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Sample records for response rate included

  1. Advanced neuroblastoma: improved response rate using a multiagent regimen (OPEC) including sequential cisplatin and VM-26.

    Shafford, E A; Rogers, D W; Pritchard, J

    1984-07-01

    Forty-two children, all over one year of age, were given vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and sequentially timed cisplatin and VM-26 (OPEC) or OPEC and doxorubicin (OPEC-D) as initial treatment for newly diagnosed stage III or IV neuroblastoma. Good partial response was achieved in 31 patients (74%) overall and in 28 (78%) of 36 patients whose treatment adhered to the chemotherapy protocol, compared with a 65% response rate achieved in a previous series of children treated with pulsed cyclophosphamide and vincristine with or without doxorubicin. Only six patients, including two of the six children whose treatment did not adhere to protocol, failed to respond, but there were five early deaths from treatment-related complications. Tumor response to OPEC, which was the less toxic of the two regimens, was at least as good as tumor response to OPEC-D. Cisplatin-induced morbidity was clinically significant in only one patient and was avoided in others by careful monitoring of glomerular filtration rate and hearing. Other centers should test the efficacy of OPEC or equivalent regimens in the treatment of advanced neuroblastoma.

  2. Quantitative analysis of biological responses to low dose-rate γ-radiation, including dose, irradiation time, and dose-rate

    Magae, J.; Furukawa, C.; Kawakami, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Ogata, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Because biological responses to radiation are complex processes dependent on irradiation time as well as total dose, it is necessary to include dose, dose-rate and irradiation time simultaneously to predict the risk of low dose-rate irradiation. In this study, we analyzed quantitative relationship among dose, irradiation time and dose-rate, using chromosomal breakage and proliferation inhibition of human cells. For evaluation of chromosome breakage we assessed micronuclei induced by radiation. U2OS cells, a human osteosarcoma cell line, were exposed to gamma-ray in irradiation room bearing 50,000 Ci 60 Co. After the irradiation, they were cultured for 24 h in the presence of cytochalasin B to block cytokinesis, cytoplasm and nucleus were stained with DAPI and propidium iodide, and the number of binuclear cells bearing micronuclei was determined by fluorescent microscopy. For proliferation inhibition, cells were cultured for 48 h after the irradiation and [3H] thymidine was pulsed for 4 h before harvesting. Dose-rate in the irradiation room was measured with photoluminescence dosimeter. While irradiation time less than 24 h did not affect dose-response curves for both biological responses, they were remarkably attenuated as exposure time increased to more than 7 days. These biological responses were dependent on dose-rate rather than dose when cells were irradiated for 30 days. Moreover, percentage of micronucleus-forming cells cultured continuously for more than 60 days at the constant dose-rate, was gradually decreased in spite of the total dose accumulation. These results suggest that biological responses at low dose-rate, are remarkably affected by exposure time, that they are dependent on dose-rate rather than total dose in the case of long-term irradiation, and that cells are getting resistant to radiation after the continuous irradiation for 2 months. It is necessary to include effect of irradiation time and dose-rate sufficiently to evaluate risk

  3. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine.

    Kuranishi, Fumito; Imaoka, Yuki; Sumi, Yuusuke; Uemae, Yoji; Yasuda-Kurihara, Hiroko; Ishihara, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Ohno, Tadao

    2018-01-01

    No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR) of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20) after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months) and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988-2002) and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999-2007). Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  4. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine

    Fumito Kuranishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV. Patients and Methods. AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Results. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20 after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988–2002 and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999–2007. Conclusion. Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  5. Heart rate response to breathing

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...... level. The difference between the fastest and the slowest heart rates was significantly larger in response to inspiration (21.7 +/- 7.3 beats per minute) than in response to expiration (12.0 +/- 7.3 beats per minute; P less than 0.01). Periodic changes in lung volume were performed with frequencies from...

  6. Inferring time derivatives including cell growth rates using Gaussian processes

    Swain, Peter S.; Stevenson, Keiran; Leary, Allen; Montano-Gutierrez, Luis F.; Clark, Ivan B. N.; Vogel, Jackie; Pilizota, Teuta

    2016-12-01

    Often the time derivative of a measured variable is of as much interest as the variable itself. For a growing population of biological cells, for example, the population's growth rate is typically more important than its size. Here we introduce a non-parametric method to infer first and second time derivatives as a function of time from time-series data. Our approach is based on Gaussian processes and applies to a wide range of data. In tests, the method is at least as accurate as others, but has several advantages: it estimates errors both in the inference and in any summary statistics, such as lag times, and allows interpolation with the corresponding error estimation. As illustrations, we infer growth rates of microbial cells, the rate of assembly of an amyloid fibril and both the speed and acceleration of two separating spindle pole bodies. Our algorithm should thus be broadly applicable.

  7. Smart Farming: Including Rights Holders for Responsible Agricultural Innovation

    Kelly Bronson

    2018-01-01

    This article draws on the literature of responsible innovation to suggest concrete processes for including rights holders in the “smart” agricultural revolution. It first draws upon historical agricultural research in Canada to highlight how productivist values drove seed innovations with particular consequences for the distribution of power in the food system. Next, the article uses document analysis to suggest that a similar value framework is motivating public investment in smart farming i...

  8. Aggregated Demand Modelling Including Distributed Generation, Storage and Demand Response

    Marzooghi, Hesamoddin; Hill, David J.; Verbic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    It is anticipated that penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in power systems will increase further in the next decades mainly due to environmental issues. In the long term of several decades, which we refer to in terms of the future grid (FG), balancing between supply and demand will become dependent on demand actions including demand response (DR) and energy storage. So far, FG feasibility studies have not considered these new demand-side developments for modelling future demand. I...

  9. A consistent response spectrum analysis including the resonance range

    Schmitz, D.; Simmchen, A.

    1983-01-01

    The report provides a complete consistent Response Spectrum Analysis for any component. The effect of supports with different excitation is taken into consideration, at is the description of the resonance ranges. It includes information explaining how the contributions of the eigenforms with higher eigenfrequencies are to be considered. Stocking of floor response spectra is also possible using the method described here. However, modified floor response spectra must now be calculated for each building mode. Once these have been prepared, the calculation of the dynamic component values is practically no more complicated than with the conventional, non-consistent methods. The consistent Response Spectrum Analysis can supply smaller and larger values than the conventional theory, a fact which can be demonstrated using simple examples. The report contains a consistent Response Spectrum Analysis (RSA), which, as far as we know, has been formulated in this way for the first time. A consistent RSA is so important because today this method is preferentially applied as an important tool for the earthquake proof of components in nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  10. Smart Farming: Including Rights Holders for Responsible Agricultural Innovation

    Kelly Bronson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on the literature of responsible innovation to suggest concrete processes for including rights holders in the “smart” agricultural revolution. It first draws upon historical agricultural research in Canada to highlight how productivist values drove seed innovations with particular consequences for the distribution of power in the food system. Next, the article uses document analysis to suggest that a similar value framework is motivating public investment in smart farming innovations. The article is of interest to smart farming’s decision makers (from farmers to governance actors and a broader audience – anyone interested in engendering equity through innovation-led societal transitions.

  11. Including dynamic CO2 intensity with demand response

    Stoll, Pia; Brandt, Nils; Nordström, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Hourly demand response tariffs with the intention of reducing or shifting loads during peak demand hours are being intensively discussed among policy-makers, researchers and executives of future electricity systems. Demand response rates have still low customer acceptance, apparently because the consumption habits requires stronger incentive to change than any proposed financial incentive. An hourly CO 2 intensity signal could give customers an extra environmental motivation to shift or reduce loads during peak hours, as it would enable co-optimisation of electricity consumption costs and carbon emissions reductions. In this study, we calculated the hourly dynamic CO 2 signal and applied the calculation to hourly electricity market data in Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. This provided a novel understanding of the relationships between hourly electricity generation mix composition, electricity price and electricity mix CO 2 intensity. Load shifts from high-price hours resulted in carbon emission reductions for electricity generation mixes where price and CO 2 intensity were positively correlated. The reduction can be further improved if the shift is optimised using both price and CO 2 intensity. The analysis also indicated that an hourly CO 2 intensity signal can help avoid carbon emissions increases for mixes with a negative correlation between electricity price and CO 2 intensity. - Highlights: • We present a formula for calculating hybrid dynamic CO 2 intensity of electricity generation mixes. • We apply the dynamic CO 2 Intensity on hourly electricity market prices and generation units for Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. • We calculate the spearman correlation between hourly electricity market price and dynamic CO 2 intensity for Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. • We calculate carbon footprint of shifting 1 kWh load daily from on-peak hours to off-peak hours using the dynamic CO 2 intensity. • We conclude that using dynamic CO 2 intensity for

  12. Baseline response rates affect resistance to change.

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Cook, James E; Lattal, Kennon A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of response rates on resistance to change, measured as resistance to extinction, was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, responding in transition from a variable-ratio schedule and its yoked-interval counterpart to extinction was compared with pigeons. Following training on a multiple variable-ratio yoked-interval schedule of reinforcement, in which response rates were higher in the former component, reinforcement was removed from both components during a single extended extinction session. Resistance to extinction in the yoked-interval component was always either greater or equal to that in the variable-ratio component. In Experiment 2, resistance to extinction was compared for two groups of rats that exhibited either high or low response rates when maintained on identical variable-interval schedules. Resistance to extinction was greater for the lower-response-rate group. These results suggest that baseline response rate can contribute to resistance to change. Such effects, however, can only be revealed when baseline response rate and reinforcement rate are disentangled (Experiments 1 and 2) from the more usual circumstance where the two covary. Furthermore, they are more cleanly revealed when the programmed contingencies controlling high and low response rates are identical, as in Experiment 2. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  13. Hierarchical Energy Management of Microgrids including Storage and Demand Response

    Songli Fan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage (BES and demand response (DR are considered to be promising technologies to cope with the uncertainty of renewable energy sources (RES and the load in the microgrid (MG. Considering the distinct prediction accuracies of the RES and load at different timescales, it is essential to incorporate the multi-timescale characteristics of BES and DR in MG energy management. Under this background, a hierarchical energy management framework is put forward for an MG including multi-timescale BES and DR to optimize operation with the uncertainty of RES as well as load. This framework comprises three stages of scheduling: day-ahead scheduling (DAS, hour-ahead scheduling (HAS, and real-time scheduling (RTS. In DAS, a scenario-based stochastic optimization model is established to minimize the expected operating cost of MG, while ensuring its safe operation. The HAS is utilized to bridge DAS and RTS. In RTS, a control strategy is proposed to eliminate the imbalanced power owing to the fluctuations of RES and load. Then, a decomposition-based algorithm is adopted to settle the models in DAS and HAS. Simulation results on a seven-bus MG validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  14. Improving Survey Response Rates in Online Panels

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Nielsen, Christian Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    Identifying ways to efficiently maximize the response rate to surveys is important to survey-based research. However, evidence on the response rate effect of donation incentives and especially altruistic and egotistic-type text appeal interventions is sparse and ambiguous. By a randomized survey...... experiment among 6,162 members of an online survey panel, this article shows how low-cost incentives and cost-free text appeal interventions may impact the survey response rate in online panels. The experimental treatments comprise (a) a cash prize lottery incentive, (b) two donation incentives equating...... survey response with a monetary donation to a good cause, (c) an egotistic-type text appeal, and (d) an altruistic-type text appeal. Relative to a control group, we find higher response rates among the recipients of the egotistic-type text appeal and the lottery incentive. Donation incentives yield lower...

  15. Aging and physiological changes of the kidneys including changes in glomerular filtration rate.

    Musso, Carlos G; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios G

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the structural changes in the kidney associated with aging, physiological changes in renal function are also found in older adults, such as decreased glomerular filtration rate, vascular dysautonomia, altered tubular handling of creatinine, reduction in sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion, and diminished renal reserve. These alterations make aged individuals susceptible to the development of clinical conditions in response to usual stimuli that would otherwise be compensated for in younger individuals, including acute kidney injury, volume depletion and overload, disorders of serum sodium and potassium concentration, and toxic reactions to water-soluble drugs excreted by the kidneys. Additionally, the preservation with aging of a normal urinalysis, normal serum urea and creatinine values, erythropoietin synthesis, and normal phosphorus, calcium and magnesium tubular handling distinguishes decreased GFR due to normal aging from that due to chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. 75 FR 61747 - Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-10-06

    ... of Union Leader Corporation's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2780-000] Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section...

  17. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2233-000] Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting...

  18. Crop yield response to increasing biochar rates

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  19. Response rate and reinforcement rate in Pavlovian conditioning.

    Harris, Justin A; Carpenter, Joanne S

    2011-10-01

    Four experiments used delay conditioning of magazine approach in rats to investigate the relationship between the rate of responding, R, to a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the rate, r, at which the CS is reinforced with the unconditioned stimulus (US). Rats were concurrently trained with four variable-duration CSs with different rs, either as a result of differences in the mean CS-US interval or in the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US. In each case, R was systematically related to r, and the relationship was very accurately characterized by a hyperbolic function, R = Ar/(r +c). Accordingly, the reciprocal of these two variables-response interval, I (= 1/R), and CS-US interval, i (= 1/r) - were related by a simple affine (straight line) transformation, I = mi+b. This latter relationship shows that each increment in the time that the rats had to wait for food produced a linear increment in the time they waited between magazine entries. We discuss the close agreement between our findings and the Matching Law (Herrnstein, 1970) and consider their implications for both associative theories (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) and nonassociative theories (Gallistel & Gibbon, 2000) of conditioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Maximising nurses' and midwives' response rates to surveys.

    Cooper, Alannah Louise; Brown, Janie

    2017-12-18

    Low response rates to surveys have been a long-standing issue in research. This includes research involving nurses and midwives. To gain representative samples, appropriate measures to maximise response rates need to be used. To explore ways to maximise response rates from nurses and midwives, using a hospital-wide survey as an example. All nurses and midwives at the study hospital were invited to participate in a survey. To encourage participation and elicit an adequate response rate, several strategies were used. A total of 1,000 surveys were distributed and 319 (32%) were returned. All the required age groups, levels of experience and types of nursing registration were represented in the responses and data saturation was achieved. It is important to pay attention to obtaining a representative sample. Further investigation of response rates to surveys by nurses and midwives is warranted. Strategies to maximise response rates from a target population should be used when conducting surveys. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  1. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should......The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...

  2. 78 FR 75560 - Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2013-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-506-000] Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Biofuels...

  3. 77 FR 60984 - World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2654-001] World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of World Digital...

  4. Biological responses to low dose rate gamma radiation

    Magae, Junji; Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2003-01-01

    Linear non-threshold (LNT) theory is a basic theory for radioprotection. While LNT dose not consider irradiation time or dose-rate, biological responses to radiation are complex processes dependent on irradiation time as well as total dose. Moreover, experimental and epidemiological studies that can evaluate LNT at low dose/low dose-rate are not sufficiently accumulated. Here we analyzed quantitative relationship among dose, dose-rate and irradiation time using chromosomal breakage and proliferation inhibition of human cells as indicators of biological responses. We also acquired quantitative data at low doses that can evaluate adaptability of LNT with statistically sufficient accuracy. Our results demonstrate that biological responses at low dose-rate are remarkably affected by exposure time, and they are dependent on dose-rate rather than total dose in long-term irradiation. We also found that change of biological responses at low dose was not linearly correlated to dose. These results suggest that it is necessary for us to create a new model which sufficiently includes dose-rate effect and correctly fits of actual experimental and epidemiological results to evaluate risk of radiation at low dose/low dose-rate. (author)

  5. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, Per; Donovan, E R

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection...... on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols...... and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR...

  6. A High-Rate, Single-Crystal Model including Phase Transformations, Plastic Slip, and Twinning

    Addessio, Francis L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bolme, Cynthia Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Explosive Science and Shock Physics Division; Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cerreta, Ellen Kathleen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lebensohn, Ricardo A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lookman, Turab [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Luscher, Darby Jon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Mayeur, Jason Rhea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Morrow, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Rigg, Paulo A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Inst. for Shock Physics

    2016-08-09

    An anisotropic, rate-­dependent, single-­crystal approach for modeling materials under the conditions of high strain rates and pressures is provided. The model includes the effects of large deformations, nonlinear elasticity, phase transformations, and plastic slip and twinning. It is envisioned that the model may be used to examine these coupled effects on the local deformation of materials that are subjected to ballistic impact or explosive loading. The model is formulated using a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. A plate impact experiment on a multi-­crystal sample of titanium was conducted. The particle velocities at the back surface of three crystal orientations relative to the direction of impact were measured. Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the details of the high-­rate deformation and pursue issues related to the phase transformation for titanium. Simulations using the single crystal model were conducted and compared to the high-­rate experimental data for the impact loaded single crystals. The model was found to capture the features of the experiments.

  7. Dose-rate dependence of thermoluminescence response

    McKeever, S.W.S.; Chen, R.; Groom, P.J.; Durrani, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The previously observed dose-rate effect of thermoluminescence in quartz at high dose-rates is given at theoretical formulation. Computer calculations simulating the experimental conditions yield similar results to the experimental ones. (orig.)

  8. Response of human fibroblasts to low dose rate gamma irradiation

    Dritschilo, A.; Brennan, T.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Cells from 11 human strains, including fibroblasts from patients with the genetic diseases of ataxia telangiectasia (AT), xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), and Fanconi's anemia (FA), were exposed to γ radiation at high (1.6-2.2 Gy/min) and at low (0.03-0.07 Gy/min) dose rates. Survival curves reveal an increase inthe terminal slope (D 0 ) when cells are irradiated at low dose rates compared to high dose rates. This was true for all cell lines tested, although the AT, FA, and XP cells are reported or postulated to have radiation repair deficiencies. From the response of these cells, it is apparent that radiation sensitivities differ; however, at low dose rate, all tested human cells are able to repair injury

  9. Exporter Price Response to Exchange Rate Changes

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund

    Firms exporting to foreign markets face a particular challenge: to price their exports in a foreign market when the exchange rate changes. This paper takes on pricing- to-market using a unique data set that covers rm level monthly trade at great detail. As opposed to annual trade ows, monthly trade...... theoretical contributions to the litterature on pricing-to-market and exchange rate pass-through....

  10. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    Larsen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    btween the demand rate and the production rate which minimizes unit production costs, and should be used in an increasing order. Then, given the production rates, we derive closed-form expressions for all optimal runtimes as well as the minimum average cost. This analysis reveals that it is the size...... of the setup cost that determines the need for being able to use several production rates. Finally, we show how to derive a near-optimal solution of the general problem....

  11. Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise

    Lundby, C; Møller, P; Kanstrup, I L

    2001-01-01

    progressively decreased the maximal heart rate from day 1 and onwards; also, hypoxia by itself increased plasma noradrenaline levels after maximal exercise. Domperidone further increased maximal noradrenaline concentrations, but had no effect on maximal heart rate. On each study day at altitude, oxygen......This study examined the effects of dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade on the early decrease in maximal heart rate at high altitude (4559 m). We also attempted to clarify the time-dependent component of this reduction and the extent to which it is reversed by oxygen breathing. Twelve subjects performed...... two consecutive maximal exercise tests, without and with oxygen supplementation respectively, at sea level and after 1, 3 and 5 days at altitude. On each study day, domperidone (30 mg; n=6) or no medication (n=6) was given 1 h before the first exercise session. Compared with sea level, hypoxia...

  12. INCLUDING INTANGIBLE ASSETS IN RATES TO ESTIMATE THE RISK OF BANKRUPTCY

    Eugenia IANCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show that an economic entity’s intangible assets play an important role in predicting the risk of bankruptcy of the company and at the same time in its evolution. Based on benchmarking and on appeal to the experience and intuition of available human expert it can be shaped a credible model and, based on this model can be projected the future course of a business organization. Among other issues, we note that the intangible assets of a company can and should be entered into the equation for estimating the risk of bankruptcy whether it avails or not to artificial intelligence (AI techniques to solve this problem (values lead to bankruptcy and the graphics functions differ majorly when the analysis includes the Rhine rate which takes into account intangibles of firms. From the structure of the paper we can see that whatever the type of model used in predicting the risk of bankruptcy at either classic or using artificial intelligence techniques (AI a leading role in the evolution and the value of the company represents intangible.

  13. The economic production lot size model extended to include more than one production rate

    Larsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    production rates should be chosen in the interval between the demand rate and the production rate which minimizes unit production costs, and should be used in an increasing order. Then, given the production rates, we derive closed-form expressions for all optimal runtimes as well as the minimum average cost....... This analysis reveals that it is the size of the setup cost that determines the need for being able to use several production rates. We also show how to derive a near-optimal solution of the general problem....

  14. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    Mould, Richard F.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method

  15. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    Mould, Richard F

    1995-07-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method.

  16. Loss and thermal model for power semiconductors including device rating information

    Ma, Ke; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    The electrical loading and device rating are both important factors that determine the loss and thermal behaviors of power semiconductor devices. In the existing loss and thermal models, only the electrical loadings are focused and treated as design variables, while the device rating is normally...

  17. Some considerations of ''cold fusion'' including the calculation of fusion rates in molecules of hydrogen isotopes

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1989-11-01

    We calculate the fusion reaction rates in molecules of hydrogen isotopes. The rates are calculated analytically (for the first time) as an asymptotic expansion in the ratio of the electron mass to the reduced mass of the nucleii. The fusion rates of the P-D, D-D, and D-T reactions are given for a variable electron mass by a simple analytic formula. However, we do not know any mechanism by which a sufficiently localized electron in solid can have an 'effective mass' large enough to explain the result of Fleischman and Pons (FP). This calculation indicates that P-D rates should exceed D-D rates for D-D fusion rates less than approximately 10 -23 per molecule per second. The D-D fusion rate is enhanced by a factor of 10 5 at 10,000 degree K if the excited vibrational states are populated with a Boltzmann distribution and the rotational excitations suppressed. The suggestion that experimental results could be explained by bombardment of cold deuterons by kilovolt deuterons is shown to be an unlikely from an energetic point of view. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Muon cycling rate in D/T mixture including doubly muonic molecule formation

    M. R. Eskandari

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available   In the present work, the fundamental behavior of four body molecule formations of pt μμ , pd μμ , dt μμ , tt μμ , and pp μμ in a D/T fusion are considered. Their higher fusion rate, specially the available data for dt μμ , encouraged us to study the muon cycling rate in D/T fusion in the temperature range of (100-1400 K, density and deuterium-tritium concentration ratio. For this purpose, various values for the doubly muonic molecule formation are chosen and with the comparison to the experimental results, the doubly muonic formation rate of 109 s-1 is predicted theoretically. Our calculated cycling rate has shown that having not considered the doubly muonic formation in previous calculations had made no serious changes in the previously calculated values.

  19. Heart rate responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by structural alterations and dysfunction in central autonomic regulatory regions, which may impair dynamic and static cardiovascular regulation, and contribute to other syndrome pathologies. Characterizing cardiovascular responses to autonomic challenges may provide insights into central nervous system impairments, including contributions by sex, since structural alterations are enhanced in OSA females over males. The objective was to assess heart rate responses in OSA versus healthy control subjects to autonomic challenges, and, separately, characterize female and male patterns. We studied 94 subjects, including 37 newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA patients (6 female, age mean ± std: 52.1 ± 8.1 years; 31 male aged 54.3 ± 8.4 years, and 57 healthy control subjects (20 female, 50.5 ± 8.1 years; 37 male, 45.6 ± 9.2 years. We measured instantaneous heart rate with pulse oximetry during cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. All challenges elicited significant heart rate differences between OSA and control groups during and after challenges (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. In post-hoc analyses, OSA females showed greater impairments than OSA males, which included: for cold pressor, lower initial increase (OSA vs. control: 9.5 vs. 7.3 bpm in females, 7.6 vs. 3.7 bpm in males, OSA delay to initial peak (2.5 s females/0.9 s males, slower mid-challenge rate-of-increase (OSA vs. control: -0.11 vs. 0.09 bpm/s in females, 0.03 vs. 0.06 bpm/s in males; for hand grip, lower initial peak (OSA vs. control: 2.6 vs. 4.6 bpm in females, 5.3 vs. 6.0 bpm in males; for Valsalva maneuver, lower Valsalva ratio (OSA vs. control: 1.14 vs. 1.30 in females, 1.29 vs. 1.34 in males, and OSA delay during phase II (0.68 s females/1.31 s males. Heart rate responses showed lower amplitude, delayed onset, and slower rate changes in OSA patients over healthy controls, and impairments may be more pronounced in

  20. A Comparison of Response Rate, Response Time, and Costs of Mail and Electronic Surveys.

    Shannon, David M.; Bradshaw, Carol C.

    2002-01-01

    Compared response rates, response time, and costs of mail and electronic surveys using a sample of 377 college faculty members. Mail surveys yielded a higher response rate and a lower rate of undeliverable surveys, but response time was longer and costs were higher than for electronic surveys. (SLD)

  1. What Do K-12 Teachers Think about Including Student Surveys in Their Performance Ratings?

    Dretzke, Beverly J.; Sheldon, Timothy D.; Lim, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated K-12 teachers' opinions about the use of student surveys as a component of a teacher evaluation system. Surveys were administered to teachers at the beginning of the school year and again in the spring. Analyses of teachers' responses on the fall survey indicated tentative support for the inclusion of student feedback in…

  2. Complete Loss and Thermal Model of Power Semiconductors Including Device Rating Information

    Ma, Ke; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    Thermal loading of power devices are closely related to the reliability performance of the whole converter system. The electrical loading and device rating are both important factors that determine the loss and thermal behaviors of power semiconductor devices. In the existing loss and thermal...

  3. Wenckebach upper rate response in single chamber pacemaker.

    Barold, S S

    2000-07-01

    The Medtronic Minix pacemaker during normal function in the VVT mode was found to exhibit a Wenckenbach upper rate response similar to that of dual chamber devices. This behavior occurred only when the upper rate interval was longer than the pacemaker refractory period. In a single chamber device this response may simulate pacemaker malfunction.

  4. 77 FR 64980 - Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-33-000] Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  5. 77 FR 53884 - North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2444-000] North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... North Sky River Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  6. 75 FR 10244 - TC Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-792-000] TC Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of TC Energy Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  7. 78 FR 34371 - Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1561-000] Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Centinela Solar Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  8. 77 FR 57082 - Prairie Rose Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2542-000] Prairie Rose Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Rose Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  9. 75 FR 80486 - Sustainable Star, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    2010-12-22

    ... proceeding of Sustainable Star, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2354-000] Sustainable Star, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  10. 78 FR 36768 - Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1667-000] Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  11. 76 FR 77815 - Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2011-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-543-000] Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Ethical Electric Benefit Co.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  12. 77 FR 30274 - Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-05-22

    ... Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  13. 78 FR 56691 - Sapphire Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2013-09-13

    ... Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Sapphire Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  14. 75 FR 24941 - PBF Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-05-06

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of PBF Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  15. 78 FR 28837 - Myotis Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2013-05-16

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  16. 77 FR 53197 - Raven Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-08-31

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  17. 78 FR 20910 - Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2013-04-08

    ... Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  18. 76 FR 43684 - Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4041-000] Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  19. 78 FR 26771 - Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2013-05-08

    ... Wind Power Corporation's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1346-000] Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  20. 77 FR 62510 - Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-10-15

    ... Wind Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-17-000] Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  1. 75 FR 57016 - Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2541-000] Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Maple Analytics, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  2. 76 FR 69267 - Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2011-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-225-000] Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  3. 77 FR 47625 - Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2311-000] Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  4. 76 FR 6614 - Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    2011-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2765-000] Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Elk Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  5. 77 FR 21555 - Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1400-000] Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  6. 77 FR 47625 - Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2313-000] Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request For... Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  7. 77 FR 41400 - Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2200-000] Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  8. 77 FR 24697 - Cooper Mountain Solar 2, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1566-000] Cooper Mountain Solar 2, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Cooper Mountain Solar 2, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  9. 76 FR 44322 - Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2011-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4055-000] Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  10. 76 FR 79169 - Power Network New Mexico, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2011-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-605-000] Power Network New Mexico, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Power Network New Mexico, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  11. 75 FR 70739 - Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2021-000] Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Domtar A.W. LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  12. 75 FR 70738 - Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2021-000] Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Domtar A.W. LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  13. 75 FR 359 - Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-468-000] Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Google Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  14. 75 FR 18202 - Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-956-000] Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Vantage Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  15. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate.

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, P; Donovan, E R; Labocha, M K; Sears, M W; Downs, C J; Sorensen, D A; Hayes, J P

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, higher (2.5%). Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (5.3%) in antagonistically selected lines, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, lower (4.2%). Analysis of breeding values revealed no positive genetic trend for elevated BMR in high-MMR lines. A weak positive genetic correlation was detected between MMR and BMR. That weak positive genetic correlation supports the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy in the sense that it fails to falsify a key model assumption. Overall, the results suggest that at least in these mice there is significant capacity for independent evolution of metabolic traits. Whether that is true in the ancestral animals that evolved endothermy remains an important but unanswered question.

  16. The transcriptional regulatory network in the drought response and its crosstalk in abiotic stress responses including drought, cold and heat

    Kazuo eNakashima

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress conditions, and the ABA-responsive element (ABRE is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. Transcription factors (TFs are master regulators of gene expression. ABRE-binding protein (AREB and ABRE-binding factor (ABF TFs control gene expression in an ABA-dependent manner. SNF1-related protein kinases 2, group A 2C-type protein phosphatases, and ABA receptors were shown to control the ABA signaling pathway. ABA-independent signaling pathways such as dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB TFs and NAC TFs are also involved in stress responses including drought, heat and cold. Recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress responses. The important roles of these transcription factors in crosstalk among abiotic stress responses will be discussed. Control of ABA or stress signaling factor expression can improve tolerance to environmental stresses. Recent studies using crops have shown that stress-specific overexpression of TFs improves drought tolerance and grain yield compared with controls in the field.

  17. The transcriptional regulatory network in the drought response and its crosstalk in abiotic stress responses including drought, cold, and heat.

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA) is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress conditions, and the ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of gene expression. ABRE-binding protein and ABRE-binding factor TFs control gene expression in an ABA-dependent manner. SNF1-related protein kinases 2, group A 2C-type protein phosphatases, and ABA receptors were shown to control the ABA signaling pathway. ABA-independent signaling pathways such as dehydration-responsive element-binding protein TFs and NAC TFs are also involved in stress responses including drought, heat, and cold. Recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress responses. The important roles of these TFs in crosstalk among abiotic stress responses will be discussed. Control of ABA or stress signaling factor expression can improve tolerance to environmental stresses. Recent studies using crops have shown that stress-specific overexpression of TFs improves drought tolerance and grain yield compared with controls in the field.

  18. Improving completion rates in adult education through social responsibility

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled “New Roles for the Teacher—Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility,” which sought to reduce nonattendance and dropout rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving...... of reducing drop-out rates. As a consequence, the teachers acted more consistently and purposefully to prevent dropout, and a positive effect of the intervention on drop-out rates was documented....

  19. Transient Response Dynamic Module Modifications to Include Static and Kinetic Friction Effects

    Misel, J. E.; Nenno, S. B.; Takahashi, D.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology that supports forced transient response dynamic solutions when both static and kinetic friction effects are included in a structural system model is described. Modifications that support this type of nonlinear transient response solution are summarized for the transient response dynamics (TRD) NASTRAN module. An overview of specific modifications for the NASTRAN processing subroutines, INITL, TRD1C, and TRD1D, are described with further details regarding inspection of nonlinear input definitions to define the type of nonlinear solution required, along with additional initialization requirements and specific calculation subroutines to successfully solve the transient response problem. The extension of the basic NASTRAN nonlinear methodology is presented through several stages of development to the point where constraint equations and residual flexibility effects are introduced into the finite difference Newmark-Beta recurrsion formulas. Particular emphasis is placed on cost effective solutions for large finite element models such as the Space Shuttle with friction degrees of freedom between the orbiter and payloads mounted in the cargo bay. An alteration to the dynamic finite difference equations of motion is discussed, which allows one to include friction effects at reasonable cost for large structural systems such as the Space Shuttle. Data are presented to indicate the possible impact of transient friction loads to the payload designer for the Space Shuttle. Transient response solution data are also included, which compare solutions without friction forces and those with friction forces for payloads mounted in the Space Shuttle cargo bay. These data indicate that payload components can be sensitive to friction induced loads.

  20. 75 FR 76726 - San Luis Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    2010-12-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2196-000] San Luis Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of San Luis [[Page 76727

  1. 75 FR 10245 - S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-735-000] S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  2. 75 FR 70742 - AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2036-000] AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of AES Laurel Mountain, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  3. 75 FR 27339 - Blackstone Wind Farm II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1184-000] Blackstone Wind Farm II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Blackstone Wind Farm, LLCs application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  4. 75 FR 76727 - Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-12-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2201-000] Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  5. 75 FR 52321 - Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-08-25

    ... proceeding, of Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1720-000] Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  6. 75 FR 42745 - Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1725-000] Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  7. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2166-000] Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (USA) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  8. 75 FR 61747 - Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-10-06

    ... proceeding of Discount Energy Group, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2803-000] Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  9. 76 FR 2368 - Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2011-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2331-000] Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Balance Power Systems, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  10. 75 FR 37430 - Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1470-000] Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  11. 75 FR 71426 - North Community Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2107-000] North Community Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of North Community Turbines, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  12. 75 FR 68352 - Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-1893-000] Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  13. 75 FR 71425 - North Wind Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-11-23

    ... proceeding, of North Wind Turbines, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2108-000] North Wind Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  14. 75 FR 82381 - Oracle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2436-000] Oracle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Oracle Energy Services, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  15. 75 FR 52528 - FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2268-000] FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of FC Landfill Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  16. 75 FR 70738 - Gulf Oil Limited Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-11-18

    ... Limited Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Gulf Oil Limited Partnership's application for market-based rate authority, with an... CFR Part 34, of future issuances of securities and assumptions of liability. Any person desiring to...

  17. Improving Completion Rates in Adult Education through Social Responsibility

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…

  18. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.

  19. Habituation of the cold shock response may include a significant perceptual component.

    Barwood, Martin J; Corbett, Jo; Wagstaff, Christopher R D

    2014-02-01

    Accidental immersion in cold water is a risk factor for many occupations. Habituation to cold-water immersion (CWI) is one practical means of reducing the cold shock response (CSR) on immersion. We investigated whether repeated thermoneutral water immersion (TWI) induced a perceptual habituation (i.e., could lessen perceived threat and anxiety) and consequently reduce the CSR on subsequent CWI. There were 12 subjects who completed seven 7-min head-out immersions. Immersions one and seven were CWls [15.0 (0.1) degrees C], and immersions two to six were TWI [34.9 (0.10) degrees C]. Anxiety 120-cm visual analogue scale) and the cardiorespiratory responses [heart rate (f(C)), respiratory frequency (f(R)), tidal volume (V(T)), and minute ventilation (V(E))] to immersion were measured throughout. Data were compared within subject between conditions using ANOVA to an alpha level of 0.05. Acute anxiety was significantly reduced after repeated exposure to the immersion scenario (i.e., TWI): CWI-1: 6.3 (4.4) cm; and CWI-2: 4.5 (4.0) cm [condition mean (SD)]. These differences did not influence the peak in the CSR. The f(C), f(R), and V(E) responses were similar between CWI-1 and CWI-2. V(T) response was significantly lower in CWI-2; mean (SD) across the immersion: CWI-1 1.27 (0.17) vs. CWI-2 1.11 0.21 L. Repeated TWI lessened the anxiety associated with CWI (perceptual habituation). This had a negligible effect on the primary components of the CSR, but did lower VT, which may reduce the volume of any aspirated water in an emergency situation. Reducing the threat appraisal of an environmental stressor may be a useful biproduct of survival training, thereby minimizing psychophysiological strain.

  20. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats.

    Gunia, M; Phocas, F; Gourdine, J-L; Bijma, P; Mandonnet, N

    2013-02-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasite resistance and resilience traits. The overall breeding goal included traits for production, reproduction, and parasite resilience and resistance to ensure a balanced selection outcome. The production traits were BW and dressing percentage (DP). The reproduction trait was fertility (FER), which was the number of doe kiddings per mating. The resistance trait was worm fecal egg count (FEC), which is a measurement of the number of gastro-intestinal parasite eggs found in the feces. The resilience trait was the packed cell volume (PCV), which is a measurement of the volume of red blood cells in the blood. Dressing percentage, BW, and FEC were measured at 11 mo of age, which is the mating or selling age. Fertility and PCV were measured on females at each kidding period. The breeding program accounting for the overall breeding goal and a selection index including all traits gave annual selection responses of 800 g for BW, 3.75% for FER, 0.08% for DP, -0.005 ln(eggs/g) for FEC, and 0.28% for PCV. The expected selection responses for BW and DP in this breeding program were reduced by 2% and 6%, respectively, compared with a breeding program not accounting for FEC and PCV. The overall breeding program, proposed for the Creole breed, offers the best breeding strategy in terms of expected selection responses, making it possible to improve all traits together. It offers a good balance between production and adaptation traits and may present some interest for the selection of other goat breeds in the tropics.

  1. Growth and development rates have different thermal responses.

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Growth and development rates are fundamental to all living organisms. In a warming world, it is important to determine how these rates will respond to increasing temperatures. It is often assumed that the thermal responses of physiological rates are coupled to metabolic rate and thus have the same temperature dependence. However, the existence of the temperature-size rule suggests that intraspecific growth and development are decoupled. Decoupling of these rates would have important consequences for individual species and ecosystems, yet this has not been tested systematically across a range of species. We conducted an analysis on growth and development rate data compiled from the literature for a well-studied group, marine pelagic copepods, and use an information-theoretic approach to test which equations best describe these rates. Growth and development rates were best characterized by models with significantly different parameters: development has stronger temperature dependence than does growth across all life stages. As such, it is incorrect to assume that these rates have the same temperature dependence. We used the best-fit models for these rates to predict changes in organism mass in response to temperature. These predictions follow a concave relationship, which complicates attempts to model the impacts of increasing global temperatures on species body size.

  2. MONTEC, an interactive fortran program to simulate radiation dose and dose-rate responses of populations

    Perry, K.A.; Szekely, J.G.

    1983-09-01

    The computer program MONTEC was written to simulate the distribution of responses in a population whose members are exposed to multiple radiation doses at variable dose rates. These doses and dose rates are randomly selected from lognormal distributions. The individual radiation responses are calculated from three equations, which include dose and dose-rate terms. Other response-dose/rate relationships or distributions can be incorporated by the user as the need arises. The purpose of this documentation is to provide a complete operating manual for the program. This version is written in FORTRAN-10 for the DEC system PDP-10

  3. Investigation on plasmonic responses in multilayered nanospheres including asymmetry and spatial nonlocal effects

    Dong, Tianyu; Shi, Yi; Liu, Hui; Chen, Feng; Ma, Xikui; Mittra, Raj

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present a rigorous approach for analyzing the optical response of multilayered spherical nano-particles comprised of either plasmonic metal or dielectric, when there is no longer radial symmetry and when nonlocality is included. The Lorenz-Mie theory is applied, and a linearized hydrodynamic Drude model as well as the general nonlocal optical response model for the metals are employed. Additional boundary conditions, viz., the continuity of normal components of polarization current density and the continuity of first-order pressure of free electron density, respectively, are incorporated when handling interfaces involving metals. The application of spherical addition theorems, enables us to express a spherical harmonic about one origin to spherical harmonics about a different origin, and leads to a linear system of equations for the inward- and outward-field modal coefficients for all the layers in the nanoparticle. Scattering matrices at interfaces are obtained and cascaded to obtain the expansion coefficients, to yield the final solution. Through extensive modelling of stratified concentric and eccentric metal-involved spherical nanoshells illuminating by a plane wave, we show that, within a nonlocal description, significant modifications of plasmonic response appear, e.g. a blue-shift in the extinction / scattering spectrum and a broadening spectrum of the resonance. In addition, it has been demonstrated that core-shell nanostructures provide an option for tunable Fano-resonance generators. The proposed method shows its capability and flexibility to analyze the nonlocal response of eccentric hybrid metal-dielectric multilayer structures as well as adjoined metal-involved nanoparticles, even when the number of layers is large.

  4. Reduced dietary sodium intake increases heart rate. A meta-analysis of 63 randomized controlled trials including 72 study populations.

    Niels eGraudal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs published in the period 1973–2014. 63 of the RCTs including 72 study populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p < 0.00001, corresponding to 2.4% of the baseline heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction increases heart rate by as much (2.4% as it decreases blood pressure (2.5%. This side-effect, which may cause harmful health effects, contributes to the need for a revision of the present dietary guidelines.

  5. Residential response to voluntary time-of-use electricity rates

    Mostafa Baladi, S. [Laurits R. Christensen Associates, Inc. Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Herriges, Joseph A. [Iowa State University, 280D Heady Hall, Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Sweeney, Thomas J. [MidAmerican Energy, Des Moines, Iowa (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The response of residential households to voluntary Time-of-Use (TOU) electricity rates is estimated using data from a recent experiment at Midwest Power Systems of Iowa. The study`s design allows us to examine both the participation decision and the customer`s load pattern changes once the TOU rate structure was in effect. Substitution elasticities between on-peak and off-peak electricity usage are estimated and compared to those obtained in earlier mandatory programs, indicating whether program volunteers are more responsive to TOU pricing than the typical household. Attitudinal questionnaires allow us to examine the role of usage perceptions in program participation

  6. SU-F-J-86: Method to Include Tissue Dose Response Effect in Deformable Image Registration

    Zhu, J; Liang, J; Chen, S; Qin, A; Yan, D [Beaumont Health Systeml, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Organ changes shape and size during radiation treatment due to both mechanical stress and radiation dose response. However, the dose response induced deformation has not been considered in conventional deformable image registration (DIR). A novel DIR approach is proposed to include both tissue elasticity and radiation dose induced organ deformation. Methods: Assuming that organ sub-volume shrinkage was proportional to the radiation dose induced cell killing/absorption, the dose induced organ volume change was simulated applying virtual temperature on each sub-volume. Hence, both stress and heterogeneity temperature induced organ deformation. Thermal stress finite element method with organ surface boundary condition was used to solve deformation. Initial boundary correspondence on organ surface was created from conventional DIR. Boundary condition was updated by an iterative optimization scheme to minimize elastic deformation energy. The registration was validated on a numerical phantom. Treatment dose was constructed applying both the conventional DIR and the proposed method using daily CBCT image obtained from HN treatment. Results: Phantom study showed 2.7% maximal discrepancy with respect to the actual displacement. Compared with conventional DIR, subvolume displacement difference in a right parotid had the mean±SD (Min, Max) to be 1.1±0.9(−0.4∼4.8), −0.1±0.9(−2.9∼2.4) and −0.1±0.9(−3.4∼1.9)mm in RL/PA/SI directions respectively. Mean parotid dose and V30 constructed including the dose response induced shrinkage were 6.3% and 12.0% higher than those from the conventional DIR. Conclusion: Heterogeneous dose distribution in normal organ causes non-uniform sub-volume shrinkage. Sub-volume in high dose region has a larger shrinkage than the one in low dose region, therefore causing more sub-volumes to move into the high dose area during the treatment course. This leads to an unfavorable dose-volume relationship for the normal organ

  7. 78 FR 8511 - RPA Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    2013-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-826-000] RPA Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of RPA Energy, Inc...

  8. 77 FR 38048 - Blue Sky East, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    2012-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2068-000] Blue Sky East, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Blue Sky East...

  9. 78 FR 66353 - EAM Nelson Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-2349-000] EAM Nelson Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of EAM Nelson...

  10. 77 FR 67811 - Porter-Walker LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    2012-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-327-000] Porter-Walker LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Porter-Walker...

  11. 77 FR 19010 - Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1301-000] Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Zone J...

  12. 41 CFR 301-11.27 - Are taxes included in the lodging portion of the Government per diem rate?

    2010-07-01

    ... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are taxes included in... you a maximum lodging rate of $50 per night, and you elect to stay at a hotel that costs $100 per...

  13. 77 FR 36529 - Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    2012-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4657-001] Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Apple Group LLC...

  14. 76 FR 37110 - ORNI 39 LLC;Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3808-000] ORNI 39 LLC;Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of ORNI 39 LLC's application for...

  15. 78 FR 36768 - Electron Hydro, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1646-000] Electron Hydro, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Electron...

  16. 77 FR 66975 - Black Bear SO, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    2012-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-203-000] Black Bear SO, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Black Bear SO...

  17. 78 FR 2984 - Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2013-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-733-000] Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Silver Bear...

  18. 77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2374-000] Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear...

  19. 77 FR 36528 - K Road Modesto Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1995-000] K Road Modesto Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of K Road...

  20. 78 FR 34373 - Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1541-000] Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Campo Verde...

  1. 76 FR 73619 - Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-458-000] Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Quantum...

  2. 77 FR 53197 - Brandon Shores LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    2012-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2510-000] Brandon Shores LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Brandon...

  3. 78 FR 34372 - TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1586-000] TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of TGP Energy...

  4. 77 FR 45599 - CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based Rate Tariff Filing Includes...

    2012-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. ER02-2546-000; ER02-2546-001] CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market- Based Rate Tariff Filing...-referenced proceeding of CED Rock Springs, Inc.'s tariff revision filing, noting that such filing includes a...

  5. 77 FR 6109 - Mariposa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    2012-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-896-000] Mariposa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Mariposa...

  6. 76 FR 63614 - Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2011-10-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-21-000] Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Agua...

  7. 77 FR 71189 - AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-442-000] AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of AES Beaver...

  8. 76 FR 19351 - Stream Energy Maryland, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2011-04-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3188-000] Stream Energy Maryland, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding Stream Energy...

  9. 76 FR 69267 - Stream Energy Columbia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2011-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER12-224-000] Stream Energy Columbia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Stream...

  10. 77 FR 45349 - Stream Energy New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-07-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2301-000] Stream Energy New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Stream...

  11. 77 FR 28594 - Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1739-000] Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Bethel Wind...

  12. 77 FR 28593 - Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1740-000] Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Rippey Wind...

  13. 76 FR 9346 - Sun City Project LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    2011-02-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2857-000] Sun City Project LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Sun City...

  14. 77 FR 42301 - W Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    2012-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2219-000] W Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of W Power, LLC's application...

  15. 78 FR 29131 - Solar Star California XX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2013-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1442-000] Solar Star California XX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Solar Star...

  16. 77 FR 66976 - Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2012-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER13-281-000] Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Star Energy...

  17. 78 FR 28834 - Salton Sea Power L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1272-000] Salton Sea Power L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Salton Sea...

  18. Optimization of Gluten-Free Tulumba Dessert Formulation Including Corn Flour: Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Yildiz Önder

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tulumba dessert is widely preferred in Turkey; however, it cannot be consumed by celiac patients because it includes gluten. The diversity of gluten-free products should be expanded so that celiac patients may meet their daily needs regularly. In this study, corn flour (CF / potato starch (PS blend to be used in the gluten-free tulumba dessert formulation was optimized using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Increasing ratio of PS in the CF-PS led to a decrease in hardness of the dessert and to an increase in expansion, viscosity, adhesiveness, yield of dessert both with and without syrup (P0.05, additionally these desserts had a much higher sensory score compared to the control sample in terms of the overall quality and pore structure (P<0.05.

  19. Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response

    James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

  20. Heart Rate Response of Professional Musicians When Playing Music.

    Vellers, Heather L; Irwin, Conor; Lightfoot, J T

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim was to determine the level of physiological stress evoked while playing music in a standing position as indicated by heart rate (HR) response. A secondary aim was to analyze the effect of music genre (classic rock, western, contemporary Christian, and metal rock) on the relative HR response. Lastly, we considered potential physiological initiators of the music-playing-induced HR response. HR response was monitored in 27 professional musicians (3 women, 24 men) between the ages of 21 and 67 yrs old during rehearsal and public performances. The percent maximal HR (%MHR) evoked was determined by taking a percentage of the age-predicted maximal HR for each musician and comparing the average %MHR in each genre during public and rehearsal events. The role of the potential initiators of these responses (e.g., number of years playing in public, event type, instrument type, tempo, etc.) was determined using multiple regression analyses. The overall average %MHR responses were 52 ± 5% and 59 ± 5% during rehearsal and public performances, respectively, with genre type having a significant effect on the HR response (p=0.01). Body mass index and tempo were each found to be significant contributors to the HR response while playing music (r²=0.506, p=0.001). Playing music professionally evokes considerable increases in HR response, with music genre influencing the level of the physiological response. We concluded that 50% of the HR response while playing music was associated with body mass index, music tempo, and instrument type.

  1. A review of sex differences in sexual jealousy, including self-report data, psychophysiological responses, interpersonal violence, and morbid jealousy.

    Harris, Christine R

    2003-01-01

    The specific innate modular theory of jealousy hypothesizes that natural selection shaped sexual jealousy as a mechanism to prevent cuckoldry, and emotional jealousy as a mechanism to prevent resource loss. Therefore, men should be primarily jealous over a mate's sexual infidelity and women over a mate's emotional infidelity. Five lines of evidence have been offered as support: self-report responses, psychophysiological data, domestic violence (including spousal abuse and homicide), and morbid jealousy cases. This article reviews each line of evidence and finds only one hypothetical measure consistent with the hypothesis. This, however, is contradicted by a variety of other measures (including reported reactions to real infidelity). A meta-analysis of jealousy-inspired homicides, taking into account base rates for murder, found no evidence that jealousy disproportionately motivates men to kill. The findings are discussed from a social-cognitive theoretical perspective.

  2. Rate Dependence of the Compressive Response of Ti Foams

    Nik Petrinic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium foams of relative density ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 were produced by titanium powder sintering procedures and tested in uniaxial compression at strain rates ranging from 0.01 to 2,000 s−1. The material microstructure was examined by X-ray tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM observations. The foams investigated are strain rate sensitive, with both the yield stress and the strain hardening increasing with applied strain rate, and the strain rate sensitivity is more pronounced in foams of lower relative density. Finite element simulations were conducted modelling explicitly the material’s microstructure at the micron level, via a 3D Voronoi tessellation. Low and high strain rate simulations were conducted in order to predict the material’s compressive response, employing both rate-dependant and rate-independent constitutive models. Results from numerical analyses suggest that the primary source of rate sensitivity is represented by the intrinsic sensitivity of the foam’s parent material.

  3. Emergency response facilities including primary and secondary prevention strategies across 79 professional football clubs in England.

    Malhotra, Aneil; Dhutia, Harshil; Gati, Sabiha; Yeo, Tee-Joo; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Keteepe-Arachi, Tracey; Richards, Thomas; Walker, Mike; Birt, Robin; Stuckey, David; Robinson, Laurence; Tome, Maite; Beasley, Ian; Papadakis, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-06-14

    To assess the emergency response planning and prevention strategies for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) across a wide range of professional football clubs in England. A written survey was sent to all professional clubs in the English football league, namely the Premiership, Championship, League 1 and League 2. Outcomes included: (1) number of clubs performing cardiac screening and frequency of screening; (2) emergency planning and documentation; (3) automated external defibrillator (AED) training and availability; and (4) provision of emergency services at sporting venues. 79 clubs (86%) responded to the survey. 100% clubs participated in cardiac screening. All clubs had AEDs available on match days and during training sessions. 100% Premiership clubs provided AED training to designated staff. In contrast, 30% of lower division clubs with AEDs available did not provide formal training. Most clubs (n=66; 83%) reported the existence of an emergency action plan for SCA but formal documentation was variable. All clubs in the Premiership and League 1 provided an ambulance equipped for medical emergencies on match days compared with 75% of clubs in the Championship and 66% in League 2. The majority of football clubs in England have satisfactory prevention strategies and emergency response planning in line with European recommendations. Additional improvements such as increasing awareness of European guidelines for emergency planning, AED training and mentorship with financial support to lower division clubs are necessary to further enhance cardiovascular safety of athletes and spectators and close the gap between the highest and lower divisions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Phenobarbital for Neonatal Seizures: Response Rate and Predictors of Refractoriness.

