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Sample records for response project ground

  1. Site response zones and short-period earthquake ground motion projections for the Las Vegas Basin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barbara Luke; Ying Liu

    2008-11-01

    A deterministic seismic hazard analysis was conducted to address the effect of local soil conditions on earthquake-induced strong ground motion in the Las Vegas Basin, Nevada (US). Using a large geological and geotechnical database, two response units were defined: a fine-grained unit, predominantly clay; and a coarse-grained unit, predominantly gravel. A moderate number of high-quality shallow shear wave velocity measurements were collected from which characteristic shear wave velocity profiles were developed for each response unit. An equivalent-linear one-dimensional site response model was used. The model was calibrated using a basin-wide, small-strain ground motion database. Calibration tests showed that ground motion projections become increasingly conservative with increasing ground-motion amplitude. Projections were overconservative for the coarsegrained response unit, likely due to the sparseness of the velocity database. For the earthquake response analyses, historical ground motions were used to model characteristic ‘bedrock’ motion for earthquakes on 10 faults judged to be critical. Response spectral envelopes were generated for each unit through Monte-Carlo simulations. For the fine-grained response unit, 95th percentile peak ground acceleration, peak spectral acceleration and predominant period were 310 cm/s2, 1100cm/s2, and 0.29 s, respectively. With respect to codified design spectra, projections are lower at short periods and higher at long periods. Projections of peak spectral accelerations for the coarsegrained response unit, were more than double that of codified spectra; however, they are believed to be overconservative. Near-fault effects and basin-edge effects, though potentially important, were not considered in these analyses.

  2. The Las Vegas Valley Seismic Response Project: Ground Motions in Las Vegas Valley from Nuclear Explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; McCallen, D

    2005-03-18

    Between 2001-2004 the Las Vegas Seismic Response Project has sought to understand the response of Las Vegas Valley (LVV) to seismic excitation. In this study, the author report the findings of this project with an emphasis on ground motions in LVV from nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These ground motions are used to understand building structural response and damage as well as human perception. Historical nuclear explosion observations are augmented with earthquake recordings from a temporary deployment of seismometers to improve spatial coverage of LVV. The nuclear explosions were conducted between 1968 and 1989 and were recorded at various sites within Las Vegas. The data from past nuclear tests were used to constrain ground motions in LVV and to gain a predictive capability of ground motions for possible future nuclear tests at NTS. Analysis of ground motion data includes peak ground motions (accelerations and velocities) and amplification of basin sites relative to hard rock sites (site response). Site response was measured with the Standard Spectral Ratios (SSR) technique relative to hard rock reference sites on the periphery of LVV. The site response curves indicate a strong basin amplification of up to a factor of ten at frequencies between 0.5-2 Hz. Amplifications are strongest in the central and northern portions of LVV, where the basin is deeper than 1 km based on the reported basin depths of Langenheim et al (2001a). They found a strong correlation between amplification and basin depth and shallow shear wave velocities. Amplification below 1 Hz is strongly controlled by slowness-averaged shear velocities to depths of 30 and 100 meters. Depth averaged shear velocities to 10 meters has modest control of amplifications between 1-3 Hz. Modeling reveals that low velocity material in the shallow layers (< 200 m) effectively controls amplification. They developed a method to scale nuclear explosion ground motion time series to sites around LVV

  3. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  4. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Anomaly Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop the capability to identify anomalous conditions (indications to potential impending system failure) in ground system operations before such...

  5. Ground Enterprise Management System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft ground systems are on the cusp of achieving "plug-and-play" capability, i.e., they are approaching the state in which the various components can be...

  6. Enhanced Ground Control for ISS Robotics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate and adapt aides which will increase the efficiency of ISS robotics ground control operations with the intent of creating more...

  7. The Interim : until you achieve an operationally responsive ground system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Bob; Clarke, Kelly; Lei, Jordan; Miyamoto, Charles; Owen-Mankovich, Kyran

    2008-01-01

    Everyone wants to achieve a 'Responsive' Ground Data System (GDS), but that takes time. What do you do in the interim? Our group, called the Integration, Test and Deployment Team (ITD), is a group of responsive engineers whose primary focus is to assist JPL projects to successfully adapt, test, integrate and deploy their ground data system. The team configures and adapts the GDS for a project, so that analysts, engineers and scientist do not need to be experts in the GDS to operate it. The team has developed a human interface to accommodate all types of users. It provides Graphical User Interfaces (GUI's) for those that want GUI's, command line interfaces for those that want control, and selection button interfaces for other users. The cornerstone of a responsive Ground Data System is responsive people. Without individuals who can be aware of a project's changing needs and requirements, how can the GDS become responsive

  8. Airport Ground Resource Planning Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertakes the creation of an Airport Ground Resource Planning (AGRP) tool. Little or no automation is currently available to support airport ground...

  9. Nordic Seas Precipitation Ground Validation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, Christian; Bumke, Karl; Bakan, Stephan; Andersson, Axel

    2010-05-01

    A thorough knowledge of global ocean precipitation is an indispensable prerequisite for the understanding of the water cycle in the global climate system. However, reliable detection of precipitation over the global oceans, especially of solid precipitation, remains a challenging task. This is true for both, passive microwave remote sensing and reanalysis based model estimates. The satellite based HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data) climatology contains fields of precipitation, evaporation and the resulting freshwater flux along with 12 additional atmospheric parameters over the global ice-free ocean between 1987 and 2005. Except for the NOAA Pathfinder SST, all basic state variables are calculated from SSM/I passive microwave radiometer measurements. HOAPS contains three main data subsets that originate from one common pixel-level data source. Gridded 0.5 degree monthly, pentad and twice daily data products are freely available from www.hoaps.org. The optical disdrometer ODM 470 is a ground validation instrument capable of measuring rain and snowfall on ships even under high wind speeds. It was used for the first time over the Nordic Seas during the LOFZY 2005 campaign. A dichotomous verification for these snowfall events resulted in a perfect score between the disdrometer, a precipitation detector and a shipboard observer's log. The disdrometer data is further point-to-area collocated against precipitation from three satellite derived climatologies, HOAPS-3, the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) one degree daily (1DD) data set, and the Goddard Profiling algorithm, version 2004 (GPROF 2004). Only the HOAPS precipitation turns out to be overall consistent with the disdrometer data resulting in an accuracy of 0.96. The collocated data comprises light precipitation events below 1 mm/h. Therefore two LOFZY case studies with high precipitation rates are presented that still indicate plausible results. Overall, this

  10. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant scale that can be projected onto future Spaceport architectures...

  11. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  12. Machine Vision Automation for Ground Control Tele-Robotics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to advance ground based tele-robotic capabilities with the development of natural feature target tracking technology with the use of machine...

  13. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Enterprise Architecture Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    The project implements an architecture for delivery of integrated health management capabilities for the 21st Century launch complex. The delivered capabilities include anomaly detection, fault isolation, prognostics and physics based diagnostics.

  14. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...

  15. CPECC Broke Ground for EPC Project in Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On August 20, 2005, ground breaking ceremony of EPC project, a condensate refinery with a annual capacity of 5million tons, was held in Skikda, western Algeria, its construction will be undertaken by China Petroleum Engineering Construction Company (CPECC), a subsidiary of CNPC. Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika presented at the ceremony with his governmental officials. Present were top managers of the project owner, Algerian State Oil Company (SONATRACH), and Mr. Wang Yilin, Vice President of CNPC and CNPC delegation.

  16. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models For Diagnostics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations. This project will develop and implement high-fidelity physics-based modeling techniques tosimulate the real-time operation of cryogenics and other fluids systems and, when compared to thereal-time operation of the actual systems, provide assessment of their state. Physics-modelcalculated measurements (called “pseudo-sensors”) will be compared to the system real-timedata. Comparison results will be utilized to provide systems operators with enhanced monitoring ofsystems' health and status, identify off-nominal trends and diagnose system/component failures.This capability can also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenics and other fluidsystems designs. This capability will be interfaced with the ground operations command andcontrol system as a part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project to helpassure system availability and mission success. The initial capability will be developed for theLiquid Oxygen (LO2) ground loading systems.

  17. North Village Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redderson, Jeff

    2015-08-03

    This project demonstrated the feasibility of converting from a traditional direct exchange system to a ground source heat pump system on a large scale, multiple building apartment complex on a university campus. A total of ten apartment buildings were converted using vertical well fields and a ground source loop that connected the 24 apartments in each building into a common system. The system has yielded significant operational savings in both energy and maintenance and transformed the living environments of these residential buildings for our students.

  18. ISTAR: Project Status and Ground Test Engine Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jason Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Review of the current technical and programmatic status of the Integrated System Test of an Airbreathing Rocket (ISTAR) project. November 2002 completed Phase 1 of this project: which worked the conceptual design of the X-43B demonstrator vehicle and Flight Test Engine (FTE) order to develop realistic requirements for the Ground Test Engine (GTE). The latest conceptual FTE and X-43B configuration is briefly reviewed. The project plan is to reduce risk to the GTE and FTE concepts through several tests: thruster, fuel endothermic characterization, engine structure/heat exchanger, injection characterization rig, and full scale direct connect combustion rig. Each of these will be discussed along with the project schedule. This discussion is limited due to ITAR restrictions on open literature papers.

  19. Cause Relationships of Collisions and Groundings - Research Project Conclusions,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    MANOEUVRING DATA- TASKS OF COLLISIONS METHOD SIMULATO RECORDER TASKS: NEAR MISSES ANDD C)GRUNNS DEVELOPMENT i GROUNDINGS DESCRIPTION RE :ERENCE STATISTICS...ACHIEVED GOALS 0 ANALYSIS TOOLS (SIMULATOR/COMPUTER SYSTEM) * PREVENTION SYSTEM (DATA RECORDER ’ NEAR - MISS REPORTING) FIG. 3...risk. NEAR MISS ANALYSIS - The project’s initial step for this sub-task was to propose a near - miss reporting form as shown in Fig. 11. The immediate

  20. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

  1. PROPOSAL OF "GROUND RESPONSE SPECTRUM" AND PRESENTATION OF THEIR EXAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Yukio

    "Ground response spectrum" is proposed in this paper. "Ground response spectrum" is the graph which is so drawn as to read the maximum values of dynamic responses of subsurface ground to a seismic accelerograph, such as particle acceleration, velocity, displacement on the surface and shear strain caused in the ground. The calculation method of the spectrum is the same as the ordinary response spectrum except the use of simple one-dimensional continuum of linear viscoelastic medium; instead a single-degree-of-freedom oscillation system is used in the calculation of ordinary response spectrum. A few examples of the "ground response spectrum" are presented and special feature and usefulness of the spectrum is discussed in this paper.

  2. Numerical Modeling of Ground Response during Diaphragm Wall Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yong-chun; WANG Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    Construction of diaphragm wall panels may cause considerable stress changes in heavily overconsolidated soil deposits and can induce substantial ground movement. The 3D Lagrangian method was adopted to model the mechanical response of ground, including horizontal normal stress and shear stress, lateral ground displacement and vertical ground surface settlement, during the slurry trenching and concreting of diaphragm wall panels. Numerical results show that slurry trenching leads to horizontal stress relief of ground, reducing the horizontal stress of the ground from initial K0 pressure to hydrostatic betonite pressure. Wet concrete pressure lies between the hydrostatic bentonite pressure and the initial K0 pressure, so it can compensate partially the horizontal stress loss of the ground adjacent to the trench and thus reduce the lateral movement of the trench face as well as the vertical settlement of the ground surface.

  3. Guidelines of the Design of Electropyrotechnic Firing Circuit for Unmanned Flight and Ground Test Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Lucy, Melvin H.; Massie, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center, Engineering Directorate, Electronic System Branch, is responsible for providing pyrotechnic support capabilities to Langley Research Center unmanned flight and ground test projects. These capabilities include device selection, procurement, testing, problem solving, firing system design, fabrication and testing; ground support equipment design, fabrication and testing; checkout procedures and procedure?s training to pyro technicians. This technical memorandum will serve as a guideline for the design, fabrication and testing of electropyrotechnic firing systems. The guidelines will discuss the entire process beginning with requirements definition and ending with development and execution.

  4. Project management for complex ground-based instruments: MEGARA plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego, Jesús; Carrasco, Esperanza; Cedazo, Raquel; Iglesias, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    The project management of complex instruments for ground-based large telescopes is a challenge itself. A good management is a clue for project success in terms of performance, schedule and budget. Being on time has become a strict requirement for two reasons: to assure the arrival at the telescope due to the pressure on demanding new instrumentation for this first world-class telescopes and to not fall in over-costs. The budget and cash-flow is not always the expected one and has to be properly handled from different administrative departments at the funding centers worldwide distributed. The complexity of the organizations, the technological and scientific return to the Consortium partners and the participation in the project of all kind of professional centers working in astronomical instrumentation: universities, research centers, small and large private companies, workshops and providers, etc. make the project management strategy, and the tools and procedures tuned to the project needs, crucial for success. MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is a facility instrument of the 10.4m GTC (La Palma, Spain) working at optical wavelengths that provides both Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) capabilities at resolutions in the range R=6,000-20,000. The project is an initiative led by Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) in collaboration with INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain) and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain). MEGARA is being developed under contract with GRANTECAN.

  5. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts

  6. Evolution of the JPSS Ground Project Calibration and Validation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Jain, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) next-generation operational Earth observation Program that acquires and distributes global environmental data from multiple polar-orbiting satellites. The JPSS Program plays a critical role to NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in weather, climate, oceans, and coasts environments, which supports the nation's economy and protects lives and property. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is acquiring and implementing the JPSS, comprised of flight and ground systems on behalf of NOAA. The JPSS satellites are planned to fly in afternoon orbit and will provide operational continuity of satellite-based observations and products for NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) system is a NOAA system developed and deployed by JPSS Ground Project to support Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val), Algorithm Integration, Investigation, and Tuning, and Data Quality Monitoring. It is a mature, deployed system that supports SNPP mission and has been in operations since SNPP launch. This paper discusses the major re-architecture for Block 2.0 that incorporates SNPP lessons learned, architecture of the system, and demonstrates how GRAVITE has evolved as a system with increased performance. It is a robust, reliable, maintainable, scalable, and secure system that supports development, test, and production strings, replaces proprietary and custom software, uses open source software, and is compliant with NASA and NOAA standards. "[Pending NASA Goddard Applied Engineering & Technology Directorate (AETD) Approval]"

  7. A simple model for strong ground motions and response spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Erdal; Mueller, Charles; Boatwright, John

    1988-01-01

    A simple model for the description of strong ground motions is introduced. The model shows that response spectra can be estimated by using only four parameters of the ground motion, the RMS acceleration, effective duration and two corner frequencies that characterize the effective frequency band of the motion. The model is windowed band-limited white noise, and is developed by studying the properties of two functions, cumulative squared acceleration in the time domain, and cumulative squared amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Applying the methods of random vibration theory, the model leads to a simple analytical expression for the response spectra. The accuracy of the model is checked by using the ground motion recordings from the aftershock sequences of two different earthquakes and simulated accelerograms. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory estimate of the response spectra.

  8. Grounded Theory Study of Conflicts in Norwegian Agile Software Projects: The Project Managers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Siddique

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the process of conflicts in agile software projects. The purpose was to investigate the causes and consequences of these conflicts. For this purpose, we conducted a qualitative study involving agile software projects in Norway. Grounded theory was used to analyze the data and the interview findings are presented using Glaser´s Six C model (context, condition, causes, consequences, contingencies, and covariance. The research findings suggest that there are several causes of conflicts. These include: the role of the product owner, an inexperienced project manager, the customer’s lack of knowledge about methodology organizational hierarchy in public companies, contracting, personal egos, financial issues, not getting the right team. Consequences of conflicts include: decreased productivity, wastage of time and resources, diverted attention from project objectives loss of motivation, poor decision making, loss of communication. Based on interview data, different conflict strategies are suggested and these include appropriately skilled project manager, communication and negotiation, defining clear roles, stakeholder analysis, managing stakeholder´s expectations, discussion, finding the root cause of conflict. Project managers are using these strategies to avoid or resolve conflicts. The competencies required to handle these kind of conflicts are also discussed in the paper, while the implications of theory and practice of conflict management theory are also presented.

  9. Gansu Hongda 100,000 Ton Aluminum Profile Project Broke Ground in Baiyin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The 100,000 ton aluminum profile project,a project invested and constructed by Gansu Hongda Aluminum Profile Company,has formally broken ground for construction in Baiyin City.This Project is a key capital introduction project of Baiyin Municipal Party Committee and the Municipal Government.

  10. A grounded theory approach to the analysis of sermons on poverty: Congregational projects as social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennie J.C. Pieterse

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reported on the second cycle (selective coding of grounded theory research of sermons on poverty in the South African context, with Matthew 25:31�46 as the sermon text. The problem which the author was researching pertained to the question: How do congregations in the Dutch Reformed Church (Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk and the Uniting Reformed Church handle the care for the poor in practice? A theoretical sample of congregations with outreach projects to the poor and humble was drawn. After the analysis of the sermons was conducted, the next question to be addressed was: What are the categories and properties of the projects by congregations as the how of the care for the poor? New thinking on the issue of preaching on poverty is necessary because homiletic literature in this field of preaching does not address the how question. The author therefore described a theoretical framework for the interpretation of the projects, as well as an anthropological view of the communication occurring on an equal footing, with the givers in the projects functioning as social capital and the receivers (the poor and humble as the participants with their own responsibility and freedom. The classification of the projects in categories showed that a wide variety of different types of projects to the poor have emerged from the sermons.

  11. An Overview of the JPSS Ground Project Algorithm Integration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, G. A.; Williams, R.; Dorman, T. J.; Williamson, R. C.; Shaw, F. J.; Thomas, W. M.; Hung, L.; Griffin, A.; Meade, P.; Steadley, R. S.; Cember, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    The smooth transition, implementation and operationalization of scientific software's from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) development teams to the Join Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Ground Segment requires a variety of experiences and expertise. This task has been accomplished by a dedicated group of scientist and engineers working in close collaboration with the NOAA Satellite and Information Services (NESDIS) Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) science teams for the JPSS/Suomi-NPOES Preparatory Project (S-NPP) Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instruments. The presentation purpose is to describe the JPSS project process for algorithm implementation from the very early delivering stages by the science teams to the full operationalization into the Interface Processing Segment (IDPS), the processing system that provides Environmental Data Records (EDR's) to NOAA. Special focus is given to the NASA Data Products Engineering and Services (DPES) Algorithm Integration Team (AIT) functional and regression test activities. In the functional testing phase, the AIT uses one or a few specific chunks of data (granules) selected by the NOAA STAR Calibration and Validation (cal/val) Teams to demonstrate that a small change in the code performs properly and does not disrupt the rest of the algorithm chain. In the regression testing phase, the modified code is placed into to the Government Resources for Algorithm Verification, Integration, Test and Evaluation (GRAVITE) Algorithm Development Area (ADA), a simulated and smaller version of the operational IDPS. Baseline files are swapped out, not edited and the whole code package runs in one full orbit of Science Data Records (SDR's) using Calibration Look Up Tables (Cal LUT's) for the time of the orbit. The purpose of the regression test is to

  12. Ormosil Beads for Insulation of Ground Cryogenic Storage Tanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Organically modified silica (Ormosil) aerogel beads developed at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. offer several advantages for retrofitting perlite insulation in NASA's ground...

  13. GVT-Based Ground Flutter Test without Wind Tunnel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc (ZONA) and Arizona State University (ASU) propose a R&D effort to develop a ground flutter testing system without wind tunnel, called the...

  14. GVT-Based Ground Flutter Test without Wind Tunnel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc (ZONA) and Arizona State University (ASU) propose a R&D effort to further develop the ground flutter testing system in place of a wind...

  15. Adaptive Magnetorheological Isolator for Ground Support Equipment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The minimization of vibration-induced damage has become a critical issue for rocket launch ground support electronics (GSE). GSE located near a major rocket launch...

  16. Adaptive Magnetorheological Isolator for Ground Support Equipment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The minimization of vibration-induced damage has become a critical issue for rocket launch ground support electronics (GSE). In particular, the effect of high...

  17. Jinchuan Group Breaks Ground for a 300,000-ton Copper Deep Processing Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to Jinchang Municipal Government of Gansu,on August 21,Jinchuan Group broke ground for its 400,000-ton ionic membrane caustic soda project,300,000-ton PVC project,300,000-ton copper deep processing project,

  18. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Roger [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-12

    The objective of this project was to develop a “roadmap” to guide the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) demand response (DR) planning and implementation in support of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) 70% clean energy goal by 2030.

  19. S2-Project: Near-fault earthquake ground motion simulation in the Sulmona alluvial basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccioli, E.; Stupazzini, M.; Galadini, F.; Gori, S.

    2008-12-01

    Recently the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC), in cooperation with Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) has promoted the 'S2' research project (http://nuovoprogettoesse2.stru.polimi.it/) aimed at the design, testing and application of an open-source code for seismic hazard assessment (SHA). The tool envisaged will likely differ in several important respects from an existing international initiative (Open SHA, Field et al., 2003). In particular, while "the OpenSHA collaboration model envisions scientists developing their own attenuation relationships and earthquake rupture forecasts, which they will deploy and maintain in their own systems" , the main purpose of S2 project is to provide a flexible computational tool for SHA, primarily suited for the needs of DPC, which not necessarily are scientific needs. Within S2, a crucial issue is to make alternative approaches available to quantify the ground motion, with emphasis on the near field region. The SHA architecture envisaged will allow for the use of ground motion descriptions other than those yielded by empirical attenuation equations, for instance user generated motions provided by deterministic source and wave propagation simulations. In this contribution, after a brief presentation of Project S2, we intend to illustrate some preliminary 3D scenario simulations performed in the alluvial basin of Sulmona (Central Italy), as an example of the type of descriptions that can be handled in the future SHA architecture. In detail, we selected some seismogenic sources (from the DISS database), believed to be responsible for a number of destructive historical earthquakes, and derive from them a family of simplified geometrical and mechanical source models spanning across a reasonable range of parameters, so that the extent of the main uncertainties can be covered. Then, purely deterministic (for frequencies Element (SE) method, extensively published by Faccioli and his co-workers, and

  20. Seismic Response of RC Framed Buildings with Open Ground Storey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somani Kishangopal J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available RC framed buildings are generally designed without considering the structural action of masonry infill walls. These masonry infill walls are widely used as partitions and considered as non-structural elements. But they affect both the structural and non-structural performance of RC buildings during earthquake. RC framed building with open ground storey is known as soft storey, which performs poorly during earthquake. In order to study this total 144 RC framed buildings having bare frame, full infill frame and open ground storey frame were analyzed by seismic coefficient method and response spectrum method for various seismic hazards. The present study deals with the comparison of base shear for medium rise RC framed buildings having P+5, P+7, P+9 and P+11 storeys for various seismic zones (III, IV & V and for various soil conditions (Hard & Medium as per IS 1893(part 1: 2002. This work helps in understanding the effect of earthquake with increase in height of RC framed buildings on base shear for various seismic zones and soil conditions. The result shows that the effect of infill stiffness on structural response is significant under lateral loads. It is found that the presence infill walls increases the base shear by 60-65% more than bare frame by both seismic coefficient method and response spectrum method.

  1. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration for Responsive Space Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert G.; Notardonato, William U.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project developed to mature, integrate and demonstrate advancements in cryogenics, system health management and command and control technologies. Two Distinct Testing Environments: a) GODU Integrated Refrigeration and Storage - GODU LH2; b) GODU Autonomous Control - GODU LO2. Scope: I. GODU LH2: a) Investigate alternative storage and distribution architecture for future cryogenic propellant operations. b) Demonstrate advanced cryogenic propellant handling operations (liquefaction, storage and distribution) of normal boiling point and sub-cooled cryogenic propellants. II. GODU L02: a) Develop and demonstrate advanced control and health management technologies and techniques to autonomously control cryogenic propellant servicing operations. b) Investigate modern COTS hardware and control systems in an effort to reduce the "standing army" of engineers associated with maintaining and operating ground systems through the use of health management and autonomous control technologies. Goals: a) Raise Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) and Integration Readiness Levels (IRL) of several key technology development areas. b) Reduce operations lifecycle costs of future test programs and launch complexes. c) Demonstrate technologies for future exploration beyond low earth orbit. d) Serve as test environments for extraterrestrial surface operations.

  2. Ground layer AO correction for the VLT MUSE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubin, Norbert N.; Le Louarn, Miska; Conzelmann, Ralf; Delabre, Bernhard; Fedrigo, Enrico; Stuik, Remko

    2004-10-01

    We describe the conceptual design of a multi-LGS based Ground Layer Adaptive Optics system feeding a visible Integral Field Spectrograph. We show that this system will be able to provide a factor two improvement in 0.2 ensquared energy. A Narrow FOV mode, delivering diffraction limited images at visible wavelengths, will be achievable by reconfiguring the four Laser Guide Stars such as to overcome the dramatic cone effect limitation at these wavelengths with single LGS. Two concepts are proposed, with and without an adaptive secondary.

  3. Projected effects of proposed chloride-control projects on shallow ground water; preliminary results for the Wichita River basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sergio

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' plan to control the natural chloride pollution in the Wichita River basin includes the construction of Truscott Brine Lake on a tributary of the North Wichita River. In connection with the proposed brine lake, the U.S. Geological Survey was requested to: (1) Define the existing ground-water conditions in the shallow fresh-water system of the project area; and (2) project the post-construction effects of the proposed lake on the fresh-water aquifer, especially in relation to hydraulic-head changes but also with respect to possible changes in the chemical quality of the ground water.

  4. Closed-form critical earthquake response of elastic-plastic structures on compliant ground under near-fault ground motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro eKojima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The double impulse is introduced as a substitute of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. A closed-form solution of the elastic-plastic response of a structure on compliant (flexible ground by the ‘critical double impulse’ is derived for the first time based on the solution for the corresponding structure with fixed base. As in the case of fixed-base model, only the free-vibration appears under such double impulse and the energy approach plays an important role in the derivation of the closed-form solution of a complicated elastic-plastic response on compliant ground. It is remarkable that no iteration is needed in the derivation of the critical elastic-plastic response. It is shown via the closed-form expression that, in the case of a smaller input level of double impulse to the structural strength, as the ground stiffness becomes larger, the maximum plastic deformation becomes larger. On the other hand, in the case of a larger input level of double impulse to the structural strength, as the ground stiffness becomes smaller, the maximum plastic deformation becomes larger. The criticality and validity of the proposed theory are investigated through the comparison with the response analysis to the corresponding one-cycle sinusoidal input as a representative of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. The applicability of the proposed theory to actual recorded pulse-type ground motions is also discussed.

  5. Seismic Safety Program: Ground motion and structural response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    In 1964, John A. Blume & Associates Research Division (Blume) began a broad-range structural response program to assist the Nevada Operations Office of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in ensuring the continued safe conduct of underground nuclear detonation testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere. Blume`s long experience in earthquake engineering provided a general basis for the program, but much more specialized knowledge was required for the AEC`s purposes. Over the next 24 years Blume conducted a major research program to provide essential understanding of the detailed nature of the response of structures to dynamic loads such as those imposed by seismic wave propagation. The program`s results have been embodied in a prediction technology which has served to provide reliable advanced knowledge of the probable effects of seismic ground motion on all kinds of structures, for use in earthquake engineering and in building codes as well as for the continuing needs of the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). This report is primarily an accounting of the Blume work, beginning with the setting in 1964 and the perception of the program needs as envisioned by Dr. John A. Blume. Subsequent chapters describe the structural response program in detail and the structural prediction procedures which resulted; the intensive data acquisition program which, as is discussed at some length, relied heavily on the contributions of other consultant-contractors in the DOE/NV Seismic Safety Support Program; laboratory and field studies to provide data on building elements and structures subjected to dynamic loads from sources ranging from testing machines to earthquakes; structural response activities undertaken for testing at the NTS and for off-NTS underground nuclear detonations; and concluding with an account of corollary studies including effects of natural forces and of related studies on building response.

  6. A STUDY ON APPLICABILITY OF GROUND RESPONSE ACCELERATION METHOD TO DEEP VERTICAL UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mai; Shiba, Yukio; Watanabe, Kazuaki

    This paper discusses the applicability of ground response acceleration method to seismic analysis for deep vertical underground structures. To examine the applicability, an analysis of relationships between response of ground and the shaft was conducted. It was found from the analysis that vertical axial stress of the shaft was not correspond with shear stress of ground. Accordingly, it was concluded that the axial stress was not evaluated correctly by the existing method. Therefore, to extend the applicability of the method, ground responses correlated with the axial stress were analyzed and a new method using these ground responses was proposed.

  7. Rapid Response Small Machining NNR Project 703025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanies, Tim

    2008-12-05

    This project was an effort to develop a machining area for small sized parts that is capable of delivering product with a quick response time. This entailed focusing efforts on leaning out specific work cells that would result in overall improvement to the entire machining area. This effort involved securing the most efficient available technologies for these areas. In the end, this incorporated preparing the small machining area for transformation to a new facility.

  8. De-mystifying earned value management for ground based astronomy projects, large and small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Timothy; Brennan, Patricia; Mueller, Mark

    2014-08-01

    The scale and complexity of today's ground based astronomy projects have justifiably required Principal Investigator's and their project teams to adopt more disciplined management processes and tools in order to achieve timely and accurate quantification of the progress and relative health of their projects. Earned Value Management (EVM) is one such tool. Developed decades ago and used extensively in the defense and construction industries, and now a requirement of NASA projects greater than $20M; EVM has gained a foothold in ground-based astronomy projects. The intent of this paper is to de-mystify EVM by discussing the fundamentals of project management, explaining how EVM fits with existing principles, and describing key concepts every project can use to implement their own EVM system. This paper also discusses pitfalls to avoid during implementation and obstacles to its success. The authors report on their organization's most recent experience implementing EVM for the GMT-Consortium Large Earth Finder (G-CLEF) project. G-CLEF is a fiber-fed, optical echelle spectrograph that has been selected as a first light instrument for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT), planned for construction at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile's Atacama Desert region.

  9. Earthquake Ground Motion Measures for Seismic Response Evaluation of Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, In-Kil; Ahn, Seong-Moon; Choun, Young-Sun; Seo, Jeong-Moon

    2007-03-15

    This study used the assessment results of failure criteria - base shear, story drift, top acceleration and top displacement - for a PSC containment building subjected to 30 sets of near-fault ground motions to evaluate the earthquake ground motion intensity measures. Seven intensity measures, peak ground acceleration(PGA), peak ground velocity(PGV), spectral acceleration(Sa), velocity(Sv), spectrum intensity for acceleration(SIa), velocity(SIv) and displacement(SId), were used to represent alternative ground motion. The regression analyses of the failure criteria for a PSC containment building were carried out to evaluate a proper intensity measure by using two regression models and seven ground motion parameters. The regression analysis results demonstrate the correlation coefficients of the failure criteria in terms of the candidate IM. From the results, spectral acceleration(Sa) is estimated as the best parameter for a evaluation of the structural safety for a seismic PSA.

  10. Satellite Cloud Data Validation through MAGIC Ground Observation and the S'COOL Project: Scientific Benefits grounded in Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecelius, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Lewis, P. M.; Rogerson, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Students' Cloud Observation On-Line (S'COOL) Project was launched in 1997 as the Formal Education and Public Outreach arm of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Mission. ROVER, the Citizen Scientist area of S'COOL, started in 2007 and allows participants to make 'roving' observations from any location as opposed to a fixed, registered classroom. The S'COOL Project aids the CERES Mission in trying to answer the research question: 'What is the Effect of Clouds on the Earth's Climate'. Participants from all 50 states, most U.S. Territories, and 63 countries have reported more than 100,500 observations to the S'COOL Project over the past 16 years. The Project is supported by an intuitive website that provides curriculum support and guidance through the observation steps; 1) Request satellite overpass schedule, 2) Observe clouds, and 3) Report cloud observations. The S'COOL Website also hosts a robust database housing all participants' observations as well as the matching satellite data. While the S'COOL observation parameters are based on the data collected by 5 satellite missions, ground observations provide a unique perspective to data validation. Specifically, low to mid level clouds can be obscured by overcast high-level clouds, or difficult to observe from a satellite's perspective due to surface cover or albedo. In these cases, ground observations play an important role in filling the data gaps and providing a better, global picture of our atmosphere and clouds. S'COOL participants, operating within the boundary layer, have an advantage when observing low-level clouds that affect the area we live in, regional weather patterns, and climate change. S'COOL's long-term data set provides a valuable resource to the scientific community in improving the "poorly characterized and poorly represented [clouds] in climate and weather prediction models'. The MAGIC Team contacted S'COOL in early 2012 about making cloud observations as part of the MAGIC

  11. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    in accordance with the final standards. The EPA reserves the right to modify the ground water standards, if necessary, based on changes in EPA drinking water standards. Appendix A contains a copy of the 1983 EPA ground water compliance standards, the 1987 proposed changes to the standards, and the 1995 final rule. Under UMTRA, DOE is responsible for bringing the designated processing sites into compliance with the EPA ground water standards and complying with all other applicable standards and requirements. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) must concur with DOE's actions. States are full participants in the process. The DOE also must consult with any affected Indian tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Uranium processing activities at most of the inactive mill sites resulted in the contamination of ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of constituents such as but not limited to uranium and nitrates. The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to eliminate or reduce to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting the EPA ground water standards.

  12. Parallel finite element modeling of earthquake ground response and liquefaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinchi Lu(陆金池); Jun Peng(彭军); Ahmed Elgamal; Zhaohui Yang(杨朝晖); Kincho H. Law

    2004-01-01

    Parallel computing is a promising approach to alleviate the computational demand in conducting large-scale finite element analyses. This paper presents a numerical modeling approach for earthquake ground response and liquefaction using the parallel nonlinear finite element program, ParCYCLIC, designed for distributed-memory message-passing parallel computer systems. In ParCYCLIC, finite elements are employed within an incremental plasticity, coupled solid-fluid formulation. A constitutive model calibrated by physical tests represents the salient characteristics of sand liquefaction and associated accumulation of shear deformations. Key elements of the computational strategy employed in ParCYCLIC include the development of a parallel sparse direct solver, the deployment of an automatic domain decomposer, and the use of the Multilevel Nested Dissection algorithm for ordering of the finite element nodes. Simulation results of centrifuge test models using ParCYCLIC are presented. Performance results from grid models and geotechnical simulations show that ParCYCLIC is efficiently scalable to a large number of processors.

