouse line established using a combination of the two selection standards showed unique characteristics relative to the mouse lines selected on the basis of a single phenotype. Our results indicate that genetic selection and breeding is effective, even for immunological phenotypes with a relatively low heritability. Thus, it may be possible to improve resistance to infectious diseases by means of genetic selection. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Actuator Module of Robot Manipulator for Nuclear Power Plants Inspection, Maintenance and Decommission

    Lee, Sung Uk; Jung, Kyung Min; Seo, Young Chil; Choi, Byung Seon; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    For nuclear facility decommissioning, there are many different electrical manipulators to remotely dismantle a nuclear facility. Various manipulators will be necessary for inspection, maintenance and decommission. Only one manipulator cannot response to many required tasks. Therefore, several manipulators are necessary, depending on the payload capacity, their number of axes and their dexterity. Each manipulator was developed for a specific task. The actuators used at manipulator are varied and many companies sell actuators depending on power, torque and speed. However, the commercial product is not standardized. Therefore, the development of the manipulator is time consuming and expensive. The essential item of the manipulators is the actuator module. If actuator module is standardized, it is easier to develop manipulator. In this paper, we developed two electrical actuator modules to standardize the actuator module and easily develop a manipulator using the proposed actuator modules. The electrical actuator module has a motor, gear and rotary sensor, and is also waterproof. The electrically driven manipulator being used in the proposed actuator modules will be shown. Two modularized electrical actuator modules were developed for inspection, maintenance and decommission. Using the two developed actuator modules, the manipulator inspecting the welding area of reactor vessel is easily developed. Various modularized electrical actuator modules will be developed in terms of size and power.

  6. Correlated responses in tissue weights measured in vivo by computer tomography in Dorset Down sheep selected for lean tissue growth

    Nsoso, S.J.; Young, M.J.; Beatson, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate correlated responses in lean, fat and bone weights in vivo in Dorset Down sheep selected for lean tissue growth. Over the period 1986-1992 inclusive, the lean tissue growth line had been selected using two economic indices for an increased aggregate breeding value incorporating predicted lean and fat weights with positive and negative economic weightings, respectively. The control line was selected for no change in lean tissue growth each year. Animals were born and run on pasture all year round. X-ray computer tomography was used to estimate the weights of lean, fat and bone in vivo in the 1994-born sheep, aged 265-274 days and selected randomly into 12 rams and 12 ewes from the selected line and 10 rams and 9 ewes from the control line. The lean tissue growth line had significantly greater responses in lean weight (+0.65 + 0.10 kg) and lean percentage (+1.19 + 0.17%) and significantly lesser fat weight (-0.36 + 0.08 kg) and fat percentage (-1.88 + 0.20%) compared to the control line. There was a significant increase in bone weight (+0.27 + 0.03 kg) and bone percentage (+0.69 + 0.09%) in the lean tissue growth line compared to the control line. Responses differed significantly between sexes of the lean tissue growth line, rams having a greater response in weight of lean (+1.22 + 0.20 vs. +0.08 + 0.22 kg) and bone (+0.45 + 0.06 vs. +0.09 + 0.07 kg), and a lesser response in weight of fat (-0.03 + 0.15 vs. -0.70 + 0.16 kg) than the ewes. Selection led to significant changes in lean (increase) and fat weights (decrease), and bone weight increased. Although responses in the lean tissue growth line differed significantly between sexes, there were confounding factors due to differences in management and lack of comparison at equal stage of development. Therefore, to assess real genetic differences further studies should be conducted taking these factors into consideration

  7. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  8. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Geisinger, Joseph W. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a FR-amework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator FR-om these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC(trademark)s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost

  9. Abnormal responses of ejection fraction to exercise, in healthy subjects, caused by region-of-interest selection

    Sorenson, S.G.; Caldwell, J.; Ritchie, J.; Hamilton, G.

    1981-01-01

    We performed serial exercise equilibrium radionuclide angiography in eight normal subjects with each subject executing three tests: control, after nitroglycerin, and after propranolol. The left-ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was calculated by two methods: (a) fixed region-of-interest (FROI) using a single end-diastolic ROI, and (b) variable region-of-interest (VROI) where an end-diastolic and end-systolic region of interest were used. Abnormal maximal EF responses occurred in five of eight subjects during control using FROI but in zero of eight employing VROI (p < 0.05). After nitroglycerin, three of eight subjects had abnormal responses by FROI, but zero of eight were abnormal by VROI (p < 0.05). After propranolol, blunted EF responses occurred in three of seven by both methods. Falsely abnormal EF responses to exercise RNA may occur due to the method of region-of-interest selection in normal subjects with normal or high ejection fractions

  10. Dynamics of habitat selection in birds: adaptive response to nest predation depends on multiple factors.

    Devries, J H; Clark, R G; Armstrong, L M

    2018-05-01

    According to theory, habitat selection by organisms should reflect underlying habitat-specific fitness consequences and, in birds, reproductive success has a strong impact on population growth in many species. Understanding processes affecting habitat selection also is critically important for guiding conservation initiatives. Northern pintails (Anas acuta) are migratory, temperate-nesting birds that breed in greatest concentrations in the prairies of North America and their population remains below conservation goals. Habitat loss and changing land use practices may have decoupled formerly reliable fitness cues with respect to nest habitat choices. We used data from 62 waterfowl nesting study sites across prairie Canada (1997-2009) to examine nest survival, a primary fitness metric, at multiple scales, in combination with estimates of habitat selection (i.e., nests versus random points), to test for evidence of adaptive habitat choices. We used the same habitat covariates in both analyses. Pintail nest survival varied with nest initiation date, nest habitat, pintail breeding pair density, landscape composition and annual moisture. Selection of nesting habitat reflected patterns in nest survival in some cases, indicating adaptive selection, but strength of habitat selection varied seasonally and depended on population density and landscape composition. Adaptive selection was most evident late in the breeding season, at low breeding densities and in cropland-dominated landscapes. Strikingly, at high breeding density, habitat choice appears to become maladaptive relative to nest predation. At larger spatial scales, the relative availability of habitats with low versus high nest survival, and changing land use practices, may limit the reproductive potential of pintails.

  11. Carotenoids in staple cereals: Metabolism, regulation, and genetic manipulation

    shengnan zhai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grain. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1 seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including DXS (1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, PSY (phytoene synthase, LCYB (β-cyclase and LCYE (ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, HYDB (1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and CCDs (carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and OR (orange conditioning sequestration sink; (2 pro-vitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3 QTLs for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and ten gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be benefitical in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for vitamin A biofortification.

  12. Twenty-three generations of mice bidirectionally selected for open-field thigmotaxis: selection response and repeated exposure to the open field.

    Leppänen, Pia K; Ravaja, N; Ewalds-Kvist, S B M

    2006-03-01

    We examined: (a) the response to bidirectional selection for open-field (OF) thigmotaxis in mice for 23 generations and (b) the effects of repeated exposure (during 5 days) on different OF behaviors in the selectively bred high OF thigmotaxis (HOFT) and low OF thigmotaxis (LOFT) mice. A total of 2049 mice were used in the study. Prior to the testing in the selection experiment, the mice were exposed to the OF apparatus for approximately 2 min on each of 4 consecutive days. Thus, the selection was based on the scores registered on the 5th day after the four habituation periods. The HOFT mice were more thigmotactic than the LOFT mice in almost each generation. The HOFT mice also tended to rear less than the LOFT mice, which was explained by the inverse relationship between emotionality and exploratory tendencies. The lines did not generally differ in ambulation. Sex differences were found in thigmotaxis, ambulation, and rearing. In the repeated exposure experiment, the development of nine different OF behaviors across the 5 days of testing was addressed. Both lines ambulated, explored, and reared most on the 1st, 4th, and 5th days. Grooming and radial latency decreased and thigmotaxis increased linearly across the testing days. Line differences were found in ambulation, exploration, grooming, and rearing, while sex differences were manifested in ambulation and exploration. The line difference in thigmotaxis was evident only on the 5th day. Temporal changes were partially at variance with the general assumptions. OF thigmotaxis was found to be a powerful characteristic for producing two diverging lines of mice.

  13. Fungal Production and Manipulation of Plant Hormones.

    Fonseca, Sandra; Radhakrishnan, Dhanya; Prasad, Kalika; Chini, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Living organisms are part of a highly interconnected web of interactions, characterised by species nurturing, competing, parasitizing and preying on one another. Plants have evolved cooperative as well as defensive strategies to interact with neighbour organisms. Among these, the plant-fungus associations are very diverse, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. Our current knowledge of plant-fungus interactions suggests a sophisticated coevolution to ensure dynamic plant responses to evolving fungal mutualistic/pathogenic strategies. The plant-fungus communication relies on a rich chemical language. To manipulate the plant defence mechanisms, fungi produce and secrete several classes of biomolecules, whose modeof- action is largely unknown. Upon perception of the fungi, plants produce phytohormones and a battery of secondary metabolites that serve as defence mechanism against invaders or to promote mutualistic associations. These mutualistic chemical signals can be co-opted by pathogenic fungi for their own benefit. Among the plant molecules regulating plant-fungus interaction, phytohormones play a critical role since they modulate various aspects of plant development, defences and stress responses. Intriguingly, fungi can also produce phytohormones, although the actual role of fungalproduced phytohormones in plant-fungus interactions is poorly understood. Here, we discuss the recent advances in fungal production of phytohormone, their putative role as endogenous fungal signals and how fungi manipulate plant hormone balance to their benefits. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Geographical gradients in selection can reveal genetic constraints for evolutionary responses to ocean acidification.