    Spagnoli, Carlotta; Seri, Stefano; Pavlidis, Elena; Mazzotta, Silvia; Pelosi, Annalisa; Pisani, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    Background Phenobarbital is the first-line choice for neonatal seizures treatment, despite a response rate of approximately 45%. Failure to respond to acute anticonvulsants is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome, but knowledge on predictors of refractoriness is limited. Objective To quantify response rate to phenobarbital and to establish variables predictive of its lack of efficacy. Methods We retrospectively evaluated newborns with electrographically confirmed neonatal seizures admitted between January 1999 and December 2012 to the neonatal intensive care unit of Parma University Hospital (Italy), excluding neonates with status epilepticus. Response was categorized as complete (cessation of clinical and electrographic seizures after phenobarbital administration), partial (reduction but not cessation of electrographic seizures with the first bolus, response to the second bolus), or absent (no response after the second bolus). Multivariate analysis was used to identify independent predictors of refractoriness. Results Out of 91 newborns receiving phenobarbital, 57 (62.6%) responded completely, 15 (16.5%) partially, and 19 (20.9%) did not respond. Seizure type (p = 0.02), background electroencephalogram (EEG; p ≤ 0.005), and neurologic examination (p  ≤  0.005) correlated with response to phenobarbital. However, EEG (p  ≤  0.02) and seizure type (p  ≤  0.001) were the only independent predictors. Conclusion Our results suggest a prominent role of neurophysiological variables (background EEG and electrographic-only seizure type) in predicting the absence of response to phenobarbital in high-risk newborns. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  6. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    Peters, Jane S.; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Woods, James; Dethman, Linda; Kunkle, Rick

    2009-10-01

    Research Into Action, Inc. and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) worked together to conduct research on the behaviors and energy use patterns of SMUD residential customers who voluntarily signed on to a Time-of-Use rate pilot launched under the PowerChoice label. The project was designed to consider the how and why of residential customers ability and willingness to engage in demand reduction behaviors, and to link social and behavioral factors to observed changes in demand. The research drew on a combination of load interval data and three successive surveys of participating households. Two experimental treatments were applied to test the effects of increased information on households ability to respond to the Time-of-Use rates. Survey results indicated that participants understood the purpose of the Time-of-Use rate and undertook substantial appropriate actions to shift load and conserve. Statistical tests revealed minor initial price effects and more marked, but still modest, adjustments to seasonal rate changes. Tests of the two information interventions indicated that neither made much difference to consumption patterns. Despite the lackluster statistical evidence for load shifting, the analysis points to key issues for critical analysis and development of residential Time-of-Use rates, especially pertinent as California sets the stage for demand response in more California residences.

  7. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock.

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-05-27

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless "stored" growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan.

  8. Frontal sinus revision rate after nasal polyposis surgery including frontal recess clearance and middle turbinectomy: A long-term analysis.

    Benkhatar, Hakim; Khettab, Idir; Sultanik, Philippe; Laccourreye, Ollivier; Bonfils, Pierre

    2018-08-01

    To determine the frontal sinus revision rate after nasal polyposis (NP) surgery including frontal recess clearance (FRC) and middle turbinectomy (MT), to search for predictive factors and to analyse surgical management. Longitudinal analysis of 153 patients who consecutively underwent bilateral sphenoethmoidectomy with FRC and MT for NP with a minimum follow-up of 7 years. Decision of revision surgery was made in case of medically refractory chronic frontal sinusitis or frontal mucocele. Univariate and multivariate analysis incorporating clinical and radiological variables were performed. The frontal sinus revision rate was 6.5% (10/153). The mean time between the initial procedure and revision surgery was 3 years, 10 months. Osteitis around the frontal sinus outflow tract (FSOT) was associated with a higher risk of frontal sinus revision surgery (p=0.01). Asthma and aspirin intolerance did not increase the risk, as well as frontal sinus ostium diameter or residual frontoethmoid cells. Among revised patients, 60% required multiple procedures and 70% required frontal sinus ostium enlargement. Our long-term study reports that NP surgery including FRC and MT is associated with a low frontal sinus revision rate (6.5%). Patients developing osteitis around the FSOT have a higher risk of frontal sinus revision surgery. As mucosal damage can lead to osteitis, FSOT mucosa should be preserved during initial NP surgery. However, as multiple procedures are common among NP patients requiring frontal sinus revision, frontal sinus ostium enlargement should be considered during first revision in the hope of reducing the need of further revisions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Airfoil wake and linear theory gust response including sub and superresonant flow conditions

    Henderson, Gregory H.; Fleeter, Sanford

    1992-01-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic gust response of a high solidity stator vane row is examined in terms of the fundamental gust modeling assumptions with particular attention given to the effects near an acoustic resonance. A series of experiments was performed with gusts generated by rotors comprised of perforated plates and airfoils. It is concluded that, for both the perforated plate and airfoil wake generated gusts, the unsteady pressure responses do not agree with the linear-theory gust predictions near an acoustic resonance. The effects of the acoustic resonance phenomena are clearly evident on the airfoil surface unsteady pressure responses. The transition of the measured lift coefficients across the acoustic resonance from the subresonant regime to the superresonant regime occurs in a simple linear fashion.

  10. Seismic response of nuclear reactors in layered liquefiable soil deposits including nonlinear soil-structure interaction

    Zaman, M.; Mamoon, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of seismic response of structures located at a site with potential for soil liquefaction has drawn attention of many researchers. The topic is particularly important in the design of critical facilities like nuclear reactors and defense installations. This paper presents the results of a study involving evaluation of coupled seismic response of structures (model nuclear reactors) and characteristics of soil liquefaction at a site. The analysis procedure employed is based on the nonlinear finite element (FE) technique and accounts for the interaction effects due to a neighboring structure. Emphasis is given to the following features: prediction of spatial and temporal variation of pore water pressure; identification of the on-set of liquefaction based on the effective stress approach, and tracing the propagation of the liquefied zones with time and resulting response of the structures

  11. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

    2010-02-01

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  12. The transcriptional regulatory network in the drought response and its crosstalk in abiotic stress responses including drought, cold, and heat

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA) is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress cond...

  13. Subjective Response to Foot-Fall Noise, Including Localization of the Source Position

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    annoyance, using simulated binaural room impulse responses, with sources being a moving point source or a nonmoving surface source, and rooms being a room with a reverberation time of 0.5 s or an anechoic room. The paper concludes that no strong effect of the source localization on the annoyance can...

  14. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats

    Gunia, M.; Phocas, F.; Gourdine, J.L.; Bijma, P.; Mandonnet, N.

    2013-01-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasites resistance

  15. Hybridising Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility to Include Students with Disabilities

    Menendez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez-Rio, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the impact of the combination of two pedagogical models, Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility, for learners with disabilities experiencing a contactless kickboxing learning unit. Twelve secondary education students agreed to participate. Five had disabilities (intellectual and…

  16. A two-dimensional simulation model of phosphorus uptake including crop growth and P-response

    Mollier, A.; Willigen, de P.; Heinen, M.; Morel, C.; Schneider, A.; Pellerin, S.

    2008-01-01

    Modelling nutrient uptake by crops implies considering and integrating the processes controlling the soil nutrient supply, the uptake by the root system and relationships between the crop growth response and the amount of nutrient absorbed. We developed a model that integrates both dynamics of maize

  17. A meta-analysis including dose-response relationship between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    Wang, Xiao; Ji, Alin; Zhu, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Wu, Jian; Li, Shiqi; Meng, Shuai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2015-09-22

    A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the correlation between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer. We searched for publications up to March 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, and the references of the retrieved articles and relevant reviews were also checked. OR and 95% CI were used to assess the degree of the correlation between night shift work and risk of colorectal cancer via fixed- or random-effect models. A dose-response meta-analysis was performed as well. The pooled OR estimates of the included studies illustrated that night shift work was correlated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.318, 95% CI 1.121-1.551). No evidence of publication bias was detected. In the dose-response analysis, the rate of colorectal cancer increased by 11% for every 5 years increased in night shift work (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicated that night shift work was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Further researches should be conducted to confirm our findings and clarify the potential biological mechanisms.

  18. The Effect of Heart Rate on the Heart Rate Variability Response to Autonomic Interventions

    George E Billman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV, the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate (HR or heart period (R-R interval, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not widely appreciated that, due to the inverse curvilinear relationship between HR and R-R interval, HR per se can profoundly influence HRV. It is, therefore, critical to correct HRV for the prevailing HR particularly, as HR changes in response to autonomic neural activation or inhibition. The present study evaluated the effects of HR on the HRV response to autonomic interventions that either increased (submaximal exercise, n = 25 or baroreceptor reflex activation, n = 20 or reduced (pharmacological blockade: β-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor antagonists alone and in combination, n = 25, or bilateral cervical vagotomy, n = 9 autonomic neural activity in a canine model. Both total (RR interval standard deviation, RRSD and the high frequency variability (HF, 0.2 to 1.04 Hz were determined before and in response to an autonomic intervention. All interventions that reduced or abolished cardiac parasympathetic regulation provoked large reductions in HRV even after HR correction [division by mean RRsec or (mean RRsec2 for RRSD and HF, respectively] while interventions that reduced HR yielded mixed results. β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduced HRV (RRSD but not HF while both RRSD and HF increased in response to increases in arterial blood (baroreceptor reflex activation even after HR correction. These data suggest that the physiological basis for HRV is revealed after correction for prevailing HR and, further, that cardiac parasympathetic activity is responsible for a major portion of the HRV in the dog.

  19. Gender, renal function, and outcomes on the liver transplant waiting list: assessment of revised MELD including estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    Myers, Robert P; Shaheen, Abdel Aziz M; Aspinall, Alexander I; Quinn, Robert R; Burak, Kelly W

    2011-03-01

    The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) allocation system for liver transplantation (LT) may present a disadvantage for women by including serum creatinine, which is typically lower in females. Our objectives were to investigate gender disparities in outcomes among LT candidates and to assess a revised MELD, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), for predicting waiting list mortality. Adults registered for LT between 2002 and 2007 were identified using the UNOS database. We compared components of MELD, MDRD-derived eGFR, and the 3-month probability of LT and death between genders. Discrimination of MELD, MELDNa, and revised models including eGFR for mortality were compared using c-statistics. A total of 40,393 patients (36% female) met the inclusion criteria; 9% died and 24% underwent LT within 3 months of listing. Compared with men, women had lower median serum creatinine (0.9 vs. 1.0 mg/dl), eGFR (72 vs. 83 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), and mean MELD (16.5 vs. 17.2; all p discrimination for 3-month mortality (c-statistics: MELD 0.896, MELD-eGFR 0.894, MELDNa 0.911, MELDNa-eGFR 0.905). Women are disadvantaged under MELD potentially due to its inclusion of creatinine. However, since including eGFR in MELD does not improve mortality prediction, alternative refinements are necessary. Copyright © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS CONDITION OF INCLUDING UKRAINE IN EUROPE AND WORLD ECONOMIC SPACE

    T. Lytvynenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The thesis that companies’ activities for introduction of corporate social responsibility stimulates the speed of to the processes of the technical upgrade, modernization of company’s activity and increase of its profitability is proved within the article. Those Ukrainian companies, which have high index of activities transparency, are also the most profitable. However, we can’t observe any significant increment of number of companies joining the Global agreement. One of the explanations we could name is the unproved idea supported by some politicians and economists about a shadow (‘black’ market that allegedly allows creating workplaces and taking off social tension in society on the certain stage. Insignificant values of index of citizens’ trust to activity of industries holds on the development socially of responsible business. Trust considered as a part of the general social capital. The Government of Ukraine must support initiative of companies to introduce social responsibility of business, as many European governments do it. It is also important to inform society of advantages of CSR.

  1. Effects of embedment including slip and separation on seismic SSI response of a nuclear reactor building

    Saxena, Navjeev; Paul, D.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Both the slip and separation of reactor base reduce with increase in embedment. ► The slip and separation become insignificant beyond 1/4 and 1/2 embedment respectively. ► The stresses in reactor reduce significantly upto 1/4 embedment. ► The stress reduction with embedment is more pronounced in case of tensile stresses. ► The modeling of interface is important beyond 1/8 embedment as stresses are underestimated otherwise. - Abstract: The seismic response of nuclear reactor containment building considering the effects of embedment, slip and separation at soil–structure interface requires modeling of the soil, structure and interface altogether. Slip and separation at the interface causes stress redistribution in the soil and the structure around the interface. The embedment changes the dynamic characteristics of the soil–structure system. Consideration of these aspects allows capturing the realistic response of the structure, which has been a research gap and presented here individually as well as taken together. Finite element analysis has been carried out in time domain to attempt the highly nonlinear problem. The study draws important conclusions useful for design of nuclear reactor containment building.

  2. Seismic response and fragility evaluation for an Eastern US NPP including soil-structure interaction effects

    Ghiocel, Dan M.; Wilson, Paul R.; Thomas, Gary G.; Stevenson, John D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper discusses methodological aspects involved in a probabilistic seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis for a Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) review. An example of an Eastern US nuclear power plant (NPP) is presented. The approach presented herein follows the current practice of the Individual Plant Examination for External Events (IPEEE) program in the US. The NPP is founded on a relatively soft soil deposit, and thus the SSI effects on seismic responses are significant. Probabilistic models used for the idealization of the seismic excitation and the surrounding soil deposit are described. Using a lognormal format, computed random variability effects were combined with those proposed in the SPRA methodology guidelines. Probabilistic floor response spectra and structural fragilities for different NPP buildings were computed. Structural capacities were determined following the current practice which assumes independent median safety factors for strength and inelastic absorption. Limitations of the IPEEE practice for performing SPRA are discussed and alternate procedures, more rigorous and simple to implement, are suggested

  3. The impact of food viscosity on eating rate, subjective appetite, glycemic response and gastric emptying rate.

    Yong Zhu

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV and a high viscosity (HV semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020, with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively while fullness was higher (P<0.001. In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001, higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001 and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001. However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods.

  4. Decreased heart rate variability responses during early postoperative mobilization

    Jans, Øivind; Brinth, Louise; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in relation to postural change. METHODS: A standardized mobilization protocol before, 6 and 24 h after surgery was performed in 23 patients scheduled for elective THA. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure was measured by photoplethysmography and HRV was derived from pulse wave interbeat intervals and analysed......BACKGROUND: Intact orthostatic blood pressure regulation is essential for early mobilization after surgery. However, postoperative orthostatic hypotension and intolerance (OI) may delay early ambulation. The mechanisms of postoperative OI include impaired vasopressor responses relating...... and postural responses in arterial pressures decreased compared to preoperative conditions. During standing HF variation increased by 16.7 (95 % CI 8.0-25.0) normalized units (nu) at 6 h and 10.7 (2.0-19.4) nu at 24 h compared to the preoperative evaluation. At 24 h the LF/HF ratio decreased from 1.8 (1...

  5. Integrated outage management: Leveraging utility system assets including GIS and AMR for optimum outage response

    Finamore, E. P.

    2004-02-01

    The control of electrical system outages is discussed. The principal argument advanced is that traditional stand-alone methods of outage response will no longer get the job done without utility companies integrating their outage management systems with other system assets such as GIS (geographic information system) and AMR (advanced metering systems). Many meter reading systems, while primarily supporting customer billing, can also provide outage alarm and some are also capable of service restoration notification, which is an invaluable benefit to service operators since it obviates the need for verifying system restoration by labour-intensive on-site visits or customer call-backs. If successfully leveraged, optimization of all utility assets and improvements in labour productivity can results in improved outage management performance gains without affecting performance in other areas.

  6. Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories

    Chou, Chia-Ying; Marca, Roberto La; Steptoe, Andrew; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    The current study adopted the trauma film paradigm to examine potential moderators affecting heart rate (HR) as an indicator of peritraumatic psychological states and as a predictor of intrusive memories. We replicated previous findings that perifilm HR decreases predicted the development of intrusive images and further showed this effect to be specific to images rather than thoughts, and to detail rather than gist recognition memory. Moreover, a group of individuals showing both an atypical sudden reduction in HR after a startle stimulus and higher trait dissociation was identified. Only among these individuals was lower perifilm HR found to indicate higher state dissociation, fear, and anxiety, along with reduced vividness of intrusions. The current findings emphasize how peritraumatic physiological responses relate to emotional reactions and intrusive memory. The moderating role of individual difference in stress defense style was highlighted. PMID:24397333

  7. Evaluation of Dogs with Border Collie Collapse, Including Response to Two Standardized Strenuous Exercise Protocols.

    Taylor, Susan; Shmon, Cindy; Su, Lillian; Epp, Tasha; Minor, Katie; Mickelson, James; Patterson, Edward; Shelton, G Diane

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and metabolic variables were evaluated in 13 dogs with border collie collapse (BCC) before, during, and following completion of standardized strenuous exercise protocols. Six dogs participated in a ball-retrieving protocol, and seven dogs participated in a sheep-herding protocol. Findings were compared with 16 normal border collies participating in the same exercise protocols (11 retrieving, five herding). Twelve dogs with BCC developed abnormal mentation and/or an abnormal gait during evaluation. All dogs had post-exercise elevations in rectal temperature, pulse rate, arterial blood pH, PaO2, and lactate, and decreased PaCO2 and bicarbonate, as expected with strenuous exercise, but there were no significant differences between BCC dogs and normal dogs. Electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia in all dogs following exercise. Needle electromyography was normal, and evaluation of muscle biopsy cryosections using a standard panel of histochemical stains and reactions did not reveal a reason for collapse in 10 dogs with BCC in which these tests were performed. Genetic testing excluded the dynamin-1 related exercise-induced collapse mutation and the V547A malignant hyperthermia mutation as the cause of BCC. Common reasons for exercise intolerance were eliminated. Although a genetic basis is suspected, the cause of collapse in BCC was not determined.

  8. A predator-prey model with a holling type I functional response including a predator mutual interference

    Seo, G.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  9. Response rates in studies of couples coping with cancer: a systematic review.

    Dagan, Meirav; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2014-08-01

    Recruiting couples for psychological studies can be challenging. This brief report is the first to examine the average couples' response rate and to systematically review the quality of reporting of couples' response rate in studies of couples coping with cancer. A systematic review (1980-2011) was conducted, including 83 studies meeting the inclusion criteria of being published in peer-reviewed journals, describing quantitative findings using a cross-sectional or longitudinal design. Overall reporting was unsatisfactory in more than half of the included studies. As a consequence, the couples' response rate (CRR; all analyzed couples divided by the number of eligible partnered patients/couples approached) could be calculated for only 33 samples. This CRR varied considerably across studies from 25% to 90% (CRRM = 58%, SD = 17%). The rates reported in the articles (M = 65%) were often higher than the average CRR (CRRM = 57%) of these samples. This systematic review revealed incomplete reporting of response rate. Therefore, it cannot be firmly concluded that the average CRR reported is representative for all studies on couples coping with cancer. Finally, the figures presented, which are often more favorable than the CRR, may create the impression that the sample is more representative of the target population than it actually is. This has consequences for implementing the findings of such studies into practice. The results are critically discussed, and recommendations for improvement are provided.

  10. Slowing the rate of loss of mineral wetlands on human dominated landscapes - Diversification of farmers markets to include carbon (Invited)

    Creed, I. F.; Badiou, P.; Lobb, D.

    2013-12-01

    Canada is the fourth-largest exporter of agriculture and agri-food products in the world (exports valued at 28B), but instability of agriculture markets can make it difficult for farmers to cope with variability, and new mechanisms are needed for farmers to achieve economic stability. Capitalizing on carbon markets will help farmers achieve environmentally sustainable economic performance. In order to have a viable carbon market, governments and industries need to know what the carbon capital is and what potential there is for growth, and farmers need financial incentives that will not only allow them to conserve existing wetlands but that will also enable them to restore wetlands while making a living. In southern Ontario, farmers' needs to maximize the return on investment on marginal lands have resulted in loss of 70-90% of wetlands, making this region one of the most threatened region in terms of wetland degradation and loss in Canada. Our project establishes the role that mineral wetlands have in the net carbon balance by contributing insight into the potential benefits to carbon management provided by wetland restoration efforts in these highly degraded landscapes. The goal was to establish the magnitude of carbon offsets that could be achieved through wetland conservation (securing existing carbon stocks) and restoration (creating new carbon stocks). The experimental design was to focus on (1) small (0.2-2.0 ha) and (2) isolated (no inflow or outflow) mineral wetlands with the greatest restoration potential that included (3) a range of restoration ages (drained (0 yr), 3 yr, 6 yr, 12 yr, 20 yr, 35 yr, intact marshes) to capture potential changes in rates of carbon sequestration with restoration age of wetland. From each wetland, wetland soil carbon pools samples were collected at four positions: centre of wetland (open-water); emergent vegetation zone; wet meadow zone where flooding often occurs (i.e., high water mark); and upland where flooding rarely

  11. The Response of Tigriopus californicusto Chlorophytic Macroalgae, Including Cladophora trichotomaKützing

    Powlik, J. J.; Lewis, A. G.; Verma, N.

    1997-03-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus californicusis not observed to maintain populations in supralittoral pools containing the alga Cladophora trichotoma. Laboratory microcosms and field treatments in Barkley Sound, British Columbia, Canada were inoculated with T. californicusand monitored seasonally (winter, spring, summer). After 5 days, C. trichotomamicrocosms held fewer survivors (18·6±7·3%) compared to treatments without vegetation (95·6±0·1%) or those containing the alga Enteromorpha compressa(93·8±5·4%), mean±SE. Though more difficult to determine in situ, results from inoculated field sites were similar. Copepodite and adult T. californicuswere the most adversely affected, while the survival of nauplii was generally maintained over 5-day intervals of observation. Other invertebrates, including littorines, barnacles and mussels were more abundant in C. trichotomapools at lower tidal elevations. Although several factors (exposure, nutrient supply, predation) are likely to contribute to the observed ' exclusion ' of T. californicusfrom pools containing C. trichotoma, the present results additionally suggest the deleterious influence of an unidentified chemical exudate from C. trichotoma. The particular susceptibility of mature T. californicusto this exudate precludes the establishment of viable copepod populations in these pools. 1997 Academic Press Limited

  12. Should we include avoidance of deforestation in the international response to climate change?

    Schlamadinger, B. [Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria); Ciccarese, L. [Italian Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services, Rome (Italy); Dutschke, M. [Hamburg Institute of International Economics, Hamburg (Germany); Fearnside, P.M. [Department of Ecology, National Institute for Amazonian Research INPA, Belem, Para (Brazil); Brown, S. [Winrock International, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Murdiyarso, D. [Center for International Forestry Research, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2005-07-01

    Global deforestation and forest degradation rates have a significant impact on the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimated that during the 1990's 16.1 million hectares per year were affected by deforestation, most of them in the tropics. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculated that, for the same period, the contribution of land-use changes to GHG accumulation into the atmosphere was 1.6{+-}0.8 Giga (1G=109) tonnes of carbon per year, a quantity that corresponds to 25% of the total annual global emissions of GHGs. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in recognising climate change as a serious threat, urged counties to take up measures to enhance and conserve ecosystems such as forests that act as reservoirs and sinks of GHGs. The Kyoto Protocol (KP), adopted in 1997, complements the UNFCCC by providing an enforceable agreement with quantitative targets for reducing GHG emissions. For fulfilling their emission-limitation commitments under the KP, industrialized countries (listed in the KP's Annex I) can use land-based activities, such as reducing deforestation, establishing new forests (afforestation and reforestation) and other vegetation types, managing agricultural and forestlands in a way that the 'carbon sink' is maximized. Annex I countries may also claim credit for carbon sequestration in developing countries by afforestation and reforestation (AR) through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), one of the 'Kyoto Mechanisms' that allow countries to achieve reductions where it is economically efficient to do so. For the period 2008-2012, forestry activities under the CDM have been restricted to afforestation and reforestation on areas that were not forested in 1990. In addition, CDM projects must lead to emission reductions or net carbon uptake additional to what would have occurred without the CDM funding

  13. 78 FR 4143 - Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2013-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-752-000] Energy Storage... Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Storage Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  14. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Parent and Teacher Ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-01-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., "Journal of Child Psychology and…

  15. Importance of heart rate during exercise for response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Maass, Alexander H; Buck, Sandra; Nieuwland, Wybe; Brügemann, Johan; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Van Gelder, Isabelle C

    2009-07-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established therapy for patients with severe heart failure and mechanical dyssynchrony. Response is only achieved in 60-70% of patients. To study exercise-related factors predicting response to CRT. We retrospectively examined consecutive patients in whom a CRT device was implanted. All underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing prior to implantation and after 6 months. The occurrence of chronotropic incompetence and heart rates exceeding the upper rate of the device, thereby compromising biventricular stimulation, was studied. Response was defined as a decrease in LVESV of 10% or more after 6 months. We included 144 patients. After 6 months 86 (60%) patients were responders. Peak VO2 significantly increased in responders. Chronotropic incompetence was more frequently seen in nonresponders (21 [36%] vs 9 [10%], P = 0.03), mostly in patients in SR. At moderate exercise, defined as 25% of the maximal exercise tolerance, that is, comparable to daily life exercise, nonresponders more frequently went above the upper rate of the device (13 [22%] vs 2 [3%], P exercise (OR 15.8 [3.3-76.5], P = 0.001) and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (OR 2.4 [1.0-5.7], P = 0.04) as predictive for response. Heart rate exceeding the upper rate during moderate exercise is an independent predictor for nonresponse to CRT in patients with AF, whereas chronotropic incompetence is a predictor for patients in SR.

  16. Mortality and recurrence rates among systemically untreated high risk breast cancer patients included in the DBCG 77 trials

    Jensen, Maj Britt; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Knoop, Ann S.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Following loco-regional treatment for early breast cancer accurate prognostication is essential for communicating benefits of systemic treatment. The aim of this study was to determine time to recurrence and long-term mortality rates in high risk patients according to patient characte......Background: Following loco-regional treatment for early breast cancer accurate prognostication is essential for communicating benefits of systemic treatment. The aim of this study was to determine time to recurrence and long-term mortality rates in high risk patients according to patient...... and EGFR positive. Multivariate categorical and fractional polynomials (MFP) models were used to construct prognostic subsets by clinicopathologic characteristics. Results: In a multivariate model, mortality rate was significantly associated with age, tumor size, nodal status, invasion, histological type...

  17. 75 FR 71427 - Domtar Paper Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2020-000] Domtar Paper... proceeding, of Domtar Paper Company, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  18. Rate constants for a mechanism including intermediates in the interconversion of ternary complexes by horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase

    Sekhar, V.C.; Plapp, B.V.

    1990-01-01

    Transient kinetic data for partial reactions of alcohol dehydrogenase and simulations of progress curves have led to estimates of rate constants for the following mechanism, at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C: E in equilibrium E-NAD+ in equilibrium *E-NAD+ in equilibrium E-NAD(+)-RCH2OH in equilibrium E-NAD+-RCH2O- in equilibrium *E-NADH-RCHO in equilibrium E-NADH-RCHO in equilibrium E-NADH in equilibrium E. Previous results show that the E-NAD+ complex isomerizes with a forward rate constant of 620 s-1. The enzyme-NAD(+)-alcohol complex has a pK value of 7.2 and loses a proton rapidly (greater than 1000 s-1). The transient oxidation of ethanol is 2-fold faster in D 2 O, and proton inventory results suggest that the transition state has a charge of -0.3 on the substrate oxygen. Rate constants for hydride ion transfer in the forward or reverse reactions were similar for short-chain aliphatic substrates (400-600 s-1). A small deuterium isotope effect for transient oxidation of longer chain alcohols is apparently due to the isomerization of the E-NAD+ complex. The transient reduction of aliphatic aldehydes showed no primary deuterium isotope effect; thus, an isomerization of the E-NADH-aldehyde complex is postulated, as isomerization of the E-NADH complex was too fast to be detected. The estimated microscopic rate constants show that the observed transient reactions are controlled by multiple steps

  19. 30 CFR 254.23 - What information must I include in the “Emergency response action plan” section?

    2010-07-01

    ... response operations on your behalf. You must describe the team's organizational structure as well as the... include the number and types of personnel available from each identified labor source. (d) A planned... primary and secondary radio frequencies that will be used. (e) A listing of the types and characteristics...

  20. Posintro™-HBsAg, a modified ISCOM including HBsAg, induces strong cellular and humoral responses

    Schiött, Asa; Larsson, Kristina; Manniche, Søren

    2011-01-01

    HBsAg vaccine formulation, Posintro™-HBsAg, was compared to two commercial hepatitis B vaccines including aluminium or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and the two adjuvant systems MF59 and QS21 in their efficiency to prime both cellular and humoral immune responses. The Posintro™-HBsAg induced...

  1. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system in Ireland: methods and response rates

    O’Keeffe, Linda M.

    2014-06-01

    To describe response rates and characteristics associated with response to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System study in Ireland (PRAMS Ireland). Using hospital discharge records of live births at a large, urban, obstetric hospital, a sampling frame of approximately 2,400 mother-infant pairs were used to alternately sample 1,200 women. Mothers’ information including name, address, parity, age and infant characteristics such as sex and gestational age at delivery were extracted from records. Modes of contact included an invitation letter with option to opt out of the study, three mail surveys, a reminder letter and text message reminder for remaining non-respondents. Sixty-one per cent of women responded to the PRAMS Ireland survey over a 133 day response period. Women aged <30, single women, multiparous women and women with a preterm delivery were less likely to respond. Women participating in PRAMS Ireland were similar to the national birth profile in 2011 which had a mean age of 32, were 40 % primiparous, 33 % single or never married and had a 28 % caesarean section rate. Survey and protocol changes are required to increase response rates above recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) thresholds of 65 % within the recommended 90 day data collection cycle. Additional efforts such as stratification and over-sampling are required to increase representativeness among hard to reach groups such as younger, single and multiparous women before expanding the project to an ongoing, national surveillance system in Ireland.

  2. Attenuated heart rate response is associated with hypocretin deficiency in patients with narcolepsy.

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Knudsen, Stine; Petersen, Eva Rosa; Kempfner, Jacob; Gammeltoft, Steen; Sorensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Jennum, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that hypocretin-1 may influence the cerebral control of the cardiovascular system. We analyzed whether hypocretin-1 deficiency in narcolepsy patients may result in a reduced heart rate response. We analyzed the heart rate response during various sleep stages from a 1-night polysomnography in patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. The narcolepsy group was subdivided by the presence of +/- cataplexy and +/- hypocretin-1 deficiency. Sleep laboratory studies conducted from 2001-2011. In total 67 narcolepsy patients and 22 control subjects were included in the study. Cataplexy was present in 46 patients and hypocretin-1 deficiency in 38 patients. None. All patients with narcolepsy had a significantly reduced heart rate response associated with arousals and leg movements (P hypocretin-1 deficiency and cataplexy groups compared with patients with normal hypocretin-1 levels (P hypocretin-1 deficiency significantly predicted the heart rate response associated with arousals in both REM and non-REM in a multivariate linear regression. Our results show that autonomic dysfunction is part of the narcoleptic phenotype, and that hypocretin-1 deficiency is the primary predictor of this dysfunction. This finding suggests that the hypocretin system participates in the modulation of cardiovascular function at rest.

  3. China’s Foreign Trade: The Response to Changing the Exchange Rate

    Izotov D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on official data of Chinese and international statistics assessment is given of the impact of the yuan revaluation on the parameters of China’s foreign trade by country (including in terms of crisis tendencies in the global economy. A regression analysis made it possible to obtain quantitative assessments of the responses of China’s foreign trade parameters by country, depending on different yuan revaluation (10% and 50% to the U.S. dollar. It is found that the yuan revaluation leads to reduction in the growth rates of both China’s exports and imports, with the responses by countries being different

  4. Effects of Personalization and Invitation Email Length on Web-Based Survey Response Rates

    Trespalacios, Jesús H.; Perkins, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Individual strategies to increase response rate and survey completion have been extensively researched. Recently, efforts have been made to investigate a combination of interventions to yield better response rates for web-based surveys. This study examined the effects of four different survey invitation conditions on response rate. From a large…

  5. Response rates to oestrogen treatment in perimenopausal women

    Rejnmark, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter; Tofteng, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise women with no response or with a good response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), evaluated by change in bone mineral density (BMD). Design: Nested case-control study within a comprehensive cohort study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study...

  6. A randomised trial and economic evaluation of the effect of response mode on response rate, response bias, and item non-response in a survey of doctors

    Witt Julia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys of doctors are an important data collection method in health services research. Ways to improve response rates, minimise survey response bias and item non-response, within a given budget, have not previously been addressed in the same study. The aim of this paper is to compare the effects and costs of three different modes of survey administration in a national survey of doctors. Methods A stratified random sample of 4.9% (2,702/54,160 of doctors undertaking clinical practice was drawn from a national directory of all doctors in Australia. Stratification was by four doctor types: general practitioners, specialists, specialists-in-training, and hospital non-specialists, and by six rural/remote categories. A three-arm parallel trial design with equal randomisation across arms was used. Doctors were randomly allocated to: online questionnaire (902; simultaneous mixed mode (a paper questionnaire and login details sent together (900; or, sequential mixed mode (online followed by a paper questionnaire with the reminder (900. Analysis was by intention to treat, as within each primary mode, doctors could choose either paper or online. Primary outcome measures were response rate, survey response bias, item non-response, and cost. Results The online mode had a response rate 12.95%, followed by the simultaneous mixed mode with 19.7%, and the sequential mixed mode with 20.7%. After adjusting for observed differences between the groups, the online mode had a 7 percentage point lower response rate compared to the simultaneous mixed mode, and a 7.7 percentage point lower response rate compared to sequential mixed mode. The difference in response rate between the sequential and simultaneous modes was not statistically significant. Both mixed modes showed evidence of response bias, whilst the characteristics of online respondents were similar to the population. However, the online mode had a higher rate of item non-response compared

  7. Cumulative live birth rates after one ART cycle including all subsequent frozen-thaw cycles in 1050 women

    Toftager, M; Bogstad, J; Løssl, K

    2017-01-01

    birth increases. There are no previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CLBRs in GnRH-antagonist versus GnRH-agonist protocols. Previous studies on CLBR are either retrospective cohort studies including multiple fresh cycles or RCTs comparing single embryo transfer (SET) with double embryo...... transfer (DET). STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: CLBR was a secondary outcome in a Phase IV, dual-center, open-label, RCT including 1050 women allocated to a short GnRH-antagonist or a long GnRH-agonist protocol in a 1:1 ratio over a 5-year period using a web-based concealed randomization code. The minimum...... follow-up time from the first IVF cycle was 2 years. The aim was to compare CLBR between the two groups following utilization of all fresh and frozen embryos from the first ART cycle. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: All women referred for their first ART cycle at two public fertility clinics...

  8. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  9. The Role of the Pulmonary Embolism Response Team: How to Build One, Who to Include, Scenarios, Organization, and Algorithms.

    Galmer, Andrew; Weinberg, Ido; Giri, Jay; Jaff, Michael; Weinberg, Mitchell

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary embolism response teams (PERTs) are multidisciplinary response teams aimed at delivering a range of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities to patients with pulmonary embolism. These teams have gained traction on a national scale. However, despite sharing a common goal, individual PERT programs are quite individualized-varying in their methods of operation, team structures, and practice patterns. The tendency of such response teams is to become intensely structured, algorithmic, and inflexible. However, in their current form, PERT programs are quite the opposite. They are being creatively customized to meet the needs of the individual institution based on available resources, skills, personnel, and institutional goals. After a review of the essential core elements needed to create and operate a PERT team in any form, this article will discuss the more flexible feature development of the nascent PERT team. These include team planning, member composition, operational structure, benchmarking, market analysis, and rudimentary financial operations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High rate response of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes under direct tension

    Tran, Ngoc Thanh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Tran, Tuan Kiet [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, 01 Vo Van Ngan, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Kim, Dong Joo, E-mail: djkim75@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The tensile response of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes (UHPFRCs) at high strain rates (5–24 s{sup −} {sup 1}) was investigated. Three types of steel fibers, including twisted, long and short smooth steel fibers, were added by 1.5% volume content in an ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) with a compressive strength of 180 MPa. Two different cross sections, 25 × 25 and 25 × 50 mm{sup 2}, of tensile specimens were used to investigate the effect of the cross section area on the measured tensile response of UHPFRCs. Although all the three fibers generated strain hardening behavior even at high strain rates, long smooth fibers produced the highest tensile resistance at high rates whereas twisted fiber did at static rate. The breakages of twisted fibers were observed from the specimens tested at high strain rates unlike smooth steel fibers. The tensile behavior of UHPFRCs at high strain rates was clearly influenced by the specimen size, especially in post-cracking strength.

  11. Increasing the response rate of text messaging data collection: a delayed randomized controlled trial

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiong; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of multiple interventions on increasing the response rate of text messaging for longitudinal data collection. Methods Our cohort included 283 caregivers of children aged 6–12 months who were participating in an anemia program in rural China. Using text messages to collect data on anemia medication adherence, we conducted a delayed randomized controlled trial to test multiple interventions (an additional four reminders; a ¥5.0 (US$0.79) credit reward for replying; and a feedback text message). After a 6-week pilot study with week 7 as the baseline measurement, we randomly allocated all participants into two groups: group 1 (n = 142) and group 2 (n = 141). During weeks 8–11, we introduced the interventions to group 1, and in weeks 12–15 the intervention was introduced to both groups. We compared the response rates between groups and explored factors affecting the response rate. Results During weeks 8–11, the response rates in group 1 increased and were significantly higher than in group 2 (p0.05) and slightly decreased in group 1. Younger participants or participants who had children with lower hemoglobin concentration were more likely to reply (p = 0.02). Sending four reminders on the second day contributed to only 286 (11.7%) extra text messages. Discussion Our study showed that multiple interventions were effective in increasing response rate of text messaging data collection in rural China. Conclusions Larger multi-site studies are needed to find the most effective way of using these interventions to allow usage of text messaging data collection for health research. PMID:25332355

  12. Response of Microbial Soil Carbon Mineralization Rates to Oxygen Limitations

    Keiluweit, M.; Denney, A.; Nico, P. S.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The rate of soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is known to be controlled by climatic factors as well as molecular structure, mineral-organic associations, and physical protection. What remains elusive is to what extent oxygen (O2) limitations impact overall rates of microbial SOM mineralization (oxidation) in soils. Even within upland soils that are aerobic in bulk, factors limiting O2 diffusion such as texture and soil moisture can result in an abundance of anaerobic microsites in the interior of soil aggregates. Variation in ensuing anaerobic respiration pathways can further impact SOM mineralization rates. Using a combination of (first) aggregate model systems and (second) manipulations of intact field samples, we show how limitations on diffusion and carbon bioavailability interact to impose anaerobic conditions and associated respiration constraints on SOM mineralization rates. In model aggregates, we examined how particle size (soil texture) and amount of dissolved organic carbon (bioavailable carbon) affect O2 availability and distribution. Monitoring electron acceptor profiles (O2, NO3-, Mn and Fe) and SOM transformations (dissolved, particulate, mineral-associated pools) across the resulting redox gradients, we then determined the distribution of operative microbial metabolisms and their cumulative impact on SOM mineralization rates. Our results show that anaerobic conditions decrease SOM mineralization rates overall, but those are partially offset by the concurrent increases in SOM bioavailability due to transformations of protective mineral phases. In intact soil aggregates collected from soils varying in texture and SOM content, we mapped the spatial distribution of anaerobic microsites. Optode imaging, microsensor profiling and 3D tomography revealed that soil texture regulates overall O2 availability in aggregate interiors, while particulate SOM in biopores appears to control the fine-scale distribution of anaerobic microsites. Collectively, our

  13. Real-world cure rates for hepatitis C virus treatments that include simeprevir and/or sofosbuvir are comparable to clinical trial results.

    Bichoupan, Kian; Tandon, Neeta; Crismale, James F; Hartman, Joshua; Del Bello, David; Patel, Neal; Chekuri, Sweta; Harty, Alyson; Ng, Michel; Sigel, Keith M; Bansal, Meena B; Grewal, Priya; Chang, Charissa Y; Leong, Jennifer; Im, Gene Y; Liu, Lawrence U; Odin, Joseph A; Bach, Nancy; Friedman, Scott L; Schiano, Thomas D; Perumalswami, Ponni V; Dieterich, Douglas T; Branch, Andrea D

    2017-11-12

    To assess the real-world effectiveness and cost of simeprevir (SMV), and/or sofosbuvir (SOF)-based therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The real-world performance of patients treated with SMV/SOF ± ribavirin (RBV), SOF/RBV, and SOF/RBV with pegylated-interferon (PEG) were analyzed in a consecutive series of 508 patients with chronic HCV infection treated at a single academic medical center. Patients with genotypes 1 through 4 were included. Rates of sustained virological response - the absence of a detectable serum HCV RNA 12 wk after the end of treatment [sustained virological response (SVR) 12] - were calculated on an intention-to-treat basis. Costs were calculated from the payer's perspective using Medicare/Medicaid fees and Redbook Wholesale Acquisition Costs. Patient-related factors associated with SVR12 were identified using multivariable logistic regression. SVR12 rates were as follows: 86% (95%CI: 80%-91%) among 178 patients on SMV/SOF ± RBV; 62% (95%CI: 55%-68%) among 234 patients on SOF/RBV; and 78% (95%CI: 68%-86%) among 96 patients on SOF/PEG/RBV. Mean costs-per-SVR12 were $174442 (standard deviation: ± $18588) for SMV/SOF ± RBV; $223003 (± $77946) for SOF/RBV; and $126496 (± $31052) for SOF/PEG/RBV. Among patients on SMV/SOF ± RBV, SVR12 was less likely in patients previously treated with a protease inhibitor [odds ratio (OR): 0.20, 95%CI: 0.06-0.56]. Higher bilirubin (OR: 0.47, 95%CI: 0.30-0.69) reduced the likelihood of SVR12 among patients on SOF/RBV, while FIB-4 score ≥ 3.25 reduced the likelihood of SVR12 (OR: 0.18, 95%CI: 0.05-0.59) among those on SOF/PEG/RBV. SVR12 rates for SMV and/or SOF-based regimens in a diverse real-world population are comparable to those in clinical trials. Treatment failure accounts for 27% of costs.

  14. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Clearance Rates

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    2018-01-01

    significant effects: in our preferred estimate, a 10% increase in response time leads to a 4.7 percentage points decrease in the likelihood of clearing the crime. We find stronger effects for thefts than for violent offenses, although the effects are large for every type of crime. We find suggestive evidence...

  15. Study on the seismic response of reactor vessel of pool type LMFBR including fluid-structure interaction

    Tanimoto, K.; Ito, T.; Fujita, K.; Kurihara, C.; Sawada, Y.; Sakurai, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the seismic response of reactor vessel of pool type LMFBR with fluid-structure interaction. The reactor vessel has bottom support arrangement, the same core support system as Super-Phenix in France. Due to the bottom support arrangement, the level of core support is lower than that of the side support arrangement. So, in this reactor vessel, the displacement of the core top tends to increase because of the core's rocking. In this study, we investigated the vibration and seismic response characteristics of the reactor vessel. Therefore, the seismic experiments were carried out using one-eighth scale model and the seismic response including FSI and sloshing were investigated. From this study, the effect of liquid on the vibration characteristics and the seismic response characteristics of reactor vessel were clarified and sloshing characteristics were also clarified. It was confirmed that FEM analysis with FSI can reproduce the seismic behavior of the reactor vessel and is applicable to seismic design of the pool type LMFBR with bottom support arrangement. (author). 5 refs, 14 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Gonadal hormones and heart rate as an emotional response

    de Loos, Wolter Statius

    1988-01-01

    Animai experiments may give information on the physiology of hormones under stress conditions. The model for the investigation of acute emotional stress in animals that has been chosen permits the study of heart rate in freely moving laboratory rats as a sensitive psychophysiological parameter, This

  17. The intubating laryngeal mask produces less heart rate response to ...

    Pc

    We compared heart rate and blood pressure changes to intubation produced by conventional laryngoscopic-guided intubation to those produced by blind intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask (ILM) in normotensive adults with normal airways. Forty paralysed, anaesthetised adults undergoing elective surgery ...

  18. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    Niu, Nina N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Larvie, Mykol [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Curtin, Hugh [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); McKenna, Michael J. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  19. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    Niu, Nina N.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Larvie, Mykol; Curtin, Hugh; Loeffler, Jay S.; McKenna, Michael J.; Shih, Helen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  20. Transcriptome analysis of the spalax hypoxia survival response includes suppression of apoptosis and tight control of angiogenesis

    Malik Assaf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of complex responses to hypoxia has played a key role in the evolution of mammals, as inadequate response to this condition is frequently associated with cardiovascular diseases, developmental disorders, and cancers. Though numerous studies have used mice and rats in order to explore mechanisms that contribute to hypoxia tolerance, these studies are limited due to the high sensitivity of most rodents to severe hypoxia. The blind subterranean mole rat Spalax is a hypoxia tolerant rodent, which exhibits unique longevity and therefore has invaluable potential in hypoxia and cancer research. Results Using microarrays, transcript abundance was measured in brain and muscle tissues from Spalax and rat individuals exposed to acute and chronic hypoxia for varying durations. We found that Spalax global gene expression response to hypoxia differs from that of rat and is characterized by the activation of functional groups of genes that have not been strongly associated with the response to hypoxia in hypoxia sensitive mammals. Using functional enrichment analysis of Spalax hypoxia induced genes we found highly significant overrepresentation of groups of genes involved in anti apoptosis, cancer, embryonic/sexual development, epidermal growth factor receptor binding, coordinated suppression and activation of distinct groups of transcription factors and membrane receptors, in addition to angiogenic related processes. We also detected hypoxia induced increases of different critical Spalax hub gene transcripts, including antiangiogenic genes associated with cancer tolerance in Down syndrome human individuals. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study of Spalax large scale gene expression response to hypoxia to date, and the first to use custom Spalax microarrays. Our work presents novel patterns that may underlie mechanisms with critical importance to the evolution of hypoxia tolerance, with special relevance to

  1. RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT RATES OF NITROGEN BY FIVE ...

    150kgN/ha with a mean leaf area of 55.60cm2. A lower rate of 100kgN/ha was however, found to be optimum in. 2012 with an average leaf area of 51.70cm2, when ... Exchange Acidity. 3.32. 3.35. ECEC (cmol/kg). 7.27. 7.34. Number of Tillers per Plant. Nitrogen application significantly enhanced the tillering ability of the ...

  2. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    Levy, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examining the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute γ-radiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. It was concluded that oligodendrocytes in irradiated cultures had significantly lower functional capacity than did unirradiated controls. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. At DIC 14, the group irradiated in a single fraction had significantly lower oligodendrocyte counts than any group given split doses; all irradiated cultures had marked depression of MBP synthesis, but to significant differences referable to time interval between doses. At DIC 21, cultures irradiated at intervals of 0 h to 2 h had similar oligodendrocyte counts to one another, but these counts were significantly lower than in cultures irradiated at intervals of 4 h to 6 h; MBP levels remained depressed at DIC 21 for all irradiated cultures. The oligodendrocyte response to dose rate (0.03 to 1.97 Gy/min) was evaluated at DIC 14 and DIC 21. Exposure at 0.03 Gy/min suppressed oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 21 less than did higher dose rates in 5-Gy irradiated cultures

  3. Mathematical model for evaluation of dose-rate effect on biological responses to low dose γ-radiation

    Ogata, H.; Kawakami, Y.; Magae, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: To evaluate quantitative dose-response relationship on the biological response to radiation, it is necessary to consider a model including cumulative dose, dose-rate and irradiation time. In this study, we measured micronucleus formation and [ 3 H] thymidine uptake in human cells as indices of biological response to gamma radiation, and analyzed mathematically and statistically the data for quantitative evaluation of radiation risk at low dose/low dose-rate. Effective dose (ED x ) was mathematically estimated by fitting a general function of logistic model to the dose-response relationship. Assuming that biological response depends on not only cumulative dose but also dose-rate and irradiation time, a multiple logistic function was applied to express the relationship of the three variables. Moreover, to estimate the effect of radiation at very low dose, we proposed a modified exponential model. From the results of fitting curves to the inhibition of [ 3 H] thymidine uptake and micronucleus formation, it was obvious that ED 50 in proportion of inhibition of [ 3 H] thymidine uptake increased with longer irradiation time. As for the micronuclei, ED 30 also increased with longer irradiation times. These results suggest that the biological response depends on not only total dose but also irradiation time. The estimated response surface using the three variables showed that the biological response declined sharply when the dose-rate was less than 0.01 Gy/h. These results suggest that the response does not depend on total cumulative dose at very low dose-rates. Further, to investigate the effect of dose-rate within a wider range, we analyzed the relationship between ED x and dose-rate. Fitted curves indicated that ED x increased sharply when dose-rate was less than 10 -2 Gy/h. The increase of ED x signifies the decline of the response or the risk and suggests that the risk approaches to 0 at infinitely low dose-rate

  4. Designing Pareto-superior demand-response rate options

    Horowitz, I.; Woo, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    We explore three voluntary service options-real-time pricing, time-of-use pricing, and curtailable/interruptible service-that a local distribution company might offer its customers in order to encourage them to alter their electricity usage in response to changes in the electricity-spot-market price. These options are simple and practical, and make minimal information demands. We show that each of the options is Pareto-superior ex ante, in that it benefits both the participants and the company offering it, while not affecting the non-participants. The options are shown to be Pareto-superior ex post as well, except under certain exceptional circumstances. (author)

  5. Wind-induced response analysis of a wind turbine tower including the blade-tower coupling effect

    Xiao-bo CHEN; Jing LI; Jian-yun CHEN

    2009-01-01

    To analyze wind-induced response characteristics of a wind turbine tower more accurately, the blade-tower coupling effect was investigated. The mean wind velocity of the rotating blades and tower was simulated according to wind shear effects,and the fluctuating wind velocity time series of the wind turbine were simulated by a harmony superposition method. A dynamic finite element method (FEM) was used to calculate the wind-induced response of the blades and tower. Wind-induced responses of the tower were calculated in two cases (one included the blade-tower coupling effect, and the other only added the mass of blades and the hub at the top of the tower), and then the maximal displacements at the top of the tower of the tow cases were compared with each other. As a result of the influence of the blade-tower coupling effect and the total base shear of the blades, the maximal displacement of the first case increased nearly by 300% compared to the second case. To obtain more precise analysis, the blade-tower coupling effect and the total base shear of the blades should be considered simultaneously in the design of wind turbine towers.