  13. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  14. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. The program, known as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a variety of water-quality issues. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three ground-water pilot projects that have been started. The NAWQA program also incudes four surface-water pilot projects. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project, as part of the pilot NAWQA program, will develop and test methods for performing assessments of ground-water quality. The objectives of the Central Oklahoma aquifer assessment are: (1) To investigate regional ground-water quality throughout the aquifer in the manner consistent with the other pilot ground-water projects, emphasizing the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic substances in ground water, including trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive constituents; (2) to describe relations between ground-water quality, land use, hydrogeology, and other pertinent factors; and (3) to provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected prevalent water-quality problems within the study unit; and (4) to describe the potential for water-quality degradation of ground-water zones within the study unit. The Central Oklahoma aquifer, which includes in descending order the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, the Chase Group, the Council Grove Group, the Admire Group, and overlying alluvium and terrace deposits, underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer was selected for study by the NAWQA program because it is a major source for water supplies in central Oklahoma and because it has several known or suspected water-quality problems. Known problems include concentrations of arsenic, chromium

  15. Hail prevention by ground-based silver iodide generators: Results of historical and modern field projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessens, J.; Sánchez, J. L.; Berthet, C.; Hermida, L.; Merino, A.

    2016-03-01

    The science of hail suppression by silver iodide (AgI) cloud seeding was developed during the second half of the 20th century in laboratory and tested in several research or operational projects using three delivery methods for the ice forming particles: ground generators, aircraft, and rockets. The randomization process for the seeding was often considered as the imperative method for a better evaluation but failed to give firm results, mostly because the projects did not last long enough considering the hazardous occurrence of severe hailfalls, and also probably due to the use of improper hail parameters. At the same time and until now, a continuous long-term research and operational field project (1952-2015) using ground generator networks has been conducted in France under the leadership of the Association Nationale d'Etude et de Lutte contre les Fléaux Atmosphériques (ANELFA), with a control initially based on annual insurance loss-to-risk ratios, then on hailpad data. More recently (2000-2009), a companion ground seeding project was developed in the north of Spain, with control mostly based on microphysical and hailpad data. The present paper, which focuses on hail suppression by ground seeding, reviews the production of the AgI nuclei, their dispersion and measurement in the atmosphere, as well as their observed or simulated effects in clouds. The paper summarizes the results of the main historical projects in Switzerland, Argentina, and North America, and finally concentrates on the current French and Spanish projects, with a review of already published results, complemented by new ones recently collected in Spain. The conclusion, at least for France and Spain, is that if ground seeding is performed starting 3 hours before the hail falls at the ground with a 10-km mesh AgI generator network located in the developing hailstorm areas, each generator burning about 9 g of AgI per hour, the hailfall energy of the most severe hail days is decreased by about 50%.

  16. Response of base isolation system excited by spectrum compatible ground motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Structures in a nuclear power system are designed to be elastic even under an earthquake excitation. However a structural component such as an isolator shows inelastic behavior inherently. For the seismic assessment of nonlinear structures, the response history analysis should be performed. Especially for the performance based design, where the failure probability of a system needs to be evaluated, the variation of response should be evaluated. In this study, the spectrum compatible ground motions, the artificial ground motion and the modified ground motion, were generated. Using these ground motions, the variations of seismic responses of a simplified isolation system were evaluated.

  17. Interaction between stope support and ground motion in the hangingwall and footwall Project.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cichowicz, A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available and limitations were verified by detailed testing with the strong ground motion data. The support response may be simulated using SDOF model when PGA is in the range 18 - 100 m/s 2 ; for this data model shows that the maximal value of the stiffness is 120,000 k...

  18. Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Project: Advanced Clothing Ground Study Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Vicky; Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin; Schlesinger, Thilini

    2013-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that will become an excessive burden for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction & Repurposing (LRR) project is to bring new ideas and technologies that will enable human presence in farther regions of space. The LRR project has five tasks: 1) Advanced Clothing System (ACS) to reduce clothing mass and volume, 2) Logistics to Living (L2L) to repurpose existing cargo, 3) Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) to reprocess materials in space, 4) Trash to Gas (TTG) to extract useful gases from trash, and 5) Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) to integrate these logistical components. The current International Space Station (ISS) crew wardrobe has already evolved not only to reduce some of the logistical burden but also to address crew preference. The ACS task is to find ways to further reduce this logistical burden while examining human response to different types of clothes. The ACS task has been broken into a series of studies on length of wear of various garments: 1) three small studies conducted through other NASA projects (MMSEV, DSH, HI-SEAS) focusing on length of wear of garments treated with an antimicrobial finish; 2) a ground study, which is the subject of this report, addressing both length of wear and subject perception of various types of garments worn during aerobic exercise; and 3) an ISS study replicating the ground study, and including every day clothing to collect information on perception in reduced gravity in which humans experience physiological changes. The goal of the ground study is first to measure how long people can wear the same exercise garment, depending on the type of fabric and the presence of antimicrobial treatment, and second to learn why. Human factors considerations included in the study consist of the Institutional Review Board approval, test protocol and participants' training, and a web

  19. Structural Design and Response in Collision and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Alan; Tikka, Kirsi; Daidola, John C.

    2000-01-01

    The results summarized in this paper represent the work of SNAME Ad Hoc Panel #6 convened under the SNAME Technical and Research Program. This is a summary and overview paper. Topics discussed will be addressed individually and in more detail in later publications. The 2nd International Conference...... on Collision and Grounding of Ships, to be held in Copenhagen, July 1-3,2001, will also present and discuss many of the results of this panel and other related research. The paper discusses four primary areas of panel work: collision and grounding models, data, accident scenarios and design applications...... striking-ship bow models and their application are described. Potential design applications and alternatives for improving crashworthiness are discussed....

  20. Thermomechanical modelling of ground response under environmental actions.

    OpenAIRE

    Samat, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters, such as landslides triggered by heavy rains, rock deformations and soil cracking in presence of temperature changes and other phenomena related to climatic actions, show the relevance of investigating the effects of the interactions between the atmosphere and the earth ground surface where main human activities develop. The prediction of such hazard requires an adequate knowledge of the changes in hydro-geological conditions under climatic actions. Having advanced constitut...

  1. Response of a pipeline to ground movements caused by trenching in compressible alluvium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, D. R.; Taylor, M. E.; Pocock, R. G.

    Disturbance of the ground due to work on buried services, such as the renewal, replacement or construction of deep sewers, is likely to cause differential ground movements in the vicinity. This may be a factor contributing to failure in nearby service pipelines such as drainage, gas and water mains. The response of an instrumented shallow buried pipeline to ground movements caused by adjacent deep trenching in a compressible alluvium is described.

  2. Optimization Research on Valve Hall Grounding Switch Arrangement of UHVDC Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yanming; NIE Dingzhen; MA Weimin

    2012-01-01

    The switches installed in converter station valve halls in Xiangjiaba-Shanghai ± 800 kV UHVDC project are expensive and maintenance inconvenience. Two optimization schemes of the valve hall grounding switches for researches on the function and operation of the switchers are presented. The two schemes are both studied in detail, with one way of abolishing all grounding switches on transformer valve side, and another way of partly cancelling the switches. Detailed analysis is further carried out for the feasibility and the pros and cons of the two schemes. Based on the comparison of two schemes, the partial reduction of grounding switches is selected to get a simulation with an EMTDC model. Plus in order to verify the reliability of the simulating results, a field test is carried out in Fengxian converter station with the partly switches cancellation scheme. The test results proved that using only one switch can still release residual charge in the valve hall in a relatively short period. Optimized designs of the valve hall switches can save both space and costs of the project.

  3. Overview of Ground-Motion Issues for Cascadia Megathrust Events: Simulation of Ground-Motions and Earthquake Site Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ghofrani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground motions for earthquakes of M7.5 to 9.0 on the Cascadia subduction interface are simulated based on a stochastic finite-fault model and used to estimate average response spectra for reference firm soil conditions. The simulations are first validated by modeling the wealth of ground-motion data from the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake of Japan. Adjustments to the calibrated model are then made to consider average source, attenuation and site parameters for the Cascadia region. This includes an evaluation of the likely variability in stress drop for large interface earthquakes and an assessment of regional attenuation and site effects. We perform best-estimate simulations for a preferred set of input parameters. Typical results suggest mean values of 5%-damped pseudoacceleration in the range from about 100 to 200 cm/s2, at frequencies from 1 to 4 Hz, for firm-ground conditions in Vancouver. Uncertainty in most-likely value of the parameter representing stress drop causes variability in simulated response spectra of about ±50%. Uncertainties in the attenuation model produce even larger variability in response spectral amplitudes—a factor of about two at a closest distance to the rupture plane (Rcd of 100 km, becoming even larger at greater distances. It is thus important to establish the regional attenuation model for ground-motion simulations and to bound the source properties controlling radiation of ground motion. We calculate theoretical one-dimensional spectral amplification estimates for four selected Fraser River Delta sites to show how the presence of softer sediments in the region may alter the predicted ground motions. The amplification functions are largely consistent with observed spectral amplification at Fraser River delta sites, suggesting amplification by factors of 2.5–5 at the peak frequency of the site; we note that deep sites in the delta have a low peak frequency, ∼0.3 Hz. This work will aid in seismic hazard

  4. Seismic Responses of Asymmetric Base-Isolated Structures under Near-Fault Ground Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Kun; LI Li; FANG Qin-han

    2008-01-01

    An inter-story shear model of asymmetric base-isolated structures incorporating deformation of each isolation bearing was built, and a method to simultaneously simulate bi-directional near-fault and far-field ground motions was proposed. A comparative study on the dynamic responses of asymmetric base-isolated structures under near-fault and far-field ground motions were conducted to investigate the effects of eccentricity in the isolation system and in the superstructures, the ratio of the uncoupled torsional to lateral frequency of the superstructure and the pulse period of near-fault ground motions on the nonlinear seismic response of asymmetric base-isolated structures. Numerical results show that eccentricity in the isolation system makes asymmetric base-isolated structure more sensitive to near-fault ground motions, and the pulse period of near-fault ground motions plays an import role in governing the seismic responses of asymmetric base-isolated structures.

  5. Legume ground covers alter defoliation response of black walnut saplings to drought and anthracnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Van Sambeek

    2003-01-01

    Growth and premature defoliation of black walnut saplings underplanted 5 or 6 years earlier with six different ground covers were quantified in response to a summer drought or anthracnose. Walnut saplings growing with ground covers of hairy vetch, crownvetch, and to a lesser extent sericea lespedeza continued to have more rapid height and diameter growth than saplings...

  6. Ground water/surface water responses to global climate simulations, Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Climate variations can play an important, if not always crucial, role in successful conjunctive management of ground water and surface water resources. This will require accurate accounting of the links between variations in climate, recharge, and withdrawal from the resource systems, accurate projection or predictions of the climate variations, and accurate simulation of the responses of the resource systems. To assess linkages and predictability of climate influences on conjunctive management, global climate model (GCM) simulated precipitation rates were used to estimate inflows and outflows from a regional ground water model (RGWM) of the coastal aquifers of the Santa ClaraCalleguas Basin at Ventura, California, for 1950 to 1993. Interannual to interdecadal time scales of the El Nin??o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) climate variations are imparted to simulated precipitation variations in the Southern California area and are realistically imparted to the simulated ground water level variations through the climate-driven recharge (and discharge) variations. For example, the simulated average ground water level response at a key observation well in the basin to ENSO variations of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures is 1.2 m/??C, compared to 0.9 m/??C in observations. This close agreement shows that the GCM-RGWM combination can translate global scale climate variations into realistic local ground water responses. Probability distributions of simulated ground water level excursions above a local water level threshold for potential seawater intrusion compare well to the corresponding distributions from observations and historical RGWM simulations, demonstrating the combination's potential usefulness for water management and planning. Thus the GCM-RGWM combination could be used for planning purposes and - when the GCM forecast skills are adequate - for near term predictions.

  7. SENSITIVITY OF STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO GROUND MOTION SOURCE AND SITE PARAMETERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Erdal; Brebbia, C.A.; Cakmak, A.S.; Abdel Ghaffar, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Designing structures to withstand earthquakes requires an accurate estimation of the expected ground motion. While engineers use the peak ground acceleration (PGA) to model the strong ground motion, seismologists use physical characteristics of the source and the rupture mechanism, such as fault length, stress drop, shear wave velocity, seismic moment, distance, and attenuation. This study presents a method for calculating response spectra from seismological models using random vibration theory. It then investigates the effect of various source and site parameters on peak response. Calculations are based on a nonstationary stochastic ground motion model, which can incorporate all the parameters both in frequency and time domains. The estimation of the peak response accounts for the effects of the non-stationarity, bandwidth and peak correlations of the response.

  8. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Naturita, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-04-23

    This Environmental Assessment addresses the environmental effects of a proposed action and the no action alternative to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at the Naturita, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed surface cleanup at the site and encapsulated the tailings in a disposal cell 15 miles northwest near the former town of Uravan, Colorado. Ground water contaminants of potential concern at the Naturita site are uranium and vanadium. Uranium concentrations exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of 0.044 milligram per liter (mg/L). Vanadium has no MCL; however, vanadium concentrations exceed the EPA Region III residential risk-based concentration of 0.33 mg/L (EPA 2002). The proposed compliance strategy for uranium and vanadium at the Naturita site is no further remediation in conjunction with the application of alternate concentration limits. Institutional controls with ground water and surface water monitoring will be implemented for these constituents as part of the compliance strategy. This compliance strategy will be protective of human health and the environment. The proposed monitoring program will begin upon regulatory concurrence with the Ground Water Compliance Action Plan (DOE 2002a). Monitoring will consist of verifying that institutional controls remain in place, collecting ground water samples to verify that concentrations of uranium and vanadium are decreasing, and collecting surface water samples to verify that contaminant concentrations do not exceed a regulatory limit or risk-based concentration. If these criteria are not met, DOE would reevaluate the proposed action and determine the need for further National Environmental Policy Act documentation. No comments were received from the public during the public comment period. Two public meetings were held during this period. Minutes of these meetings are included as

  9. Sfm_georef: Automating image measurement of ground control points for SfM-based projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mike R.

    2016-04-01

    Deriving accurate DEM and orthomosaic image products from UAV surveys generally involves the use of multiple ground control points (GCPs). Here, we demonstrate the automated collection of GCP image measurements for SfM-MVS processed projects, using sfm_georef software (James & Robson, 2012; http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm). Sfm_georef was originally written to provide geo-referencing procedures for SfM-MVS projects. It has now been upgraded with a 3-D patch-based matching routine suitable for automating GCP image measurement in both aerial and ground-based (oblique) projects, with the aim of reducing the time required for accurate geo-referencing. Sfm_georef is compatible with a range of SfM-MVS software and imports the relevant files that describe the image network, including camera models and tie points. 3-D survey measurements of ground control are then provided, either for natural features or artificial targets distributed over the project area. Automated GCP image measurement is manually initiated through identifying a GCP position in an image by mouse click; the GCP is then represented by a square planar patch in 3-D, textured from the image and oriented parallel to the local topographic surface (as defined by the 3-D positions of nearby tie points). Other images are then automatically examined by projecting the patch into the images (to account for differences in viewing geometry) and carrying out a sub-pixel normalised cross-correlation search in the local area. With two or more observations of a GCP, its 3-D co-ordinates are then derived by ray intersection. With the 3-D positions of three or more GCPs identified, an initial geo-referencing transform can be derived to relate the SfM-MVS co-ordinate system to that of the GCPs. Then, if GCPs are symmetric and identical, image texture from one representative GCP can be used to search automatically for all others throughout the image set. Finally, the GCP observations can be

  10. Developing project portfolio management model for innovation projects using grounded theory: a case of Iran’s power industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khameneh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Survival in a dynamic competitive environment often requires consistent produce of successful new product and services; therefore, implementing an effective Project Portfolio Management (PPM in the organization can improve innovation decisions and outcomes of new products, thereby lead to higher competitive advantage. This Paper aims at discovering the causal relationship of Innovation Project Portfolio Management (IPPM performance. The results of the analysis. Qualitative research design was chosen for this study and through using semi-structured and in-depth interviews with 24 experts in five Iranian organizations producing equipment of the power industry, we use a grounded theory approach to develop a general model of what drives IPPM in detail and how these causes are related to effects on both project performance and business performance. According to the findings from these qualitative data, effective IPPM is the result of three areas of capabilities: IPPM Process, IPPM structure, IPPM people. These causal relationships are moderated by project context. Also the findings show that performance of IPPM consist of an integrated elements of Strategic alignment, portfolio balance, resource fit and value maximization. In the other hand, IPPM performance has influences on project performance and business performance. Finally, a set of propositions regarding the key performance drivers of IPPM were developed. Conclusions and directions of further researches. In conclusion, this study contributes new insights to the emerging research on IPPM. While most IPPM literature is still a theoretical, this paper develops IPPM in the context of the Iran's power industry. The qualitative research design used in this paper was appropriate for gaining an in-depth understanding how the IPPM capabilities and project context, and certain performance constructs are linked to each other. Our interviews revealed the importance of integrating

  11. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-04-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts.

  12. Electromagnetic modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar responses to complex targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Giannopoulos, Antonis

    2014-05-01

    This work deals with the electromagnetic modelling of composite structures for Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) applications. It was developed within the Short-Term Scientific Mission ECOST-STSM-TU1208-211013-035660, funded by COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar". The Authors define a set of test concrete structures, hereinafter called cells. The size of each cell is 60 x 100 x 18 cm and the content varies with growing complexity, from a simple cell with few rebars of different diameters embedded in concrete at increasing depths, to a final cell with a quite complicated pattern, including a layer of tendons between two overlying meshes of rebars. Other cells, of intermediate complexity, contain pvc ducts (air filled or hosting rebars), steel objects commonly used in civil engineering (as a pipe, an angle bar, a box section and an u-channel), as well as void and honeycombing defects. One of the cells has a steel mesh embedded in it, overlying two rebars placed diagonally across the comers of the structure. Two cells include a couple of rebars bent into a right angle and placed on top of each other, with a square/round circle lying at the base of the concrete slab. Inspiration for some of these cells is taken from the very interesting experimental work presented in Ref. [1]. For each cell, a subset of models with growing complexity is defined, starting from a simple representation of the cell and ending with a more realistic one. In particular, the model's complexity increases from the geometrical point of view, as well as in terms of how the constitutive parameters of involved media and GPR antennas are described. Some cells can be simulated in both two and three dimensions; the concrete slab can be approximated as a finite-thickness layer having infinite extension on the transverse plane, thus neglecting how edges affect radargrams, or else its finite size can be fully taken into account. The permittivity of concrete can be

  13. An explicit time domain solution for ground stratum response to harmonic moving loan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuecheng Bian; Yunmin Chen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the thin 1ayer method originally proposed in frequency domain, an explicit time domain semi-analytical solution has been developed for simulating three-dimensional layered ground responses to harmonic moving loads. The Fourier-Laplace transforms were applied to derive the transformed solution that satisfied the boundary conditions of horizontal infinities. The eigenvalue decomposition was performed with respect to Laplace parameter to express the ground motion corresponding to the eigenmodes. The formulation for each eigenmode incorporating the moving load expression was transformed back into time domain analytically, and the global system responses were given by means of the general mode superposition method. The proposed explicit time domain solution is suitable for studying various types of moving load acting on or inside the ground. In this paper a moving harmonic load with rectangular distribution was adopted to demonstrate the ground response simulation. Two illustrative examples for moving load with speeds below or above the ground Rayleigh wave velocity were presented to test the computational accuracy and efficiency of the proposed approach. A parametric study was also performed to investigate the influences of soil properties on the ground responses.

  14. City of Flagstaff Project: Ground Water Resource Evaluation, Remote Sensing Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Pat S.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Bowell, Jo-Ann; Sides, Stuart C.; Gonzalez, Rosendo R.; Soltesz, Deborah L.

    1996-01-01

    Many regions, cities, and towns in the Western United States need new or expanded water resources because of both population growth and increased development. Any tools or data that can help in the evaluation of an area's potential water resources must be considered for this increasingly critical need. Remotely sensed satellite images and subsequent digital image processing have been under-utilized in ground water resource evaluation and exploration. Satellite images can be helpful in detecting and mapping an area's regional structural patterns, including major fracture and fault systems, two important geologic settings for an area's surface to ground water relations. Within the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Flagstaff Field Center, expertise and capabilities in remote sensing and digital image processing have been developed over the past 25 years through various programs. For the City of Flagstaff project, this expertise and these capabilities were combined with traditional geologic field mapping to help evaluate ground water resources in the Flagstaff area. Various enhancement and manipulation procedures were applied to the digital satellite images; the results, in both digital and hardcopy format, were used for field mapping and analyzing the regional structure. Relative to surface sampling, remotely sensed satellite and airborne images have improved spatial coverage that can help study, map, and monitor the earth surface at local and/or regional scales. Advantages offered by remotely sensed satellite image data include: 1. a synoptic/regional view compared to both aerial photographs and ground sampling, 2. cost effectiveness, 3. high spatial resolution and coverage compared to ground sampling, and 4. relatively high temporal coverage on a long term basis. Remotely sensed images contain both spectral and spatial information. The spectral information provides various properties and characteristics about the surface cover at a given location or pixel

  15. An Assessment of risk response strategies practiced in software projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Bhoola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk management and success in projects are highly intertwined – better approaches to project risk management tend to increase chances of project success in terms of achieving scope & quality, schedule and cost targets. The process of responding to risk factors during a project’s life cycle is a crucial aspect of risk management referred to as risk response strategies, in this paper. The current research explores the status of risk response strategies applied in the software development projects in India. India provides a young IT-savvy English-speaking population, which is also cost effective. Other than the workforce, the environment for implementation of software projects in India is different from the matured economies. Risk management process is a commonly discussed theme, though its implementation in practice has a huge scope for improvement in India. The paper talks about four fundamental treatments to risk response – Avoidance, Transference, Mitigation and Acceptance (ATMA. From a primary data of 302 project managers, the paper attempts to address the risk response factors that lead to successful achievement of project scope & quality, schedule and cost targets, by using a series of regressions followed with Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations (SURE modelling. Mitigation emerged as the most significant risk response strategy to achieve project targets. Acceptance, transference, and avoidance of risk were mostly manifested in the forms of transparency in communication across stakeholders, careful study of the nature of risks and close coordination between project team, customers/end-users and top management.

  16. Analytical approach to calculation of response spectra from seismological models of ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Erdal

    1988-01-01

    An analytical approach to calculate response spectra from seismological models of ground motion is presented. Seismological models have three major advantages over empirical models: (1) they help in an understanding of the physics of earthquake mechanisms, (2) they can be used to predict ground motions for future earthquakes and (3) they can be extrapolated to cases where there are no data available. As shown with this study, these models also present a convenient form for the calculation of response spectra, by using the methods of random vibration theory, for a given magnitude and site conditions. The first part of the paper reviews the past models for ground motion description, and introduces the available seismological models. Then, the random vibration equations for the spectral response are presented. The nonstationarity, spectral bandwidth and the correlation of the peaks are considered in the calculation of the peak response.

  17. Ground-water investigations of the Project Gnome area, Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, through the Office of Test Operations, Albuquerque Operations Office, plans to detonate a nuclear device in a massive salt bed 1,200 feet beneath the land surface. The project, known as Project Gnome, is an element of the Plowshare program--a study of peacetime applications of nuclear fission. The location of the proposed underground shot is in a sparsely-populated area in southeastern Eddy County, N. Mex., east of the Pecos River and about 25 miles southeast of the city of Carlsbad. The area is arid to Semiarid and ground water is a vital factor in the economic utilization of the land, which is primarily used for stock raising. An investigation of the Project Gnome site and surrounding area for the purposes of evaluating the ground-water resources and the possible effect upon them from the detonation of the nuclear shot was desired by the Commission. This report describes work done by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the Commission and presents results of the investigation of the ground-water resources and geology of the area. The most intensive investigations were made within a 15-mile radius of the site of Project Gnome and mainly on the east side of the Pecos River. The total area of study of over 1,200 square miles includes parts of Eddy and Lea Counties, N. Mex. The Project Gnome site is in the sedimentary Delaware Basin. It is underlain by about 18,000 feet of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Ordovician to Recent. Upper Permian evaporitic rocks, which contain the principal source of potash available in the United States, are worked in nearby mines. The potash minerals are found in a massive salt bed about 1,400 feet thick in the Salado Formation of Permian age. The land surface of the area is covered mostly by a wind-blown sand and caliche; however, rocks of the Rustler Formation of Permian age and younger rocks of Permian, Triassic, Pleistocene(?) and Recent age crop out at several localities. Solution by

  18. A FORTRAN program for calculating nonlinear seismic ground response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, William B.

    1977-01-01

    The program described here was designed for calculating the nonlinear seismic response of a system of horizontal soil layers underlain by a semi-infinite elastic medium representing bedrock. Excitation is a vertically incident shear wave in the underlying medium. The nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the soil is represented by a model consisting of simple linear springs and Coulomb friction elements arranged as shown. A boundary condition is used which takes account of finite rigidity in the elastic substratum. The computations are performed by an explicit finite-difference scheme that proceeds step by step in space and time. A brief program description is provided here with instructions for preparing the input and a source listing. A more detailed discussion of the method is presented elsewhere as is the description of a different program employing implicit integration.

  19. Seismoelectric ground response to local and regional earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzieran, Laura; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Thorwart, Martin; Ritter, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    During earthquakes magnetotelluric stations occasionally record electric and magnetic signals similar to seismograms. The major part of these magnetic signals is induced by the seismic movement of the magnetometers (induction coils) in the static magnetic field. In contrast, the electric field signals are caused by the seismoelectric effect. Based on more than 600 earthquakes from Chile, Costa Rica and Europe we established a logarithmic magnitude-distance-relationship describing the magnitude threshold to be exceeded for observing seismoelectric (SE) signals with standard magnetotelluric (MT) recording units at given hypocentral distance r and for noise levels less than 3 μV/m. The log(r) term results from the geometric spreading of the radiated seismic waves. A comparison of SE signals at different hypocentral distances shows that observability is not only influenced by the amplitude of the incoming seismic wave. It also depends on the geological structure underneath the station which causes a unique frequency dependent SE response. To quantify these site effects we computed spectral seismoelectric transfer functions representing the ratios of the spectral amplitudes of SE records and acceleration seismograms (SESRs). Some stations show constant SESRs in the major frequency range, while others show a decrease with increasing frequencies. Based on the current Biot-type seismoelectric theory constant SESRs can be explained by coseismic SE waves alone. The observed SESR amplitudes at some sites are indeed consistent with theoretical expectations for electrically highly resistive soils or rocks, in agreement with the local geology of the investigated areas. The frequency dependence of SESRs observed at other locations can be explained if the incident SE waves consist not only of coseismic arrivals but also of a significant contribution from SE interface response waves which are generated at electrical or mechanical boundaries. Therefore, frequency-dependent SESRs

  20. The IMPACT project Polish Ground-Truth texts as a Djvu corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz S. Bień

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The IMPACT project Polish Ground-Truth texts as a Djvu corpus The purpose of the paper is twofold. First, to describe the already implemented idea of DjVu corpora, i.e. corpora which consist of both scanned images and a transcription of the texts with the words associated with their occurrences in the scans. Secondly, to present a case study of a corpus consisting of almost 5 000 pages of Polish historical texts dating from 1570 to 1756 (it is practically the very first corpus of historical Polish. The tools described have universal character and are freely available under the GNU GPL license, hence they can be used also for other purposes.

  1. Study on the effect of ground motion direction on the response of engineering structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Menghan; Fan, Feng; Sun, Baitao; Zhi, Xudong

    2016-12-01

    Due to the randomness of earthquake wave magnitude and direction, and the uncertain direction of strong axis and weak axis in the construction of engineering structures, the effect of the direction of ground motion on a structure are studied herein. Ground motion records usually contain three vertical ground motion data, which are obtained by sensors arranged in accordance with the EW (East -West) direction, NS (South- North) direction and perpendicular to the surface ( z) direction, referring to the construction standard of seismic stations. The seismic records in the EW and NS directions are converted to Cartesian coordinates in accordance with the rotation of θ = 0°-180°, and consequently, a countless group of new ground motion time histories are obtained. Then, the characteristics of the ground motion time history and response spectrum of each group were studied, resulting in the following observations: (1) the peak and phase of ground motion are changed with the rotation of direction θ, so that the direction θ of the maximum peak ground motion can be determined; (2) response spectrum values of each group of ground motions change along with the direction θ, and their peak, predominant period and declining curve are also different as the changes occur; then, the angle θ in the direction of the maximum peak value or the widest predominant period can be determined; and (3) the seismic response of structures with different directions of ground motion inputs has been analyzed under the same earthquake record, and the results show the difference. For some ground motion records, such as the Taft seismic wave, these differences are significant. Next, the Lushan middle school gymnasium structure was analyzed and the calculation was checked using the proposed method, where the internal force of the upper space truss varied from 25% to 28%. The research results presented herein can be used for reference in choosing the ground motion when checking the actual damage

  2. Ground Response to Tunnel Re-profiling Under Heavily Squeezing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrakas, Apostolos; Anagnostou, Georgios

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a finite strain theoretical analysis of the ground response around highly deformed circular tunnel cross sections that are subjected to (repeated) re-profiling in order to re-establish the desired clearance. Plane strain axially symmetric conditions are considered, with linearly elastic, perfectly or brittle plastic rock behaviour according to the non-associated Mohr-Coulomb model. On the basis of this theoretical analysis, some practical questions are addressed with respect to the ground response curve, the maximum rock pressure (as carried by a practically rigid new temporary support) and the maximum wall convergence (as expected in the presence of a light new support) after re-profiling. Finally, the paper revisits the question of the effectiveness of a pilot tunnel with respect to the ground response during enlargement of the tunnel cross section.

  3. Accuracy of three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis in time domain using nonlinear numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fayun; Chen, Haibing; Huang, Maosong

    2017-07-01

    To provide appropriate uses of nonlinear ground response analysis for engineering practice, a three-dimensional soil column with a distributed mass system and a time domain numerical analysis were implemented on the OpenSees simulation platform. The standard mesh of a three-dimensional soil column was suggested to be satisfied with the specified maximum frequency. The layered soil column was divided into multiple sub-soils with a different viscous damping matrix according to the shear velocities as the soil properties were significantly different. It was necessary to use a combination of other one-dimensional or three-dimensional nonlinear seismic ground analysis programs to confirm the applicability of nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures in soft soil or for strong earthquakes. The accuracy of the three-dimensional soil column finite element method was verified by dynamic centrifuge model testing under different peak accelerations of the earthquake. As a result, nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures were improved in this study. The accuracy and efficiency of the three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis can be adapted to the requirements of engineering practice.

  4. Projected effects of proposed salinity-control projects on shallow ground water; preliminary results for the upper Brazos River basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sergio

    1982-01-01

    As part of the plan to control the natural salt pollution in the upper Brazos River basin of Texas, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers recommended construction of three impoundment and retention reservoirs. In connection with the proposed reservoirs, the U.S. Geological Survey was requested to define the existing ground-water conditions in the shallow ground-water system of the area and to project the post-construction effects of the reservoirs on the shallow aquifer, especially in relation to aquifer-head changes but also with respect to possible changes in the chemical quality of the ground water.

  5. The Italian Project S2 - Task 4:Near-fault earthquake ground motion simulation in the Sulmona alluvial basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupazzini, M.; Smerzini, C.; Cauzzi, C.; Faccioli, E.; Galadini, F.; Gori, S.

    2009-04-01

    Recently the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC), in cooperation with Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) has promoted the 'S2' research project (http://nuovoprogettoesse2.stru.polimi.it/) aimed at the design, testing and application of an open-source code for seismic hazard assessment (SHA). The tool envisaged will likely differ in several important respects from an existing international initiative (Open SHA, Field et al., 2003). In particular, while "the OpenSHA collaboration model envisions scientists developing their own attenuation relationships and earthquake rupture forecasts, which they will deploy and maintain in their own systems", the main purpose of S2 project is to provide a flexible computational tool for SHA, primarily suited for the needs of DPC, which not necessarily are scientific needs. Within S2, a crucial issue is to make alternative approaches available to quantify the ground motion, with emphasis on the near field region. The SHA architecture envisaged will allow for the use of ground motion descriptions other than those yielded by empirical attenuation equations, for instance user generated motions provided by deterministic source and wave propagation simulations. In this contribution, after a brief presentation of Project S2, we intend to illustrate some preliminary 3D scenario simulations performed in the alluvial basin of Sulmona (Central Italy), as an example of the type of descriptions that can be handled in the future SHA architecture. In detail, we selected some seismogenic sources (from the DISS database), believed to be responsible for a number of destructive historical earthquakes, and derive from them a family of simplified geometrical and mechanical source models spanning across a reasonable range of parameters, so that the extent of the main uncertainties can be covered. Then, purely deterministic (for frequencies Element (SE) method, extensively published by Faccioli and his co-workers, and

  6. Electric Ground Support Equipment Advanced Battery Technology Demonstration Project at the Ontario Airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Jeremy Diez; Jeffrey Wishart; James Francfort

    2013-07-01

    The intent of the electric Ground Support Equipment (eGSE) demonstration is to evaluate the day-to-day vehicle performance of electric baggage tractors using two advanced battery technologies to demonstrate possible replacements for the flooded lead-acid (FLA) batteries utilized throughout the industry. These advanced battery technologies have the potential to resolve barriers to the widespread adoption of eGSE deployment. Validation testing had not previously been performed within fleet operations to determine if the performance of current advanced batteries is sufficient to withstand the duty cycle of electric baggage tractors. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. The demonstration project also grew the relationship with Southwest Airlines (SWA), our demonstration partner at Ontario International Airport (ONT), located in Ontario, California. The results of this study have encouraged a proposal for a future demonstration project with SWA.