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Marshall, Dustin; Dupont, Sam; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D; Bodrossy, Levente; Hobday, Alistair J

    2017-02-01

    Geographical gradients in selection can shape different genetic architectures in natural populations, reflecting potential genetic constraints for adaptive evolution under climate change. Investigation of natural pH/pCO 2 variation in upwelling regions reveals different spatio-temporal patterns of natural selection, generating genetic and phenotypic clines in populations, and potentially leading to local adaptation, relevant to understanding effects of ocean acidification (OA). Strong directional selection, associated with intense and continuous upwellings, may have depleted genetic variation in populations within these upwelling regions, favouring increased tolerances to low pH but with an associated cost in other traits. In contrast, diversifying or weak directional selection in populations with seasonal upwellings or outside major upwelling regions may have resulted in higher genetic variances and the lack of genetic correlations among traits. Testing this hypothesis in geographical regions with similar environmental conditions to those predicted under climate change will build insights into how selection may act in the future and how populations may respond to stressors such as OA. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Concentration-mortality responses of Myzus persicae and natural enemies to selected insecticides.

    Bacci, Leandro; Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Silva, Gerson A; Martins, Júlio C

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of six insecticides was determined for the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and some of its natural enemies - the predatory beetles Cycloneda sanguinea (Coccinellidae) and Acanthinus sp. (Anthicidae), and the wasp parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Aphidiidae). Natural enemies from these groups are important natural biological control agents in a number of agroecosystems, and insecticides potentially safe to these non-target organisms should be identified using standardized tests. Thus, concentration-mortality bioassays were carried out with both the aphid and its natural enemies to assess the toxicity and selectivity of acephate, deltamethrin, dimethoate, methamidophos, methyl parathion, and pirimicarb. The latter insecticide was highly selective to all natural enemies tested, and its LC(90) for M. persicae was 14-fold lower than the field rate recommended for control of the aphid in brassica crops. Methyl parathion also showed selectivity to C. sanguinea and Acanthinus sp., but not to D. rapae. Acephate was the least potent insecticide against M. persicae and was equally or more toxic to the natural enemies relative to the aphid. Pirimicarb and methyl parathion were efficient against M. persicae and selective in favor of two of the natural enemies tested. Acanthinus sp. and C. sanguinea were more tolerant to the insecticides than was the parasitoid D. rapae. This study shows that there are selective insecticides that may be compatible with conservation of natural enemies in brassica crops, which is important practical information to improve integrated pest management systems in these crops.

  16. Development of design system of manipulator for fusion reactor maintenance

    Ida, Toshio; Niikura, Setsuo; Ishiguro, Akiko; Yamada, Masao; Matsuoka, Fushiki

    1989-01-01

    A program which supports designers of a manipulator for in-vessel maintenance of a fusion reactor has been developed. The main purpose of this program is to provide the designer with a promising manipulator specification by furnishing useful information. It combines a technique of knowledge engineering with numerical solutions. This program consists of three parts: The first part is to generate candidates for the manipulator using a knowledge base; the second is to evaluate both static and dynamic properties of each candidate through numerical simulation of the maintenance task; and the third is to select the candidates having better performance and feasibility on the basis of the simulation data and knowledge base. The feasibility of the method used in this program is confirmed by the preliminary application. This application also emphasizes the importance of the knowledge base for the candidate generation and selection. Although the degree of freedom of the manipulator is restricted to less than 7 degrees in this study, further development of the capability of manipulator simulation (seven or more degrees of freedom) will enhance the effectiveness of this program. (orig.)

  17. Manipulators

    Papet, I.; Lune, P.; Pellerin, O.; Sapoval, M.; Brisse, H.; Clement, J.P.; Ribeiro, A.; Gomes, H.; Marcus, C.; Rehel, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    These two articles bring notions relative to the safety of procedures, specially in term of irradiation, they give information on different methods in order to reduce the radiation doses delivered to the patients, especially when the examinations concern children or young patients. (N.C.)

  18. Multimodal Microvascular Imaging Reveals that Selective Inhibition of Class I PI3K Is Sufficient to Induce an Antivascular Response

    Deepak Sampath

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K pathway is a central mediator of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-driven angiogenesis. The discovery of small molecule inhibitors that selectively target PI3K or PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR provides an opportunity to pharmacologically determine the contribution of these key signaling nodes in VEGF-A-driven tumor angiogenesis in vivo. This study used an array of microvascular imaging techniques to monitor the antivascular effects of selective class I PI3K, mTOR, or dual PI3K/ mTOR inhibitors in colorectal and prostate cancer xenograft models. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT angiography, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI, vessel size index (VSI MRI, and DCE ultrasound (DCE-U/S were employed to quantitatively evaluate the vascular (structural and physiological response to these inhibitors. GDC-0980, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, was found to reduce micro-CT angiography vascular density, while VSI MRI demonstrated a significant reduction in vessel density and an increase in mean vessel size, consistent with a loss of small functional vessels and a substantial antivascular response. DCE-MRI showed that GDC-0980 produces a strong functional response by decreasing the vascular permeability/perfusion-related parameter, Ktrans. Interestingly, comparable antivascular effects were observed for both GDC-980 and GNE-490 (a selective class I PI3K inhibitor. In addition, mTOR-selective inhibitors did not affect vascular density, suggesting that PI3K inhibition is sufficient to generate structural changes, characteristic of a robust antivascular response. This study supports the use of noninvasive microvascular imaging techniques (DCE-MRI, VSI MRI, DCE-U/S as pharmacodynamic assays to quantitatively measure the activity of PI3K and dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors in vivo.

  19. Short-term responses to selection for parameters of the allometric ...

    The allometric-autoregressive model describes growth accurately and is useful in the characterization of growth responses. ... of value in genetic studies and some of its parameters ..... (1990) appear to be fair estimates of the heritabilities of.

  20. Characterization of HIV-Specific CD4+T Cell Responses against Peptides Selected with Broad Population and Pathogen Coverage

    Buggert, Marcus; Norstrom, Melissa M.; Czarnecki, Chris

    2012-01-01

    for the identification of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells targeting broadly reactive epitopes in populations with diverse ethnic background stems from the vast genomic variation of HIV and the diversity of the host cellular immune system. Here, we describe a novel epitope selection strategy, PopCover, that aims to resolve...... this challenge, and identify a set of potential HLA class II-restricted HIV epitopes that in concert will provide optimal viral and host coverage. Using this selection strategy, we identified 64 putative epitopes (peptides) located in the Gag, Nef, Env, Pol and Tat protein regions of HIV. In total, 73...... II-restricted epitopes. All together, selection strategies, such as PopCover, might with success be used for the evaluation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses and design of future vaccines....

  1. Human place and response learning: navigation strategy selection, pupil size and gaze behavior.

    de Condappa, Olivier; Wiener, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined the cognitive processes and ocular behavior associated with on-going navigation strategy choice using a route learning paradigm that distinguishes between three different wayfinding strategies: an allocentric place strategy, and the egocentric associative cue and beacon response strategies. Participants approached intersections of a known route from a variety of directions, and were asked to indicate the direction in which the original route continued. Their responses in a subset of these test trials allowed the assessment of strategy choice over the course of six experimental blocks. The behavioral data revealed an initial maladaptive bias for a beacon response strategy, with shifts in favor of the optimal configuration place strategy occurring over the course of the experiment. Response time analysis suggests that the configuration strategy relied on spatial transformations applied to a viewpoint-dependent spatial representation, rather than direct access to an allocentric representation. Furthermore, pupillary measures reflected the employment of place and response strategies throughout the experiment, with increasing use of the more cognitively demanding configuration strategy associated with increases in pupil dilation. During test trials in which known intersections were approached from different directions, visual attention was directed to the landmark encoded during learning as well as the intended movement direction. Interestingly, the encoded landmark did not differ between the three navigation strategies, which is discussed in the context of initial strategy choice and the parallel acquisition of place and response knowledge.

  2. Genetic evolution, plasticity, and bet-hedging as adaptive responses to temporally autocorrelated fluctuating selection: A quantitative genetic model.

    Tufto, Jarle

    2015-08-01

    Adaptive responses to autocorrelated environmental fluctuations through evolution in mean reaction norm elevation and slope and an independent component of the phenotypic variance are analyzed using a quantitative genetic model. Analytic approximations expressing the mutual dependencies between all three response modes are derived and solved for the joint evolutionary outcome. Both genetic evolution in reaction norm elevation and plasticity are favored by slow temporal fluctuations, with plasticity, in the absence of microenvironmental variability, being the dominant evolutionary outcome for reasonable parameter values. For fast fluctuations, tracking of the optimal phenotype through genetic evolution and plasticity is limited. If residual fluctuations in the optimal phenotype are large and stabilizing selection is strong, selection then acts to increase the phenotypic variance (bet-hedging adaptive). Otherwise, canalizing selection occurs. If the phenotypic variance increases with plasticity through the effect of microenvironmental variability, this shifts the joint evolutionary balance away from plasticity in favor of genetic evolution. If microenvironmental deviations experienced by each individual at the time of development and selection are correlated, however, more plasticity evolves. The adaptive significance of evolutionary fluctuations in plasticity and the phenotypic variance, transient evolution, and the validity of the analytic approximations are investigated using simulations. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Does selective logging stress tropical forest invertebrates? Using fat stores to examine sublethal responses in dung beetles.