  6. Developing an explicit strategy towards social responsibility in the NHS: a case for including NHS managers in this strategy.

    Merali, Faruk

    2006-01-01

    To explore the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) within the UK National Health Service (NHS) and to examine how it may be developed to positively influence the psyche, behaviour and performance of NHS managers. Primary research based upon semi-structured individual face to face interviews with 20 NHS managers. Theoretical frameworks and concepts relating to organisational culture and CSR are drawn upon to discuss the findings. The NHS managers see themselves as being driven by altruistic core values. However, they feel that the public does not believe that they share the altruistic NHS value system. The study is based on a relatively small sample of NHS managers working exclusively in London and may not necessarily represent the views of managers either London-wide or nation-wide. It is suggested that an explicit recognition by the NHS of the socially responsible commitment of its managers within its CSR strategy would help challenge the existing negative public image of NHS managers and in turn improve the managers' self esteem and morale. This paper addresses the relative lacunae in research relating to public sector organisations (such as the NHS) explicitly including the role and commitment of its staff within the way it publicises its CSR strategy. This paper would be of interest to a wide readership including public sector and NHS policy formulators, NHS practitioners, academics and students.

  7. Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study

    Orchard Jo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of £5 for the completion of postal questionnaires. Methods We recruited patients in general practice with knee problems from sites across the United Kingdom. An evidence-based strategy was used to follow-up patients at twelve months with postal questionnaires. This included an unconditional direct payment of £5 to patients for the completion and return of questionnaires. The first 105 patients did not receive the £5 incentive, but the subsequent 442 patients did. We used logistic regression to analyse the effect of introducing a monetary incentive to increase the response to postal questionnaires. Results The response rate following reminders for the historical controls was 78.1% (82 of 105 compared with 88.0% (389 of 442 for those patients who received the £5 payment (diff = 9.9%, 95% CI 2.3% to 19.1%. Direct payments significantly increased the odds of response (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0, P = 0.009 with only 12 of 442 patients declining the payment. The incentive did not save costs to the trial – the extra cost per additional respondent was almost £50. Conclusion The direct payment of £5 significantly increased the completion of postal questionnaires at negligible increase in cost for an adequately powered study.

  8. Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study

    Brealey, Stephen D; Atwell, Christine; Bryan, Stirling; Coulton, Simon; Cox, Helen; Cross, Ben; Fylan, Fiona; Garratt, Andrew; Gilbert, Fiona J; Gillan, Maureen GC; Hendry, Maggie; Hood, Kerenza; Houston, Helen; King, David; Morton, Veronica; Orchard, Jo; Robling, Michael; Russell, Ian T; Torgerson, David; Wadsworth, Valerie; Wilkinson, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Background Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of £5 for the completion of postal questionnaires. Methods We recruited patients in general practice with knee problems from sites across the United Kingdom. An evidence-based strategy was used to follow-up patients at twelve months with postal questionnaires. This included an unconditional direct payment of £5 to patients for the completion and return of questionnaires. The first 105 patients did not receive the £5 incentive, but the subsequent 442 patients did. We used logistic regression to analyse the effect of introducing a monetary incentive to increase the response to postal questionnaires. Results The response rate following reminders for the historical controls was 78.1% (82 of 105) compared with 88.0% (389 of 442) for those patients who received the £5 payment (diff = 9.9%, 95% CI 2.3% to 19.1%). Direct payments significantly increased the odds of response (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0, P = 0.009) with only 12 of 442 patients declining the payment. The incentive did not save costs to the trial – the extra cost per additional respondent was almost £50. Conclusion The direct payment of £5 significantly increased the completion of postal questionnaires at negligible increase in cost for an adequately powered study. PMID:17326837

  9. Including climate variability in determination of the optimum rate of N fertilizer application using a crop model: A case study for rainfed corn in eastern Canada

    Mesbah, M.; Pattey, E.; Jégo, G.; Geng, X.; Tremblay, N.; Didier, A.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying optimum nitrogen (N) application rate is essential for increasing agricultural production while limiting potential environmental contaminations caused by release of reactive N, especially for high demand N crops such as corn. The central question of N management is then how the optimum N rate is affected by climate variability for given soil. The experimental determination of optimum N rates involve the analyses of variance on the mean value of crop yield response to various N application rates used by factorial plot based experiments for a few years in several regions. This traditional approach has limitations to capture 1) the non-linear response of yield to N application rates due to large incremental N rates (often more than 40 kg N ha-1) and 2) the ecophysiological response of the crop to climate variability because of limited numbers of growing seasons considered. Modeling on the other hand, does not have such limitations and hence we use a crop model and propose a model-based methodology called Finding NEMO (N Ecophysiologically Modelled Optimum) to identify the optimum N rates for variable agro-climatic conditions and given soil properties. The performance of the methodology is illustrated using the STICS crop model adapted for rainfed corn in the Mixedwood Plains ecozone of eastern Canada (42.3oN 83oW-46.8oN 71oW) where more than 90% of Canadian corn is produced. The simulations were performed using small increment of preplant N application rate (10 kg N ha -1), long time series of daily climatic data (48 to 61 years) for 5 regions along the ecozone, and three contrasting soils per region. The results show that N recommendations should be region and soil specific. Soils with lower available water capacity required more N compared to soil with higher available water capacity. When N rates were at their ecophysiologically optimum level, 10 to 17 kg increase in dry yield could be achieved by adding 1 kg N. Expected yield also affected the optimum

  10. Response-guided induction therapy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with excellent remission rate

    Abrahamsson, Jonas; Forestier, Erik; Heldrup, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the early treatment response in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a response-guided induction strategy that includes idarubicin in the first course.......To evaluate the early treatment response in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a response-guided induction strategy that includes idarubicin in the first course....

  11. Heart rate responses induced by acoustic tempo and its interaction with basal heart rate.

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2017-03-07

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Since previous studies focused on the effects of acoustic tempo on the ANS, and humans have their own physiological oscillations such as the heart rate (HR), the effects of acoustic tempo might depend on the HR. Here we show the relationship between HR elevation induced by acoustic tempo and individual basal HR. Since high tempo-induced HR elevation requires fast respiration, which is based on sympatho-respiratory coupling, we controlled the participants' respiration at a faster rate (20 CPM) than usual (15 CPM). We found that sound stimuli with a faster tempo than the individual basal HR increased the HR. However, the HR increased following a gradual increase in the acoustic tempo only when the extent of the gradual increase in tempo was within a specific range (around + 2%/min). The HR did not follow the increase in acoustic tempo when the rate of the increase in the acoustic tempo exceeded 3% per minute. These results suggest that the effect of the sympatho-respiratory coupling underlying the HR elevation caused by a high acoustic tempo depends on the basal HR, and the strength and the temporal dynamics of the tempo.

  12. Effect of radiation doses rate on SOS response induction in irradiated Escherichia coli Cells

    Cuetara Lugo, Elizabeth B.; Fuentes Lorenzo, Jorge L.; Almeida Varela, Eliseo; Prieto Miranda, Enrique F.; Sanchez Lamar, Angel; Llagostera Casal, Montserrat

    2005-01-01

    The present work is aimed to study the effect of radiation dose rate on the induction of SOS response in Escherichia coli cells. We measured the induction of sul A reporter gene in PQ-37 (SOS Chromotest) cells. Lead devises were built with different diameter and these were used for diminishing the dose rate of PX- -30M irradiator. Our results show that radiation doses rate significantly modifies the induction of SOS response. Induction factor increases proportionally to doses rate in Escherichia coli cells defective to nucleotide excision repair (uvrA), but not in wild type cells. We conclude that the dose rate affects the level of induction of SOS response

  13. Factors that contribute to biomarker responses in humans including a study in individuals taking Vitamin C supplementation.

    Anderson, D

    2001-09-01

    It is possible in many situations to identify humans exposed to potentially toxic materials in the workplace and in the environment. As in most human studies, there tends to be a high degree of interindividual variability in response to chemical insults. Some non-exposed control individuals exhibit as high a level of damage as some exposed individuals and some of these have levels of damage as low as many of the controls. Thus, it is only the mean values of the groups that can substantiate an exposure-related problem; the data on an individual basis are still of limited use. While human lymphocytes remain the most popular cell type for monitoring purposes, sperm, buccal, nasal, epithelial and placental cells are also used. However, for interpretation of responses, the issue of confounding factors must be addressed. There are endogenous confounding factors, such as age, gender, and genetic make-up and exogenous ones, including lifestyle habits (smoking, drinking, etc.) There are biomarkers of exposure, effect/response and susceptibility and the last may be influenced by the genotype and polymorphism genes existing in a population. From our own studies, confounding effects on cytogenetic damage and ras oncoproteins will be considered in relation to workers exposed to vinyl chloride and petroleum emissions and to volunteers taking Vitamin C supplementation. Smoking history, exposure and duration of employment affected the worker studies. For petroleum emissions, so did gender and season of exposure. For the non-smoking volunteer Vitamin C supplementation study, cholesterol levels, plasma Vitamin C levels, lipid peroxidation products and DNA damage in the Comet assay were also measured. Gender affected differences in Vitamin C levels, antioxidant capacity and the number of chromosome aberrations induced by bleomycin challenge in vitro. The results were the same for both high and low cholesterol subjects. The relationship between biomarkers and the various factors which

  14. Probe train including a flaw detector and a radiation responsive recording means with alignment means having a natural curved cast

    Stone, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    An inspection system for a multitube steam generator comprising a probe train for insertion in a tube to be inspected is described. The probe train includes, in series, directional probe means, such as an eddy current probe, for indicating the longitudinal and angular location of an irregularity at or in the wall of the tube, and radiation responsive recording means nonrotatable relative to the eddy current probe during operation and in substantially close longitudinal relationship thereto for receiving an image of the irregularity when laterally adjacent thereto; elongated alignment means joined to at least one end of the probe train against rotation relative thereto and insertable in the tube for controlling or determining the angular orientation of the probe train within the tube; means for propelling the probe train longitudinally within the tube; and a source of radiation insertable in another tube of the steam generator to a position therealong laterally adjacent the indicated irregularity for irradiation of the irregularity to project said image on the recording means. The directional probe means may preferably be an eddy current probe and the radiation responsive recording means may preferably be a film bearing cassette probe. The alignment means may be provided by a resilient naturally curved plastic cable, which cable might also be used to propel the probe train. (auth)

  15. Mouse preimplantation embryo responses to culture medium osmolarity include increased expression of CCM2 and p38 MAPK activation

    Watson Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms that confer an ability to respond positively to environmental osmolarity are fundamental to ensuring embryo survival during the preimplantation period. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic treatment. Recently, a novel scaffolding protein called Osmosensing Scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM was linked to p38 MAPK activation in response to sorbitol-induced hypertonicity. The human ortholog of OSM is cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2. The present study was conducted to investigate whether CCM2 is expressed during mouse preimplantation development and to determine whether this scaffolding protein is associated with p38 MAPK activation following exposure of preimplantation embryos to hyperosmotic environments. Results Our results indicate that Ccm2 along with upstream p38 MAPK pathway constituents (Map3k3, Map2k3, Map2k6, and Map2k4 are expressed throughout mouse preimplantation development. CCM2, MAP3K3 and the phosphorylated forms of MAP2K3/MAP2K6 and MAP2K4 were also detected throughout preimplantation development. Embryo culture in hyperosmotic media increased p38 MAPK activity in conjunction with elevated CCM2 levels. Conclusion These results define the expression of upstream activators of p38 MAPK during preimplantation development and indicate that embryo responses to hyperosmotic environments include elevation of CCM2 and activation of p38 MAPK.

  16. Finite Element Modeling and Analysis of Nonlinear Impact and Frictional Motion Responses Including Fluid—Structure Coupling Effects

    Yong Zhao

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear three dimensional (3D single rack model and a nonlinear 3D whole pool multi-rack model are developed for the spent fuel storage racks of a nuclear power plant (NPP to determine impacts and frictional motion responses when subjected to 3D excitations from the supporting building floor. The submerged free standing rack system and surrounding water are coupled due to hydrodynamic fluid-structure interaction (FSI using potential theory. The models developed have features that allow consideration of geometric and material nonlinearities including (1 the impacts of fuel assemblies to rack cells, a rack to adjacent racks or pool walls, and rack support legs to the pool floor; (2 the hydrodynamic coupling of fuel assemblies with their storing racks, and of a rack with adjacent racks, pool walls, and the pool floor; and (3 the dynamic motion behavior of rocking, twisting, and frictional sliding of rack modules. Using these models 3D nonlinear time history dynamic analyses are performed per the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC criteria. Since few such modeling, analyses, and results using both the 3D single and whole pool multiple rack models are available in the literature, this paper emphasizes description of modeling and analysis techniques using the SOLVIA general purpose nonlinear finite element code. Typical response results with different Coulomb friction coefficients are presented and discussed.

  17. Effects of various methodologic strategies: survey response rates among Canadian physicians and physicians-in-training.

    Grava-Gubins, Inese; Scott, Sarah

    2008-10-01

    To increase the overall 2007 response rate of the National Physician Survey (NPS) from the survey's 2004 rate of response with the implementation of various methodologic strategies. Physicians were stratified to receive either a long version (12 pages) or a short version (6 pages) of the survey (38% and 62%, respectively). Mixed modes of contact were used-58% were contacted by e-mail and 42% by regular mail-with multiple modes of contact attempted for nonrespondents. The self-administered, confidential surveys were distributed in either English or French. Medical residents and students received e-mail surveys only and were offered a substantial monetary lottery incentive for completing their surveys. A professional communications firm assisted in marketing the survey and delivered advance notification of its impending distribution. Canada. A total of 62 441 practising physicians, 2627 second-year medical residents, and 9162 medical students in Canada. Of the practising physicians group, 60 811 participants were eligible and 19 239 replied, for an overall 2007 study response rate of 31.64% (compared with 35.85% in 2004). No difference in rate of response was found between the longer and shorter versions of the survey. If contacted by regular mail, the response rate was 34.1%; the e-mail group had a response rate of 29.9%. Medical student and resident response rates were 30.8% and 27.9%, respectively (compared with 31.2% and 35.6% in 2004). Despite shortening the questionnaires, contacting more physicians by e-mail, and enhancing marketing and follow-up, the 2007 NPS response rate for practising physicians did not surpass the 2004 NPS response rate. Offering a monetary lottery incentive to medical residents and students was also unsuccessful in increasing their response rates. The role of surveys in gathering information from physicians and physicians-in-training remains problematic. Researchers need to investigate alternative strategies for achieving higher rates of

  18. An exploration of heart rate response to differing music rhythm and tempos.

    da Silva, Ariany G; Guida, Heraldo L; Antônio, Ana Márcia Dos S; Marcomini, Renata S; Fontes, Anne M G G; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Roque, Adriano L; Silva, Sidney B; Raimundo, Rodrigo D; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate acute cardiac response and heart rate variability (HRV) when listening to differing forms of music. Eleven healthy men aged between 18 and 25 years old were included in the study. HRV was recorded at rest for ten minutes with no music, then were asked to listen to classical baroque or heavy metal music for a period of 20 min. It was noted that heart rate variability did not affect HRV indices for time and frequency. In conclusion, music with different tempos does not influence cardiac autonomic regulation in men. However more studies are suggested to explore this topic in greater detail. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Response rate of bricklayers and supervisors on an internet or a paper-and-pencil questionnaire

    Boschman, Julitta S.; van der Molen, Henk F.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether or not internet surveys yield response rates comparable to paper-and-pencil surveys for specific occupational groups, such as construction workers. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in response rates between a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and an

  20. Response Rates in Studies of Couples Coping With Cancer : A Systematic Review

    Dagan, Meirav; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    Objective: Recruiting couples for psychological studies can be challenging. This brief report is the first to examine the average couples' response rate and to systematically review the quality of reporting of couples' response rate in studies of couples coping with cancer. Method: A systematic

  1. Applications of the absolute reaction rate theory to biological responses in electric and magnetic fields

    Brannen, J.P.; Wayland, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical foundation for the study of biological responses of electric and magnetic fields. The basis of the development is the absolute reaction rate theory and the effects of fields on reaction rates. A simple application to the response of Bacillus subtilis var niger in a microwave field is made. Potential areas of application are discussed

  2. Response rate of fibrosarcoma cells to cytotoxic drugs on the expression level correlates to the therapeutic response rate of fibrosarcomas and is mediated by regulation of apoptotic pathways

    Lehnhardt, Marcus; Mueller, Oliver; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Kuhnen, Cornelius; Homann, Heinz Herbert; Daigeler, Adrien; Steinau, Hans Ulrich; Roehrs, Sonja; Schnoor, Laura; Steinstraesser, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Because of the high resistance rate of fibrosarcomas against cytotoxic agents clinical chemotherapy of these tumors is not established. A better understanding of the diverse modes of tumor cell death following cytotoxic therapies will provide a molecular basis for new chemotherapeutic strategies. In this study we elucidated the response of a fibrosarcoma cell line to clinically used cytostatic agents on the level of gene expression. HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells were exposed to the chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin, actinomycin D or vincristine. Total RNA was isolated and the gene expression patterns were analyzed by microarray analysis. Expression levels for 46 selected candidate genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The analysis of the microarray data resulted in 3.309 (actinomycin D), 1.019 (doxorubicin) and 134 (vincristine) probesets that showed significant expression changes. For the RNA synthesis blocker actinomycin D, 99.4% of all differentially expressed probesets were under-represented. In comparison, probesets down-regulated by doxorubicin comprised only 37.4% of all genes effected by this agent. Closer analysis of the differentially regulated genes revealed that doxorubicin induced cell death of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells mainly by regulating the abundance of factors mediating the mitochondrial (intrinsic) apoptosis pathway. Furthermore doxorubicin influences other pathways and crosstalk to other pathways (including to the death receptor pathway) at multiple levels. We found increased levels of cytochrome c, APAF-1 and members of the STAT-family (STAT1, STAT3), while Bcl-2 expression was decreased. Caspase-1, -3, -6, -8, and -9 were increased indicating that these proteases are key factors in the execution of doxorubicin mediated apoptosis. This study demonstrates that chemotherapy regulates the expression of apoptosis-related factors in fibrosarcoma cells. The number and the specific pattern of the genes depend on the used cytotoxic drug

  3. [Response rates in three opinion surveys performed through online questionnaires in the health setting].

    Aerny Perreten, Nicole; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Astray Mochales, Jenaro; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; Blanco Ancos, Luis Miguel; Lópaz Pérez, Ma Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The main advantages of online questionnaires are the speed of data collection and cost savings, but response rates are usually low. This study analyzed response rates and associated factors among health professionals in three opinion surveys in the autonomous region of Madrid. The participants, length of the questionnaire and topic differed among the three surveys. The surveys were conducted by using paid Internet software. The institutional e-mail addresses of distinct groups of health professionals were used. Response rates were highest in hospitals (up to 63%) and administrative services and were lowest in primary care (less than 33%). The differences in response rates were analyzed in primary care professionals according to age, sex and professional category and only the association with age was statistically significant. None of the surveys achieved a response rate of 60%. Differences were observed according to workplace, patterns of Internet usage, and interest in the subject. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Vegetation response to invasive Tamarix control in southwestern U.S. rivers: a collaborative study including 416 sites.

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A; Anderson, Robert M; Bay, Robin F; Bean, Daniel W; Bissonnete, Gabriel J; Bourgeois, Bérenger; Cooper, David J; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L; Makarick, Lori J; Ostoja, Steven M; Reynolds, Lindsay V; Robinson, W Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B

    2017-09-01

    Most studies assessing vegetation response following control of invasive Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers have been small in scale (e.g., river reach), or at a regional scale but with poor spatial-temporal replication, and most have not included testing the effects of a now widely used biological control. We monitored plant composition following Tamarix control along hydrologic, soil, and climatic gradients in 244 treated and 172 reference sites across six U.S. states. This represents the largest comprehensive assessment to date on the vegetation response to the four most common Tamarix control treatments. Biocontrol by a defoliating beetle (treatment 1) reduced the abundance of Tamarix less than active removal by mechanically using hand and chain-saws (2), heavy machinery (3) or burning (4). Tamarix abundance also decreased with lower temperatures, higher precipitation, and follow-up treatments for Tamarix resprouting. Native cover generally increased over time in active Tamarix removal sites, however, the increases observed were small and was not consistently increased by active revegetation. Overall, native cover was correlated to permanent stream flow, lower grazing pressure, lower soil salinity and temperatures, and higher precipitation. Species diversity also increased where Tamarix was removed. However, Tamarix treatments, especially those generating the highest disturbance (burning and heavy machinery), also often promoted secondary invasions of exotic forbs. The abundance of hydrophytic species was much lower in treated than in reference sites, suggesting that management of southwestern U.S. rivers has focused too much on weed control, overlooking restoration of fluvial processes that provide habitat for hydrophytic and floodplain vegetation. These results can help inform future management of Tamarix-infested rivers to restore hydrogeomorphic processes, increase native biodiversity and reduce abundance of noxious species. © 2017 by the

  5. Impulse Response of the Exchange Rate Volatility to a Foreign Exchange Intervention Shock

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses Lin's technique (1997) to report on the impulse response function analysis that traces the dynamics of exchange rate volatility from innovations in Japanese foreign exchange intervention. Using a multivariate GARCH model, we employed a volatility impulse response function based on Lin (1997) to detect the impulse response of exchange rate volatility on a one-unit foreign exchange intervention shock. The main findings of t his paper are as follows: (1) a foreign exchange inter...

  6. First comparative study of primate morphological and molecular evolutionary rates including muscle data: implications for the tempo and mode of primate and human evolution

    Diogo, Rui; Peng, Zuogang; Wood, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Here we provide the first report about the rates of muscle evolution derived from Bayesian and parsimony cladistic analyses of primate higher-level phylogeny, and compare these rates with published rates of molecular evolution. It is commonly accepted that there is a ‘general molecular slow-down of hominoids’, but interestingly the rates of muscle evolution in the nodes leading and within the hominoid clade are higher than those in the vast majority of other primate clades. The rate of muscle evolution at the node leading to Homo (1.77) is higher than that at the nodes leading to Pan (0.89) and particularly to Gorilla (0.28). Notably, the rates of muscle evolution at the major euarchontan and primate nodes are different, but within each major primate clade (Strepsirrhini, Platyrrhini, Cercopithecidae and Hominoidea) the rates at the various nodes, and particularly at the nodes leading to the higher groups (i.e. including more than one genera), are strikingly similar. We explore the implications of these new data for the tempo and mode of primate and human evolution. PMID:23320764

  7. A constitutive model for the compressive response of metallic closed-cell foams including micro-inertia effects

    Barthélémy Romain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic foams have known a keen interest in the last decades. Their ability to undergo very large deformations while transmitting low stress levels make them capable of performing functions of protective layers against intense loadings and of energy absorbers, for instance. The behaviour of metal foams varies considerably between quasi-static and dynamic regimes. Those differences can be linked to the strain-rate sensitivity of the skeleton material and to micro-inertial effects (induced by the crushing of the foam cells. In the present work, a micromechanical model has been developed to take into account micro-inertia effects on the macroscopic behaviour of closed-cell foams under dynamic loading conditions. The proposed modelling is based on the dynamic homogenisation procedure introduced by Molinari and Mercier (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 49 (2001 1497–1516. Within this framework, the macrostress is the sum of two terms. The first one is a static stress, that can be described with any existing model of metal foam. The second contribution is a dynamic stress related to micro-inertia effects. Considering an initially spherical shell as a Representative Volume Element (RVE of the foam material, a closed-form expression of the dynamic stress was obtained. The proposed modelling was applied to shock propagation in aluminium foams (it should however be noted that the present theory is not restricted to uniaxial deformation but can be applied to arbitrary loadings. From experimental data of the literature, it is observed that incorporating micro-inertia effects allows one to achieve a better description of the foam shock response. This indicates that micro-inertia may have a significant influence on the dynamic behaviour of metallic foams.

  8. Yield responses of sesame ( Sesamium indicum L) to rates of poultry ...

    Yield responses of sesame ( Sesamium indicum L) to rates of poultry manure application and time of planting in a derived savannah ecology of south eastern Nigeria. ... The interaction of time of planting and manure rates showed a trend of increased seed yield as planting was done early with high manure rate, hence, the ...

  9. Adult Mouse DRG Explant and Dissociated Cell Models to Investigate Neuroplasticity and Responses to Environmental Insults Including Viral Infection.

    Fornaro, Michele; Sharthiya, Harsh; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2018-03-09

    This protocol describes an ex vivo model of mouse-derived dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explant and in vitro DRG-derived co-culture of dissociated sensory neurons and glial satellite cells. These are useful and versatile models to investigate a variety of biological responses associated with physiological and pathological conditions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) ranging from neuron-glial interaction, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation, and viral infection. The usage of DRG explant is scientifically advantageous compared to simplistic single cells models for multiple reasons. For instance, as an organotypic culture, the DRG explant allows ex vivo transfer of an entire neuronal network including the extracellular microenvironment that play a significant role in all the neuronal and glial functions. Further, DRG explants can also be maintained ex vivo for several days and the culture conditions can be perturbed as desired. In addition, the harvested DRG can be further dissociated into an in vitro co-culture of primary sensory neurons and satellite glial cells to investigate neuronal-glial interaction, neuritogenesis, axonal cone interaction with the extracellular microenvironment, and more general, any aspect associated with the neuronal metabolism. Therefore, the DRG-explant system offers a great deal of flexibility to study a wide array of events related to biological, physiological, and pathological conditions in a cost-effective manner.

  10. The reliability and validity of the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders.

    Cai, Weixiong; Zhang, Qingting; Huang, Fuyin; Guan, Wei; Tang, Tao; Liu, Chao

    2014-03-01

    In China, the criminal responsibility of the mentally disordered offenders is divided into three levels, there are the whole responsibility, diminished responsibility and irresponsibility. According to the Criminal Law, "If a mental disordered patient causes harmful consequences at a time when he is unable to recognize or control his own conduct, upon verification and confirmation through legal procedure, he shall not bear criminal responsibility." That means there are two standards of assessing criminal responsibility, namely volitional and cognitive capacity. It is as equal as the Mc'Naughton Rule and the Irresistible Impulse Test. But for a long time, the criminal responsibility was assessed mainly by experience because of lacking of standardized assessment instrument. Recently, we have developed "the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders (RSCRs)". The scale includes eighteen items, namely criminal motivation, aura before offense, inducement of crime, time and place and object and tool selectivity of crime, emotion during the crime, shirking responsibility after offense, concealing the truth during inquest, camouflage, understanding the nature of the offense, estimating the consequence of the offense, impairment of life ability, impairment of learning or work, impairment of insight, impairment of reality testing, and impairment of self-control. This scale can be applicable for all cases and easy to use. This scale had been tried out in several forensic psychiatry institutes, the Cronbach α of the scale is 0.93, and all items have high correlation with the total score of the scale (r=0.50-0.89). Two factors were extracted by the factorial analysis, and the cumulative squared loading was 68.62%. The scores of the three levels were 9.66 ± 5.11, 26.54 ± 5.21 and 40.08 ± 7.90 respectively and highly significant differences were observed among groups. By establishing discrimination analysis among three levels, classification

  11. Talimogene Laherparepvec Improves Durable Response Rate in Patients With Advanced Melanoma.

    Andtbacka, Robert H I; Kaufman, Howard L; Collichio, Frances; Amatruda, Thomas; Senzer, Neil; Chesney, Jason; Delman, Keith A; Spitler, Lynn E; Puzanov, Igor; Agarwala, Sanjiv S; Milhem, Mohammed; Cranmer, Lee; Curti, Brendan; Lewis, Karl; Ross, Merrick; Guthrie, Troy; Linette, Gerald P; Daniels, Gregory A; Harrington, Kevin; Middleton, Mark R; Miller, Wilson H; Zager, Jonathan S; Ye, Yining; Yao, Bin; Li, Ai; Doleman, Susan; VanderWalde, Ari; Gansert, Jennifer; Coffin, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is a herpes simplex virus type 1-derived oncolytic immunotherapy designed to selectively replicate within tumors and produce granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to enhance systemic antitumor immune responses. T-VEC was compared with GM-CSF in patients with unresected stage IIIB to IV melanoma in a randomized open-label phase III trial. Patients with injectable melanoma that was not surgically resectable were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to intralesional T-VEC or subcutaneous GM-CSF. The primary end point was durable response rate (DRR; objective response lasting continuously ≥ 6 months) per independent assessment. Key secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and overall response rate. Among 436 patients randomly assigned, DRR was significantly higher with T-VEC (16.3%; 95% CI, 12.1% to 20.5%) than GM-CSF (2.1%; 95% CI, 0% to 4.5%]; odds ratio, 8.9; P < .001). Overall response rate was also higher in the T-VEC arm (26.4%; 95% CI, 21.4% to 31.5% v 5.7%; 95% CI, 1.9% to 9.5%). Median OS was 23.3 months (95% CI, 19.5 to 29.6 months) with T-VEC and 18.9 months (95% CI, 16.0 to 23.7 months) with GM-CSF (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.00; P = .051). T-VEC efficacy was most pronounced in patients with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease and in patients with treatment-naive disease. The most common adverse events (AEs) with T-VEC were fatigue, chills, and pyrexia. The only grade 3 or 4 AE occurring in ≥ 2% of T-VEC-treated patients was cellulitis (2.1%). No fatal treatment-related AEs occurred. T-VEC is the first oncolytic immunotherapy to demonstrate therapeutic benefit against melanoma in a phase III clinical trial. T-VEC was well tolerated and resulted in a higher DRR (P < .001) and longer median OS (P = .051), particularly in untreated patients or those with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease. T-VEC represents a novel potential therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma. © 2015 by

  12. Understanding Response Rates to Surveys About Family Members' Psychological Symptoms After Patients' Critical Illness.

    Long, Ann C; Downey, Lois; Engelberg, Ruth A; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Ciechanowski, Paul; Curtis, J Randall

    2017-07-01

    Achieving adequate response rates from family members of critically ill patients can be challenging, especially when assessing psychological symptoms. To identify factors associated with completion of surveys about psychological symptoms among family members of critically ill patients. Using data from a randomized trial of an intervention to improve communication between clinicians and families of critically ill patients, we examined patient-level and family-level predictors of the return of usable surveys at baseline, three months, and six months (n = 181, 171, and 155, respectively). Family-level predictors included baseline symptoms of psychological distress, decisional independence preference, and attachment style. We hypothesized that family with fewer symptoms of psychological distress, a preference for less decisional independence, and secure attachment style would be more likely to return questionnaires. We identified several predictors of the return of usable questionnaires. Better self-assessed family member health status was associated with a higher likelihood and stronger agreement with a support-seeking attachment style with a lower likelihood, of obtaining usable baseline surveys. At three months, family-level predictors of return of usable surveys included having usable baseline surveys, status as the patient's legal next of kin, and stronger agreement with a secure attachment style. The only predictor of receipt of surveys at six months was the presence of usable surveys at three months. We identified several predictors of the receipt of surveys assessing psychological symptoms in family of critically ill patients, including family member health status and attachment style. Using these characteristics to inform follow-up mailings and reminders may enhance response rates. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Population-specific responses in physiological rates of Emiliania huxleyi to a broad CO2 range

    Y. Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although coccolithophore physiological responses to CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry have been widely studied in the past, there is limited knowledge on the variability of physiological responses between populations from different areas. In the present study, we investigated the specific responses of growth, particulate organic (POC and inorganic carbon (PIC production rates of three populations of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi from three regions in the North Atlantic Ocean (Azores: six strains, Canary Islands: five strains, and Norwegian coast near Bergen: six strains to a CO2 partial pressure (pCO2 range from 120 to 2630 µatm. Physiological rates of each population and individual strain increased with rising pCO2 levels, reached a maximum and declined thereafter. Optimal pCO2 for growth, POC production rates, and tolerance to low pH (i.e., high proton concentration was significantly higher in an E. huxleyi population isolated from the Norwegian coast than in those isolated near the Azores and Canary Islands. This may be due to the large environmental variability including large pCO2 and pH fluctuations in coastal waters off Bergen compared to the rather stable oceanic conditions at the other two sites. Maximum growth and POC production rates of the Azores and Bergen populations were similar and significantly higher than that of the Canary Islands population. This pattern could be driven by temperature–CO2 interactions where the chosen incubation temperature (16 °C was slightly below what strains isolated near the Canary Islands normally experience. Our results indicate adaptation of E. huxleyi to their local environmental conditions and the existence of distinct E. huxleyi populations. Within each population, different growth, POC, and PIC production rates at different pCO2 levels indicated strain-specific phenotypic plasticity. Accounting for this variability is important to understand how or whether E

  14. Function and modulation of premotor brainstem parasympathetic cardiac neurons that control heart rate by hypoxia-, sleep-, and sleep-related diseases including obstructive sleep apnea.

    Dergacheva, Olga; Weigand, Letitia A; Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Mares, Jacquelyn; Wang, Xin; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-01-01

    Parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the brainstem dominate the control of heart rate. Previous work has determined that these neurons are inherently silent, and their activity is largely determined by synaptic inputs to CVNs that include four major types of synapses that release glutamate, GABA, glycine, or serotonin. Whereas prior reviews have focused on glutamatergic, GABAergic and glycinergic pathways, and the receptors in CVNs activated by these neurotransmitters, this review focuses on the alterations in CVN activity with hypoxia-, sleep-, and sleep-related cardiovascular diseases including obstructive sleep apnea. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stratigraphic response of salt marshes to slow rates of sea-level change

    Daly, J.; Bell, T.

    2006-12-01

    Conventional models of salt-marsh development show an idealized spatial relationship between salt-marsh floral and foraminiferal zones, where the landward margin of the marsh gradually migrates inland in response to sea-level rise. This model predicts that transgression will result in persistent and possibly expanded salt marshes at the surface, depending on a variety of factors including sediment supply, hydrologic conditions, tidal range, and rate of sea-level rise. However, in areas with abundant sediment supply and slow rates of sea- level rise, the extent of back-barrier salt marshes may decline over time as the barrier-spits mature. Sea level around the northeast coast of Newfoundland is rising at a very slow rate during the late Holocene (flora. These transitions are interpreted to reflect the progradation of the spit, decreased tidal exchange in the back-barrier, and increased influence of freshwater streams discharging into the back-barrier setting. Decreased marine influence on the back-barrier environment leads to a floral and faunal shift associated with a regressive stratigraphy in an area experiencing sea-level rise. For studies of Holocene sea-level change requiring salt-marsh stratigraphic records, it is necessary to account for changing micro-environments to locate sites appropriate for study; salt marshes may play an important role in defining the record, but may not exist at the surface to guide investigation.

  16. Growth rate regulated genes and their wide involvement in the Lactococcus lactis stress responses

    Redon Emma

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of transcriptomic tools has allowed exhaustive description of stress responses. These responses always superimpose a general response associated to growth rate decrease and a specific one corresponding to the stress. The exclusive growth rate response can be achieved through chemostat cultivation, enabling all parameters to remain constant except the growth rate. Results We analysed metabolic and transcriptomic responses of Lactococcus lactis in continuous cultures at different growth rates ranging from 0.09 to 0.47 h-1. Growth rate was conditioned by isoleucine supply. Although carbon metabolism was constant and homolactic, a widespread transcriptomic response involving 30% of the genome was observed. The expression of genes encoding physiological functions associated with biogenesis increased with growth rate (transcription, translation, fatty acid and phospholipids metabolism. Many phages, prophages and transposon related genes were down regulated as growth rate increased. The growth rate response was compared to carbon and amino-acid starvation transcriptomic responses, revealing constant and significant involvement of growth rate regulations in these two stressful conditions (overlap 27%. Two regulators potentially involved in the growth rate regulations, llrE and yabB, have been identified. Moreover it was established that genes positively regulated by growth rate are preferentially located in the vicinity of replication origin while those negatively regulated are mainly encountered at the opposite, thus indicating the relationship between genes expression and their location on chromosome. Although stringent response mechanism is considered as the one governing growth deceleration in bacteria, the rigorous comparison of the two transcriptomic responses clearly indicated the mechanisms are distinct. Conclusion This work of integrative biology was performed at the global level using transcriptomic analysis

  17. Inverse strain rate effect on cyclic stress response in annealed Zircaloy-2

    Sudhakar Rao, G.; Verma, Preeti [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Chakravartty, J.K. [Mechanical Metallurgy Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay 400 085, Mumbai (India); Nudurupati, Saibaba [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Mahobia, G.S.; Santhi Srinivas, N.C. [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Vakil, E-mail: vsingh.met@itbhu.ac.in [Center of Advanced Study, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of annealed Zircaloy-2 was investigated at 300 and 400 °C at different strain amplitudes and strain rates of 10{sup −2}, 10{sup −3}, and 10{sup −4} s{sup −1}. Cyclic stress response showed initial hardening with decreasing rate of hardening, followed by linear cyclic hardening and finally secondary hardening with increasing rate of hardening for low strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. The rate as well the degree of linear hardening and secondary hardening decreased with decrease in strain rate at 300 °C, however, there was inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response at 400 °C and cyclic stress was increased with decrease in strain rate. The fatigue life decreased with decrease in strain rate at both the temperatures. The occurrence of linear cyclic hardening, inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response and deterioration in fatigue life with decrease in strain rate may be attributed to dynamic strain aging phenomena resulting from enhanced interaction of dislocations with solutes. Fracture surfaces revealed distinct striations, secondary cracking, and oxidation with decrease in strain rate. Deformation substructure showed parallel dislocation lines and dislocation band structure at 300 °C. Persistent slip band wall structure and development of fine Corduroy structure was observed at 400 °C.

  18. Inverse strain rate effect on cyclic stress response in annealed Zircaloy-2

    Sudhakar Rao, G.; Verma, Preeti; Chakravartty, J.K.; Nudurupati, Saibaba; Mahobia, G.S.; Santhi Srinivas, N.C.; Singh, Vakil

    2015-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of annealed Zircaloy-2 was investigated at 300 and 400 °C at different strain amplitudes and strain rates of 10 −2 , 10 −3 , and 10 −4 s −1 . Cyclic stress response showed initial hardening with decreasing rate of hardening, followed by linear cyclic hardening and finally secondary hardening with increasing rate of hardening for low strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. The rate as well the degree of linear hardening and secondary hardening decreased with decrease in strain rate at 300 °C, however, there was inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response at 400 °C and cyclic stress was increased with decrease in strain rate. The fatigue life decreased with decrease in strain rate at both the temperatures. The occurrence of linear cyclic hardening, inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response and deterioration in fatigue life with decrease in strain rate may be attributed to dynamic strain aging phenomena resulting from enhanced interaction of dislocations with solutes. Fracture surfaces revealed distinct striations, secondary cracking, and oxidation with decrease in strain rate. Deformation substructure showed parallel dislocation lines and dislocation band structure at 300 °C. Persistent slip band wall structure and development of fine Corduroy structure was observed at 400 °C

  19. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based on a nat......Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based...... on a national energy performance certificate (EPC) might receive similar response. However, in Denmark no response to the energy performance rating was observed for 15 years. This was a surprise considering that Denmark was the first country to implement an A to G rating of the energy performance of buildings...

  20. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress.

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G; Hissen, Sarah L; Joyner, Michael J; Taylor, Chloe E

    2016-12-15

    Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders. Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA-driven. This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post-exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s -1 ) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s -1 ; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood pressure and MSNA across

  1. Mode of delivery affected questionnaire response rates in a birth cohort study

    Bray, I.; Noble, S.; Robinson, R.; Molloy, L.; Tilling, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomized controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. Study Design and Setting Eligible participants were young people in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study (born April 1, 1991, to December 31, 1992, in the Av...

  2. IFNL4 ss469415590 Variant Is Associated with Treatment Response in Japanese HCV Genotype 1 Infected Individuals Treated with IFN-Including Regimens

    Tatsuo Miyamura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV is still challenging even if interferon- (IFN- free regimens with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs for HCV-infected individuals are available in clinical practice. IFNL4 is a newly described protein, associated with human antiviral defenses. We investigated whether IFNL4 ss469415590 variant has an effect on the prediction of treatment response in HCV-infected patients treated with IFN-including regimens. Patients and Methods. In all, 185 patients infected with HCV genotype 1 treated with peg-IFN plus ribavirin, with or without telaprevir, were genotyped for IFNL4 ss469415590. We retrospectively investigated whether the role of IFNL4 ss469415590 variant and other factors could predict sustained virological response (SVR in Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1. Results. There were 65.7%, 31.5%, and 2.8% patients in the IFNL4 ss469415590 TT/TT, TT/-G, and -G/-G groups, respectively. SVR rates were 82.1% or 49.3% in patients treated with peg-IFN plus ribavirin with or without telaprevir, respectively. IFNL4 ss469415590 variant and HCV viral loads or IFNL4 ss469415590 variant and early virological response were better predictors of SVR in patients treated with peg-IFN plus ribavirin with or without telaprevir, respectively. Conclusion. In the era of DAAs, measurement of IFNL4 ss469415590 variant could help the prediction of SVR in Japanese HCV genotype 1 infected individuals treated with IFN-including regimens.

  3. Skeletal muscle signaling and the heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ersbøll, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Endurance training lowers heart rate and blood pressure responses to exercise, but the mechanisms and consequences remain unclear. To determine the role of skeletal muscle for the cardioventilatory response to exercise, 8 healthy young men were studied before and after 5 weeks of 1-legged knee-ex...... was ≈ 15 bpm lower during exercise with the trained leg (P...

  4. High-rate operant behavior in two mouse strains: a response-bout analysis.

    Johnson, Joshua E; Pesek, Erin F; Newland, M Christopher

    2009-06-01

    Operant behavior sometimes occurs in bouts characterized by an initiation rate, within-bout response rate, and bout length. The generality of this structure was tested using high-rate nose-poking in mice. Reinforcement of short interresponse times produced high response rates while a random-interval schedule held reinforcement rates constant. BALB/c mice produced bouts that were more frequent, longer, and contained a higher within-bout rate of responding (nine nose-pokes/s) than did the C57BL/6 mice (five nose-pokes/s). Adding a running wheel decreased total nose-pokes and bout length, and increased bout-initiation rate. Free-feeding reduced nose-poking by decreasing bout-initiation rate. Photoperiod reversal decreased bout-initiation rate but not total nose-poke rate. Despite strain differences in bout structure, both strains responded similarly to the interventions. The three bout measures were correlated with overall rate but not with each other. Log-survival analyses provided independent descriptors of the structure of high-rate responding in these two strains.

  5. Effects of corporate social responsibility and governance on its credit ratings.

    Kim, Dong-young; Kim, JeongYeon

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings.

  6. Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility and Governance on Its Credit Ratings

    Kim, Dong-young

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings. PMID:25401134

  7. Selective vibration sensing: a new concept for activity-sensing rate-responsive pacing.

    Lau, C P; Stott, J R; Toff, W D; Zetlein, M B; Ward, D E; Camm, A J

    1988-09-01

    A clinically available model of an activity-sensing, rate-responsive pacemaker (Activitrax, Medtronic) utilizes body vibration during exercise as an indicator of the need for a rate increase. Although having the advantage of rapid onset of rate response, this system lacks specificity and the rate response does not closely correlate with the level of exertion. In addition, this pacemaker is susceptible to the effects of extraneous vibration. In this study involving 20 normal subjects fitted with an external Activitrax pacemaker, the rate responses to a variety of exercises were studied and were compared with the corresponding sinus rates. The vibration generated at the level of the pacemaker was also measured by accelerometers in three axes. Only a fair correlation (r = 0.51) was achieved between the pacemaker rate and the sinus rate. The total root mean square value of acceleration in either the anteroposterior or the vertical axes was found to have a better correlation (r = 0.8). As the main accelerations during physical activities were in the lower frequency range (0.1-4 Hz), a low-pass filter was used to reduce the influence of extraneous vibration. Selective sensing of the acceleration level may be usefully implemented in an algorithm for activity pacing.

  8. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    Levy, R.P.

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute γ-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain

  9. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    Levy, Richard P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute γ-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain.

  10. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    Levy, R.P.

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute {gamma}-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain.

  11. Evaluation of Seismic Response Trends from Long-Term Monitoring of Two Instrumented RC Buildings Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    Faheem Butt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analyses of the seismic responses of two reinforced concrete buildings monitored for a period of more than two years. One of the structures was a three-storey reinforced concrete (RC frame building with a shear core, while the other was a three-storey RC frame building without a core. Both buildings are part of the same large complex but are seismically separated from the rest of it. Statistical analysis of the relationships between maximum free field accelerations and responses at different points on the buildings was conducted and demonstrated strong correlation between those. System identification studies using recorded accelerations were undertaken and revealed that natural frequencies and damping ratios of the building structures vary during different earthquake excitations. This variation was statistically examined and relationships between identified natural frequencies and damping ratios, and the peak response acceleration at the roof level were developed. A general trend of decreasing modal frequencies and increasing damping ratios was observed with increased level of shaking and response. Moreover, the influence of soil structure interaction (SSI on the modal characteristics was evaluated. SSI effects decreased the modal frequencies and increased some of the damping ratios.

  12. Simulation of spatially varying ground motions including incoherence, wave‐passage and differential site‐response effects

    Konakli, Katerina; Der Kiureghian, Armen

    2012-01-01

    A method is presented for simulating arrays of spatially varying ground motions, incorporating the effects of incoherence, wave passage, and differential site response. Non‐stationarity is accounted for by considering the motions as consisting of stationary segments. Two approaches are developed....

  13. [Ventricular tachycardia in a patient with rate-responsive cardiac pacemaker].

    Himbert, C; Lascault, G; Tonet, J; Coutte, R; Busquet, P; Frank, R; Grosgogeat, Y

    1992-11-01

    The authors report a case of syncopal ventricular tachycardia in a patient with a respiratory-dependent rate responsive pacemaker, followed-up for valvular heart disease with severe left ventricular dysfunction and sustained atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. The introduction of low dose betablocker therapy with reinforcement of the treatment of cardiac failure controlled the ventricular arrhythmia, after suppression of the data responsive function had been shown to be ineffective. The authors discuss the role of the rate responsive function in the triggering of the ventricular tachycardias.

  14. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based on a national energy performance certificate (EPC) might receive similar response. However, in Denmark no response to the energy performance rating was observed for 15 years. This was a surprise considering that Denmark was the first country to implement an A to G rating of the energy performance of buildings. A statistical examination of data on property sales prices and energy performance ratings was carried out. All relevant property transaction data from 2007 till 2012 were examined and they showed that energy performance ratings had an impact on property sales prices. However, before June 2010, the impact was modest, whereas after June 2010 the impact of energy performance ratings on property sales prices increased significantly as a result of an EU requirement to display the energy performance rating in connection with property sales. On this background, it was concluded that a public display of the energy performance rating is fundamental for market response. - Highlights: •Energy performance ratings of buildings have an impact on property sales prices. •A statistical examination shows that since 2010 sales prices reflect energy performance. •Mandatory display of the rating prescribed by EU Directive was decisive. •The positive market response will be an incentive for energy upgrading of the property.

  15. Future arrangements for Great Britain's gas quality specifications. Government Response (including Summary of Responses) to consultation on future arrangements for Great Britain's gas quality specifications

    2007-01-01

    Last year the Government consulted on GB's future gas quality specifications. The background is that some streams of imported gases have an energy content that exceeds the upper limit specified in GB's current gas quality regulations. The policy issue was whether to stick with the current regulated specifications, but at the cost of having to process imported gas to bring it within those specifications; or, at some time after 2020, to adjust those specifications, but at the cost of having to check (and potentially change) approximately 45m domestic gas appliances in 22m households, to ensure that they are capable of burning the high energy gas safely (and with a residual safety risk that some appliances are missed). The Consultation Document sought views on the proposal (backed up by the Partial Regulatory Impact Assessment) to adopt the 'no change' option. In the light of the responses, this is what the Government now proposes. The associated Impact Assessment estimates the total net benefit of the 'no change' option at UK Pounds 1.5bn - 14bn, with a best estimate of UK Pounds 8bn (NPV, 2005). The risks for gas prices and security of supply (included in the Impact Assessment) are judged to be small. The Government proposes a 'forward plan', consisting of support for Ofgem's work on maximising the commercial flexibilities for the GB gas market to handle gases of different specifications, whilst continuing to engage in EU discussions on the gas quality issue. (Author)

  16. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV)

  17. Reducing questionnaire length did not improve physician response rate: a randomized trial.

    Bolt, Eva E; van der Heide, Agnes; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-04-01

    To examine the effect of reducing questionnaire length on the response rate in a physician survey. A postal four double-page questionnaire on end-of-life decision making was sent to a random sample of 1,100 general practitioners, 400 elderly care physicians, and 500 medical specialists. Another random sample of 500 medical specialists received a shorter questionnaire of two double pages. After 3 months and one reminder, all nonresponding physicians received an even shorter questionnaire of one double page. Total response was 64% (1,456 of 2,269 eligible respondents). Response rate of medical specialists for the four double-page questionnaire was equal to that of the two double-page questionnaire (190 and 191 questionnaires were returned, respectively). The total response rate increased from 53% to 64% after sending a short one double-page questionnaire (1,203-1,456 respondents). The results of our study suggest that reducing the length of a long questionnaire in a physician survey does not necessarily improve response rate. To improve response rate and gather more information, researchers could decide to send a drastically shortened version of the questionnaire to nonresponders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dam Breach Release of Non-Cohesive Sediments: Channel Response and Recovery Rates

    Collins, M. J.; Boardman, G.; Banks, W.; Andrews, M.; Conlon, M.; Dillow, J. J. A.; Gellis, A.; Lowe, S.; McClain, S.; Miller, A. J.; Snyder, N. P.; Wilcock, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Dam removals featuring unchecked releases of non-cohesive sediments are excellent opportunities to learn more about stream channel response to abrupt increases in bed material supply that can occur deliberately or by natural processes like landslides and volcanic eruptions. Understanding channel response to sediment pulses, including response rates, is essential because human uses of river channels and floodplains are impacted by these events as are aquatic habitats. We had the opportunity to study a dam removal site at the Simkins Dam in Maryland, USA, that shares many important geophysical attributes of another well-studied dam removal in the humid northeast United States [Merrimack Village Dam, New Hampshire; Pearson et al., 2011]. The watershed sizes are the same order of magnitude (102 km2), and at both sites relatively low head dams were removed (~ 3-4 m) and ~60,000 m3 of dominantly sand-sized sediments discharged to low-gradient reaches immediately downstream. Analyzing four years of repeat morphometry and bed sediment grain size surveys at the Simkins site on the Patapsco River, as well as continuous discharge and suspended sediment gaging data, we clearly document a two-phase response in the upstream reach as described by Pearson et al. [2011] for their New Hampshire site and noted at other dam removals [e.g., Major et al., 2012]. In the early phase, approximately 50% of the impounded sediment mass was eroded rapidly over a period of about three months when flows were very modest (Figure 1). After incision to base level and channel widening in the former impoundment, a second phase began when further erosion depended on floods large enough to access impounded sediments more distant from the newly-formed channel. We also found important differences in the upstream responses at the Maryland and New Hampshire sites that appear to be related to valley type (non-glaciated versus glaciated, respectively). Response variances immediately downstream between the

  19. The effectiveness of a monetary incentive offer on survey response rates and response completeness in a longitudinal study.