  7. DAZZLE project: UAV to ground communication system using a laser and a modulated retro-reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thueux, Yoann; Avlonitis, Nicholas; Erry, Gavin

    2014-10-01

    The advent of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has generated the need for reduced size, weight and power (SWaP) requirements for communications systems with a high data rate, enhanced security and quality of service. This paper presents the current results of the DAZZLE project run by Airbus Group Innovations. The specifications, integration steps and initial performance of a UAV to ground communication system using a laser and a modulated retro-reflector are detailed. The laser operates at the wavelength of 1550nm and at power levels that keep it eye safe. It is directed using a FLIR pan and tilt unit driven by an image processing-based system that tracks the UAV in flight at a range of a few kilometers. The modulated retro-reflector is capable of a data rate of 20Mbps over short distances, using 200mW of electrical power. The communication system was tested at the Pershore Laser Range in July 2014. Video data from a flying Octocopter was successfully transmitted over 1200m. During the next phase of the DAZZLE project, the team will attempt to produce a modulated retro-reflector capable of 1Gbps in partnership with the research institute Acreo1 based in Sweden. A high speed laser beam steering capability based on a Spatial Light Modulator will also be added to the system to improve beam pointing accuracy.

  8. Feasibility of ground-water features of the alternate plan for the Mountain Home project, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.; West, S.W.; Mowder, R.W.

    1957-01-01

    An early plan of the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation proposed to irrigate 183,000 acres on the arid Snake River Plain south of Boise, Idaho (Mountain Home project) with Boise River water. That water would have been replaced to the Boise Valley with water imported from the Payette River. An alternate plan, proposed in 1953, would divert water from the Boise River to the plain; part of the water would be replaced by pumping ground water in the Boise valley and by importing water from the Snake River. Pumping of ground water in the Boise Valley also would help to drain waterlogged land. The present report evaluates the feasibility of the alternate plan in relation to geology and the occurrence and quality of ground water. The mean annual temperature at Boise is 50.8 ? F and there is an average of 172 days between killing frosts. The annual evaporation rate from open-water surfaces in the area is about 33 inches. Runoff in the Boise River is chiefly from precipitation on mountain slopes at altitudes above 3,000 feet, east of Boise Diversion Dam. The surface-water supply of the Boise Valley is more Than ample for the valley, owing to large upstream storage and regulatory dams and reservoirs. The valley also contains a large volume of ground water in storage, and the perennial rate of recharge is large. The computed consumptive depletion of surface water in the valley is nearly 600,000 acre-feet a year. Apparent depletion, computed from adjusted runoff at Notus, is 1,070,000 acre-feet. The difference of 470,000 acre-feet represents ground-water underflow and ungaged surface outflow from the area east of Notus. After the beginning of irrigation, around the turn of the century, the water table in the Boise Valley rose steadily; the amount of rise at some places was as much as 140 feet. Shallow perched zones of saturation were created locally. More than 100,000 acres of Boise Valley land now is waterlogged or threatened with waterlogging, despite the presence of more than 325

  9. Computational Simulation of Dynamic Response of Vehicle Tatra T815 and the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlček, Jozef; Valašková, Veronika

    2016-10-01

    The effect of a moving load represents the actual problem which is analysed in engineering practice. The response of the vehicle and its dynamic effect on the pavement can be analysed by experimental or computational ways. The aim of this paper was to perform computer simulations of a vehicle-ground interaction. For this purpose, a half-part model of heavy lorry Tatra 815 and ground was modelled in computational programmes ADINA and PLAXIS based on FEM methods, utilizing analytical approaches. Two procedures were then selected for further calculations. The first one is based on the simplification of the stiffer pavement layers to the beam element supported by the springs simulating the subgrade layers using Winkler-Pasternak theory of elastic half-space. Modulus of subgrade reaction was determined in the standard programme trough the simulation of a plate load test. Second approach considers a multi-layered ground system with layers of different thicknesses and material properties. For comparison of outputs of both approaches, the same input values were used for every calculation procedure. Crucial parameter for the simulations was the velocity of the passing vehicle with regard to the ground response to the impulse of the pass. Lower velocities result in almost static response of the pavement, but higher velocities induce response that can be better described by the dynamic theory. For small deformations, an elastic material model seems to be sufficient to define the ground response to the moving load, but for larger deformations advanced material models for the ground environment would be more reliable.

  10. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Project Technologies: Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of a limited number of demand response technologies and implementations deployed in the SGIG projects.

  11. Study of Ground Treatment on Improvement of Pile Foundation Response in Liquefiable Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Yulong, Chen

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In light of the disastrous the 2011 Tohoku Pacific Earthquake, the government of Japan has conducted studies to revise the seismic design code, and elevated peak ground accelerations have been adopted. Consequently, revisions on existing design to comply with the updated code are required for public projects that are still undergoing. The design safety needs to be reassessed, and implementation of strengthening measures is required if deemed necessary. For liquefaction...

  12. Test holes drilled in support of ground-water investigations, Project Gnome, Eddy County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    Project Gnome is a proposed underground nuclear shot to be detonated within a massive salt bed in Eddy County, N. Mex. Potable and neat potable ground water is present in rocks above the salt and is being studied in relation to this nuclear event. This report presents details of two test holes which were drilled to determine ground-water conditions in the near vicinity of the shot point. A well-defined aquifer is present at the site of USGS test hole 1, about 1,000 feet south of the access shaft to the underground shot point. Water with 75 feet of artesian pressure head is contained in the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler formation. The dolomite aquifer is 32 feet thick and its top lies at a depth of 517 feet below land surface. The aquifer yielded 100 gpm (gallons per minute) with a drawdown of 40 feet during a pumping period of 24 hours. Water was not found in rocks above or below the Culebra dolomite. At the site of USGS test hole 2, about 2 miles southwest of the access shaft no distinctive aquifer exists. About one-half gpm was yielded to the well from the rocks between the Culebra dolomite and the top of the salt. Water could not be detected in the Culebra dolomite or overlying rocks. The report contains drawdown and recovery curves of yield tests, drilling-time charts, and electric logs. The data are given in tables; they include summaries of hole construction, sample description logs, water measurements, drilling-time logs, and water analyses.

  13. Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Context of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2012-01-01

    In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…

  14. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-1994, with projections to 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernodle, J.M.; McAda, D.P.; Thorn, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow model of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque Basin, which comprises the Santa Fe Group (late Oligocene to middle Pleistocene age) and overlying valley and basin-fill deposits (Pleistocene to Holocene age). The model is designed to be flexible and adaptive to new geologic and hydrologic information as it becomes available by using a geographic information system as a data-base manager to interface with the model. The aquifer system was defined and quantified in the model consistent with the current (July 1994) understanding of the structural and geohydrologic framework of the basin. Rather than putting the model through a rigorous calibration process, dis- crepancies between simulated and measured responses in hydraulic head were taken to indicate that the understanding of a local part of the aquifer system was incomplete or incorrect. The model simulates ground-water flow over an area of about 2,400 square miles to a depth of 1,730 to about 2,020 feet below the water table with 244 rows, 178 columns, and 11 layers. Of the 477,752 cells in the model, 310,376 are active. The top four model layers approximate the 80-foot thickness of alluvium in the incised and refilled valley of the Rio Grande to provide detail of the effect of ground-water withdrawals on the surface- water system. Away from the valley these four layers represent the interval within the Santa Fe Group aquifer system between the com- puted predevelopment water table and a level 80 feet below the grade of the Rio Grande. The simulations include initial condi- tions (steady-state), the 1901-1994 historical period, and four possible ground-water withdrawal scenarios from 1994 to 2020. The model indicates that for the year ending in March 1994, net surface-water loss in the basin resulting from the City of Albuquerque's ground-water withdrawal totaled about 53,000 acre- feet. The balance of the about 123

  15. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Newbold, Tim; Contu, Sara; Hill, Samantha L L; Lysenko, Igor; De Palma, Adriana; Phillips, Helen R P; Alhusseini, Tamera I; Bedford, Felicity E; Bennett, Dominic J; Booth, Hollie; Burton, Victoria J; Chng, Charlotte W T; Choimes, Argyrios; Correia, David L P; Day, Julie; Echeverría-Londoño, Susy; Emerson, Susan R; Gao, Di; Garon, Morgan; Harrison, Michelle L K; Ingram, Daniel J; Jung, Martin; Kemp, Victoria; Kirkpatrick, Lucinda; Martin, Callum D; Pan, Yuan; Pask-Hale, Gwilym D; Pynegar, Edwin L; Robinson, Alexandra N; Sanchez-Ortiz, Katia; Senior, Rebecca A; Simmons, Benno I; White, Hannah J; Zhang, Hanbin; Aben, Job; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Adum, Gilbert B; Aguilar-Barquero, Virginia; Aizen, Marcelo A; Albertos, Belén; Alcala, E L; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Alignier, Audrey; Ancrenaz, Marc; Andersen, Alan N; Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Armbrecht, Inge; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aumann, Tom; Axmacher, Jan C; Azhar, Badrul; Azpiroz, Adrián B; Baeten, Lander; Bakayoko, Adama; Báldi, András; Banks, John E; Baral, Sharad K; Barlow, Jos; Barratt, Barbara I P; Barrico, Lurdes; Bartolommei, Paola; Barton, Diane M; Basset, Yves; Batáry, Péter; Bates, Adam J; Baur, Bruno; Bayne, Erin M; Beja, Pedro; Benedick, Suzan; Berg, Åke; Bernard, Henry; Berry, Nicholas J; Bhatt, Dinesh; Bicknell, Jake E; Bihn, Jochen H; Blake, Robin J; Bobo, Kadiri S; Bóçon, Roberto; Boekhout, Teun; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Bonham, Kevin J; Borges, Paulo A V; Borges, Sérgio H; Boutin, Céline; Bouyer, Jérémy; Bragagnolo, Cibele; Brandt, Jodi S; Brearley, Francis Q; Brito, Isabel; Bros, Vicenç; Brunet, Jörg; Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Buddle, Christopher M; Bugter, Rob; Buscardo, Erika; Buse, Jörn; Cabra-García, Jimmy; Cáceres, Nilton C; Cagle, Nicolette L; Calviño-Cancela, María; Cameron, Sydney A; Cancello, Eliana M; Caparrós, Rut; Cardoso, Pedro; Carpenter, Dan; Carrijo, Tiago F; Carvalho, Anelena L; Cassano, Camila R; Castro, Helena; Castro-Luna, Alejandro A; Rolando, Cerda B; Cerezo, Alexis; Chapman, Kim Alan; Chauvat, Matthieu; Christensen, Morten; Clarke, Francis M; Cleary, Daniel F R; Colombo, Giorgio; Connop, Stuart P; Craig, Michael D; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Cunningham, Saul A; D'Aniello, Biagio; D'Cruze, Neil; da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Dallimer, Martin; Danquah, Emmanuel; Darvill, Ben; Dauber, Jens; Davis, Adrian L V; Dawson, Jeff; de Sassi, Claudio; de Thoisy, Benoit; Deheuvels, Olivier; Dejean, Alain; Devineau, Jean-Louis; Diekötter, Tim; Dolia, Jignasu V; Domínguez, Erwin; Dominguez-Haydar, Yamileth; Dorn, Silvia; Draper, Isabel; Dreber, Niels; Dumont, Bertrand; Dures, Simon G; Dynesius, Mats; Edenius, Lars; Eggleton, Paul; Eigenbrod, Felix; Elek, Zoltán; Entling, Martin H; Esler, Karen J; de Lima, Ricardo F; Faruk, Aisyah; Farwig, Nina; Fayle, Tom M; Felicioli, Antonio; Felton, Annika M; Fensham, Roderick J; Fernandez, Ignacio C; Ferreira, Catarina C; Ficetola, Gentile F; Fiera, Cristina; Filgueiras, Bruno K C; Fırıncıoğlu, Hüseyin K; Flaspohler, David; Floren, Andreas; Fonte, Steven J; Fournier, Anne; Fowler, Robert E; Franzén, Markus; Fraser, Lauchlan H; Fredriksson, Gabriella M; Freire, Geraldo B; Frizzo, Tiago L M; Fukuda, Daisuke; Furlani, Dario; Gaigher, René; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; García, Karla P; Garcia-R, Juan C; Garden, Jenni G; Garilleti, Ricardo; Ge, Bao-Ming; Gendreau-Berthiaume, Benoit; Gerard, Philippa J; Gheler-Costa, Carla; Gilbert, Benjamin; Giordani, Paolo; Giordano, Simonetta; Golodets, Carly; Gomes, Laurens G L; Gould, Rachelle K; Goulson, Dave; Gove, Aaron D; Granjon, Laurent; Grass, Ingo; Gray, Claudia L; Grogan, James; Gu, Weibin; Guardiola, Moisès; Gunawardene, Nihara R; Gutierrez, Alvaro G; Gutiérrez-Lamus, Doris L; Haarmeyer, Daniela H; Hanley, Mick E; Hanson, Thor; Hashim, Nor R; Hassan, Shombe N; Hatfield, Richard G; Hawes, Joseph E; Hayward, Matt W; Hébert, Christian; Helden, Alvin J; Henden, John-André; Henschel, Philipp; Hernández, Lionel; Herrera, James P; Herrmann, Farina; Herzog, Felix; Higuera-Diaz, Diego; Hilje, Branko; Höfer, Hubert; Hoffmann, Anke; Horgan, Finbarr G; Hornung, Elisabeth; Horváth, Roland; Hylander, Kristoffer; Isaacs-Cubides, Paola; Ishida, Hiroaki; Ishitani, Masahiro; Jacobs, Carmen T; Jaramillo, Víctor J; Jauker, Birgit; Hernández, F Jiménez; Johnson, McKenzie F; Jolli, Virat; Jonsell, Mats; Juliani, S Nur; Jung, Thomas S; Kapoor, Vena; Kappes, Heike; Kati, Vassiliki; Katovai, Eric; Kellner, Klaus; Kessler, Michael; Kirby, Kathryn R; Kittle, Andrew M; Knight, Mairi E; Knop, Eva; Kohler, Florian; Koivula, Matti; Kolb, Annette; Kone, Mouhamadou; Kőrösi, Ádám; Krauss, Jochen; Kumar, Ajith; Kumar, Raman; Kurz, David J; Kutt, Alex S; Lachat, Thibault; Lantschner, Victoria; Lara, Francisco; Lasky, Jesse R; Latta, Steven C; Laurance, William F; Lavelle, Patrick; Le Féon, Violette; LeBuhn, Gretchen; Légaré, Jean-Philippe; Lehouck, Valérie; Lencinas, María V; Lentini, Pia E; Letcher, Susan G; Li, Qi; Litchwark, Simon A; Littlewood, Nick A; Liu, Yunhui; Lo-Man-Hung, Nancy; López-Quintero, Carlos A; Louhaichi, Mounir; Lövei, Gabor L; Lucas-Borja, Manuel Esteban; Luja, Victor H; Luskin, Matthew S; MacSwiney G, M Cristina; Maeto, Kaoru; Magura, Tibor; Mallari, Neil Aldrin; Malone, Louise A; Malonza, Patrick K; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Mandujano, Salvador; Måren, Inger E; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Marsh, Charles J; Marshall, E J P; Martínez, Eliana; Martínez Pastur, Guillermo; Moreno Mateos, David; Mayfield, Margaret M; Mazimpaka, Vicente; McCarthy, Jennifer L; McCarthy, Kyle P; McFrederick, Quinn S; McNamara, Sean; Medina, Nagore G; Medina, Rafael; Mena, Jose L; Mico, Estefania; Mikusinski, Grzegorz; Milder, Jeffrey C; Miller, James R; Miranda-Esquivel, Daniel R; Moir, Melinda L; Morales, Carolina L; Muchane, Mary N; Muchane, Muchai; Mudri-Stojnic, Sonja; Munira, A Nur; Muoñz-Alonso, Antonio; Munyekenye, B F; Naidoo, Robin; Naithani, A; Nakagawa, Michiko; Nakamura, Akihiro; Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Naoe, Shoji; Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Navarrete Gutierrez, Dario A; Navarro-Iriarte, Luis; Ndang'ang'a, Paul K; Neuschulz, Eike L; Ngai, Jacqueline T; Nicolas, Violaine; Nilsson, Sven G; Noreika, Norbertas; Norfolk, Olivia; Noriega, Jorge Ari; Norton, David A; Nöske, Nicole M; Nowakowski, A Justin; Numa, Catherine; O'Dea, Niall; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Oduro, William; Oertli, Sabine; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Oke, Christopher Omamoke; Oostra, Vicencio; Osgathorpe, Lynne M; Otavo, Samuel Eduardo; Page, Navendu V; Paritsis, Juan; Parra-H, Alejandro; Parry, Luke; Pe'er, Guy; Pearman, Peter B; Pelegrin, Nicolás; Pélissier, Raphaël; Peres, Carlos A; Peri, Pablo L; Persson, Anna S; Petanidou, Theodora; Peters, Marcell K; Pethiyagoda, Rohan S; Phalan, Ben; Philips, T Keith; Pillsbury, Finn C; Pincheira-Ulbrich, Jimmy; Pineda, Eduardo; Pino, Joan; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime; Plumptre, A J; Poggio, Santiago L; Politi, Natalia; Pons, Pere; Poveda, Katja; Power, Eileen F; Presley, Steven J; Proença, Vânia; Quaranta, Marino; Quintero, Carolina; Rader, Romina; Ramesh, B R; Ramirez-Pinilla, Martha P; Ranganathan, Jai; Rasmussen, Claus; Redpath-Downing, Nicola A; Reid, J Leighton; Reis, Yana T; Rey Benayas, José M; Rey-Velasco, Juan Carlos; Reynolds, Chevonne; Ribeiro, Danilo Bandini; Richards, Miriam H; Richardson, Barbara A; Richardson, Michael J; Ríos, Rodrigo Macip; Robinson, Richard; Robles, Carolina A; Römbke, Jörg; Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad; Rös, Matthias; Rosselli, Loreta; Rossiter, Stephen J; Roth, Dana S; Roulston, T'ai H; Rousseau, Laurent; Rubio, André V; Ruel, Jean-Claude; Sadler, Jonathan P; Sáfián, Szabolcs; Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A; Sam, Katerina; Samnegård, Ulrika; Santana, Joana; Santos, Xavier; Savage, Jade; Schellhorn, Nancy A; Schilthuizen, Menno; Schmiedel, Ute; Schmitt, Christine B; Schon, Nicole L; Schüepp, Christof; Schumann, Katharina; Schweiger, Oliver; Scott, Dawn M; Scott, Kenneth A; Sedlock, Jodi L; Seefeldt, Steven S; Shahabuddin, Ghazala; Shannon, Graeme; Sheil, Douglas; Sheldon, Frederick H; Shochat, Eyal; Siebert, Stefan J; Silva, Fernando A B; Simonetti, Javier A; Slade, Eleanor M; Smith, Jo; Smith-Pardo, Allan H; Sodhi, Navjot S; Somarriba, Eduardo J; Sosa, Ramón A; Soto Quiroga, Grimaldo; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues; Starzomski, Brian M; Stefanescu, Constanti; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stouffer, Philip C; Stout, Jane C; Strauch, Ayron M; Struebig, Matthew J; Su, Zhimin; Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Sugiura, Shinji; Summerville, Keith S; Sung, Yik-Hei; Sutrisno, Hari; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Teder, Tiit; Threlfall, Caragh G; Tiitsaar, Anu; Todd, Jacqui H; Tonietto, Rebecca K; Torre, Ignasi; Tóthmérész, Béla; Tscharntke, Teja; Turner, Edgar C; Tylianakis, Jason M; Uehara-Prado, Marcio; Urbina-Cardona, Nicolas; Vallan, Denis; Vanbergen, Adam J; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Vassilev, Kiril; Verboven, Hans A F; Verdasca, Maria João; Verdú, José R; Vergara, Carlos H; Vergara, Pablo M; Verhulst, Jort; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Vu, Lien Van; Waite, Edward M; Walker, Tony R; Wang, Hua-Feng; Wang, Yanping; Watling, James I; Weller, Britta; Wells, Konstans; Westphal, Catrin; Wiafe, Edward D; Williams, Christopher D; Willig, Michael R; Woinarski, John C Z; Wolf, Jan H D; Wolters, Volkmar; Woodcock, Ben A; Wu, Jihua; Wunderle, Joseph M; Yamaura, Yuichi; Yoshikura, Satoko; Yu, Douglas W; Zaitsev, Andrey S; Zeidler, Juliane; Zou, Fasheng; Collen, Ben; Ewers, Rob M; Mace, Georgina M; Purves, Drew W; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Purvis, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of

  16. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity in Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Newbold, Tim; Contu, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity ...

  17. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Newbold, Tim; Contu, Sara; Hill, Samantha L L; Lysenko, Igor; De Palma, Adriana; Phillips, Helen R P; Alhusseini, Tamera I; Bedford, Felicity E; Bennett, Dominic J; Booth, Hollie; Burton, Victoria J; Chng, Charlotte W T; Choimes, Argyrios; Correia, David L P; Day, Julie; Echeverría-Londoño, Susy; Emerson, Susan R; Gao, Di; Garon, Morgan; Harrison, Michelle L K; Ingram, Daniel J; Jung, Martin; Kemp, Victoria; Kirkpatrick, Lucinda; Martin, Callum D; Pan, Yuan; Pask-Hale, Gwilym D; Pynegar, Edwin L; Robinson, Alexandra N; Sanchez-Ortiz, Katia; Senior, Rebecca A; Simmons, Benno I; White, Hannah J; Zhang, Hanbin; Aben, Job; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Adum, Gilbert B; Aguilar-Barquero, Virginia; Aizen, Marcelo A; Albertos, Belén; Alcala, E L; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Alignier, Audrey; Ancrenaz, Marc; Andersen, Alan N; Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Armbrecht, Inge; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aumann, Tom; Axmacher, Jan C; Azhar, Badrul; Azpiroz, Adrián B; Baeten, Lander; Bakayoko, Adama; Báldi, András; Banks, John E; Baral, Sharad K; Barlow, Jos; Barratt, Barbara I P; Barrico, Lurdes; Bartolommei, Paola; Barton, Diane M; Basset, Yves; Batáry, Péter; Bates, Adam J; Baur, Bruno; Bayne, Erin M; Beja, Pedro; Benedick, Suzan; Berg, Åke; Bernard, Henry; Berry, Nicholas J; Bhatt, Dinesh; Bicknell, Jake E; Bihn, Jochen H; Blake, Robin J; Bobo, Kadiri S; Bóçon, Roberto; Boekhout, Teun; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Bonham, Kevin J; Borges, Paulo A V; Borges, Sérgio H; Boutin, Céline; Bouyer, Jérémy; Bragagnolo, Cibele; Brandt, Jodi S; Brearley, Francis Q; Brito, Isabel; Bros, Vicenç; Brunet, Jörg; Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Buddle, Christopher M; Bugter, Rob; Buscardo, Erika; Buse, Jörn; Cabra-García, Jimmy; Cáceres, Nilton C; Cagle, Nicolette L; Calviño-Cancela, María; Cameron, Sydney A; Cancello, Eliana M; Caparrós, Rut; Cardoso, Pedro; Carpenter, Dan; Carrijo, Tiago F; Carvalho, Anelena L; Cassano, Camila R; Castro, Helena; Castro-Luna, Alejandro A; Rolando, Cerda B; Cerezo, Alexis; Chapman, Kim Alan; Chauvat, Matthieu; Christensen, Morten; Clarke, Francis M; Cleary, Daniel F R; Colombo, Giorgio; Connop, Stuart P; Craig, Michael D; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Cunningham, Saul A; D'Aniello, Biagio; D'Cruze, Neil; da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Dallimer, Martin; Danquah, Emmanuel; Darvill, Ben; Dauber, Jens; Davis, Adrian L V; Dawson, Jeff; de Sassi, Claudio; de Thoisy, Benoit; Deheuvels, Olivier; Dejean, Alain; Devineau, Jean-Louis; Diekötter, Tim; Dolia, Jignasu V; Domínguez, Erwin; Dominguez-Haydar, Yamileth; Dorn, Silvia; Draper, Isabel; Dreber, Niels; Dumont, Bertrand; Dures, Simon G; Dynesius, Mats; Edenius, Lars; Eggleton, Paul; Eigenbrod, Felix; Elek, Zoltán; Entling, Martin H; Esler, Karen J; de Lima, Ricardo F; Faruk, Aisyah; Farwig, Nina; Fayle, Tom M; Felicioli, Antonio; Felton, Annika M; Fensham, Roderick J; Fernandez, Ignacio C; Ferreira, Catarina C; Ficetola, Gentile F; Fiera, Cristina; Filgueiras, Bruno K C; Fırıncıoğlu, Hüseyin K; Flaspohler, David; Floren, Andreas; Fonte, Steven J; Fournier, Anne; Fowler, Robert E; Franzén, Markus; Fraser, Lauchlan H; Fredriksson, Gabriella M; Freire, Geraldo B; Frizzo, Tiago L M; Fukuda, Daisuke; Furlani, Dario; Gaigher, René; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; García, Karla P; Garcia-R, Juan C; Garden, Jenni G; Garilleti, Ricardo; Ge, Bao-Ming; Gendreau-Berthiaume, Benoit; Gerard, Philippa J; Gheler-Costa, Carla; Gilbert, Benjamin; Giordani, Paolo; Giordano, Simonetta; Golodets, Carly; Gomes, Laurens G L; Gould, Rachelle K; Goulson, Dave; Gove, Aaron D; Granjon, Laurent; Grass, Ingo; Gray, Claudia L; Grogan, James; Gu, Weibin; Guardiola, Moisès; Gunawardene, Nihara R; Gutierrez, Alvaro G; Gutiérrez-Lamus, Doris L; Haarmeyer, Daniela H; Hanley, Mick E; Hanson, Thor; Hashim, Nor R; Hassan, Shombe N; Hatfield, Richard G; Hawes, Joseph E; Hayward, Matt W; Hébert, Christian; Helden, Alvin J; Henden, John-André; Henschel, Philipp; Hernández, Lionel; Herrera, James P; Herrmann, Farina; Herzog, Felix; Higuera-Diaz, Diego; Hilje, Branko; Höfer, Hubert; Hoffmann, Anke; Horgan, Finbarr G; Hornung, Elisabeth; Horváth, Roland; Hylander, Kristoffer; Isaacs-Cubides, Paola; Ishida, Hiroaki; Ishitani, Masahiro; Jacobs, Carmen T; Jaramillo, Víctor J; Jauker, Birgit; Hernández, F Jiménez; Johnson, McKenzie F; Jolli, Virat; Jonsell, Mats; Juliani, S Nur; Jung, Thomas S; Kapoor, Vena; Kappes, Heike; Kati, Vassiliki; Katovai, Eric; Kellner, Klaus; Kessler, Michael; Kirby, Kathryn R; Kittle, Andrew M; Knight, Mairi E; Knop, Eva; Kohler, Florian; Koivula, Matti; Kolb, Annette

    The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of

  18. Seismic Response of Base-Isolated Structures under Multi-component Ground Motion Excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of a base-isolated structure for multi-component random ground motion is presented. The mean square response of the system is obtained under different parametric variations. The effectiveness of main parameters and the torsional component during an earthquake is quantified with the help of the response ratio and the root mean square response with and without base isolation. It is observed that the base isolation has considerable influence on the response and the effect of the torsional component is not ignored.

  19. The SHERPA project: Smart collaboration between humans and ground-aerial robots for improving rescuing activities in alpine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marconi, L.; Melchiorri, C.; Beetz, M.; Pangercic, D.; Siegwart, R.; Leutenegger, S.; Carloni, R.; Stramigioli, S.; Bruyninckx, H.; Doherty, P.; Kleiner, A.; Lippiello, V.; Finzi, A.; Siciliano, B.; Sala, A.; Tomatis, N.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to present the foreseen research activity of the European project “SHERPA” whose activities will start officially on February 1th 2013. The goal of SHERPA is to develop a mixed ground and aerial robotic platform to support search and rescue activities in a real-world hostile

  20. Fostering trust in virtual project teams: Towards a design framework grounded in a TrustWorthiness ANtecedents(TWAN) schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Rusman, E., Van Bruggen, J., Sloep, P., Koper, R. (2010). Fostering trust in virtual project teams: Towards a design framework grounded in a TrustWorthiness Antecedents (TWAN) schema. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68(11), 834-850. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2010.07.003

  1. The SHERPA project: Smart collaboration between humans and ground-aerial robots for improving rescuing activities in alpine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marconi, L.; Melchiorri, C.; Beetz, M.; Pangercic, D.; Siegwart, R.; Leutenegger, S.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano; Bruyninckx, H.; Doherty, P.; Kleiner, A.; Lippiello, V.; Finzi, A.; Siciliano, B.; Sala, A.; Tomatis, N.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to present the foreseen research activity of the European project “SHERPA‿ whose activities will start officially on February 1th 2013. The goal of SHERPA is to develop a mixed ground and aerial robotic platform to support search and rescue activities in a real-world hostile

  2. Nonlinear Site Response Due to Large Ground Acceleration: Observation and Computer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, S.; Furumura, T.; Sasatani, T.

    2009-12-01

    We studied nonlinear site response due to large ground acceleration during the 2003 off-Miyagi Earthquake (Mw7.0) in Japan by means of horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio analysis of S-wave motion. The results were then confirmed by finite-difference method (FDM) simulation of nonlinear seismic wave propagation. A nonlinear site response is often observed at soft sediment sites, and even at hard bedrock sites which are covered by thin soil layers. Nonlinear site response can be induced by strong ground motion whose peak ground acceleration (PGA) exceeds about 100 cm/s/s, and seriously affects the amplification of high frequency ground motion and PGA. Noguchi and Sasatani (2008) developed an efficient technique for quantitative evaluation of nonlinear site response using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio of S-wave (S-H/V) derived from strong ground motion records, based on Wen et al. (2006). We applied this technique to perform a detailed analysis of the properties of nonlinear site response based on a large amount of data recorded at 132 K-NET and KiK-net strong motion stations in Northern Japan during the off-Miyagi Earthquake. We succeeded in demonstrating a relationship between ground motion level, nonlinear site response and surface soil characteristics. For example, the seismic data recorded at KiK-net IWTH26 showed obvious characteristics of nonlinear site response when the PGA exceeded 100 cm/s/s. As the ground motion level increased, the dominant peak of S-H/V shifted to lower frequency, the high frequency level of S-H/V dropped, and PGA amplification decreased. On the other hand, the records at MYGH03 seemed not to be affected by nonlinear site response even for high ground motion levels in which PGA exceeds 800 cm/s/s. The characteristics of such nonlinear site amplification can be modeled by evaluating Murnaghan constants (e.g. McCall, 1994), which are the third-order elastic constants. In order to explain the observed characteristics of

  3. Effect of Passive Pile on 3D Ground Deformation and on Active Pile Response

    OpenAIRE

    Bingxiang Yuan; Rui Chen; Jun Teng; Tao Peng; Zhongwen Feng

    2014-01-01

    Using a series of model tests, this study investigated the effect of a passive pile on 3D ground deformation around a laterally loaded pile and on that laterally loaded pile’s response in sand. The active pile head was subjected to lateral loads, and the passive pile was arranged in front of the active pile. In the model tests, the distance between the two pile centers was set to zero (i.e., a single pile test), 2.5, 4, and 6 times the pile width (B). The 3D ground surface deformations around...

  4. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  5. Reconnaissance of the geology and ground-water hydrology of the Belle Fourche irrigation project, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, Arthur J.

    1952-01-01

    The Belle Fourche irrigation project is in western South Dakota on the plains adjacent to the northeastern edge of the Black Hills. The project is drained by the Belle Fourche River and is characterized generally by broad shallow valleys that lie between hills with gentle slopes. The climate is semiarid. Most of the area is mantled by residual clay, terrace deposits, and alluvium. The terrace deposits contain much water and are the most permeable deposits in the project area. The alluvial deposits of the Belle Fourche River and of the creeks south of the river contain much sand and gravel and are relatively permeable. The alluvium of the creeks north of the river is predominantly clay and is only slightly permeable; it greatly resembles the residual clay of the weathered bedrock formations, which are mostly shale in this area. Although relatively abundant ground water is found in the unconsolidated materials above the bedrock formations, the ground water from the clayey deposits generally contains too great a concentration of objectionable salts to be fit for human or livestock consumption. The ground water in the more coarse materials is of better quality and in some small areas is satisfactory for domestic use. Most of the water for domestic use is hauled from deep artesian wells within the area. The chief source of ground water is seepage from irrigation canals in the terrace and alluvial deposits. When this water moves to areas of lower permeability a correspondingly greater rise of the water table compensates for the lower permeability and results in the waterlogging of many areas. Open drainage ditches have been constructed in all large areas that are affected by high ground-water levels. Except in those areas that are underlain predominantly by clayey materials, these ditches usually have proven to be satisfactory for the control of ground-water levels. However, lining the canals seems to be a more satisfactory method of preventing the seepage that causes

  6. Projective Synchronization in Drive-Response Networks via Impulsive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Liu-Xiao; XU Zhen-Yuan; HU Man-Feng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Impulsive projective synchronization in 1 + N coupled chaotic systems are investigated with the drive-response dynamical network (DRDN) model. Based on impulsive stability theory, some simple but less conservative criteria are achieved for projective synchronization in DRDNs. Furthermore, impulsive pinning scheme is also adopted to direct the scaling factor onto the desired value. Numerical simulations on generalized chaotic unified system are illustrated to verify the theoretical results.