    França, Filipe; Barlow, Jos; Araújo, Bárbara; Louzada, Julio

    2016-12-01

    The increased global demand for tropical timber has driven vast expanses of tropical forests to be selectively logged worldwide. While logging impacts on wildlife are predicted to change species distribution and abundance, the underlying physiological responses are poorly understood. Although there is a growing consensus that selective logging impacts on natural populations start with individual stress-induced sublethal responses, this literature is dominated by investigations conducted with vertebrates from temperate zones. Moreover, the sublethal effects of human-induced forest disturbance on tropical invertebrates have never been examined. To help address this knowledge gap, we examined the body fat content and relative abundance of three dung beetle species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) with minimum abundance of 40 individuals within each examined treatment level. These were sampled across 34 plots in a before-after control-impact design (BACI) in a timber concession area of the Brazilian Amazon. For the first time, we present evidence of logging-induced physiological stress responses in tropical invertebrates. Selective logging increased the individual levels of fat storage and reduced the relative abundance of two dung beetle species. Given this qualitative similarity, we support the measurement of body fat content as reliable biomarker to assess stress-induced sublethal effects on dung beetles. Understanding how environmental modification impacts the wildlife has never been more important. Our novel approach provides new insights into the mechanisms through which forest disturbances impose population-level impacts on tropical invertebrates.

  4. Modeling the manipulator and flipper pose effects on tip over stability of a tracked mobile manipulator

    Dube, C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile manipulators are used in a number of different applications such as bomb disposal, mining robotics, and search and rescue operations. These mobile manipulators are highly susceptible to tip over due to the motion of the manipulator...

  5. The Effect of Conceptual Advancement in Jazz Music Selections and Jazz Experience on Musicians' Aesthetic Response

    Coggiola, John C.

    2004-01-01

    This study is an investigation of what musicians consider to be their aesthetic experience with jazz music selections that vary in level of conceptual advancement (melodic complexity during improvised solos). Music major participants (N = 128) were assigned to either the jazz musician (n = 64) or nonjazz musician (n = 64) group. Data were gathered…

  6. Optimizing the Use of Response Times for Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Choe, Edison M.; Kern, Justin L.; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Despite common operationalization, measurement efficiency of computerized adaptive testing should not only be assessed in terms of the number of items administered but also the time it takes to complete the test. To this end, a recent study introduced a novel item selection criterion that maximizes Fisher information per unit of expected response…

  7. Response to Comment on "Positive Selection of Tyrosine Loss in Metazoan Evolution"

    Tan, Chris Soon Heng; Schoof, Erwin; Creixell, Pau

    2011-01-01

    Su et al. claim guanine-cytosine (GC) content variation can largely explain the observed tyrosine frequency variation, independent of adaptive evolution of cell-signaling complexity. We found that GC content variation, in the absence of selection for amino acid changes, can only maximally account...

  8. The effects of social stress and cortisol responses on the preconscious selective attention to social threat

    Roelofs, K.; Bakvis, P.; Hermans, E.J.; Pelt, J. van; Honk, E.J. van

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of social stress and stress-induced cortisol on the preconscious selective attention to social threat. Twenty healthy participants were administered a masked emotional Stroop task (comparing color-naming latencies for angry, neutral and

  9. The effects of social stress and cortisol responses on the preconscious selective attention to social threat.

    Roelofs, K.; Bakvis, P.; Hermans, E.J.; Pelt, J. van; Honk, E.J. van

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of social stress and stress-induced cortisol on the preconscious selective attention to social threat. Twenty healthy participants were administered a masked emotional Stroop task (comparing color-naming latencies for angry, neutral and

  10. A Common Capacity Limitation for Response and Item Selection in Working Memory

    Janczyk, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Successful completion of any cognitive task requires selecting a particular action and the object the action is applied to. Oberauer (2009) suggested a working memory (WM) model comprising a declarative and a procedural part with analogous structures. One important assumption of this model is that both parts work independently of each other, and…

  11. A control method for manipulators with redundancy

    Furusho, Junji; Usui, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    Redundant manipulators have more ability than nonredundant ones in many aspects such as avoiding obstacles, avoiding singular states, etc. In this paper, a control algorithm for redundant manipulators working under the circumstance in the presence of obstacles is presented. First, the measure of manipulability for robot manipulators under obstacle circumstances is defined. Then, the control algorithm for the obstacle avoidance is derived by using this measure of manipulability. The obstacle avoidance and the maintenance of good posture are simultaneously achieved by this algorithm. Lastly, an experiment and simulation results using an eight degree of freedom manipulator are shown. (author)

  12. Addressing the selective role of distinct prefrontal areas in response suppression: A study with brain tumor patients.

    Arbula, Sandra; Pacella, Valentina; De Pellegrin, Serena; Rossetto, Marta; Denaro, Luca; D'Avella, Domenico; Della Puppa, Alessandro; Vallesi, Antonino

    2017-06-01

    The diverging evidence for functional localization of response inhibition within the prefrontal cortex might be justified by the still unclear involvement of other intrinsically related cognitive processes like response selection and sustained attention. In this study, the main aim was to understand whether inhibitory impairments, previously found in patients with both left and right frontal lesions, could be better accounted for by assessing these potentially related cognitive processes. We tested 37 brain tumor patients with left prefrontal, right prefrontal and non-prefrontal lesions and a healthy control group on Go/No-Go and Foreperiod tasks. In both types of tasks inhibitory impairments are likely to cause false alarms, although additionally the former task requires response selection and the latter target detection abilities. Irrespective of the task context, patients with right prefrontal damage showed frequent Go and target omissions, probably due to sustained attention lapses. Left prefrontal patients, on the other hand, showed both Go and target omissions and high false alarm rates to No-Go and warning stimuli, suggesting a decisional rather than an inhibitory impairment. An exploratory whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis confirmed the association of left ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal lesions with target discrimination failure, and right ventrolateral and medial prefrontal lesions with target detection failure. Results from this study show how left and right prefrontal areas, which previous research has linked to response inhibition, underlie broader cognitive control processes, particularly involved in response selection and target detection. Based on these findings, we suggest that successful inhibitory control relies on more than one functionally distinct process which, if assessed appropriately, might help us to better understand inhibitory impairments across different pathologies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  13. Manipulating parameters of reinforcement to reduce problem behavior without extinction.

    Kunnavatana, S Shanun; Bloom, Sarah E; Samaha, Andrew L; Slocum, Timothy A; Clay, Casey J

    2018-04-01

    Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) most often includes extinction as a treatment component. However, extinction is not always feasible and it can be counter-therapeutic if implemented without optimal treatment integrity. Researchers have successfully implemented DRA without extinction by manipulating various parameters of reinforcement such that alternative behavior is favored. We extended previous research by assessing three participants' sensitivities to quality, magnitude, and immediacy using arbitrary responses and reinforcers that maintain problem behavior. The results were used to implement an intervention for problem behavior using DRA without extinction. Our findings indicate that arbitrary responses can be used to identify individual and relative sensitivity to parameters of reinforcement for reinforcers that maintain problem behavior. Treatment was effective for all participants when we manipulated parameters of reinforcement to which they were most sensitive, and, for two participants, the treatment was less effective when we manipulated parameters to which they were least sensitive. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Adaptive hybrid control of manipulators

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Simple methods for the design of adaptive force and position controllers for robot manipulators within the hybrid control architecuture is presented. The force controller is composed of an adaptive PID feedback controller, an auxiliary signal and a force feedforward term, and it achieves tracking of desired force setpoints in the constraint directions. The position controller consists of adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers and an auxiliary signal, and it accomplishes tracking of desired position trajectories in the free directions. The controllers are capable of compensating for dynamic cross-couplings that exist between the position and force control loops in the hybrid control architecture. The adaptive controllers do not require knowledge of the complex dynamic model or parameter values of the manipulator or the environment. The proposed control schemes are computationally fast and suitable for implementation in on-line control with high sampling rates.

  15. Master-slave type manipulator

    Haaker, L.W.; Jelatis, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    Remote control manipulator of the master-slave type for carrying out work on the other side of a shield wall. This appliance allows a Y movement relative displacement, the function of which is to extend the range of the manipulator towards the front and also to facilitate its installation, the lateral rotation or inclination of the slave arm in relation to the master arm, and the Z movement extension through which the length of the slave arm is increased in comparison with that of the master arm. Devices have been developed which transform the linear movements into rotational movements to enable these movements to be transmitted through rotational seal fittings capable of ensuring the safety of the separation between the operator's environment and that in the work area. Particular improvements have been made to the handles, handle seals, pincer mechanisms, etc [fr

  16. Investigation of the impact of seed record selection on structural response

    Houston, Thomas W.; Mertz, Greg E.; Costantino, Michael C.; Costantino, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    Time history records are typically used to define the seismic demand for criteria structures for which soil structure interaction (SSI) analyses are often required. Criteria for the development of time histories is provided in ASCE 43-05. The time histories are based on a close fit of 5% damped target response spectra. Recent experience has demonstrated that for cases where the transfer functions associated with the structural response are narrow, the ASCE 43 criteria can under-predict peak spectral responses in the structure by as much as 70% in some frequency ranges. One potential solution for this issue is to reinstate requirements for matching target response spectra for multiple damping levels to ASCE 43 criteria. However, recent probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) do not generally contain spectra for multiple damping levels. This paper proposes an approach to generate target spectra at multiple damping levels, given the 5% damped target spectrum provided by the PSHA, utilizing catalogs of recorded earthquakes. The process of fitting time histories to multiple damped spectra is effective in correcting deficiencies observed in the computed structural response when time histories meeting the ASCE 43 fitting criteria are used.