    Yu, Shengchao; Alper, Howard E; Nguyen, Angela-Maithy; Brackbill, Robert M; Turner, Lennon; Walker, Deborah J; Maslow, Carey B; Zweig, Kimberly C

    2017-04-26

    Achieving adequate response rates is an ongoing challenge for longitudinal studies. The World Trade Center Health Registry is a longitudinal health study that periodically surveys a cohort of ~71,000 people exposed to the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York City. Since Wave 1, the Registry has conducted three follow-up surveys (Waves 2-4) every 3-4 years and utilized various strategies to increase survey participation. A promised monetary incentive was offered for the first time to survey non-respondents in the recent Wave 4 survey, conducted 13-14 years after 9/11. We evaluated the effectiveness of a monetary incentive in improving the response rate five months after survey launch, and assessed whether or not response completeness was compromised due to incentive use. The study compared the likelihood of returning a survey for those who received an incentive offer to those who did not, using logistic regression models. Among those who returned surveys, we also examined whether those receiving an incentive notification had higher rate of response completeness than those who did not, using negative binomial regression models and logistic regression models. We found that a $10 monetary incentive offer was effective in increasing Wave 4 response rates. Specifically, the $10 incentive offer was useful in encouraging initially reluctant participants to respond to the survey. The likelihood of returning a survey increased by 30% for those who received an incentive offer (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.4), and the incentive increased the number of returned surveys by 18%. Moreover, our results did not reveal any significant differences on response completeness between those who received an incentive offer and those who did not. In the face of the growing challenge of maintaining a high response rate for the World Trade Center Health Registry follow-up surveys, this study showed the value of offering a monetary incentive as an additional refusal conversion strategy. Our

  20. Prospective evaluation of direct approach with a tablet device as a strategy to enhance survey study participant response rate

    Parker Melissa J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigators conduct survey studies for a variety of reasons. Poor participant response rates are common, however, and may limit the generalizability and utility of results. The objective of this study was to determine whether direct approach with a tablet device enhances survey study participant response rate and to assess participants’ experiences with this mode of survey administration. Findings An interventional study nested within a single center survey study was conducted at McMaster Children’s Hospital. The primary outcome was the ability to achieve of a survey study response rate of 70% or greater. Eligible participants received 3 email invitations (Week 0, 2, 4 to complete a web-based (Survey Monkey survey. The study protocol included plans for a two-week follow-up phase (Phase 2 where non-responders were approached by a research assistant and invited to complete an iPad-based version of the survey. The Phase 1 response rate was 48.7% (56/115. Phase 2 effectively recruited reluctant responders, increasing the overall response rate to 72.2% (83/115. On a 7-point Likert scale, reluctant responders highly rated their enjoyment (mean 6.0, sd 0.83 [95% CI: 5.7-6.3] and ease of use (mean 6.7, sd 0.47 [95% CI: 6.5-6.9] completing the survey using the iPad. Reasons endorsed for Phase 2 participation included: direct approach (81%, immediate survey access (62%, and the novelty of completing a tablet-based survey (54%. Most reluctant responders (89% indicated that a tablet-based survey is their preferred method of survey completion. Conclusions Use of a tablet-based version of the survey was effective in recruiting reluctant responders and this group reported positive experiences with this mode of survey administration.

  1. A new constitutive model for prediction of impact rates response of polypropylene

    Buckley C.P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new constitutive model for predicting the impact rates response of polypropylene. Impact rates, as used here, refer to strain rates greater than 1000 1/s. The model is a physically based, three-dimensional constitutive model which incorporates the contributions of the amorphous, crystalline, pseudo-amorphous and entanglement networks to the constitutive response of polypropylene. The model mathematics is based on the well-known Glass-Rubber model originally developed for glassy polymers but the arguments have herein been extended to semi-crystalline polymers. In order to predict the impact rates behaviour of polypropylene, the model exploits the well-known framework of multiple processes yielding of polymers. This work argues that two dominant viscoelastic relaxation processes – the alpha- and beta-processes – can be associated with the yield responses of polypropylene observed at low-rate-dominant and impact-rates dominant loading regimes. Compression test data on polypropylene have been used to validate the model. The study has found that the model predicts quite well the experimentally observed nonlinear rate-dependent impact response of polypropylene.

  2. Effectiveness of Tuned Mass Dampers in Seismic Response Control of Isolated Bridges Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    Said Elias

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI on the dynamic responses of seismically isolated three-span continuous reinforced concrete (RC bridge is investigated. Also, tuned mass damper(s (TMD/s is/are installed to control undesirable bearing displacement, even under the SSI effect. The TMDs are placed at the mid-span of the bridge and each tuned with a modal frequency, while controlling up to first few modes as desirable. The soil surrounding the foundation of pier is modeled by frequency independent coefficients. Dynamic analysis is carried out in time domain using direct integration method. In order to specify the effects of the SSI, the responses of the non-isolated, isolated, and controlled isolated bridge are compared. It is observed that the soil surrounding the pier has significant effects on the bearing displacement of the isolated RC bridges. In addition, it is observed that the seismic responses of isolated RC bridge reduced significantly with installation of the TMDs.

  3. Effects of partial reinforcement and time between reinforced trials on terminal response rate in pigeon autoshaping.

    Gottlieb, Daniel A

    2006-03-01

    Partial reinforcement often leads to asymptotically higher rates of responding and number of trials with a response than does continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping. However, comparisons typically involve a partial reinforcement schedule that differs from the continuous reinforcement schedule in both time between reinforced trials and probability of reinforcement. Two experiments examined the relative contributions of these two manipulations to asymptotic response rate. Results suggest that the greater responding previously seen with partial reinforcement is primarily due to differential probability of reinforcement and not differential time between reinforced trials. Further, once established, differences in responding are resistant to a change in stimulus and contingency. Secondary response theories of autoshaped responding (theories that posit additional response-augmenting or response-attenuating mechanisms specific to partial or continuous reinforcement) cannot fully accommodate the current body of data. It is suggested that researchers who study pigeon autoshaping train animals on a common task prior to training them under different conditions.

  4. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training?

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K

    2017-05-10

    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles. 1 We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (prespiratory muscle aerobic capacity, attenuation of respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, increase in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  5. Mechanism-Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake

    Guiastrennec, B; Sonne, David Peick; Hansen, M

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma concentr......Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism-based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma...... concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE. The cholecystokinin...

  6. Psychometric properties including reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Majeed pelvic score in patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain.

    Bajada, Stefan; Mohanty, Khitish

    2016-06-01

    The Majeed scoring system is a disease-specific outcome measure that was originally designed to assess pelvic injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Majeed scoring system for chronic sacroiliac joint pain. Internal consistency, content validity, criterion validity, construct validity and responsiveness to change was assessed prospectively for the Majeed scoring system in a cohort of 60 patients diagnosed with sacroiliac joint pain. This diagnosis was confirmed with CT-guided sacroiliac joint anaesthetic block. The overall Majeed score showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.63). Similarly, it showed acceptable floor (0 %) and ceiling (0 %) effects. On the other hand, the domains of pain, work, sitting and sexual intercourse had high (>30 %) floor effects. Significant correlation with the physical component of the Short Form-36 (p = 0.005) and Oswestry disability index (p ≤ 0.001) was found indicating acceptable criterion validity. The overall Majeed score showed acceptable construct validity with all five developed hypotheses showing significance (p ≤ 0.05). The overall Majeed score showed acceptable responsiveness to change with a large (≥0.80) effect size and standardized response mean. Overall the Majeed scoring system demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties for outcome assessment in chronic sacroiliac joint pain. Thus, its use in this condition is adequate. However, some domains demonstrated suboptimal performance indicating that improvement might be achieved with the development of an outcome measure specific for sacroiliac joint dysfunction and degeneration.

  7. Accumulation of small heat shock proteins, including mitochondrial HSP22, induced by oxidative stress and adaptive response in tomato cells

    Banzet, N.; Richaud, C.; Deveaux, Y.; Kazmaier, M.; Gagnon, J.; Triantaphylides, C.

    1998-01-01

    Changes in gene expression, by application of H2O2, O2.- generating agents (methyl viologen, digitonin) and gamma irradiation to tomato suspension cultures, were investigated and compared to the well-described heat shock response. Two-dimensional gel protein mapping analyses gave the first indication that at least small heat shock proteins (smHSP) accumulated in response to application of H2O2 and gamma irradiation, but not to O2.- generating agents. While some proteins seemed to be induced specifically by each treatment, only part of the heat shock response was observed. On the basis of Northern hybridization experiments performed with four heterologous cDNA, corresponding to classes I-IV of pea smHSP, it could be concluded that significant amounts of class I and II smHSP mRNA are induced by H2O2 and by irradiation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in plants some HSP genes are inducible by oxidative stresses, as in micro-organisms and other eukaryotic cells. HSP22, the main stress protein that accumulates following H2O2 action or gamma irradiation, was also purified. Sequence homology of amino terminal and internal sequences, and immunoreactivity with Chenopodium rubrum mitochondrial smHSP antibody, indicated that the protein belongs to the recently discovered class of plant mitochondrial smHSP. Heat shock or a mild H2O2 pretreatment was also shown to lead to plant cell protection against oxidative injury. Therefore, the synthesis of these stress proteins can be considered as an adaptive mechanism in which mitochondrial protection could be essential

  8. Chocolate bar as an incentive did not increase response rate among physiotherapists: a randomised controlled trial

    Dahm Kristin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a small incentive, a bar of dark chocolate, on response rate in a study of physiotherapy performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Findings Norwegian physiotherapists from private practice were randomised in blocks to an intervention group (n = 1027 receiving a bar of dark chocolate together with a data-collection form, and a control group (n = 1027 that received the data-collection form only. The physiotherapists were asked to prospectively complete the data-collection form by reporting treatments provided to one patient with knee osteoarthritis through 12 treatment sessions. The outcome measure was response rate of completed forms. Out of the 510 physiotherapists that responded, 280 had completed the data-collection form by the end of the study period. There was no difference between the chocolate and no-chocolate group in response rate of those who sent in completed forms. In the chocolate group, 142 (13.8% returned completed forms compared to 138 (13.4% in the control group, ARR = 0.4 (95% CI: -3.44 to 2.6. Conclusion A bar of dark chocolate did not increase response rate in a prospective study of physiotherapy performance. Stronger incentives than chocolate seem to be necessary to increase the response rate among professionals who are asked to report about their practice. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials register: ISRCTN02397855

  9. Getting physicians to open the survey: little evidence that an envelope teaser increases response rates

    Ziegenfuss Jeanette Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician surveys are an important tool to assess attitudes, beliefs and self-reported behaviors of this policy relevant group. In order for a physician to respond to a mailed survey, they must first open the envelope. While there is some evidence that package elements can impact physician response rates, the impact of an envelope teaser is unknown. Here we assess this by testing the impact of adding a brightly colored "$25 incentive" sticker to the outside of an envelope on response rates and nonresponse bias in a survey of physicians. Methods In the second mailing of a survey assessing physicians' moral beliefs and views on controversial health care topics, initial nonrespondents were randomly assigned to receive a survey in an envelope with a colored "$25 incentive" sticker (teaser group or an envelope without a sticker (control group. Response rates were compared between the teaser and control groups overall and by age, gender, region of the United States, specialty and years in practice. Nonresponse bias was assessed by comparing the demographic composition of the respondents to the nonrespondents in the experimental and control condition. Results No significant differences in response rates were observed between the experimental and control conditions overall (p = 0.38 or after stratifying by age, gender, region, or practice type. Within the teaser condition, there was some variation in response rate by years since graduation. There was no independent effect of the teaser on response when simultaneously controlling for demographic characteristics (OR = 0.875, p = 0.4112. Conclusions Neither response rates nor nonresponse bias were impacted by the use of an envelope teaser in a survey of physicians in the United States.

  10. Radiobiological responses for two cell lines following continuous low dose-rate (CLDR) and pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy

    Hanisch, Per Henrik; Furre, Torbjoern; Olsen, Dag Rune; Pettersen, Erik O.

    2007-01-01

    The iso-effective irradiation of continuous low-dose-rate (CLDR) irradiation was compared with that of various schedules of pulsed dose rate (PDR) irradiation for cells of two established human lines, T-47D and NHIK 3025. Complete single-dose response curves were obtained for determination of parameters α and β by fitting of the linear quadratic formula. Sublethal damage repair constants μ and T 1/2 were determined by split-dose recovery experiments. On basis of the acquired parameters of each cell type the relative effectiveness of the two regimens of irradiation (CLDR and PDR) was calculated by use of Fowler's radiobiological model for iso-effect irradiation for repeated fractions of dose delivered at medium dose rates. For both cell types the predicted and observed relative effectiveness was compared at low and high iso-effect levels. The results indicate that the effect of PDR irradiation predicted by Fowler's model is equal to that of CLDR irradiation for both small and large doses with T-47D cells. With NHIK 3025 cells PDR irradiation induces a larger effect than predicted by the model for small doses, while it induces the predicted effect for high doses. The underlying cause of this difference is unclear, but cell-cycle parameters, like G2-accumulation is tested and found to be the same for the two cell lines

  11. Predicting species distribution and abundance responses to climate change: why it is essential to include biotic interactions across trophic levels.

    Van der Putten, Wim H; Macel, Mirka; Visser, Marcel E

    2010-07-12

    Current predictions on species responses to climate change strongly rely on projecting altered environmental conditions on species distributions. However, it is increasingly acknowledged that climate change also influences species interactions. We review and synthesize literature information on biotic interactions and use it to argue that the abundance of species and the direction of selection during climate change vary depending on how their trophic interactions become disrupted. Plant abundance can be controlled by aboveground and belowground multitrophic level interactions with herbivores, pathogens, symbionts and their enemies. We discuss how these interactions may alter during climate change and the resulting species range shifts. We suggest conceptual analogies between species responses to climate warming and exotic species introduced in new ranges. There are also important differences: the herbivores, pathogens and mutualistic symbionts of range-expanding species and their enemies may co-migrate, and the continuous gene flow under climate warming can make adaptation in the expansion zone of range expanders different from that of cross-continental exotic species. We conclude that under climate change, results of altered species interactions may vary, ranging from species becoming rare to disproportionately abundant. Taking these possibilities into account will provide a new perspective on predicting species distribution under climate change.

  12. Impacts of environmental variability on desiccation rate, plastic responses and population dynamics of Glossina pallidipes.

    Kleynhans, E; Clusella-Trullas, S; Terblanche, J S

    2014-02-01

    Physiological responses to transient conditions may result in costly responses with little fitness benefits, and therefore, a trade-off must exist between the speed of response and the duration of exposure to new conditions. Here, using the puparia of an important insect disease vector, Glossina pallidipes, we examine this potential trade-off using a novel combination of an experimental approach and a population dynamics model. Specifically, we explore and dissect the interactions between plastic physiological responses, treatment-duration and -intensity using an experimental approach. We then integrate these experimental results from organismal water-balance data and their plastic responses into a population dynamics model to examine the potential relative fitness effects of simulated transient weather conditions on population growth rates. The results show evidence for the predicted trade-off for plasticity of water loss rate (WLR) and the duration of new environmental conditions. When altered environmental conditions lasted for longer durations, physiological responses could match the new environmental conditions, and this resulted in a lower WLR and lower rates of population decline. At shorter time-scales however, a mismatch between acclimation duration and physiological responses was reflected by reduced overall population growth rates. This may indicate a potential fitness cost due to insufficient time for physiological adjustments to take place. The outcomes of this work therefore suggest plastic water balance responses have both costs and benefits, and these depend on the time-scale and magnitude of variation in environmental conditions. These results are significant for understanding the evolution of plastic physiological responses and changes in population abundance in the context of environmental variability. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Modeling Long Term Corn Yield Response to Nitrogen Rate and Crop Rotation

    Laila Alejandra Puntel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer rates for corn (Zea mays L. can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM to simulate corn and soybean (Glycine max L. yields, the economic optimum N rate (EONR using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn and five N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha-1 applied to corn. Our objectives were to: a quantify model prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; b compare crop model-based techniques in estimating optimal N rate for corn; and c utilize the calibrated model to explain factors causing year to year variability in yield and optimal N. Results indicated that the model simultaneously simulated well long-term crop yields response to N (relative root mean square error, RRMSE of 19.6% before and 12.3% after calibration, which provided strong evidence that important soil and crop processes were accounted for in the model. The prediction of EONR was more complex and had greater uncertainty than the prediction of crop yield (RRMSE of 44.5% before and 36.6% after calibration. For long-term site mean EONR predictions, both calibrated and uncalibrated versions can be used as the 16-yr mean differences in EONR’s were within the historical N rate error range (40 to 50 kg N ha-1. However, for accurate year-by-year simulation of EONR the calibrated version should be used. Model analysis revealed that higher EONR values in years with above normal spring precipitation were caused by an exponential increase in N loss (denitrification and leaching with precipitation. We concluded that long term experimental data were valuable in testing and refining APSIM predictions. The model can be used as a tool to assist N management guidelines in the US Midwest and we identified five avenues on how the model can add

  14. Modeling Long-Term Corn Yield Response to Nitrogen Rate and Crop Rotation.

    Puntel, Laila A; Sawyer, John E; Barker, Daniel W; Dietzel, Ranae; Poffenbarger, Hanna; Castellano, Michael J; Moore, Kenneth J; Thorburn, Peter; Archontoulis, Sotirios V

    2016-01-01

    Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer rates for corn ( Zea mays L. ) can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate corn and soybean ( Glycine max L. ) yields, the economic optimum N rate (EONR) using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn) and five N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha -1 ) applied to corn. Our objectives were to: (a) quantify model prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; (b) compare crop model-based techniques in estimating optimal N rate for corn; and (c) utilize the calibrated model to explain factors causing year to year variability in yield and optimal N. Results indicated that the model simulated well long-term crop yields response to N (relative root mean square error, RRMSE of 19.6% before and 12.3% after calibration), which provided strong evidence that important soil and crop processes were accounted for in the model. The prediction of EONR was more complex and had greater uncertainty than the prediction of crop yield (RRMSE of 44.5% before and 36.6% after calibration). For long-term site mean EONR predictions, both calibrated and uncalibrated versions can be used as the 16-year mean differences in EONR's were within the historical N rate error range (40-50 kg N ha -1 ). However, for accurate year-by-year simulation of EONR the calibrated version should be used. Model analysis revealed that higher EONR values in years with above normal spring precipitation were caused by an exponential increase in N loss (denitrification and leaching) with precipitation. We concluded that long-term experimental data were valuable in testing and refining APSIM predictions. The model can be used as a tool to assist N management guidelines in the US Midwest and we identified five avenues on how the model can add value toward

  15. Effect of chain wheel shape on crank torque, freely chosen pedal rate, and physiological responses during submaximal cycling

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Jensen, Kurt; Hallen, Jostein

    2009-01-01

    at preset pedal rates as well as resulting in lower pedal rate and metabolic response at freely chosen pedal rate. Ten trained cyclists (mean+/-SD: 27+/-3 years of age, 182+/-4 cm tall, 77.5+/-7.0 kg of body mass, and peak oxygen uptake of 61.7+/-4.4 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) cycled with a Biopace and a circular...... chain wheel at 180 W at 65 and 90 rpm for recording of crank torque profiles, and at their freely chosen pedal rate for recording of pedal rate and metabolic response, including oxygen uptake and blood lactate concentration. Crank torque profiles were similar between the two chain wheels during cycling...... at preset pedal rates. During cycling at the freely chosen pedal rate (being 93+/-6 and 93+/-4 rpm for the Biopace and circular chain wheel, respectively), blood lactate concentration was significantly different between the two chain wheels, being on average 0.2 mmol l(-1) lower with the Biopace chain wheel...

  16. Dose/dose-rate responses of shrimp larvae to UV-B radiation

    Damkaer, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 Wm -2 sub([DNA]) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activity, development, or survival. Beyond that dose-rate threshold, shrimp larvae are significantly affected if the total dose exceeds about 85 Jm -2 sub([DNA]). Predictions cannot be made without both the dose-rate and the dose. These dose/dose-rate thresholds are compared to four-year mean dose/dose-rate solar UV-B irradiances at the experimental site, measured at the surface and calculated for 1 m depth. The probability that the shrimp larvae would receive lethal irradiance is low for the first half of the season of surface occurrence, even with a 44% increase in damaging UV radiation. (orig.)

  17. A review on the strain rate dependency of the dynamic viscoplastic response of FCC metals

    Salvado, F.C.; Teixeira-Dias, Filipe; Walley, S.; Lea, L.J.; Cardoso, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    The response of structures and materials subject to ballistic impacts or blast loads remains a field of intense research. In a blast or impact load a sharp pressure wave travelling at supersonic speed impinges on the structure surface where deformation will develop at very high strain rates and stress waves may form and travel through the continuum solid. Both the dynamic loading and the temperature increase will significantly affect the mechanical and failure response of the material. This r...

  18. Abnormal heart rate recovery and deficient chronotropic response after submaximal exercise in young Marfan syndrome patients.

    Peres, Paulo; Carvalho, Antônio C; Perez, Ana Beatriz A; Medeiros, Wladimir M

    2016-10-01

    Marfan syndrome patients present important cardiac structural changes, ventricular dysfunction, and electrocardiographic changes. An abnormal heart rate response during or after exercise is an independent predictor of mortality and autonomic dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to compare heart rate recovery and chronotropic response obtained by cardiac reserve in patients with Marfan syndrome subjected to submaximal exercise. A total of 12 patients on β-blocker therapy and 13 off β-blocker therapy were compared with 12 healthy controls. They were subjected to submaximal exercise with lactate measurements. The heart rate recovery was obtained in the first minute of recovery and corrected for cardiac reserve and peak lactate concentration. Peak heart rate (141±16 versus 155±17 versus 174±8 bpm; p=0.001), heart rate reserve (58.7±9.4 versus 67.6±14.3 versus 82.6±4.8 bpm; p=0.001), heart rate recovery (22±6 versus 22±8 versus 34±9 bpm; p=0.001), and heart rate recovery/lactate (3±1 versus 3±1 versus 5±1 bpm/mmol/L; p=0.003) were different between Marfan groups and controls, respectively. All the patients with Marfan syndrome had heart rate recovery values below the mean observed in the control group. The absolute values of heart rate recovery were strongly correlated with the heart rate reserve (r=0.76; p=0.001). Marfan syndrome patients have reduced heart rate recovery and chronotropic deficit after submaximal exercise, and the chronotropic deficit is a strong determinant of heart rate recovery. These changes are suggestive of autonomic dysfunction.

  19. Female song rates in response to simulated intruder are positively related to reproductive success.

    Kristal E Cain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is well studied in males as a sexually selected behavior. However, although song is also common among females, it is infrequently examined and poorly understood. Research suggests that song is often used as a resource defense behavior and is important in female-female competition for limited resources, e.g. mates and territories. If so, song should be positively related to fitness and related to other resource defense behaviors, but this possibility has rarely been explored. Here we examine fitness estimates in relation to spontaneous song rates and song rates in response to a simulated intruder (playback, in the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus, a cooperatively breeding songbird. We also determine how song rates relate to other territorial defense behaviors. Song rate in response to playback, but not spontaneous song rate, was positively related to nest success and the number of fledglings produced by successful females. Further, response song rate was also correlated with other territorial defense behaviors (latency to respond and flights. This evidence supports the hypothesis that female song may be used in the context of female-female competition to improve access to limited reproductive resources, and suggests that song may provide direct fitness benefits.

  20. Dose Response Model of Biological Reaction to Low Dose Rate Gamma Radiation

    Magae, J.; Furikawa, C.; Hoshi, Y.; Kawakami, Y.; Ogata, H.

    2004-01-01

    It is necessary to use reproducible and stable indicators to evaluate biological responses to long term irradiation at low dose-rate. They should be simple and quantitative enough to produce the results statistically accurate, because we have to analyze the subtle changes of biological responses around background level at low dose. For these purposes we chose micronucleus formation of U2OS, a human osteosarcoma cell line, as indicators of biological responses. Cells were exposed to gamma ray in irradiation rom bearing 50,000 Ci 60Co. After irradiation, they were cultured for 24 h in the presence of cytochalasin B to block cytokinesis, and cytoplasm and nucleus were stained with DAPI and prospidium iodide, respectively. the number of binuclear cells bearing micronuclei was counted under a fluorescence microscope. Dose rate in the irradiation room was measured with PLD. Dose response of PLD is linear between 1 mGy to 10 Gy, and standard deviation of triplicate count was several percent of mean value. We fitted statistically dose response curves to the data, and they were plotted on the coordinate of linearly scale response and dose. The results followed to the straight line passing through the origin of the coordinate axes between 0.1-5 Gy, and dose and does rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) was less than 2 when cells were irradiated for 1-10 min. Difference of the percent binuclear cells bearing micronucleus between irradiated cells and control cells was not statistically significant at the dose above 0.1 Gy when 5,000 binuclear cells were analyzed. In contrast, dose response curves never followed LNT, when cells were irradiated for 7 to 124 days. Difference of the percent binuclear cells bearing micronucleus between irradiated cells and control cells was not statistically significant at the dose below 6 Gy, when cells were continuously irradiated for 124 days. These results suggest that dose response curve of biological reaction is remarkably affected by exposure

  1. Radiographic and metabolic response rates following image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy for lung tumors

    Mohammed, Nasiruddin; Grills, Inga S.; Wong, Ching-Yee Oliver; Galerani, Ana Paula; Chao, Kenneth; Welsh, Robert; Chmielewski, Gary; Yan Di; Kestin, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate radiographic and metabolic response after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early lung tumors. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine tumors were treated prospectively with SBRT (dose = 48-60 Gy, 4-5 Fx). Thirty-six cases were primary NSCLC (T1N0 = 67%; T2N0 = 25%); three cases were solitary metastases. Patients were followed using CT and PET at 6, 16, and 52 weeks post-SBRT, with CT follow-up thereafter. RECIST and EORTC criteria were used to evaluate CT and PET responses. Results: At median follow-up of 9 months (0.4-26), RECIST complete response (CR), partial response (PR), and stable disease (SD) rates were 3%, 43%, 54% at 6 weeks; 15%, 38%, 46% at 16 weeks; 27%, 64%, 9% at 52 weeks. Mean baseline tumor volume was reduced by 46%, 70%, 87%, and 96%, respectively at 6, 16, 52, and 72 weeks. Mean baseline maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) was 8.3 (1.1-20.3) and reduced to 3.4, 3.0, and 3.7 at 6, 16, and 52 weeks after SBRT. EORTC metabolic CR/PR, SD, and progressive disease rates were 67%, 22%, 11% at 6 weeks; 86%, 10%, 3% at 16 weeks; 95%, 5%, 0% at 52 weeks. Conclusions: SBRT yields excellent RECIST and EORTC based response. Metabolic response is rapid however radiographic response occurs even after 1-year post treatment.

  2. Mutation of KREMEN1, a modulator of Wnt signaling, is responsible for ectodermal dysplasia including oligodontia in Palestinian families.

    Issa, Yasmin A; Kamal, Lara; Rayyan, Amal Abu; Dweik, Dima; Pierce, Sarah; Lee, Ming K; King, Mary-Claire; Walsh, Tom; Kanaan, Moien

    2016-10-01

    Tooth development is controlled by the same processes that regulate formation of other ectodermal structures. Mutations in the genes underlying these processes may cause ectodermal dysplasia, including severe absence of primary or permanent teeth. Four consanguineous Palestinian families presented with oligodontia and hair and skin features of ectodermal dysplasia. Appearance of ectodermal dysplasia was consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. Exome sequencing followed by genotyping of 56 informative relatives in the 4 families suggests that the phenotype is due to homozygosity for KREMEN1 p.F209S (c.626 T>C) on chromosome 22 at g.29,521,399 (hg19). The variant occurs in the highly conserved extracellular WSC domain of KREMEN1, which is known to be a high affinity receptor of Dickkopf-1, a component of the Dickkopf-Kremen-LRP6 complex, and a potent regulator of Wnt signaling. The Wnt signaling pathway is critical to development of ectodermal structures. Mutations in WNT10A, LRP6, EDA, and other genes in this pathway lead to tooth agenesis with or without other ectodermal anomalies. Our results implicate KREMEN1 for the first time in a human disorder and provide additional details on the role of the Wnt signaling in ectodermal and dental development.

  3. A longitudinal study in youth of heart rate variability at rest and in response to stress

    Li, Zhibin; Snieder, Harold; Su, Shaoyong; Ding, Xiuhua; Thayer, Julian F.; Treiber, Frank A.; Wang, Xiaoling

    Background: Few longitudinal studies have examined ethnic and sex differences, predictors and tracking stabilities of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and in response to stress in youths and young adults. Methods: Two evaluations were performed approximately 1.5 years apart on 399 youths and

  4. Effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice

    Wensing, M; Mainz, Jan; Kramme, O

    1999-01-01

    Randomized trials were performed in Denmark and The Netherlands to determine the effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice. In both countries, general practitioners handed out questionnaires to 200 adult patients who came to visit them. An inter...

  5. Regional changes over time in initial virologic response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    Bannister, Wendy P; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, Jose M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS: Vi...... rates Udgivelsesdato: 2006/6...

  6. Avoidance of Timeout from Response-Independent Food: Effects of Delivery Rate and Quality

    Richardson, Joseph V.; Baron, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, a rat's lever presses could postpone timeouts from food pellets delivered on response-independent schedules. In Experiment 1, the pellets were delivered at variable-time (VT) rates ranging from VT 0.5 to VT 8 min. Experiment 2 replicated the VT 1 min and VT 8 min conditions of Experiment 1 with new subjects. Finally, subjects…

  7. Using Norm-Based Appeals to Increase Response Rates in Evaluation Research: A Field Experiment

    Misra, Shalini; Stokols, Daniel; Marino, Anne Heberger

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of norm-based persuasive messages for increasing response rates in online survey research. Participants in an interdisciplinary conference were asked to complete two successive postconference surveys and randomly assigned to one of two groups at each time point. The experimental group…

  8. Intake rates and the functional response in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) eating macro-invertebrates

    Goss-Custard, John D.; West, Andrew D.; Yates, Michael G.; Caldow, Richard W. G.; Stillman, Richard A.; Bardsley, Louise; Castilla, Juan; Castro, Macarena; Dierschke, Volker; Durell, Sarah E. A. Le V. Dit; Eichhorn, Goetz; Ens, Bruno J.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Udayangani-Fernando, P. U.; Ferns, Peter N.; Hockey, Philip A. R.; Gill, Jennifer A.; Johnstone, Ian; Kalejta-Summers, Bozena; Masero, Jose A.; Moreira, Francisco; Nagarajan, Rajarathina Velu; Owens, Ian P. F.; Pacheco, Cristian; Perez-Hurtado, Alejandro; Rogers, Danny; Scheiffarth, Gregor; Sitters, Humphrey; Sutherland, William J.; Triplet, Patrick; Worrall, Dave H.; Zharikov, Yuri; Zwarts, Leo; Pettifor, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    As field determinations take much effort, it would be useful to be able to predict easily the coefficients describing the functional response of free-living predators, the function relating food intake rate to the abundance of food organisms in the environment. As a means easily to parameterise an

  9. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of national cultural differences on the response rate, obtained in questionnaire based epidemiological studies on allergy and asthma, performed in Sweden (DBH) and Bulgaria (ALLHOME). The two studies used one and the same methodology, but the ob...

  10. Effects of Frustration on the Response Rate of Skid Row Alcoholics on a Performance Task

    Scorzelli, James F.; Reinke-Scorzelli, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Determines the changes that may occur in the response rates of 14 skid row alcoholics on a performance task after the introduction of a frustration operation. Results suggest a possible relationship between low frustration tolerance and the method by which these individuals tend to motivate themselves. (Author)

  11. Extra Credit Micro-Incentives and Response Rates for Online Course Evaluations: Two Quasi-Experiments

    Sundstrom, Eric D.; Hardin, Erin E.; Shaffer, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    To extend prior findings on the motivational value of tiny, nonfinancial incentives, we conducted two quasi-experiments on the relationship of extra credit micro-incentives (ECMIs, worth =1% of course grade) and response rates for online course evaluations. Study 1 involved two advanced undergraduate psychology courses taught by the same…

  12. Slew-rate dependence of tracer magnetization response in magnetic particle imaging

    Shah, Saqlain A.; Ferguson, R. M.; Krishnan, K. M.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging technique that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. Currently, 25 kHz and 20 mT/μ0 excitation fields are common in MPI, but lower field amplitudes may be necessary for patient safety in future designs. Here, we address fundamental questions about MPI tracer magnetization dynamics and predict tracer performance in future scanners that employ new combinations of excitation field amplitude (Ho) and frequency (ω). Using an optimized, monodisperse MPI tracer, we studied how several combinations of drive field frequencies and amplitudes affect the tracer's response, using Magnetic Particle Spectrometry and AC hysteresis, for drive field conditions at 15.5, 26, and 40.2 kHz, with field amplitudes ranging from 7 to 52 mT/μ0. For both fluid and immobilized nanoparticle samples, we determined that magnetic response was dominated by Néel reversal. Furthermore, we observed that the peak slew-rate (ωHo) determined the tracer magnetic response. Smaller amplitudes provided correspondingly smaller field of view, sometimes resulting in excitation of minor hysteresis loops. Changing the drive field conditions but keeping the peak slew-rate constant kept the tracer response almost the same. Higher peak slew-rates led to reduced maximum signal intensity and greater coercivity in the tracer response. Our experimental results were in reasonable agreement with Stoner-Wohlfarth model based theories.

  13. The heart rate response to nintendo wii boxing in young adults.

    Bosch, Pamela R; Poloni, Joseph; Thornton, Andrew; Lynskey, James V

    2012-06-01

    To determine if 30 minutes of Nintendo Wii Sports boxing provides cardiorespiratory benefits and contributes to the daily exercise recommendations for healthy young adults. Twenty healthy 23- to 27-year-olds participated in two sessions to measure maximum heart rate (HR(max)) via a treadmill test and heart rate (HR) response to 30 minutes of Wii Sports boxing. Heart rate in beats per minute (bpm) was measured continuously, and exercise intensity during each minute of play was stratified as a percentage of HR(max). Mixed designs analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson product moment correlations were used to analyze the data. Mean (SD) HR response to boxing was 143 (15) bpm or 77.5% (10.0%) of HR(max). The mean HR response for experienced participants was significantly lower than inexperienced participants, P = .007. The ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between experience and time spent at various intensities, P = .009. Experienced participants spent more time in light to vigorous intensities, inexperienced participants in moderate to very hard intensities. Fitness was not correlated with mean HR response to boxing, P = .49. Thirty minutes of Nintendo Wii Sports boxing provides a moderate to vigorous aerobic response in healthy young adults and can contribute to daily recommendations for physical activity.

  14. Strontium-89 in palliative treatment of widespread painful bone metastases: Response rate and duration

    Haddad, Peiman; Ghadiri, Farhad

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Intravenous injection of Strontium-89 (Sr-89) is an accepted palliative treatment for bone metastases. We evaluated the pain relief achieved with this radiopharmaceutical in patients with widespread painful bone metastases from prostate and breast cancers. Pain intensity on a 9-grade scale and use of narcotics was recorded before and after Sr-89 injection, and the ensuing palliative effect was divided into complete, partial and no response. The duration of response was also recorded. Thirty-five patients with widespread painful bone metastases were treated with Sr-89, of whom 22 had prostate and 13 breast cancers. Mean follow-up was 227 days, during which death was recorded for 32 patients. Fourteen patients (40%) had a complete response, 9 (26%) partial and 12 (34%) no response. In the 23 responding patients, mean duration of response was 6 months. In 17 patients the response was present until death. There was no significant relationship between pain response and patients' age or type of primary cancer. No side effects were recorded other than mild and temporary drop in white blood cell and platelet counts. Three patients with a complete response had a second injection of Sr-89 after progression of pain. One of these patients had a second partial response; the other 2 did not show a response to the second injection. The use of Sr-89 for treatment of widespread painful bone metastases from prostate and breast cancers in our department showed a 66% rate of response and a mean response duration of 6 months, with no significant side effects. (author)

  15. Modelling of tomato stem diameter growth rate based on physiological responses

    Li, L.; Tan, J.; Lv, T.

    2017-01-01

    The stem diameter is an important parameter describing the growth of tomato plant during vegetative growth stage. A stem diameter growth model was developed to predict the response of plant growth under different conditions. By analyzing the diurnal variations of stem diameter in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), it was found that the stem diameter measured at 3:00 am was the representative value as the daily basis of tomato stem diameter. Based on the responses of growth rate in stem diameter to light and temperature, a linear regression relationship was applied to establish the stem diameter growth rate prediction model for the vegetative growth stage in tomato and which was further validated by experiment. The root mean square error (RMSE) and relative error (RE) were used to test the correlation between measured and modeled stem diameter variations. Results showed that the model can be used in prediction for stem diameter growth rate at vegetative growth stage in tomato. (author)

  16. Attenuated heart rate response in REM sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with Parkinson's disease with and without rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder and patients with idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder have an attenuated heart rate response to arousals or to leg movements during...... sleep compared with healthy controls. Fourteen and 16 Parkinson's patients with and without rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder, respectively, 11 idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder patients, and 17 control subjects underwent 1 night of polysomnography. The heart rate response...... associated with arousal or leg movement from all sleep stages was analyzed from 10 heartbeats before the onset of the sleep event to 15 heartbeats following onset of the sleep event. The heart rate reponse to arousals was significantly lower in both parkinsonian groups compared with the control group...

  17. Pulmonary response to surface‐coated nanotitanium dioxide particles includes induction of acute phase response genes, inflammatory cascades, and changes in microRNAs: A toxicogenomic study

    Halappanavar, Sabina; Jackson, Petra; Williams, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    with acute phase, inflammation and immune response 5 days post exposure with concomitant changes in several miRNAs. The role of these miRNAs in pulmonary response to inhaled particles is unknown and warrants further research. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2011. © 2011 Wiley‐Liss, Inc....... in increased levels of mRNA for acute phase markers serum amyloid A‐1 (Saa1) and serum amyloid A‐3 (Saa3), several C‐X‐C and C‐C motif chemokines, and cytokine tumor necrosis factor genes. Protein analysis of Saa1 and 3 showed selective upregulation of Saa3 in lung tissues. Sixteen miRNAs were induced by more...... than 1.2‐fold (adjusted P‐value changes in the expression of genes associated...

  18. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature.

    Barik, Mayadhar; Bajpai, Minu; Patnaik, Santosh; Mishra, Pravash; Behera, Priyamadhaba; Dwivedi, Sada Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation is basically related to meritorious thin samples or small clumps of cells that are cooled quickly without loss. Our main objective is to establish and formulate an innovative method and protocol development for cryopreservation as a gold standard for clinical uses in laboratory practice and treatment. The knowledge regarding usefulness of cryopreservation in clinical practice is essential to carry forward the clinical practice and research. We are trying to compare different methods of cryopreservation (in two dozen of cells) at the same time we compare the embryo and oocyte freezing interms of fertilization rate according to the International standard protocol. The combination of cryoprotectants and regimes of rapid cooling and rinsing during warming often allows successful cryopreservation of biological materials, particularly cell suspensions or thin tissue samples. Examples include semen, blood, tissue samples like tumors, histological cross-sections, human eggs and human embryos. Although presently many studies have reported that the children born from frozen embryos or "frosties," show consistently positive results with no increase in birth defects or development abnormalities is quite good enough and similar to our study (50-85%). We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient's treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol.

  19. Transcriptional responses to glucose at different glycolytic rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Elbing, Karin; Ståhlberg, Anders; Hohmann, Stefan; Gustafsson, Lena

    2004-12-01

    The addition of glucose to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells causes reprogramming of gene expression. Glucose is sensed by membrane receptors as well as (so far elusive) intracellular sensing mechanisms. The availability of four yeast strains that display different hexose uptake capacities allowed us to study glucose-induced effects at different glycolytic rates. Rapid glucose responses were observed in all strains able to take up glucose, consistent with intracellular sensing. The degree of long-term responses, however, clearly correlated with the glycolytic rate: glucose-stimulated expression of genes encoding enzymes of the lower part of glycolysis showed an almost linear correlation with the glycolytic rate, while expression levels of genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes and invertase (SUC2) showed an inverse correlation. Glucose control of SUC2 expression is mediated by the Snf1-Mig1 pathway. Mig1 dephosphorylation upon glucose addition is known to lead to repression of target genes. Mig1 was initially dephosphorylated upon glucose addition in all strains able to take up glucose, but remained dephosphorylated only at high glycolytic rates. Remarkably, transient Mig1-dephosphorylation was accompanied by the repression of SUC2 expression at high glycolytic rates, but stimulated SUC2 expression at low glycolytic rates. This suggests that Mig1-mediated repression can be overruled by factors mediating induction via a low glucose signal. At low and moderate glycolytic rates, Mig1 was partly dephosphorylated both in the presence of phosphorylated, active Snf1, and unphosphorylated, inactive Snf1, indicating that Mig1 was actively phosphorylated and dephosphorylated simultaneously, suggesting independent control of both processes. Taken together, it appears that glucose addition affects the expression of SUC2 as well as Mig1 activity by both Snf1-dependent and -independent mechanisms that can now be dissected and resolved as early and late/sustained responses.

  20. A controlled trial of envelope colour for increasing response rates in older women.

    Mitchell, Natasha; Hewitt, Catherine E; Torgerson, David J

    2011-06-01

    Postal questionnaires are widely used in health research to provide measurable outcomes in areas such as quality of life. Participants who fail to return postal questionnaires can introduce non-response bias. Previous studies within populations over the age of 65 years have shown that response rates amongst older people can be 60% or less. The current study sought to investigate whether envelope colour affected response rates in a study about the effectiveness of screening older women for osteoporosis. A total of 2803 eligible female participants aged between 70 and 85 were sent an invitation pack from their GP practice. The invitation was either in a brown or white envelope and contained a matching pre-paid reply envelope. A study questionnaire was also sent out in brown or white envelopes 1 week after consenting to participate in the trial. The overall response rate was 78%. There was little evidence of an effect of envelope colour on response to the invitation to participate in the trial (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.87-1.24). Similarly, there was no influence of envelope colour on the number of participants returning their questionnaires (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.60-1.63). There was weak evidence of an effect of envelope colour on the response rates of the consent process (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.00). When we updated a recent meta-analysis with the results of this study, there was a non-statistically- significant trend for greater response rates with brown envelopes compared with white envelopes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.86-1.64, I2=92%). However, the results where influenced by one study and when this study was excluded the pooled estimate was 0.98 (95% CI 0.89-1.08, I2=0%). This study found no evidence to suggest envelope colour has an effect on response to participate in a trial or questionnaire returns. There is weak evidence to suggest envelope colour may affect consent into a trial.

  1. Increasing sync rate of pulse-coupled oscillators via phase response function design: theory and application to wireless networks

    Wang, Yongqiang; Nunez, Felipe; Doyle III, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the synchronization rate of weakly connected pulse-coupled oscillators (PCOs). We prove that besides coupling strength, the phase response function is also a determinant of synchronization rate. Inspired by the result, we propose to increase the synchronization rate of PCOs by designing the phase response function. This has important significance in PCO-based clock synchronization of wireless networks. By designing the phase response function, synchronization rate is incr...

  2. The negativity bias predicts response rate to Behavioral Activation for depression.

    Gollan, Jackie K; Hoxha, Denada; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Norris, Catherine J; Rosebrock, Laina; Sankin, Lindsey; Cacioppo, John

    2016-09-01

    This treatment study investigated the extent to which asymmetric dimensions of affective responding, specifically the positivity offset and the negativity bias, at pretreatment altered the rate of response to Behavioral Activation treatment for depression. Forty-one depressed participants were enrolled into 16 weekly sessions of BA. An additional 36 lifetime healthy participants were evaluated prospectively for 16 weeks to compare affective responding between healthy and remitted patients at post-treatment. All participants were assessed at Weeks 0, 8 and 16 using repeated measures, involving a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, questionnaires, and a computerized task designed to measure affective responses to unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant images. The negativity bias at pre-treatment predicted the rate of response to BA, while the positivity offset did not. Only one treatment condition was used in this study and untreated depressed participants were not enrolled, limiting our ability to compare the effect of BA. Baseline negativity bias may serve as a signal for patients to engage in and benefit from the goal-directed BA strategies, thereby accelerating rate of response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co γ rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were either 5, 10, 17, or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at either 600, 1400, 2000, or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for γ-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relative importance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 258 rad delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 3000 rad at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon hematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no meaningful LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued hematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in other organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow several important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as radiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates are more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of hematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of hematologic depression, the nadir of the depression, and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the former two are directly related to exposure rate

  4. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co gamma rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were 5, 19, 17 or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at 600, 1400, 2000 or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for gamma-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relativeimportance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 344 R (258 rads) delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 4000 R (approximately 3000 rads) at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon haematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no definitive LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued haematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in the organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow serveral important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as irradiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukaemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates appear more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of haematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of haematologic depression, the nadir of the depression and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the first two are directly related to exposure rate. ( author)

  5. Reductions in Children's Vicariously Learnt Avoidance and Heart Rate Responses Using Positive Modeling.

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2016-03-23

    Recent research has indicated that vicarious learning can lead to increases in children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for stimuli and that these fear responses can subsequently be reversed using positive modeling (counterconditioning). The current study investigated children's vicariously acquired avoidance behavior, physiological responses (heart rate), and attentional bias for stimuli and whether these could also be reduced via counterconditioning. Ninety-six (49 boys, 47 girls) 7- to 11-year-olds received vicarious fear learning for novel stimuli and were then randomly assigned to a counterconditioning, extinction, or control group. Fear beliefs and avoidance preferences were measured pre- and post-learning, whereas avoidance behavior, heart rate, and attentional bias were all measured post-learning. Control group children showed increases in fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals seen in vicarious fear learning trials. In addition, significantly greater avoidance behavior, heart rate responding, and attentional bias were observed for these animals compared to a control animal. In contrast, vicariously acquired avoidance preferences of children in the counterconditioning group were significantly reduced post-positive modeling, and these children also did not show the heightened heart rate responding to fear-paired animals. Children in the extinction group demonstrated comparable responses to the control group; thus the extinction procedure showed no effect on any fear measures. The findings suggest that counterconditioning with positive modelling can be used as an effective early intervention to reduce the behavioral and physiological effects of vicarious fear learning in childhood.

  6. Heart rate responses provide an objective evaluation of human disturbance stimuli in breeding birds.

    Ellenberg, Ursula; Mattern, Thomas; Seddon, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Intuition is a poor guide for evaluating the effects of human disturbance on wildlife. Using the endangered Yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes, as an example, we show that heart rate responses provide an objective tool to evaluate human disturbance stimuli and encourage the wider use of this simple and low-impact approach. Yellow-eyed penguins are a flagship species for New Zealand's wildlife tourism; however, unregulated visitor access has recently been associated with reduced breeding success and lower first year survival. We measured heart rate responses of Yellow-eyed penguins via artificial eggs to evaluate a range of human stimuli regularly occurring at their breeding sites. We found the duration of a stimulus to be the most important factor, with elevated heart rate being sustained while a person remained within sight. Human activity was the next important component; a simulated wildlife photographer, crawling slowly around during his stay, elicited a significantly higher heart rate response than an entirely motionless human spending the same time at the same distance. Stimuli we subjectively might perceive as low impact, such as the careful approach of a 'wildlife photographer', resulted in a stronger response than a routine nest-check that involved lifting a bird up to view nest contents. A single, slow-moving human spending 20 min within 2 m from the nest may provoke a response comparable to that of 10 min handling a bird for logger deployment. To reduce cumulative impact of disturbance, any human presence in the proximity of Yellow-eyed penguins needs to be kept at a minimum. Our results highlight the need for objective quantification of the effects of human disturbance in order to provide a sound basis for guidelines to manage human activity around breeding birds.

  7. A regulated response to impaired respiration slows behavioral rates and increases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    David Cristina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available When mitochondrial respiration or ubiquinone production is inhibited in Caenorhabditis elegans, behavioral rates are slowed and lifespan is extended. Here, we show that these perturbations increase the expression of cell-protective and metabolic genes and the abundance of mitochondrial DNA. This response is similar to the response triggered by inhibiting respiration in yeast and mammalian cells, termed the "retrograde response". As in yeast, genes switched on in C. elegans mitochondrial mutants extend lifespan, suggesting an underlying evolutionary conservation of mechanism. Inhibition of fstr-1, a potential signaling gene that is up-regulated in clk-1 (ubiquinone-defective mutants, and its close homolog fstr-2 prevents the expression of many retrograde-response genes and accelerates clk-1 behavioral and aging rates. Thus, clk-1 mutants live in "slow motion" because of a fstr-1/2-dependent pathway that responds to ubiquinone. Loss of fstr-1/2 does not suppress the phenotypes of all long-lived mitochondrial mutants. Thus, although different mitochondrial perturbations activate similar transcriptional and physiological responses, they do so in different ways.

  8. Reshaping of bulbar odor response by nasal flow rate in the rat.

    Emmanuelle Courtiol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of respiratory dynamics on odor response has been poorly studied at the olfactory bulb level. However, it has been shown that sniffing in the behaving rodent is highly dynamic and varies both in frequency and flow rate. Bulbar odor response could vary with these sniffing parameter variations. Consequently, it is necessary to understand how nasal airflow can modify and shape odor response at the olfactory bulb level.To assess this question, we used a double cannulation and simulated nasal airflow protocol on anesthetized rats to uncouple nasal airflow from animal respiration. Both mitral/tufted cell extracellular unit activity and local field potentials (LFPs were recorded. We found that airflow changes in the normal range were sufficient to substantially reorganize the response of the olfactory bulb. In particular, cellular odor-evoked activities, LFP oscillations and spike phase-locking to LFPs were strongly modified by nasal flow rate.Our results indicate the importance of reconsidering the notion of odor coding as odor response at the bulbar level is ceaselessly modified by respiratory dynamics.

  9. Transition rates from schizotypal disorder to psychotic disorder for first-contact patients included in the OPUS trial. A randomized clinical trial of integrated treatment and standard treatment

    Nordentoft, Merete; Thorup, Anne; Petersen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    Only a few randomized clinical trials have tested the effect on transition rates of intervention programs for patients with sub-threshold psychosis-like symptoms.......Only a few randomized clinical trials have tested the effect on transition rates of intervention programs for patients with sub-threshold psychosis-like symptoms....