  7. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-95, with projections to 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernodle, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ground-water-flow model of the Albuquerque Basin (Kernodle, J.M., McAda, D.P., and Thorn, C.R., 1995, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, with projections to 2020: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251, 114 p.) was updated to include new information on the hydrogeologic framework (Hawley, J.W., Haase, C.S., and Lozinsky, R.P., 1995, An underground view of the Albuquerque Basin: Proceedings of the 39th Annual New Mexico Water Conference, November 3-4, 1994, p. 37-55). An additional year of ground-water-withdrawal data was appended to the simulation of the historical period and incorporated into the base for future projections to the year 2020. The revised model projects the simulated ground-water levels associated with an aerally enlarged occurrence of the relatively high hydraulic conductivity in the upper part of the Santa Fe Group east and west of the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area and north to Bernalillo. Although the differences between the two model versions are substantial, the revised model does not contradict any previous conclusions about the effect of City of Albuquerque ground-water withdrawals on flow in the Rio Grande or the net benefits of an effort to conserve ground water. Recent revisions to the hydrogeologic model (Hawley, J.W., Haneberg, W.C., and Whitworth, P.M., in press, Hydrogeologic investigations in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1992-1995: Socorro, New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources Open- File Report 402) of the Albuquerque Basin eventually will require that this model version also be revised and updated.

  8. Attenuation relations for horizontal peak ground acceleration and response spectrum in northeastern Tibetan Plateau region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞言祥; 汪素云

    2004-01-01

    The seismic intensity attenuation relations in northeastern Tibetan Plateau region are established by a regression analysis on isoseismal data. Then the attenuation relations for horizontal peak ground acceleration and short-period response spectrum for western North America are derived based on the database of HUO Jun-rong and strong motion data from recent earthquakes. The attenuation relations of long-period response spectrum for western North America are developed by analyzing the broadband digital seismic recordings of southern California. By integrating the short-period and long-period attenuation relationships, the attenuation relations for horizontal acceleration response spectrum in the period range of 0.04~6 s for western North America are established. The attenuation equation that accounts for the magnitude saturation and near-field saturation of high frequency ground motion is used. Finally the attenuation relations for horizontal peak ground acceleration and response spectrum for the region of northeastern Tibetan Plateau are developed by using the transforming method.

  9. Dynamic Responses Analysis of a Building Structure Subjected to Ground Shock from a Tunnel Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Li; LI Zhongxian; HAO Hong

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic responses of a multi-storey building without or with a sliding base-isolation device for ground shock induced by an in-tunnel explosion are numerically analyzed.The effect of an adjacent tunnel in between the building and the explosion tunnel,which affects ground shock propagation,is considered in the analysis.Different modeling methods,such as the eight-node equal-parametric finite element and mass-lumped system,are used to establish the coupling model consisting of the two adjacent tunnels,the surrounding soil medium with the Lysmer viscous boundary condition,and the multi-storey building with or without the sliding base-isolation device.In numerical calculations,a continuous friction model,which is different from the traditional Coulomb friction model,is adopted to improve the computational efficiency and reduce the accumulated errors.Some example analyses are subsequently performed to study the response characteristics of the building and the sliding base-isolation device to ground shock.The effect of the adjacent tunnel in between the building and the explosion tunnel on the ground shock wave propagation is also investigated.The final conclusions based on the numerical results will provide some guidance in engineering practice.

  10. Seismic Response of Power Transmission Tower-Line System Subjected to Spatially Varying Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of power transmission tower-line system subjected to spatially varying base excitations is studied in this paper. The transmission towers are modeled by beam elements while the transmission lines are modeled by cable elements that account for the nonlinear geometry of the cables. The real multistation data from SMART-1 are used to analyze the system response subjected to spatially varying ground motions. The seismic input waves for vertical and horizontal ground motions are also generated based on the Code for Design of Seismic of Electrical Installations. Both the incoherency of seismic waves and wave travel effects are accounted for. The nonlinear time history analytical method is used in the analysis. The effects of boundary conditions, ground motion spatial variations, the incident angle of the seismic wave, coherency loss, and wave travel on the system are investigated. The results show that the uniform ground motion at all supports of system does not provide the most critical case for the response calculations.

  11. Resource conservation and recovery act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-06-01

    This document describes the progress of 13 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period January 1 to March 31, 1989. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality. 32 refs., 30 figs., 103 tabs.

  12. ESO Signs Largest-Ever European Industrial Contract For Ground-Based Astronomy Project ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, announced today that it has signed a contract with the consortium led by Alcatel Alenia Space and composed also of European Industrial Engineering (Italy) and MT Aerospace (Germany), to supply 25 antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project, along with an option for another seven antennas. The contract, worth 147 million euros, covers the design, manufacture, transport and on-site integration of the antennas. It is the largest contract ever signed in ground-based astronomy in Europe. The ALMA antennas present difficult technical challenges, since the antenna surface accuracy must be within 25 microns, the pointing accuracy within 0.6 arc seconds, and the antennas must be able to be moved between various stations on the ALMA site. This is especially remarkable since the antennas will be located outdoor in all weather conditions, without any protection. Moreover, the ALMA antennas can be pointed directly at the Sun. ALMA will have a collecting area of more than 5,600 square meters, allowing for unprecedented measurements of extremely faint objects. The signing ceremony took place on December 6, 2005 at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany. "This contract represents a major milestone. It allows us to move forward, together with our American and Japanese colleagues, in this very ambitious and unique project," said ESO's Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "By building ALMA, we are giving European astronomers access to the world's leading submillimetre facility at the beginning of the next decade, thereby fulfilling Europe's desire to play a major role in this field of fundamental research." Pascale Sourisse, Chairman and CEO of Alcatel Alenia Space, said: "We would like to thank ESO for trusting us to take on this new challenge. We are bringing to the table not only our recognized expertise in antenna development, but also our long-standing experience in

  13. Ground-based remote sensing of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues within the project MUSICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M.; Barthlott, S.; Hase, F.; González, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; García, O. E.; Sepúlveda, E.; Gomez-Pelaez, A.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Dohe, S.; Blumenstock, T.; Wiegele, A.; Christner, E.; Strong, K.; Weaver, D.; Palm, M.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lejeune, B.; Demoulin, P.; Jones, N.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Smale, D.; Robinson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water), long-term tropospheric water vapour isotopologue data records are provided for ten globally distributed ground-based mid-infrared remote sensing stations of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change). We present a new method allowing for an extensive and straightforward characterisation of the complex nature of such isotopologue remote sensing datasets. We demonstrate that the MUSICA humidity profiles are representative for most of the troposphere with a vertical resolution ranging from about 2 km (in the lower troposphere) to 8 km (in the upper troposphere) and with an estimated precision of better than 10%. We find that the sensitivity with respect to the isotopologue composition is limited to the lower and middle troposphere, whereby we estimate a precision of about 30‰ for the ratio between the two isotopologues HD16O and H216O. The measurement noise, the applied atmospheric temperature profiles, the uncertainty in the spectral baseline, and the cross-dependence on humidity are the leading error sources. We introduce an a posteriori correction method of the cross-dependence on humidity, and we recommend applying it to isotopologue ratio remote sensing datasets in general. In addition, we present mid-infrared CO2 retrievals and use them for demonstrating the MUSICA network-wide data consistency. In order to indicate the potential of long-term isotopologue remote sensing data if provided with a well-documented quality, we present a climatology and compare it to simulations of an isotope incorporated AGCM (Atmospheric General Circulation Model). We identify differences in the multi-year mean and seasonal cycles that significantly exceed the estimated errors, thereby indicating deficits in the modeled atmospheric water cycle.

  14. Ground-based remote sensing of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues within the project MUSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water, long-term tropospheric water vapour isotopologue data records are provided for ten globally distributed ground-based mid-infrared remote sensing stations of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. We present a new method allowing for an extensive and straightforward characterisation of the complex nature of such isotopologue remote sensing datasets. We demonstrate that the MUSICA humidity profiles are representative for most of the troposphere with a vertical resolution ranging from about 2 km (in the lower troposphere to 8 km (in the upper troposphere and with an estimated precision of better than 10%. We find that the sensitivity with respect to the isotopologue composition is limited to the lower and middle troposphere, whereby we estimate a precision of about 30‰ for the ratio between the two isotopologues HD16O and H216O. The measurement noise, the applied atmospheric temperature profiles, the uncertainty in the spectral baseline, and the cross-dependence on humidity are the leading error sources. We introduce an a posteriori correction method of the cross-dependence on humidity, and we recommend applying it to isotopologue ratio remote sensing datasets in general. In addition, we present mid-infrared CO2 retrievals and use them for demonstrating the MUSICA network-wide data consistency. In order to indicate the potential of long-term isotopologue remote sensing data if provided with a well-documented quality, we present a climatology and compare it to simulations of an isotope incorporated AGCM (Atmospheric General Circulation Model. We identify differences in the multi-year mean and seasonal cycles that significantly exceed the estimated errors, thereby indicating deficits in the modeled atmospheric water cycle.

  15. Ground-based remote sensing of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues within the project MUSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water, long-term tropospheric water vapour isotopologues data records are provided for ten globally distributed ground-based mid-infrared remote sensing stations of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. We present a new method allowing for an extensive and straightforward characterisation of the complex nature of such isotopologue remote sensing datasets. We demonstrate that the MUSICA humidity profiles are representative for most of the troposphere with a vertical resolution ranging from about 2 km (in the lower troposphere to 8 km (in the upper troposphere and with an estimated precision of better than 10%. We find that the sensitivity with respect to the isotopologue composition is limited to the lower and middle troposphere, whereby we estimate a precision of about 30‰ for the ratio between the two isotopologues HD16O and H216O. The measurement noise, the applied atmospheric temperature profiles, the uncertainty in the spectral baseline, and interferences from humidity are the leading error sources. We introduce an a posteriori correction method of the humidity interference error and we recommend applying it for isotopologue ratio remote sensing datasets in general. In addition, we present mid-infrared CO2 retrievals and use them for demonstrating the MUSICA network-wide data consistency.

    In order to indicate the potential of long-term isotopologue remote sensing data if provided with a well-documented quality, we present a climatology and compare it to simulations of an isotope incorporated AGCM (Atmospheric General Circulation Model. We identify differences in the multi-year mean and seasonal cycles that significantly exceed the estimated errors, thereby indicating deficits in the modeled atmospheric water cycle.

  16. Structural responses of secondary lining of high-speed railway tunnel excavated in loess ground

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dingli; Fang, Qian; Li, Pengfei; Wong, Louis

    2013-01-01

    To systematically study the mechanical properties and structural responses of the secondary lining for high-speed railway tunnels excavated in loess ground, on-site monitoring was performed to measure the contact pressure between the primary lining and secondary lining. It is found that the contact pressure reaches its first peak value when the tunnel formwork carriage is removed. The load acting on secondary lining is in the form of deformation pressure, which is different from the loose pre...

  17. Image segmentation techniques for improved processing of landmine responses in ground-penetrating radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie

    2007-04-01

    As ground penetrating radar sensor phenomenology improves, more advanced statistical processing approaches become applicable to the problem of landmine detection in GPR data. Most previous studies on landmine detection in GPR data have focused on the application of statistics and physics based prescreening algorithms, new feature extraction approaches, and improved feature classification techniques. In the typical framework, prescreening algorithms provide spatial location information of anomalous responses in down-track / cross-track coordinates, and feature extraction algorithms are then tasked with generating low-dimensional information-bearing feature sets from these spatial locations. However in time-domain GPR, a significant portion of the data collected at prescreener flagged locations may be unrelated to the true anomaly responses - e.g. ground bounce response, responses either temporally "before" or "after" the anomalous response, etc. The ability to segment the information-bearing region of the GPR image from the background of the image may thus provide improved performance for feature-based processing of anomaly responses. In this work we will explore the application of Markov random fields (MRFs) to the problem of anomaly/background segmentation in GPR data. Preliminary results suggest the potential for improved feature extraction and overall performance gains via application of image segmentation approaches prior to feature extraction.

  18. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Newbold, Tim; Contu, Sara; Hill, Samantha L.L.; Lysenko, Igor; De Palma, Adriana; Phillips, Helen R. P.; Alhusseini, Tamera I.; Bedford, Felicity E.; Bennett, Dominic J.; Booth, Hollie; Burton, Victoria J.; Chng , Charlotte W. T.; Choimes, Argyrios; Correia, David L.P.

    2017-01-01

    The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make free...

  19. Medical Student Response to a Class Lipid-Screening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Gifford; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Medical students at the State University of New York's Downstate Medical Center initiated and carried out a voluntary project to screen lipids (cholesterol) to identify known coronary risk factors. The incidence of coronary disease factors among these students and the response of students with high cholesterol levels are reported. (Authors/PP)

  20. Effects of image orientation and ground control points distribution on unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry projects on a road cut slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Ramírez, Fernando; Agüera-Vega, Francisco; Martínez-Carricondo, Patricio J.

    2016-07-01

    The morphology of road cut slopes, such as length and high slopes, is one of the most prevalent causes of landslides and terrain stability troubles. Digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthoimages are used for land management purposes. Two flights with different orientations with respect to the target surface were planned, and four photogrammetric projects were carried out during these flights to study the image orientation effects. Orthogonal images oriented to the cut slope with only sidelaps were compared to the classical vertical orientation, with sidelapping, endlapping, and both types of overlapping simultaneously. DEM and orthoimages obtained from the orthogonal project showed smaller errors than those obtained from the other three photogrammetric projects, with the first one being much easier to manage. One additional flight and six photogrammetric projects were used to establish an objective criterion to locate the three ground control points for georeferencing and rectification DEMs and orthoimages. All possible sources of errors were evaluated in the DEMs and orthoimages.

  1. The Seismic Response of High-Speed Railway Bridges Subjected to Near-Fault Forward Directivity Ground Motions Using a Vehicle-Track-Bridge Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling-kun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA project ground motion library, the finite element model of the high-speed railway vehicle-bridge system is established. The model was specifically developed for such system that is subjected to near-fault ground motions. In addition, it accounted for the influence of the rail irregularities. The vehicle-track-bridge (VTB element is presented to simulate the interaction between train and bridge, in which a train can be modeled as a series of sprung masses concentrated at the axle positions. For the short period railway bridge, the results from the case study demonstrate that directivity pulse effect tends to increase the seismic responses of the bridge compared with far-fault ground motions or nonpulse-like motions and the directivity pulse effect and high values of the vertical acceleration component can notably influence the hysteretic behaviour of piers.

  2. Forest Watch: Using Student Data to Monitor Forest Response to Ground-Level Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, S.; Rock, B. N.

    2006-12-01

    Forest Watch, a k-12 science outreach program begun at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in 1991, has engaged pre-college students in providing UNH researchers with data on the annual response of white pine (Pinus strobus; a bio-indicator species for ozone exposure) to ground-level ozone across the New England region. Each year, student-collected growth and foliar symptomology data for 5 pine trees adjacent to their schools, along with first-year foliar samples, are submitted to UNH. Key foliar symptoms and student data are compared with summer monthly (JJA) maximum ozone concentrations collected by state and federal ozone monitoring stations across the region. To date, tree health indicators are inversely correlated (r2=0.83;p=0.10) with ozone concentrations: low ozone levels correlate with symptoms of good health (spectral indices diagnostic of high foliar chlorophyll levels and moisture content, normal incremental growth, low number of foliar symptoms), while summers characterized by high ozone concentrations correlate with symptoms of reduced health (low chlorophyll indices and moisture content, reduced incremental growth, increased number of foliar symptoms). In drought years (1999, 2001, 2002, 2003) few foliar symptoms of ozone damage are seen even though ozone levels were high, likely due to drought-induced stomatal closure. Based on student data since 1998, either low ozone summers, or drought summers have resulted in improved health in the sampled trees (n=30). Based on the success of Forest Watch in New England, we are exploring the extension of the program to Colorado as Front Range Forest Watch, operated from Colorado State University (CSU). The primary objective is to develop a student-scientist-local agency project that addresses real ecological issues in northern Colorado, including ozone pollution, and to provide pre-college students and teachers authentic science experiences. CSU runs a GK-12 program with Poudre School District in northern

  3. Orthogonal expansion of ground motion and PDEM-based seismic response analysis of nonlinear structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jie; Liu Zhangjun; Chen Jianbing

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces an orthogonal expansion method for general stochastic processes. In the method, a normalized orthogonal function of time variable t is first introduced to carry out the decomposition of a stochastic process and then a correlated matrix decomposition technique, which transforms a correlated random vector into a vector of standard uncorrelated random variables, is used to complete a double orthogonal decomposition of the stochastic processes. Considering the relationship between the Hartley transform and Fourier transform of a real-valued function, it is suggested that the first orthogonal expansion in the above process is carried out using the Hartley basis function instead of the trigonometric basis function in practical applications. The seismic ground motion is investigated using the above method. In order to capture the main probabilistic characteristics of the seismic ground motion, it is proposed to directly carry out the orthogonal expansion of the seismic displacements. The case study shows that the proposed method is feasible to represent the seismic ground motion with only a few random variables. In the second part of the paper, the probability density evolution method (PDEM) is employed to study the stochastic response of nonlinear structures subjected to earthquake excitations. In the PDEM, a completely uncoupled one-dimensional partial differential equation, the generalized density evolution equation, plays a central role in governing the stochastic seismic responses of the nonlinear structure. The solution to this equation will yield the instantaneous probability density function of the responses. Computational algorithms to solve the probability density evolution equation are described, An example, which deals with a nonlinear frame structure subjected to stochastic ground motions, is illustrated to validate the above approach.

  4. "Grid" versus "Ground": Optimized Design of Low-Distortion Projections Using Existing Projection Types Rigorously Georeferenced to the National Spatial Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, M. L.; Armstrong, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    With the adoption of a new geometric datum in 2022, NOAA's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) will update the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS). This update may consist simply of offsetting northings and/or eastings of existing SPCS projection zones. However, there is significant interest among NGS customers for another type of projected coordinate system: Low-Distortion Projections (LDPs). Although LDPs are presently not endorsed or supported by NGS, an assessment of LDP feasibility and performance is warranted within the context of updating the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS). LDPs are conformal map projections that minimize linear distortion at the topographic surface, manifested as a difference in distance between a pair of projected "grid" coordinates and the true horizontal "ground" distance. For SPCS, the differences can exceed a few hundred parts per million (ppm), and it can be problematic for engineering and surveying applications. Although such distortion cannot be eliminated, an LDP design method is presented that yields optimal results even for large areas of variable elevation. This approach can provide much lower distortion than the traditional method of scaling SPCS to ground, often called "modified" SPCS (MSPCS). MSPCS was included in training provided by NGS beginning in the 1960s, but it does not optimally minimize linear distortion. LDP systems have been adopted throughout the United States. One such system is the Oregon Coordinate Reference System (OCRS). Figure 1 compares distortion of an MSPCS for Bend, Oregon, to the OCRS zone for that area, where the green shading indicates distortion within ±20 ppm (2 cm/km or 0.1 ft/mile). The difference in performance is striking, even though both use the same projection type. Because LDPs cover larger areas, one can be used for many projects, whereas in most cases one MSPCS (and sometimes more) must be defined for every project. Importantly, the presented method for designing LDPs is based on

  5. Guide to ground water remediation at CERCLA response action and RCRA corrective action sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This Guide contains the regulatory and policy requirements governing remediation of ground water contaminated with hazardous waste [including radioactive mixed waste (RMW)], hazardous substances, or pollutants/contaminants that present (or may present) an imminent and substantial danger. It was prepared by the Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-413), to assist Environmental Program Managers (ERPMs) who often encounter contaminated ground water during the performance of either response actions under CERCLA or corrective actions under Subtitle C of RCRA. The Guide begins with coverage of the regulatory and technical issues that are encountered by ERPM`s after a CERCLA Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) or the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) have been completed and releases into the environment have been confirmed. It is based on the assumption that ground water contamination is present at the site, operable unit, solid waste management unit, or facility. The Guide`s scope concludes with completion of the final RAs/corrective measures and a determination by the appropriate regulatory agencies that no further response action is necessary.

  6. Detecting plant metabolic responses induced by ground shock using hyperspectral remote sensing and physiological contact measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, W.L.; Cater, G.A.

    1996-12-03

    A series of field experiments were done to determine if ground shock could have induced physiological responses in plants and if the level of the response could be observed. The observation techniques were remote sensing techniques and direct contact physiological measurements developed by Carter for detecting pre-visual plant stress. The remote sensing technique was similar to that used by Pickles to detect what appeared to be ground shock induced plant stress above the 1993 Non Proliferation Experiment`s underground chemical explosion. The experiment was designed to provide direct plant physiological measurements and remote sensing ratio images and from the same plants at the same time. The simultaneous direct and remote sensing measurements were done to establish a ground truth dataset to compare to the results of the hyperspectral remote sensing measurements. In addition, the experiment was designed to include data on what was thought to be the most probable interfering effect, dehydration. The experimental design included investigating the relative magnitude of the shock induced stress effects compared to dehydration effects.

  7. Displacement response analysis of base-isolated buildings subjected to near-fault ground motions with velocity pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiumei; Li, Xiaojun; Yang, Yu; Liu, Aiwen; Li, Yaqi

    2016-04-01

    In order to study the influence of the velocity pulse to seismic displacement response of base-isolated buildings and the differences of the influent of the two types of near-fault ground motions with velocity pulse to seismic response of base-isolated buildings, the seismic responses are analyzed by three dimensional finite element models for three base-isolated buildings, 4 stories, 9 stories and 14 stories. In this study, comparative analyses were done for the seismic displacement responses of the base-isolated structures under 6 near-fault ground motion records with velocity pulse and no velocity pulse, in which, 6 artificial ground motion time histories with same elastic response spectrum as the 6 near-fault ground motion records are used as the ground motion with no velocity pulse. This study indicates that under the ground motions with velocity pulse the seismic displacement response of base-isolated buildings is significantly increased than the ground motions with no velocity pulse. To the median-low base-isolated buildings, the impact of forward directivity pulses is bigger than fling-step pulses. To the high base-isolated buildings, the impact of fling-step pulses is bigger than forward directivity pulses. The fling-step pulses lead to large displacement response in the lower stories. This work has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.51408560)

  8. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-02-01

    Although elevated ground-level O₃ has a species-specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O₃ pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O₃ Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O₃-tolerant (YD6) and the O₃-sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O₃ pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O₃ negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O₃ pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O₃ pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O₃ pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O₃. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Airline Operational Control (AOC)/UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) Collaboration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to form a network and a set of tools that will create a shared situation awareness with Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Ground Control Stations (GCSs) and...

  10. Plug and Play Realtime Diagnosis for Ground Processing System Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's "Ground Systems Development and Operations Program" is moving towards transforming parts of the Kennedy Space Center from a historically government-only...

  11. Easy-to-Use UAV Ground Station Software for Low-Altitude Civil Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design and develop easy-to-use Ground Control Station (GCS) software for low-altitude civil Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations. The GCS software...

  12. Radiological status of the ground water beneath the Hanford project, January-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, P.A.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1980-04-01

    Operations on the Hanford Site since 1944 have resulted in discharge of large volumes of process cooling water and low-level liquid radioactive waste to the ground. Radioactivity and chemical substances have been carried with these discharges and have reached the Hanford ground water. For may years wells have been used as groundwater sampling structures to gather data on the distribution and movement of these discharges as they interact with the unconfined ground water beneath the site. During 1979, 317 wells were sampled on various frequencies from weekly to annually. This report is one of a series prepared annually to document the evaluation of the status of ground water on the Hanford Site. Data collected during 1979 describe the movement of radionuclide (Tritium and Beta) and nitrate plumes that respond to the influence of groundwater flow, ionic dispersion and radioactive decay.

  13. Software-Defined Ground Stations - Enhancing Multi-Mission Support Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase 1 proposal to NASA requests $99,055.69 to enhance multiple mission support in ground stations through the use of software defined radios and virtual...

  14. A Robust Separation Assurance (SA) Architecture Using Integrated Airborne and Ground SA Concepts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation, Inc. proposes a robust SA architecture that uses integrated airborne and ground-based SA concepts such that SA functions are switched between...

  15. Fault Detection and Isolation of Satellite Formations using a Ground Station Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development a fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithm for a formation of satellites but processed at a ground station. The algorithm...

  16. Developing project portfolio management model for innovation projects using grounded theory: a case of Iran’s power industry

    OpenAIRE

    A. Khameneh; M.H. Sobhiyah; H.Kh. Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article. Survival in a dynamic competitive environment often requires consistent produce of successful new product and services; therefore, implementing an effective Project Portfolio Management (PPM) in the organization can improve innovation decisions and outcomes of new products, thereby lead to higher competitive advantage. This Paper aims at discovering the causal relationship of Innovation Project Portfolio Management (IPPM) performance. The results of the analysis. Qu...

  17. 2010 Military Family Life Project (MFLP) - Couples: Tabulations of Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-31

    care home, preschool , after-school program)? Number of child care arrangements 2010 Military Family Life Project: Couples DMDC 119 67. [Ask if...officials contributing to the development of this survey included Cathy Flynn and Yuko Whitestone (Military Community and Family Policy). DMDC’s Survey...Design, Analysis & Operations Branch, under the guidance of Paul Rosenfeld, Branch Chief, is responsible for the development of questionnaires used

  18. On the Design and Response of Domestic Ground-Source Heat Pumps in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Underwood

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The design and response of ground source heat pumps coupled to vertical closed loop arrays in UK domestic applications are investigated in this article. Two typical UK house types are selected as the vehicle for the study and a detailed dynamic thermal modelling method is used to arrive at time-series heating demands for the two houses. A new empirical heat pump model is derived using experimental data taking into account the deteriorating performance of the heat pump during periods of light load. The heat pump model is incorporated into an existing numerical ground model and completed with a classical effectiveness type heat exchange model of the closed loop array. The model is used to analyse array sizing and performance over an extended time period, as well as sensitivity of the design to soil conductivity and borehole heat exchanger resistance and sensitivity to over-sizing and part-load behavior of the heat pump. Results show that the UK’s standard for ground source design (the Microgeneration Certification Scheme may lead to under-estimated array sizes and that heating system over-sizing and deleterious part-load heat pump performance can add up to 20% to the electrical consumption of these systems.

  19. Incorporating adaptive responses into future projections of coral bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cheryl A; Dunne, John P; Eakin, C Mark; Donner, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming threatens to increase mass coral bleaching events, and several studies have projected the demise of tropical coral reefs this century. However, recent evidence indicates corals may be able to respond to thermal stress though adaptive processes (e.g., genetic adaptation, acclimatization, and symbiont shuffling). How these mechanisms might influence warming-induced bleaching remains largely unknown. This study compared how different adaptive processes could affect coral bleaching projections. We used the latest bias-corrected global sea surface temperature (SST) output from the NOAA/GFDL Earth System Model 2 (ESM2M) for the preindustrial period through 2100 to project coral bleaching trajectories. Initial results showed that, in the absence of adaptive processes, application of a preindustrial climatology to the NOAA Coral Reef Watch bleaching prediction method overpredicts the present-day bleaching frequency. This suggests that corals may have already responded adaptively to some warming over the industrial period. We then modified the prediction method so that the bleaching threshold either permanently increased in response to thermal history (e.g., simulating directional genetic selection) or temporarily increased for 2-10 years in response to a bleaching event (e.g., simulating symbiont shuffling). A bleaching threshold that changes relative to the preceding 60 years of thermal history reduced the frequency of mass bleaching events by 20-80% compared with the 'no adaptive response' prediction model by 2100, depending on the emissions scenario. When both types of adaptive responses were applied, up to 14% more reef cells avoided high-frequency bleaching by 2100. However, temporary increases in bleaching thresholds alone only delayed the occurrence of high-frequency bleaching by ca. 10 years in all but the lowest emissions scenario. Future research should test the rate and limit of different adaptive responses for coral species across latitudes and

  20. Response of a transmission tower-line system at a canyon site to spatially varying ground motions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-nan LI; Feng-long BAI; Li TIAN; Hong HAO

    2011-01-01

    Collapses of transmission towers were often observed in previous large earthquakes such as the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan and Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, China. These collapses were partially caused by the pulling forces from the transmission lines generated from out-of-phase responses of the adjacent towers owing to spatially varying earthquake ground motions. In this paper, a 3D finite element model of the transmission tower-line system is established considering the geometric nonlinearity of transmission lines. The nonlinear responses of the structural system at a canyon site are analyzed subjected to spatially varying ground motions. The spatial variations of ground motion associated with the wave passage, coherency loss, and local site effects are given. The spatially varying ground motions are simulated stochastically based on an empirical coherency loss function and a filtered Tajimi-Kanai power spectral density function. The site effect is considered by a transfer function derived from ID wave propagation theory. Compared with structural responses calculated using the uniform ground motion and delayed excitations, numerical results indicate that seismic responses of transmission towers and power lines are amplified when considering spatially varying ground motions including site effects. Each factor of ground motion spatial variations has a significant effect on the seismic response of the structure, especially for the local site effect. Therefore, neglecting the earthquake ground motion spatial variations may lead to a substantial underestimation of the response of transmission tower-line system during strong earthquakes. Each effect of ground motion spatial variations should be incorporated in seismic analysis of the structural system.

  1. Ground Rules in Team Projects: Findings from a Prototype System to Support Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Janice

    2009-01-01

    Student team project work in higher education is one of the best ways to develop team working skills at the same time as learning about the subject matter. As today's students require the freedom to learn at times and places that better match their lifestyles, there is a need for any support for team project work to be also available online. Team…

  2. Quality assurance project plan for ground water monitoring activities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPP) applies specifically to the field activities and laboratory analysis performed for all RCRA groundwater projects conducted by Hanford Technical Services. This QAPP is generic in approach and shall be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual groundwater monitoring plans.

  3. MIV project: Detailed design of on-board and ground systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisch, Manlio; Thuesen, Gøsta; Jørgensen, John Leif;

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a reference mission scenario was defined. This report describes the algorithms used to achieve autonomous and ground supported guidance, navigation and control....

  4. Seismic Response of Long-Span Triple-Tower Suspension Bridge under Random Ground Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-ke Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multitower suspension bridge is of different style compared to the traditional suspension bridge with two towers, and consequently the dissimilarity of static and dynamic behaviors is distinct. As a special case of multitower suspension bridge, two long-span triple-tower suspension bridges have been constructed in China and the seismic random response of triple-tower suspension bridges is studied in this paper. A nonlinear dynamic analysis finite element model is established in ABAQUS and the Python language is utilized to facilitate the preprocess and postprocess during the finite element analysis. The procedure for random response calculation of structures based on the pseudoexcitation method is presented, with the initial equilibrium state of structure considered, which may be ignored for long-span bridges during calculating of stochastic response. The stationary seismic random responses of triple-tower suspension bridge under uniform excitation in firm, medium, and soft soil conditions and under spatially varying excitation in soft soil are investigated. The distribution of RMS of random responses of displacements and internal forces of the stiffening girder and towers is presented and discussed in detail. Results show that spatially variable ground motions should be considered in the stochastic analysis of triple-tower suspension bridge.

  5. Projected distributions and diversity of flightless ground beetles within the Australian Wet Tropics and their environmental correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyran M Staunton

    Full Text Available With the impending threat of climate change, greater understanding of patterns of species distributions and richness and the environmental factors driving them are required for effective conservation efforts. Species distribution models enable us to not only estimate geographic extents of species and subsequent patterns of species richness, but also generate hypotheses regarding environmental factors determining these spatial patterns. Projected changes in climate can then be used to predict future patterns of species distributions and richness. We created distribution models for most of the flightless ground beetles (Carabidae within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area of Australia, a major component of regionally endemic invertebrates. Forty-three species were modelled and the environmental correlates of these distributions and resultant patterns of species richness were examined. Flightless ground beetles generally inhabit upland areas characterised by stable, cool and wet environmental conditions. These distribution and richness patterns are best explained using the time-stability hypothesis as this group's primary habitat, upland rainforest, is considered to be the most stable regional habitat. Projected changes in distributions indicate that as upward shifts in distributions occur, species currently confined to lower and drier mountain ranges will be more vulnerable to climate change impacts than those restricted to the highest and wettest mountains. Distribution models under projected future climate change suggest that there will be reductions in range size, population size and species richness under all emission scenarios. Eighty-eight per cent of species modelled are predicted to decline in population size by over 80%, for the most severe emission scenario by the year 2080. These results suggest that flightless ground beetles are among the most vulnerable taxa to climate change impacts so far investigated in the Wet Tropics World

  6. Factors involved in nurses' responses to burnout: a grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikravesh Mansoure

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intense and long-standing problems in burn centers in Tehran have led nurses to burnout. This phenomenon has provoked serious responses and has put the nurses, patients and the organization under pressure. The challenge for managers and nurse executives is to understand the factors which would reduce or increase the nurses' responses to burnout and develop delivery systems that promote positive adaptation and facilitate quality care. This study, as a part of more extensive research, aims to explore and describe the nurses' perceptions of the factors affecting their responses to burnout. Methods Grounded theory was used as the method. Thirty- eight participants were recruited. Data were generated by unstructured interviews and 21 sessions of participant observations. Constant comparison was used for data analysis. Results Nurses' and patients' personal characteristics and social support influenced nurses' responses to burnout. Personal characteristics of the nurses and patients, especially when interacting, had a more powerful effect. They altered emotional, attitudinal, behavioral and organizational responses to burnout and determined the kind of caring behavior. Social support had a palliative effect and altered emotional responses and some aspects of attitudinal responses. Conclusions The powerful effect of positive personal characteristics and its sensitivity to long standing and intense organizational pressures suggests approaches to executing stress reduction programs and refreshing the nurses' morale by giving more importance to ethical aspects of caring. Moreover, regarding palliative effect of social support and its importance for the nurses' wellbeing, nurse executives are responsible for promoting a work environment that supports nurses and motivates them.

  7. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Newbold, Tim; Contu, Sara; Hill, Samantha L L; Lysenko, Igor; De Palma, Adriana; Phillips, Helen R P; Alhusseini, Tamera I.; Bedford, Felicity E.; Bennett, Dominic J.; Booth, Hollie; Burton, Victoria J.; Chng, Charlotte W. T.; Choimes, Argyrios; Correia, David L.P.