  17. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  18. Manipulating a stated choice experiment

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Borjesson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the design of a stated choice experiment intended to measure the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) between cost and an attribute such as time using a conventional logit model. Focusing the experimental design on some target MRS will bias estimates towards that value....... The paper shows why this happens. The resulting estimated MRS can then be manipulated by adapting the target MRS in the experimental design. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. List manipulation in Turbo Prolog

    V.Cotelea

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with list processing in Turbo Prolog language. It doesn't claim to be an exhaustive description of operations which can be performed upon lists. Nevertheless adduced programs are most representative, more or less known to specialists in logic programming domain. By means of examples are explained the list manipulation techniques, use of recursion, declarative comparison of predicates, analysis and fixation of acceptable prototypes and some problems of predicates' inconsistency. Index terms. Prolog, list, recursion.

  20. Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

    1998-08-15

    The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  1. Manipulation and soldering of carbon nanotubes using atomic force microscope

    Kashiwase, Yuta; Ikeda, Takayuki; Oya, Takahide; Ogino, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    Manipulation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by an atomic force microscope (AFM) and soldering of CNTs using Fe oxide nanoparticles are described. We succeeded to separate a CNT bundle into two CNTs or CNT bundles, to move the separated CNT to a desirable position, and to bind it to another bundle. For the accurate manipulation, load of the AFM cantilever and frequency of the scan were carefully selected. We soldered two CNTs using an Fe oxide nanoparticle prepared from a ferritin molecule. The adhesion forces between the soldered CNTs were examined by an AFM and it was found that the CNTs were bound, though the binding force was not strong

  2. Photonic crystals, light manipulation, and imaging in complex nematic structures

    Ravnik, Miha; Å timulak, Mitja; Mur, Urban; Čančula, Miha; Čopar, Simon; Žumer, Slobodan

    2016-03-01

    Three selected approaches for manipulation of light by complex nematic colloidal and non-colloidal structures are presented using different own custom developed theoretical and modelling approaches. Photonic crystals bands of distorted cholesteric liquid crystal helix and of nematic colloidal opals are presented, also revealing distinct photonic modes and density of states. Light propagation along half-integer nematic disclinations is shown with changes in the light polarization of various winding numbers. As third, simulated light transmission polarization micrographs of nematic torons are shown, offering a new insight into the complex structure characterization. Finally, this work is a contribution towards using complex soft matter in optics and photonics for advanced light manipulation.

  3. Positive selection in the chromosome 16 VKORC1 genomic region has contributed to the variability of anticoagulant response in humans.

    Blandine Patillon

    Full Text Available VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1, 16p11.2 is the main genetic determinant of human response to oral anticoagulants of antivitamin K type (AVK. This gene was recently suggested to be a putative target of positive selection in East Asian populations. In this study, we genotyped the HGDP-CEPH Panel for six VKORC1 SNPs and downloaded chromosome 16 genotypes from the HGDP-CEPH database in order to characterize the geographic distribution of footprints of positive selection within and around this locus. A unique VKORC1 haplotype carrying the promoter mutation associated with AVK sensitivity showed especially high frequencies in all the 17 HGDP-CEPH East Asian population samples. VKORC1 and 24 neighboring genes were found to lie in a 505 kb region of strong linkage disequilibrium in these populations. Patterns of allele frequency differentiation and haplotype structure suggest that this genomic region has been submitted to a near complete selective sweep in all East Asian populations and only in this geographic area. The most extreme scores of the different selection tests are found within a smaller 45 kb region that contains VKORC1 and three other genes (BCKDK, MYST1 (KAT8, and PRSS8 with different functions. Because of the strong linkage disequilibrium, it is not possible to determine if VKORC1 or one of the three other genes is the target of this strong positive selection that could explain present-day differences among human populations in AVK dose requirement. Our results show that the extended region surrounding a presumable single target of positive selection should be analyzed for genetic variation in a wide range of genetically diverse populations in order to account for other neighboring and confounding selective events and the hitchhiking effect.

  4. Resveratrol Attenuates Exercise-Induced Adaptive Responses in Rats Selectively Bred for Low Running Performance

    Hart, Nikolett; Sarga, Linda; Csende, Zsolt; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Davies, Kelvin J.A.; Radak, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    Low capacity runner (LCR) rats have been developed by divergent artificial selection for treadmill endurance capacity to explore an aerobic biology-disease connection. The beneficial effects of resveratrol supplementation have been demonstrated in endurance running. In this study it was examined whether 12 weeks of treadmill exercise training and/or resveratrol can retrieve the low running performance of the LCR and impact mitochondrial biogenesis and quality control. Resveratrol regressed ru...

  5. Leader-Follower Effects in Resource Dilemmas: The Roles of Leadership Selection and Social Responsibility

    Cremer, David de; Dijk, Eric van

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Previous research on the allocation of scarce resources shows that when people are assigned labels of leader or follower in their group, leaders allocate more of the scarce resources to themselves than followers do. In three laboratory studies, we examine the idea that how people are selected for the leader role (i.e. election or appointment) determines whether leaders take more or equal shares (relative to followers) from a common resource. In a first experiment, we show ...

  6. Contrasting taxonomic and functional responses of a tropical tree community to selective logging

    Baraloto, C.; Hérault, B.; Paine, C. E. T.; Massot, H.; Blanc, L.; Bonal, D.; Molino, Jean-François; Nicolini, E. A.; Sabatier, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    1. Considerable debate surrounds the extent to which tropical forests can be managed for resource extraction while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem properties, which depend on functional composition. Here we evaluate the compatibility of these aims by examining the effects of logging on taxonomic and functional diversity and composition in a tropical forest. 2. Twenty years after selective logging, we inventoried 4140 stems regenerating in logging gaps and adjacent undisturbed areas, and...

  7. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Brokordt, Katherina B.; González, Roxana C.; Farías, William J.; Winkler, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h 2) and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CV A) of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes) and extracellular (serum) protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R), the h 2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h 2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CV A of 13.3–16.2% in young adults and of 2.7–8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h 2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals. PMID

  8. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens.

    Katherina B Brokordt

    Full Text Available Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h2 and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CVA of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes and extracellular (serum protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R, the h2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CVA of 13.3-16.2% in young adults and of 2.7-8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals.

  9. The response of natural enemies to selective insecticides applied to soybean.

    Varenhorst, A J; O'Neal, M E

    2012-12-01

    Natural enemies of the invasive pest Aphis glycines Matsumura can prevent its establishment and population growth. However, current A. glycines management practices include the application of broad-spectrum insecticides that affect pests and natural enemies that are present in the field at the time of application. An alternative is the use of selective insecticides that affect the targeted pest species, although having a reduced impact on the natural enemies. We tested the effects of esfenvalerate, spirotetramat, imidacloprid, and a combination of spirotetramat and imidacloprid on the natural enemies in soybean during the 2009 and 2010 field season. The natural enemy community that was tested differed significantly between 2009 and 2010 (F = 87.41; df = 1, 598; P natural enemy in 2009 was Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (56.0%) and in 2010 was Orius insidiosus (Say) (41.0%). During 2009, the abundance of natural enemies did not vary between the broad-spectrum and selective insecticides; however, the abundance of natural enemies was reduced by all insecticide treatments when compared with the untreated control. In 2010, the selective insecticide imidacloprid had more natural enemies than the broad-spectrum insecticide. Although we did not observe a difference in the abundance of the total natural enemy community in 2009, we did observe more H. axyridis in plots treated with spirotetramat. In 2010, we observed more O. insidiosus in plots treated with imidacloprid. We suggest a couple of mechanisms to explain how the varying insecticides have different impacts on separate components of the natural enemy community.

  10. Correlated effects of selection for immunity in White Leghorn chicken lines on natural antibodies and specific antibody responses to KLH and M. butyricum

    Minozzi, G.; Parmentier, H.K.; Mignon-Grasteau, S.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Bed'hom, B.; Gourichon, D.; Minvielle, F.; Pinard-van der Laan, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background - The effect of selection for three general immune response traits on primary antibody responses (Ab) to Mycobacterium butyricum or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was studied in four experimental lines of White Leghorn chicken. Birds underwent 12 generations of selection for one of three

  11. Evolution of floral display in Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae): direct and correlated responses to selection on flower size and number.

    Worley, A C; Barrett, S C

    2000-10-01

    Trade-offs between flower size and number seem likely to influence the evolution of floral display and are an important assumption of several theoretical models. We assessed floral trade-offs by imposing two generations of selection on flower size and number in a greenhouse population of bee-pollinated Eichhornia paniculata. We established a control line and two replicate selection lines of 100 plants each for large flowers (S+), small flowers (S-), and many flowers per inflorescence (N+). We compared realized heritabilities and genetic correlations with estimates based on restricted-maximum-likelihood (REML) analysis of pedigrees. Responses to selection confirmed REML heritability estimates (flower size, h2 = 0.48; daily flower number, h2 = 0.10; total flower number, h2 = 0.23). Differences in nectar, pollen, and ovule production between S+ and S- lines supported an overall divergence in investment per flower. Both realized and REML estimates of the genetic correlation between daily and total flower number were r = 1.0. However, correlated responses to selection were inconsistent in their support of a trade-off. In both S- lines, correlated increases in flower number indicated a genetic correlation of r = -0.6 between flower size and number. In contrast, correlated responses in N+ and S+ lines were not significant, although flower size decreased in one N+ line. In addition, REML estimates of genetic correlations between flower size and number were positive, and did not differ from zero when variation in leaf area and age at first flowering were taken into account. These results likely reflect the combined effects of variation in genes controlling the resources available for flowering and genes with opposing effects on flower size and number. Our results suggest that the short-term evolution of floral display is not necessarily constrained by trade-offs between flower size and number, as is often assumed.