  10. Characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes using item response theory.

    Backman, Annica; Sjögren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Lövheim, Hugo; Edvardsson, David

    2017-12-01

    To identify characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes. An ageing population entails fundamental social, economic and organizational challenges for future aged care. Knowledge is limited of both specific leadership behaviours and organizational and managerial characteristics which have an impact on the leadership of contemporary nursing home care. Cross-sectional. From 290 municipalities, 60 were randomly selected and 35 agreed to participate, providing a sample of 3605 direct-care staff employed in 169 Swedish nursing homes. The staff assessed their managers' (n = 191) leadership behaviours using the Leadership Behaviour Questionnaire. Data were collected from November 2013 - September 2014, and the study was completed in November 2016. A two-parameter item response theory approach and regression analyses were used to identify specific characteristics of highly rated leadership. Five specific behaviours of highly rated nursing home leadership were identified; that the manager: experiments with new ideas; controls work closely; relies on subordinates; coaches and gives direct feedback; and handles conflicts constructively. The regression analyses revealed that managers with social work backgrounds and privately run homes were significantly associated with higher leadership ratings. This study highlights the five most important leadership behaviours that characterize those nursing home managers rated highest in terms of leadership. Managers in privately run nursing homes and managers with social work backgrounds were associated with higher leadership ratings. Further work is needed to explore these behaviours and factors predictive of higher leadership ratings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Heart rate response to a climber’s fall in sport climbing

    Chaloupsky, David

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with response of heart rate to a climber’s simulated fall in a leading position when indoor climbing. Heart rate of climbers was recorded during ascents of an overhanging route in the leading position, to the given point high above the ground, followed by falling into the last protection. The length of the free fall was defined by the place of the last belay anchor, which was at the height of climber’s ankles. The length of the fall was about two meters of free fall plus th...

  12. The practicality of including the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in the definition of polytrauma: experience of a level one trauma centre.

    Butcher, Nerida E; Balogh, Zsolt J

    2013-01-01

    The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) has been advocated as a significant predictor of outcome in trauma. Recent trauma literature has proposed SIRS as a surrogate for physiological derangements characteristic of polytrauma with some authors recommending its inclusion into the definition of polytrauma. The practicality of daily SIRS collection outside of specifically designed prospective trials is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the availability of SIRS variables and its appropriateness for inclusion into a definition of polytrauma. We hypothesised SIRS variables would be readily available and easy to collect, thus represent an appropriate inclusion into the definition of polytrauma. A prospective observational study of all trauma team activation patients over 7-months (August 2009 to February 2010) at a University affiliated level-1 urban trauma centre. SIRS data (temperature>38°C or 90 bpm; RR>20/min or a PaCO(2)12.0×10(9)L(-1), or 10 immature bands) collected from presentation, at 24 h intervals until 72 h post injury. Inclusion criteria were all patients generating a trauma team activation response age >16. 336 patients met inclusion criteria. In 46% (155/336) serial SIRS scores could not be calculated due to missing data. Lowest rates of missing data observed on admission [3% (11/336)]. Stratified by ISS>15 (132/336), in 7% (9/132) serial SIRS scores could not be calculated due to missing data. In 123 patients ISS>15 with complete data, 81% (100/123) developed SIRS. For Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)>2 in at least 2 body regions (64/336) in 5% (3/64) serial SIRS scores could not be calculated, with 92% (56/61) of patients with complete data developing SIRS. For Direct ICU admissions [25% (85/336)] 5% (4/85) of patients could not have serial SIRS calculated [mean ISS 15(±11)] and 90% (73/81) developed SIRS at least once over 72 h. Based on the experience of our level-1 trauma centre, the practicability of including SIRS into the

  13. Attenuated Heart Rate Response is Associated with Hypocretin Deficiency in Patients with Narcolepsy

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Knudsen, Stine; Petersen, Eva Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Our results show that autonomic dysfunction is part of the narcoleptic phenotype, and that hypocretin-1 deficiency is the primary predictor of this dysfunction. This finding suggests that the hypocretin system participates in the modulation of cardiovascular function at rest. CITATION: Sorensen GL......; Knudsen S; Petersen ER; Kempfner J; Gammeltoft S; Sorensen HBD; Jennum P. Attenuated heart rate response is associated with hypocretin deficiency in patients with narcolepsy. SLEEP 2013;36(1):91-98....

  14. Increasing the Response Rate of the Patient Satisfaction Survey of Inpatients at National Naval Medical Center

    1993-08-01

    identify a method to improve the effectiveness of the current survey process to increase the response rate of the patients being sampled. As health care... consumer must have adequate representation to provide meaningful information for decision making by the health care organization. Background of the...the Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy into the health care industry has increased the importance of listening to the customer (Matthews, 1992

  15. The Response of Deferred Executive Compensation to Changes in Tax Rates

    Aspen Gorry; Kevin A. Hassett; R. Glenn Hubbard; Aparna Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing use of stock options in executive compensation, we examine how taxes influence the choice of compensation and document that income deferral is an important margin of adjustment in response to tax rate changes. To account for this option in the empirical analysis, we explore deferral by estimating how executives’ choice of compensation between current and deferred income depends on changes in tax policy. Our empirical results suggest a significant impact of taxes on the co...

  16. Predictors of abnormal heart rate response to dipyridamole in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion SPECT

    De Souza Leao Lima, R.; Machado, L.; Azevedo, A.B.; De Lorenzo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of abnormal HR response to dipyridamole (DIP) in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS). Patients with a reduced heart rate (HR) response to DIP have higher cardiac mortality, but the mechanism is unknown. We studied 432 patients who underwent dual-isotope gated MPS. DIP (0.56 mg/kg) was infused over 4 min, and Tc-99m tetrofosmin was injected 3 min after the end of the infusion. MPS was semiquantitatively interpreted. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes were automatically calculated. The population was categorized into quartiles according to HR ratio, and characteristics in each quartile were compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of abnormal HR response, using the lowest quartile as the independent variable. Patients with abnormal HR response were more frequently without chest pain, with a history of chronic renal failure and taking digoxin. Baseline HR was higher and had fewer symptoms during stress. The stress and rest perfusion defects were greater, but reversibility was not; in addition, LVEF was lower. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the independent predictors of abnormal HR response were baseline HR and low LVEF. LV dysfunction is an independent predictor of abnormal HR response to DIP, and the association between low LVEF and low HR ratio may explain the link between abnormal HR ratio and increased mortality. (author)

  17. A Year in the Life: Annual Patterns of CO2 and CH4 from a Northern Finland Peatland, Including Anaerobic Methane Oxidation and Summer Ebullition Rates

    Miller, K.; Lipson, D.; Biasi, C.; Dorodnikov, M.; Männistö, M.; Lai, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    The major ecological controls on methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in northern wetland systems are well known, yet estimates of source/sink magnitudes are often incongruous with measured rates. This mismatch persists because holistic flux datasets are rare, preventing 'whole picture' determinations of flux controls. To combat this, we measured net CO2 and CH4 fluxes from September 2012-2013 within a peatland in northern Lapland, Finland. In addition, we performed in situ manipulations and in vitro soil incubations to quantify anaerobic methane oxidation and methanogenic rates as they related to alternative electron acceptor availability. Average annual fluxes varied substantially between different depressions within the wetland, a pattern that persisted through all seasons. Season was a strong predictor of both CO2 and CH4 flux rates, yet CH4 rates were not related to melt-season 10cm or 30cm soil temperatures, and only poorly predicted with air temperatures. We found evidence for both autumnal and spring thaw CH4 bursts, collectively accounting for 26% of annual CH4 flux, although the autumnal burst was more than 5 fold larger than the spring burst. CH4 ebullition measured throughout the growing season augmented the CH4 source load by a factor of 1.5, and was linked with fine-scale spatial heterogeneity within the wetland. Surprisingly, CH4 flux rates were insensitive to Fe(III) and humic acid soil amendments, both of which amplified CO2 fluxes. Using in vitro incubations, we determined anaerobic methane oxidation and methanogenesis rates. Measured anaerobic oxidation rates showed potential consumption of between 6-39% of the methane produced, contributing approximately 1% of total carbon dioxide flux. Treatments of nitrate, sulfate and ferric iron showed that nitrate suppressed methanogenesis, but were not associated with anaerobic oxidation rates.

  18. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    Jannika De Rubeis

    Full Text Available Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing. We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52 and disorganized attachment status (n = 45. Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051. These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship.

  19. Mode of delivery affected questionnaire response rates in a birth cohort study.

    Bray, Isabelle; Noble, Sian; Robinson, Ross; Molloy, Lynn; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomized controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. Eligible participants were young people in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study (born April 1, 1991, to December 31, 1992, in the Avon area). After exclusions, 8,795 participants were randomized. The "online first" group were invited to complete the questionnaire online. The "choice" group were also sent a paper questionnaire and offered a choice of completion method. The trial was embedded within routine data collection. The main outcome measure was the number of questionnaires returned. Data on costs were also collected. Those in the "online first" arm of the trial were less likely to return a questionnaire [adjusted odds ratio: 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 0.99]. The "choice" arm was more expensive (mean difference per participant £0.71; 95% CI: £0.65, £0.76). It cost an extra £47 to have one extra person to complete the questionnaire in the "choice" arm. Offering a choice of completion methods (paper or online) for questionnaires in ALSPAC increased response rates but was more expensive than offering online first. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparing Response Times and Error Rates in a Simultaneous Masking Paradigm

    F Hermens

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In simultaneous masking, performance on a foveally presented target is impaired by one or more flanking elements. Previous studies have demonstrated strong effects of the grouping of the target and the flankers on the strength of masking (e.g., Malania, Herzog & Westheimer, 2007. These studies have predominantly examined performance by measuring offset discrimination thresholds as a measure of performance, and it is therefore unclear whether other measures of performance provide similar outcomes. A recent study, which examined the role of grouping on error rates and response times in a speeded vernier offset discrimination task, similar to that used by Malania et al. (2007, suggested a possible dissociation between the two measures, with error rates mimicking threshold performance, but response times showing differential results (Panis & Hermens, 2014. We here report the outcomes of three experiments examining this possible dissociation, and demonstrate an overall similar pattern of results for error rates and response times across a broad range of mask layouts. Moreover, the pattern of results in our experiments strongly correlates with threshold performance reported earlier (Malania et al., 2007. Our results suggest that outcomes in a simultaneous masking paradigm do not critically depend on the outcome measure used, and therefore provide evidence for a common underlying mechanism.

  1. The rate dependent response of a bistable chain at finite temperature

    Benichou, Itamar; Zhang, Yaojun; Dudko, Olga K.; Givli, Sefi

    2016-10-01

    We study the rate dependent response of a bistable chain subjected to thermal fluctuations. The study is motivated by the fact that the behavior of this model system is prototypical to a wide range of nonlinear processes in materials physics, biology and chemistry. To account for the stochastic nature of the system response, we formulate a set of governing equations for the evolution of the probability density of meta-stable configurations. Based on this approach, we calculate the behavior for a wide range of parametric values, such as rate, temperature, overall stiffness, and number of elements in the chain. Our results suggest that fundamental characteristics of the response, such as average transition stress and hysteresis, can be captured by a simple law which folds the influence of all these factors into a single non-dimensional quantity. We also show that the applicability of analytical results previously obtained for single-well systems can be extended to systems having multiple wells by proper definition of rate and of the transition stress.

  2. Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Understand Mechanical Response of Thaumasite under Temperature and Strain Rate Effects.

    Hajilar, Shahin; Shafei, Behrouz; Cheng, Tao; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres

    2017-06-22

    Understanding the structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of thaumasite is of great interest to the cement industry, mainly because it is the phase responsible for the aging and deterioration of civil infrastructures made of cementitious materials attacked by external sources of sulfate. Despite the importance, effects of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical response of thaumasite had remained unexplored prior to the current study, in which the mechanical properties of thaumasite are fully characterized using the reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) method. With employing a first-principles based reactive force field, the RMD simulations enable the description of bond dissociation and formation under realistic conditions. From the stress-strain curves of thaumasite generated in the x, y, and z directions, the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and fracture strain are determined for the three orthogonal directions. During the course of each simulation, the chemical bonds undergoing tensile deformations are monitored to reveal the bonds responsible for the mechanical strength of thaumasite. The temperature increase is found to accelerate the bond breaking rate and consequently the degradation of mechanical properties of thaumasite, while the strain rate only leads to a slight enhancement of them for the ranges considered in this study.

  3. Systematic review including re-analyses of 1148 individual data sets of central venous pressure as a predictor of fluid responsiveness

    Eskesen, T G; Wetterslev, M; Perner, A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Central venous pressure (CVP) has been shown to have poor predictive value for fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients. We aimed to re-evaluate this in a larger sample subgrouped by baseline CVP values. METHODS: In April 2015, we systematically searched and included all clinical...

  4. Heart rate response to fear conditioning and virtual reality in subthreshold PTSD.

    Roy, Michael J; Costanzo, Michelle E; Jovanovic, Tanja; Leaman, Suzanne; Taylor, Patricia; Norrholm, Seth D; Rizzo, Albert A

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant health concern for U.S. military service members (SMs) returning from Afghanistan and Iraq. Early intervention to prevent chronic disability requires greater understanding of subthreshold PTSD symptoms, which are associated with impaired physical health, mental health, and risk for delayed onset PTSD. We report a comparison of physiologic responses for recently deployed SMs with high and low subthreshold PTSD symptoms, respectively, to a fear conditioning task and novel virtual reality paradigm (Virtual Iraq). The high symptom group demonstrated elevated heart rate (HR) response during fear conditioning. Virtual reality sequences evoked significant HR responses which predicted variance of the PTSD Checklist-Military Version self-report. Our results support the value of physiologic assessment during fear conditioning and combat-related virtual reality exposure as complementary tools in detecting subthreshold PTSD symptoms in Veterans.

  5. Response Load Extrapolation for Wind Turbines during Operation Based on Average Conditional Exceedance Rates

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Naess, Arvid; Saha, Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    to cases where the Gumbel distribution is the appropriate asymptotic extreme value distribution. However, two extra parameters are introduced by which a more general and flexible class of extreme value distributions is obtained with the Gumbel distribution as a subclass. The general method is implemented...... within a hierarchical model where the variables that influence the loading are divided into ergodic variables and time-invariant non-ergodic variables. The presented method for statistical response load extrapolation was compared with the existing methods based on peak extrapolation for the blade out......The paper explores a recently developed method for statistical response load (load effect) extrapolation for application to extreme response of wind turbines during operation. The extrapolation method is based on average conditional exceedance rates and is in the present implementation restricted...

  6. Dose/dose-rate responses of shrimp larvae to UV-B radiation

    Damkaer, D.M.; Dey, D.B.; Heron, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work indicated dose-rate thresholds in the effects of UV-B on the near-surface larvae of three shrimp species. Additional observations suggest that the total dose response varies with dose-rate. Below 0.002 Wm/sup -2/sub((DNA)) irradiance no significant effect is noted in activity, development, or survival. Beyond that dose-rate threshold, shrimp larvae are significantly affected if the total dose exceeds about 85 Jm/sup -2/sub((DNA)). Predictions cannot be made without both the dose-rate and the dose. These dose/dose-rate thresholds are compared to four-year mean dose/dose-rate solar UV-B irradiances at the experimental site, measured at the surface and calculated for 1 m depth. The probability that the shrimp larvae would receive lethal irradiance is low for the first half of the season of surface occurrence, even with a 44% increase in damaging UV radiation.

  7. Pre-notification letter type and response rate to a postal survey among women who have recently given birth.

    Todd, Angela L; Porter, Maree; Williamson, Jennifer L; Patterson, Jillian A; Roberts, Christine L

    2015-12-01

    Surveys are commonly used in health research to assess patient satisfaction with hospital care. Achieving an adequate response rate, in the face of declining trends over time, threatens the quality and reliability of survey results. This paper evaluates a strategy to increase the response rate in a postal satisfaction survey with women who had recently given birth. A sample of 2048 Australian women who had recently given birth at seven maternity units in New South Wales were invited to participate in a postal survey about their recent experiences with maternity care. The study design included a randomised controlled trial that tested two types of pre-notification letter (with or without the option of opting out of the survey). The study also explored the acceptability of a request for consent to link survey data with existing routinely collected health data (omitting the latter data items from the survey reduced survey length and participant burden). This consent was requested of all women. The survey had an overall response rate of 46% (913 completed surveys returned, total sample 1989). Women receiving the pre-notification letter with the option of opting out of the survey were more likely to actively decline to participate than women receiving the letter without this option, although the overall numbers of women declining were small (27 versus 12). Letter type was not significantly associated with the return of a completed survey. Among women who completed the survey, 97% gave consent to link their survey data with existing health data. The two types of pre-notification letters used in our study did not influence the survey response rate. However, seeking consent for record linkage was highly acceptable to women who completed the survey, and represents an important strategy to add to the arsenal for designing and implementing effective surveys. In addition to aspects of survey design, future research should explore how to more effectively influence personal

  8. Evaluating research recruitment strategies to improve response rates amongst South African nurses

    Natasha Khamisa

    2014-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate three research recruitment methods for their impact on recruitment and participation rates amongst South African nurses. Motivation for the study: A limited number of studies exist that formally evaluates different recruitment strategies to improve participation in research amongst nurses within developing contexts, especially South Africa. Research approach, design and method: Participants were recruited using three different methods. Of the 250 nurses randomly selected and invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey, 201 agreed and 162 (81% returned the questionnaires. Main findings: Nursing management participation in the recruitment and data collection process produces more favourable response rates. Reminders and the use of shorter questionnaires also aid higher response rates. Practical/managerial implications: Reminders as well as face-to-face recruitment strategies (especially by a familiar person successfully improved participation rates amongst South African nurses in this study. Contribution/value-add: This study identifies some strategies that could be used more widely to increase the recruitment and participation of South African nurses in research whilst potentially improving their work situation.

  9. Determining dose rate with a semiconductor detector - Monte Carlo calculations of the detector response

    Nordenfors, C

    1999-02-01

    To determine dose rate in a gamma radiation field, based on measurements with a semiconductor detector, it is necessary to know how the detector effects the field. This work aims to describe this effect with Monte Carlo simulations and calculations, that is to identify the detector response function. This is done for a germanium gamma detector. The detector is normally used in the in-situ measurements that is carried out regularly at the department. After the response function is determined it is used to reconstruct a spectrum from an in-situ measurement, a so called unfolding. This is done to be able to calculate fluence rate and dose rate directly from a measured (and unfolded) spectrum. The Monte Carlo code used in this work is EGS4 developed mainly at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is a widely used code package to simulate particle transport. The results of this work indicates that the method could be used as-is since the accuracy of this method compares to other methods already in use to measure dose rate. Bearing in mind that this method provides the nuclide specific dose it is useful, in radiation protection, since knowing what the relations between different nuclides are and how they change is very important when estimating the risks

  10. A study on measurement on artificial radiation dose rate using the response matrix method

    Kidachi, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Konno, Tatsuya

    2004-01-01

    We examined accuracy and stability of estimated artificial dose contribution which is distinguished from natural background gamma-ray dose rate using Response Matrix method. Irradiation experiments using artificial gamma-ray sources indicated that there was a linear relationship between observed dose rate and estimated artificial dose contribution, when irradiated artificial gamma-ray dose rate was higher than about 2 nGy/h. Statistical and time-series analyses of long term data made it clear that estimated artificial contribution showed almost constant values under no artificial influence from the nuclear power plants. However, variations of estimated artificial dose contribution were infrequently observed due to of rainfall, detector maintenance operation and occurrence of calibration error. Some considerations on the factors to these variations were made. (author)

  11. Feeding rates affect stress and non-specific immune responses of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala subjected to hypoxia.

    Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding rates on stress response, innate immunity and hypoxia resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish were randomly assigned to one of six feeding rates (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% of body weight/day) for 60 days. Then, fish were subjected to hypoxic conditions and haemato-immunological parameters were analyzed pre- and post-challenge. Low feed ration resulted in decreased liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione contents. Inadequate feeding also adversely affected the immune functions of fish, as was characterized by the relatively low haemato-immunological parameters (including alternative complement (ACH50), myeloperoxidase (MPO), plasma protein profiles and transferring) and high hypoxia-induced mortality. High feed ration did not lead to the improvement in antioxidant capability, immune responses and survival. In addition, plasma cortisol, glucose and transferrin levels as well as lysozyme activities all increased significantly after hypoxia challenge, whereas the opposite was true for plasma ACH50 and MPO activities as well as protein profiles in terms of hypoxia challenge. An interaction between feeding rate and hypoxia was also observed in plasma cortisol, glucose and protein profiles. In conclusion, a feeding rate of 4-5% of body weight/day is optimal to boost the innate immunity of juvenile blunt snout bream. Low ration resulted in decreased antioxidant capability, compromised immune functions and reduced hypoxia resistance, while over feeding did not benefit the health status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interferon alpha therapy for hepatitis C: treatment completion and response rates among patients with substance use disorders

    Loftis Jennifer M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs are at increased risk for hepatitis C viral infection (HCV, and few studies have explored their treatment responses empirically. The objective of this study was to assess interferon alpha therapy (IFN completion and response rates among patients with HCV who had a history of comorbid SUDs. More data is needed to inform treatment strategies and guidelines for these patients. Using a medical record database, information was retrospectively collected on 307,437 veterans seen in the Veterans Integrated Service Network 20 (VISN 20 of the Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA between 1998 and 2003. For patients treated with any type of IFN (including regular or pegylated IFN or combination therapy (IFN and ribavirin who had a known HCV genotype, IFN completion and response rates were compared among patients with a history of SUD (SUD+ Group and patients without a history of SUD (SUD- Group. Results Odds ratio analyses revealed that compared with the SUD- Group, the SUD+ Group was equally likely to complete IFN therapy if they had genotypes 2 and 3 (73.1% vs. 68.0%, and if they had genotypes 1 and 4 (39.5% vs. 39.9%. Within the sample of all patients who began IFN therapy, the SUD- and SUD+ groups were similarly likely to achieve an end of treatment response (genotypes 2 and 3, 52.8% vs. 54.3%; genotypes 1 and 4, 24.5% vs. 24.8% and a sustained viral response (genotypes 2 and 3, 42.6% vs. 41.1%; genotypes 1 and 4: 16.0% vs. 22.3%. Conclusion Individuals with and without a history of SUD responded to antiviral therapy for HCV at similar rates. Collectively, these findings suggest that patients who have co-morbid SUD and HCV diagnoses can successfully complete a course of antiviral therapy.

  13. Attention to eye contact in the West and East: autonomic responses and evaluative ratings.

    Akechi, Hironori; Senju, Atsushi; Uibo, Helen; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Hietanen, Jari K

    2013-01-01

    Eye contact has a fundamental role in human social interaction. The special appearance of the human eye (i.e., white sclera contrasted with a coloured iris) implies the importance of detecting another person's face through eye contact. Empirical studies have demonstrated that faces making eye contact are detected quickly and processed preferentially (i.e., the eye contact effect). Such sensitivity to eye contact seems to be innate and universal among humans; however, several studies suggest that cultural norms affect eye contact behaviours. For example, Japanese individuals exhibit less eye contact than do individuals from Western European or North American cultures. However, how culture modulates eye contact behaviour is unclear. The present study investigated cultural differences in autonomic correlates of attentional orienting (i.e., heart rate) and looking time. Additionally, we examined evaluative ratings of eye contact with another real person, displaying an emotionally neutral expression, between participants from Western European (Finnish) and East Asian (Japanese) cultures. Our results showed that eye contact elicited stronger heart rate deceleration responses (i.e., attentional orienting), shorter looking times, and higher ratings of subjective feelings of arousal as compared to averted gaze in both cultures. Instead, cultural differences in the eye contact effect were observed in various evaluative responses regarding the stimulus faces (e.g., facial emotion, approachability etc.). The rating results suggest that individuals from an East Asian culture perceive another's face as being angrier, unapproachable, and unpleasant when making eye contact as compared to individuals from a Western European culture. The rating results also revealed that gaze direction (direct vs. averted) could influence perceptions about another person's facial affect and disposition. These results suggest that cultural differences in eye contact behaviour emerge from differential

  14. Attention to eye contact in the West and East: autonomic responses and evaluative ratings.

    Hironori Akechi

    Full Text Available Eye contact has a fundamental role in human social interaction. The special appearance of the human eye (i.e., white sclera contrasted with a coloured iris implies the importance of detecting another person's face through eye contact. Empirical studies have demonstrated that faces making eye contact are detected quickly and processed preferentially (i.e., the eye contact effect. Such sensitivity to eye contact seems to be innate and universal among humans; however, several studies suggest that cultural norms affect eye contact behaviours. For example, Japanese individuals exhibit less eye contact than do individuals from Western European or North American cultures. However, how culture modulates eye contact behaviour is unclear. The present study investigated cultural differences in autonomic correlates of attentional orienting (i.e., heart rate and looking time. Additionally, we examined evaluative ratings of eye contact with another real person, displaying an emotionally neutral expression, between participants from Western European (Finnish and East Asian (Japanese cultures. Our results showed that eye contact elicited stronger heart rate deceleration responses (i.e., attentional orienting, shorter looking times, and higher ratings of subjective feelings of arousal as compared to averted gaze in both cultures. Instead, cultural differences in the eye contact effect were observed in various evaluative responses regarding the stimulus faces (e.g., facial emotion, approachability etc.. The rating results suggest that individuals from an East Asian culture perceive another's face as being angrier, unapproachable, and unpleasant when making eye contact as compared to individuals from a Western European culture. The rating results also revealed that gaze direction (direct vs. averted could influence perceptions about another person's facial affect and disposition. These results suggest that cultural differences in eye contact behaviour emerge from

  15. Characterization of Genotoxic Response to 15 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Variable Physicochemical Properties Including Surface Functionalizations in the FE1-Muta(TM) Mouse Lung Epithelial Cell Line

    Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten; Jensen, Keld Alstrup

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes vary greatly in physicochemical properties. We compared cytotoxic and genotoxic response to 15 multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with varying physicochemical properties to identify drivers of toxic responses. The studied MWCNT included OECD Working Party on Manufactured...... Nanomaterials (WPMN) (NM-401, NM-402, and NM-403), materials (NRCWE-026 and MWCNT-XNRI-7), and three sets of surface-modified MWCNT grouped by physical characteristics (thin, thick, and short I-III, respectively). Each Groups I-III included pristine, hydroxylated and carboxylated MWCNT. Group III also included...... an amino-functionalized MWCNT. The level of surface functionalization of the MWCNT was low. The level and type of elemental impurities of the MWCNT varied by...

  16. Advanced Computational Approaches for Characterizing Stochastic Cellular Responses to Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Exposures

    Scott, Bobby, R., Ph.D.

    2003-06-27

    OAK - B135 This project final report summarizes modeling research conducted in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Low Dose Radiation Research Program at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute from October 1998 through June 2003. The modeling research described involves critically evaluating the validity of the linear nonthreshold (LNT) risk model as it relates to stochastic effects induced in cells by low doses of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals. The LNT model plays a central role in low-dose risk assessment for humans. With the LNT model, any radiation (or genotoxic chemical) exposure is assumed to increase one¡¯s risk of cancer. Based on the LNT model, others have predicted tens of thousands of cancer deaths related to environmental exposure to radioactive material from nuclear accidents (e.g., Chernobyl) and fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Our research has focused on developing biologically based models that explain the shape of dose-response curves for low-dose radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells. Understanding the shape of the dose-response curve for radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells helps to better understand the shape of the dose-response curve for cancer induction in humans. We have used a modeling approach that facilitated model revisions over time, allowing for timely incorporation of new knowledge gained related to the biological basis for low-dose-induced stochastic effects in cells. Both deleterious (e.g., genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformation) and protective (e.g., DNA repair and apoptosis) effects have been included in our modeling. Our most advanced model, NEOTRANS2, involves differing levels of genomic instability. Persistent genomic instability is presumed to be associated with nonspecific, nonlethal mutations and to increase both the risk for neoplastic transformation and for cancer occurrence. Our research results, based on

  17. Response rates in case-control studies of cancer by era of fieldwork and by characteristics of study design.

    Xu, Mengting; Richardson, Lesley; Campbell, Sally; Pintos, Javier; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2018-04-09

    The purpose of this study was to describe time trends in response rates in case-control studies of cancer and identify study design factors that influence response rate. We reviewed 370 case-control studies of cancer published in 12 journals during indicator years in each of the last four decades. We estimated time trends of response rates and reasons for nonresponse in each of the following types of study subjects: cases, medical source controls, and population controls. We also estimated response rates according to characteristics of study context. Median response rates among cases and population controls were between 75% and 80% in the 1970s. Between 1971 and 2010, study response rates declined by 0.31% per year for cases and 0.78% for population controls. Only a minority of studies reported reasons for nonparticipation; subject refusal was the most common reported reason. Studies conducted in North America had lower median response rates than studies conducted in Europe. In-person and telephone interviews elicited higher response rates than mail questionnaires. Response rates from case-control studies of cancer have declined, and this could threaten the validity of results derived from these studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of low dose rate on metabolomic response to radiation in mice

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Mak, Tytus D.; Chen, Congju; Smilenov, Lubomir B.; Brenner, David J.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics has been shown to have utility in assessing responses to exposure by ionizing radiation (IR) in easily accessible biofluids such as urine. Most studies to date from our laboratory and others have employed γ-irradiation at relatively high dose rates (HDR), but many environmental exposure scenarios will probably be at relatively low dose rates (LDR). There are well-documented differences in the biologic responses to LDR compared to HDR, so an important question is to assess LDR effects at the metabolomics level. Our study took advantage of a modern mass spectrometry approach in exploring the effects of dose rate on the urinary excretion levels of metabolites 2 days after IR in mice. A wide variety of statistical tools were employed to further focus on metabolites, which showed responses to LDR IR exposure (0.00309 Gy/min) distinguishable from those of HDR. From a total of 709 detected spectral features, more than 100 were determined to be statistically significant when comparing urine from mice irradiated with 1.1 or 4.45 Gy to that of sham-irradiated mice 2 days post-exposure. The results of this study show that LDR and HDR exposures perturb many of the same pathways such as TCA cycle and fatty acid metabolism, which also have been implicated in our previous IR studies. However, it is important to note that dose rate did affect the levels of particular metabolites. Differences in urinary excretion levels of such metabolites could potentially be used to assess an individual's exposure in a radiobiological event and thus would have utility for both triage and injury assessment. (orig.)

  19. Cut points on 0-10 numeric rating scales for symptoms included in the edmonton symptom assessment scale in cancer patients: A systematic review

    W.H. Oldenmenger (Wendy); P.J. de Raaf (Pleun); C. de Klerk (Cora); C.C.D. van der Rijt (Carin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContext: To improve the management of cancer-related symptoms, systematic screening is necessary, often performed by using 0-10 numeric rating scales. Cut points are used to determine if scores represent clinically relevant burden. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to

  20. Dynamics in copy numbers of five plasmids of a dairy Lactococcus lactis in dairy-related conditions including near-zero growth rates.

    van Mastrigt, Oscar; Lommers, Marcel M A N; de Vries, Yorick C; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

    2018-03-23

    Lactic acid bacteria can carry multiple plasmids affecting their performance in dairy fermentations. The expression of plasmid-encoded genes and the activity of the corresponding proteins is severely affected by changes in the number of plasmid copies. We studied the impact of growth rate on dynamics of plasmid copy numbers at high growth rates in chemostat cultures and down to near-zero growth rates in retentostat cultures. Five plasmids of the dairy strain Lactococcus lactis FM03-V1 were selected which varied in size (3 to 39 kb), in replication mechanism (theta or rolling-circle) and in putative (dairy-associated) functions. Copy numbers ranged from 1.5 to 40.5 and the copy number of theta-type replicating plasmids were negatively correlated to the plasmid size. Despite the extremely wide range of growth rates (0.0003 h -1 to 0.6 h -1 ), copy numbers of the five plasmids were stable and only slightly increased at near-zero growth rates showing that the plasmid replication rate was strictly controlled. One low-copy number plasmid, carrying a large exopolysaccharide gene cluster, was segregationally unstable during retentostat cultivations reflected in complete loss of the plasmid in one of the retentostat cultures. The copy number of the five plasmids was also hardly affected by varying the pH value, nutrient limitation or presence of citrate (maximum 2.2-fold) signifying the stability in copy number of the plasmids. Importance Lactococcus lactis is extensively used in starter cultures for dairy fermentations. Important traits for growth and survival of L. lactis in dairy fermentations are encoded by genes located on plasmids, such as genes involved in lactose and citrate metabolism, protein degradation and oligopeptide uptake and bacteriophage resistance. Because the number of plasmid copies could affect the expression of plasmid-encoded genes, it is important to know the factors that influence the plasmid copy numbers. We monitored plasmid copy numbers of L

  1. Radiation response of industrial materials: Dose-rate and morphology implications

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial uses of ionizing radiation mostly rely upon high current, high dose-rate (100 kGy/s) electron beam (EB) accelerators. To a lesser extent, industry uses low dose-rate (2.8 x 10 -3 kGy/s) radioactive Cobalt-60 as a gamma source, generally for some rather specific purposes, as medical device sterilization and the treatment of food and foodstuffs. There are nearly nine times as many (∼1400) high current EB units in commercial operation than gamma sources (∼160). However, gamma sources can be easily scaled-down so that much research on materials effects is conducted using gamma radiation. Likewise, laboratories are more likely to have very low beam current and consequently low dose-rate accelerators such as Van de Graaff generators and linear accelerators. With the advent of very high current EB accelerators, X-ray processing has become an industrially viable option. With X-rays from high power sources, dose-rates can be modulated based upon accelerator power and the attenuation of the X-ray by the distance of the material from the X-ray target. Dose and dose-rate dependence has been found to be of consequence in several commercial applications which can employ the use of ionizing radiation. The combination of dose and dose-rate dependence of the polymerization and crosslinking of wood impregnants and of fiber composite matrix materials can yield more economically viable results which have promising commercial potential. Monomer and oligomer structure also play an important role in attaining these desirable results. The influence of morphology is shown on the radiation response of olefin polymers, such as ethylene, propylene and isobutylene polymers and their copolymers. Both controlled morphology and controlled dose-rate have commercial consequences. These are also impacted both by the adroit selection of materials and through the possible use of X-ray processing

  2. Improving Rice Modeling Success Rate with Ternary Non-structural Fertilizer Response Model.

    Li, Juan; Zhang, Mingqing; Chen, Fang; Yao, Baoquan

    2018-06-13

    Fertilizer response modelling is an important technical approach to realize metrological fertilization on rice. With the goal of solving the problems of a low success rate of a ternary quadratic polynomial model (TPFM) and to expand the model's applicability, this paper established a ternary non-structural fertilizer response model (TNFM) based on the experimental results from N, P and K fertilized rice fields. Our research results showed that the TNFM significantly improved the modelling success rate by addressing problems arising from setting the bias and multicollinearity in a TPFM. The results from 88 rice field trials in China indicated that the proportion of typical TNFMs that satisfy the general fertilizer response law of plant nutrition was 40.9%, while the analogous proportion of TPFMs was only 26.1%. The recommended fertilization showed a significant positive linear correlation between the two models, and the parameters N 0 , P 0 and K 0 that estimated the value of soil supplying nutrient equivalents can be used as better indicators of yield potential in plots where no N or P or K fertilizer was applied. The theoretical analysis showed that the new model has a higher fitting accuracy and a wider application range.

  3. Effects of autogenic training on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing students.

    Lim, Seung-Joo; Kim, Chunmi

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken to confirm the effects of autogenic training (AT) on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing school students experiencing stress related to clinical training. The study was carried out from September 2012 to April 2013 in a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group using a pretest-posttest design. The participants were 40 nursing students in their third year at either of two nursing colleges. All consented to participate. Nineteen nursing students at one college were assigned to the experimental group and underwent the 8-week AT program, and the other 21 were assigned to the control group and did not undergo any training. Stress response was assessed by questionnaire and HRV was measured three times, that is, before the program, at the end of the program, and 6 months after the end of the AT program. A significant time/group interaction was found for stress response (F = 4.68, p = .012), a subjective indicator. However, no significant interaction was found for the objective indicators of heart rate variability, normalized low frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), normalized high frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), or low frequency to high frequency ratio (F = 1.38, p = .257). The results suggest that AT provides an acceptable approach to stress reduction in nursing students. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Evoked response of heart rate variability using short-duration white noise.

    Lee, Guo-She; Chen, Mei-Ling; Wang, Gin-You

    2010-06-24

    To investigate and to establish a model for evaluation of the instant cardiovascular responses to the noises of low-to-moderate intensity, sixteen healthy subjects were enrolled. The white noises were binaurally presented with a supra-aural earphone. The test intensities of noises were no noise, 50, 60, 70 and 80 dBA. Each noise was continued for 5 min and the electrocardiogram was simultaneously recorded. The cardiac autonomic responses were evaluated using power spectral analysis of the R-R contour obtained from digital signal processing of the ECG tracings. The result showed that the mean heart rate and mean blood pressure did not change significantly with the noises. However, the low-frequency power (LF) which represents cardiac autonomic modulations and the ratio (LHR) of LF to high-frequency power (HF) which reflects cardiac sympathetic modulations were significantly greater in the noise intensity of 50, 60, 70 and 80dBA (pnoise intensity (rho=0.90, pwhite noises can be detected using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability and the evoked responses may provide a sensitive way to evaluate the instant effect of noise to humans.

  5. Neural correlates of fear-induced sympathetic response associated with the peripheral temperature change rate.

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Koike, Takahiko; Yamazaki, Mika; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is essential for coping with environmental stressors such as fearful stimuli. Recent human imaging studies demonstrated that activity in some cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula cortex (aIC), is related to sympathetic activity. However, little is known about the functional brain connectivity related to sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. The participants were 32 healthy, right-handed volunteers. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity when watching horror and control movies. Fingertip temperature was taken during the scanning as a measure of sympathetic response. The movies were watched a second time, and the degree of fear (9-point Likert-type scale) was evaluated every three seconds. The brain activity of the ACC, bilateral aIC, and bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) was correlated with the change rate of fingertip temperature, with or without fearful stimuli. Functional connectivity analysis revealed significantly greater positive functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ACC and between the amygdala and the aIC when watching the horror movie than when watching the control movie. Whole-brain psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed that the functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC was modulated according to the fear rating. Our results indicate that the increased functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC represents a sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Heart Rate Responses to Unaided Orion Side Hatch Egress in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

    English, Kirk L.; Hwang Emma Y.; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Kelly, Cody; Walker, Thomas; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion capsule as a vehicle for transporting crewmembers to and from the International Space Station (ISS) and for future human space exploration missions. Orion and other commercial vehicles are designed to splash down in the ocean where nominally support personnel will assist crewmembers in egressing the vehicle. However, off-nominal scenarios will require crewmembers to egress the vehicle unaided, deploy survival equipment, and ingress a life raft. PURPOSE: To determine the heart rate (HR) responses to unaided Orion side hatch egress and raft ingress as a part of the NASA Crew Survival Engineering Team's evaluation of the PORT Orion mockup in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL). METHODS: Nineteen test subjects, including four astronauts (N=19, 14 males/5 females, 38.6+/-8.4 y, 174.4+/-9.6 cm, 75.7+/-13.1 kg), completed a graded maximal test on a cycle ergometer to determine VO2peak and HRpeak and were divided into five crews of four members each; one subject served on two crews. Each crew was required to deploy a life raft, egress the Orion vehicle from the side hatch, and ingress the life raft with two 8 kg emergency packs per crew. Each crew performed this activity one to three times; a total of ten full egresses were completed. Subjects wore a suit that was similar in form, mass, and function to the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) including helmet, gloves, boots, supplemental O2 bottles, and a CO2-inflated life preserver (approx.18 kg); subjects began each trial seated supine in the PORT Orion mockup with seat belts and mockup O2 and communication connections and ended each trial with all four crewmembers inside the life raft. RESULTS: VO2peak was 40.8+/-6.8 mL/kg/min (3.1+/-0.7 L/min); HRpeak was 181+/-10 bpm. Total egress time across trials was 5.0+/-1.6 min (range: 2.8-8.0 min); all subjects were able to successfully complete all trials. Average maximum HR at activity start, at the hatch opening, in the water, and in the

  7. Response of mouse lung to irradiation at different dose-rates

    Hill, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Groups of LAF1 mice were given thoracic irradiation using 60 Co γ-rays at dose-rates of 0.05 Gy/min (LDR) or 1.1 Gy/min (HDR) and the death of the animals was monitored as a function of time. It was found that the time pattern of animal deaths was similar for the two different dose-rates. Dose response curves for animals dying at various times up to 500 days after irradiation were calculated and the LD 50 values determined. The curves for the LD 50 values, plotted as a function of the time at analysis for treatment at HDR or LDR, were essentially parallel to each other but separated by a factor (LDR/HDR) of about 1.8. This indicates that the sparing effect of LDR treatment is the same for deaths occurring during the early pneumonitis phase or during the late fibrotic phase of lung damage. The available information on the response of patients to whole thoracic irradiation, given for either palliation or piror to bone marrow transplantation, suggests that for similar dose-rates to those studied here the ratio (LDR/HDR) is only 1.2 to 1.3. This difference between the animal and human data may reflect the modifying effect of the large doses of cytotoxic drugs used in combination with the irradiation of bone marrow transplant patients

  8. HEART RATE AND BLOOD LACTATE RESPONSES TO CHANGQUAN AND DAOSHU FORMS OF MODERN WUSHU

    Jerri Luiz Ribeiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of specific training designed to enhance physiological aspects of performance relies heavily on the availability of accurate and validity physiological data. In the combat sport of Wushu, katas are used to develop aerobic fitness. It is arguably important to assess and monitor heart rate (HR and lactate (La responses when designing effective training programs. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate heart rate and lactate responses to forms execution among Wushu combatants. Male elite modern Wushu athletes (n = 4 from a South Brazilian regional team participated in the study. Athletes were aged 22.5 ± 2.08 years old and had at least eight years of Wushu experience. Athletes carried out the Changquan and Daoshu forms in random order, HR and La were measured pre- and post-exercise. Results indicate that HR was 176 ± 3 and 176 ± 2 bpm and La was 4.38 ± 1.3 and 5.15 ± 1.07 mmol·l-1 for Changquan and Daoshu forms, respectively. There were no significantly differences in HR and La between the two forms. HR values represent 89.2 ± 1.1 and 89.1 ± 1.8% of age-predicted maximal heart rate and lactate was near of 4 mmol·l-1 point. In conclusion, training programs to Wushu combatants could target the range of physiological values cited above with no differences between two forms

  9. Explaining Cross-State Differences in Elderly Suicide Rates and Identifying State-Level Public Policy Responses that Reduce Rates

    Giles-Sims, Jean; Lockhart, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Elderly Americans commit suicide at higher rates than other age groups. We contend that macro- and micro-social variables contribute distinct aspects to explanations of this tragic loss: the former focus on circumstances that affect overall rates, the latter reveal why certain individuals succumb to suicide. Our analysis focuses on the…

  10. Internal state variable plasticity-damage modeling of AISI 4140 steel including microstructure-property relations: temperature and strain rate effects

    Nacif el Alaoui, Reda

    Mechanical structure-property relations have been quantified for AISI 4140 steel. under different strain rates and temperatures. The structure-property relations were used. to calibrate a microstructure-based internal state variable plasticity-damage model for. monotonic tension, compression and torsion plasticity, as well as damage evolution. Strong stress state and temperature dependences were observed for the AISI 4140 steel. Tension tests on three different notched Bridgman specimens were undertaken to study. the damage-triaxiality dependence for model validation purposes. Fracture surface. analysis was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to quantify the void. nucleation and void sizes in the different specimens. The stress-strain behavior exhibited. a fairly large applied stress state (tension, compression dependence, and torsion), a. moderate temperature dependence, and a relatively small strain rate dependence.

  11. Improving health promotion through central rating of interventions: the need for Responsive Guidance.

    Kok, Maarten Olivier; Bal, Roland; Roelofs, Caspar David; Schuit, Albertine Jantine

    2017-11-23

    beneficial, the evidence based-inspired ERS approach is too limited to guide both intervention development and the improvement of health promotion in practice. To better contribute to improving health promotion, a more reflexive and responsive guidance approach is required, namely one which stimulates the improvement of different intervention aspects, provides targeted recommendations to practitioners and provides feedback to those who develop and rate interventions.

  12. Numerical modelling of landscape and sediment flux response to precipitation rate change

    Armitage, John J.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Zakari, Mustapha; Campforts, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments of erosion have demonstrated that landscapes have a natural (or intrinsic) response time to a change in precipitation rate. In the last few decades there has been growth in the development of numerical models that attempt to capture landscape evolution over long timescales. However, there is still an uncertainty regarding the validity of the basic assumptions of mass transport that are made in deriving these models. In this contribution we therefore return to a principal assumption of sediment transport within the mass balance for surface processes; we explore the sensitivity of the classic end-member landscape evolution models and the sediment fluxes they produce to a change in precipitation rates. One end-member model takes the mathematical form of a kinetic wave equation and is known as the stream power model, in which sediment is assumed to be transported immediately out of the model domain. The second end-member model is the transport model and it takes the form of a diffusion equation, assuming that the sediment flux is a function of the water flux and slope. We find that both of these end-member models have a response time that has a proportionality to the precipitation rate that follows a negative power law. However, for the stream power model the exponent on the water flux term must be less than one, and for the transport model the exponent must be greater than one, in order to match the observed concavity of natural systems. This difference in exponent means that the transport model generally responds more rapidly to an increase in precipitation rates, on the order of 105 years for post-perturbation sediment fluxes to return to within 50 % of their initial values, for theoretical landscapes with a scale of 100×100 km. Additionally from the same starting conditions, the amplitude of the sediment flux perturbation in the transport model is greater, with much larger sensitivity to catchment size. An important finding is that

  13. Numerical modelling of landscape and sediment flux response to precipitation rate change

    J. J. Armitage

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale experiments of erosion have demonstrated that landscapes have a natural (or intrinsic response time to a change in precipitation rate. In the last few decades there has been growth in the development of numerical models that attempt to capture landscape evolution over long timescales. However, there is still an uncertainty regarding the validity of the basic assumptions of mass transport that are made in deriving these models. In this contribution we therefore return to a principal assumption of sediment transport within the mass balance for surface processes; we explore the sensitivity of the classic end-member landscape evolution models and the sediment fluxes they produce to a change in precipitation rates. One end-member model takes the mathematical form of a kinetic wave equation and is known as the stream power model, in which sediment is assumed to be transported immediately out of the model domain. The second end-member model is the transport model and it takes the form of a diffusion equation, assuming that the sediment flux is a function of the water flux and slope. We find that both of these end-member models have a response time that has a proportionality to the precipitation rate that follows a negative power law. However, for the stream power model the exponent on the water flux term must be less than one, and for the transport model the exponent must be greater than one, in order to match the observed concavity of natural systems. This difference in exponent means that the transport model generally responds more rapidly to an increase in precipitation rates, on the order of 105 years for post-perturbation sediment fluxes to return to within 50 % of their initial values, for theoretical landscapes with a scale of 100×100 km. Additionally from the same starting conditions, the amplitude of the sediment flux perturbation in the transport model is greater, with much larger sensitivity to catchment size. An

  14. The mortality and response rate after FLANG regimen in patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia

    Vali A Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncologists today are greatly concerned about the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. FLANG regimen, combination of novantron, cytarabine, fludarabine, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has been used in treatment of refractory/relapsed acute leukemia since 1990s. The present study has evaluated mortality and response rate of this regimen. Materials and Methods: In this study, 25 patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia aged 15-55 years underwent FLANG regimen at Seyed-Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran during 2008-2009. One month later, bone marrow samples were taken to evaluate the responsiveness to treatment. Participants were followed for a year. The data was analyzed by student-t and chi-square tests, logistic, and Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves in SPSS 19. Results: Out of the 25 patients, 8 patients (32% had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5 refractory and 3 relapsed cases and 17 subjects had acute myeloid leukemia (7 refractory and 10 relapsed cases. According to the bone marrow biopsies taken one month after FLANG regimen, 10 patients (40% had responded to treatment. Five patients of the 10 responders underwent successful bone marrow transplantation (BMT. On the other hand, 13 patients (52%, who had not entered the CR period, died during the follow-up. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant associations between disease type and responsiveness to treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated higher rates of unresponsiveness to treatment while its mortality rate was comparable with other studies. Overall, according to limitations for BMT (as the only chance for cure in Iran, it seems that FLANG therapy is an acceptable choice for these patients.

  15. Abscisic acid and transpiration rate are involved in the response to boron toxicity in Arabidopsis plants.

    Macho-Rivero, Miguel Ángel; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan José; Herrera-Rodríguez, María Begoña; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2017-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential microelement for vascular plant development, but its toxicity is a major problem affecting crop yields in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. In the literature, several genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and responses are upregulated in Arabidopsis roots after treatment with excess B. It is known that the AtNCED3 gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme for ABA biosynthesis, plays a key role in the plant response to drought stress. In this study, root AtNCED3 expression and shoot ABA content were rapidly increased in wild-type plants upon B-toxicity treatment. The Arabidopsis ABA-deficient nced3-2 mutant had higher transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and accumulated more B in their shoots than wild-type plants, facts that were associated with the lower levels of ABA in this mutant. However, in wild-type plants, B toxicity caused a significant reduction in stomatal conductance, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate. This response could be a mechanism to limit the transport of excess B from the roots to the leaves under B toxicity. In agreement with the higher transpiration rate of the nced3-2 mutant, this genotype showed an increased leaf B concentration and damage upon exposure to 5 mM B. Under B toxicity, ABA application decreased B accumulation in wild-type and nced3-2 plants. In summary, this work shows that excess B applied to the roots leads to rapid changes in AtNCED3 expression and gas exchange parameters that would contribute to restrain the B entry into the leaves, this effect being mediated by ABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. Dependence of alanine gel dosimeter response as a function of photon clinical beams dose rate

    Silva, Cleber Feijo; Campos, Leticia Lucente

    2013-01-01

    Gel dosimetry is a new area developed by Gore, it is ery useful for application in radiotherapy because using NMR imaging as evaluation technique is possible to evaluate three dimensional absorbed dose distribution. The measure technique is based on difference of ferrous (Fe 2+ ) and ferric (Fe 3+ ) ) ions concentration that can be measured also by spectrophotometry technique. The Alanine gel dosimeter was developed at IPEN. The alanine is an amino acid and tissue equivalent material that presents significant improvement on previous alanine dosimetry systems. The addition of Alanine increases the production of ferric ions in the solution. This work aims to study the dose rate dependence of photon clinical beams radiation on the alanine gel dosimeter optical response, as well as the response repeatability and gel production reproducibility, since this property is very important for characterization and standardization of any dosimeter. (author)

  17. Heart rate response to post-learning stress predicts memory consolidation.

    Larra, Mauro F; Schulz, André; Schilling, Thomas M; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Best, Daniel; Kozik, Bartlomiej; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Stressful experiences are often well remembered, an effect that has been explained by beta-adrenergic influences on memory consolidation. Here, we studied the impact of stress induced heart rate (HR) responses on memory consolidation in a post-learning stress paradigm. 206 male and female participants saw 52 happy and angry faces immediately before being exposed to the Cold Pressor Test or a non-stressful control procedure. Memory for the faces and their respective expression was tested twice, after 30 min and on the next day. High HR responders (in comparison to low HR responders as well as to the non-stressful control group) showed enhanced recognition memory one day after learning. Our results show that beta-adrenergic activation elicited shortly after learning enhances memory consolidation and that the stress induced HR response is a predictor for this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving survey response rates from parents in school-based research using a multi-level approach.

    Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Sciberras, Emma; Efron, Daryl; Anderson, Vicki; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    While schools can provide a comprehensive sampling frame for community-based studies of children and their families, recruitment is challenging. Multi-level approaches which engage multiple school stakeholders have been recommended but few studies have documented their effects. This paper compares the impact of a standard versus enhanced engagement approach on multiple indicators of recruitment: parent response rates, response times, reminders required and sample characteristics. Parents and teachers were distributed a brief screening questionnaire as a first step for recruitment to a longitudinal study, with two cohorts recruited in consecutive years (cohort 1 2011, cohort 2 2012). For cohort 2, additional engagement strategies included the use of pre-notification postcards, improved study materials, and recruitment progress graphs provided to school staff. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine cohort differences. Compared to cohort 1, a higher proportion of cohort 2 parents responded to the survey (76% versus 69%; p value of investing in a relatively simple multi-level strategy to maximise parent response rates, and potentially reduce recruitment time and costs.

  19. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Zebis, M K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young......-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force....... males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from...

  20. Temperature response of denitrification rate and greenhouse gas production in agricultural river marginal wetland soils.

    Bonnett, S A F; Blackwell, M S A; Leah, R; Cook, V; O'Connor, M; Maltby, E

    2013-05-01

    Soils are predicted to exhibit significant feedback to global warming via the temperature response of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. However, the temperature response of hydromorphic wetland soils is complicated by confounding factors such as oxygen (O2 ), nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon (C). We examined the effect of a temperature gradient (2-25 °C) on denitrification rates and net nitrous oxide (N2 O), methane (CH4 ) production and heterotrophic respiration in mineral (Eutric cambisol and Fluvisol) and organic (Histosol) soil types in a river marginal landscape of the Tamar catchment, Devon, UK, under non-flooded and flooded with enriched NO3- conditions. It was hypothesized that the temperature response is dependent on interactions with NO3--enriched flooding, and the physicochemical conditions of these soil types. Denitrification rate (mean, 746 ± 97.3 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ), net N2 O production (mean, 180 ± 26.6 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) and net CH4 production (mean, 1065 ± 183 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) were highest in the organic Histosol, with higher organic matter, ammonium and moisture, and lower NO3- concentrations. Heterotrophic respiration (mean, 127 ± 4.6 mg m(-2)  h(-1) ) was not significantly different between soil types and dominated total GHG (CO2 eq) production in all soil types. Generally, the temperature responses of denitrification rate and net N2 O production were exponential, whilst net CH4 production was unresponsive, possibly due to substrate limitation, and heterotrophic respiration was exponential but limited in summer at higher temperatures. Flooding with NO3- increased denitrification rate, net N2 O production and heterotrophic respiration, but a reduction in net CH4 production suggests inhibition of methanogenesis by NO3- or N2 O produced from denitrification. Implications for management and policy are that warming and flood events may promote microbial interactions in soil between distinct microbial communities and increase

  1. Seismicity rate surge on faults after shut-in: poroelastic response to fluid injection

    Chang, K. W.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface energy activities such as geological CO2 storage and wastewater injection require injecting large amounts of fluid into the subsurface, which will alter the states of pore pressure and stress in the storage formation. One of the main issues for injection-induced seismicity is the post shut-in increases in the seismicity rate, often observed in the fluid-injection operation sites. The rate surge can be driven by the following mechanisms: (1) pore-pressure propagation into distant faults after shut-in and (2) poroelastic stressing caused by well operations, depending on fault geometry, hydraulic and mechanical properties of the formation, and injection history. We simulate the aerial view of the target reservoir intersected by strike-slip faults, in which injection-induced pressure buildup encounters the faults directly. We examine the poroelastic response of the faults to fluid injection and perform a series of sensitivity tests considering: (1) permeability of the fault zone, (2) locations and the number of faults with respect to the injection point, and (3) well operations with varying the injection rate. Our analysis of the Coulomb stress change suggests that the sealing fault confines pressure diffusion which stabilizes or weakens the nearby conductive fault depending on the injection location. We perform the sensitivity test by changing injection scenarios (time-dependent rates), while keeping the total amount of injected fluids. Sensitivity analysis shows that gradual reduction of the injection rate minimizes the Coulomb stress change and the least seismicity rates are predicted. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525.

  2. Reduced firing rates of high threshold motor units in response to eccentric overload.

    Balshaw, Tom G; Pahar, Madhu; Chesham, Ross; Macgregor, Lewis J; Hunter, Angus M

    2017-01-01

    Acute responses of motor units were investigated during submaximal voluntary isometric tasks following eccentric overload (EO) and constant load (CL) knee extension resistance exercise. Ten healthy resistance-trained participants performed four experimental test sessions separated by 5 days over a 20 day period. Two sessions involved constant load and the other two used eccentric overload. EO and CL used both sessions for different target knee eccentric extension phases; one at 2 sec and the other at 4 sec. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and isometric trapezoid efforts for 10 sec at 70% MVC were completed before and after each intervention and decomposed electromyography was used to measure motor unit firing rate. The firing rate of later recruited, high-threshold motor units declined following the 2-sec EO but was maintained following 2sec CL (P motor units were maintained for both loading types following 4-sec extension phases. MVC and rate of force development where maintained following both EO and CL and 2 and 4 sec phases. This study demonstrates a slower firing rate of high-threshold motor units following fast eccentric overload while MVC was maintained. This suggests that there was a neuromuscular stimulus without cost to the force-generating capacity of the knee extensors. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  3. Radiation-induced attenuation in polarization maintaining fibers: low dose rate response, stress, and materials effects

    Gingerich, M.E.; Friebele, E.J.; Hickey, S.J.; Brambani, L.A.; Onstott, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The loss induced in polarization-maintaining (PM) fibers by low dose rate <0.01 Gy/h, where 1 Gy = 100 rads(Si) radiation exposure has been found to vary from <0.4 to ∼6 dB/km-10 Gy, depending on the wavelength of measurement and the fiber. Correlations have been established between low dose rate response and the ''permanent'' induced loss determined by fitting the recovery of the induced loss following high dose rate exposure to nth-order kinetics. Using this technique, both 0.85- and 1.3-μm PM fibers have been found which show virtually no permanent incremental loss and would therefore appear to be resistant to low dose rate radiation environments. The asymmetric stress inherent in PM fibers has been shown to reduce the permanent induced loss, while the recovery of the radiation-induced attenuation was found to be enhanced in fibers with Ge-F-doped silica clads

  4. γ irradiation with different dose rates induces different DNA damage responses in Petunia x hybrida cells.

    Donà, Mattia; Ventura, Lorenzo; Macovei, Anca; Confalonieri, Massimo; Savio, Monica; Giovannini, Annalisa; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2013-05-15

    In plants, there is evidence that different dose rate exposures to gamma (γ) rays can cause different biological effects. The dynamics of DNA damage accumulation and molecular mechanisms that regulate recovery from radiation injury as a function of dose rate are poorly explored. To highlight dose-rate dependent differences in DNA damage, single cell gel electrophoresis was carried out on regenerating Petunia x hybrida leaf discs exposed to LDR (total dose 50 Gy, delivered at 0.33 Gy min(-1)) and HDR (total doses 50 and 100 Gy, delivered at 5.15 Gy min(-1)) γ-ray in the 0-24h time period after treatments. Significant fluctuations of double strand breaks and different repair capacities were observed between treatments in the 0-4h time period following irradiation. Dose-rate-dependent changes in the expression of the PhMT2 and PhAPX genes encoding a type 2 metallothionein and the cytosolic isoform of ascorbate peroxidase, respectively, were detected by Quantitative RealTime-Polymerase Chain Reaction. The PhMT2 and PhAPX genes were significantly up-regulated (3.0- and 0.7-fold) in response to HDR. The results are discussed in light of the potential practical applications of LDR-based treatments in mutation breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate blunted p53 response

    Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.; Asakawa, I.; Tamamoto, T.; Yasumoto, J.; Yuki, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Tachibana, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We have studied whether the p53-centered signal transduction pathway induced by acute radiation is interfered with chronic pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate in human cultured cells and whole body of mice. In squamous cell carcinoma cells, we found that a challenge irradiation with X-ray immediately after chronic irradiation resulted in lower levels of p53 than those observed after the challenge irradiation alone. In addition, the induction of p53-centered apoptosis and the accumulation of its related proteins after the challenge irradiation were strongly correlated with the above-mentioned phenomena. In mouse spleen, the induction of apoptosis and the accumulation of p53 and Bax were observed dose-dependently at 12 h after a challenge irradiation. In contrast, we found significant suppression of them induced by challenge irradiation at a high dose-rate when mice were pre-irradiated with chronic irradiation at a low dose-rate. These findings suggest that chronic pre-irradiation suppressed the p53 function through radiation-induced p53-dependent signal transduction processes. There are numerous papers about p53 functions in apoptosis, radiosensitivity, genomic instability and cancer incidence in cultured cells or animals. According to our data and other findings, since p53 can prevent carcinogenesis, pre-irradiation at a low dose-rate might enhance the predisposition to cancer. Therefore, it is possible that different maximal permissible dose equivalents for the public populations are appropriate. Furthermore, concerning health of human beings, studies of the adaptive responses to radiation are quite important, because the radiation response strongly depends on experience of prior exposure to radiation

  6. Dynamic Response of AA2519 Aluminum Alloy under High Strain Rates

    Olasumboye, Adewale Taiwo

    Like others in the AA2000 series, AA2519 is a heat-treatable Al-Cu alloy. Its excellent ballistic properties and stress corrosion cracking resistance, combined with other properties, qualify it as a prime candidate for armored vehicle and aircraft applications. However, available data on its high strain-rate response remains limited. In this study, AA2519 aluminum alloy was investigated in three different temper conditions: T4, T6, and T8, to determine the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and dynamic deformation behavior of the material at high strain rates ranging within 1000 ≤ epsilon ≤ 4000 s-1. Split Hopkinson pressure bar integrated with digital image correlation system was used for mechanical response characterization. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. Results showed heterogeneous deformation in the three temper conditions. It was observed that dynamic behavior in each condition was dependent on strength properties due to the aging type controlling the strengthening precipitates produced and initial microstructure. At 1500 s -1, AA2519-T6 exhibited peak dynamic yield strength and flow stress of 509 and 667 MPa respectively, which are comparable with what were observed in T8 condition at higher rate of 3500 s-1 but AA2519-T4 showed the least strength and flow stress properties. Early stress collapse, dynamic strain aging, and higher susceptibility to shear band formation and fracture were observed in the T6 condition within the selected range of high strain rates. The alloy's general mode of damage evolution was by dispersoid particle nucleation, shearing and cracking.

  7. A comparative analysis of signal processing methods for motion-based rate responsive pacing.

    Greenhut, S E; Shreve, E A; Lau, C P

    1996-08-01

    Pacemakers that augment heart rate (HR) by sensing body motion have been the most frequently prescribed rate responsive pacemakers. Many comparisons between motion-based rate responsive pacemaker models have been published. However, conclusions regarding specific signal processing methods used for rate response (e.g., filters and algorithms) can be affected by device-specific features. To objectively compare commonly used motion sensing filters and algorithms, acceleration and ECG signals were recorded from 16 normal subjects performing exercise and daily living activities. Acceleration signals were filtered (1-4 or 15-Hz band-pass), then processed using threshold crossing (TC) or integration (IN) algorithms creating four filter/algorithm combinations. Data were converted to an acceleration indicated rate and compared to intrinsic HR using root mean square difference (RMSd) and signed RMSd. Overall, the filters and algorithms performed similarly for most activities. The only differences between filters were for walking at an increasing grade (1-4 Hz superior to 15-Hz) and for rocking in a chair (15-Hz superior to 1-4 Hz). The only differences between algorithms were for bicycling (TC superior to IN), walking at an increasing grade (IN superior to TC), and holding a drill (IN superior to TC). Performance of the four filter/algorithm combinations was also similar over most activities. The 1-4/IN (filter [Hz]/algorithm) combination performed best for walking at a grade, while the 15/TC combination was best for bicycling. However, the 15/TC combination tended to be most sensitive to higher frequency artifact, such as automobile driving, downstairs walking, and hand drilling. Chair rocking artifact was highest for 1-4/IN. The RMSd for bicycling and upstairs walking were large for all combinations, reflecting the nonphysiological nature of the sensor. The 1-4/TC combination demonstrated the least intersubject variability, was the only filter/algorithm combination

  8. Analysis and modeling of dry matter production rate by soybean [Glycine max] community: Curvilinear response to radiation intensity

    Sameshima, R.

    1996-01-01

    The linear relationship between the amount of absorbed radiation and dry matter production by crop communities has long been known, and the proportionality constant between them is known as the radiation use efficiency (RUE). To analyze and predict crop production using RUE, the assumption is often made that RUE is not sensitive to radiation intensity and that dry matter production rate (DMPR) is a linear function of radiation intensity.However, there is evidence in opposition to this assumption, including reports of increasing RUE in shade tests, and hyperbolic response of photosynthetic rate to radiation intensity. The following model was developed and used to analyze the response of DMPR and RUE to daily radiation R S : DMPR = DMPR max (R S ) * g(α) where DMPR max (R S ) is the DMPR of a hypothetical soybean community absorbing all radiation, and g(α) represents the effect of radiation absorptivity (α). A hyperbolic curve and a straight line were employed for DMPR max (R S ) and g(α), respectively. Field experimental data including shade tests were used to determine the parameters for the model. Two sets of parameters were required to cover the entire experimental period. DMPR max (R S ) had an apparent curvilinear relationship with R S . The model successfully described dry matter production under successive low radiation conditions, which could not be estimated by a model with RUE insensitive to radiation. (author)

  9. Subjective and objective measurement of the intelligibility of synthesized speech impaired by the very low bit rate STANAG 4591 codec including packet loss

    Počta, P.; Beerends, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the intelligibility of speech coded by the STANAG 4591 standard codec, including packet loss, using synthesized speech input. Both subjective and objective assessments are used. It is shown that this codec significantly degrades intelligibility when compared to a standard

  10. Autonomic responses to heat pain: Heart rate, skin conductance, and their relation to verbal ratings and stimulus intensity.

    Loggia, Marco L; Juneau, Mylène; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2011-03-01

    In human pain experiments, as well as in clinical settings, subjects are often asked to assess pain using scales (eg, numeric rating scales). Although most subjects have little difficulty in using these tools, some lack the necessary basic cognitive or motor skills (eg, paralyzed patients). Thus, the identification of appropriate nonverbal measures of pain has significant clinical relevance. In this study, we assessed heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and verbal ratings in 39 healthy male subjects during the application of twelve 6-s heat stimuli of different intensities on the subjects' left forearm. Both HR and SC increased with more intense painful stimulation. However, HR but not SC, significantly correlated with pain ratings at the group level, suggesting that HR may be a better predictor of between-subject differences in pain than is SC. Conversely, changes in SC better predicted variations in ratings within a given individual, suggesting that it is more sensitive to relative changes in perception. The differences in findings derived from between- and within-subject analyses may result from greater within-subject variability in HR. We conclude that at least for male subjects, HR provides a better predictor of pain perception than SC, but that data should be averaged over several stimulus presentations to achieve consistent results. Nevertheless, variability among studies, and the indication that gender of both the subject and experimenter could influence autonomic results, lead us to advise caution in using autonomic or any other surrogate measures to infer pain in individuals who cannot adequately report their perception. Skin conductance is more sensitive to detect within-subject perceptual changes, but heart rate appears to better predict pain ratings at the group level. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Increasing sync rate of pulse-coupled oscillators via phase response function design: theory and application to wireless networks.

    Wang, Yongqiang; Núñez, Felipe; Doyle, Francis J

    2012-07-25

    This paper addresses the synchronization rate of weakly connected pulse-coupled oscillators (PCOs). We prove that besides coupling strength, the phase response function is also a determinant of synchronization rate. Inspired by the result, we propose to increase the synchronization rate of PCOs by designing the phase response function. This has important significance in PCO-based clock synchronization of wireless networks. By designing the phase response function, synchronization rate is increased even under a fixed transmission power. Given that energy consumption in synchronization is determined by the product of synchronization time and transformation power, the new strategy reduces energy consumption in clock synchronization. QualNet experiments confirm the theoretical results.

  12. Development of a kinetic model, including rate constant estimations, on iodine and caesium behaviour in the primary circuit of LWR's under accident conditions

    Alonso, A.; Buron, J.M.; Fernandez, S.

    1991-07-01

    In this report, a kinetic model has been developed with the aim to try to reproduce the chemical phenomena that take place in a flowing system containing steam, hydrogen and iodine and caesium vapours. The work is divided into two different parts. The first part consists in the estimation, through the Activited Complex Theory, of the reaction rate constants, for the chosen reactions, and the development of the kinetic model based on the concept of ideal tubular chemical reactor. The second part deals with the application of such model to several cases, which were taken from the Phase B 'Scoping Calculations' of the Phebus-FP Project (sequence AB) and the SFD-ST and SFD1.1 experiments. The main conclusion obtained from this work is that the assumption of instantaneous equilibrium could be inacurrate in order to estimate the iodine and caesium species distribution under severe accidents conditions

  13. Tiotropium improves lung function, exacerbation rate, and asthma control, independent of baseline characteristics including age, degree of airway obstruction, and allergic status

    Kerstjens, Huib A M; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Tashkin, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    performed in parallel in patients with severe symptomatic asthma. Exploratory subgroup analyses of peak forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), trough FEV1, time to first severe exacerbation, time to first episode of asthma worsening, and seven-question Asthma Control Questionnaire responder rate were......BACKGROUND: Many patients with asthma remain symptomatic despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with or without long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs). Tiotropium add-on to ICS plus a LABA has been shown to improve lung function and reduce exacerbation risk in patients with symptomatic...... asthma. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the efficacy of tiotropium add-on therapy is dependent on patients' baseline characteristics. METHODS: Two randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, twin trials (NCT00772538 and NCT00776984) of once-daily tiotropium Respimat(®) 5 μg add-on to ICS plus a LABA were...

  14. Evaluation of treatment response in depression studies using a Bayesian parametric cure rate model.

    Santen, Gijs; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2008-10-01

    Efficacy trials with antidepressant drugs often fail to show significant treatment effect even though efficacious treatments are investigated. This failure can, amongst other factors, be attributed to the lack of sensitivity of the statistical method as well as of the endpoints to pharmacological activity. For regulatory purposes the most widely used efficacy endpoint is still the mean change in HAM-D score at the end of the study, despite evidence from literature showing that the HAM-D scale might not be a sensitive tool to assess drug effect and that changes from baseline at the end of treatment may not reflect the extent of response. In the current study, we evaluate the prospect of applying a Bayesian parametric cure rate model (CRM) to analyse antidepressant effect in efficacy trials with paroxetine. The model is based on a survival approach, which allows for a fraction of surviving patients indefinitely after completion of treatment. Data was extracted from GlaxoSmithKline's clinical databases. Response was defined as a 50% change from baseline HAM-D at any assessment time after start of therapy. Survival times were described by a log-normal distribution and drug effect was parameterised as a covariate on the fraction of non-responders. The model was able to fit the data from different studies accurately and results show that response to treatment does not lag for two weeks, as is mythically believed. In conclusion, we demonstrate how parameterisation of a survival model can be used to characterise treatment response in depression trials. The method contrasts with the long-established snapshot on changes from baseline, as it incorporates the time course of response throughout treatment.

  15. Cortical Network Models of Firing Rates in the Resting and Active States Predict BOLD Responses.

    Maxwell R Bennett

    Full Text Available Measurements of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals have produced some surprising observations. One is that their amplitude is proportional to the entire activity in a region of interest and not just the fluctuations in this activity. Another is that during sleep and anesthesia the average BOLD correlations between regions of interest decline as the activity declines. Mechanistic explanations of these phenomena are described here using a cortical network model consisting of modules with excitatory and inhibitory neurons, taken as regions of cortical interest, each receiving excitatory inputs from outside the network, taken as subcortical driving inputs in addition to extrinsic (intermodular connections, such as provided by associational fibers. The model shows that the standard deviation of the firing rate is proportional to the mean frequency of the firing when the extrinsic connections are decreased, so that the mean BOLD signal is proportional to both as is observed experimentally. The model also shows that if these extrinsic connections are decreased or the frequency of firing reaching the network from the subcortical driving inputs is decreased, or both decline, there is a decrease in the mean firing rate in the modules accompanied by decreases in the mean BOLD correlations between the modules, consistent with the observed changes during NREM sleep and under anesthesia. Finally, the model explains why a transient increase in the BOLD signal in a cortical area, due to a transient subcortical input, gives rises to responses throughout the cortex as observed, with these responses mediated by the extrinsic (intermodular connections.

  16. A Biochemist's View of Ecosystem Rates and their Response to Changing Temperature

    Arcus, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    Enzyme kinetics lie at the heart of biochemistry and the Michaelis-Menten equation that defines the relationship between substrate and rate is over 100 years old. About 80 years ago Eyring and Polyani formulated Transistion State Theory (TST) which describes the temperature-dependence of chemical reaction rates and the precise relationship between activation energy and the rate. TST provided a robust theoretical foundation for the Arrhenius equation and together, these equations are the foundation equations for the biochemist. Can these equations provide any insights into rates at larger scales, such as organism growth rates and those rates that interest ecosystem scientists (e.g. heterotrophic respiration, gross primary production)? Let us begin by considering a microbial cell. Microbial growth (i.e. cell division) requires the coordinated kinetics of thousands of enzymes including DNA/RNA polymerases, ribosomes, biosynthetic enzymes - all under a regime of highly complex regulatory effects. There is no a priori reason to expect that Michaelis-Menten kinetics and TST will adequately describe this vastly complex process. Indeed, Lloyd and Taylor showed 23 years ago that soil respiration is not well described by the Arrhenius function. More recently, Heskel and colleagues showed that leaf respiration is also not well described by the Arrhenius function. It is the same case for rates of photosynthesis. Despite this failure of the basic equations of biochemistry to map to biological rates at greater scales, what insights can biochemistry provide to ecosystem science? As nearly all of biological metabolism is mediated through enzyme kinetics, I will begin with the Michaelis-Menten equation under regimes of low and high substrate concentrations. This simplified view can provide surprising insights into processes at larger scales. I will also consider the relationship between the activation energy and the reaction rate. Many, many ecosystem-rate papers focus on the

  17. Chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia blunts heart rate responses and alters neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons.

    Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Jameson, Heather; Dergacheva, Olga; Jain, Vivek; Alhusayyen, Mona; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-07-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea experience chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia (CIHH) during sleep that elicit sympathetic overactivity and diminished parasympathetic activity to the heart, leading to hypertension and depressed baroreflex sensitivity. The parasympathetic control of heart rate arises from pre-motor cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) located in nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX). The mechanisms underlying diminished vagal control of heart rate were investigated by studying the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and neurotransmission to CVNs evoked by acute hypoxia-hypercapnia (H-H) and CIHH. In vivo telemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in adult rats during 4 weeks of CIHH exposure. Retrogradely labelled CVNs were identified in an in vitro brainstem slice preparation obtained from adult rats exposed either to air or CIHH for 4 weeks. Postsynaptic inhibitory or excitatory currents were recorded using whole cell voltage clamp techniques. Rats exposed to CIHH had increases in blood pressure, leading to hypertension, and blunted heart rate responses to acute H-H. CIHH induced an increase in GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission to CVNs in NA and DMNX, respectively; and a reduction in glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs in both nuclei. CIHH blunted the bradycardia evoked by acute H-H and abolished the acute H-H evoked inhibition of GABAergic transmission while enhancing glycinergic neurotransmission to CVNs in NA. These changes with CIHH inhibit CVNs and vagal outflow to the heart, both in acute and chronic exposures to H-H, resulting in diminished levels of cardioprotective parasympathetic activity to the heart as seen in OSA patients. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  18. Heart-Rate Recovery After Warm-up in Swimming: A Useful Predictor of Training Heart-Rate Response?

    Ganzevles, Sander P M; de Haan, Arnold; Beek, Peter J; Daanen, Hein A M; Truijens, Martin J

    2017-07-01

    For training to be optimal, daily training load has to be adapted to the momentary status of the individual athlete, which is often difficult to establish. Therefore, the current study investigated the predictive value of heart-rate recovery (HRR) during a standardized warm-up for training load. Training load was quantified by the variation in heart rate during standardized training in competitive swimmers. Eight female and 5 male Dutch national-level swimmers participated in the study. They all performed 3 sessions consisting of a 300-m warm-up test and a 10 × 100-m training protocol. Both protocols were swum in front crawl at individually standardized velocities derived from an incremental step test. Velocity was related to 75% and 85% heart-rate reserve (% HR res ) for the warm-up and training, respectively. Relative HRR during the first 60 s after the warm-up (HR Rw-up ) and differences between the actual and intended heart rate for the warm-up and the training (ΔHR w-up and ΔHR tr ) were determined. No significant relationship between HRR w-up and ΔHR tr was found (F 1,37 = 2.96, P = .09, R 2 = .07, SEE = 4.65). There was considerable daily variation in ΔHR tr at a given swimming velocity (73-93% HR res ). ΔHR w-up and ΔHR tr were clearly related (F 1,37 = 74.31, P warm-up does not predict heart rate during a directly subsequent and standardized training session. Instead, heart rate during the warm-up protocol seems a promising alternative for coaches to make daily individual-specific adjustments to training programs.

  19. System analysis of the dynamic response of the coronary circulation to a sudden change in heart rate

    Dankelman, J.; Stassen, H. G.; Spaan, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    In this study the response of driving pressure/flow ration on an abrupt change in heart rate was analysed. The difference between the response obtained with constant pressure and constant flow perfusion was also studied. The responses show a fast initial reversed phase followed by a slow phase

  20. Response surface modelling of tool electrode wear rate and material removal rate in micro electrical discharge machining of Inconel 718

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2017-01-01

    conductivity and high strength causing it extremely difficult tomachine. Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining (Micro-EDM) is a non-conventional method that has a potential toovercome these restrictions for machining of Inconel 718. Response Surface Method (RSM) was used for modelling thetool Electrode Wear...

  1. Heart Rate Variability Responses of Individuals With and Without Saline-Induced Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Vena, Daniel; Bradley, T Douglas; Millar, Philip J; Floras, John S; Rubianto, Jonathan; Gavrilovic, Bojan; Perger, Elisa; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2018-03-30

    Postoperative development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been attributed to the fluid overloaded state of patients during the postoperative period. In this context, alterations in cardiac autonomic regulation caused by OSA may explain the increased postoperative risk for adverse cardiovascular events. This study tests the hypothesis that individuals with fluid overload-induced OSA will experience autonomic dysregulation, compared to those without fluid overload-induced OSA. Twenty-one normotensive, nonobese (mean body mass index 24.5 kg/m2) males (mean age 37 years) underwent a sleep study. Participants were randomly assigned to infusion with saline during sleep either at the minimum rate (control) or as a bolus of 22 mL/kg body weight (intervention). Participants were blinded to the intervention and crossed over to the other study arm after 1 week. Measures of heart rate variability were calculated from electrocardiography recordings presaline and postsaline infusion in the intervention arm. Heart rate variability measures computed were: standard deviation of the RR interval; root mean square of successive differences; low-frequency, high-frequency, and total power; and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power. Although presaline infusion values were similar, postsaline infusion values of the standard deviation of the RR interval and high-frequency power were lower in the group whose apnea-hypopnea index increased in response to saline infusion, compared to the group whose apnea-hypopnea index did not increase in response to saline infusion ( P variability, consistent with vagal withdrawal. Future work should explore autonomic dysregulation in the postoperative period and its association with adverse events. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Ab initio study of the positronation of the CaO and SrO molecules including calculation of annihilation rates.

    Buenker, Robert J; Liebermann, Heinz-Peter

    2012-07-15

    Ab initio multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction calculations have been performed to compute potential curves for ground and excited states of the CaO and SrO molecules and their positronic complexes, e(+)CaO, and e(+)SrO. The adiabatic dissociation limit for the (2)Σ(+) lowest states of the latter systems consists of the positive metal ion ground state (M(+)) and the OPs complex (e(+)O(-)), although the lowest energy limit is thought to be e(+)M + O. Good agreement is found between the calculated and experimental spectroscopic constants for the neutral diatomics wherever available. The positron affinity of the closed-shell X (1)Σ(+) ground states of both systems is found to lie in the 0.16-0.19 eV range, less than half the corresponding values for the lighter members of the alkaline earth monoxide series, BeO and MgO. Annihilation rates (ARs) have been calculated for all four positronated systems for the first time. The variation with bond distance is generally similar to what has been found earlier for the alkali monoxide series of positronic complexes, falling off gradually from the OPs AR value at their respective dissociation limits. The e(+)SrO system shows some exceptional behavior, however, with its AR value reaching a minimum at a relatively large bond distance and then rising to more than twice the OPs value close to its equilibrium distance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of energy expenditure and heart rate responses between three commercial group fitness classes.

    Wickham, James B; Mullen, Nicholas J; Whyte, Douglas G; Cannon, Jack

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the energy expenditure and heart rate responses between three commercial group fitness classes (group resistance exercise [PUMP]; indoor stationary cycling [RIDE]; and step aerobics [STEP]). One-Way Repeated Measures incorporating a Latin Square Design for class randomisation. Ten participants (5 males and 5 females) completed each group fitness class in random order with energy expenditure and heart rate determined using an Actiheart monitor. STEP and RIDE produced significantly (pheart rates (HR avg ) (85.8±5.1% and 86.4±4.3% of HR max , respectively) compared to PUMP (73.7±7% of HR max ). HR peak was also significantly (pexpenditure (TEE), both absolute and relative, were significantly (pexpenditure was highly comparable between RIDE and STEP, which suggests these group fitness classes are more effective for developing cardiovascular fitness and assisting with weight management compared with group resistance exercise classes when performed on a regular basis. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tumor Volume Reduction Rate Measured by Magnetic Resonance Volumetry Correlated With Pathologic Tumor Response of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    Yeo, Seung-Gu; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Hong, Yong Sang; Chang, Hee Jin; Park, Ji Won; Lim, Seok-Byung; Choi, Hyo Seong; Jeong, Seung-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlates with the pathologic tumor response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study included 405 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3-T4) who had undergone preoperative CRT and radical proctectomy. The tumor volume was measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry before and after CRT but before surgery. We analyzed the correlation between the TVRR and the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and tumor regression grade (TRG). Downstaging was defined as ypStage 0-I (ypT0-T2N0M0), and the TRG proposed by Dworak et al. was used. Results: The mean TVRR was 65.0% ± 22.3%. Downstaging and complete regression occurred in 167 (41.2%) and 58 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The TVRRs according to ypT classification (ypT0-T2 vs. ypT3-T4), ypN classification (ypN0 vs. ypN1-N2), downstaging (ypStage 0-I vs. ypStage II-III), good regression (TRG 3-4 vs. TRG 1-2), and complete regression (TRG 4 vs. TRG 1-3) were all significantly different (p 80%), the rates of ypT0-T2, ypN0, downstaging, and good regression were all significantly greater for patients with a TVRR of ≥60%, as was the complete regression rate for patients with a TVRR >80% (p <.05). Conclusion: The TVRR measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlated significantly with the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and TRG after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer.

  5. Effect of dietary restriction on immune response of laboratory mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate.

    Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    To study whether dietary restriction (DR; 70% of ad lib. feeding)-elicited immunosuppression results from the trade-off between the costs of mounting an immune response and the metabolic costs of maintenance, we subjected mice from two divergent lines selected for high basal metabolic rate (H-BMR) and low BMR (L-BMR) to 4 wk of DR and then challenged them with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen. Those line types differ genetically with respect to BMR and to the mass of metabolically expensive internal organs, which are larger in H-BMR mice. In mice of both line types, DR resulted in a significant reduction of body mass, an immune response, and the downsizing of spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, heart, and kidneys but not small intestines. DR resulted in a greater reduction of the spleen and lymph nodes in mice of the H-BMR line type, whereas the thymus was more affected in L-BMR line type. In contrast, immunization resulted in an increase of liver mass in DR mice of both line types. A comparison of the results of current and earlier studies on the same mouse line types suggests that metabolic trade-offs involving the costs of an immune response are more apparent when animals are forced to increase energy demands (e.g., by cold exposure) compared to when energy demands are decreased through DR. Our findings also suggest that divelrgent selection on BMR resulted in between-line-type differences in T-cell- and B-cell-mediated types of an immune response. More generally, our results indicate that production of a wide repertoire of antibodies is not correlated with high BMR.

  6. Biomarkers’ Responses to Reductive Dechlorination Rates and Oxygen Stress in Bioaugmentation Culture KB-1TM

    Gretchen L. W. Heavner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Using mRNA transcript levels for key functional enzymes as proxies for the organohalide respiration (OHR rate, is a promising approach for monitoring bioremediation populations in situ at chlorinated solvent-contaminated field sites. However, to date, no correlations have been empirically derived for chlorinated solvent respiring, Dehalococcoides mccartyi (DMC containing, bioaugmentation cultures. In the current study, genome-wide transcriptome and proteome data were first used to confirm the most highly expressed OHR-related enzymes in the bioaugmentation culture, KB-1TM, including several reductive dehalogenases (RDases and a Ni-Fe hydrogenase, Hup. Different KB-1™ DMC strains could be resolved at the RNA and protein level through differences in the sequence of a common RDase (DET1545-like homologs and differences in expression of their vinyl chloride-respiring RDases. The dominant strain expresses VcrA, whereas the minor strain utilizes BvcA. We then used quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR as a targeted approach for quantifying transcript copies in the KB-1TM consortium operated under a range of TCE respiration rates in continuously-fed, pseudo-steady-state reactors. These candidate biomarkers from KB-1TM demonstrated a variety of trends in terms of transcript abundance as a function of respiration rate over the range: 7.7 × 10−12 to 5.9 × 10−10 microelectron equivalents per cell per hour (μeeq/cell∙h. Power law trends were observed between the respiration rate and transcript abundance for the main DMC RDase (VcrA and the hydrogenase HupL (R2 = 0.83 and 0.88, respectively, but not transcripts for 16S rRNA or three other RDases examined: TceA, BvcA or the RDase DET1545 homologs in KB1TM. Overall, HupL transcripts appear to be the most robust activity biomarker across multiple DMC strains and in mixed communities including DMC co-cultures such as KB1TM. The addition of oxygen induced cell stress that caused respiration

  7. Biomarkers' Responses to Reductive Dechlorination Rates and Oxygen Stress in Bioaugmentation Culture KB-1TM.

    Heavner, Gretchen L W; Mansfeldt, Cresten B; Debs, Garrett E; Hellerstedt, Sage T; Rowe, Annette R; Richardson, Ruth E

    2018-02-08

    Using mRNA transcript levels for key functional enzymes as proxies for the organohalide respiration (OHR) rate, is a promising approach for monitoring bioremediation populations in situ at chlorinated solvent-contaminated field sites. However, to date, no correlations have been empirically derived for chlorinated solvent respiring, Dehalococcoides mccartyi (DMC) containing, bioaugmentation cultures. In the current study, genome-wide transcriptome and proteome data were first used to confirm the most highly expressed OHR-related enzymes in the bioaugmentation culture, KB-1 TM , including several reductive dehalogenases (RDases) and a Ni-Fe hydrogenase, Hup. Different KB-1™ DMC strains could be resolved at the RNA and protein level through differences in the sequence of a common RDase (DET1545-like homologs) and differences in expression of their vinyl chloride-respiring RDases. The dominant strain expresses VcrA, whereas the minor strain utilizes BvcA. We then used quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) as a targeted approach for quantifying transcript copies in the KB-1 TM consortium operated under a range of TCE respiration rates in continuously-fed, pseudo-steady-state reactors. These candidate biomarkers from KB-1 TM demonstrated a variety of trends in terms of transcript abundance as a function of respiration rate over the range: 7.7 × 10 -12 to 5.9 × 10 -10 microelectron equivalents per cell per hour (μeeq/cell∙h). Power law trends were observed between the respiration rate and transcript abundance for the main DMC RDase (VcrA) and the hydrogenase HupL (R² = 0.83 and 0.88, respectively), but not transcripts for 16S rRNA or three other RDases examined: TceA, BvcA or the RDase DET1545 homologs in KB1 TM . Overall, HupL transcripts appear to be the most robust activity biomarker across multiple DMC strains and in mixed communities including DMC co-cultures such as KB1 TM . The addition of oxygen induced cell stress that caused respiration rates

  8. Lower responsiveness of canopy evapotranspiration rate than of leaf stomatal conductance to open-air CO2 elevation in rice.

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Okada, Masumi

    2013-08-01

    An elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) can reduce stomatal conductance of leaves for most plant species, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, few studies have quantified seasonal changes in the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on canopy evapotranspiration, which integrates the response of stomatal conductance of individual leaves with other responses, such as leaf area expansion, changes in leaf surface temperature, and changes in developmental stages, in field conditions. We conducted a field experiment to measure seasonal changes in stomatal conductance of the uppermost leaves and in the evapotranspiration, transpiration, and evaporation rates using a lysimeter method. The study was conducted for flooded rice under open-air CO2 elevation. Stomatal conductance decreased by 27% under elevated [CO2 ], averaged throughout the growing season, and evapotranspiration decreased by an average of 5% during the same period. The decrease in daily evapotranspiration caused by elevated [CO2 ] was more significantly correlated with air temperature and leaf area index (LAI) rather than with other parameters of solar radiation, days after transplanting, vapor-pressure deficit and FAO reference evapotranspiration. This indicates that higher air temperatures, within the range from 16 to 27 °C, and a larger LAI, within the range from 0 to 4 m(2)  m(-2) , can increase the magnitude of the decrease in evapotranspiration rate caused by elevated [CO2 ]. The crop coefficient (i.e. the evapotranspiration rate divided by the FAO reference evapotranspiration rate) was 1.24 at ambient [CO2 ] and 1.17 at elevated [CO2 ]. This study provides the first direct measurement of the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on rice canopy evapotranspiration under open-air conditions using the lysimeter method, and the results will improve future predictions of water use in rice fields. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial

    Tsedek Irit

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136. Methods/Design The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65–88 with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training

  10. Heart rate and lactate response of junior handball players (Under 18 during competitive match play

    Subir Gupta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study highlights the heart rate (HR and blood lactate (La response of junior handball players of two positions – wings and backs, during competitive matches. Methods: Heart rate and blood lactate of twelve handball players – 6 Backs (B and 6 Wingers (W] – were recorded in quarter- and semifinal matches of the tournament. HR was recorded continuously by heart rate telemeter whereas La was measured at rest, after warm up and immediately after the end of first- and second halves of the matches. Results: Average HR and Maximum Heart Rate Reserve (MHRR of the players were similar in each half of play. No significant difference (p<0.05 in average HR and MHRR were observed between B (169±17.5 beats/min and 74.3±9.4% and W (169.5±16.3 beats/min and 74.1±8.5%. W and B played about 1/5th of their playing time above the Anerobic Threshold level. Average HR of the players in each 5 min of play could vary significantly but no such difference per 15 min of play was found. Lactate of W and B after the first half of play were 7.4±1.6 and 7.2±1.5 mM and after the end of the matches were 7.9±0.4 and 7.6±1.4 mM respectively. No significant difference in La was found between W and B. Conclusion: (a Handball play is a high intensity game, (b the workload does not vary between W and B, (c the intensity of play could vary in every 5 min of play but there is no difference in average intensity for each 15 min, and (d handball is played aerobically for majority of the time.

  11. The therapeutic effect of clinical trials: understanding placebo response rates in clinical trials – A secondary analysis

    Walach Harald

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Placebo response rates in clinical trials vary considerably and are observed frequently. For new drugs it can be difficult to prove effectiveness superior to placebo. It is unclear what contributes to improvement in the placebo groups. We wanted to clarify, what elements of clinical trials determine placebo variability. Methods We analysed a representative sample of 141 published long-term trials (randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled; duration > 12 weeks to find out what study characteristics predict placebo response rates in various diseases. Correlational and regression analyses with study characteristics and placebo response rates were carried out. Results We found a high and significant correlation between placebo and treatment response rate across diseases (r = .78; p Conclusion Medication response rates and placebo response rates in clinical trials are highly correlated. Trial characteristics can explain some portion of the variance in placebo healing rates in RCTs. Placebo response in trials is only partially due to methodological artefacts and only partially dependent on the diagnoses treated.

  12. The effect of sampling rate and anti-aliasing filters on high-frequency response spectra

    Boore, David M.; Goulet, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The most commonly used intensity measure in ground-motion prediction equations is the pseudo-absolute response spectral acceleration (PSA), for response periods from 0.01 to 10 s (or frequencies from 0.1 to 100 Hz). PSAs are often derived from recorded ground motions, and these motions are usually filtered to remove high and low frequencies before the PSAs are computed. In this article we are only concerned with the removal of high frequencies. In modern digital recordings, this filtering corresponds at least to an anti-aliasing filter applied before conversion to digital values. Additional high-cut filtering is sometimes applied both to digital and to analog records to reduce high-frequency noise. Potential errors on the short-period (high-frequency) response spectral values are expected if the true ground motion has significant energy at frequencies above that of the anti-aliasing filter. This is especially important for areas where the instrumental sample rate and the associated anti-aliasing filter corner frequency (above which significant energy in the time series is removed) are low relative to the frequencies contained in the true ground motions. A ground-motion simulation study was conducted to investigate these effects and to develop guidance for defining the usable bandwidth for high-frequency PSA. The primary conclusion is that if the ratio of the maximum Fourier acceleration spectrum (FAS) to the FAS at a frequency fsaa corresponding to the start of the anti-aliasing filter is more than about 10, then PSA for frequencies above fsaa should be little affected by the recording process, because the ground-motion frequencies that control the response spectra will be less than fsaa . A second topic of this article concerns the resampling of the digital acceleration time series to a higher sample rate often used in the computation of short-period PSA. We confirm previous findings that sinc-function interpolation is preferred to the standard practice of using

  13. Macromolecular Rate Theory (MMRT) Provides a Thermodynamics Rationale to Underpin the Convergent Temperature Response in Plant Leaf Respiration

    Liang, L. L.; Arcus, V. L.; Heskel, M.; O'Sullivan, O. S.; Weerasinghe, L. K.; Creek, D.; Egerton, J. J. G.; Tjoelker, M. G.; Atkin, O. K.; Schipper, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Temperature is a crucial factor in determining the rates of ecosystem processes such as leaf respiration (R) - the flux of plant respired carbon dioxide (CO2) from leaves to the atmosphere. Generally, respiration rate increases exponentially with temperature as modelled by the Arrhenius equation, but a recent study (Heskel et al., 2016) showed a universally convergent temperature response of R using an empirical exponential/polynomial model whereby the exponent in the Arrhenius model is replaced by a quadratic function of temperature. The exponential/polynomial model has been used elsewhere to describe shoot respiration and plant respiration. What are the principles that underlie these empirical observations? Here, we demonstrate that macromolecular rate theory (MMRT), based on transition state theory for chemical kinetics, is equivalent to the exponential/polynomial model. We re-analyse the data from Heskel et al. 2016 using MMRT to show this equivalence and thus, provide an explanation based on thermodynamics, for the convergent temperature response of R. Using statistical tools, we also show the equivalent explanatory power of MMRT when compared to the exponential/polynomial model and the superiority of both of these models over the Arrhenius function. Three meaningful parameters emerge from MMRT analysis: the temperature at which the rate of respiration is maximum (the so called optimum temperature, Topt), the temperature at which the respiration rate is most sensitive to changes in temperature (the inflection temperature, Tinf) and the overall curvature of the log(rate) versus temperature plot (the so called change in heat capacity for the system, ). The latter term originates from the change in heat capacity between an enzyme-substrate complex and an enzyme transition state complex in enzyme-catalysed metabolic reactions. From MMRT, we find the average Topt and Tinf of R are 67.0±1.2 °C and 41.4±0.7 °C across global sites. The average curvature (average

  14. The effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy in common lower limb conditions: a systematic review including quantification of patient-rated pain reduction.

    Korakakis, Vasileios; Whiteley, Rodney; Tzavara, Alexander; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in treating Achilles tendinopathy (AT), greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), patellar tendinopathy (PT) and proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT). Systematic review. Randomised and non-randomised studies assessing ESWT in patients with AT, GTPS, MTSS, PT and PHT were included. Risk of bias and quality of studies were evaluated. Moderate-level evidence suggests (1) no difference between focused ESWT and placebo ESWT at short and mid-term in PT and (2) radial ESWT is superior to conservative treatment at short, mid and long term in PHT. Low-level evidence suggests that ESWT (1) is comparable to eccentric training, but superior to wait-and-see policy at 4 months in mid-portion AT; (2) is superior to eccentric training at 4 months in insertional AT; (3) less effective than corticosteroid injection at short term, but ESWT produced superior results at mid and long term in GTPS; (4) produced comparable results to control treatment at long term in GTPS; and (5) is superior to control conservative treatment at long term in PT. Regarding the rest of the results, there was only very low or no level of evidence. 13 studies showed high risk of bias largely due to methodology, blinding and reporting. Low level of evidence suggests that ESWT may be effective for some lower limb conditions in all phases of the rehabilitation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Adding Postal Follow-Up to a Web-Based Survey of Primary Care and Gastroenterology Clinic Physician Chiefs Improved Response Rates but not Response Quality or Representativeness.

    Partin, Melissa R; Powell, Adam A; Burgess, Diana J; Haggstrom, David A; Gravely, Amy A; Halek, Krysten; Bangerter, Ann; Shaukat, Aasma; Nelson, David B

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed whether postal follow-up to a web-based physician survey improves response rates, response quality, and representativeness. We recruited primary care and gastroenterology chiefs at 125 Veterans Affairs medical facilities to complete a 10-min web-based survey on colorectal cancer screening and diagnostic practices in 2010. We compared response rates, response errors, and representativeness in the primary care and gastroenterology samples before and after adding postal follow-up. Adding postal follow-up increased response rates by 20-25 percentage points; markedly greater increases than predicted from a third e-mail reminder. In the gastroenterology sample, the mean number of response errors made by web responders (0.25) was significantly smaller than the mean number made by postal responders (2.18), and web responders provided significantly longer responses to open-ended questions. There were no significant differences in these outcomes in the primary care sample. Adequate representativeness was achieved before postal follow-up in both samples, as indicated by the lack of significant differences between web responders and the recruitment population on facility characteristics. We conclude adding postal follow-up to this web-based physician leader survey improved response rates but not response quality or representativeness. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Dose-rate and humidity effects upon the gamma-radiation response of nylon-based radiachromic film dosimeters

    Gehringer, P.; Eschweiler, H.; Proksch, E.

    1979-10-01

    At dose-rates typical for 60 Co gamma irradiation sources, the radiation response of hexahydroxyethyl pararosaniline cyanide/ 50μm nylon radiachromic films is dependent upon dose-rate as well as upon the moisture content of the films, or the relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere, respectively. Under equilibrium moisture conditions, the response measured at 606 nm 24 hours after end of irradiation shows its highest dose-rate dependence at about 32 % r.h. A decrease in dose-rate from 2.8 to 0.039 Gy.s -1 results in a decrease in response by 17%. At higher humidities, the sensitivity of the film as well as the rate dependence decreases and at 86% r.h. no discernible dose-rate effect could be found. At lower humidities than 32% a flat maximum in response follows. At nominal 0% r.h. a second absorption band at 412 nm appears which is converted completely to an additional 606 nm absorption by exposure to a humid atmosphere. After that procedure the resultant response is somewhat lower than but shows almost the same dose-rate dependence as at 32% r.h. or else to eliminate the dose-rate effect by an extrapolation procedure based on the fact that the rate dependence vanishes at zero dose. (author)

  17. "The stone which the builders rejected...": Delay of reinforcement and response rate on fixed-interval and related schedules.

    Wearden, J H; Lejeune, Helga

    2006-02-28

    The article deals with response rates (mainly running and peak or terminal rates) on simple and on some mixed-FI schedules and explores the idea that these rates are determined by the average delay of reinforcement for responses occurring during the response periods that the schedules generate. The effects of reinforcement delay are assumed to be mediated by a hyperbolic delay of reinforcement gradient. The account predicts that (a) running rates on simple FI schedules should increase with increasing rate of reinforcement, in a manner close to that required by Herrnstein's equation, (b) improving temporal control during acquisition should be associated with increasing running rates, (c) two-valued mixed-FI schedules with equiprobable components should produce complex results, with peak rates sometimes being higher on the longer component schedule, and (d) that effects of reinforcement probability on mixed-FI should affect the response rate at the time of the shorter component only. All these predictions were confirmed by data, although effects in some experiments remain outside the scope of the model. In general, delay of reinforcement as a determinant of response rate on FI and related schedules (rather than temporal control on such schedules) seems a useful starting point for a more thorough analysis of some neglected questions about performance on FI and related schedules.

  18. Low Complexity Encoder of High Rate Irregular QC-LDPC Codes for Partial Response Channels

    IMTAWIL, V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available High rate irregular QC-LDPC codes based on circulant permutation matrices, for efficient encoder implementation, are proposed in this article. The structure of the code is an approximate lower triangular matrix. In addition, we present two novel efficient encoding techniques for generating redundant bits. The complexity of the encoder implementation depends on the number of parity bits of the code for the one-stage encoding and the length of the code for the two-stage encoding. The advantage of both encoding techniques is that few XOR-gates are used in the encoder implementation. Simulation results on partial response channels also show that the BER performance of the proposed code has gain over other QC-LDPC codes.

  19. Heart rate response during sleep in elderly patients after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    Krenk, Lene; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in the patients' home preoperatively, during hospitalization on the first postoperative night, and on the fourth postoperative night at home. HRR was reduced (P REM stage 2 sleep on the first postoperative night, and was still reduced on the fourth postoperative night compared...... to preoperative level (P = 0.01). HRR during arousal from REM sleep was not different between the preoperative and fourth postoperative night (P = 0.92), while this could not be determined on the first postoperative night where REM sleep disappeared. The reduced HRR during sleep arousal after major arthroplasty......Variability in heart rate response (HRR) can be used as a measure for autonomic nervous system function, which may influence sleep disturbances and the recovery phase after major surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic function by assessment of HRR during sleep arousals...

  20. High Strain Rate Response of 7055 Aluminum Alloy Subject to Square-spot Laser Shock Peening

    Sun, Rujian; Zhu, Ying; Li, Liuhe; Guo, Wei; Peng, Peng

    2017-12-01

    The influences of laser pulse energy and impact time on high strain rate response of 7055 aluminum alloy subject to square-spot laser shock peening (SLSP) were investigate. Microstructural evolution was characterized by OM, SEM and TEM. Microhardness distribution and in-depth residual stress in 15 J with one and two impacts and 25 J with one and two impacts were analyzed. Results show that the original rolling structures were significantly refined due to laser shock induced recrystallization. High density of microdefects was generated, such as dislocation tangles, dislocation wall and stacking faults. Subgrains and nanograins were induced in the surface layer, resulting in grain refinement in the near surface layer after SLSP. Compressive residual stresses with maximum value of more than -200 MPa and affected depths of more than 1 mm can be generated after SLSP. Impact time has more effectiveness than laser pulse energy in increasing the magnitude of residual stress and achieving thicker hardening layer.