    2016-01-01

    The PREDICTS project—Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)—has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make free...

  8. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Newbold, Tim; Contu, Sara; Hill, Samantha L.L.; Lysenko, Igor; De Palma, Adriana; Phillips, Helen R. P.; Alhusseini, Tamera I.; Bedford, Felicity E.; Bennett, Dominic J.; Booth, Hollie; Burton, Victoria J.; Chng , Charlotte W. T.; Choimes, Argyrios; Correia, David L.P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The PREDICTS project—Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)—has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and ...

  9. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Newbold, Tim; Contu, Sara; Hill, Samantha L L; Lysenko, Igor; De Palma, Adriana; Phillips, Helen R P; Alhusseini, Tamera I.; Bedford, Felicity E.; Bennett, Dominic J.; Booth, Hollie; Burton, Victoria J.; Chng, Charlotte W. T.; Choimes, Argyrios; Correia, David L.P.

    2017-01-01

    The PREDICTS project—Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)—has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make free...

  10. A Range Resolved CO2 Backscattering Profile Measurement Technique for Ground Calibration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project involves modulating a commercial, distributed feedback, laser with a pseudo random code. It involves the optimization of laser pulse width versus the...

  11. RADIOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE GROUND-WATER BENEATH THE HANFORD PROJECT JANUARY-DECEMBER 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, PA

    1979-04-01

    This report is one of a series prepared annually for the Department of Energy, to provide an evaluation of the status of ground-water contamination resulting from Hanford's onsite discharges. Data collected during 1978 describe the movement of major plumes {{beta}{sub t}, {sup 3}H, NO{sub 3}) that respond to the influences of ground-water flow, ionic dispersion and radioactive decay. The total beta plume continues to recede, with the exception of a beta source that is beginning to show up in the 300 Area, a result of minor spills and leaks which have occurred during the operating life of the 300 Area. The tritium plume continues to expand and is mapped as having reached the Columbia River, although its contribution to the river cannot be distinguished from that attributable to atmospheric fallout. The plume now shows much the same configuration as in 1977. The nitrate plume shows general stability relative to its size with concentrations in the vicinity of the 100-H Area continuing to be high as a result of leaks from the evaporation facility. The results of a study to determine the vertical distribution of contaminants in the Hanford ground-water system indicate that the majority of contaminants are stratified in the upper portions of the unconfined aquifer.

  12. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Volume 1, The report and Appendix A, Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This report documents recent progress on ground-water monitoring projects for four Hanford Site facilities: the 300 Area Process Trenches, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds, and the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste (NRDW) Landfill. The existing ground-water monitoring projects for the first two facilities named in the paragraph above are currently being expanded by adding new wells to the networks. During the reporting period, sampling of the existing wells continued on a monthly basis, and the analytical results for samples collected from September through November 1986 are included and discussed in this document. 8 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Dynamic Response and Ground-Motion Effects of Building Clusters During Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbiliroglu, Y. D.; Taborda, R.; Bielak, J.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the response of building clusters during earthquakes, the effect that they have on the ground motion, and how individual buildings interact with the surrounding soil and with each other. We conduct a series of large-scale, physics-based simulations that synthesize the earthquake source and the response of entire building inventories. The configuration of the clusters, defined by the total number of buildings, their number of stories, dynamic properties, and spatial distribution and separation, is varied for each simulation. In order to perform these simulations efficiently while recurrently modifying these characteristics without redoing the entire "source to building structure" simulation every time, we use the Domain Reduction Method (DRM). The DRM is a modular two-step finite-element methodology for modeling wave propagation problems in regions with localized features. It allows one to store and reuse the background motion excitation of subdomains without loss of information. Buildings are included in the second step of the DRM. Each building is represented by a block model composed of additional finite-elements in full contact with the ground. These models are adjusted to emulate the general geometric and dynamic properties of real buildings. We conduct our study in the greater Los Angeles basin, using the main shock of the 1994 Northridge earthquake for frequencies up to 5Hz. In the first step of the DRM we use a domain of 82 km x 82 km x 41 km. Then, for the second step, we use a smaller sub-domain of 5.12 km x 5.12 km x 1.28 km, with the buildings. The results suggest that site-city interaction effects are more prominent for building clusters in soft-soil areas. These effects consist in changes in the amplitude of the ground motion and dynamic response of the buildings. The simulations are done using Hercules, the parallel octree-based finite-element earthquake simulator developed by the Quake Group at Carnegie

  14. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Volume 2, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, S.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    J-Field encompasses about 460 acres at the southern end of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of APG (Figure 2.1). Since World War II, the Edgewood Area of APG has been used to develop, manufacture, test, and destroy chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). For the purposes of this project, J-Field has been divided into eight geographic areas or facilities that are designated as areas of concern (AOCs): the Toxic Burning Pits (TBP), the White Phosphorus Burning Pits (WPP), the Riot Control Burning Pit (RCP), the Robins Point Demolition Ground (RPDG), the Robins Point Tower Site (RPTS), the South Beach Demolition Ground (SBDG), the South Beach Trench (SBT), and the Prototype Building (PB). The scope of this project is to conduct a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and ecological risk assessment to evaluate the impacts of past disposal activities at the J-Field site. Sampling for the RI will be carried out in three stages (I, II, and III) as detailed in the FSP. A phased approach will be used for the J-Field ecological risk assessment (ERA).

  15. Evaluating the Contribution of Natural Variability and Climate Model Response to Uncertainty in Projections of Climate Change Impacts on U.S. Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examine the effects of internal variability and model response in projections of climate impacts on U.S. ground-level ozone across the 21st century using integrated global system modeling and global atmospheric chemistry simulations. The impact of climate change on air polluti...

  16. Solution of two-dimensional, two-region electromagnetic ground response. Final report, March-August 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlberg, I.

    1989-03-01

    A solution for the two-dimensional, two-region electromagnetic ground response was developed that relates the surface components of the electric field to the surface components of the magnetic field. This has been accomplished by deriving a universal functional form for a dimensionless Green's function. The Green's function provides increasingly more accurate approximations to the response for each successive reflection from the second layer. This result would appear to provide simplification and reduced computer running time in the numerical modelling of the HABEMP when the ground response is coupled to finite-difference methods for solving the atmospheric part of the problem.

  17. The Response of Long-Span Bridges to Low Frequency, Near-Fault Earthquake Ground Motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, David; Astaneh-Asl, A.; Larsen, S.C.; Hutchings, Larry

    2009-02-27

    Historical seismic hazard characterizations did not include earthquake ground motion waveforms at frequencies below approximately 0.2 Hz (5 seconds period). This resulted from limitations in early strong motion instrumentation and signal processing techniques, a lack of measurements in the near-field of major earthquakes and therefore no observational awareness, and a delayed understanding in the engineering community of the potential significance of these types of motions. In recent years, there is a growing recognition of the relevance of near-fault, low frequency motions, particularly for long-period structures such as large bridges. This paper describes a computationally based study of the effects of low frequency (long-period) near-fault motions on long-span bridge response. The importance of inclusion of these types of motions for long span cable supported bridges is demonstrated using actual measured broad-band, near-fault motions from large earthquakes.

  18. Engineering characteristics of near-fault vertical ground motions and their effect on the seismic response of bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xinle; Dou Huijuan; Zhu Xi

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of near-fault strong ground motion records were collected from various tectonic environments worldwide and were used to study the peak value ratio and response spectrum ratio of the vertical to horizontal component of ground motion,focusing on the effect of earthquake magnitude,site conditions,pulse duration,and statistical component.The results show that both the peak value ratio and response spectrum ratio are larger than the 2/3 value prescribed in existing seismic codes,and the relationship between the vertical and horizontal ground motions is comparatively intricate.In addition,the effect of the near-fault ground motions on bridge performance is analyzed,considering both the material nonlinear characteristics and the P~△ effect.

  19. Initial results from the Solar Dynamic (SD) Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) project at NASA Lewis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltens, Richard K.; Boyle, Robert V.

    1995-01-01

    A government/industry team designed, built, and tested a 2 kWe solar dynamic space power system in a large thermal/vacuum facility with a simulated sun at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The Lewis facility provides an accurate simulation of temperatures, high vacuum, and solar flux as encountered in low earth orbit. This paper reviews the goals and status of the Solar Dynamic (SD) Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) program and describes the initial testing, including both operational and performance data. This SD technology has the potential as a future power source for the International Space Station Alpha.

  20. The Haida Gwaii Diabetes Project: planned response activity outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Clare; Herbert, Carol; Grams, Garry D.; Grzybowski, Stefan; Wilson, Mary Ann; Calam, Betty; Brown, Diane

    1999-11-01

    A 1992 chart review in the Haida Village of Skidegate, Haida Gwaii/Queen Charlotte Islands, Canada, revealed that 17% of the unscreened population aged 35 or over have been diagnosed with diabetes. The Haida Gwaii Diabetes Project was designed to develop a culturally sensitive community-based participatory action approach to the management of noninsulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM). Phase One included obtaining community support, conducting a chart review, holding clinics to measure biophysical indicators, conducting focus groups, and planning response activities with the communities. A list of activities was developed, based on the focus group results. In addition, the project team developed a set of operating principles that ensured and reinforced collaboration. Phase Two included implementing and monitoring planned response activities, and holding exit clinics. The best attended activities were trials of traditional herbal medicine and traditional diet, and an exercise programme. While participation levels were not high enough for causal conclusions, a significant decrease in total cholesterol (0.45; P = 0.005) and rise in HDL (-0.097; P = 0.05) was found for participants for whom paired values were available. Diabetes intervention research in First Nations settings involves small numbers of participants, making it difficult to quantitatively assess outcomes. To increase participation it is advisable to open activities to the whole community, to tie planned activities into other scheduled community events, and to share findings concerning managing illnesses of acculturation with other communities.

  1. Tackling five main problem areas found in science (ground segment) project developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, T.; Pérez-López, F.

    2014-08-01

    Science projects which require a large software development may use many scientists alongside a few professional software engineers. Such projects tend to show extreme cases of the general problems associated with software developments. After introducing an example of a large software development in a science project, the importance of a development management plan will be emphasised and sections of the plan highlighted and it is explained how these sections address and prepare for the expected problems throughout the life of the project. A positive, strongly proactive quality assurance, QA, approach is the common theme throughout. The role of QA is, therefore, more to guide, support and advise all members of the team rather than only to detect and react to problems. The top five problem areas addressed are: 1. Vague, late and missing requirements. 2. Few professional software engineers in a large software development. 3. A lack of testers with an appropriate test mentality. 4. Quality Assurance people cannot be everywhere, nor have in-depth skills in every subject. 5. Scientists will want to start coding and see writing documents as a waste of their time.

  2. A Grounded Theory Analysis of E-Collaboration Effects for Distributed Project Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Qureshi (Sadja); M. Liu (Miaojia); D. Vogel

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe emergence and widespread use of collaborative technologies for distributed project management has brought opened up a myriad of opportunities for business. While the opportunities for off-shore outsourcing and collaborative development are enticing, most tools and techniques for proj

  3. How Iranian Medical Trainees Approach their Responsibilities in Clinical Settings; A Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Asemani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: It seems we are now experiencing “responsibility problems” among medical trainees (MTs and some of those recently graduated from medical schools in Iran. Training responsible professionals have always been one of the main concerns of medical educators. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of research in the literature on “responsibility” especially from the medical education point of view. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the aim of presenting a theoretical based framework for understanding how MTs approach their responsibilities in educational settings. Method: This qualitative study was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS using the grounded theory methodology. 15 MTs and 10 clinical experts and professional nurses were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was analyzed using the methodology suggested by Corbin and Strauss, 1998. Results: “Try to find acceptance toward expectations”, “try to be committed to meet the expectations” and “try to cope with unacceptable expectations” were three main categories extracted based on the research data. Abstractly, the main objective for using these processes was “to preserve the integrity of student identity” which was the core category of this research too. Moreover, it was also found that practically, “responsibility” is considerably influenced by lots of positive and negative contextual and intervening conditions. Conclusion: “Acceptance” was the most decisive variable highly effective in MTs’ responsibility. Therefore, investigating the “process of acceptance” regarding the involved contextual and intervening conditions might help medical educators correctly identify and effectively control negative factors and reinforce the constructive ones that affect the concept of responsibility in MTs.

  4. Short communication: Lactational responses to palmitic acid supplementation when replacing soyhulls or dry ground corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, J; Preseault, C L; Lock, A L

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of mid-lactation dairy cows to a palmitic acid (C16:0)-enriched fatty acid supplement when replacing soyhulls or dry ground corn in the diet. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows (182 ± 60 d in milk; mean ± SD) were blocked by preliminary 3.5% fat-corrected milk and randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments consisted of a control diet containing no supplemental fat (CON), and 2 C16:0-enriched fatty acid-supplemented treatments (PA; BergaFat F100, Berg & Schmidt, Hanover, Germany) as a replacement for either soyhulls (PA-SH) or dry ground corn (PA-CG). The C16:0-enriched supplement was fed at 1.5% of diet dry matter. The PA treatments did not affect dry matter intake, but PA-SH increased dry matter intake by 1.4 kg/d compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments did not affect milk yield; however, PA-SH increased milk yield by 2.4 kg/d compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments tended to decrease milk protein content (3.12 vs. 3.15%). In contrast, PA-SH increased milk protein content (3.14 vs. 3.10%) and milk protein yield (1.27 vs. 1.19 kg/d) compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments increased milk fat concentration (3.68 vs. 3.55%) and milk fat yield (1.46 vs. 1.38 kg/d). The increase in milk fat yield with PA treatments was due to the increase in the yield of 16-carbon fatty acid in milk fat. Furthermore, PA-SH tended to increase yield of de novo fatty acids and yield of 16-carbon fatty acids compared with PA-CG. The PA treatments tended to increase feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/dry matter intake) compared with CON (1.51 vs. 1.46). The PA-SH treatment tended to increase insulin concentration compared with PA-CG (1.58 vs. 1.49 μg/L) and PA treatments increased nonesterified fatty acids compared with CON (110 vs. 99 μEq/L). Overall, PA treatments improved feed efficiency and increased milk fat yield and the response to the C16:0-enriched

  5. Ground improvement for cruise ship terminal expansion project at Canada Place, Vancouver, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Expansion of the cruise ship terminal at the offshore end of Canada Place is described, with particular emphasis on soil conditions which influenced foundation design for the 10,000 sq m pile-supported deck and the associated ground improvement measures required to assure public health and safety. To provide the required ground improvements, vibro-densification of the existing granular fill and self-feeding of gravel into the silt unit were utilized offshore of the existing apron. The objective here was to make the loose granular fill denser in order to make it non-liquefiable and to strengthen or stiffen the underlying silt unit to minimize earthquake-induced displacements. Under the apron surrounding the existing structure, 145 seismic drains were installed into the granular fill to a depth of 13 m. The purpose of these seismic drains is to prevent liquefaction. The expanded terminal facility will provide additional cruise ship berthing and visitor facilities on a pile-supported deck structure.

  6. Earthquake Response Analysis of Buildings at The Union Territory of Chandigarh, India, by using Building Vibration Observations due to Weak Earthquake Ground Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, K.; Ito, T.; Masuda, T.; Koketsu, K.; Ramancharla, P. K.; Sangam, R.; Bodige, N.; Dasari, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the vulnerability of built environment in highly seismic areas is an important component of earthquake risk mitigation. As part of Indo-Japan collaborative research project (DISANET) sponsored by JST and JICA, six sets of building vibration sensors have been installed in the Union Territory of Chandigarh, India. The Union Territory of Chandigarh, India is located at South of the Himalayan Frontal Belt (HFT) is in zone IV of the seismic zone map of India (BIS, 2007). In past few decades, this area has experienced several minor earthquakes and a few moderate earthquakes. In spite of being in high seismic zone, most of the buildings in Chandigarh are designed and constructed for gravity loads only disregarding seismic forces. Such kind of buildings may deteriorate in strength even when they are subjected to minor earthquakes. To understand the response of buildings to micro-tremors, vibration sensors were installed in the building of Department of Geology of Panjab University in July 2012. Subsequently 5 more buildings were instrumented by January 2014. For each building, in order to capture the overall vibration of building during earthquake, vibration sensors of 8 or 10 units are installed to the ground floor, top floor and middle floor of the building. These sensors are continuously monitoring the building vibration and recording all data which include the weak ground motion occurring from near to far earthquakes. Through these sensors, over 20 minor ground motions have been recorded during last two years. Even in these weak ground motions, it was possible to confirm the state of the building response caused by earthquakes. In this presentation, we will introduce some building vibration records caused by the weak ground motion of the earthquakes and discuss the important insights drawn from analysis of recorded data.

  7. Database for estimating tree responses of walnut and other hardwoods to ground cover management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    The ground cover in plantings of walnut and other hardwoods can substantially affect tree growth and seed production. The number of alternative ground covers that have been suggested for establishment in tree plantings far exceeds the number that have already been tested with walnut and other temperate hardwoods. Knowing how other hardwood species respond to ground...

  8. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Delmarva Peninsula, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, L.J.; Shedlock, R.J.; Phillips, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation 's surface water and groundwater resources. This National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is designed to acquire and interpret information about a wide range of water quality issues. Three groundwater pilot projects have been started, including the project on the Delmarva Peninsula, which covers eastern Maryland and Virginia and most of Delaware. The objectives of the Delmarva project are to: (1) investigate regional groundwater quality on the Delmarva Peninsula, emphasizing a description of the occurrence of trace elements and manmade organic compounds; (2) relate groundwater quality to land use and geohydrologic conditions; and (3) provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected water quality problems prevalent in the study area. The shallow aquifer system and the deeper aquifers used for public water supply will be addressed. The shallow aquifer system in the Delmarva Peninsula consists of permeable unconsolidated sand and gravel. Flow systems are localized and small-scale. Farming is common on the peninsula, and the migration of agricultural chemicals to the groundwater system is a local water quality concern. To assess the water quality of the groundwater resources, a regional survey for a wide range of constituents will be conducted in all of the pilot projects to provide a representative sample of groundwater analyses for a national assessment of groundwater quality. Results of this survey may be used as a baseline to monitor future water quality trends. (Lantz-PTT)

  9. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Dudley, Junqiao

    2010-03-17

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) demonstrated and evaluated open automated demand response (OpenADR) communication infrastructure to reduce winter morning and summer afternoon peak electricity demand in commercial buildings the Seattle area. LBNL performed this demonstration for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in the Seattle City Light (SCL) service territory at five sites: Seattle Municipal Tower, Seattle University, McKinstry, and two Target stores. This report describes the process and results of the demonstration. OpenADR is an information exchange model that uses a client-server architecture to automate demand-response (DR) programs. These field tests evaluated the feasibility of deploying fully automated DR during both winter and summer peak periods. DR savings were evaluated for several building systems and control strategies. This project studied DR during hot summer afternoons and cold winter mornings, both periods when electricity demand is typically high. This is the DRRC project team's first experience using automation for year-round DR resources and evaluating the flexibility of commercial buildings end-use loads to participate in DR in dual-peaking climates. The lessons learned contribute to understanding end-use loads that are suitable for dispatch at different times of the year. The project was funded by BPA and SCL. BPA is a U.S. Department of Energy agency headquartered in Portland, Oregon and serving the Pacific Northwest. BPA operates an electricity transmission system and markets wholesale electrical power at cost from federal dams, one non-federal nuclear plant, and other non-federal hydroelectric and wind energy generation facilities. Created by the citizens of Seattle in 1902, SCL is the second-largest municipal utility in America. SCL purchases approximately 40% of its electricity and the majority of its transmission from BPA through a preference contract. SCL also

  10. Project Muskan : Social responsibility of the plastic surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Yogesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although exact statistics are not available, Indian plastic surgeons see around 7,00,000-8,00,000 burn admissions annually with around 10,00,000 cleft patients yet to be operated. In spite of this voluminous load, India does not have national health programs for the various deformities Indian plastic surgeons typically treat. As Plastic Surgeons, it is our social responsibility to treat these patients and bring ′ muskan ′ (smile in Hindi back into their lives. Project Muskan was initiated as an innovative model for targeting these patients and is probably one of its kind in the field of plastic surgery in our country. It is unique because it is a perfect collaboration of government institutions, a Non Government Organization (NGO, and cooperative sectors providing free health care at the doorstep. Identification of the patients was done with the help of the extensive milk dairy network in the state of Gujarat. Provision of transport and other facilities was done by the NGOs and quality health care provision was taken care of by the government hospital. Project Muskan started from a single village but now covers around 3000 villages and tribal areas of Gujarat. It is a system that can be easily reproducible in all hospitals and has reestablished the faith of the common man in government institutes.

  11. Developing a project-based computational physics course grounded in expert practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Christopher J.; Atherton, Timothy J.

    2017-04-01

    We describe a project-based computational physics course developed using a backwards course design approach. From an initial competency-based model of problem solving in computational physics, we interviewed faculty who use these tools in their own research to determine indicators of expert practice. From these, a rubric was formulated that enabled us to design a course intended to allow students to learn these skills. We also report an initial implementation of the course and, by having the interviewees regrade student work, show that students acquired many of the expert practices identified.

  12. Developing a project-based computational physics course grounded in expert practice

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We describe a project-based computational physics course developed using a backwards course design approach. From an initial competency-based model of problem solving in computational physics, we interviewed faculty who use these tools in their own research to determine indicators of expert practice. From these, a rubric was formulated that enabled us to design a course intended to allow students to learn these skills. We also report an initial implementation of the course and, by having the interviewees regrade student work, show that students acquired many of the expert practices identified.

  13. Engineering characterization of ground motion. Task I. Effects of characteristics of free-field motion on structural response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; Merz, K.L.; Tokarz, F.J.; Idriss, I.M.; Power, M.S.; Sadigh, K.

    1984-05-01

    This report presents the results of the first task of a two-task study on the engineering characterization of earthquake ground motion for nuclear power plant design. The overall objective of this study is to develop recommendations for methods for selecting design response spectra or acceleration time histories to be used to characterize motion at the foundation level of nuclear power plants. Task I of the study develops a basis for selecting design response spectra, taking into account the characteristics of free-field ground motion found to be significant in causing structural damage.

  14. Simulation of spatially varying ground motions including incoherence, wave‐passage and differential site‐response effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina; Der Kiureghian, Armen

    2012-01-01

    A method is presented for simulating arrays of spatially varying ground motions, incorporating the effects of incoherence, wave passage, and differential site response. Non‐stationarity is accounted for by considering the motions as consisting of stationary segments. Two approaches are developed....... In the first, simulated motions are consistent with the power spectral densities of a segmented recorded motion and are characterized by uniform variability at all locations. Uniform variability in the array of ground motions is essential when synthetic motions are used for statistical analysis of the response...

  15. Objectives and Progress on Ground Vibration Testing for the Ares Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Chenevert, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated vehicle ground vibration testing (IVGVT) will be a vital component for ensuring the safety of NASA s next generation of exploration vehicles to send human beings to the Moon and beyond. A ground vibration test (GVT) measures the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. The Ares Flight & Integrated Test Office (FITO) will be conducting the IVGVT for the Ares I crew launch vehicle at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from 2012 to 2014 using Test Stand (TS) 4550. MSFC conducted similar GVT for the Saturn V and Space Shuttle vehicles. FITO will perform the IVGVT on the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle to low Earth orbit, and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which can launch the lunar lander into orbit and send the combined Orion/lander vehicles toward the Moon. Ares V consists of a six-engine core stage with two solid rocket boosters and an Earth departure stage (EDS). The same engine will power the EDS and the Ares I second stage. The current plan is to test six configurations in three unique test positions inside TS 4550. Four Ares I second stage test configurations will be tested in Position 3, consisting of the Upper Stage and Orion crew module in four nominal conditions: J-2X engine ignition, post Launch Abort System (LAS) jettison, critical slosh mass, and J-2X burn-out. Position 2 consists of the entire launch stack at first stage burn-out (using empty first stage segments). Position 1 represents the entire launch stack at lift-off (using inert first stage segments). Because of long disuse, TS 4550 is being repaired and modified for reactivation to conduct the Ares I IVGVT. The Shuttle-era platforms have been removed and are being replaced with mast climbers that provide ready access to the test articles and can be moved easily to support different positions within the test stand. Two new cranes will help move test articles at the test stand and at the

  16. Assessing the capability of numerical methods to predict earthquake ground motion: the Euroseistest verification and validation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaljub, E. O.; Bard, P.; Tsuno, S.; Kristek, J.; Moczo, P.; Franek, P.; Hollender, F.; Manakou, M.; Raptakis, D.; Pitilakis, K.

    2009-12-01

    During the last decades, an important effort has been dedicated to develop accurate and computationally efficient numerical methods to predict earthquake ground motion in heterogeneous 3D media. The progress in methods and increasing capability of computers have made it technically feasible to calculate realistic seismograms for frequencies of interest in seismic design applications. In order to foster the use of numerical simulation in practical prediction, it is important to (1) evaluate the accuracy of current numerical methods when applied to realistic 3D applications where no reference solution exists (verification) and (2) quantify the agreement between recorded and numerically simulated earthquake ground motion (validation). Here we report the results of the Euroseistest verification and validation project - an ongoing international collaborative work organized jointly by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, the Cashima research project (supported by the French nuclear agency, CEA, and the Laue-Langevin institute, ILL, Grenoble), and the Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble, France. The project involves more than 10 international teams from Europe, Japan and USA. The teams employ the Finite Difference Method (FDM), the Finite Element Method (FEM), the Global Pseudospectral Method (GPSM), the Spectral Element Method (SEM) and the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The project makes use of a new detailed 3D model of the Mygdonian basin (about 5 km wide, 15 km long, sediments reach about 400 m depth, surface S-wave velocity is 200 m/s). The prime target is to simulate 8 local earthquakes with magnitude from 3 to 5. In the verification, numerical predictions for frequencies up to 4 Hz for a series of models with increasing structural and rheological complexity are analyzed and compared using quantitative time-frequency goodness-of-fit criteria. Predictions obtained by one FDM team and the SEM team are close and different from other predictions

  17. Project ORION: Orbital Debris Removal Using Ground-Based Sensors and Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    About 100,000 pieces of 1 to 10-cm debris in low-Earth orbit are too small to track reliably but large enough to cripple or destroy spacecraft. The ORION team studied the feasibility of removing the debris with ground-based laser impulses. Photoablation experiments were surveyed and applied to likely debris materials. Laser intensities needed for debris orbit modification call for pulses on the order of lOkJ or continuous wave lasers on the order of 1 MW. Adaptive optics are necessary to correct for atmospheric turbulence. Wavelength and pulse duration windows were found that limit beam degradation due to nonlinear atmospheric processes. Debris can be detected and located to within about 10 microrads with existing radar and passive optical technology. Fine targeting would be accomplished with laser illumination, which might also be used for detection. Bistatic detection with communications satellites may also be possible. We recommend that existing technology be used to demonstrate the concept at a loss of about $20 million. We calculate that an installation to clear altitudes up to 800 km of 1 to 10-cm debris over 2 years of operation would cost about $80 million. Clearing altitudes up to 1,500 km would take about 3 years and cost about $160 million.

  18. Standards and Specifications for Ground Processing of Space Vehicles: From an Aviation-Based Shuttle Project to Global Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Cipolletti, John

    2011-01-01

    and methods are incongruent. Some processing products are still done on paper, some electronic, and many being converted in between. Business systems then are not fully compatible, and paper as well as electronic conversions are time-consuming and costly. NASA and its Shuttle contractors setup rules and systems to handle what has produced over 130 RLV launches, but they have had many challenges. Attempts have been made to apply aviation industry specifications to make the Shuttle more efficient with its ground processing. One efficiency project example was to make a Shuttle Maintenance Manual (SMM) based on the commercial ATA (Air Transport Association of America) Spec 100 for technical publications. This industry standard, along with others, has been a foundation for efficient global MRO of commercial airlines for years. A modified version was also made for some military aircraft. The SMM project found many similarities in Spec 100 which apply to the Shuttle, and room for expansion for space systems/structures not in aircraft. The SMM project team met with the ATA and representatives from NASA's X-33 and X-34 programs to discuss collaboration on a national space standard based on Spec 100. A pilot project was enabled for a subset of Shuttle systems. Full implementation was not yet achieved, X-33 and X-34 were cancelled, and the Shuttles were then designated for retirement. Nonetheless, we can learn from this project how to expand this concept to all space vehicle products. Since then, ATA has joined with ASD (AeroSpace and Defence Industries Association of Europe) and AIA (Aerospace Industries Association) to form a much-enhanced and expanded international specification: Sl000D, International Specification for Technical Publications. It includes air, land, and sea vehicles, missiles, support equipment, ordnance, and communications. It is used by a growing number of countries for commercial and government products. Its modular design is supported by a Common Source

  19. Depth-dependent Vertical-to-Horizontal (V/H) Ratios of Free-Field Ground Motion Response Spectra for Deeply Embedded Nuclear Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei X.; Braverman J.; Miranda, M.; Rosario, M.E.; Costantino, C.J.

    2015-02-25

    This report documents the results of a study to determine the depth-dependent V/H ratios of ground motion response spectra in the free field. The V/H ratios reported herein were developed from a worldwide database of surface and downhole acceleration recordings obtained from 45 vertical array stations. This database was specifically compiled for this project, and includes information from a diversity of active tectonic regions (California, Alaska, Taiwan, Japan), site conditions (rock to soft soil), ground motion intensity levels (PGAs between 0.01 g and 0.50 g), magnitudes (between ML 2.78 and JMA 8.1), epicentral distances (between 3.2 km and 812 km), and source depths (between 1.2 km and 112 km), as well as sensors at surface and at a wide range of depths relevant to the project. To study the significance of the depth effect, V/H ratios from all the records were sorted into a number of depth bins relevant to the project, and statistics (average, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, 16th, 50th, and 84th percentiles) of the V/H ratios within each bin were computed. Similar analyses were repeated, controlling for different site conditions, ground motion intensity levels, array locations, and source depths, to study their relative effect on the V/H ratios. Our findings confirm the importance of the depth effect on the V/H ratios. The research findings in this report can be used to provide guidance on the significance of the depth effect, and the extent to which this effect should be considered in the seismic design of deeply embedded SMR structures and NPP structures in general.

  20. Depth-dependent Vertical-to-Horizontal (V/H) Ratios of Free-Field Ground Motion Response Spectra for Deeply Embedded Nuclear Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Braverman, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Miranda, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rosario, M. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Costantino, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report documents the results of a study to determine the depth-dependent V/H ratios of ground motion response spectra in the free field. The V/H ratios reported herein were developed from a worldwide database of surface and downhole acceleration recordings obtained from 45 vertical array stations. This database was specifically compiled for this project, and includes information from a diversity of active tectonic regions (California, Alaska, Taiwan, Japan), site conditions (rock to soft soil), ground motion intensity levels (PGAs between 0.01 g and 0.50 g), magnitudes (between ML 2.78 and JMA 8.1), epicentral distances (between 3.2 km and 812 km), and source depths (between 1.2 km and 112 km), as well as sensors at surface and at a wide range of depths relevant to the project. To study the significance of the depth effect, V/H ratios from all the records were sorted into a number of depth bins relevant to the project, and statistics (average, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, 16th, 50th, and 84th percentiles) of the V/H ratios within each bin were computed. Similar analyses were repeated, controlling for different site conditions, ground motion intensity levels, array locations, and source depths, to study their relative effect on the V/H ratios. Our findings confirm the importance of the depth effect on the V/H ratios. The research findings in this report can be used to provide guidance on the significance of the depth effect, and the extent to which this effect should be considered in the seismic design of deeply embedded SMR structures and NPP structures in general.

  1. An Arduino project to record ground motion and to learn on earthquake hazard at high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraò, Angela; Barnaba, Carla; Clocchiatti, Marco; Zuliani, David

    2015-04-01

    Through a multidisciplinary work that integrates Technology education with Earth Sciences, we implemented an educational program to raise the students' awareness of seismic hazard and to disseminate good practices of earthquake safety. Using free software and low-cost open hardware, the students of a senior class of the high school Liceo Paschini in Tolmezzo (NE Italy) implemented a seismograph using the Arduino open-source electronics platform and the ADXL345 sensors to emulate a low cost seismometer (e.g. O-NAVI sensor of the Quake-Catcher Network, http://qcn.stanford.edu). To accomplish their task the students were addressed to use the web resources for technical support and troubleshooting. Shell scripts, running on local computers under Linux OS, controlled the process of recording and display data. The main part of the experiment was documented using the DokuWiki style. Some propaedeutic lessons in computer sciences and electronics were needed to build up the necessary skills of the students and to fill in the gap of their background knowledge. In addition lectures by seismologists and laboratory activity allowed the class to exploit different aspects of the physics of the earthquake and particularly of the seismic waves, and to become familiar with the topics of seismic hazard through an inquiry-based learning. The Arduino seismograph achieved can be used for educational purposes and it can display tremors on the local network of the school. For sure it can record the ground motion due to a seismic event that can occur in the area, but further improvements are necessary for a quantitative analysis of the recorded signals.

  2. Deconvolution effect of near-fault earthquake ground motions on stochastic dynamic response of tunnel-soil deposit interaction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hacıefendioğlu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The deconvolution effect of the near-fault earthquake ground motions on the stochastic dynamic response of tunnel-soil deposit interaction systems are investigated by using the finite element method. Two different earthquake input mechanisms are used to consider the deconvolution effects in the analyses: the standard rigid-base input and the deconvolved-base-rock input model. The Bolu tunnel in Turkey is chosen as a numerical example. As near-fault ground motions, 1999 Kocaeli earthquake ground motion is selected. The interface finite elements are used between tunnel and soil deposit. The mean of maximum values of quasi-static, dynamic and total responses obtained from the two input models are compared with each other.