  12. Dietary diversity, feeding selectivity, and responses to fruit scarcity of two sympatric Bornean primates (Hylobates albibarbis and Presbytis rubicunda rubida.

    Dena J Clink

    Full Text Available Effectively characterizing primate diets is fundamental to understanding primate behavior, ecology and morphology. Examining temporal variation in a species' diet, as well as comparing the responses of different species to variation in resource availability, can enhance understanding of the evolution of morphology and socioecology. In this study, we use feeding data collected over five years to describe the diets of two sympatric Southeast Asian primate species of similar body size: white-bearded gibbons (Hylobates albibarbis and red leaf monkeys (Presbytis rubicunda rubida, in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Long-term data sets are especially important for characterizing primate diets in Southeast Asia, where the forests exhibit supra-annual mast fruiting events. We found that gibbons were mainly frugivorous, with fruit and figs comprising 70% of their 145 independent feeding observations, whereas leaf monkeys ate a substantial amount of seeds (26%, fruits and figs (26.5% and leaves (30%, n = 219 independent feeding observations. Leaf monkeys consumed a higher number of plant genera, and this was due mostly to the non-frugivorous portion of their diet. To investigate resource selection by these primates we utilized two different approaches: the Manly Selectivity Ratio, which did not take into account temporal variation of resource availability, and a model selection framework which did incorporate temporal variation. Both species selected figs (Ficus more than predicted based on their availability under the Manly Selectivity Ratio. Model selection allowed us to determine how these primates alter the proportion of leaves, flowers, seeds, figs and fruit in their diets in response to variation in fruit availability. When fruits were scarce, both gibbons and leaf monkeys incorporated more leaves and figs into their diets, indicating that these two food classes are fallback foods for these primates. We discuss how different

  13. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant's operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ''onsite'' response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world's collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously

  14. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant`s operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ``onsite`` response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world`s collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously.

  15. Charged pion electroproduction, a selective probe of nuclear spin isospin responses

    Chanfray, G.; Delorme, J.

    1983-05-01

    We study the reaction of pion electroproduction on nuclei in the quasi-elastic region. We show that detection of the pion in the direction of the virtual photon permits the separation of the spin longitudinal and transverse responses through a Rosenbluth plot. Emphasis is also put on consistency between medium effects and gauge invariance

  16. Precision metabolic engineering: The design of responsive, selective, and controllable metabolic systems.

    McNerney, Monica P; Watstein, Daniel M; Styczynski, Mark P

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic engineering is generally focused on static optimization of cells to maximize production of a desired product, though recently dynamic metabolic engineering has explored how metabolic programs can be varied over time to improve titer. However, these are not the only types of applications where metabolic engineering could make a significant impact. Here, we discuss a new conceptual framework, termed "precision metabolic engineering," involving the design and engineering of systems that make different products in response to different signals. Rather than focusing on maximizing titer, these types of applications typically have three hallmarks: sensing signals that determine the desired metabolic target, completely directing metabolic flux in response to those signals, and producing sharp responses at specific signal thresholds. In this review, we will first discuss and provide examples of precision metabolic engineering. We will then discuss each of these hallmarks and identify which existing metabolic engineering methods can be applied to accomplish those tasks, as well as some of their shortcomings. Ultimately, precise control of metabolic systems has the potential to enable a host of new metabolic engineering and synthetic biology applications for any problem where flexibility of response to an external signal could be useful. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective Acquiescence, Creative Commitment and Strategic Conformity: Situated National Policy Responses to Bologna

    Sin, Cristina; Saunders, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The non-binding nature of the Bologna Declaration and loose policy-making and implementation through the open method of coordination (OMC) have led to varied national responses to the Bologna Process. The OMC has allowed countries room for manoeuvre to interpret Bologna policy and attach different degrees of importance to it. Looking at the…

  18. Acute Exposure of College Basketball Players to Moderate Altitude: Selected Physiological Responses.

    Noble, Bruce J.; Maresh, Carl M.

    1979-01-01

    In general, basketball players with moderately high aerobic power who reside at an altitude of 1,000 m do not display the hypoxic response to an altitude of 2,200 m expected of sea level residents and aerobically trained athletes. (JD)

  19. Relation between derived-band auditory brainstem response latencies and behavioral frequency selectivity

    Strelcyk, Olaf; Christoforidis, Dimitrios; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    response times. For the same listeners, auditory-filter bandwidths at 2 kHz were estimated using a behavioral notched-noise masking paradigm. Generally, shorter derived-band latencies were observed for the HI than for the NH listeners. Only at low click sensation levels, prolonged latencies were obtained...

  20. The Effects of an Environmental Studies Course on Selected Variables Related To Environmentally Responsible Behavior.

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    Reports that students completing an environmental studies course displayed significant gains when compared with students not completing such a course. These gains were made in acquiring a more internally-oriented locus of control of reinforcement for environmentally responsible behavior, a higher perception of their knowledge of and skill in using…

  1. Attention as Inference: Selection Is Probabilistic; Responses Are All-or-None Samples

    Vul, Edward; Hanus, Deborah; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Theories of probabilistic cognition postulate that internal representations are made up of multiple simultaneously held hypotheses, each with its own probability of being correct (henceforth, "probability distributions"). However, subjects make discrete responses and report the phenomenal contents of their mind to be all-or-none states rather than…

  2. Selection on feather pecking affects response to novelty and foraging behaviour in laying hens

    Haas, de E.N.; Nielsen, B.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare problem in laying hens, influenced by multiple factors. FP is thought to be redirected foraging behaviour, however fearful birds are also known to be more sensitive to develop FP. The relationship between fear-responses, foraging and FP is not well understood,

  3. Comparative analysis of response to selection with three insecticides in the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti using mRNA sequencing.

    David, Jean-Philippe; Faucon, Frédéric; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Riaz, Muhammad Asam; Bonin, Aurélie; Navratil, Vincent; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2014-03-05

    selection strongly affected the polymorphism of several transcripts encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases likely involved in insecticide biodegradation. The present study confirmed the power of RNA-seq for identifying concomitantly quantitative and qualitative transcriptome changes associated with insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Our results suggest that transcriptome modifications can be selected rapidly by insecticides and affect multiple biological functions. Previously neglected by molecular screenings, polymorphism variations of detoxification enzymes may play an important role in the adaptive response of mosquitoes to insecticides.

  4. Co-operation and Haptic Assistance for Tele-manipulated Control over Two Asymmetric Slaves

    van Oosterhout, J.

    2018-01-01

    The success of future fusion power plants as a sustainable energy source greatly depends on their uptime. This uptime relies on the plant's maintenance, which must be performed via tele-manipulation. Tele-manipulated maintenance is challenging, as exemplified by strictly selected and highly trained

  5. Virtual or Physical: In-Service and Pre-Service Teacher's Beliefs and Preferences on Manipulatives

    Akkan, Yasar

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of physical manipulatives, which have been emphasized to use in preschool education program and primary and secondary mathematics curriculum, in classroom environments is old, it is very new to use virtual manipulatives in classroom environments. The selection, preparation, and the integration to learning environments of both…

  6. Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine

    Parnaudeau, Sébastien; Dongelmans, Marie-louise; Turiault, Marc; Ambroggi, Frédéric; Delbes, Anne-Sophie; Cansell, Céline; Luquet, Serge; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo; Tronche, François; Barik, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs) release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine's behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurons is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice. PMID:24574986

  7. In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Adaptive Stress Responses to Selected Haloacetic Acid and Halobenzoquinone Water Disinfection Byproducts.

    Procházka, Erik; Escher, Beate I; Plewa, Michael J; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2015-10-19

    The process of disinfecting drinking water inadvertently leads to the formation of numerous disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Some of these are mutagenic, genotoxic, teratogenic, and cytotoxic, as well as potentially carcinogenic both in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the in vitro biological activity of five DBPs: three monohaloacetic acids (monoHAAs) [chloroacetic acid (CAA), bromoacetic acid (BAA), and iodoacetic acid (IAA)] and two novel halobenzoquinones (HBQs) [2,6-dichloro-p-benzoquinone (DCBQ) and 2,6-dibromo-p-benzoquinone]. We focused particularly on cytotoxicity and induction of two adaptive stress response pathways: the oxidative stress responsive Nrf2/ARE and DNA-damage responsive p53 pathways. All five DBPs were cytotoxic to the Caco-2 cell line after a 4 h exposure, and all DBPs induced both of the adaptive stress response pathways, Nrf2/ARE and p53, in the micromolar range, as measured by two β-lactamase-based reporter gene assays. The decreasing order of potency for all three endpoints for the five DBPs was IAA ∼ BAA > DCBQ ∼ DBBQ > CAA. Induction of oxidative stress was previously proposed to be the molecular initiating event (MIE) for both classes of DBPs. However, comparing the levels of activation of the two pathways uncovered that the Nrf2/ARE pathway was the more sensitive endpoint for HAAs, whereas the p53 pathway was more sensitive in the case of HBQs. Therefore, the DNA damage-responsive p53 pathway may be an important piece of information to fill in a gap in the adverse outcome pathway framework for the assessment of HBQs. Finally, we cautiously compared the potential risk of the two novel HBQs using a benchmarking approach to that of the well-studied CAA, which suggested that their relative risk may be lower than that of BAA and IAA.

  8. Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine

    Sebastien eParnaudeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While the GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine’s behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurones is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice.

  9. Particle Manipulation Methods in Droplet Microfluidics.

    Tenje, Maria; Fornell, Anna; Ohlin, Mathias; Nilsson, Johan

    2018-02-06

    This Feature describes the different particle manipulation techniques available in the droplet microfluidics toolbox to handle particles encapsulated inside droplets and to manipulate whole droplets. We address the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques to guide new users.