  1. Presenting a multi-objective generation scheduling model for pricing demand response rate in micro-grid energy management

    Aghajani, G.R.; Shayanfar, H.A.; Shayeghi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Using DRPs to cover the uncertainties resulted from power generation by WT and PV. • Proposing the use of price-offer packages and amount of DR for implement DRPs. • Considering a multi-objective scheduling model and use of MOPSO algorithm. - Abstract: In this paper, a multi-objective energy management system is proposed in order to optimize micro-grid (MG) performance in a short-term in the presence of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) for wind and solar energy generation with a randomized natural behavior. Considering the existence of different types of customers including residential, commercial, and industrial consumers can participate in demand response programs. As with declare their interruptible/curtailable demand rate or select from among different proposed prices so as to assist the central micro-grid control in terms of optimizing micro-grid operation and covering energy generation uncertainty from the renewable sources. In this paper, to implement Demand Response (DR) schedules, incentive-based payment in the form of offered packages of price and DR quantity collected by Demand Response Providers (DRPs) is used. In the typical micro-grid, different technologies including Wind Turbine (WT), PhotoVoltaic (PV) cell, Micro-Turbine (MT), Full Cell (FC), battery hybrid power source and responsive loads are used. The simulation results are considered in six different cases in order to optimize operation cost and emission with/without DR. Considering the complexity and non-linearity of the proposed problem, Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) is utilized. Also, fuzzy-based mechanism and non-linear sorting system are applied to determine the best compromise considering the set of solutions from Pareto-front space. The numerical results represented the effect of the proposed Demand Side Management (DSM) scheduling model on reducing the effect of uncertainty obtained from generation power and predicted by WT and PV in a MG.

  2. Physiological demands of women's rugby union: time-motion analysis and heart rate response.

    Virr, Jody Lynn; Game, Alex; Bell, Gordon John; Syrotuik, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical demands of women's rugby union match play using time-motion analysis and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty-eight premier club level female rugby players, ages 18-34 years were videotaped and HRs monitored for a full match. Performances were coded into 12 different movement categories: 5 speeds of locomotion (standing, walking, jogging, striding, sprinting), 4 forms of intensive non-running exertion (ruck/maul/tackle, pack down, scrum, lift) and 3 discrete activities (kick, jump, open field tackle). The main results revealed that backs spend significantly more time sprinting and walking whereas forwards spend more time in intensive non-running exertion and jogging. Forwards also had a significantly higher total work frequency compared to the backs, but a higher total rest frequency compared to the backs. In terms of HR responses, forwards displayed higher mean HRs throughout the match and more time above 80% of their maximum HR than backs. In summary, women's rugby union is characterised by intermittent bursts of high-intensity activity, where forwards and backs have similar anaerobic energy demands, but different specific match demands.

  3. A novel multi-responsive polyampholyte composite hydrogel with excellent mechanical strength and rapid shrinking rate.

    Xu, Kun; Tan, Ying; Chen, Qiang; An, Huiyong; Li, Wenbo; Dong, Lisong; Wang, Pixin

    2010-05-15

    Series of hydrophilic core-shell microgels with cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) as core and poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) as shell are synthesized via surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. Then, the microgels are treated with a small amount of potassium persulfate (KPS) to generate free radicals on the amine nitrogens of PVAm, which subsequently initiate the graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA), acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC), and acrylamide (AAm) onto microgels to prepare multi-responsive composite hydrogels. The composite hydrogels consist of cross-linked ungrafted polyampholyte chains as the first network and microgels with grafted polyampholyte chains as graft point and second network and show surprising mechanical strength and rapid response rate. The investigation shows the compress strength of composite hydrogels is up to 17-30 MPa, which is 60-100 times higher than that of the hydrogel matrix. The composite hydrogel shows reversible switch of transmittance when traveling the lowest critical temperature (LCST) of microgels. When the composite hydrogel swollen in pH 2.86 solution at ambient condition is immersed into the pH 7.00 solution at 45 °C, a rapid dynamic shrinking can be observed. And the character time (τ) of shrinking dynamic of composite hydrogel is 251.9 min, which is less than that of hydrogel matrix (τ=2273.7 min). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cineradiographic Analysis of Mouse Postural Response to Alteration of Gravity and Jerk (Gravity Deceleration Rate

    Katsuya Hasegawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to maintain the body relative to the external environment is important for adaptation to altered gravity. However, the physiological limits for adaptation or the disruption of body orientation are not known. In this study, we analyzed postural changes in mice upon exposure to various low gravities. Male C57BL6/J mice (n = 6 were exposed to various gravity-deceleration conditions by customized parabolic flight-maneuvers targeting the partial-gravity levels of 0.60, 0.30, 0.15 and μ g (<0.001 g. Video recordings of postural responses were analyzed frame-by-frame by high-definition cineradiography and with exact instantaneous values of gravity and jerk. As a result, the coordinated extension of the neck, spine and hindlimbs was observed during the initial phase of gravity deceleration. Joint angles widened to 120%–200% of the reference g level, and the magnitude of the thoracic-curvature stretching was correlated with gravity and jerk, i.e., the gravity deceleration rate. A certain range of jerk facilitated mouse skeletal stretching efficiently, and a jerk of −0.3~−0.4 j (g/s induced the maximum extension of the thoracic-curvature. The postural response of animals to low gravity may undergo differential regulation by gravity and jerk.

  5. Dropout Rates and Response Times of an Occupation Search Tree in a Web Survey

    Tijdens Kea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Occupation is key in socioeconomic research. As in other survey modes, most web surveys use an open-ended question for occupation, though the absence of interviewers elicits unidentifiable or aggregated responses. Unlike other modes, web surveys can use a search tree with an occupation database. They are hardly ever used, but this may change due to technical advancements. This article evaluates a three-step search tree with 1,700 occupational titles, used in the 2010 multilingual WageIndicator web survey for UK, Belgium and Netherlands (22,990 observations. Dropout rates are high; in Step 1 due to unemployed respondents judging the question not to be adequate, and in Step 3 due to search tree item length. Median response times are substantial due to search tree item length, dropout in the next step and invalid occupations ticked. Overall the validity of the occupation data is rather good, 1.7-7.5% of the respondents completing the search tree have ticked an invalid occupation.

  6. Oxygen consumption and heart rate responses to isolated ballet exercise sets.

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Dos Santos Cunha, Giovani; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Follmer, Bruno; Krause, Mauricio; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Ballet stage performances are associated with higher cardiorespiratory demand than rehearsals and classes. Hence, new interest is emerging to create periodized training that enhances dancers' fitness while minimizing delayed exercise-induced fatigue and possible injuries. Finding out in what zones of intensity dancers work during different ballet movements may support the use of supplemental training adjusted to the needs of the individual dancer. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to describe dancers' oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) responses during the performance of nine isolated ballet exercise sets, as correlated with their first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2). Twelve female ballet dancers volunteered for the study. Their maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), VT1, and VT2 were determined by use of an incremental treadmill test. Nine sets of ballet movements were assessed: pliés, tendus, jetés, rond de jambes, fondus, grand adage (adage), grand battements, temps levés, and sautés. The sets were randomly executed and separated by 5 minute rest periods. ANOVA for repeated measurements followed by the Bonferroni Post-hoc test were applied (p ballet sets. This stratification followed closely, but not exactly, the variation in HR. For example, rond de jambes (156.8 ± 19 b·min(-1)) did not show any significant difference from all the other ballet sets, nor VT1 or VT2. It is concluded that the workloads of isolated ballet sets, based on VO2 responses, vary between low and moderate aerobic intensity in relation to dancers' VT1 and VT2. However, ballet set workloads may be higher when based on HR responses, due to the intermittent and isometric components of dance.

  7. Heart rate and lactate responses to taekwondo fight in elite women performers

    M Cardinale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LA concentration before, during and after a competitive Tae kwon do (TKD fight performed by elite women performers. Specifically, we were interested to see weather HR and LA responses to competitive fight were greater than to TKD or karate exercises published in scientific literature. Seven international-standard women TKD fighters participated in the study. HR was recorded continuously throughout the fight using Polar Vantage telemetric HR monitors. LA samples were taken before and 3 min after the fight and analysed using an Accusport portable lactate analyzer. At the beginning of the fight, HR significantly increased (p<0.01 from pre-fight values of 91.6±9.9 beats min-1 to 144.1±13.6 beats min-1. During the whole fight the HRmean was 186.6±2.5 beats min-1 and remained significantly elevated (p<0.01 at 3 min into recovery. HR values expressed as a percentage of HRmax averaged during the whole fight at 91.7±2.6% respectively. LA concentration significantly increased (p<0.01 3 min after the fight and averaged 82% of LApeak values measured after the VO2max test. Results of the present study indicate that physiological demands of competitive TKD fight in women, measured by HR and LA responses, are considerably higher than the physiological demands of TKD or karate training exercises. The observed HR and LA responses suggest to us that conditioning for TKD should generally emphasise high-intensity anaerobic exercise.

  8. The effect of a monetary incentive for administrative assistants on the survey response rate: a randomized controlled trial

    Arnav Agarwal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is sufficient evidence that monetary incentives are effective in increasing survey response rates in the general population as well as with physicians. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a monetary incentive intended for administrative assistants on the survey response rate of physicians in leadership positions. Methods This was an ancillary study to a national survey of chairs of academic Departments of Medicine in the United States about measuring faculty productivity. We randomized survey participants to receive or not receive a $5 gift card enclosed in the survey package. The cover letter explained that the gift card was intended for the administrative assistants as a “thank you for their time.” We compared the response rates between the 2 study arms using the Chi-square test. Results Out of 152 participants to whom survey packages were mailed to, a total of 78 responses were received (51 % response rate. The response rates were 59 % in the incentive arm and 46 % in the no incentive arm. The relative effect of the incentive compared to no monetary incentive was borderline statistically significant (relative risk (RR = 1.36, 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.99 to 1.87; p = 0.055. Conclusion Monetary incentives intended for administrative assistants likely increase the response rate of physicians in leadership positions.

  9. Musical Auditory Stimulation Influences Heart Rate Autonomic Responses to Endodontic Treatment

    Milana Drumond Ramos Santana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the acute effect of musical auditory stimulation on heart rate autonomic regulation during endodontic treatment. The study included 50 subjects from either gender between 18 and 40 years old, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis of the upper front teeth and endodontic treatment indication. HRV was recorded 10 minutes before (T1, during (T2, and immediately (T3 and T4 after endodontic treatment. The volunteers were randomly divided into two equal groups: exposed to music (during T2, T3, and T4 or not. We found no difference regarding salivary cortisol and anxiety score. In the group with musical stimulation heart rate decreased in T3 compared to T1 and mean RR interval increased in T2 and T3 compared to T1. SDNN and TINN indices decreased in T3 compared to T4, the RMSSD and SD1 increased in T4 compared to T1, the SD2 increased compared to T3, and LF (low frequency band increased in T4 compared to T1 and T3. In the control group, only RMSSD and SD1 increased in T3 compared to T1. Musical auditory stimulation enhanced heart rate autonomic modulation during endodontic treatment.

  10. Analysis of readmission rates to the intensive care unit after implementation of a rapid response team in a University Hospital.

    Bergamasco E Paula, R; Tanita, M T; Festti, J; Queiroz Cardoso, L T; Carvalho Grion, C M

    2017-10-01

    To compare readmission rates to the intensive care unit (ICU) before and after the implementation of a rapid response team (RRT), and to identify risk factors for readmission. A quasi-experimental before-after study was carried out. A University Hospital. All patients discharged from the ICU from January to December 2008 (control group) and from January 2010 to December 2012 (intervention group). Implementation of an RRT. The data included demographic parameters, diagnoses upon admission, ICU readmission, APACHE II, SOFA, and TISS 28 scores, and routine daily assessment by an RRT of patients discharged from the ICU. During the study interval, 380 patients were analyzed in the period prior to the implementation of the RRT and 1361 after implementation. There was a tendency toward decreased readmission rates one year after RRT implementation. The APACHE II score and SOFA score at ICU discharge were independent factors associated to readmission, as well as clinical referral to the ICU. The RRT intervention resulted in a sustained decrease in readmission rates one year after implementation of this service. The use of a specialized team in health institutions can be recommended for ICU survivors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving survey response rates from parents in school-based research using a multi-level approach.

    Elizabeth J Schilpzand

    Full Text Available While schools can provide a comprehensive sampling frame for community-based studies of children and their families, recruitment is challenging. Multi-level approaches which engage multiple school stakeholders have been recommended but few studies have documented their effects. This paper compares the impact of a standard versus enhanced engagement approach on multiple indicators of recruitment: parent response rates, response times, reminders required and sample characteristics.Parents and teachers were distributed a brief screening questionnaire as a first step for recruitment to a longitudinal study, with two cohorts recruited in consecutive years (cohort 1 2011, cohort 2 2012. For cohort 2, additional engagement strategies included the use of pre-notification postcards, improved study materials, and recruitment progress graphs provided to school staff. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine cohort differences.Compared to cohort 1, a higher proportion of cohort 2 parents responded to the survey (76% versus 69%; p < 0.001, consented to participate (71% versus 56%; p < 0.001, agreed to teacher participation (90% versus 82%; p < 0.001 and agreed to follow-up contact (91% versus 80%; p < 0.001. Fewer cohort 2 parents required reminders (52% versus 63%; p < 0.001, and cohort 2 parents responded more promptly than cohort 1 parents (mean difference: 19.4 days, 95% CI: 18.0 to 20.9, p < 0.001.These results illustrate the value of investing in a relatively simple multi-level strategy to maximise parent response rates, and potentially reduce recruitment time and costs.

  12. Effect of facial self-resemblance on the startle response and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in heterosexual men.

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli.

  13. Impact of a new vaccine clinic on hepatitis B vaccine completion and immunological response rates in an HIV-positive cohort.

    Rock, Clare; de Barra, Eoghan; Sadlier, Corinna; Kelly, Sinead; Dowling, Catherine; McNally, Cora; Bergin, Colm

    2013-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus vaccination (HBVV) in the HIV-infected population has poor reported completion rates and immunological response rates. At our HIV clinic, we established a vaccine clinic to improve HBVV outcomes using interventions such as SMS text reminders and double-dose (DD) HBVV for standard-dose non-responders (SD NRs). A five-year (2003-2008) retrospective review of the completion rates and immunological response rates for HBVV after the establishment of the dedicated vaccine clinic was conducted. Statistical significance was assumed at presponse rate to DD HBVV among SD NRs. On-treatment analysis showed an 88% (155/176) overall immunological response to SD HBVV and DD HBVV, if required. High HBVV completion and response rates in this HIV cohort were enabled through the use of multiple interventions, including the use of SMS text message reminders and routine referral for DD vaccination. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Overall response rates to radiation therapy for patients with painful uncomplicated bone metastases undergoing initial treatment and retreatment

    Bedard, Gillian; Hoskin, Peter; Chow, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation therapy has been shown to successfully palliate bone metastases. A number of systematic reviews and large clinical trials have reported response rates for initial treatment and retreatment. Objective: To determine overall response rates of patients with painful uncomplicated bone metastases undergoing initial treatment and retreatment. Methods: Intent-to-treat and evaluable patient statistics from a systematic review of palliative radiotherapy trials for initial treatment of bone metastases and a randomized clinical trial of retreatment were pooled and analyzed to determine the overall response rates for patients receiving initial treatment and retreatment. Results: In the intent-to-treat calculation, 71–73% of patients had an overall response to radiation treatment and in the evaluable patient population; 85–87% of patients did so. Response rates varied slightly whether patients underwent single or multiple fractions in initial treatment or retreatment. Conclusions: Single and multiple fraction radiation treatment yielded very similar overall response rates. Patients treated with a single fraction for both initial and repeat radiation experience almost identical overall response to those patients treated with multiple fraction treatment. It is therefore recommended that patients with uncomplicated painful bone metastases be treated with a single 8 Gy fraction of radiation at both the initial treatment and retreatment

  15. Relict Mountain Permafrost Area (Loess Plateau, China) Exhibits High Ecosystem Respiration Rates and Accelerating Rates in Response to Warming

    Mu, Cuicui; Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Qian; Smoak, Joseph M.; Yang, Yulong; Hu, Lian; Zhong, Wen; Liu, Guimin; Xu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tingjun

    2017-10-01

    Relict permafrost regions are characterized by thin permafrost and relatively high temperatures. Understanding the ecosystem respiration rate (ERR) and its relationship with soil hydrothermal conditions in these areas can provide knowledge regarding the permafrost carbon cycle in a warming world. In this study, we examined a permafrost area, a boundary area, and a seasonally frozen ground area within a relict permafrost region on the east edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Measurements from July 2015 to September 2016 showed that the mean annual ecosystem CO2 emissions for the boundary area were greater than the permafrost area. The Q10 value of the ERRs in the seasonally frozen ground area was greater than the permafrost area, indicating that the carbon emissions in the nonpermafrost areas were more sensitive to warming. The 1 year open-top chamber (OTC) warming increased soil temperatures in both the permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas throughout the year, and the warming increased the ERRs by 1.18 (0.99-1.38, with interquartile range) and 1.13 (0.75-1.54, with interquartile range) μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 in permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas, respectively. The OTC warming increased annual ERRs by approximately 50% for both permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas with half the increase occurring during the nongrowing seasons. These results suggest that the ERRs in relict permafrost are high in comparison with arctic regions, and the carbon balance in relict permafrost areas could be greatly changed by climate warming.

  16. On a problematic procedure to manipulate response biases in recognition experiments: the case of "implied" base rates.

    Bröder, Arndt; Malejka, Simone

    2017-07-01

    The experimental manipulation of response biases in recognition-memory tests is an important means for testing recognition models and for estimating their parameters. The textbook manipulations for binary-response formats either vary the payoff scheme or the base rate of targets in the recognition test, with the latter being the more frequently applied procedure. However, some published studies reverted to implying different base rates by instruction rather than actually changing them. Aside from unnecessarily deceiving participants, this procedure may lead to cognitive conflicts that prompt response strategies unknown to the experimenter. To test our objection, implied base rates were compared to actual base rates in a recognition experiment followed by a post-experimental interview to assess participants' response strategies. The behavioural data show that recognition-memory performance was estimated to be lower in the implied base-rate condition. The interview data demonstrate that participants used various second-order response strategies that jeopardise the interpretability of the recognition data. We thus advice researchers against substituting actual base rates with implied base rates.

  17. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  18. Psychiatric symptoms and response quality to self-rated personality tests: Evidence from the PsyCoLaus study.

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Rudaz, Dominique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Castelao, Enrique; Preisig, Martin; Capel, Roland; Vandeleur, Caroline L

    2017-06-01

    Despite the fact that research has demonstrated consistent associations between self-rated measures of personality dimensions and mental disorders, little has been undertaken to investigate the relation between psychiatric symptoms and response patterns to self-rated tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychiatric symptoms and response quality using indices from our functional method. A sample of 1,784 participants from a Swiss population-based cohort completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI) and a symptom checklist of 90 items (SCL-90-R). Different indices of response quality were calculated based on the responses given to the NEO-FFI. Associations among the responses to indices of response quality, sociodemographic characteristics and the SCL-90-R dimensions were then established. Psychiatric symptoms were associated with several important differences in response quality, questioning subjects' ability to provide valid information using self-rated instruments. As suggested by authors, psychiatric symptoms seem associated with differences in personality scores. Nonetheless, our study shows that symptoms are also related to differences in terms of response patterns as sources of differences in personality scores. This could constitute a bias for clinical assessment. Future studies could still determine whether certain subpopulations of subjects are more unable to provide valid information to self-rated questionnaires than others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Shy and bold great tits (Parus major): body temperature and breath rate in response to handling stress

    Carere, C.; Van Oers, K.

    2004-01-01

    A standard handling protocol was used to test the hypothesis that boldness predicts stress responsiveness in body temperature and breath rate. Great tit (Parus major) nestlings were taken from the field, hand reared until independence, and their response to a novel object was assessed. At the age of

  20. Shy and bold great tits (Parus major) : body temperature and breath rate in response to handling stress

    Carere, C; van Oers, K

    2004-01-01

    A standard handling protocol was used to test the hypothesis that boldness predicts stress responsiveness in body temperature and breath rate. Great tit (Parus major) nestlings were taken from the field, hand reared until independence, and their response to a novel object was assessed. At the age of

  1. Gamma Low-Dose-Rate Ionizing Radiation Stimulates Adaptive Functional and Molecular Response in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells in a Threshold-, Dose-, and Dose Rate-Dependent Manner.

    Vieira Dias, Juliana; Gloaguen, Celine; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Manens, Line; Tack, Karine; Ebrahimian, Teni G

    2018-01-01

    A central question in radiation protection research is whether low-dose and low-dose-rate (LDR) exposures to ionizing radiation play a role in progression of cardiovascular disease. The response of endothelial cells to different LDR exposures may help estimate risk of cardiovascular disease by providing the biological mechanism involved. We investigated the effect of chronic LDR radiation on functional and molecular responses of human aorta endothelial cells (HAoECs). Human aorta endothelial cells were continuously irradiated at LDR (6 mGy/h) for 15 days and analyzed at time points when the cumulative dose reached 0.05, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy. The same doses were administered acutely at high-dose rate (HDR; 1 Gy/min). The threshold for the loss of angiogenic capacity for both LDR and HDR radiations was between 0.5 and 1.0 Gy. At 2.0 Gy, angiogenic capacity returned to normal only for HAoEC exposed to LDR radiation, associated with increased expression of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes. Pre-LDR, but not pre-HDR, radiation, followed by a single acute 2.0 Gy challenge dose sustained the expression of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes and stimulated angiogenesis. Our results suggest that dose rate is important in cellular response and that a radioadaptive response is involved for a 2.0 Gy dose at LDR.

  2. Impact of The Endometrioma on Ovarian Response and Pregnancy Rate in In Vitro Fertilization Cycles

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ovarian endometrioma on ovarian stimulation outcomes in in vitro fertilization cycles (IVF. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we followed 103 patients who underwent intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI procedures over a 24-months period. The study group consisted of 47 infertile women with either unilateral or bilateral ovarian endometrial cysts of less than 3 cm. The control group consisting of 57 patients with mild male factor infertility was candidate for ICSI treatment during the same time period as the study groups. Both groups were compared for number of oocytes retrieved, grades of oocytes, as well as embryo quantity and quality. Results: Our results showed similar follicle numbers, good embryo grades (A or B and pregnancy rates in the compared groups. However, patients with endometrioma had higher gonadotropin consumption than the control group. The mean number of retrieved oocytes in patients with endometrioma was significantly lower than control group (6.6 ± 3.74 vs. 10.4 ± 5.25 (p<0.001. In addition, patients with endometrioma had significantly lower numbers of metaphase II (MII oocytes (5 ± 3.21 than controls (8.2 ± 5.4 (p<0.001. In patients with unilateral endometrioma, there were no significant differences in main outcome measures between normal and involved ovaries in the patients with endometrioma. Conclusion: Patients with ovarian endometrioma had poor outcome. They showed poor ovarian response with lower total numbers of retrieved oocytes and lower MII oocytes during the stimulation phase; however, it does not affect the total number of embryos transferred per patient, quality of embryos, and pregnancy rate per patient.

  3. Heart rate and core temperature responses of elite pit crews during automobile races.

    Ferguson, David P; Bowen, Robert S; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2011-08-01

    There is limited information regarding the physiological and psychological demands of the racing environment, and the subsequent effect on the performance of pit crew athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heart rates (HRs) and core body temperatures (CTs) of pit crew athletes in the race environment. The HR and CT of pit crew athletes (n = 7) and control subjects were measured during 6 National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing Sprint Cup races using ingestible sensors (HQ Inc, Palmetto, FL, USA). The HR and CT were measured before each race, at 15-minute intervals during the race, and upon completion of each pit stop. Compared to the control subject at each race, the pit crew athletes had significantly (p = 0.014) lower core temperatures (CTs). The pit crew athletes displayed higher HRs on the asphalt tracks than on concrete tracks (p = 0.011), and HR responses of the crew members were significantly (p = 0.012) different between pit crew positions, with the tire changers and jackman exhibiting higher HRs than the tire carriers. Unexpectedly, the CTs of the pit crew athletes were not elevated in the race environment, despite high ambient temperatures and the extensive fire-protection equipment (e.g., helmet, suit, gloves) each pit crew athlete wore. The lack of CT change is possibly the result of the increased HR more efficiently shunting blood to the skin and dissipating heat as a consequence of the athletes' extensive training regimen and ensuing heat acclimation. Additionally, it is possible that psychological stress unique to several of the tracks provided an additive effect resulting in increased heart rates.

  4. Intratesticular and subcutaneous lidocaine alters the intraoperative haemodynamic responses and heart rate variability in male cats undergoing castration

    Moldal, E.R.; Eriksen, T.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Nødtvedt, A.; Kristensen, A.T.; Sparta, F.M.; Haga, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of intratesticular and subcutaneous lidocaine in alleviating the intraoperative nociceptive response to castration, measured by pulse rate (PR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), and to test the applicability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in

  5. Heart Rate Profiles of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in Response to Physical Play: A Preliminary Investigation

    Breslin, Casey M.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the heart rate response of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to outdoor free play sessions during preschool was examined. Participants (n = 7; four children with ASD and three children who show typical development) wore Actiheart heart rate monitors during 6 school days. Using a single-subject design,…

  6. A model for inverse dose-rate effects - low dose-rate hyper-sensibility in response to targeted radionuclide therapy

    Murray, I.; Mather, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that the Linear-Quadratic (LQ) model of cell survival, developed for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), could be extended to targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) in order to predict dose-response relationships in a cell line exhibiting low dose hypersensitivity (LDH). Methods: aliquots of the PC-3 cancer cell line were treated with either EBRT or an in-vitro model of TRT (Irradiation of cell culture with Y-90 EDTA over 24, 48, 72 or 96 hours). Dosimetry for the TRT was calculated using radiation transport simulations with the Monte Carlo PENELOPE code. Clonogenic as well as functional biological assays were used to assess cell response. An extension of the LQ model was developed which incorporated a dose-rate threshold for activation of repair mechanisms. Results: accurate dosimetry for in-vitro exposures of cell cultures to radioactivity was established. LQ parameters of cell survival were established for the PC-3 cell line in response to EBRT. The standard LQ model did not predict survival in PC-3 cells exposed to Y 90 irradiation over periods of up to 96 hours. In fact cells were more sensitive to the same dose when irradiation was carried out over 96 hours than 24 hours. I.e. at a lower dose-rate. Deviations from the LQ predictions were most pronounced below a threshold dose-rate of 0.5 Gy/hr. These results led to an extension of the LQ model based upon a dose-rate dependent sigmoid model of single strand DNA repair. This extension to the model resulted in predicted cell survival curves that closely matched the experimental data. Conclusion: the LQ model of cell survival to radiation has been shown to be largely predictive of response to low dose-rate irradiation. However, in cells displaying LDH, further adaptation of the model was required. (authors)

  7. Utilizing the Total Design Method in medicine: maximizing response rates in long, non-incentivized, personal questionnaire postal surveys.

    Kazzazi, Fawz; Haggie, Rebecca; Forouhi, Parto; Kazzazi, Nazar; Malata, Charles M

    2018-01-01

    Maximizing response rates in questionnaires can improve their validity and quality by reducing non-response bias. A comprehensive analysis is essential for producing reasonable conclusions in patient-reported outcome research particularly for topics of a sensitive nature. This often makes long (≥7 pages) questionnaires necessary but these have been shown to reduce response rates in mail surveys. Our work adapted the "Total Design Method," initially produced for commercial markets, to raise response rates in a long (total: 11 pages, 116 questions), non-incentivized, very personal postal survey sent to almost 350 women. A total of 346 women who had undergone mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction from 2008-2014 (inclusive) at Addenbrooke's University Hospital were sent our study pack (Breast-Q satisfaction questionnaire and support documents) using our modified "Total Design Method." Participants were sent packs and reminders according to our designed schedule. Of the 346 participants, we received 258 responses, an overall response rate of 74.5% with a useable response rate of 72.3%. One hundred and six responses were received before the week 1 reminder (30.6%), 120 before week 3 (34.6%), 225 before the week 7 reminder (64.6%) and the remainder within 3 weeks of the final pack being sent. The median age of patients that the survey was sent to, and the median age of the respondents, was 54 years. In this study, we have demonstrated the successful implementation of a novel approach to postal surveys. Despite the length of the questionnaire (nine pages, 116 questions) and limitations of expenses to mail a survey to ~350 women, we were able to attain a response rate of 74.6%.

  8. Heart rate variability and cognitive processing: The autonomic response to task demands.

    Luque-Casado, Antonio; Perales, José C; Cárdenas, David; Sanabria, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated variations in heart rate variability (HRV) as a function of cognitive demands. Participants completed an execution condition including the psychomotor vigilance task, a working memory task and a duration discrimination task. The control condition consisted of oddball versions (participants had to detect the rare event) of the tasks from the execution condition, designed to control for the effect of the task parameters (stimulus duration and stimulus rate) on HRV. The NASA-TLX questionnaire was used as a subjective measure of cognitive workload across tasks and conditions. Three major findings emerged from this study. First, HRV varied as a function of task demands (with the lowest values in the working memory task). Second, and crucially, we found similar HRV values when comparing each of the tasks with its oddball control equivalent, and a significant decrement in HRV as a function of time-on-task. Finally, the NASA-TLX results showed larger cognitive workload in the execution condition than in the oddball control condition, and scores variations as a function of task. Taken together, our results suggest that HRV is highly sensitive to overall demands of sustained attention over and above the influence of other cognitive processes suggested by previous literature. In addition, our study highlights a potential dissociation between objective and subjective measures of mental workload, with important implications in applied settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Laser-based irradiation apparatus and method to measure the functional dose-rate response of semiconductor devices

    Horn, Kevin M [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-20

    A broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can measure the parametric or functional response of a semiconductor device to exposure to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light. Comparisons of dose-rate response from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. The dependence of these changes on equivalent dose-rate pulse intensity and/or duration can be measured with the apparatus. The synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into the device under test can be used to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure while exposing the device to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light.

  10. Win some, lose some: parental hypertension and heart rate change in an incentive versus response cost paradigm.

    Hastrup, J L; Johnson, C A; Hotchkiss, A P; Kraemer, D L

    1986-11-01

    Fowles (1983), citing evidence from separate studies, suggests that both incentive and response cost paradigms increase heart rate and should be subsumed under Gray's (1975) 'appetitive motivational system'. Shock avoidance and loss of reward (response cost) contingencies, while aversive, appear to evoke this motivational system; consequently both should elicit heart rate increases independent of anxiety. The present investigation compared magnitude of heart rate changes observed under conditions of winning and losing money. Results showed: no differences between incentive and response cost conditions; no effect of state anxiety on heart rate in these conditions, despite an elevation of state anxiety on the task day relative to a subsequent relaxation day assessment; and some evidence for the presence under both such appetitive conditions of cardiovascular hyperresponsivity among offspring of hypertensive parents. The results suggest a need for systematic parametric studies of experimental conditions.

  11. Energy expenditure and heart rate response to breaking up sedentary time with three different physical activity interventions.

    Carter, S E; Jones, M; Gladwell, V F

    2015-05-01

    Prolonged sedentary behaviour is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk and decreased energy expenditure (EE). Workplace interventions breaking up sedentary time have increased EE but the cardiovascular responses are unknown. The practicalities of these interventions, such as required costs and workplace adaptations, are questioned. Calisthenics exercises overcome such limitations, but have not been assessed. The aim of this study was to assess the EE and heart rate (HR) response when breaking up sedentary time with a short bout of standing, walking or calisthenics. Twenty healthy participants (15 male) completed four 30 min conditions: a) 30 min sitting, or breaking up this period with two minutes of b) standing, c) treadmill walking (4 km·h(-1)) or d) a set of calisthenics exercises (including squats and lunges). HR and EE (indirect calorimetry) were assessed throughout. During the activity break, calisthenics caused the highest HR (90 ± 12 bpm) compared to all other conditions (Sit: 70 ± 12 bpm; Stand:72 ± 13 bpm; Walk:84 ± 10 bpm; p workplace sedentary time and improve cardiovascular health and assist in weight management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The modified gait abnormality rating scale in patients with a conversion disorder: a reliability and responsiveness study.

    Vandenberg, Justin M; George, Deanna R; O'Leary, Andrea J; Olson, Lindsay C; Strassburg, Kaitlyn R; Hollman, John H

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with conversion disorder have neurologic symptoms that are not identified by an underlying organic cause. Often the symptoms manifest as gait disturbances. The modified gait abnormality rating scale (GARS-M) may be useful for quantifying gait abnormalities in these individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, responsiveness and concurrent validity of GARS-M scores in individuals with conversion disorder. Data from 27 individuals who completed a rehabilitation program were included in this study. Pre- and post-intervention videos were obtained and walking speed was measured. Five examiners independently evaluated gait performance according to the GARS-M criteria. Inter- and intrarater reliability of GARS-M scores were estimated with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Responsiveness was estimated with the minimum detectable change (MDC). Pre- to post-treatment changes in GARS-M scores were analyzed with a dependent t-test. The correlation between GARS-M scores and walking speed was analyzed to assess concurrent validity. GARS-M scores were quantified with good-to-excellent inter- (ICC = 0.878) and intrarater reliability (ICC = 0.989). The MDC was 2 points. Mean GARS-M scores decreased from 7 ± 5 at baseline to 1 ± 2 at discharge (t26 = 7.411, p conversion disorder. GARS-M scores provide objective measures upon which treatment effects can be assessed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The primary immune response to Vaccinia virus vaccination includes cells with a distinct cytotoxic effector CD4 T-cell phenotype.

    Munier, C Mee Ling; van Bockel, David; Bailey, Michelle; Ip, Susanna; Xu, Yin; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Liu, Sue Min; Denyer, Gareth; Kaplan, Warren; Suzuki, Kazuo; Croft, Nathan; Purcell, Anthony; Tscharke, David; Cooper, David A; Kent, Stephen J; Zaunders, John J; Kelleher, Anthony D

    2016-10-17

    Smallpox was eradicated by a global program of inoculation with Vaccinia virus (VV). Robust VV-specific CD4 T-cell responses during primary infection are likely essential to controlling VV replication. Although there is increasing interest in cytolytic CD4 T-cells across many viral infections, the importance of these cells during acute VV infection is unclear. We undertook a detailed functional and genetic characterization of CD4 T-cells during acute VV-infection of humans. VV-specific T-cells were identified by up-regulation of activation markers directly ex vivo and through cytokine and co-stimulatory molecule expression. At day-13-post primary inoculation with VV, CD38highCD45RO+ CD4 T-cells were purified by cell sorting, RNA isolated and analysed by microarray. Differential expression of up-regulated genes in activated CD4 T-cells was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. We compared analyses of VV-specific CD4 T-cells to studies on 12 subjects with primary HIV infection (PHI). VV-specific T-cells lines were established from PBMCs collected post vaccination and checked for cytotoxicity potential. A median 11.9% CD4 T-cells were CD38highCD45RO+ at day-13 post-VV inoculation, compared to 3.0% prior and 10.4% during PHI. Activated CD4 T-cells had an up-regulation of genes related to cytolytic function, including granzymes K and A, perforin, granulysin, TIA-1, and Rab27a. No difference was seen between CD4 T-cell expression of perforin or TIA-1 to VV and PHI, however granzyme k was more dominant in the VV response. At 25:1 effector to target ratio, two VV-specific T-cell lines exhibited 62% and 30% cytotoxicity respectively and CD107a degranulation. We show for the first time that CD4 CTL are prominent in the early response to VV. Understanding the role of CD4 CTL in the generation of an effective anti-viral memory may help develop more effective vaccines for diseases such as HIV. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Taking the Test Taker's Perspective: Response Process and Test Motivation in Multidimensional Forced-Choice Versus Rating Scale Instruments.

    Sass, Rachelle; Frick, Susanne; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Wetzel, Eunike

    2018-03-01

    The multidimensional forced-choice (MFC) format has been proposed as an alternative to the rating scale (RS) response format. However, it is unclear how changing the response format may affect the response process and test motivation of participants. In Study 1, we investigated the MFC response process using the think-aloud technique. In Study 2, we compared test motivation between the RS format and different versions of the MFC format (presenting 2, 3, 4, and 5 items simultaneously). The response process to MFC item blocks was similar to the RS response process but involved an additional step of weighing the items within a block against each other. The RS and MFC response format groups did not differ in their test motivation. Thus, from the test taker's perspective, the MFC format is somewhat more demanding to respond to, but this does not appear to decrease test motivation.

  15. Strategies to Maximize Data Collection Response Rates in a Randomized Control Trial Focused on Children with Medical Complexity.

    Finkelstein, Stanley M; Celebrezze, Margaret; Cady, Rhonda; Lunos, Scott; Looman, Wendy S

    2016-04-01

    Obtaining complete and timely subject data is key to the success of clinical trials, particularly for studies requiring data collected from subjects at home or other remote sites. A multifaceted strategy for data collection in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) focused on care coordination for children with medical complexity is described. The influences of data collection mode, incentives, and study group membership on subject response patterns are analyzed. Data collection included monthly healthcare service utilization (HCSU) calendars and annual surveys focused on care coordination outcomes. One hundred sixty-three families were enrolled in the 30-month TeleFamilies RCT. Subjects were 2-15 years of age at enrollment. HCSU data were collected by parent/guardian self-report using mail, e-mail, telephone, or texting. Surveys were collected by mail. Incentives were provided for completed surveys after 8 months to improve collection returns. Outcome measures were the number of HCSU calendars and surveys returned, the return interval, data collection mode, and incentive impact. Return rates of 90% for HCSU calendars and 82% for annual surveys were achieved. Mean return intervals were 72 and 65 days for HCSU and surveys, respectively. Survey response increased from 55% to 95% after introduction of a gift card and added research staff. High return rates for HCSU calendars and health-related surveys are attainable but required a flexible and personnel-intensive approach to collection methods. Family preference for data collection approach should be obtained at enrollment, should be modified as needed, and requires flexible options, training, intensive staff/family interaction, and patience.

  16. A Conceptual Model for Projecting Coccolithophorid Growth, Calcification and Photosynthetic Carbon Fixation Rates in Response to Global Ocean Change

    Natasha A. Gafar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature, light and carbonate chemistry all influence the growth, calcification and photosynthetic rates of coccolithophores to a similar degree. There have been multiple attempts to project the responses of coccolithophores to changes in carbonate chemistry, but the interaction with light and temperature remains elusive. Here we devise a simple conceptual model to derive a fit equation for coccolithophorid growth, photosynthetic and calcification rates in response to simultaneous changes in carbonate chemistry, temperature and light conditions. The fit equation is able to account for up to 88% of the variability in measured metabolic rates. Equation projections indicate that temperature, light and carbonate chemistry all have different modulating effects on both optimal growth conditions and the sensitivity of responses to extreme environmental conditions. Calculations suggest that a single extreme environmental condition (CO2, temperature, light will reduce maximum rates regardless of how optimal the other environmental conditions may be. Thus, while the response of coccolithophores to ocean change depends on multiple variables, the one which is least optimal will have the most impact on overall rates. Finally, responses to ocean change are usually reported in terms of cellular rates. However, changes in cellular rates can be a poor predictor for assessing changes in production at the community level. We therefore introduce a new metric, the calcium carbonate production potential (CCPP, which combines the independent effects of changes in growth rate and cellular calcium carbonate content to assess how environmental changes will impact coccolith production. Direct comparison of CO2 impacts on cellular CaCO3 production rates and CCPP shows that while the former is still at 45% of its pre-industrial capacity at 1,000 μatm, the latter is reduced to 10%.

  17. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in murine AIDS inhibit B-cell responses in part via soluble mediators including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and TGF-β

    Rastad, Jessica L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Green, William R., E-mail: William.R.Green@dartmouth.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) were increased during LP-BM5 retroviral infection, and were capable of suppressing not only T-cell, but also B-cell responses. In addition to previously demonstrating iNOS- and VISTA-dependent M-MDSC mechanisms, in this paper, we detail how M-MDSCs utilized soluble mediators, including the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species superoxide, peroxynitrite, and nitric oxide, and TGF-β, to suppress B cells in a predominantly contact-independent manner. Suppression was independent of cysteine-depletion and hydrogen peroxide production. When two major mechanisms of suppression (iNOS and VISTA) were eliminated in double knockout mice, M-MDSCs from LP-BM5-infected mice were able to compensate using other, soluble mechanisms in order to maintain suppression of B cells. The IL-10 producing regulatory B-cell compartment was among the targets of M-MDSC-mediated suppression. -- Highlights: •LP-BM5-expanded M-MDSCs utilized soluble mediators nitric oxide, superoxide, peroxynitrite, and TGF-β to suppress B cells. •When two major mechanisms of suppression were eliminated through knockouts, M-MDSCs maintained suppression. •M-MDSCs from LP-BM5-infected mice decreased proliferation of IL-10 producing regulatory B cells.

  18. Developmental responses of bread wheat to changes in ambient temperature following deletion of a locus that includes FLOWERING LOCUS T1.

    Dixon, Laura E; Farré, Alba; Finnegan, E Jean; Orford, Simon; Griffiths, Simon; Boden, Scott A

    2018-01-04

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is a central integrator of environmental signals that regulates the timing of vegetative to reproductive transition in flowering plants. In model plants, these environmental signals have been shown to include photoperiod, vernalization, and ambient temperature pathways, and in crop species, the integration of the ambient temperature pathway remains less well understood. In hexaploid wheat, at least 5 FT-like genes have been identified, each with a copy on the A, B, and D genomes. Here, we report the characterization of FT-B1 through analysis of FT-B1 null and overexpression genotypes under different ambient temperature conditions. This analysis has identified that the FT-B1 alleles perform differently under diverse environmental conditions; most notably, the FT-B1 null produces an increase in spikelet and tiller number when grown at lower temperature conditions. Additionally, absence of FT-B1 facilitates more rapid germination under both light and dark conditions. These results provide an opportunity to understand the FT-dependent pathways that underpin key responses of wheat development to changes in ambient temperature. This is particularly important for wheat, for which development and grain productivity are sensitive to changes in temperature. © 2018 The Authors Plant, Cell & Environment Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in murine AIDS inhibit B-cell responses in part via soluble mediators including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and TGF-β

    Rastad, Jessica L.; Green, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) were increased during LP-BM5 retroviral infection, and were capable of suppressing not only T-cell, but also B-cell responses. In addition to previously demonstrating iNOS- and VISTA-dependent M-MDSC mechanisms, in this paper, we detail how M-MDSCs utilized soluble mediators, including the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species superoxide, peroxynitrite, and nitric oxide, and TGF-β, to suppress B cells in a predominantly contact-independent manner. Suppression was independent of cysteine-depletion and hydrogen peroxide production. When two major mechanisms of suppression (iNOS and VISTA) were eliminated in double knockout mice, M-MDSCs from LP-BM5-infected mice were able to compensate using other, soluble mechanisms in order to maintain suppression of B cells. The IL-10 producing regulatory B-cell compartment was among the targets of M-MDSC-mediated suppression. -- Highlights: •LP-BM5-expanded M-MDSCs utilized soluble mediators nitric oxide, superoxide, peroxynitrite, and TGF-β to suppress B cells. •When two major mechanisms of suppression were eliminated through knockouts, M-MDSCs maintained suppression. •M-MDSCs from LP-BM5-infected mice decreased proliferation of IL-10 producing regulatory B cells.

  20. Concurrent relations among cigarette smoking status, resting heart rate variability, and erectile response.

    Harte, Christopher B

    2014-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a marker of sympathovagal balance; it has been implicated in erectile function and is also altered by tobacco use. Furthermore, smoking and erectile health are strongly related, given that smokers are at increased risk for erectile dysfunction. Few studies have explored the interrelationships between smoking, HRV, and erectile function concurrently. The aim of this study was to examine potential mechanisms underlying tobacco's effects on penile hemodynamics by exploring the mediating role of HRV. The sample comprised 119 men (smokers = 64; nonsmokers = 55) (mean age 28.90 years; standard deviation (SD) 11.68; range 18-58) selected from the control conditions of three previously published experiments. Participants were free from a history of cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarct, and/or cardiac/cardiovascular medication use. During a laboratory visit, self-report, anthropometric, cardiovascular, and electrocardiographic data were assessed, as well as sexual arousal responses elicited from viewing an erotic film. Objective sexual arousal indices (circumferential change via penile plethysmography), self-reported erectile function (per the erectile function domain score of the International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF-EF]), and time- (SD of beat-to-beat intervals) and frequency-domain parameters of HRV (ratio of low-frequency [LF] power to high-frequency [HF] power [LF/HF ratio]) were assessed. Being a current long-term cigarette smoker was associated with dysregulated sympathovagal balance (higher LF/HF ratios, indicative of sympathetic nervous system dominance), which in turn showed inverse relations with magnitude of erectile tumescence. HRV did not mediate relations between tobacco use and either IIEF-EF scores or resting penile circumference. Findings suggest that dysfunctional cardiac autonomic tone may be an underlying mechanism by which tobacco exerts its deleterious effects on erectile health. Further research

  1. Astroglial Pentose Phosphate Pathway Rates in Response to High-Glucose Environments

    Shinichi Takahashi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ROS (reactive oxygen species play an essential role in the pathophysiology of diabetes, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. Hyperglycaemia associated with diabetes enhances ROS production and causes oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells, but adverse effects of either acute or chronic high-glucose environments on brain parenchymal cells remain unclear. The PPP (pentose phosphate pathway and GSH participate in a major defence mechanism against ROS in brain, and we explored the role and regulation of the astroglial PPP in response to acute and chronic high-glucose environments. PPP activity was measured in cultured neurons and astroglia by determining the difference in rate of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose and [6-14C]glucose. ROS production, mainly H2O2, and GSH were also assessed. Acutely elevated glucose concentrations in the culture media increased PPP activity and GSH level in astroglia, decreasing ROS production. Chronically elevated glucose environments also induced PPP activation. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that chronic high-glucose environments induced ER (endoplasmic reticulum stress (presumably through increased hexosamine biosynthetic pathway flux. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 2, which regulates G6PDH (glyceraldehyde-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by enhancing transcription, was also observed in association with BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein expression. Acute and chronic high-glucose environments activated the PPP in astroglia, preventing ROS elevation. Therefore a rapid decrease in glucose level seems to enhance ROS toxicity, perhaps contributing to neural damage when insulin levels given to diabetic patients are not properly calibrated and plasma glucose levels are not adequately maintained. These findings may also explain the lack of evidence for clinical benefits from strict glycaemic control during the acute phase of stroke.

  2. Barometric pressure change and heart rate response during sleeping at 3000 m altitude

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Endo, Junko; Handa, Yoko; Nose, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    We investigated effects of change in barometric pressure ( P B) with climate change on heart rate (HR) during sleep at 3000 m altitude. Nineteen healthy adults (15 males and four females; mean age 32 years) participated in this study. We measured P B (barometry) and HR (electrocardiography) every minute during their overnight stay in a mountain lodge at 3000 m. We also measured resting arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and evaluated symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) by using the Lake Louise Questionnaire at 2305 and 3000 m, respectively. P B gradually decreased during the night at the speed of approximately - 0.5 hPa/h. We found that HR during sleep decreased linearly as P B decreased in all subjects, with significance ( r = 0.492-0.893; all, P < 0.001). Moreover, cross correlation analysis revealed that HR started to decrease after 15 min following the decrease in P B, on average. SpO2 was 93.8 ± 1.7% at 2305 m before climbing, then decreased significantly to 90.2 ± 2.2% at the lodge before going to bed, and further decreased to 87.5 ± 2.7% after waking (all, P < 0.05). Four of the 19 subjects showed a symptom of AMS after waking (21%). Further, the decrease in HR in response to a given decrease in P B (ΔHR/ΔPB) was negatively related with a decrease in SpO2 from before going to bed to after waking at 3000 m ( r = - 0.579, P = 0.009) and with total AMS scores after waking ( r = 0.489, P = 0.033).

  3. Astroglial pentose phosphate pathway rates in response to high-glucose environments

    Takahashi, Shinichi; Izawa, Yoshikane; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    ROS (reactive oxygen species) play an essential role in the pathophysiology of diabetes, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. Hyperglycaemia associated with diabetes enhances ROS production and causes oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells, but adverse effects of either acute or chronic high-glucose environments on brain parenchymal cells remain unclear. The PPP (pentose phosphate pathway) and GSH participate in a major defence mechanism against ROS in brain, and we explored the role and regulation of the astroglial PPP in response to acute and chronic high-glucose environments. PPP activity was measured in cultured neurons and astroglia by determining the difference in rate of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose and [6-14C]glucose. ROS production, mainly H2O2, and GSH were also assessed. Acutely elevated glucose concentrations in the culture media increased PPP activity and GSH level in astroglia, decreasing ROS production. Chronically elevated glucose environments also induced PPP activation. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that chronic high-glucose environments induced ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress (presumably through increased hexosamine biosynthetic pathway flux). Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 2), which regulates G6PDH (glyceraldehyde-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) by enhancing transcription, was also observed in association with BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein) expression. Acute and chronic high-glucose environments activated the PPP in astroglia, preventing ROS elevation. Therefore a rapid decrease in glucose level seems to enhance ROS toxicity, perhaps contributing to neural damage when insulin levels given to diabetic patients are not properly calibrated and plasma glucose levels are not adequately maintained. These findings may also explain the lack of evidence for clinical benefits from strict glycaemic control during the acute phase of stroke. PMID:22300409

  4. Placebo response and remission rates in randomised trials of induction andmaintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis

    Jairath, Vipul; Zou, G. Y.; Parker, Claire E.; Macdonald, John K.; AlAmeel, Turki; Al Beshir, Mohammad; Almadi, Majid A.; Al-Taweel, Talal; Atkinson, Nathan S. S.; Biswas, Sujata; Chapman, Thomas; Dulai, Parambir S.; Glaire, Mark A.; Hoekman, Daniel R.; Koutsoumpas, Andreas; Minas, Elizabeth; Mosli, Mahmoud H.; Samaan, Mark; Khanna, Reena; Travis, Simon; D'Haens, Geert; Sandborn, William J.; Feagan, Brian G.