  3. Ground-based & satellite DOAS measurements integration for air quality evaluation/forecast management in the frame of QUITSAT Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, Ivan; Petritoli, Andrea; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Masieri, Samuele; Premuda, Margarita; Bortoli, Daniele; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Palazzi, Elisa

    The observations of the Earth's atmosphere from space provide excellent opportunities for the exploration of the sophisticated physical-chemical processes on both global and regional scales. The major interest during the last three decades was focused mainly on the stratosphere and the ozone depletion. More recently the continuous improvements of satellite sensors have revealed new opportunities for larger applications of space observations, attracting scientific interest to the lower troposphere and air quality issues. The air quality depends strongly on the anthropogenic activity and therefore regional environmental agencies along with policy makers are in need of appropriate means for its continuous monitoring and control to ensure the adoption of the most appropriate actions. The goal of the pilot project QUITSAT, funded by the Italian Space Agency, is to develop algorithms and procedures for the evaluation and prediction of the air quality in Lombardia and Emilia-Romagna regions (Italy) by means of integrating satellite observations with ground-based in-situ and remote sensing measurements. This work presents dedicated Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements performed during the summer of 2007 and the winter of 2008. One of the DOAS instruments operate at Mt.Cimone station (2165m a.s.l) and the other two instruments conducted measurements in/near Bologna (90 m. a.s.l). Different observational geometry was adopted (zenith-sky, multi-axis and long-path) aimed to provide tropospheric NO2 columns and O3, SO2 and HCHO concentrations at ground level as an input data for QUITSAT procedures. Details of the instruments, the radiative transfer model used and the algorithms for retrieving and calculation of the target gases concentrations are presented. The obtained experimental results are correlated with the corresponding ones retrieved from SCIAMACHY /ENVISAT observations during the overpasses above the ground-based instruments. The analysis

  4. Balancing intertwined responsibilities: A grounded theory study of teamwork in everyday intensive care unit practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjurling-Sjöberg, Petronella; Wadensten, Barbro; Pöder, Ulrika; Jansson, Inger; Nordgren, Lena

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to describe and explain teamwork and factors that influence team processes in everyday practice in an intensive care unit (ICU) from a staff perspective. The setting was a Swedish ICU. Data were collected from 38 ICU staff in focus groups with registered nurses, assistant nurses, and anaesthetists, and in one individual interview with a physiotherapist. Constant comparative analysis according to grounded theory was conducted, and to identify the relations between the emerged categories, the paradigm model was applied. The core category to emerge from the data was "balancing intertwined responsibilities." In addition, eleven categories that related to the core category emerged. These categories described and explained the phenomenon's contextual conditions, causal conditions, and intervening conditions, as well as the staff actions/interactions and the consequences that arose. The findings indicated that the type of teamwork fluctuated due to circumstantial factors. Based on the findings and on current literature, strategies that can optimise interprofessional teamwork are presented. The analysis generated a conceptual model, which aims to contribute to existing frameworks by adding new dimensions about perceptions of team processes within an ICU related to staff actions/interactions. This model may be utilised to enhance the understanding of existing contexts and processes when designing and implementing interventions to facilitate teamwork in the pursuit of improving healthcare quality and patient safety.

  5. Root proliferation and seed yield in response to spatial heterogeneity of below-ground competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Erin E; Gersani, Mordechai; Brown, Joel S

    2005-11-01

    Here, we tested the predictions of a 'tragedy of the commons' model of below-ground plant competition in annual plants that experience spatial heterogeneity in their competitive environment. Under interplant competition, the model predicts that a plant should over-proliferate roots relative to what would maximize the collective yield of the plants. We predict that a plant will tailor its root proliferation to local patch conditions, restraining root production when alone and over-proliferating in the presence of other plants. A series of experiments were conducted using pairs of pea (Pisum sativum) plants occupying two or three pots in which the presence or absence of interplant root competition was varied while nutrient availability per plant was held constant. In two-pot experiments, competing plants produced more root mass and less pod mass per individual than plants grown in isolation. In three-pot experiments, peas modulated this response to conditions at the scale of individual pots. Root proliferation in the shared pot was higher compared with the exclusively occupied pot. Plants appear to display sophisticated nutrient foraging with outcomes that permit insights into interplant competition.

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E. (eds.)

    1990-03-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 15 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989. This volume discusses the projects. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the samples aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality. 51 refs., 35 figs., 86 tabs.

  7. Responses of woody species to spatial and temporal ground water changes in coastal sand dune systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Máguas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the relative importance of groundwater in costal dune systems, studies concerning the responses of vegetation to ground water (GW availability variations, particularly in Mediterranean regions, are scarce. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to compare the responses of co-occurring species possessing different functional traits, to changes in GW levels (i.e. the lowering of GW levels in a sand dune ecosystem. For that, five sites were established within a 1 km2 area in a meso-mediterranean sand dune ecosystem dominated by a Pinus pinaster forest. Due to natural topographic variability and anthropogenic GW exploitation, substantial variability in depth to GW between sites was found. Under these conditions it was possible to identify the degree of usage and dependence on GW of different plant species (two deep-rooted trees, a drought adapted shrub, a phreatophyte and a non-native woody invader and how GW dependence varied seasonally and between the heterogeneous sites. Results indicated that the plant species had differential responses to changes in GW depth according to specific functional traits (i.e. rooting depth, leaf morphology, and water use strategy. Species comparison revealed that variability in pre-dawn water potential (Ψpre and bulk leaf δ13C was related to site differences in GW use in the deep-rooted (Pinus pinaster, Myrica faya and phreatophyte (Salix repens species. However, such variation was more evident during spring than during summer drought. The exotic invader, Acacia longifolia, which does not possess a very deep root system, presented the largest seasonal variability in Ψpre and bulk leaf δ13C. In contrast, the response of Corema album, an endemic understory drought-adapted shrub, seemed to be independent of water availability across seasons and sites. Thus, the susceptibility to lowering of GW due to anthropogenic

  8. Getting around the Impasse: A Grounded Approach to Teaching Ethics and Social Responsibility in International Business Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marc T.; Lok, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Considers the dilemma of teaching ethics and social responsibility in international business courses with either an ethnocentric absolutist or an unengaged relativistic approach. Suggests a strategy that focuses on a grounded understanding of the elements, processes, and properties of capitalism that would serve as a common understanding upon…

  9. The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Newbold, Tim; Contu, Sara; Hill, Samantha L L; Lysenko, Igor; De Palma, Adriana; Phillips, Helen R P; Alhusseini, Tamera I; Bedford, Felicity E; Bennett, Dominic J; Booth, Hollie; Burton, Victoria J; Chng, Charlotte W T; Choimes, Argyrios; Correia, David L P; Day, Julie; Echeverría-Londoño, Susy; Emerson, Susan R; Gao, Di; Garon, Morgan; Harrison, Michelle L K; Ingram, Daniel J; Jung, Martin; Kemp, Victoria; Kirkpatrick, Lucinda; Martin, Callum D; Pan, Yuan; Pask-Hale, Gwilym D; Pynegar, Edwin L; Robinson, Alexandra N; Sanchez-Ortiz, Katia; Senior, Rebecca A; Simmons, Benno I; White, Hannah J; Zhang, Hanbin; Aben, Job; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Adum, Gilbert B; Aguilar-Barquero, Virginia; Aizen, Marcelo A; Albertos, Belén; Alcala, E L; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Alignier, Audrey; Ancrenaz, Marc; Andersen, Alan N; Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Armbrecht, Inge; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aumann, Tom; Axmacher, Jan C; Azhar, Badrul; Azpiroz, Adrián B; Baeten, Lander; Bakayoko, Adama; Báldi, András; Banks, John E; Baral, Sharad K; Barlow, Jos; Barratt, Barbara I P; Barrico, Lurdes; Bartolommei, Paola; Barton, Diane M; Basset, Yves; Batáry, Péter; Bates, Adam J; Baur, Bruno; Bayne, Erin M; Beja, Pedro; Benedick, Suzan; Berg, Åke; Bernard, Henry; Berry, Nicholas J; Bhatt, Dinesh; Bicknell, Jake E; Bihn, Jochen H; Blake, Robin J; Bobo, Kadiri S; Bóçon, Roberto; Boekhout, Teun; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Bonham, Kevin J; Borges, Paulo A V; Borges, Sérgio H; Boutin, Céline; Bouyer, Jérémy; Bragagnolo, Cibele; Brandt, Jodi S; Brearley, Francis Q; Brito, Isabel; Bros, Vicenç; Brunet, Jörg; Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Buddle, Christopher M; Bugter, Rob; Buscardo, Erika; Buse, Jörn; Cabra-García, Jimmy; Cáceres, Nilton C; Cagle, Nicolette L; Calviño-Cancela, María; Cameron, Sydney A; Cancello, Eliana M; Caparrós, Rut; Cardoso, Pedro; Carpenter, Dan; Carrijo, Tiago F; Carvalho, Anelena L; Cassano, Camila R; Castro, Helena; Castro-Luna, Alejandro A; Rolando, Cerda B; Cerezo, Alexis; Chapman, Kim Alan; Chauvat, Matthieu; Christensen, Morten; Clarke, Francis M; Cleary, Daniel F R; Colombo, Giorgio; Connop, Stuart P; Craig, Michael D; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Cunningham, Saul A; D'Aniello, Biagio; D'Cruze, Neil; da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Dallimer, Martin; Danquah, Emmanuel; Darvill, Ben; Dauber, Jens; Davis, Adrian L V; Dawson, Jeff; de Sassi, Claudio; de Thoisy, Benoit; Deheuvels, Olivier; Dejean, Alain; Devineau, Jean-Louis; Diekötter, Tim; Dolia, Jignasu V; Domínguez, Erwin; Dominguez-Haydar, Yamileth; Dorn, Silvia; Draper, Isabel; Dreber, Niels; Dumont, Bertrand; Dures, Simon G; Dynesius, Mats; Edenius, Lars; Eggleton, Paul; Eigenbrod, Felix; Elek, Zoltán; Entling, Martin H; Esler, Karen J; de Lima, Ricardo F; Faruk, Aisyah; Farwig, Nina; Fayle, Tom M; Felicioli, Antonio; Felton, Annika M; Fensham, Roderick J; Fernandez, Ignacio C; Ferreira, Catarina C; Ficetola, Gentile F; Fiera, Cristina; Filgueiras, Bruno K C; Fırıncıoğlu, Hüseyin K; Flaspohler, David; Floren, Andreas; Fonte, Steven J; Fournier, Anne; Fowler, Robert E; Franzén, Markus; Fraser, Lauchlan H; Fredriksson, Gabriella M; Freire, Geraldo B; Frizzo, Tiago L M; Fukuda, Daisuke; Furlani, Dario; Gaigher, René; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; García, Karla P; Garcia-R, Juan C; Garden, Jenni G; Garilleti, Ricardo; Ge, Bao-Ming; Gendreau-Berthiaume, Benoit; Gerard, Philippa J; Gheler-Costa, Carla; Gilbert, Benjamin; Giordani, Paolo; Giordano, Simonetta; Golodets, Carly; Gomes, Laurens G L; Gould, Rachelle K; Goulson, Dave; Gove, Aaron D; Granjon, Laurent; Grass, Ingo; Gray, Claudia L; Grogan, James; Gu, Weibin; Guardiola, Moisès; Gunawardene, Nihara R; Gutierrez, Alvaro G; Gutiérrez-Lamus, Doris L; Haarmeyer, Daniela H; Hanley, Mick E; Hanson, Thor; Hashim, Nor R; Hassan, Shombe N; Hatfield, Richard G; Hawes, Joseph E; Hayward, Matt W; Hébert, Christian; Helden, Alvin J; Henden, John-André; Henschel, Philipp; Hernández, Lionel; Herrera, James P; Herrmann, Farina; Herzog, Felix; Higuera-Diaz, Diego; Hilje, Branko; Höfer, Hubert; Hoffmann, Anke; Horgan, Finbarr G; Hornung, Elisabeth; Horváth, Roland; Hylander, Kristoffer; Isaacs-Cubides, Paola; Ishida, Hiroaki; Ishitani, Masahiro; Jacobs, Carmen T; Jaramillo, Víctor J; Jauker, Birgit; Hernández, F Jiménez; Johnson, McKenzie F; Jolli, Virat; Jonsell, Mats; Juliani, S Nur; Jung, Thomas S; Kapoor, Vena; Kappes, Heike; Kati, Vassiliki; Katovai, Eric; Kellner, Klaus; Kessler, Michael; Kirby, Kathryn R; Kittle, Andrew M; Knight, Mairi E; Knop, Eva; Kohler, Florian; Koivula, Matti; Kolb, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.

  10. Below-ground carbon flux and partitioning: global patterns and response to temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.M. Litton; C.P. Giardina

    2008-01-01

    1. The fraction of gross primary production (GPP) that is total below-ground carbon flux (TBCF) and the fraction of TBCF that is below-ground net primary production (BNPP) represent globally significant C fluxes that are fundamental in regulating ecosystem C balance. However, global estimates of the partitioning of GPP to TBCF and of TBCF to BNPP, as well as the...

  11. Well-response model of the confined area, Bunker Hill ground-water basin, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Timothy J.; Morgan, Charles O.

    1978-01-01

    The Bunker Hill ground-water basin, in the vicinity of San Bernardino, Calif., is being artificially recharged with imported water. Current and future artificial recharge of the basin may cause the potentiometric surface in an area of confined ground water to rise above land surface and water to flow from uncapped and unplugged wells. This could cause damage to structures where the soil becomes waterlogged and where buried wells begin to flow beneath the structures. A well-response model was used to generate a series of water-level hydrographs representing the response of the ground-water basin to six possible combinations of conditions for each well; one pumping rate, two artificial-recharge rate, and three natural-recharge rates. Inflow to the ground-water basin exceeds outflow for all tested combinations. According to model predictions, the accumulation of stored ground water resulting from the excess of inflow is sufficient to cause the water level in the selected wells to rise above land surface for all but one of the combinations of conditions tested. Water levels in wells are predicted to rise above the land surface as early as 1981 for the combination with the greatest excess of inflow. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Communication and general concern criterion prior to activation of the rapid response team: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martland, Jarrad; Chamberlain, Diane; Hutton, Alison; Smigielski, Michael

    2015-11-30

    Objective Patients commonly show signs and symptoms of deterioration for hours or days before cardiorespiratory arrest. Rapid response teams (RRT) were created to improve recognition and response to patient deterioration in these situations. Activation criteria include vital signs or 'general concern' by a clinician or family member. The general concern criterion for RRT activation accounts for nearly one-third of all RRT activity, and although it is well established that communication deficits between staff can contribute to poorer outcomes for patients, there is little evidence pertaining to communication and its effects on the general concern RRT activation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a substantive grounded theory related to the communication process between clinicians that preceded the activation of an RRT when general concern criterion was used.Methods Qualitative grounded theory involved collection of three types of data details namely personal notes from participants in focus groups with white board notes from discussions and audio recordings of the focus groups sessions. Focus groups were conducted with participants exploring issues associated with clinician communication and how it related to the activation of an RRT using the general concern criterion.Results The three main phases of coding (i.e. open, axial and selective coding) analysis identified 322 separate open codes. The strongest theme contributed to a theory of ineffective communication and decreased psychological safety, namely that 'In the absence of effective communication there is a subsequent increase in anxiety, fear or concern that can be directly attributed to the activation of an RRT using the 'general concern' criterion'. The RRT filled cultural and process deficiencies in the compliance with an escalation protocol. Issues such as 'not for resuscitation documentation' and 'inability to establish communication with and between medical or nursing personnel' rated

  13. Automatic apparatus and data transmission for field response tests of the ground; Automatisation et teletransmission des donnees pour les tests de reponse du terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laloui, L.; Steinmann, G.

    2004-07-01

    This is the report on the third part of a development started 1998 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland. Energy piles are becoming increasingly used as a heat exchanger and heat storage device, as are geothermal probes. Their design and sizing is subject to some uncertainty due to the fact that the planner has to estimate the thermal and mechanical properties of the ground surrounding the piles or probes. The aim of the project was to develop an apparatus for field measurements of thermal and mechanical properties of an energy pile or a geothermal probe (thermal response tests). In the reported third phase of the project the portable apparatus was equipped with a data transmission device using the Internet. Real-time data acquisition and supervision is now implemented and data processing has been improved. Another goal of the project was to obtain the official accreditation of such response tests according to the European standard EN 45,000. First operation experience from a test in Lyon, France is reported.

  14. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site Facilities: Progress report for the period April 1--June 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 10 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled during this period in the 100-N Area and near the 216-A-36B Crib.

  15. RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976) ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period October 1 to December 31, 1988. There are 16 individual hazardous waste facilities covered by the 13 ground-water monitoring projects. The Grout Treatment Facility is included in this series of quarterly reports for the first time. The 13 projects discussed in this report were designed according to applicable interim-status ground-water monitoring requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). During this quarter, field activities primarily consisted of sampling and analyses, and water-level monitoring. The 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds section includes sediment analyses in addition to ground-water monitoring results. Twelve new wells were installed during the previous quarter: two at the 216-A-29 Ditch, six at the 216-A-10 Crib, and four at the 216-B-3 Pond. Preliminary characterization data for these new wells include drillers' logs and other drilling and site characterization data, and are provided in Volume 2 or on microfiche in the back of Volume 1. 26 refs., 28 figs., 74 tabs.

  16. Influence of dynamic soil-structure interaction on building response to ground vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2014-01-01

    Vibration from traffic and pile driving are an increasing problem in densely populated areas. To assess vibration levels in new or existing buildings near construction sites, roads or railways in the design phase, valid models for prediction of wave transmission via the ground and into a building...... must be used. In this regard it is often assumed that a no significant back coupling from the building to the ground exists. Thus, a model with free-field vibrations from the ground provides input at the base of the building model. The aim of the present paper is to examine whether—and to which extent...

  17. Traveling wave effect on the seismic response of a steel arch bridge subjected to near fault ground motions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yan; George C Lee

    2007-01-01

    In the 1990s, several major earthquakes occurred throughout the world, with a common observation that near fault ground motion (NFGM) characteristics had a distinct impact on causing damage to civil engineering structures that could not be predicted by using far field ground motions. Since then, seismic responses of structures under NFGMs have been extensively examined, with most of the studies focusing on structures with relatively short fundamental periods, where the traveling wave effect does not need to be considered. However, for long span bridges, especially arch bridges, the traveling wave (only time delay considered) effect may be very distinct and is therefore important. In this paper, the results from a case study on the seismic response of a steel arch bridge under selected NFGMs is presented by considering the traveling wave effect with variable apparent velocities. The effects of fling step and long period pulses of NFGMs on the seismic responses of the arch bridge are also discussed.

  18. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-08-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) performed a technology demonstration and evaluation for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in Seattle City Light's (SCL) service territory. This report summarizes the process and results of deploying open automated demand response (OpenADR) in Seattle area with winter morning peaking commercial buildings. The field tests were designed to evaluate the feasibility of deploying fully automated demand response (DR) in four to six sites in the winter and the savings from various building systems. The project started in November of 2008 and lasted 6 months. The methodology for the study included site recruitment, control strategy development, automation system deployment and enhancements, and evaluation of sites participation in DR test events. LBNL subcontracted McKinstry and Akuacom for this project. McKinstry assisted with recruitment, site survey collection, strategy development and overall participant and control vendor management. Akuacom established a new server and enhanced its operations to allow for scheduling winter morning day-of and day-ahead events. Each site signed a Memorandum of Agreement with SCL. SCL offered each site $3,000 for agreeing to participate in the study and an additional $1,000 for each event they participated. Each facility and their control vendor worked with LBNL and McKinstry to select and implement control strategies for DR and developed their automation based on the existing Internet connectivity and building control system. Once the DR strategies were programmed, McKinstry commissioned them before actual test events. McKinstry worked with LBNL to identify control points that can be archived at each facility. For each site LBNL collected meter data and trend logs from the energy management and control system. The communication system allowed the sites to receive day-ahead as well as day-of DR test event signals. Measurement of DR was

  19. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion Observation Activities of The MarDiM (SATREPS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Aksahin, Bengi; Arslan, Safa; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo

    2015-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul and Tekirdag province at about 81 sites on October 2013 and September 2014. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A2) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374A2) consist of three servo

  20. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion observation activities of The SATREPS, MarDiM project -Part 2-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Arslan, Safa; Aksahin, Bengi; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo

    2016-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, Tekirdag, Canakkale and Edirne provinces at about 109 sites on October 2013, September 2014 and 2015. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374

  1. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion observation activities of The SATREPS, MarDiM project -Part 3-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Seckin; Safa Arslan, Mehmet; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Behiye Aksahin, Bengi; Hatayama, Ken; Sahin, Abdurrahman; Ohori, Michihiro; Safak, Erdal; Hori, Muneo

    2017-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, Tekirdag, Canakkale and Edirne provinces at about 140 sites on October 2013, September 2014, 2015 and 2016. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor

  2. Prediction versus actual response of rocks in an excavation of underground cavern at the Lam Ta Khong pumped storage project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lertsgoon, P.N. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Bangkruai Nonthaburi (Thailand)

    2003-07-01

    The Lam Ta Khong Pumped Storage Project represents the first underground power plant in Thailand, and involves the excavation of a large underground cavern. Its dimensions are a 25 span, 175 metres long and 49 metres high. It is excavated in sandstone and siltstone and houses 4 power generator units capable of producing a maximum of 1000 mega watts (MW). The work was completed in 2000. The feasibility study revealed questionable properties of the siltstone which governs the ceiling of the cavern, due to a slacking phenomenon. A comparison between prediction and actual ground responses during excavation was performed for construction safety. PHASES and PHASE2 software were used for the prediction, while the actual rock response was obtained using a monitoring system. The parameters on rock properties from back calculation used in the design were made obvious by the correspondence between the prediction and the actual responses. 2 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  3. Long-Period Ground Motion Prediction Equations for Relative, Pseudo-Relative and Absolute Velocity Response Spectra in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Y. P.; Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Many of the empirical ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) also known as attenuation relations have been developed for absolute acceleration or pseudo relative velocity response spectra. For a small damping, pseudo and absolute acceleration response spectra are nearly identical and hence interchangeable. It is generally known that the relative and pseudo relative velocity response spectra differ considerably at very short or very long periods, and the two are often considered similar at intermediate periods. However, observations show that the period range at which the two spectra become comparable is different from site to site. Also, the relationship of the above two types of velocity response spectra with absolute velocity response spectra are not discussed well in literature. The absolute velocity response spectra are the peak values of time histories obtained by adding the ground velocities to relative velocity response time histories at individual natural periods. There exists many tall buildings on huge and deep sedimentary basins such as the Kanto basin, and the number of such buildings is growing. Recently, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has proposed four classes of long-period ground motion intensity (http://www.data.jma.go.jp/svd/eew/data/ltpgm/) based on absolute velocity response spectra, which correlate to the difficulty of movement of people in tall buildings. As the researchers are using various types of response spectra for long-period ground motions, it is important to understand the relationships between them to take appropriate measures for disaster prevention applications. In this paper, we, therefore, obtain and discuss the empirical attenuation relationships using the same functional forms for the three types of velocity response spectra computed from observed strong motion records from moderate to large earthquakes in relation to JMA magnitude, hypocentral distance, sediment depths, and AVS30 as predictor variables at periods between

  4. Las Vegas Basin Seismic Response Project: Measured Shallow Soil Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, B. A.; Louie, J.; Beeston, H. E.; Skidmore, V.; Concha, A.

    2002-12-01

    The Las Vegas valley in Nevada is a deep (up to 5 km) alluvial basin filled with interlayered gravels, sands, and clays. The climate is arid. The water table ranges from a few meters to many tens of meters deep. Laterally extensive thin carbonate-cemented lenses are commonly found across parts of the valley. Lenses range beyond 2 m in thickness, and occur at depths exceeding 200 m. Shallow seismic datasets have been collected at approximately ten sites around the Las Vegas valley, to characterize shear and compression wave velocities in the near surface. Purposes for the surveys include modeling of ground response to dynamic loads, both natural and manmade, quantification of soil stiffness to aid structural foundation design, and non-intrusive materials identification. Borehole-based measurement techniques used include downhole and crosshole, to depths exceeding 100 m. Surface-based techniques used include refraction and three different methods involving inversion of surface-wave dispersion datasets. This latter group includes two active-source techniques, the Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) method and the Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method; and a new passive-source technique, the Refraction Mictrotremor (ReMi) method. Depths to halfspace for the active-source measurements ranged beyond 50 m. The passive-source method constrains shear wave velocities to 100 m depths. As expected, the stiff cemented layers profoundly affect local velocity gradients. Scale effects are evident in comparisons of (1) very local measurements typified by borehole methods, to (2) the broader coverage of the SASW and MASW measurements, to (3) the still broader and deeper resolution made possible by the ReMi measurements. The cemented layers appear as sharp spikes in the downhole datasets and are problematic in crosshole measurements due to refraction. The refraction method is useful only to locate the depth to the uppermost cemented layer. The surface

  5. IMF By effects on ground magnetometer response to increased solar wind dynamic pressure derived from global MHD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Dogacan Su; Zou, Shasha; Slavin, James A.

    2017-05-01

    During sudden solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements, the magnetosphere undergoes rapid compression resulting in a reconfiguration of the global current systems, most notably the field-aligned currents (FACs). Ground-based magnetometers are traditionally used to study such compression events. However, factors affecting the polarity and magnitude of the ground-based magnetic perturbations are still not well understood. In particular, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By is known to create significant asymmetries in the FAC patterns. We use the University of Michigan Block Adaptive Tree Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS'R'US) magnetohydrodynamic code to investigate the effects of IMF By on the global variations of ground magnetic perturbations during solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements. Using virtual magnetometers in three idealized simulations with varying IMF By, we find asymmetries in the peak amplitude and magnetic local time of the ground magnetic perturbations during the preliminary impulse (PI) and the main impulse (MI) phases. These asymmetries are especially evident at high-latitude ground magnetometer responses where the peak amplitudes differ by 50 nT at different locations. We show that the FACs related with the PI are due to magnetopause deformation, and the FACs related with the MI are generated by vortical flows within the magnetosphere, consistent with other simulation results. The perturbation FACs due to pressure enhancements and their magnetospheric sources do not differ much under different IMF By polarities. However, the conductance profile affected by the superposition of the preexisting FACs and the perturbation FACs including their closure currents is responsible for the magnitude and location asymmetries in the ground magnetic perturbations.

  6. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Debra J. H. Mathews

    2015-01-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with...

  7. Forecasts of the atmospherical parameters close to the ground at the LBT site in the context of the ALTA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Alessio; Masciadri, Elena; Fini, Luca

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we study the abilities of an atmospherical mesoscale model in forecasting the classical atmospherical parameters relevant for astronomical applications at the surface layer (wind speed, wind direction, temperature, relative humidity) on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) site - Mount Graham, Arizona. The study is carried out in the framework of the ALTA project aiming at implementing an automated system for the forecasts of atmospherical parameters (Meso-Nh code) and the optical turbulence (Astro-Meso-Nh code) for the service-mode operation of the LBT. The final goal of such an operational tool is to provide predictions with high time frequency of atmospheric and optical parameters for an optimized planning of the telescope operation (dome thermalization, wind-dependent dome orientation, observation planning based on predicted seeing, adaptive optics optimization, etc...). Numerical simulations are carried out with the Meso-Nh and Astro-Meso-Nh codes, which were proven to give excellent results in previous studies focused on the two ESO sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones (MOSE Project). In this paper we will focus our attention on the comparison of atmospherical parameters forescasted by the model close to the ground with measurements taken by the observatory instrumentations and stored in the LBT telemetry in order to validate the numerical predictions. As previously done for Cerro Paranal (Lascaux et al., 2015), we will also present an analysis of the model performances based on the method of the contingency tables, that allows us to provide complementary key information with the respect to the bias and RMSE (systematic and statistical errors), such as the percentage of correct detection and the probability to obtain a correct detection inside a defined interval of values.

  8. Diverse Responses of Remotely Sensed Grassland Phenology to Interannual Climate Variability over Frozen Ground Regions in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Frozen ground may regulate the phenological shifts of dry and cold grasslands at the southern edge of the Eurasian cryosphere. In this study, an investigation based on the MODIS Collection 5 phenology product and climatic data collected from 2001 to 2009 reveals the diverse responses of grassland phenology to interannual climate variability over various frozen ground regions in Mongolia. Compared with middle and southern typical steppe and desert steppe, the spring (start of season; SOS and autumn (end of season; EOS phenological events of northern forest steppe with lower air temperature tend to be earlier and later, respectively. Both the SOS and EOS are less sensitive to climate variability in permafrost regions than in other regions, whereas the SOS of typical steppe is more sensitive to both air temperature and precipitation over sporadic permafrost and seasonal frozen ground regions. Over various frozen ground regions in Mongolia; the SOS is mainly dominated by the prior autumn precipitation, and frozen ground plays a vital role in storing the precipitation of the previous autumn for the subsequent grass green-up. The EOS is mainly dominated by autumn air temperature. These findings could help to improve phenological models of grasslands in extremely dry and cold regions.

  9. Ten-year responses of ground-dwelling spiders to retention harvest in the boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Jaime; Spence, John R; Langor, David W; Shorthouse, David P

    2016-12-01

    The Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbances (EMEND) project tests the hypothesis that varying levels of green tree retention maintain and retain forest biodiversity better than conventional clear-cutting. We studied epigaeic spiders to assess biodiversity changes 2, 5, and 10 yr following a range of partial retention harvests (clear-cut, 10-75% retention) and unharvested controls in four boreal mixedwood cover types. A total of 56 371 adult spiders representing 220 species was collected using pitfall traps. Lasting effects on forest structure were proportional to harvest intensity. These changes strongly influenced spider richness, abundance, and species composition, as well as assemblage recovery. Distinctive assemblages were associated with disturbance level, especially with partial harvests (≤50% retention), and these were dominated by open-habitat species even 10 yr after harvest. Assemblages were more similar to those of controls in the highest (75%) retention treatment, but significant recovery toward the structure of pre-disturbance assemblages was not detected for any prescription in any cover type. Although early responses to retention harvest suggested positive effects on spider assemblages, these are better explained as lag effects after harvest because assemblages were less similar to those of unharvested controls 5 yr post-harvest, and only minor recovery was observed 10 yr following harvest. Retention of forest biodiversity decreased over time, especially in conifer stands and the lower (10-50%) retention treatments. Overall, retention harvests retained biodiversity and promoted landscape heterogeneity somewhat better than clear-cutting; however, there was a clear gradient of response and no retention "threshold" for conservation can be recommended on the basis of our data. Furthermore, results suggest that retention harvest prescriptions should be adjusted for cover type. We show that low retention ameliorated impacts in broadleaved

  10. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

    2015-08-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2015-01-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 Project: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. PMID:26272997

  12. Seismic Response and Evaluation of SDOF Self-Centering Friction Damping Braces Subjected to Several Earthquake Ground Motions

    OpenAIRE

    Jong Wan Hu; Myung-Hyun Noh

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with seismic response and performance for self-centering friction damping braces (SFDBs) subjected to several maximum- or design-leveled earthquake ground motions. The self-centering friction damping brace members consist of core recentering components fabricated with superelastic shape memory alloy wires and energy dissipation devices achieved through shear friction mechanism. As compared to the conventional brace members for use in the steel concentrically braced fra...

  13. Random seismic response and sensitivity analysis of uncertain multi-span continuous beams subjected to spatially varying ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Zhang, Y. H.

    2016-09-01

    An analytical method is formulated for the seismic analysis of multi-span continuous beams with random structural parameters subjected to spatially varying ground motions. An earthquake-induced ground motion is modelled as a stationary random process defined by power spectral density function, and the spatial variation is considered. The physical parameters of the multi-span beams are random and modelled as continuous random Gaussian variables. The stationary random responses are determined as approximate explicit functions of the structural parameters. Direct differentiation of these functions with respect to the structural parameters provides analytical expressions of the sensitivities of the stationary responses. On the basis of Taylor expansion, the statistic moments of the random responses are obtained. Taking the four-span beam as an illustrative example, the mean value and standard deviation of the random responses are computed and compared with those from Monte Carlo simulation to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method. Results are illustrated for the influence of different structural parameters on the statistic moments of the random responses. It is found that randomness in Young's modulus and the mass per unit length has approximate equivalent and significant influence on the random responses, while that of damping is negligible.

  14. A Theory-Grounded Measure of Adolescents' Response to a Media Literacy Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kathryn; Yanovitzky, Itzhak; Carpenter, Amanda; Banerjee, Smita C.; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Hecht, Michael L.; Elek, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Media literacy interventions offer promising avenues for the prevention of risky health behaviors among children and adolescents, but current literature remains largely equivocal about their efficacy. The primary objective of this study was to develop and test theoretically-grounded measures of audiences' degree of engagement with the content of…

  15. A Theory-Grounded Measure of Adolescents' Response to a Media Literacy Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kathryn; Yanovitzky, Itzhak; Carpenter, Amanda; Banerjee, Smita C.; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Hecht, Michael L.; Elek, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Media literacy interventions offer promising avenues for the prevention of risky health behaviors among children and adolescents, but current literature remains largely equivocal about their efficacy. The primary objective of this study was to develop and test theoretically-grounded measures of audiences' degree of engagement with the content of…

  16. Parochial Dissonance: A Grounded Theory of Wisconsin's New North Response to the Employability Skills Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneck, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a theory that explained the beliefs and behaviors of participants from business, not-for-profit business, education, and government sectors when resolving the employability skills gap. Classical grounded theory was the inductive methodology applied to this study. The New North, an 18 county region located…

  17. Enhancing Students' Responsibility towards Society through Civic Involvement Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetindamar, Dilek; Hopkins, Tara

    2008-01-01

    The recent literature on corporate social responsibility is searching for new ways of education in relation to citizenship and social responsibility. This paper reviews some of the educational issues discussed within the corporate social responsibility literature. It also includes examples of some of the methods and tools used at universities…

  18. Enhancing Students' Responsibility towards Society through Civic Involvement Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetindamar, Dilek; Hopkins, Tara

    2008-01-01

    The recent literature on corporate social responsibility is searching for new ways of education in relation to citizenship and social responsibility. This paper reviews some of the educational issues discussed within the corporate social responsibility literature. It also includes examples of some of the methods and tools used at universities…

  19. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  20. THE MANAGEMENT OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PROJECTS: A HIGH-PRIORITY ETHICAL PROBLEM IN THE UNIVERSITY AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Palencia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This work paper points out that the management of social responsibility is a high-priority project in the agenda of university organizations. Social Responsibility is reasoned as a macro university ethical project; about how the projects in the university scope have been handled and finally about how the Intellectus Model is a successful option. By means of a documentary research, it was conclude that the university organizations come dragging a culture lack from ethics, which has taken it to assume the Social Responsibility with an extencionist approach. It is recommended to assume the Social Responsibility Project as a coexistence culture and to manage it by means of the Projects Management.