  10. Physics Based Vision Systems for Robotic Manipulation

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the increase of robotic manipulation tasks (TA4.3), specifically dexterous manipulation tasks (TA4.3.2), more advanced computer vision algorithms will be...

  11. A randomized trial on mineralocorticoid receptor blockade in men: effects on stress responses, selective attention, and memory.

    Cornelisse, Sandra; Joëls, Marian; Smeets, Tom

    2011-12-01

    Corticosteroids, released in high amounts after stress, exert their effects via two different receptors in the brain: glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs). GRs have a role in normalizing stress-induced effects and promoting consolidation, while MRs are thought to be important in determining the threshold for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We investigated the effects of MR blockade on HPA axis responses to stress and stress-induced changes in cognitive function. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 64 healthy young men received 400 mg of the MR antagonist spironolactone or placebo. After 1.5 h, they were exposed to either a Trier Social Stress Test or a non-stressful control task. Responses to stress were evaluated by hormonal, subjective, and physiological measurements. Afterwards, selective attention, working memory, and long-term memory performance were assessed. Spironolactone increased basal salivary cortisol levels as well as cortisol levels in response to stress. Furthermore, spironolactone significantly impaired selective attention, but only in the control group. The stress group receiving spironolactone showed impaired working memory performance. By contrast, long-term memory was enhanced in this group. These data support a role of MRs in the regulation of the HPA axis under basal conditions as well as in response to stress. The increased availability of cortisol after spironolactone treatment implies enhanced GR activation, which, in combination with MR blockade, presumably resulted in a decreased MR/GR activation ratio. This condition influences both selective attention and performance in various memory tasks.

  12. Manipulating the cell differentiation through lentiviral vectors.

    Coppola, Valeria; Galli, Cesare; Musumeci, Maria; Bonci, Désirée

    2010-01-01

    The manipulation of cell differentiation is important to create new sources for the treatment of degenerative diseases or solve cell depletion after aggressive therapy against cancer. In this chapter, the use of a tissue-specific promoter lentiviral vector to obtain a myocardial pure lineage from murine embryonic stem cells (mES) is described in detail. Since the cardiac isoform of troponin I gene product is not expressed in skeletal or other muscle types, short mouse cardiac troponin proximal promoter is used to drive reporter genes. Cells are infected simultaneously with two lentiviral vectors, the first expressing EGFP to monitor the transduction efficiency, and the other expressing a puromycin resistance gene to select the specific cells of interest. This technical approach describes a method to obtain a pure cardiomyocyte population and can be applied to other lineages of interest.

  13. Phononic fluidics: acoustically activated droplet manipulations

    Reboud, Julien; Wilson, Rab; Bourquin, Yannyk; Zhang, Yi; Neale, Steven L.; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2011-02-01

    Microfluidic systems have faced challenges in handling real samples and the chip interconnection to other instruments. Here we present a simple interface, where surface acoustic waves (SAWs) from a piezoelectric device are coupled into a disposable acoustically responsive microfluidic chip. By manipulating droplets, SAW technologies have already shown their potential in microfluidics, but it has been limited by the need to rely upon mixed signal generation at multiple interdigitated electrode transducers (IDTs) and the problematic resulting reflections, to allow complex fluid operations. Here, a silicon chip was patterned with phononic structures, engineering the acoustic field by using a full band-gap. It was simply coupled to a piezoelectric LiNbO3 wafer, propagating the SAW, via a thin film of water. Contrary to the use of unstructured superstrates, phononic metamaterials allowed precise spatial control of the acoustic energy and hence its interaction with the liquids placed on the surface of the chip, as demonstrated by simulations. We further show that the acoustic frequency influences the interaction between the SAW and the phononic lattice, providing a route to programme complex fluidic manipulation onto the disposable chip. The centrifugation of cells from a blood sample is presented as a more practical demonstration of the potential of phononic crystals to realize diagnostic systems.

  14. The effect of lumbosacral manipulation on growing pains | de Beer ...

    The results demonstrated that both groups responded favourably to their specific treatment over time. However, the group that received lumbosacral manipulations proved to show a quicker response to treatment; and the poststudy follow-up of this same group showed markedly more positive feedback than the group that ...

  15. Visual object agnosia is associated with a breakdown of object-selective responses in the lateral occipital cortex.

    Ptak, Radek; Lazeyras, François; Di Pietro, Marie; Schnider, Armin; Simon, Stéphane R

    2014-07-01

    Patients with visual object agnosia fail to recognize the identity of visually presented objects despite preserved semantic knowledge. Object agnosia may result from damage to visual cortex lying close to or overlapping with the lateral occipital complex (LOC), a brain region that exhibits selectivity to the shape of visually presented objects. Despite this anatomical overlap the relationship between shape processing in the LOC and shape representations in object agnosia is unknown. We studied a patient with object agnosia following isolated damage to the left occipito-temporal cortex overlapping with the LOC. The patient showed intact processing of object structure, yet often made identification errors that were mainly based on the global visual similarity between objects. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) we found that the damaged as well as the contralateral, structurally intact right LOC failed to show any object-selective fMRI activity, though the latter retained selectivity for faces. Thus, unilateral damage to the left LOC led to a bilateral breakdown of neural responses to a specific stimulus class (objects and artefacts) while preserving the response to a different stimulus class (faces). These findings indicate that representations of structure necessary for the identification of objects crucially rely on bilateral, distributed coding of shape features. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Probe based manipulation and assembly of nanowires into organized mesostructures

    Reynolds, K.; Komulainen, J.; Kivijakola, J.; Lovera, P.; Iacopino, D.; Pudas, M.; Vähäkangas, J.; Röning, J.; Redmond, G.

    2008-12-01

    A convenient approach to patterning inorganic and organic nanowires using a novel probe manipulator is presented. The system utilizes an electrochemically etched tungsten wire probe mounted onto a 3D actuator that is directed by a 3D controller. When it is engaged by the user, the movement of the probe and the forces experienced by the tip are simultaneously reported in real time. Platinum nanowires are manipulated into organized mesostructures on silicon chip substrates. In particular, individual nanowires are systematically removed from aggregates, transferred to a chosen location, and manipulated into complex structures in which selected wires occupy specific positions with defined orientations. Rapid prototyping of complex mesostructures, by pushing, rotating and bending conjugated polymer, i.e., polyfluorene, nanowires into various configurations, is also achieved. By exploiting the strong internal axial alignment of polymer chains within the polyfluorene nanowires, mesostructures tailored to exhibit distinctly anisotropic optical properties, such as birefringence and photoluminescence dichroism, are successfully assembled on fused silica substrates.

  17. Probe based manipulation and assembly of nanowires into organized mesostructures

    Reynolds, K; Lovera, P; Iacopino, D; Redmond, G; Komulainen, J; Pudas, M; Vaehaekangas, J; Kivijakola, J; Roening, J

    2008-01-01

    A convenient approach to patterning inorganic and organic nanowires using a novel probe manipulator is presented. The system utilizes an electrochemically etched tungsten wire probe mounted onto a 3D actuator that is directed by a 3D controller. When it is engaged by the user, the movement of the probe and the forces experienced by the tip are simultaneously reported in real time. Platinum nanowires are manipulated into organized mesostructures on silicon chip substrates. In particular, individual nanowires are systematically removed from aggregates, transferred to a chosen location, and manipulated into complex structures in which selected wires occupy specific positions with defined orientations. Rapid prototyping of complex mesostructures, by pushing, rotating and bending conjugated polymer, i.e., polyfluorene, nanowires into various configurations, is also achieved. By exploiting the strong internal axial alignment of polymer chains within the polyfluorene nanowires, mesostructures tailored to exhibit distinctly anisotropic optical properties, such as birefringence and photoluminescence dichroism, are successfully assembled on fused silica substrates.

  18. A review of magnetic resonance imaging compatible manipulators in surgery.

    Elhawary, H; Zivanovic, A; Davies, B; Lampérth, M

    2006-04-01

    Developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coupled with parallel progress in the field of computer-assisted surgery, mean that an ideal environment has been created for the development of MRI-compatible robotic systems and manipulators, capable of enhancing many types of surgical procedure. However, MRI does impose severe restrictions on mechatronic devices to be used in or around the scanners. In this article a review of the developments in the field of MRI-compatible surgical manipulators over the last decade is presented. The manipulators developed make use of different methods of actuation, but they can be reduced to four main groups: actuation transmitted through hydraulics, pneumatic actuators, ultrasonic motors based on the piezoceramic principle and remote manual actuation. Progress has been made concerning material selection, position sensing, and different actuation techniques, and design strategies have been implemented to overcome the multiple restrictions imposed by the MRI environment. Most systems lack the clinical validation needed to continue on to commercial products.

  19. Planarians in toxicology. Responses of asexual Dugesia dorotocephala to selected metals

    Kapu, M.M.; Schaeffer, D.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The planarian Dugesia dorotocephala is a freshwater invertebrate found in unpolluted flowing surface waters. Planarians have a sensitive nervous system with synapses and true brain and evidence these in a variety of social and response behaviors. The inclusion of planarians in a screening battery would provide improved sensitivity in detecting toxicity because planarians commonly respond to lower levels of contamination than do other species. Numerous toxicity test have been conducted to determine the acute and chronic effects of toxicants to provide data necessary for the development of water quality criteria. The appropriateness of Illinois water quality standards for metals was investigated using a 1-hr behavioral test based on the responses of the planarian D. dorotocephala. One possible difficulty with water quality standards for metals is that the standard for each metal is usually established without regard to the effects of other metals present in the receiving water.