    2017-01-01

    Background It is important to minimize placebo rates in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to efficiently detect treatment differences between interventions. Historically, high placebo rates have been observed in clinical trials of ulcerative colitis (UC). A better understanding of factors

  5. Structured Self-Rated Response to Iontophoresis with Verapamil and Dexamethasone in Peyronie’s Disease

    Abas Kokab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. New therapies evolve for the treatment of Peyronie's disease (PD including the application of dexamethasone and verapamil using Electro Motive Drug Administration (EMDA. Patients and Methods. Patients with PD were routinely offered Potaba, Vitamin E, tamoxifen or colchicine for 6 to 18 months and for those with no improvement, 18 applications of dexamethasone and verapamil using EMDA occurred over a 6 week period. All 30 patients receiving EMDA therapy completed a questionnaire before and after treatment. The data was collected from December 2004 to November 2009 and analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Results. Median age of patients was 59 (range 39–71. Curvature was the most common presenting complaint (73.3% followed by pain (23.3%, erectile dysfunction (13.3%, and lump (13.3%. 24/30 (80% reported an improvement in symptoms after EMDA. 16 of the responders (66.7% had a stable plaque for at least 6 months. The patients who complained of shortening of the penis (P=0.003 or lowered sexual desire (P=0.024 expressed subsequently significant response to treatment. There was statistically significant (P=0.019 improvement of penile deviation reported by responding men. Conclusion. A significant proportion of patients who received EMDA reported decreased curvature following iontophoresis. No serious adverse reactions developed.

  6. Pupil responses and pain ratings to heat stimuli: Reliability and effects of expectations and a conditioning pain stimulus.

    Eisenach, James C; Curry, Regina; Aschenbrenner, Carol A; Coghill, Robert C; Houle, Timothy T

    2017-03-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) signals salience to sensory stimuli and these responses can modulate the experience of pain stimuli. The pupil dilation response (PDR) to noxious stimuli is thought to be a surrogate for LC responses, but PDR response to Peltier-controlled noxious heat stimuli, the most commonly used method in experimental pain research, has not been described. Healthy volunteers were presented with randomly presented heat stimuli of 5 sec duration and provided pain intensity ratings to each stimulus. Pupillometry was performed and a method developed to quantify the PDR relevant to these stimuli. The stimulus response, reliability, and effect of commonly used manipulations on pain experience were explored. A method of artifact removal and adjusting for lag from stimulus initiation to PDR response was developed, resulting in a close correlation between pain intensity rating and PDR across a large range of heat stimuli. A reliable assessment of PDR within an individual was achieved with fewer presentations as heat stimulus intensity increased. The correlation between pain rating and PDR was disrupted when cognitive load is increased by manipulating expectations or presenting a second pain stimulus. The PDR began later after skin heating than electrical stimuli and this is the first examination of the PDR using standard nociceptive testing and manipulations of expectations and competing noxious stimulation. A method is described applying PDR to standard heat nociceptive testing, demonstrating stimulus response, reliability, and disruption by cognitive manipulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diets supplemented with seaweed affect metabolic rate, innate immune, and antioxidant responses, but not individual growth rate in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    Peixoto, Maria J.; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Malte, Hans

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of seaweed dietary supplementation on measures of fish performance including aerobic metabolism, digestive enzymes activity, innate immune status, oxidative damage, and growth rate using European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were fed for 49 days with th...

  8. The effect of pulse pile-up on threshold crossing rates in a system with a known impulse response

    Nikitin, A.V.; Davidchack, R.L.; Armstrong, T.P.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of counting rates in a counting detection system is viewed as a stochastic problem of mean threshold crossing rates for a dynamic system driven by a stationary random force. We present a general formula for calculating the rates of such a system at an arbitrary threshold for all values of event occurrence rates, given that the amplitude distribution of the incoming events and the impulse response of the detection system are known. From a single general formula we derive asymptotic expressions for counting rates at both limits of high and low incoming rates. We give a simple expression for the saturation counting rate of a detection system and show that for a high-order pile-up the average intensity and variation of the incoming signal can be determined by measuring the counting rates at two thresholds. For low incoming rates, we show how the unknown incoming distribution can be computed from the measured pulse-height spectrum. Based on the asymptotic results, we demonstrate how to construct an approximation to the impulse response function of the detection system, which facilitates numerical evaluation of the general formula. In each case, we present a comparison with numerical experiments. Throughout the paper, we illustrate how well-known experimental facts can be deduced from a single general formula. (orig.)

  9. Quantitative Methods for Measuring Repair Rates and Innate-Immune Cell Responses in Wounded Mouse Skin.

    Li, Zhi; Gothard, Elizabeth; Coles, Mark C; Ambler, Carrie A

    2018-01-01

    In skin wounds, innate-immune cells clear up tissue debris and microbial contamination, and also secrete cytokines and other growth factors that impact repair process such as re-epithelialization and wound closure. After injury, there is a rapid influx and efflux of immune cells at wound sites, yet the function of each innate cell population in skin repair is still under investigation. Flow cytometry is a valuable research tool for detecting and quantifying immune cells; however, in mouse back skin, the difficulty in extracting immune cells from small area of skin due to tissue complexity has made cytometric analysis an underutilized tool. In this paper, we provide detailed methods on the digestion of lesion-specific skin without disrupting antigen expression followed by multiplex cell staining that allows for identification of seven innate-immune populations, including rare subsets such as group-3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s), by flow-cytometry analysis. Furthermore, when studying the functions of immune cells to tissue repair an important metric to monitor is size of the wound opening. Normal wounds close steadily albeit at non-linear rates, while slow or stalled wound closure can indicate an underlying problem with the repair process. Calliper measurements are difficult and time-consuming to obtain and can require repeated sedation of experimental animals. We provide advanced methods for measuring of wound openness; digital 3D image capture and semi-automated image processing that allows for unbiased, reliable measurements that can be taken repeatedly over time.

  10. Mechanical response of AA7075 aluminum alloy over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates

    Jin, Z.; Cassada, W.A. [Reynolds Metals Co., Chester, VA (United States). Corp. Res. and Dev.; Cady, C.M.; Gray, G.T. III

    2000-07-01

    The influence of temperature and strain rate on the flow stress and work hardening rate of a 7075 aluminum alloy was studied under compressive loading over the temperature range from 23 C to 470 C, and strain rates from 0.001 s{sup -1} and 2100 s{sup -1}. While the temperature dependence of the flow stress was found to be most significant at temperatures below 300 C, the strain rate dependence of the flow stress was found to be pronounced at temperatures above 23 C. Concurrently, the work hardening rate decreases significantly with increasing temperature between 23 C and 300 C and increases slightly at higher temperatures. The minimum work hardening rate is observed to occur at temperatures between 200 C and 300 C and shift to higher temperatures with increasing strain rate. A negative strain rate dependence of work hardening rate was observed at 23 C, although a positive strain rate dependence of work hardening rate occurs at higher temperatures. Analysis of the experimental data revealed three deformation regimes. (orig.)

  11. Dependence of total dose response of bipolar linear microcircuits on applied dose rate

    McClure, S.; Will, W.; Perry, G.; Pease, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of dose rate on the total dose radiation hardness of three commercial bipolar linear microcircuits is investigated. Total dose tests of linear bipolar microcircuits show larger degradation at 0.167 rad/s than at 90 rad/s even after the high dose rate test is followed by a room temperature plus a 100 C anneal. No systematic correlation could be found for degradation at low dose rate versus high dose rate and anneal. Comparison of the low dose rate with the high dose rate anneal data indicates that MIL-STD-883, method 1019.4 is not a worst-case test method when applied to bipolar microcircuits for low dose rate space applications

  12. Which plant trait explains the variations in relative growth rate and its response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes derived from a variety of habitats?

    Oguchi, Riichi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Hanada, Kousuke; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2016-03-01

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ([CO2]) enhances plant growth, but this enhancement varies considerably. It is still uncertain which plant traits are quantitatively related to the variation in plant growth. To identify the traits responsible, we developed a growth analysis model that included primary parameters associated with morphology, nitrogen (N) use, and leaf and root activities. We analysed the vegetative growth of 44 ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana L. grown at ambient and elevated [CO2] (800 μmol mol(-1)). The 44 ecotypes were selected such that they were derived from various altitudes and latitudes. Relative growth rate (RGR; growth rate per unit plant mass) and its response to [CO2] varied by 1.5- and 1.7-fold among ecotypes, respectively. The variation in RGR at both [CO2]s was mainly explained by the variation in leaf N productivity (LNP; growth rate per leaf N),which was strongly related to photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE). The variation in the response of RGR to [CO2] was also explained by the variation in the response of LNP to [CO2]. Genomic analyses indicated that there was no phylogenetic constraint on inter-ecotype variation in the CO2 response of RGR or LNP. We conclude that the significant variation in plant growth and its response to [CO2] among ecotypes reflects the variation in N use for photosynthesis among ecotypes, and that the response of PNUE to CO2 is an important target for predicting and/or breeding plants that have high growth rates at elevated [CO2].

  13. Effect of vicarious fear learning on children's heart rate responses and attentional bias for novel animals

    Reynolds, G; Field, AP; Askew, C

    2014-01-01

    Research with children has shown that vicarious learning can result in changes to 2 of Lang's (1968) 3 anxiety response systems: subjective report and behavioral avoidance. The current study extended this research by exploring the effect of vicarious learning on physiological responses (Lang's final response system) and attentional bias. The study used Askew and Field's (2007) vicarious learning procedure and demonstrated fear-related increases in children's cognitive, behavioral, and physiol...

  14. The contribution of staff call light response time to fall and injurious fall rates: an exploratory study in four US hospitals using archived hospital data

    Tzeng Huey-Ming

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fall prevention programs for hospitalized patients have had limited success, and the effect of programs on decreasing total falls and fall-related injuries is still inconclusive. This exploratory multi-hospital study examined the unique contribution of call light response time to predicting total fall rates and injurious fall rates in inpatient acute care settings. The conceptual model was based on Donabedian's framework of structure, process, and health-care outcomes. The covariates included the hospital, unit type, total nursing hours per patient-day (HPPDs, percentage of the total nursing HPPDs supplied by registered nurses, percentage of patients aged 65 years or older, average case mix index, percentage of patients with altered mental status, percentage of patients with hearing problems, and call light use rate per patient-day. Methods We analyzed data from 28 units from 4 Michigan hospitals, using archived data and chart reviews from January 2004 to May 2009. The patient care unit-month, defined as data aggregated by month for each patient care unit, was the unit of analysis (N = 1063. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used. Results Faster call light response time was associated with lower total fall and injurious fall rates. Units with a higher call light use rate had lower total fall and injurious fall rates. A higher percentage of productive nursing hours provided by registered nurses was associated with lower total fall and injurious fall rates. A higher percentage of patients with altered mental status was associated with a higher total fall rate but not a higher injurious fall rate. Units with a higher percentage of patients aged 65 years or older had lower injurious fall rates. Conclusions Faster call light response time appeared to contribute to lower total fall and injurious fall rates, after controlling for the covariates. For practical relevance, hospital and nursing executives should consider

  15. The dual impact of "appeal" and "researcher credibility" on mail survey response rate in the context of preventive health care.

    Angur, M G; Nataraajan, R; Chawla, S K

    1994-01-01

    Health and fitness centers are becoming increasingly aware of their importance in the realm of preventive health care. Many hospitals have begun to open and run fitness centers, a trend that seems very likely to continue. In a competitive environment, every center would desire to obtain maximum valid customer information at minimum cost, and this paper addresses this issue. The authors investigate the confluence of both appeal and researcher credibility on mail questionnaire response rates from a metropolitan membership of a large fitness center. Personal appeal with high researcher credibility was found to generate significantly higher response rate followed by the hybrid appeal with low researcher credibility.

  16. HPA and SAM axis responses as correlates of self- vs parental ratings of anxiety in boys with an Autistic Disorder.

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Sweeney, John A; McFarlane, James R

    2014-03-29

    Anxiety and Autistic Disorder (AD) are both neurological conditions and both disorders share some features that make it difficult to precisely allocate specific symptoms to each disorder. HPA and SAM axis activities have been conclusively associated with anxiety, and may provide a method of validating anxiety rating scale assessments given by parents and their children with AD about those children. Data from HPA axis (salivary cortisol) and SAM axis (salivary alpha amylase) responses were collected from a sample of 32 high-functioning boys (M age=11yr) with an Autistic Disorder (AD) and were compared with the boys' and their mothers' ratings of the boys' anxiety. There was a significant difference between the self-ratings given by the boys and ratings given about them by their mothers. Further, only the boys' self-ratings of their anxiety significantly predicted the HPA axis responses and neither were significantly related to SAM axis responses. Some boys showed cortisol responses which were similar to that previously reported in children who had suffered chronic and severe anxiety arising from stressful social interactions. As well as suggesting that some boys with an AD can provide valid self-assessments of their anxiety, these data also point to the presence of very high levels of chronic HPA-axis arousal and consequent chronic anxiety in these boys. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Response-rate differences in variable-interval and variable-ratio schedules: An old problem revisited

    Cole, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    In Experiment 1, a variable-ratio 10 schedule became, successively, a variable-interval schedule with only the minimum interreinforcement intervals yoked to the variable ratio, or a variable-interval schedule with both interreinforcement intervals and reinforced interresponse times yoked to the variable ratio. Response rates in the variable-interval schedule with both interreinforcement interval and reinforced interresponse time yoking fell between the higher rates maintained by the variable-...

  18. Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Have a Low Response Rate to Vitamin D Supplementation.

    Dasarathy, Jaividhya; Varghese, Rony; Feldman, Abram; Khiyami, Amer; McCullough, Arthur J; Dasarathy, Srinivasan

    2017-10-01

    Background: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with an increased severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but reports on the response to cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3 ) supplementation are conflicting. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if standard vitamin D 3 supplementation is effective in NAFLD with hypovitaminosis D. Methods: Sixty-five well-characterized adults [age (mean ± SD): 51.6 ± 12.3 y] with biopsy-proven NAFLD were screened. Forty-two patients (the ratio of men to women was 13:29) had hypovitaminosis D (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] D treated with 2000 IU cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3 ) daily for 6 mo per clinical practice. Plasma 25(OH)D, hepatic and metabolic panels, and metabolic syndrome components were assessed before and after cholecalciferol supplementation. Body composition was measured by using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The primary outcome measure was plasma 25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL at the end of the study. Secondary outcomes included change in serum transaminases, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Chi-square, Student's t tests, correlation coefficient, and multivariate analysis were performed. Results: Twenty-six (61.9%) patients had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and 16 (38.1%) had hepatic steatosis. After 6 mo of cholecalciferol supplementation, plasma 25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL was observed in 16 subjects (38.1%; responders) whereas the remaining 26 patients (61.9%) were nonresponders with plasma 25(OH)D D in the majority of patients with NASH. Further studies are needed to determine if higher doses are effective. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as 13-00153. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Bistable Bacterial Growth Rate in Response to Antibiotics with Low Membrane Permeability

    Elf, Johan; Nilsson, Karin; Tenson, Tanel; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2006-12-01

    We demonstrate that growth rate bistability for bacterial cells growing exponentially at a fixed external antibiotic concentration can emerge when the cell wall permeability for the drug is low and the growth rate sensitivity to the intracellular drug concentration is high. Under such conditions, an initially high growth rate can remain high, due to dilution of the intracellular drug concentration by rapid cell volume increase, while an initially low growth rate can remain low, due to slow cell volume increase and insignificant drug dilution. Our findings have implications for the testing of novel antibiotics on growing bacterial strains.

  20. Importance of Heart Rate During Exercise for Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    Maass, Alexander H.; Buck, Sandra; Nieuwland, Wybe; Bruegemann, Johan; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    Background: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established therapy for patients with severe heart failure and mechanical dyssynchrony. Response is only achieved in 60-70% of patients. Objectives: To study exercise-related factors predicting response to CRT. Methods: We retrospectively

  1. The Effects of Two Types of Appeal on Survey Response Rates.

    Green, Kathy E.; And Others

    The effects of two cover letter manipulations and their interactions with demographic variables on response to the initial mailing of a survey were investigated. The two manipulations, type of appeal and type of respondent group identification, were intended to affect respondents' perceptions of their social responsibility and position. In all,…

  2. Quantitative Methods for Measuring Repair Rates and Innate-Immune Cell Responses in Wounded Mouse Skin

    Zhi Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In skin wounds, innate-immune cells clear up tissue debris and microbial contamination, and also secrete cytokines and other growth factors that impact repair process such as re-epithelialization and wound closure. After injury, there is a rapid influx and efflux of immune cells at wound sites, yet the function of each innate cell population in skin repair is still under investigation. Flow cytometry is a valuable research tool for detecting and quantifying immune cells; however, in mouse back skin, the difficulty in extracting immune cells from small area of skin due to tissue complexity has made cytometric analysis an underutilized tool. In this paper, we provide detailed methods on the digestion of lesion-specific skin without disrupting antigen expression followed by multiplex cell staining that allows for identification of seven innate-immune populations, including rare subsets such as group-3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s, by flow-cytometry analysis. Furthermore, when studying the functions of immune cells to tissue repair an important metric to monitor is size of the wound opening. Normal wounds close steadily albeit at non-linear rates, while slow or stalled wound closure can indicate an underlying problem with the repair process. Calliper measurements are difficult and time-consuming to obtain and can require repeated sedation of experimental animals. We provide advanced methods for measuring of wound openness; digital 3D image capture and semi-automated image processing that allows for unbiased, reliable measurements that can be taken repeatedly over time.

  3. Effect of vicarious fear learning on children's heart rate responses and attentional bias for novel animals.

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2014-10-01

    Research with children has shown that vicarious learning can result in changes to 2 of Lang's (1968) 3 anxiety response systems: subjective report and behavioral avoidance. The current study extended this research by exploring the effect of vicarious learning on physiological responses (Lang's final response system) and attentional bias. The study used Askew and Field's (2007) vicarious learning procedure and demonstrated fear-related increases in children's cognitive, behavioral, and physiological responses. Cognitive and behavioral changes were retested 1 week and 1 month later, and remained elevated. In addition, a visual search task demonstrated that fear-related vicarious learning creates an attentional bias for novel animals, which is moderated by increases in fear beliefs during learning. The findings demonstrate that vicarious learning leads to lasting changes in all 3 of Lang's anxiety response systems and is sufficient to create attentional bias to threat in children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. A rate equation model of stomatal responses to vapour pressure deficit and drought

    Shanahan ST

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stomata respond to vapour pressure deficit (D – when D increases, stomata begin to close. Closure is the result of a decline in guard cell turgor, but the link between D and turgor is poorly understood. We describe a model for stomatal responses to increasing D based upon cellular water relations. The model also incorporates impacts of increasing levels of water stress upon stomatal responses to increasing D. Results The model successfully mimics the three phases of stomatal responses to D and also reproduces the impact of increasing plant water deficit upon stomatal responses to increasing D. As water stress developed, stomata regulated transpiration at ever decreasing values of D. Thus, stomatal sensitivity to D increased with increasing water stress. Predictions from the model concerning the impact of changes in cuticular transpiration upon stomatal responses to increasing D are shown to conform to experimental data. Sensitivity analyses of stomatal responses to various parameters of the model show that leaf thickness, the fraction of leaf volume that is air-space, and the fraction of mesophyll cell wall in contact with air have little impact upon behaviour of the model. In contrast, changes in cuticular conductance and membrane hydraulic conductivity have significant impacts upon model behaviour. Conclusion Cuticular transpiration is an important feature of stomatal responses to D and is the cause of the 3 phase response to D. Feed-forward behaviour of stomata does not explain stomatal responses to D as feedback, involving water loss from guard cells, can explain these responses.

  5. Response to different rates of nitrogen by five varieties of swamp rice

    A field experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 in Ini Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria; mainly to determine the optimum nitrogen fertilizer rate for the area as well as select the rice varieties that responded optimally. A split plot design was used with five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150and 200kg/ha) as the ...

  6. Improving health promotion through central rating of interventions: the need for Responsive Guidance.

    Kok, Maarten Olivier; Bal, Roland; Roelofs, Caspar David; Schuit, Albertine Jantine

    2017-01-01

    In several countries, attempts are made to improve health promotion by centrally rating the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. The Dutch Effectiveness Rating System (ERS) for health promotion interventions is an improvement-oriented approach in which multi-disciplinary expert

  7. Genetic variation for farrowing rate in pigs in response to change in photoperiod and ambient temperature

    Sevillano del Aguila, Claudia; Mulder, H.A.; Rashidi, H.; Mathur, P.K.; Knol, E.F.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal infertility is often observed as anestrus and a lower conception rate resulting in a reduced farrowing rate (FR) during late summer and early autumn. This is often regarded as an effect of heat stress; however, we observed a reduction in the FR of sows even after correcting for ambient

  8. Open-Access Colleges Responsible for Greatest Gains in Graduation Rates. Policy Alert

    Doyle, William R.

    2010-01-01

    The largest gains in graduation rates over the past decade have been accomplished at open-access or nearly open-access colleges and universities. In addition, states could see even bigger increases if they directed their policies and supports toward improving graduation rates at these nonselective institutions. These findings from the author's…

  9. Paradoxical response to an emotional task: Trait characteristics and heart-rate dynamics

    Balocchia, R.; Varanini, M.; Paoletti, G.; Mecacci, G.; Santarcangelo, E.L.

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the heart-rate dynamics of subjects reporting decreased (responders) or paradoxically increased relaxation (nonresponders) at the end of a threatening movie. Heart-rate dynamics were characterized by indices extracted through recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and

  10. Inducing rat brain CYP2D with nicotine increases the rate of codeine tolerance; predicting the rate of tolerance from acute analgesic response.

    McMillan, Douglas M; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2017-12-01

    Repeated opioid administration produces analgesic tolerance, which may lead to dose escalation. Brain CYP2D metabolizes codeine to morphine, a bioactivation step required for codeine analgesia. Higher brain, but not liver, CYP2D is found in smokers and nicotine induces rat brain, but not liver, CYP2D expression and activity. Nicotine induction of rat brain CYP2D increases acute codeine conversion to morphine, and analgesia, however the role of brain CYP2D on the effects of repeated codeine exposure and tolerance is unknown. Rats were pretreated with nicotine (brain CYP2D inducer; 1mg/kg subcutaneously) or vehicle (saline; 1ml/kg subcutaneously). Codeine (40-60mg/kg oral-gavage) or morphine (20-30mg/kg oral-gavage) was administered daily and analgesia was assessed daily using the tail-flick reflex assay. Nicotine (versus saline) pretreatment increased acute codeine analgesia (1.32-fold change in AUC 0-60 min ; pnicotine did not alter acute morphine analgesia (1.03-fold; p>0.8), or the rate of morphine tolerance (8.1%/day versus 7.6%; p>0.9). The rate of both codeine and morphine tolerance (loss in peak analgesia from day 1 to day 4) correlated with initial analgesic response on day 1 (R=0.97, p<001). Increasing brain CYP2D altered initial analgesia and subsequent rate of tolerance. Variation in an individual's initial response to analgesic (e.g. high initial dose, smoking) may affect the rate of tolerance, and thereby the risk for dose escalation and/or opioid dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Coping with continuous human disturbance in the wild: insights from penguin heart rate response to various stressors.

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Smith, Andrew D; Gineste, Benoit; Groscolas, René

    2012-07-11

    A central question for ecologists is the extent to which anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. tourism) might impact wildlife and affect the systems under study. From a research perspective, identifying the effects of human disturbance caused by research-related activities is crucial in order to understand and account for potential biases and derive appropriate conclusions from the data. Here, we document a case of biological adjustment to chronic human disturbance in a colonial seabird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), breeding on remote and protected islands of the Southern ocean. Using heart rate (HR) as a measure of the stress response, we show that, in a colony with areas exposed to the continuous presence of humans (including scientists) for over 50 years, penguins have adjusted to human disturbance and habituated to certain, but not all, types of stressors. When compared to birds breeding in relatively undisturbed areas, birds in areas of high chronic human disturbance were found to exhibit attenuated HR responses to acute anthropogenic stressors of low-intensity (i.e. sounds or human approaches) to which they had been subjected intensely over the years. However, such attenuation was not apparent for high-intensity stressors (i.e. captures for scientific research) which only a few individuals experience each year. Habituation to anthropogenic sounds/approaches could be an adaptation to deal with chronic innocuous stressors, and beneficial from a research perspective. Alternately, whether penguins have actually habituated to anthropogenic disturbances over time or whether human presence has driven the directional selection of human-tolerant phenotypes, remains an open question with profound ecological and conservation implications, and emphasizes the need for more knowledge on the effects of human disturbance on long-term studied populations.

  12. Coping with continuous human disturbance in the wild: insights from penguin heart rate response to various stressors

    Viblanc Vincent A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central question for ecologists is the extent to which anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. tourism might impact wildlife and affect the systems under study. From a research perspective, identifying the effects of human disturbance caused by research-related activities is crucial in order to understand and account for potential biases and derive appropriate conclusions from the data. Results Here, we document a case of biological adjustment to chronic human disturbance in a colonial seabird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus, breeding on remote and protected islands of the Southern ocean. Using heart rate (HR as a measure of the stress response, we show that, in a colony with areas exposed to the continuous presence of humans (including scientists for over 50 years, penguins have adjusted to human disturbance and habituated to certain, but not all, types of stressors. When compared to birds breeding in relatively undisturbed areas, birds in areas of high chronic human disturbance were found to exhibit attenuated HR responses to acute anthropogenic stressors of low-intensity (i.e. sounds or human approaches to which they had been subjected intensely over the years. However, such attenuation was not apparent for high-intensity stressors (i.e. captures for scientific research which only a few individuals experience each year. Conclusions Habituation to anthropogenic sounds/approaches could be an adaptation to deal with chronic innocuous stressors, and beneficial from a research perspective. Alternately, whether penguins have actually habituated to anthropogenic disturbances over time or whether human presence has driven the directional selection of human-tolerant phenotypes, remains an open question with profound ecological and conservation implications, and emphasizes the need for more knowledge on the effects of human disturbance on long-term studied populations.

  13. Controlling for Response Bias in Self-Ratings of Personality: A Comparison of Impression Management Scales and the Overclaiming Technique.

    Müller, Sascha; Moshagen, Morten

    2018-04-12

    Self-serving response distortions pose a threat to the validity of personality scales. A common approach to deal with this issue is to rely on impression management (IM) scales. More recently, the overclaiming technique (OCT) has been proposed as an alternative and arguably superior measure of such biases. In this study (N = 162), we tested these approaches in the context of self- and other-ratings using the HEXACO personality inventory. To the extent that the OCT and IM scales can be considered valid measures of response distortions, they are expected to account for inflated self-ratings in particular for those personality dimensions that are prone to socially desirable responding. However, the results show that neither the OCT nor IM account for overly favorable self-ratings. The validity of IM as a measure of response biases was further scrutinized by a substantial correlation with other-rated honesty-humility. As such, this study questions the use of both the OCT and IM to assess self-serving response distortions.

  14. Growth response of Douglas-fir seedlings to nitrogen fertilization: importance of Rubisco activation state and respiration rates.

    Daniel K. Manter; Kathleen L. Kavanagh; Cathy L. Rose

    2005-01-01

    High foliar nitrogen concentration ([N]) is associated with high rates of photosynthesis and thus high tree productivity; however, at excessive [N], tree productivity is reduced. Reports of excessive [N] in the Douglas-fir forests of the Oregon Coast Range prompted this investigation of growth and needle physiological responses to increasing foliar N concentrations in...

  15. Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at near-zero growth rates : Transcriptome analysis of anaerobic retentostat cultures

    Boender, L.G.M.; Van Maris, A.J.A.; De Hulster, E.A.F.; Almering, M.J.H.; Van der Klei, I.J.; Veenhuis, M.; De Winde, J.H.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran-Lapujade, P.A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Extremely low specific growth rates (below 0.01 h?1) represent a largely unexplored area of microbial physiology. In this study, anaerobic, glucose-limited retentostats were used to analyse physiological and genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cultivation at

  16. Diffusion of Innovation Theory and Xbox Live: Examining Minority Gamers' Responses and Rate of Adoption to Changes in Xbox Live

    Gray, Kishonna L.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the response of minority gamers as they adopt new innovations in Xbox Live. Using diffusion of innovation theory, specific attention is given to gamers' rate of adoption of the new Xbox Live environment, which was a recent update to the Xbox Live interface. By employing virtual ethnography, observations, and interviews reveal…

  17. Understanding the Effect of Response Rate and Class Size Interaction on Students Evaluation of Teaching in a Higher Education

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; AlQuraan, Mahmoud; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the interaction between response rate and class size and its effects on students' evaluation of instructors and the courses offered at a higher education Institution in Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A retrospective study design was chosen. Methods: One thousand four hundred and forty four different courses…

  18. Multi-scale Modeling of the Impact Response of a Strain Rate Sensitive High-Manganese Austenitic Steel

    Orkun eÖnal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A multi-scale modeling approach was applied to predict the impact response of a strain rate sensitive high-manganese austenitic steel. The roles of texture, geometry and strain rate sensitivity were successfully taken into account all at once by coupling crystal plasticity and finite element (FE analysis. Specifically, crystal plasticity was utilized to obtain the multi-axial flow rule at different strain rates based on the experimental deformation response under uniaxial tensile loading. The equivalent stress – equivalent strain response was then incorporated into the FE model for the sake of a more representative hardening rule under impact loading. The current results demonstrate that reliable predictions can be obtained by proper coupling of crystal plasticity and FE analysis even if the experimental flow rule of the material is acquired under uniaxial loading and at moderate strain rates that are significantly slower than those attained during impact loading. Furthermore, the current findings also demonstrate the need for an experiment-based multi-scale modeling approach for the sake of reliable predictions of the impact response.

  19. Prenotification, Incentives, and Survey Modality: An Experimental Test of Methods to Increase Survey Response Rates of School Principals

    Jacob, Robin Tepper; Jacob, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Teacher and principal surveys are among the most common data collection techniques employed in education research. Yet there is remarkably little research on survey methods in education, or about the most cost-effective way to raise response rates among teachers and principals. In an effort to explore various methods for increasing survey response…

  20. The Cornella Health Interview Survey Follow-Up (CHIS.FU Study: design, methods, and response rate

    Perez Gloria

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this report is to describe the main characteristics of the design, including response rates, of the Cornella Health Interview Survey Follow-up Study. Methods The original cohort consisted of 2,500 subjects (1,263 women and 1,237 men interviewed as part of the 1994 Cornella Health Interview Study. A record linkage to update the address and vital status of the cohort members was carried out using, first a deterministic method, and secondly a probabilistic one, based on each subject's first name and surnames. Subsequently, we attempted to locate the cohort members to conduct the phone follow-up interviews. A pilot study was carried out to test the overall feasibility and to modify some procedures before the field work began. Results After record linkage, 2,468 (98.7% subjects were successfully traced. Of these, 91 (3.6% were deceased, 259 (10.3% had moved to other towns, and 50 (2.0% had neither renewed their last municipal census documents nor declared having moved. After using different strategies to track and to retain cohort members, we traced 92% of the CHIS participants. From them, 1,605 subjects answered the follow-up questionnaire. Conclusion The computerized record linkage maximized the success of the follow-up that was carried out 7 years after the baseline interview. The pilot study was useful to increase the efficiency in tracing and interviewing the respondents.

  1. Regional changes over time in initial virologic response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    Bannister, Wendy P; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, Jose M

    2006-01-01

    : Virologic response (viral load SIDA patients. Analyses were stratified by region (south, central west, north, east) or time started cART (early, 1996-1997; mid, 1998-1999; late, 2000-1904). RESULTS: Virologic...

  2. Regional changes over time in initial virological response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    Bannister, W; Kirk, O; Gatell, J

    2006-01-01

    : Virologic response (viral load SIDA patients. Analyses were stratified by region (south, central west, north, east) or time started cART (early, 1996-1997; mid, 1998-1999; late, 2000-1904). RESULTS: Virologic...

  3. Growth and yield responses of broccoli cultivars to different rates of nitrogen at western Chitwan, Nepal

    Giri, Raj Kumar; Sharma, Moha Datta; Shakya, Santa Man

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted with the objective to determine the optimum rate of nitrogen (N) fertilizer for effective growth and yield of two varieties of broccoli in southern plain of Nepal. The experiment was laid out with two-factorial completely random block design (RCBD) comprising two...... varieties of broccoli (Calabrese and Green Sprouting) and five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) with three replication in each treatment combinations. The effects of variety and N rate on total curd yield were significant but the interaction effect was non-significant. Green Sprouting produced 11...

  4. The influence of dose fractionation and dose rate on normal tissue responses

    Barendsen, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of responses of a variety of normal tissues in animals to fractionated irradiations has been made with the aim of developing a formalism for the prediction of tolerance doses as a function of the dose per fraction and the overall treatment time. An important feature of the formalism is that it is directly based on radiological insights and therefore provides a logical concept to account for the diversity of tissue responses. (Auth.)

  5. System analysis of the dynamic response of the coronary circulation to a sudden change in heart rate.

    Dankelman, J; Stassen, H G; Spaan, J A

    1990-03-01

    In this study the response of driving pressure/flow ration on an abrupt change in heart rate was analysed. The difference between the response obtained with constant pressure and constant flow perfusion was also studied. The responses show a fast initial reversed phase followed by a slow phase caused by regulation. To test whether the initial phase could be the result of mechanical changes in the coronary circulation, a model for regulation was extended by the addition of four different mechanical models originating from the literature. These extended models were able to explain the fast initial phase. However, the mechanical model consisting of an intramyocardial compliance (C = 0.08 ml mm Hg-1 100 g-1) with a variable venous resistance, and the model consisting of a waterfall and a small compliance (C = 0.007 ml mm Hg-1 100g-1) both explained these responses best. The analysis showed that there is no direct relationship between rate of change of vascular tone and rate of change of pressure/flow ratio. However, on the basis of the two extended models, it can be predicted that the half-time for the response of regulation to be complete is about 9s with constant pressure perfusion and 15 s with constant flow perfusion.

  6. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration rates enhanced by microbial community response.

    Karhu, Kristiina; Auffret, Marc D; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Hopkins, David W; Prosser, James I; Singh, Brajesh K; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip A; Agren, Göran I; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Gouriveau, Fabrice; Bergkvist, Göran; Meir, Patrick; Nottingham, Andrew T; Salinas, Norma; Hartley, Iain P

    2014-09-04

    Soils store about four times as much carbon as plant biomass, and soil microbial respiration releases about 60 petagrams of carbon per year to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Short-term experiments have shown that soil microbial respiration increases exponentially with temperature. This information has been incorporated into soil carbon and Earth-system models, which suggest that warming-induced increases in carbon dioxide release from soils represent an important positive feedback loop that could influence twenty-first-century climate change. The magnitude of this feedback remains uncertain, however, not least because the response of soil microbial communities to changing temperatures has the potential to either decrease or increase warming-induced carbon losses substantially. Here we collect soils from different ecosystems along a climate gradient from the Arctic to the Amazon and investigate how microbial community-level responses control the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. We find that the microbial community-level response more often enhances than reduces the mid- to long-term (90 days) temperature sensitivity of respiration. Furthermore, the strongest enhancing responses were observed in soils with high carbon-to-nitrogen ratios and in soils from cold climatic regions. After 90 days, microbial community responses increased the temperature sensitivity of respiration in high-latitude soils by a factor of 1.4 compared to the instantaneous temperature response. This suggests that the substantial carbon stores in Arctic and boreal soils could be more vulnerable to climate warming than currently predicted.

  7. Analysis of the response dependence of Ebt3 radiochromic film with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scanning mode and humidity

    Leon M, E. Y.; Camacho L, M. A.; Herrera G, J. A.; Garcia G, O. A.; Villarreal B, J. E.

    2016-10-01

    With the development of new modalities in radiotherapy treatments, the use of radiochromic films has increased considerably. Because the characteristics that presented, they are suitable for quality control and dose measurement. In this work and analysis of the dependence of the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films with energy, dose rate, wavelength, scan mode and humidity, for a dose range of 0-70 Gy is presented. According to the results, the response of Ebt3 radiochromic films has low dependence on energy, dose rate, scan mode and humidity. However, the sensitivity of the response Ebt3 radiochromic films has a high dependence on the wavelength of the optical system used for reading. (Author)

  8. Laser-based irradiation apparatus and methods for monitoring the dose-rate response of semiconductor devices

    Horn, Kevin M [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-03-28

    A scanned, pulsed, focused laser irradiation apparatus can measure and image the photocurrent collection resulting from a dose-rate equivalent exposure to infrared laser light across an entire silicon die. Comparisons of dose-rate response images or time-delay images from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems allows precise identification of those specific age-affected circuit structures within a device that merit further quantitative analysis with targeted materials or electrical testing techniques. Another embodiment of the invention comprises a broad-beam, dose rate-equivalent exposure apparatus. The broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. This embodiment can be combined with the synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into a device under test to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure.

  9. Response of MnBi-Bi eutectic to freezing rate changes

    Nair, M.; Fu, T.-W.; Wilcox, W. R.; Doddi, K.; Ravishankar, P. S.; Larson, D.

    1982-01-01

    Reference is made to a study by Fu and Wilcox (1981), which treated theoretically the influence on freezing rate of sudden changes in translation rate in the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. This treatment is extended here to a linear ramped translation rate and an oscillatory freezing rate. It is found that oscillations above a few hertz are highly damped in small-diameter apparatus. An experimental test is carried out of the theoretical predictions for a sudden change of translation rate. The MnBi-Bi eutectic is solidified with current-induced interface demarcation. The experimental results accord reasonably well with theory if the silica ampoule wall is assumed to either (1) contribute only a resistance to heat exchange between the sample and the furnace wall or (2) transmit heat effectively in the axial direction by radiation. In an attempt to explain the fact that a finer microstructure is obtained in space, MnBi-Bi microstructure is determined when the freezing rate is increased or decreased rapidly. Preliminary results suggest that fiber branching does not occur as readily as fiber termination.

  10. The T Cell Response to Major Grass Allergens Is Regulated and Includes IL-10 Production in Atopic but Not in Non-Atopic Subjects

    Domdey, A.; Liu, A.; Millner, A.

    2010-01-01

    in allergen-specific responses. The aim was to determine whether major grass allergens induce production of suppressive cytokines in allergic and healthy subjects and to examine the inhibitory effect of these cytokines on allergic responses. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated...... from healthy and grass-allergic donors and stimulated with the major grass allergens Phl p 1 or Phl p 5. The effects of endogenous IL-10 and/or TGF-beta on proliferation and cytokine production were determined by use of blocking antibodies. In addition, the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells...... in PBMCs in the two groups, but fewer cells from atopic donors were CD4(+)CD25(+)CCR4(+) and more cells were CD4(+)CD25(+)CLA(+) compared to healthy donors. Conclusion: Allergen-specific responses of grass allergic patients but not in non-atopic subjects are influenced by regulatory cytokines produced...

  11. Maturation of cortical mismatch responses to occasional pitch change in early infancy: effects of presentation rate and magnitude of change.

    He, Chao; Hotson, Lisa; Trainor, Laurel J

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have reported two types of event-related potential (ERP) mismatch responses in infants to infrequent auditory changes: a broad discriminative positivity in younger infants and a negativity resembling adult mismatch negativity (MMN) in older infants. In the present study, we investigated whether the positive discriminative slow wave and the adult-like MMN are functionally distinct by examining how they are affected by presentation rate and magnitude of change. We measured ERPs from adults, 2-month-olds, and 4-month-olds to a repeating piano tone (standard) that occasionally changed in pitch (deviant). The pitch changes between standards and deviants were either small (1/12 octave) or large (1/2 octave) in magnitude, and the stimulus presentation rate was either slow (800 ms SOA) or fast (400 ms SOA). As the presentation rate increased, both adults and 4-month-olds showed an MMN response that decreased in latency, but was unaffected in amplitude. As the magnitude of the pitch change increased, MMN increased in amplitude. On the other hand, only a broad positive mismatch response was seen in 2-month-olds. As the presentation rate increased, 2-month-olds' responses to standard tones decreased in amplitude while their responses to deviant tones were unaffected. The magnitude of the pitch change did not affect 2-month-olds' responses. These results suggest that pitch is processed differently in auditory cortex by 2-month-olds and 4-month-olds, and that a cortical change-detection mechanism for pitch discrimination similar to that of adults emerges between 2 and 4 months of age.

  12. Transcriptional regulation of ABI3- and ABA-responsive genes including RD29B and RD29A in seeds, germinating embryos, and seedlings of Arabidopsis.

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Fujita, Yasunari; Katsura, Koji; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2006-01-01

    ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) are cis-acting elements and basic leucine zipper (bZIP)-type ABRE-binding proteins (AREBs) are transcriptional activators that function in the expression of RD29B in vegetative tissue of Arabidopsis in response to abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Dehydration-responsive elements (DREs) function as coupling elements of ABRE in the expression of RD29A in response to ABA. Expression analysis using abi3 and abi5 mutants showed that ABI3 and ABI5 play important roles in the expression of RD29B in seeds. Base-substitution analysis showed that two ABREs function strongly and one ABRE coupled with DRE functions weakly in the expression of RD29A in embryos. In a transient transactivation experiment, ABI3, ABI5 and AREB1 activated transcription of a GUS reporter gene driven by the RD29B promoter strongly but these proteins activated the transcription driven by the RD29A promoter weakly. In 35S::ABI3 Arabidopsis plants, the expression of RD29B was up-regulated strongly, but that of RD29A was up-regulated weakly. These results indicate that the expression of RD29B having ABREs in the promoter is up-regulated strongly by ABI3, whereas that of RD29A having one ABRE coupled with DREs in the promoter is up-regulated weakly by ABI3. We compared the expression of 7000 Arabidopsis genes in response to ABA treatment during germination and in the vegetative growth stage, and that in 35S::ABI3 plants using a full-length cDNA microarray. The expression of ABI3- and/or ABA-responsive genes and cis-elements in the promoters are discussed.

  13. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Interim Report on Customer Acceptance, Retention, and Response to Time-Based Rates from the Consumer Behavior Studies

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hans, Liesel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scheer, Richard [Scheer Ventures, Takoma Park, MD (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Time-based rate programs1, enabled by utility investments in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), are increasingly being considered by utilities as tools to reduce peak demand and enable customers to better manage consumption and costs. There are several customer systems that are relatively new to the marketplace and have the potential for improving the effectiveness of these programs, including in-home displays (IHDs), programmable communicating thermostats (PCTs), and web portals. Policy and decision makers are interested in more information about customer acceptance, retention, and response before moving forward with expanded deployments of AMI-enabled new rates and technologies. Under the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (SGIG), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partnered with several utilities to conduct consumer behavior studies (CBS). The goals involved applying randomized and controlled experimental designs for estimating customer responses more precisely and credibly to advance understanding of time-based rates and customer systems, and provide new information for improving program designs, implementation strategies, and evaluations. The intent was to produce more robust and credible analysis of impacts, costs, benefits, and lessons learned and assist utility and regulatory decision makers in evaluating investment opportunities involving time-based rates. To help achieve these goals, DOE developed technical guidelines to help the CBS utilities estimate customer acceptance, retention, and response more precisely.

  14. A systematic review of treatment response rates in Pakistani hepatitis C virus patients; current prospects and future challenges

    Ali, Muhammad; Afzal, Samia; Zia, Asad; Hassan, Ahmed; Khalil, Ali Talha; Ovais, Muhammad; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Idrees, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The estimated hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers are approximately 10 million in Pakistan which usually progresses to chronic hepatitis, with rare cases of spontaneous viral eradication. The present article reviews the treatment status of HCV infection in Pakistani population and various factors associated with the treatment response rates. Methods: Literature on anti-HCV therapy was searched in PubMed, Google Scholar and PakMediNet. Thirty three different studies representing different geographic regions of Pakistan published from 2002 to 2016 were included in the present review. Weighted mean, standard error estimates (SE) and standard deviation (SD) were determined for each population group. Results: Mean value for sustained virological response (SVR) for standard IFN plus ribavirin (RBV) combination therapy was 68.38% ± 14.13% (range 33.8%–87.10%; SE 3.08) and pegylated-IFN plus RBV combination therapy 64.38% ± 8.68% (range 55.0%–76.00%; SE 3.88). The lowest value for SVR has been reported to be 24.3% (for genotype 1; administering INF-α 2b 3MU 3 times/week and RBV 1000–1200 mg/day for 48 weeks) while highest of 87.5% (genotype 3a; INF-α 2a 3MU 3 times/week and RBV 1000–1200 mg/day for 24 weeks). The mean value for rapid virological response (RVR) was found to be 48.18% ± 29.20% (SE 9.73). As PEG-interferon and direct acting antivirals (DAAs) are relatively expensive, interferon-alfa (IFN-α) and RBV combination therapy have been used widely to treat HCV infected patients in Pakistan for the last one and half decade. On average, 2.45% of the patients discontinued treatment due to severe side effects. Conclusion: We encourage further studies on understanding host and viral factors associated with specific focus on harder to treat viral variants (relapsers and nonresponders). These variants are currently rising in the country. PMID:27977575

  15. Inhibition linearizes firing rate responses in human motor units: implications for the role of persistent inward currents.

    Revill, Ann L; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons are the output neurons of the central nervous system and are responsible for controlling muscle contraction. When initially activated during voluntary contraction, firing rates of motor neurons increase steeply but then level out at modest rates. Activation of an intrinsic source of excitatory current at recruitment onset may underlie the initial steep increase in firing rate in motor neurons. We attempted to disable this intrinsic excitatory current by artificially activating an inhibitory reflex. When motor neuron activity was recorded while the inhibitory reflex was engaged, firing rates no longer increased steeply, suggesting that the intrinsic excitatory current was probably responsible for the initial sharp rise in motor neuron firing rate. During graded isometric contractions, motor unit (MU) firing rates increase steeply upon recruitment but then level off at modest rates even though muscle force continues to increase. The mechanisms underlying such firing behaviour are not known although activation of persistent inward currents (PICs) might be involved. PICs are intrinsic, voltage-dependent currents that activate strongly when motor neurons (MNs) are first recruited. Such activation might cause a sharp escalation in depolarizing current and underlie the steep initial rise in MU firing rate. Because PICs can be disabled with synaptic inhibition, we hypothesized that artificial activation of an inhibitory pathway might curb this initial steep rise in firing rate. To test this, human subjects performed slow triangular ramp contractions of the ankle dorsiflexors in the absence and presence of tonic synaptic inhibition delivered to tibialis anterior (TA) MNs by sural nerve stimulation. Firing rate profiles (expressed as a function of contraction force) of TA MUs recorded during these tasks were compared for control and stimulation conditions. Under control conditions, during the ascending phase of the triangular contractions, 93% of the firing

  16. MYR1-Dependent Effectors Are the Major Drivers of a Host Cell’s Early Response to Toxoplasma, Including Counteracting MYR1-Independent Effects

    Adit Naor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii controls its host cell from within the parasitophorous vacuole (PV by using a number of diverse effector proteins, a subset of which require the aspartyl protease 5 enzyme (ASP5 and/or the recently discovered MYR1 protein to cross the PV membrane. To examine the impact these effectors have in the context of the entirety of the host response to Toxoplasma, we used RNA-Seq to analyze the transcriptome expression profiles of human foreskin fibroblasts infected with wild-type RH (RH-WT, RHΔmyr1, and RHΔasp5 tachyzoites. Interestingly, the majority of the differentially regulated genes responding to Toxoplasma infection are MYR1 dependent. A subset of MYR1 responses were ASP5 independent, and MYR1 function did not require ASP5 cleavage, suggesting the export of some effectors requires only MYR1. Gene set enrichment analysis of MYR1-dependent host responses suggests an upregulation of E2F transcription factors and the cell cycle and a downregulation related to interferon signaling, among numerous others. Most surprisingly, “hidden” responses arising in RHΔmyr1- but not RH-WT-infected host cells indicate counterbalancing actions of MYR1-dependent and -independent activities. The host genes and gene sets revealed here to be MYR1 dependent provide new insight into the parasite’s ability to co-opt host cell functions.

  17. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses towards disgusting stimuli -Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli-

    Ilona eCroy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors or tactile stimuli. Therefore disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared.A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory channel. Ratings of evoked disgust as well as responses of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, skin conductance level, systolic blood pressure were recorded and the effect of stimulus labeling and of repeated presentation was analyzed. Ratings suggested that disgust could be evoked through all senses; they were highest for visual stimuli. However, autonomic reaction towards disgusting stimuli differed according to the channel of presentation. In contrast to the other, olfactory disgust stimuli provoked a strong decrease of systolic blood pressure. Additionally, labeling enhanced disgust ratings and autonomic reaction for olfactory and tactile, but not for visual and auditory stimuli. Repeated presentation indicated that participant’s disgust rating diminishes to all but olfactory disgust stimuli. Taken together we argue that the sensory channel through which a disgust reaction is evoked matters.

  18. RATING CREATION FOR PROFESSIONAL EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS BASED ON THE ITEM RESPONSE THEORY

    N. E. Erganova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to theoretically justify and describe approval of the measurement of the level of provision of educational services, education qualities and rating of vocational educational organizations.Methods. The fundamentals of methodology of the research conducted by authors are made by provisions of system approach; research on a schematization and modeling of pedagogical objects; the provision of the theory of measurement of latent variables. As the main methods of research the analysis, synthesis, the comparative analysis, statistical methods of processing of results of research are applied.Results. The paper gives a short comparative analysis of potentials of qualitative approach and strong points of the theory of latent variables in evaluating the quality of education and ratings of the investigated object. The technique of measurement of level of rendering educational services at creation of a rating of the professional educational organizations is stated.Scientific novelty. Pedagogical opportunities of the theory of measurement of latent variables are investigated; the principles of creation of ratings of the professional educational organizations are designated.Practical significance. The operational construct of the latent variable «quality of education» for the secondary professional education (SPE approved in the Perm Territory which can form base of formation of similar constructs for creation of a rating of the professional educational organizations in other regions is developed.

  19. Dose rate effect on the yield of radiation induced response with thermal fading

    Chernov, V.; Rogalev, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2005-01-01

    A model describing the dependences of the accumulation of thermally unstable radiation induced defects on the dose and dose rate is proposed. The model directly takes into account the track nature of the ionizing radiation represented as accumulation processes of defects in tracks averaged over a crystal volume considering various degrees of overlapping in space and time. The accumulation of the defects in the tracks is phenomenologically described. General expressions are obtained that allows radiation yield simulation of defects involving known creation and transformation processes. The cases considered, of linear accumulation (constant increment of the defects in tracks) and accumulation with saturation (complete saturation of the defects in one track), lead to a set of linear dose dependences with saturation, which are routinely used in luminescence and ESR dating. The accumulation, with increase of sensitivity in regions overlapped by two or more tracks, gave a set of dose dependences, from linear-sublinear-linear-saturation, distinctive of quartz up to linear-supralinear-linear-saturation. It is shown that the effect of the dose rate on dose dependences is determined by a dimensionless parameter a=Pτ/D0, where P is the dose rate, τ is the defect lifetime and D0 is the track dose. At a-bar 1 the dose rate influences basically the accumulation of thermally unstable defects. In the reverse case the dose dependences did not seems to be influenced by the dose rate

  20. Regional changes over time in initial virological response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    Bannister, W; Kirk, O; Gatell, J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS.......026) and time (P changes were observed (south, P = 0.061; central west, P ....001; north: P = 0.070; east, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There was some evidence of regional differences in initial virologic response to cART. Improvements over time were observed, suggesting that so far, the effect of primary resistance has not been of sufficient magnitude to prevent increasing suppression...