  1. PREDICTS: Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity in Changing Terrestrial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Mace

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The PREDICTS project (www.predicts.org.uk is a three-year NERC-funded project to model and predict at a global scale how local terrestrial diversity responds to human pressures such as land use, land cover, pollution, invasive species and infrastructure. PREDICTS is a collaboration between Imperial College London, the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Microsoft Research Cambridge, UCL and the University of Sussex. In order to meet its aims, the project relies on extensive data describing the diversity and composition of biological communities at a local scale. Such data are collected on a vast scale through the committed efforts of field ecologists. If you have appropriate data that you would be willing to share with us, please get in touch (enquiries@predicts.org.uk. All contributions will be acknowledged appropriately and all data contributors will be included as co-authors on an open-access paper describing the database.

  2. Estimation of the ground shaking from the response of rigid bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena de Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper illustrates and compares simplified approaches to interpret the mechanisms of damage observed on rigid bodies in the cemetery of Amatrice, after the main shock (August 24, 2016, MW=6.0 of the Central Italy earthquake. The final goal of the work is to link the observed movements of the fallen objects to specific characteristics of the ground motion occurred at the specific site.

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989 - Volume 1 - Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality.

  4. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress Report for the Period April 1 to June 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1989. These projects are for the 300 area process trenches (300 area), 183-H solar evaporation basins (100-H area), 200 areas low-level burial grounds, nonradioactive dangerous waste landfill (southeast of the 200 areas), 1301-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 1324-N surface impoundment and 1324-NA percolation pond (100-N area), 1325-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 216-A-10 crib (200-east area), 216-A-29 ditch (200-east area), 216-A-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-3 pond (east of the 200-east area), 2101-M pond (200-east area), grout treatment facility (200-east area).

  5. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress report for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 10 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988. This volume discusses as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled during this period in the 100-N Area (Appendix A) and near the 216-A-36B Crib (Appendix B). Volume 1 discusses the 10 projects. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy under Contract AC06-76RL01830.

  6. A Project to Develop and Evaluate a Computerized System for Instructional Response Analysis; Project SIRA. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, J.A., Jr.

    Project SIRA (System for Instructional Response Analysis) used a systems approach to develop a complete range of programs and techniques both for evaluation of student performance and for evaluation and revision of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) lesson material. By use of the PLATO computer-based instructional hardware system at the…

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the progress of 12 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988. During this quarter, field activities at the 300 Area process trenches, the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 1324-N/NA Surface Impoundment and Percolation Ponds, the 1301-N and 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facilities, and the 216-A-36B Crib consisted of ground-water sampling and analyses, and water-level monitoring. The 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds section includes well development data, sediment analysis, and water-level measurements. Ground-water sampling was begun at this site, and results will be included in next quarter's report. Twelve new wells were installed during the quarter, two at the 216-A-29 Ditch, size at the 216-A-10 Crib, and four at the 216-B-3 Pond. Preliminary characterization data for these new wells are included in this report. Driller's logs and other drilling and site characterization data will be provided in the next quarterly report. At the 2101-M Pond, construction was completed on four wells, and initial ground-water samples were taken. The drilling logs, geophysical logging data, and as-built diagrams are included in this report in Volume 2. 19 refs., 24 figs., 39 tabs.

  8. 包头市某地源热泵工程设计%Ground-source heat pump project design in Baotou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士领

    2014-01-01

    Ground heat exchanger system is the key to the smooth running of the ground-source heat pump system.Through the ground-source heat pump system design idea,the ground heat exchanger system selection calculation,and the project cooling and heating load comparative analysis,adopts the gas boiler as the system peak load heat source.To reduce the energy consumption,combined with the characteristics of radiant cooling terminal,supplies the ground source water cooling directly in transition seasons,and obtains good energy conservation effect.%地埋管换热系统是整个地源热泵系统能否良好运行的关键。通过对地源热泵系统设计思路、地埋管换热系统选择计算、工程冷热负荷的对比分析,采用燃气锅炉作为系统的调峰热源。为减少能源消耗,结合工程末端为辐射供冷的特点,在过渡季节使用地源水直接供冷,取得了较好的节能效果。

  9. Visible Light Responsive Catalyst for Air Water Purification Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Investigate and develop viable approaches to render the normally UV-activated TIO2 catalyst visible light responsive (VLR) and achieve high and sustaining catalytic activity under the visible region of the solar spectrum.

  10. Agile Science Planning: Rapid Response Re-planning Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop autonomous rapid response to science observations in missions targeting small bodies in fly-by mode where observing and reaction time is precious.

  11. Plutonium Reclamation Facility incident response project progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, B.A.

    1997-11-25

    This report provides status of Hanford activities in response to process deficiencies highlighted during and in response to the May 14, 1997, explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility. This report provides specific response to the August 4, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary which requested a progress report, in 120 days, on activities associated with reassessing the known and evaluating new vulnerabilities (chemical and radiological) at facilities that have been shut down, are in standby, are being deactivated or have otherwise changed their conventional mode of operation in the last several years. In addition, this report is intended to provide status on emergency response corrective activities as requested in the memorandum from the Secretary on August 28, 1997. Status is also included for actions requested in the second August 28, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary, regarding timely notification of emergencies.

  12. Caldecott 4th bore tunnel project: influence of ground water flows and inflows triggered by tectonic fault zones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhuber, G.; G. Neuhuber1, W. Klary1, A. Nitschke1, B. Thapa2, Chris Risden3, T. Crampton4, D. Zerga5

    2011-12-01

    The 4th Bore is a highway tunnel on California State Route 24 currently under construction. The 4th Bore is undertaken by the California State Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) and the Contra Costa County Transportation Commission (CCTC) to alleviate traffic congestion on SR24 connecting the cities of Oakland and Orinda in the San Francisco East Bay Area. The cost for the 4th Bore is estimated at $ 390.8 Mill. The 3,249 ft long 4th Bore tunnel will have excavated dimensions of approximately 40 ft height and 49 ft width. A total of 7 cross passages will run between the 3rd and the new 4th bore. Geology and Hydrogeology: The project is located in the Oakland Berkeley Hills of the SF Bay Area. The Caldecott Tunnels lie within the easterly assemblage of the Hayward fault zone province which consists of a sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks that accumulated in the interval between about 16 and 8.4 Ma (Miocene). The basal rocks of these Tertiary deposits consist of deep marine basin sediments of the Monterey Group. These rocks are overlain uncomfortably by an interbedded sequence of terrestrial sediments (Orinda Formation) and volcanic rocks (Moraga Formation). The Tertiary rocks have been folded into large amplitude, NW trending folds that are cut by N trending strike and slip faults. The SF Bay Region, which is crossed by 4 major faults (San Gregorio, San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras), is considered one of the more seismically active regions of the world. The active Hayward fault lies 0.9mi to the west of the Caldecott Tunnels and is the closest major fault to the project area. The tunnel is at the moment under top heading construction: West Portal (360ft) and East Portal (1,968.5ft). While major faults typically influence groundwater flow, characterization of such influences is extremely difficult because of the heterogeneity of the hydraulic systems and the different lithological parameters and influences. Four major inactive fault zones striking

  13. Testing of ground fault relay response during the energisation of megawatt range electric boilers in thermal power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Davidsen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    , during the energisation of a boiler. A special case for concern was the presence of an electric arc between the electrodes of the boiler and the water in the boiler during approximately 2s at the energisation, which can in theory be seen as a ground fault by the relay. The voltage and current transient......Large controllable loads may support power systems with an increased penetration of fluctuating renewable energy, by providing a rapid response to a change in the power production. Megawatt range electric boilers are an example of such controllable loads, capable of change rapidly...

  14. A Constructive/ist Response to Glaser. About Barney G. Glaser: Constructivist Grounded Theory? Published in FQS 3(3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Bryant

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent articles on the Grounded Theory Method (GTM have started to analyze its conceptual and philosophical foundations. In particular it has been argued that the early characterizations by GLASER and STRAUSS exhibit a scientistic and positivist orientation that is no longer tenable. In her recent contribution to the GTM literature, CHARMAZ distinguished between objectivist GTM and constructivist GTM. This drew a response from Barney GLASER in an earlier issue of FQS. What follows is a rejoinder to GLASER, offering some clarification of developments in people's understanding of this important and widely-used qualitative approach. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0301155

  15. Development of methodology and computer programs for the ground response spectrum and the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Kyoung [Semyung Univ., Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technol , Jecheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    Objective of this study is to investigate and develop the methodologies and corresponding computer codes, compatible to the domestic seismological and geological environments, for estimating ground response spectrum and probabilistic seismic hazard. Using the PSHA computer program, the Cumulative Probability Functions(CPDF) and Probability Functions (PDF) of the annual exceedence have been investigated for the analysis of the uncertainty space of the annual probability at ten interested seismic hazard levels (0.1 g to 0.99 g). The cumulative provability functions and provability functions of the annual exceedence have been also compared to those results from the different input parameter spaces.

  16. A Spatial Correlation Model of Peak Ground Acceleration and Response Spectra Based on Data of the Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Thomas; Goda, Katsuichiro; Erdik, Mustafa; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    Ground motion intensity measures such as the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and the pseudo spectral acceleration (PSA) at two sites due to the same seismic event are correlated. The spatial correlation needs to be considered when modelling ground-motion fields for seismic loss assessments, since it can have a significant influence on the statistical moments and probability distribution of aggregated seismic loss of a building portfolio. Empirical models of spatial correlation of ground motion intensity measures exist only for a few seismic regions in the world such as Japan, Taiwan and California, since for this purpose a dense observation network of earthquake ground motion is required. The Istanbul Earthquake Rapid Response and Early Warning System (IERREWS) provides one such dense array with station spacing of typically 2 km in the urban area of Istanbul. Based on the records of eight small to moderate (Mw3.5 - Mw5.1) events, which occurred since 2003 in the Marmara region, we establish a model of intra-event spatial correlation for PGA and PSA up to the natural period of 1.0 s. The results indicate that the correlation coefficients of PGA and short-period PSA decay rapidly with increasing interstation distance, resulting in correlation lengths of approximately 2-3 km, while correlation lengths at longer natural periods (above 0.5 s) exceed 5 km. Finally, we implement the correlation model in a Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate economic loss in Istanbul's district Zeytinburnu due to an Mw7.2 scenario earthquake.

  17. Atmospheric Response to Fukushima Daiichi NPP (Japan) Accident Reviled by Satellite and Ground observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzounov, D; Hattori, K; Kafatos, M; Taylor, P

    2011-01-01

    Immediately after the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan we started to continuously survey the Outgoing Long-wavelength Radiation (OLR, 10-13 microns) from NOAA/AVHRR. Our preliminary results show the presence of hot spots on the top of the atmosphere over the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and due to their persistence over the same region they are most likely not of meteorological origin. On March 14 and 21 we detected a significant increase in radiation (14 W/m2) at the top of the atmosphere which also coincides with a reported radioactivity gas leaks from the FDNPP. After March 21 the intensity of OLR started to decline, which has been confirmed by ground radiometer network. We hypothesize that this increase in OLR was a result of the radioactive leaks released in atmosphere from the FDNPP. This energy triggers ionization of the air near the ground and lead to release of latent heat energy due to change of air humidity and temperature. Our early results demonstrate the potential ...

  18. 'Veiling sexualities': a grounded theory of mental health nurses responses to issues of sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Agnes; Barker, Phil; Begley, Cecily M

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to develop a grounded theory explaining how mental health nurses respond to issues of sexuality in clinical practice. The history of sexuality and people with mental health problems has largely been a history shrouded in misunderstanding, stigma, myth and negativity. However, individuals with mental health problems may experience sexuality and relationship difficulties related to their life experiences, mental illness, or its treatment. Grounded theory was the methodology used for the study. Interviews were conducted in 2005-2006 with 27 mental health nurses working an urban area in the Republic of Ireland. Data were analysed using the concurrent processes of constant comparative analysis, data collection, theoretical sampling and memo writing. The core category to emerge from the data was 'veiling sexualities'. This refers to participants' accounts of how they responded to the sexuality dimension of clients' lives. Participants' main concerns about sexuality were related to feelings of personal and professional vulnerability, due to a lack of competence, comfort and confidence in this area. The theory highlights the manner in which nurses perpetuate practices that marginalize, discriminate and socially exclude clients as 'sexual citizens'. The theory of Veiled Sexualities may facilitate acknowledgement of the presence of sexuality in all nurse-client encounters, and promote a discourse on the sexual rights of people experiencing mental distress among mental health nurses and all involved in the delivery of mental health services.

  19. The Equator Principles, Project Finance and the Challenge of Social and Environmental Responsibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrew, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The Equator Principles, launched in 2003 and revamped in 2006, are a set of voluntary principles designed to help private lenders make socially and environmentally responsible project financing decisions...

  20. An integrated methodology for assessment and selection of the project risk response actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedhoseini, Seyed Mohammad; Noori, Siamak; Hatefi, Mohammad Ali

    2009-05-01

    In a systematic process of project risk management, after risk assessment is implemented, the risk analysts encounter the phase of assessment and selection of the project risk response actions (RA). As indicated by many researchers, there are less systematic and well-developed solutions in the area of risk response assessment and selection. The present article introduces a methodology including a modeling approach with the objective of selecting a set of RA that minimizes the undesirable deviation from achieving the project scope. The developed objective function comprises the three key success criteria of a project, namely, time, quality, and cost. Our model integrates overall project management into the project risk response planning (P2RP). Furthermore, the proposed model stresses on an equivalent importance for both "risk" and "response." We believe that applying the proposed model helps the project risk analyst in most effective and efficient manner dealing with his or her complicated RA selection problems. The application of the proposed model was implemented in projects in the construction industry in which it showed tremendous time, cost, and quality improvements.

  1. What Is My Role? Establishing Teacher and Youth Worker Responsibilities in Social Action Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Shira Eve

    2013-01-01

    In this research, I analyze the roles of teachers and youth workers from a community-based organization in the context of two high school social action projects. Both the teachers and the youth workers assumed distinct roles while working together during the civic project enactments. The teachers were largely positioned as responsible for…

  2. The Phased Array Terrain Interferometer (PathIn): A New Sensor for UAS Synthetic Vision and Ground Collision Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal introduces an innovative sensor to advance ground collision avoidance for UAS platforms by providing real-time height maps for hazard anomaly...

  3. Student Project in Anatomy (SPA) – Making the First Year Medical Students Responsible and Creative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Snigdha; George, Bincy M; Kumar, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Creativity is a combination of ones’ capacity to think outside the box, the gained knowledge and the passion for creating something. It very easily and effectively provides the creator a chance to be responsible for his/her creation and acts as a confidence booster for him/her. Creativity is inherent, but needs to be polished and nurtured. If nurtured well through proper motivation, the creator excels leaps and bounds. It develops an empathetic behaviour in the creator, when he allows his creations to be used by others. Aim The study was done to generate learning resources through academically good students and make them available for the entire class. Materials and Methods Academically, top 16 students were involved in a project of their choice. The projects included preparation of question answers, powerpoint presentations, cross-word puzzles, videos, models, atlases and wall hangers etc., ten weeks were given to finish the project. The project was guided and monitored by teachers. The end product of the project was given to the entire class for use. The perception of users of the end products of the projects was recorded through mini interviews. Results All the students who took part in the project liked working on the project. They felt motivated, rewarded and had mastery on the topic which they used in the project. The students who did not do the project but used the end product of the project also liked the project work. They felt that the end products of the projects were simple, informative and creative. Conclusion By participating in Student Project in Anatomy (SPA), the students get to show their total potential through these creative ways. It provides a fresh and welcome change from the common routine followed otherwise in medical schools. The outcome of the projects can help the entire class. This type of projects can be easily tailored into existing curriculum and in disciplines other than anatomy too. PMID:27790469

  4. Individual responsibility as ground for priority setting in shared decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Lars; Gustavsson, Erik; Munthe, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Given healthcare resource constraints, voices are being raised to hold patients responsible for their health choices. In parallel, there is a growing trend towards shared decision-making, aiming to empower patients and give them more control over healthcare decisions. More power and control over decisions is usually taken to mean more responsibility for them. The trend of shared decision-making would therefore seem to strengthen the case for invoking individual responsibility in the healthcare priority setting. To analyse whether the implementation of shared decision-making would strengthen the argument for invoking individual responsibility in the healthcare priority setting using normative analysis. Shared decision-making does not constitute an independent argument in favour of employing individual responsibility since these notions rest on different underlying values. However, if a health system employs shared decision-making, individual responsibility may be used to limit resource implications of accommodating patient preferences outside professional standards and goals. If a healthcare system employs individual responsibility, high level dynamic shared decision-making implying a joint deliberation resulting in a decision where both parties are willing to revise initial standpoints may disarm common objections to the applicability of individual responsibility by virtue of making patients more likely to exercise adequate control of their own actions. However, if communication strategies applied in the shared decision-making are misaligned to the patient's initial capacities, arguments against individual responsibility might, on the other hand, gain strength. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. A Theory-Grounded Measure of Adolescents’ Response to a Media Literacy Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kathryn; Yanovitzky, Itzhak; Carpenter, Amanda; Banerjee, Smita C.; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Hecht, Michael L.; Elek, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Media literacy interventions offer promising avenues for the prevention of risky health behaviors among children and adolescents, but current literature remains largely equivocal about their efficacy. The primary objective of this study was to develop and test theoretically-grounded measures of audiences’ degree of engagement with the content of media literacy programs based on the recognition that engagement (and not participation per se) can better explain and predict individual variations in the effects of these programs. We tested the validity and reliability of a measure of engagement with two different samples of 10th grade high school students who participated in a pilot and actual test of a brief media literacy curriculum. Four message evaluation factors (involvement, perceived novelty, critical thinking, personal reflection) emerged and demonstrate acceptable reliability. PMID:28042522

  6. Projectizing the development and/or maintenance process for emergency response/contingency plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. A. Francis

    2000-07-01

    The attainment of established goals and objects is essential and paramount for all successful projects in business and industry, including the development and/or maintenance of emergency response/contingency plans. The need for effective project management is an ongoing effort. As with any aspect of business, better ways of managing projects have been and are being developed. Those organizations that take the lead in implementing these capabilities consistently perform their projects better, and in the case of emergency management, provide better protection to employees, property, and the environment.

  7. Project Responder: technology needs for local emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beakley, Guy; Garwin, Thomas; Pollard, Neal A.; Singley, George T., III; Tuohy, Robert V.; Lupo, Jasper

    2003-09-01

    Since April 2001, the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism has funded an effort by Hicks &Associates, Inc. and the Terrorism Research Center, Inc., aimed ultimately at improving local, state, and federal emergency responders" capabilities for mitigating the effects of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive/ incendiary (CBRNE) terrorism. This effort, titled "Project Responder," began by developing an understanding of how state and local responders view their current capabilities, shortfalls, and needs. This paper discusses some of the results of this first phase of the effort that has resulted in a comprehensive report titled "Emergency Responders" Needs, Goals, and Priorities." This paper addresses two of the capabilities from that report which we believe are of most interest to this conference. There are ten other capabilities discussed in the report, which may also be of interest.

  8. Effect of Niagara power project on ground-water flow in the upper part of the Lockport Dolomite, Niagara Falls area, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Kappel, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Niagara River Power Project near Niagara Falls, N.Y., has created recharge and discharge areas that have modified the direction of groundwater flow east and northeast of the falls. Before construction of the power project in 1962, the configuration of the potentiometric surface in the upper part of the Silurian Lockport Dolomite generally paralleled the buried upper surface of the bedrock. Ground water in the central and east parts of the city of Niagara Falls flowed south and southwestward toward the upper Niagara River (above the falls), and ground water in the western part flowed westward into Niagara River gorge. The power project consists of two hydroelectric powerplants separated by a forebay canal that receives water from the upper Niagara River through two 4-mi-long, parallel, buried conduits. During periods of nonpeak power demand, some water in the forebay canal is pumped to a storage reservoir for later release to generate electricity during peak-demand periods. Since the power project began operation in 1962, groundwater within 0.5 mi of the buried conduits has seeped into the drain system that surrounds the conduits, then flows both south from the forebay canal and north from the Niagara River toward the Falls Street tunnel--a former sewer that crosses the conduits 0.65 mi north of the upper Niagara River. Approximately 6 million gallons of ground water a day leaks into the Falls Street tunnel, which carries it 2.3 mi westward to the Niagara River gorge below the falls. Daily water-level fluctuations in the forebay canal affect water levels in the drain system that surrounds the conduits, and this , in turn, affects the potentiometric surface in the Lockport Dolomite within 0.5 mi of the conduits. The drains transmit changes in pressure head near the forebay canal southward at least as far as the Falls Street tunnel area and possibly to the upper Niagara River. Some water in the pumped-storage reservoir recharges ground water in the Lockport

  9. Analytical investigations of seismic responses for reinforced concrete bridge columns subjected to strong near-fault ground motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chin-Kuo Su; Yu-Chi Sung; Shuenn-Yih Chang; Chao-Hsun Huang

    2007-01-01

    Strong near-fault ground motion, usually caused by the fault-rupture and characterized by a pulse-like velocitywave form, often causes dramatic instantaneous seismic energy (Jadhav and Jangid 2006). Some reinforced concrete (RC)bridge columns, even those built according to ductile design principles, were damaged in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake.Thus, it is very important to evaluate the seismic response of a RC bridge column to improve its seismic design and prevent future damage. Nonlinear time history analysis using step-by-step integration is capable of tracing the dynamic response of a structure during the entire vibration period and is able to accommodate the pulsing wave form. However; the accuracy of the numerical results is very sensitive to the modeling of the nonlinear load-deformation relationship of the structural member.FEMA 273 and ATC-40 provide the modeling parameters for structural nonlinear analyses of RC beams and RC columns.They use three parameters to define the plastic rotation angles and a residual strength ratio to describe the nonlinear loaddeformation relationship of an RC member. Structural nonlinear analyses are performed based on these parameters. This method provides a convenient way to obtain the nonlinear seismic responses of RC structures. However, the accuracy of the numerical solutions might be further improved. For this purpose, results from a previous study on modeling of the static pushover analyses for RC bridge columns (Sung et al. 2005) is adopted for the nonlinear time history analysis presented herein to evaluate the structural responses excited by a near-fault ground motion. To ensure the reliability of this approach,the numerical results were compared to experimental results. The results confirm that the proposed approach is valid.

  10. One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analysis - A case study of collapsed Margalla Tower in Islamabad during 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Rehman, Zia-ur-; Farooq, Khalid; Memon, Shazim Ali

    2016-07-01

    One dimensional equivalent linear ground response analysis was conducted in the Margalla Tower building in Islamabad, which collapsed during 2005 Muzaffarabad Earthquake. The analyses were conducted in DEEPSOIL software, without considering the effect of ground water table. The input subsoil data were selected from laboratory and field tests conducted for the site with bedrock at a depth of 21 m as per site condition. The field and laboratory testing data showed that the subsoil beneath the Tower site was silty clay to lean clay according to the unified soil classification system. Four different accelerograms with PGA values of 0.17 g, 0.15 g, 0.22 g and 0.21 g, compatible with the earthquake in the target area were applied at the bedrock. The surface response spectra showed that, except the Accelerogram-1 all other three were amplified near the fundamental period of the site. The analyses showed that different PGA values (0.26 g, 0.21 g, 0.36 g and 0.21 g) were produced at the surface which can be explained due to the difference in the Fourier amplitude of input accelerograms. Furthermore, the different input accelerograms produced a different shear strain and thus mobilized different shear strengths along the soil profile depth. Finally, the calculated response spectra of accelerograms were compared with the response spectra of Islamabad. The calculated spectral acceleration values were found to be higher than reported by the Building Code of Pakistan (0.16 g to 0.24 g).

  11. Martian Surface Temperature and Spectral Response from the MSL REMS Ground Temperature Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Torres, Javier; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Zorzano, María-Paz; Serrano, María; Mendaza, Teresa; Hamilton, Vicky; Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; REMS Team

    2013-04-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) offers the opportunity to explore the near surface atmospheric conditions and, in particular will shed new light into the heat budget of the Martian surface. This is important for studies of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), as the ground and air temperatures measured directly by REMS control the coupling of the atmosphere with the surface [Zurek et al., 1992]. This coupling is driven by solar insolation. The ABL plays an important role in the general circulation and the local atmospheric dynamics of Mars. One of the REMS sensors, the ground temperature sensor (GTS), provides the data needed to study the thermal inertia properties of the regolith and rocks beneath the MSL rover. The GTS includes thermopile detectors, with infrared bands of 8-14 µm and 16-20 µm [Gómez-Elvira et al., 2012]. These sensors are clustered in a single location on the MSL mast and the 8-14 µm thermopile sounds the surface temperature. The infrared radiation reaching the thermopile is proportional to the emissivity of the surface minerals across these thermal wavelengths. We have developed a radiative transfer retrieval method for the REMS GTS using a database of thermal infrared laboratory spectra of analogue minerals and their mixtures. [Martín Redondo et al. 2009, Martínez-Frías et al. 2012 - FRISER-IRMIX database]. This method will be used to assess the perfomance of the REMS GTS as well as determine, through the error analysis, the surface temperature and emissivity values where MSL is operating. Comparisons with orbiter data will be performed. References Gómez-Elvira et al. [2012], REMS: The Environmental Sensor Suite for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover, Space Science Reviews, Volume 170, Issue 1-4, pp. 583-640. Martín-Redondo et al. [2009] Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11:, pp. 1428-1432. Martínez-Frías et al. [2012] FRISER-IRMIX database http

  12. Managing United States public lands in response to climate change: a view from the ground up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenwood, Mikaela S; Dilling, Lisa; Milford, Jana B

    2012-05-01

    Federal land managers are faced with the task of balancing multiple uses and goals when making decisions about land use and the activities that occur on public lands. Though climate change is now well recognized by federal agencies and their local land and resource managers, it is not yet clear how issues related to climate change will be incorporated into on-the-ground decision making within the framework of multiple use objectives. We conducted a case study of a federal land management agency field office, the San Juan Public Lands Center in Durango, CO, U.S.A., to understand from their perspective how decisions are currently made, and how climate change and carbon management are being factored into decision making. We evaluated three major management sectors in which climate change or carbon management may intersect other use goals: forests, biofuels, and grazing. While land managers are aware of climate change and eager to understand more about how it might affect land resources, the incorporation of climate change considerations into everyday decision making is currently quite limited. Climate change is therefore on the radar screen, but remains a lower priority than other issues. To assist the office in making decisions that are based on sound scientific information, further research is needed into how management activities influence carbon storage and resilience of the landscape under climate change.

  13. Hepatic and branchial xenobiotic biomarker responses in Solea spp. from several NW Mediterranean fishing grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siscar, R; Varó, I; Solé, M

    2015-12-01

    The common sole, Solea solea and the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis are two important commercial benthic species that coexist in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Several common biomarkers of chemical exposure were measured in two organs (liver and gills) involved in a different degree in biotransformation and detoxification processes. These parameters were: phase I cytochrome P450 CYP1A-dependent ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and carboxylesterase activities, phase II glutathione S-transferase activity and the enzymatic antioxidants: catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) considering biometric variables (size and weight) and all liver and gill biomarkers discriminated at a certain extent individuals of both species collected at the different fishing grounds. Esterase inhibition by the organophosphorus pesticides dichlorvos and diazinon was also compared in vitro in muscle, liver and gill of the two species revealing a differential sensitivity. The use of benthic sole in pollution monitoring of Southern Europe is discussed as local sentinel in respect to other benthic fish from more Northern latitudes.

  14. Effect of virtual image projection distance on the accomodative response of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisum, G T; Morway, P E

    1977-09-01

    Virtual image displays utilize either aircraft-mounted or helmet-mounted beam splitters, or combining screens. The effect on the accomodative response of the projection distance of the virtual image was measured by photographing the first and fourth Purkinje images of a source. The results indicate possible effect on the accomodation response. Further exploration of the problem is indicated.

  15. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress report for the period January 1--March 31, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the progress of eight Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period January 1 to March 31, 1988. The facilities represented by the eight projects are the 300 Area Process trenches, 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds, Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill, 216-A-36B Crib, 1301-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility, 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility, and 1324-N/NA Surface Impoundment and Percolation Ponds. The latter four projects are included in this series of quarterly reports for the first time. This report is the seventh in a series of periodic status reports; the first six cover the period from May 1, 1986, through December 31, 1987 (PNL 1986; 1987a, b, c, d; 1988a). This report satisfies the requirements of Section 17B(3) of the Consent Agreement and Compliance Order issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (1986a) to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. 13 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Effects of low temperature on breathing pattern and ventilatory responses during hibernation in the golden-mantled ground squirrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Cheryl L; Milsom, William K

    2017-07-01

    During entrance into hibernation in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis), ventilation decreases as metabolic rate and body temperature fall. Two patterns of respiration occur during deep hibernation. At 7 °C body temperature (T b ), a breathing pattern characterized by episodes of multiple breaths (20.6 ± 1.9 breaths/episode) separated by long apneas or nonventilatory periods (T nvp ) (mean = 11.1 ± 1.2 min) occurs, while at 4 °C T b , a pattern in which breaths are evenly distributed and separated by a relatively short T nvp (0.5 ± 0.05 min) occurs. Squirrels exhibiting each pattern have similar metabolic rates and levels of total ventilation (0.2 and 0.23 ml O2/hr/kg and 0.11 and 0.16 ml air/min/kg, respectively). Squirrels at 7 °C T b exhibit a significant hypoxic ventilatory response, while squirrels at 4 °C T b do not respond to hypoxia at any level of O2 tested. Squirrels at both temperatures exhibit a significant hypercapnic ventilatory response, but the response is significantly reduced in the 4 °C T b squirrels. Carotid body denervation has little effect on the breathing patterns or on the hypercapnic ventilatory responses. It does reduce the magnitude and threshold for the hypoxic ventilatory response. Taken together the data suggest that (1) the fundamental rhythm generator remains functional at low temperatures; (2) the hypercapnic ventilatory response arises from central chemoreceptors that remain functional at very low temperatures; (3) the hypoxic ventilatory response arises from both carotid body and aortic chemoreceptors that are silenced at lower temperatures; and (4) there is a strong correlation between breathing pattern and chemosensitivity.

  17. Projected Response of Typical Detonators to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M J

    2002-12-20

    The purpose of this discussion is to indicate the threshold values for low-order detonator response by using first principles applied to pin-to-pin configurations and associated limits in pin-to-case scenarios. In addition an attempt to define the electrical environment by first principles is shown to be inadequate and indicates the need to define the electrical insult by reasonable standards. A comparison of two accepted electrical models and a combination of the extreme reported levels from both standards are used to establish an extreme set of parameters for a safety assessment. A simplification of the critical electrical insult parameters is then shown and demonstrated to provide the initial screening protocol with easily defined electrical dimensions of action integral. Action integral and the conductive material properties are the basic parameters needed to define the solid, liquid, and gas phases of the material used for detonator bridge wires. The resulting material phases are directly related to detonator response thresholds. The discussion concludes by showing the ability of ESD insults to arc from pin-to-case, the limited knowledge of the associated arc initiation process, and the modeling need for a reasonable arc resistance in pin-to-case scenarios.

  18. Nonparametric Bayesian time-series modeling and clustering of time-domain ground penetrating radar landmine responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kenneth D., Jr.; Torrione, Peter A.; Collins, Leslie

    2010-04-01

    Time domain ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been shown to be a powerful sensing phenomenology for detecting buried objects such as landmines. Landmine detection with GPR data typically utilizes a feature-based pattern classification algorithm to discriminate buried landmines from other sub-surface objects. In high-fidelity GPR, the time-frequency characteristics of a landmine response should be indicative of the physical construction and material composition of the landmine and could therefore be useful for discrimination from other non-threatening sub-surface objects. In this research we propose modeling landmine time-domain responses with a nonparametric Bayesian time-series model and we perform clustering of these time-series models with a hierarchical nonparametric Bayesian model. Each time-series is modeled as a hidden Markov model (HMM) with autoregressive (AR) state densities. The proposed nonparametric Bayesian prior allows for automated learning of the number of states in the HMM as well as the AR order within each state density. This creates a flexible time-series model with complexity determined by the data. Furthermore, a hierarchical non-parametric Bayesian prior is used to group landmine responses with similar HMM model parameters, thus learning the number of distinct landmine response models within a data set. Model inference is accomplished using a fast variational mean field approximation that can be implemented for on-line learning.