  20. Neuronal Activation in the Medulla Oblongata during Selective Elicitation of the Laryngeal Adductor Response

    Ambalavanar, Ranjinidevi; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Selbie, W. Scott; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2008-01-01

    Swallow and cough are complex motor patterns elicited by rapid and intense electrical stimulation of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN). The laryngeal adductor response (LAR) includes only a laryngeal response, is elicited by single stimuli to the ISLN, and is thought to represent the brain stem pathway involved in laryngospasm. To identify which regions in the medulla are activated during elicitation of the LAR alone, single electrical stimuli were presented once every 2 s to the ISLN. Two groups of 5 cats each were studied; an experimental group with unilateral ISLN stimulation at 0.5 Hz and a surgical control group. Three additional cats were studied to evaluate whether other oral, pharyngeal or respiratory muscles were activated during ISLN stimulation eliciting LAR. We quantified up to 22 sections for each of 14 structures in the medulla to determine if regions had increased Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in the experimental group. Significant increases (p medulla. PMID:15212423

  1. Thermotolerant yeasts selected by adaptive evolution express heat stress response at 30ºC

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    to grow at increased temperature, activated a constitutive heat stress response when grown at the optimal ancestral temperature, and that this is associated with a reduced growth rate. This preventive response was perfected by additional transcriptional changes activated when the cultivation temperature...... is increased. Remarkably, the sum of global transcriptional changes activated in the thermotolerant strains when transferred from the optimal to the high temperature, corresponded, in magnitude and direction, to the global changes observed in the ancestral strain exposed to the same transition....... This demonstrates robustness of the yeast transcriptional program when exposed to heat, and that the thermotolerant strains streamlined their path to rapidly and optimally reach post-stress transcriptional and metabolic levels. Thus, long-term adaptation to heat improved yeasts ability to rapidly adapt to increased...

  2. Saccade frequency response to visual cues during gait in Parkinson's disease: the selective role of attention.

    Stuart, Samuel; Lord, Sue; Galna, Brook; Rochester, Lynn

    2018-04-01

    Gait impairment is a core feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) with implications for falls risk. Visual cues improve gait in PD, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Evidence suggests that attention and vision play an important role; however, the relative contribution from each is unclear. Measurement of visual exploration (specifically saccade frequency) during gait allows for real-time measurement of attention and vision. Understanding how visual cues influence visual exploration may allow inferences of the underlying mechanisms to response which could help to develop effective therapeutics. This study aimed to examine saccade frequency during gait in response to a visual cue in PD and older adults and investigate the roles of attention and vision in visual cue response in PD. A mobile eye-tracker measured saccade frequency during gait in 55 people with PD and 32 age-matched controls. Participants walked in a straight line with and without a visual cue (50 cm transverse lines) presented under single task and dual-task (concurrent digit span recall). Saccade frequency was reduced when walking in PD compared to controls; however, visual cues ameliorated saccadic deficit. Visual cues significantly increased saccade frequency in both PD and controls under both single task and dual-task. Attention rather than visual function was central to saccade frequency and gait response to visual cues in PD. In conclusion, this study highlights the impact of visual cues on visual exploration when walking and the important role of attention in PD. Understanding these complex features will help inform intervention development. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to selected noxious plant extracts and insecticides.

    Gӧkçe, A; Stelinski, L L; Nortman, D R; Bryan, W W; Whalon, M E

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa-kaolin, H. lupulus-kaolin, and X. strumarium-kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract-kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  4. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) IN THEORY AND IN PRACTICE. SELECTED ISSUES

    Wolska, Grażyna

    2017-01-01

    The increased interest in creating socially responsible business model results from various reasons. The most important ones include: recently frequently acceptable need to apply the so-called sustainable development concept, need for civil society development, increased clarity of business activity and its consequences, including elimination of corruption and unethical behaviour in business and implementation of good practices in relations with a wide group of stakeholders. The study aims at...

  5. The Physiological Response of Soybean Genotypes to VAM Inoculation on Selected Drought Stress Levels

    HAPSOH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Present research was aimed to study physiological changes of soybean which were inoculated with vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM. Glomus etunicatum was exposed to moderate and severe drought condition. Symbiotic association with VAM improved adaptability as it was shown by the increasing leaf proline content. The MLG 3474 and Sindoro are the more tolerant genotypes while the responses of plant to VAM on improving the adaptability to drought were larger on Lokon.

  6. Cloned, CD117 selected human amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of modulating the immune response.

    Emily C Moorefield

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem (AFS cells are broadly multipotent, can be expanded extensively in culture, are not tumorigenic and can be readily cryopreserved for cell banking. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC show immunomodulatory activity and secrete a wide spectrum of cytokines and chemokines that suppress inflammatory responses, block mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR and other immune reactions, and have proven therapeutic against conditions such as graft-versus-host disease. AFS cells resemble MSCs in many respects including surface marker expression and differentiation potential. We therefore hypothesized that AFS cells may exhibit similar immunomodulatory capabilities. We present data to demonstrate that direct contact with AFS cells inhibits lymphocyte activation. In addition, we show that cell-free supernatants derived from AFS cells primed with total blood monocytes or IL-1β, a cytokine released by monocytes and essential in mediation of the inflammatory response, also inhibited lymphocyte activation. Further investigation of AFS cell-free supernatants by protein array revealed secretion of multiple factors in common with MSCs that are known to be involved in immune regulation including growth related oncogene (GRO and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP family members as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6. AFS cells activated by PBMCs released several additional cytokines as compared to BM-MSCs, including macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α, MIP-1α and Activin. AFS cells also released higher levels of MCP-1 and lower levels of MCP-2 compared to BM-MSCs in response to IL-1β activation. This suggests that there may be some AFS-specific mechanisms of inhibition of lymphocyte activation. Our results indicate that AFS cells are able to suppress inflammatory responses in vitro and that soluble factors are an essential component in the communication between lymphocytes and AFS cells. Their extensive self-renewal capacity, possibility for banking and

  7. Using Manipulatives to Teach Elementary Mathematics

    Boggan, Matthew; Harper, Sallie; Whitmire, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the importance and benefits of math manipulatives. For decades, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has encouraged school districts nationwide to use manipulatives in mathematical instruction. The value of manipulatives has been recognized for many years, but some teachers are reluctant to use…

  8. Corporate social responsibility approaches and implementation in selected fast food restaurants

    Emma E. Montalbo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine Corporate Social Responsibility approaches and implementation in Fast Food Restaurants in Batangas City, Philippines. The researchers employed a descriptive design and quantitative method in the analysis of data with the questionnaire as the main instrument. Five (5 restaurant- participants were purposively chosen from the total population of 15. Results showed that CSR related mission/vision is clearly not embedded in the institutional websites of fast food restaurants while personal relation/social proximity approach is highly evident. Also, factors in the implementation of corporate social responsibility in relation to philanthropic behavior, shows a significant behavioral change from the statistical result such as moderately evident. CSR approaches and implementation are highly evident that clearly proves the responsible behavior of local fast food restaurants. Institutional integration of CSR in the company’s mission/vision statements, structure, decisions, activities, communication, practices stated appears to be beneficial in light of new corporate-state-market-society relationship.

  9. Antioxidant activity of seedling growth in selected soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) responses of submergence

    Damanik, R. I.; Marbun, P.; Sihombing, L.

    2016-08-01

    In order to better understand the physiological and biochemical responses relating to direct seeding establishment in soybeans, the plant growth rate and antioxidative defense responses of seedlings in seven Indonesian soybean genotypes (Anjasmoro, Detam-1, Detam-2, Dieng, Grobogan, Tanggamus, and Willis) at different submergence periods (4, and 8 days) were examined. Twelve-day old seedlings were hydroponically grown in limited oxygen conditions. The results showed that the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings was reduced beginning as early as 4 d under submerged condition, except for Detam-1, Detam-2, and Grobogan genotypes. The dry weight and protein concentration of seedlings were significantly higher at control condition (0 d) than those in submerged condition. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased linearly until 8 d submerged for all genotypes. On the other hand, our results showed that catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities did not work together, meaning that CAT is activated and APX deactivated, or vice versa, in response to submergence conditions, except for Grobogan and Tanggamus genotypes which had an effect on both CAT and APX activities. Submergence stress led to a significant increase in glutathione reductase (GR) together with APX activity for Detam-2 and Dieng genotypes at 8 d submerged.

  10. Selected topics in the quantum theory of solids: collective excitations and linear response

    Balakrishnan, V.

    1977-08-01

    This report is based on the lecture notes of a course given at the Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, during the period January-April 1976 for M.Sc. students. The emphasis is on the concept of elementary excitations in many-body systems, and on the technique of linear response theory. Various topics are covered in 7 sections. The second section following the introductory section is on 'second quantization' and includes discussion on creation and destruction operators, multiparticle states, time-dependent operators etc. Section 3 deals with the 'electron gas' and includes discussion on non-interacting Fermi gas, Coulomb interaction and exchange energy, the two-electron correlation function etc. Section 4 deals with the dielectric response analysis of the electron gas and includes discussion on Coulomb interaction in terms of density fluctuations, self-consistent field dielectric function etc. In section 5 the 'linear response theory' is explained. The Liouville operator, Boltzmann's superposition integral, dispersion relations etc. are explained. Quasiparticles and plasmous are discussed in the Section 6. Section 7 deals with 'lattice dynamics and phonons'. In the last section 8, spin waves are explained. The Heisenberg exchange hamiltonian, Green Function for noninteracting magnons etc. are discussed. (author)

  11. Helping reasoners succeed in the Wason selection task: when executive learning discourages heuristic response but does not necessarily encourage logic.

    Sandrine Rossi

    Full Text Available Reasoners make systematic logical errors by giving heuristic responses that reflect deviations from the logical norm. Influential studies have suggested first that our reasoning is often biased because we minimize cognitive effort to surpass a cognitive conflict between heuristic response from system 1 and analytic response from system 2 thinking. Additionally, cognitive control processes might be necessary to inhibit system 1 responses to activate a system 2 response. Previous studies have shown a significant effect of executive learning (EL on adults who have transferred knowledge acquired on the Wason selection task (WST to another isomorphic task, the rule falsification task (RFT. The original paradigm consisted of teaching participants to inhibit a classical matching heuristic that sufficed the first problem and led to significant EL transfer on the second problem. Interestingly, the reasoning tasks differed in inhibiting-heuristic metacognitive cost. Success on the WST requires half-suppression of the matching elements. In contrast, the RFT necessitates a global rejection of the matching elements for a correct answer. Therefore, metacognitive learning difficulty most likely differs depending on whether one uses the first or second task during the learning phase. We aimed to investigate this difficulty and various matching-bias inhibition effects in a new (reversed paradigm. In this case, the transfer effect from the RFT to the WST could be more difficult because the reasoner learns to reject all matching elements in the first task. We observed that the EL leads to a significant reduction in matching selections on the WST without increasing logical performances. Interestingly, the acquired metacognitive knowledge was too "strictly" transferred and discouraged matching rather than encouraging logic. This finding underlines the complexity of learning transfer and adds new evidence to the pedagogy of reasoning.

  12. Helping reasoners succeed in the Wason selection task: when executive learning discourages heuristic response but does not necessarily encourage logic.

    Rossi, Sandrine; Cassotti, Mathieu; Moutier, Sylvain; Delcroix, Nicolas; Houdé, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Reasoners make systematic logical errors by giving heuristic responses that reflect deviations from the logical norm. Influential studies have suggested first that our reasoning is often biased because we minimize cognitive effort to surpass a cognitive conflict between heuristic response from system 1 and analytic response from system 2 thinking. Additionally, cognitive control processes might be necessary to inhibit system 1 responses to activate a system 2 response. Previous studies have shown a significant effect of executive learning (EL) on adults who have transferred knowledge acquired on the Wason selection task (WST) to another isomorphic task, the rule falsification task (RFT). The original paradigm consisted of teaching participants to inhibit a classical matching heuristic that sufficed the first problem and led to significant EL transfer on the second problem. Interestingly, the reasoning tasks differed in inhibiting-heuristic metacognitive cost. Success on the WST requires half-suppression of the matching elements. In contrast, the RFT necessitates a global rejection of the matching elements for a correct answer. Therefore, metacognitive learning difficulty most likely differs depending on whether one uses the first or second task during the learning phase. We aimed to investigate this difficulty and various matching-bias inhibition effects in a new (reversed) paradigm. In this case, the transfer effect from the RFT to the WST could be more difficult because the reasoner learns to reject all matching elements in the first task. We observed that the EL leads to a significant reduction in matching selections on the WST without increasing logical performances. Interestingly, the acquired metacognitive knowledge was too "strictly" transferred and discouraged matching rather than encouraging logic. This finding underlines the complexity of learning transfer and adds new evidence to the pedagogy of reasoning.

  13. Functional characterization of the modified melanocortin peptides responsible for ligand selectivity at the human melanocortin receptors.

    Chen, Min; Georgeson, Keith E; Harmon, Carroll M; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Yang, Yingkui

    2006-11-01

    The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis as well as skin pigmentation, steroidogenesis and exocrine gland function. In this study, we examined eight Ac-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-NH(2) tetrapeptides that were modified at the Phe position and pharmacologically characterized their activities at the human MCR wild-types and their mutants. Our results indicate that at the hMC1R, all D stereochemical modified residues at the Phe position of peptides increase cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. At the hMC3R, the DPhe peptide dose dependently increases cAMP production but all other three tetrapeptides were not. At the hMC4R, both the DPhe and DNal(1') peptides induce cAMP production. However, both DTyr and DNal(2') were not able to induce cAMP production. Further studies indicated that at the hMC1R M128L mutant receptor, the all D-configured tetrapeptides reduce their potencies as compared to that of hMC1R wild-type. However, at the hMC3R and hMC4R L165M and L133M mutant receptors, the DNal(2') and DTyr tetrapeptides possess agonist activity. These findings indicate that DPhe in tetrapeptide plays an important role in ligand selectivity and specific residue TM3 of the melanocortin receptors is crucial for ligand selectivity.

  14. Responses to cholinergic agonists of rats selectively bred for differential sensitivity to ethanol.

    de Fiebre, C M; Romm, E; Collins, J T; Draski, L J; Deitrich, R A; Collins, A C

    1991-03-01

    Alcoholics are almost invariably heavy users of tobacco. Both alcoholism and smoking appear to be influenced by genetic factors but it is not known whether the same or different genes regulate the abuse of ethanol and nicotine. Recent studies have demonstrated that the long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mouse lines, which were selectively bred for differences in ethanol-induced anesthesia ("sleep-time"), also differ in several effects of nicotine and the muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine. In order to determine whether or not these differences are due to chance, the relative sensitivities of rat lines which were selectively bred for differences in ethanol-induced sleep-time were determined. The high alcohol sensitivity (HAS) rat line was more sensitive to the locomotor and body temperature depressant effects of nicotine than was the low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rat line. The control line (CAS) was intermediate in sensitivity. The rat lines did not differ in sensitivity to oxotremorine's hypothermia-producing effects. The numbers and affinities of two classes of brain nicotinic receptors were measured in eight brain regions. No differences among the rat lines were detected. These results suggest that ethanol elicits some of its depressant actions via an effect on brain nicotinic systems, but the differences in sensitivity to ethanol and nicotine are probably not due to differences in the number of brain nicotinic receptors. Perhaps this interaction explains the high correlation between alcoholism and smoking in humans.

  15. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Alhaija, Rana Abu; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  16. First- and Second-Line Targeted Systemic Therapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma—An Update on Patient Selection and Response Evaluation

    Johann von Felden

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with vascular invasion and/or extrahepatic spread and preserved liver function, according to stage C of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC classification, has a dismal prognosis. The multi-targeted tyrosine-kinase receptor inhibitor (TKI sorafenib is the only proven active substance in systemic HCC therapy for first-line treatment. In this review, we summarize current aspects in patient selection and management of side effects, and provide an update on response evaluation during first-line sorafenib therapy. Since second-line treatment options have been improved with the successful completion of the RESORCE trial, demonstrating a survival benefit for second-line treatment with the TKI regorafenib, response monitoring during first-line therapy will be critical to deliver optimal systemic therapy in HCC. To this regard, specific side effects, in particular worsening of arterial hypertension and diarrhea, might suggest treatment response during first-line sorafenib therapy; however, clear predictive clinical markers, as well as laboratory test or serum markers, are not established. Assessment of radiologic response according to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST is helpful to identify patients who do not benefit from sorafenib treatment.

  17. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    Tsangaris, Catherine

    2015-09-23

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  18. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Abu Alhaija, Rana; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  19. Simulation of cooperating robot manipulators on a mobile platform

    Murphy, Steve H.; Wen, John T.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic equations of motion for two manipulators holding a common object on a freely moving mobile platform are developed. The full dynamic interactions from arms to platform and arm-tip to arm-tip are included in the formulation. The development of the closed chain dynamics allows for the use of any solution for the open topological tree of base and manipulator links. In particular, because the system has 18 degrees of freedom, recursive solutions for the dynamic simulation become more promising for efficient calculations of the motion. Simulation of the system is accomplished through a MATLAB program, and the response is visualized graphically using the SILMA Cimstation.

  20. Violence: heightened brain attentional network response is selectively muted in Down syndrome.

    Anderson, Jeffrey S; Treiman, Scott M; Ferguson, Michael A; Nielsen, Jared A; Edgin, Jamie O; Dai, Li; Gerig, Guido; Korenberg, Julie R

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recognize and respond appropriately to threat is critical to survival, and the neural substrates subserving attention to threat may be probed using depictions of media violence. Whether neural responses to potential threat differ in Down syndrome is not known. We performed functional MRI scans of 15 adolescent and adult Down syndrome and 14 typically developing individuals, group matched by age and gender, during 50 min of passive cartoon viewing. Brain activation to auditory and visual features, violence, and presence of the protagonist and antagonist were compared across cartoon segments. fMRI signal from the brain's dorsal attention network was compared to thematic and violent events within the cartoons between Down syndrome and control samples. We found that in typical development, the brain's dorsal attention network was most active during violent scenes in the cartoons and that this was significantly and specifically reduced in Down syndrome. When the antagonist was on screen, there was significantly less activation in the left medial temporal lobe of individuals with Down syndrome. As scenes represented greater relative threat, the disparity between attentional brain activation in Down syndrome and control individuals increased. There was a reduction in the temporal autocorrelation of the dorsal attention network, consistent with a shortened attention span in Down syndrome. Individuals with Down syndrome exhibited significantly reduced activation in primary sensory cortices, and such perceptual impairments may constrain their ability to respond to more complex social cues such as violence. These findings may indicate a relative deficit in emotive perception of violence in Down syndrome, possibly mediated by impaired sensory perception and hypoactivation of medial temporal structures in response to threats, with relative preservation of activity in pro-social brain regions. These findings indicate that specific genetic differences associated