  19. Influence of ground tire rubber on the transient loading response of a peat biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Hornos, F J; Izquierdo, M; Martínez-Soria, V; Penya-Roja, J M; Sempere, F; Gabaldón, C

    2011-08-01

    The effect of using ground tire rubber (GTR) as an adsorptive material in the removal of a 2:1:1 weight mixture of n-butyl acetate, toluene and m-xylene by using a peat biofilter under different intermittent conditions was investigated. The performance of two identical size biofilters, one packed with fibrous peat alone and the other with a 3:1 (vol) fibrous peat and GTR mixture, was examined for a period of four months. Partition coefficients of both materials were measured. Values of 53, 118 and 402 L kg(-1) were determined for n-butyl acetate, toluene and m-xylene in peat, respectively; and values of 40, 609 and 3035 L kg(-1) were measured for the same compounds in GTR. Intermittent load feeding of 16 h per day, 5 days per week working at an EBRT of 60 s and an inlet VOC concentration of 0.3 g C m(-1), resulted in removal efficiencies higher than 90% for both biofilters, indicating that the addition of GTR did not adversely affect the behavior of the bioreactor. Full removal of n-butyl acetate was obtained for both biofilters. GTR improved the removal of the aromatics in the first part of the biofilter, facilitating lower penetration of the toluene and m-xylene into the bed. A 31-day starvation period was applied and intermittent operation subsequently restarted. In both biofilters, high removal efficiencies after a re-acclimation period of two days were achieved. A shock loading test related to 1-h peaks of three- and four-fold increases in its baseline concentration (0.30 g C m(-3)) was applied in both biofilters. For the biofilter packed with the peat and GTR mixture, attenuation greater than 60% was observed in the maximum outlet concentration when compared to the biofilter packed with peat alone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Validation Activities of the APhoRISM EC 7FP Project, Aimed at Post Seismic Damage Mapping, Through a Combined Use of EOS and Ground Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanthery, N.; Luzi, G.; Stramondo, S.; Bignami, C.; Pierdicca, N.; Wegmuller, U.; Romaniello, V.; Anniballe, R.; Piscini, A.; Albano, M.; Moro, M.; Crosetto, M.

    2016-08-01

    The estimate of damage after an earthquake using spaceborne remote sensing data is one of the main application of the change detection methodologies widely discussed in literature. APhoRISM - Advanced PRocedures for volcanIc and Seismic Monitoring is a collaborative European Commission project (FP7-SP ACE- 2013-1) addressing the development of innovative methods, using space and ground sensors to support the management and mitigation of the seismic and the volcanic risk. In this paper a novel approach aimed at damage assessment based on the use of a priori information derived by different sources in a preparedness phase is described and a preliminary validation is shown.

  1. Stochastic modeling and control system designs of the NASA/MSFC Ground Facility for large space structures: The maximum entropy/optimal projection approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Wei-Shen

    1986-01-01

    In the Control Systems Division of the Systems Dynamics Laboratory of the NASA/MSFC, a Ground Facility (GF), in which the dynamics and control system concepts being considered for Large Space Structures (LSS) applications can be verified, was designed and built. One of the important aspects of the GF is to design an analytical model which will be as close to experimental data as possible so that a feasible control law can be generated. Using Hyland's Maximum Entropy/Optimal Projection Approach, a procedure was developed in which the maximum entropy principle is used for stochastic modeling and the optimal projection technique is used for a reduced-order dynamic compensator design for a high-order plant.

  2. 75 FR 34152 - Record of Decision for the Cape Wind Energy Project; Secretary of the Interior's Response to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Minerals Management Service (MMS) Record of Decision for the Cape Wind Energy Project; Secretary of the Interior's Response to Comments From the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation on the Cape Wind Energy... the ROD for the Cape Wind Energy Project (the Project). The ROD for the Project records the...

  3. Interaction response of maglev masses moving on a suspended beam shaken by horizontal ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    As a maglev transport route has to cross a region with occasional earthquakes, the train/guideway interaction is an issue of great concern in dominating safety of the maglev system. This paper intends to present a computational framework of interaction analysis for a maglev train traveling over a suspension bridge shaken by horizontal earthquakes. The suspended guideway girder is modeled as a single-span suspended beam and the maglev train traveling over it as a series of maglev masses. Due to motion- dependent nature of magnetic forces in a maglev suspension system, appropriate adjustments of the magnetic forces between magnets and guide-rail require the air gaps be continuously monitored. Thus an on-board hybrid LQR+PID controller with constraint rule base is designed to control the dynamic response of a running maglev mass. Then the governing equations of motion for the suspended beam associated with all the controlled maglev masses are transformed into a set of generalized equations by Galerkin's method, and solved using an incremental-iterative procedure. Numerical investigations demonstrate that when a controlled maglev train travels over a suspended guideway shaken by horizontal earthquakes, the proposed hybrid controller has the ability to adjust the levitation gaps in a prescribed stable region for safety reasons and to reduce the vehicle's acceleration response for ride quality.

  4. Steel Moment-Resisting Frame Responses in Simulated Strong Ground Motions: or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Big One

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studies the response of steel moment-resisting frame buildings in simulated strong ground motions. I collect 37 simulations of crustal earthquakes in California. These ground motions are applied to nonlinear finite element models of four types of steel moment frame buildings: six- or twenty-stories with either a stiffer, higherstrength design or a more flexible, lower-strength design. I also consider the presence of fracture-prone welds in each design. Since these b...

  5. You can hide but you can't run: apparent competition, predator responses and the decline of Arctic ground squirrels in boreal forests of the southwest Yukon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jeffery R; Gillis, Elizabeth A; Boonstra, Rudy; Krebs, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    Throughout much of North America's boreal forest, the cyclical fluctuations of snowshoe hare populations (Lepus americanus) may cause other herbivores to become entrained in similar cycles. Alternating apparent competition via prey switching followed by positive indirect effects are the mechanisms behind this interaction. Our purpose is to document a change in the role of indirect interactions between sympatric populations of hares and arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii plesius), and to emphasize the influence of predation for controlling ground squirrel numbers. We used mark-recapture to estimate the population densities of both species over a 25-year period that covered two snowshoe hare cycles. We analysed the strength of association between snowshoe hare and ground squirrel numbers, and the changes to the seasonal and annual population growth rates of ground squirrels over time. A hyperbolic curve best describes the per capita rate of increase of ground squirrels relative to their population size, with a single stable equilibrium and a lower critical threshold below which populations drift to extinction. The crossing of this unstable boundary resulted in the subsequent uncoupling of ground squirrel and hare populations following the decline phase of their cycles in 1998. The implications are that this sustained Type II predator response led to the local extinction of ground squirrels. When few individuals are left in a colony, arctic ground squirrels may also have exhibited an Allee effect caused by the disruption of social signalling of approaching predators.

  6. You can hide but you can’t run: apparent competition, predator responses and the decline of Arctic ground squirrels in boreal forests of the southwest Yukon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Elizabeth A.; Boonstra, Rudy; Krebs, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout much of North America’s boreal forest, the cyclical fluctuations of snowshoe hare populations (Lepus americanus) may cause other herbivores to become entrained in similar cycles. Alternating apparent competition via prey switching followed by positive indirect effects are the mechanisms behind this interaction. Our purpose is to document a change in the role of indirect interactions between sympatric populations of hares and arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii plesius), and to emphasize the influence of predation for controlling ground squirrel numbers. We used mark-recapture to estimate the population densities of both species over a 25-year period that covered two snowshoe hare cycles. We analysed the strength of association between snowshoe hare and ground squirrel numbers, and the changes to the seasonal and annual population growth rates of ground squirrels over time. A hyperbolic curve best describes the per capita rate of increase of ground squirrels relative to their population size, with a single stable equilibrium and a lower critical threshold below which populations drift to extinction. The crossing of this unstable boundary resulted in the subsequent uncoupling of ground squirrel and hare populations following the decline phase of their cycles in 1998. The implications are that this sustained Type II predator response led to the local extinction of ground squirrels. When few individuals are left in a colony, arctic ground squirrels may also have exhibited an Allee effect caused by the disruption of social signalling of approaching predators. PMID:27635312

  7. You can hide but you can’t run: apparent competition, predator responses and the decline of Arctic ground squirrels in boreal forests of the southwest Yukon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery R. Werner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout much of North America’s boreal forest, the cyclical fluctuations of snowshoe hare populations (Lepus americanus may cause other herbivores to become entrained in similar cycles. Alternating apparent competition via prey switching followed by positive indirect effects are the mechanisms behind this interaction. Our purpose is to document a change in the role of indirect interactions between sympatric populations of hares and arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii plesius, and to emphasize the influence of predation for controlling ground squirrel numbers. We used mark-recapture to estimate the population densities of both species over a 25-year period that covered two snowshoe hare cycles. We analysed the strength of association between snowshoe hare and ground squirrel numbers, and the changes to the seasonal and annual population growth rates of ground squirrels over time. A hyperbolic curve best describes the per capita rate of increase of ground squirrels relative to their population size, with a single stable equilibrium and a lower critical threshold below which populations drift to extinction. The crossing of this unstable boundary resulted in the subsequent uncoupling of ground squirrel and hare populations following the decline phase of their cycles in 1998. The implications are that this sustained Type II predator response led to the local extinction of ground squirrels. When few individuals are left in a colony, arctic ground squirrels may also have exhibited an Allee effect caused by the disruption of social signalling of approaching predators.

  8. Recalibration of a ground-water flow model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer of northeastern Arkansas, 1918-1998, with simulations of water levels caused by projected ground-water withdrawals through 2049

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Thomas B.

    2003-01-01

    the model. Areally specified recharge rates ranged from 0 to about 30 inches and total recharge increased from 1972 to 1998 by a factor of about four. Water levels caused by projected ground-water withdrawals were simulated using the calibrated model. Simulations represented a period of 50 years into the future in three scenarios with either unchanged pumpage, pumpage increased by historic trends, or pumpage increased by historic trends except in two areas of the Grand Prairie. If pumping remains at 1997 rates, this produces extreme water-level declines (areas where model cells have gone dry or where the water level in the aquifer is equal to or less than the original saturated thickness, assuming confined conditions in the aquifer everywhere in the formation in predevelopment times) in the aquifer in two areas of the aquifer (one in the Grand Prairie area between the Arkansas and White Rivers and the other west of Crowleys Ridge along the Cache River) with about 400 square miles going dry. Increasing the pumping rates to that which would be projected using historic data led to increased extreme water-level declines in both areas with about 1,300 square miles going dry. Declines in both scenarios generally occurred most rapidly between 2009 and 2019. Reducing the pumping rates to 90 percent of that used for projected historic rates in areas between the Arkansas and White Rivers relating to two diversion projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and other agencies did little to decrease the extreme water-level declines. However, these pumpage reductions are small (amounting to about 16 percent of the reductions that could result from implementation of these diversion projects).

  9. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred J. Molz, III

    2010-05-28

    to Pu uptake by corn roots and xylem transport. Plants were started in wet paper wrapped around each corn seed. When the tap roots were sufficiently long, the seedlings were transplanted to a soil container with the tap root extending out the container bottom. The soil container was then placed over a nutrient solution container, and the solution served as an additional medium for root growth. To conduct an uptake study, a radioactive substance, such as Pu complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB, was added to the nutrient solution. After a suitable elapsed time, the corn plant was sacrificed, cut into 10 cm lengths, and the activity distribution measured. Experimental results clarified the basic nature of Pu uptake and transport in corn plants, and resulting simulations suggested that each growing season Pu in the SRS lysimeters would move into the plant shoots and be deposited on the soil surface during the Fall dieback. Subsequent isotope ratio analyses showed that this did happen. OVERALL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - (1) Pu transport downward from the source is controlled by advection, dispersion and adsorption, along with surface-mediated REDOX reactions. (2) Hysteresis, extreme root distribution functions, air-content dependent oxidation rate constants, and large evaporation rates from the soil surface were not able to explain the observed upward migration of Pu. (3) Small amounts of Pu uptake by plant roots and translocation in the transpiration stream creates a realistic mechanism for upward Pu migration (4) Realistic xylem cross-sectional areas imply high flow velocities under hot, wet conditions. Such flow velocities produce the correct shape for the observed activity distributions in the top 20 cm of the lysimeter soil. (5) Simulations imply that Pu should have moved into the above-ground grass tissue each year during the duration of the experiments, resulting in an activity residual accumulating on the soil surface. An isotope ratio analysis showed that

  10. Condition-dependent dispersal of a patchily distributed riparian ground beetle in response to disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Adam J; Sadler, Jon P; Fowles, Adrian P

    2006-11-01

    In common with many habitat elements of riverine landscapes, exposed riverine sediments (ERS) are highly disturbed, naturally patchy and regularly distributed, whose specialists are strongly adapted to flood disturbance and loss of habitat due to succession. Investigations of dispersal in ERS habitats therefore provide an important contrast to the unnaturally fragmented, stable systems usually studied. The present investigation analysed the three interdependent stages of dispersal: (1) emigration, (2) inter-patch movement and (3) immigration of a common ERS specialised beetle, Bembidion atrocaeruleum (Stephens 1828) (Coleoptera, Carabidae), in a relatively unmodified section of river, using mark-resight methods. Dispersal was correlated with estimates of local population size and density, water level and patch quality in order to test for condition-dependent dispersal cues. Flood inundation of habitat was found to increase strongly the overall rate of dispersal, and the rate of emigration was significantly higher from patches that were heavily trampled by cattle. Strongly declining numbers of dispersers with distance suggested low dispersal rates during periods of low water level. Dispersal in response to habitat degradation by cattle trampling would likely lead to a higher overall population fitness than a random dispersal strategy. Dispersal distances were probably adapted to the underlying habitat landscape distribution, high-flow dispersal cues and ready means of long-distance dispersal through hydrochory. Species whose dispersal is adapted to the natural habitat distribution of riverine landscapes are likely to be strongly negatively affected by reduced flood frequency and intensity and habitat fragmentation through flow regulation or channelisation.

  11. Entrepreneurism from the ground up: Entrepreneurism, innovation, and responsiveness in a start-up university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael Paul Anthony

    Colleges and universities are under increased pressure from internal and external constituencies for increased innovation and responsiveness. Entrepreneurial private industry models such as start-up businesses, corporate ventures and spin-off organizations have been recognized for their ability to quickly adapt to changing business environments and rapidly innovate to take advantage of new opportunities. This case study investigates these claims with regard to a start-up university founded with the identity of an entrepreneurial, interdisciplinary institution that prepares graduate level students for leadership careers as entrepreneurs in the bio-tech industry. By interviewing twenty-four administrators, faculty, and members of the Board of Trustees, including all but one of the founding full-time faculty, I present an "insider's" depiction of the lived experience of those most closely associated with the founding and subsequent institution building of this unique higher education organization. Initial chapters present a theory of higher education organizations, derived from Birnbaum (1988) and Bolman and Deal (1991), as driven by two primary tasks: resolving identity and establishing power and resources in relation to that identity. I also present Russell and Russell's (1992) theory of "entrepreneurial posture" in relation to a higher education organization. Subsequent chapters analyze the start-up university's environment, strategy, culture, and structure within the framework of the two primary organizational tasks and Russell and Russell's (1992) definition of an entrepreneurial organization.

  12. FORTRAN programs for calculating nonlinear seismic ground response in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, W.B.

    1978-01-01

    The programs described here were designed for calculating the nonlinear seismic response of a two-dimensional configuration of soil underlain by a semi-infinite elastic medium representing bedrock. There are two programs. One is for plane strain motions, that is, motions in the plane perpendicular to the long axis of the structure, and the other is for antiplane strain motions, that is motions parallel to the axis. The seismic input is provided by specifying what the motion of the rock-soil boundary would be if the soil were absent and the boundary were a free surface. This may be done by supplying a magnetic tape containing the values of particle velocity for every boundary point at every instant of time. Alternatively, a punch card deck may be supplied giving acceleration values at every instant of time. In the plane strain program it is assumed that the acceleration values apply simultaneously to every point on the boundary; in the antiplane strain program it is assumed that the acceleration values characterize a plane shear wave propagating upward in the underlying elastic medium at a specified angle with the vertical. The nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the soil is represented by a three-dimensional rheological model. A boundary condition is used which takes account of finite rigidity in the elastic substratum. The computations are performed by an explicit finite-difference scheme that proceeds step by step in space and time. Computations are done in terms of stress departures from an unspecified initial state. Source listings are provided here along with instructions for preparing the input. A more detailed discussion of the method is presented elsewhere.

  13. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION FOR MODELING THE EFFECT OF GROUND SEGMENT LOCATION ON IN-ORBIT RESPONSIVENESS OF LEO SUNSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Navabi; Hossein Bonyan Khamseh

    2011-01-01

    Responsiveness is a challenge for space systems to sustain competitive advantage over alternate non-spaceborne technologies.For a satellite in its operational orbit,in-orbit responsiveness is defined as the capability of the satellite to respond to a given demand in a timely manner.In this paper,it is shown that Average Wait Time (AWT) to pick up user demand from ground segment is the appropriate metric to evaluate the effect of ground segment location on in-orbit responsiveness of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) sunsynchronous satellites.This metric depends on pattern of ground segment access to satellite and distribution of user demands in time domain.A mathematical model is presented to determine pattern of ground segment access to satellite and concept of cumulative distribution function is used to simulate distribution of user demands for markets with different total demand scenarios.Monte Carlo simulations are employed to take account of uncertainty in distribution and total volume of user demands.Sampling error and standard deviation are used to ensure validity of AWT metric obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.Incorporation of the proposed metric in the ground segment site location process results in more responsive satellite systems which,in turn,lead to greater customer satisfaction levels and attractiveness of spaceborne systems for different applications.Finally,simulation results for a case study are presented.

  14. Analysis of the spectral response of flourishing-withering vegetation changes based on ground spectral measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guli·Japper; CHEN Xi; ZHAO Jin; MA ZhongGuo; CHANG Cun; ZHANG XueRen

    2007-01-01

    A structural mode was used to characterize vegetation composition at the plant leaf level and a flourishing-withering ratio was developed. The spectral responses of vegetation with different flourishing-withering ratios were analyzed, the change rates of the chlorophyll and moisture content indices of vegetation with different flourishing-withering ratios were compared, and correlations between the chlorophyll and moisture content indices were analyzed. The results reveal that leaves with an intermediate flourishing-withering ratio can increase the absorption signatures of vegetation and that band ranges of 570-700 nm and 1300-1540 nm can play a role in indicating changes in the flourishing-withering ratios of vegetation; NPQI, NPCI, R695/R420, R695/R760, R750/R700, the peak-value area of red selvedge, the red selvedge amplitude, the ratio between the red selvedge amplitude and the minimum amplitude, and the NDVl of vegetation change regularly with the change in flourishing-withering ratios,and these nine vegetation indices are highly related to the chlorophyll content. Vegetation indexes of NDWI and PRI are very sensitive to the flourishing-withering change in vegetation and are closely related to the moisture content, and the correlation coefficient is higher than 0.9. The derivative of the spectra is more effective in describing changes in the structural mode of vegetation with different flourishing-withering ratios, especially at band ranges of 552-628 nm and 630-686 nm, and it is more sensitive to the mixed flourishing-withering ratios of leaves rather than to the vegetation indices. The red selvedge position in the spectrum is highly related to the chlorophyll content and is not sensitive to changes in the structural mode of mixed flourishing-withering leaves. The red selvedge parameters are sensitive to changes in the flourishing-withering ratio at the peak-value area of the red selvedge amplitude and the ratio between the red selvedge amplitude and the

  15. Seismic Response and Evaluation of SDOF Self-Centering Friction Damping Braces Subjected to Several Earthquake Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Wan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly deals with seismic response and performance for self-centering friction damping braces (SFDBs subjected to several maximum- or design-leveled earthquake ground motions. The self-centering friction damping brace members consist of core recentering components fabricated with superelastic shape memory alloy wires and energy dissipation devices achieved through shear friction mechanism. As compared to the conventional brace members for use in the steel concentrically braced frame structure, these self-centering friction damping brace members make the best use of their representative characteristics to minimize residual deformations and to withstand earthquake loads without member replacement. The configuration and response mechanism of self-centering friction damping brace systems are firstly described in this study, and then parametric investigations are conducted through nonlinear time-history analyses performed on numerical single degree-of-freedom spring models. After observing analysis results, adequate design methodologies that optimally account for recentering capability and energy dissipation according to their comparative parameters are intended to be suggested in order to take advantage of energy capacity and to minimize residual deformation simultaneously.

  16. Physiological responses to hypersalinity correspond to nursery ground usage in two inshore shark species (Mustelus antarcticus and Galeorhinus galeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnah, Louise; MacKellar, Sara R C; Barnett, David A; MacCormack, Tyson J; Stehfest, Kilian M; Morash, Andrea J; Semmens, Jayson M; Currie, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    Shark nurseries are susceptible to environmental fluctuations in salinity because of their shallow, coastal nature; however, the physiological impacts on resident elasmobranchs are largely unknown. Gummy sharks (Mustelus antarcticus) and school sharks (Galeorhinus galeus) use the same Tasmanian estuary as a nursery ground; however, each species has distinct distribution patterns that are coincident with changes in local environmental conditions, such as increases in salinity. We hypothesized that these differences were directly related to differential physiological tolerances to high salinity. To test this hypothesis, we exposed wild, juvenile school and gummy sharks to an environmentally relevant hypersaline (120% SW) event for 48 h. Metabolic rate decreased 20-35% in both species, and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was maintained in gummy sharks but decreased 37% in school sharks. We measured plasma ions (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-)) and osmolytes [urea and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO)], and observed a 33% increase in plasma Na(+) in gummy sharks with hyperosmotic exposure, while school sharks displayed a typical ureosmotic increase in plasma urea (∼20%). With elevated salinity, gill TMAO concentration increased by 42% in school sharks and by 30% in gummy sharks. Indicators of cellular stress (heat shock proteins HSP70, 90 and 110, and ubiquitin) significantly increased in gill and white muscle in both a species- and a tissue-specific manner. Overall, gummy sharks exhibited greater osmotic perturbation and ionic dysregulation and a larger cellular stress response compared with school sharks. Our findings provide physiological correlates to the observed distribution and movement of these shark species in their critical nursery grounds.

  17. Correlation of horizontal and vertical components of strong ground motion for response-history analysis of safety-related nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yin-Nan, E-mail: ynhuang@ntu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yen, Wen-Yi, E-mail: b01501059@ntu.edu.tw [Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Whittaker, Andrew S., E-mail: awhittak@buffalo.edu [Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, MCEER, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The correlation of components of ground motion is studied using 1689 sets of records. • The data support an upper bound of 0.3 on the correlation coefficient. • The data support the related requirement in the upcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4. - Abstract: Design standards for safety-related nuclear facilities such as ASCE Standard 4-98 and ASCE Standard 43-05 require the correlation coefficient for two orthogonal components of ground motions for response-history analysis to be less than 0.3. The technical basis of this requirement was developed by Hadjian three decades ago using 50 pairs of recorded ground motions that were available at that time. In this study, correlation coefficients for (1) two horizontal components, and (2) the vertical component and one horizontal component, of a set of ground motions are computed using records from a ground-motion database compiled recently for large-magnitude shallow crustal earthquakes. The impact of the orientation of the orthogonal horizontal components on the correlation coefficient of ground motions is discussed. The rules in the forthcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4 for the correlation of components in a set of ground motions are shown to be reasonable.

  18. New results on ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (southern Poland) obtained during the DORIS Project (EU-FP 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graniczny, Marek; Colombo, Davide; Kowalski, Zbigniew; Przyłucka, Maria; Zdanowski, Albin

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents application of satellite interferometric methods (persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR™) and differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR)) for observation of ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Southern Poland. The presented results were obtained during the DORIS project (EC FP 7, Grant Agreement n. 242212, www.doris-project.eu). Several InSAR datasets for this area were analysed. Most of them were processed by Tele-Rilevamento Europa - T.R.E. s.r.l. Italy. Datasets came from different SAR satellites (ERS 1 and 2, Envisat, ALOS- PALSAR and TerraSAR-X) and cover three different SAR bands (L, C and X). They were processed using both InSAR techniques: DInSAR, where deformations are presented as interferometric fringes on the raster image, and PSInSAR, where motion is indentified on irregular set of persistent scatterer (PS) points. Archival data from the C-band European Space Agency satellites ERS and ENVISAT provided information about ground movement since 1992 until 2010 in two separate datasets (1992-2000 and 2003-2010). Two coal mines were selected as examples of ground motion within inactive mining areas: Sosnowiec and Saturn, where mining ceased in 1995 and 1997, respectively. Despite well pumping after closure of the mines, groundwater rose several dozen meters, returning to its natural horizon. Small surface uplift clearly indicated on satellite interferometric data is related to high permeability of the hydrogeological subregion and insufficient water withdrawal from abandoned mines. The older 1992-2000 PSInSAR dataset indicates values of ground motion ranging from -40.0 to 0.0 mm. The newer 2003-2010 dataset shows values ranging from -2.0 to +7.0 mm. This means that during this period of time subsidence was less and uplift greater in comparison to the older dataset. This is even more evident in the time series of randomly selected PS points from both coal

  19. Inclusive innovation: a research project on the inclusion of social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Fisscher, O.A.M.; de Bakker, F.G.A.

    2001-01-01

    The research project 'Inclusive Innovation' aims at stimulating dialogue about inclusion of social responsibility based on universal human rights in the conduct of business. This dialogue concerns both the communication within the organisation and between the organisation and interested parties in

  20. Response to "The Shaky Legal Foundations of the Global Human Rights Education Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, Felisa

    2015-01-01

    This article is a response to "The Shaky Legal Foundations of the Global Human Rights Education Project," an article written by Barend Vlaardingerbroek, in which Vlaardingerbroek characterizes current practices of human rights education (HRE) as having an overriding agenda of activism, one that can draw on an ideologically-driven…

  1. The paradigm of consumer-driven and responsive supply chains: An integrated project approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, K.L.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated project approach that forms the basis of the studies on consumer-driven innovative and responsive supply chains in ISAFRUIT Pillar 1. This integrated approach leads to a wide range of indepth results on trends, preferences, and innovativeness of the European consum

  2. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Focused Feasibility Study, Final Project Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Paleozoic in age and consist chiefly of schist, gneiss, gabbro , 0 This information has been derived from the RFA, 1996. Jacobs Enn wtn Wo .• FINAL PROJECT...system which has supplied potable water to the area is the Van Bibber system. During World War II (WW II) a system was also used which supplied water...Imregriating plants were operated at Beach Point during and alteir World War I!; these plants were used to treat clothing with a waxy material that provides

  3. Evaluation of fault-normal/fault-parallel directions rotated ground motions for response history analysis of an instrumented six-story building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2012-01-01

    According to regulatory building codes in United States (for example, 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground-motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of buildings. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHA analyses should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak responses of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were obtained for rotation angles ranging from 0° through 180° for evaluating the FN/FP directions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

  4. Analysis and design for inelastic structural response of extended pile shaft foundations in laterally spreading ground during earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravifar, Arash

    Experiences from past earthquakes have shown that lateral spreading associated with liquefaction of cohesionless soils can be a cause of severe damage to bridge foundations. Large diameter extended pile shafts can be an effective bridge foundation choice for areas subjected to lateral spreading because they offer greater stiffness and strength relative to the magnitude of lateral spreading loads that can develop against them. A limited degree of plastic hinging below the ground surface may be allowable in design of extended pile shafts. Issues for design for extended pile shafts include: (a) how to estimate the demands due to superstructure inertia and lateral spreading in liquefied soils, and (b) how to combine these two loads in estimating the local and global inelastic demands on the structure. Studies of the response of pile foundations and pile-supported structures in liquefiable soils using physical models, numerical models, and case studies have provided the basis for a number of design recommendations. The guidance is, however, quite varied regarding how lateral spreading and superstructure inertial loads should be combined in design. To answer the above questions a series of Nonlinear Dynamic Finite Element Analyses (NDA) have been performed to investigate inelastic response of extended pile shafts subjected to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading, covering a range of soil, pile, and ground motion conditions. The results of NDA were first used to show that combined effects of lateral spreading and superstructure inertia produce larger demands than are produced by either loading case alone, such that the combined demand cannot be enveloped by analyzing the two load cases separately. The results were then used to evaluate current equivalent static analysis (ESA) method (Caltrans, 2008), with the relatively poor agreement illustrating the limitations of methods that do not combine the two loads. The results of NDA parametric study were then used to develop

  5. Oxide_Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Exhaust Mixer Development in the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, J. Douglas; Bansal, Narottam P.; Szelagowski, James; Sokhey, Jagdish; Heffernan, Tab; Clegg, Joseph; Pierluissi, Anthony; Riedell, Jim; Wyen, Travis; Atmur, Steven; hide

    2015-01-01

    LibertyWorks®, a subsidiary of Rolls-Royce Corporation, first studied CMC (ceramic matrix composite) exhaust mixers for potential weight benefits in 2008. Oxide CMC potentially offered weight reduction, higher temperature capability, and the ability to fabricate complex-shapes for increased mixing and noise suppression. In 2010, NASA was pursuing the reduction of NOx emissions, fuel burn, and noise from turbine engines in Phase I of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project (within the Integrated Systems Research Program). ERA subtasks, including those focused on CMC components, were being formulated with the goal of maturing technology from Proof of Concept Validation (Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3)) to System/Subsystem or Prototype Demonstration in a Relevant Environment (TRL 6). LibertyWorks®, a subsidiary of Rolls-Royce Corporation, first studied CMC (ceramic matrix composite) exhaust mixers for potential weight benefits in 2008. Oxide CMC potentially offered weight reduction, higher temperature capability, and the ability to fabricate complex-shapes for increased mixing and noise suppression. In 2010, NASA was pursuing the reduction of NOx emissions, fuel burn, and noise from turbine engines in Phase I of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project (within the Integrated Systems Research Program). ERA subtasks, including those focused on CMC components, were being formulated with the goal of maturing technology from Proof of Concept Validation (Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3)) to System/Subsystem or Prototype Demonstration in a Relevant Environment (TRL 6). Oxide CMC component at both room and elevated temperatures. A TRL˜5 (Component Validation in a Relevant Environment) was attained and the CMC mixer was cleared for ground testing on a Rolls-Royce AE3007 engine for performance evaluation to achieve TRL 6.

  6. Responsible innovation in port development: the Rotterdam Maasvlakte 2 and the Dalian Dayao Bay extension projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravesteijn, Wim; Liu, Yi; Yan, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The paper outlines and specifies 'responsible port innovation', introducing the development of a methodological and procedural step-by-step plan for the implementation and evaluation of (responsible) innovations. Subsequently, it uses this as a guideline for the analysis and evaluation of two case-studies. The construction of the Rotterdam Maasvlakte 2 Port meets most of the formulated requirements, though making values more explicit and treating it as a process right from the start could have benefitted the project. The Dalian Dayao Port could improve its decision-making procedures in several respects, including the introduction of new methods to handle value tensions. Both projects show that public support is crucial in responsible port innovation and that it should be not only a multi-faceted but also a multi-level strategy.

  7. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities.

  8. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  9. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    Volume II of the programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) is a comment and response document; it is the collection of the comments received on the draft PElS. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) response to each comment is provided after each comment. If the comment resulted in a change to the PElS, the affected section number of the PElS is provided in the response. Comments 1 through 259 were received at public hearings. The name of the hearing at which the comment was received is listed after each comment. Comments were recorded on flip charts and by notetakers. DOE representatives were present to hear the comments and respond to them. The DOE's written response is provided after each comment. Comments 260 through 576 were received in writing at the hearings, and from various federal, tribal, and state agencies and from individuals during the public comment period. Copies of the written comments follow the comments and responses.

  10. The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Kilgo, John, C.; Moorman, Christopher, E.

    2005-04-01

    We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest. Species richness was higher at the center of young gaps than in old gaps or in the forest, but there was no statistical difference in species richness between old gaps and the forests surrounding them. Carabid abundance followed the same trend, but only with the exclusion of Semiardistomis viridis (Say), a very abundant species that differed in its response to gap age compared to most other species. The carabid assemblage at the gap edge was very similar to that of the forest, and there appeared to be no distinct edge community. Species known to occur in open or disturbed habitats were more abundant at the center of young gaps than at any other location. Generalist species were relatively unaffected by the disturbance, but one species (Dicaelus dilatatus Say) was significantly less abundant at the centers of young gaps. Forest inhabiting species were less abundant at the centers of old gaps than in the forest, but not in the centers of young gaps. Comparison of community similarity at various trapping locations showed that communities at the centers of old and young gaps had the lowest similarity (46.5%). The community similarity between young gap centers and nearby forest (49.1%) and old gap centers and nearby forest (50.0%) was similarly low. These results show that while the abundance and richness of carabids in old gaps was similar to that of the surrounding forest, the species composition between the two sites differed greatly.

  11. DNA Master File of Ground-Shock, Air-Blast, and Structure-Response Data. Volume 1. Archive Description and User’s Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    Representative (COR) during the early part of the program. Lt Col. D. Burgess was the COR for the remainder of the work. The initial effort was...were conducted near Pueblo, Colorado, to investigate ground response in clay-over- shale geologies. Event I was a 20-ton half-buried shot to be

  12. Yield Responses of Black Spruce to Forest Vegetation Management Treatments: Initial Responses and Rotational Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Newton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (1 quantitatively summarize the early yield responses of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. to forest vegetation management (FVM treatments through a meta-analytical review of the scientific literature, and (2 given (1, estimate the rotational consequences of these responses through model simulation. Based on a fixed-effects meta-analytic approach using 44 treated-control yield pairs derived from 12 experiments situated throughout the Great Lakes—St. Lawrence and Canadian Boreal Forest Regions, the resultant mean effect size (response ratio and associated 95% confidence interval for basal diameter, total height, stem volume, and survival responses, were respectively: 54.7% (95% confidence limits (lower/upper: 34.8/77.6, 27.3% (15.7/40.0, 198.7% (70.3/423.5, and 2.9% (−5.5/11.8. The results also indicated that early and repeated treatments will yield the largest gains in terms of mean tree size and survival. Rotational simulations indicated that FVM treatments resulted in gains in stand-level operability (e.g., reductions of 9 and 5 yr for plantations established on poor-medium and good-excellent site qualities, resp.. The challenge of maintaining coniferous forest cover on recently disturbed sites, attaining statutory-defined free-to-grow status, and ensuring long-term productivity, suggest that FVM will continue to be an essential silvicultural treatment option when managing black spruce plantations.

  13. Forecasts of the atmospherical parameters close to the ground at the LBT site in the context of the ALTA project

    CERN Document Server

    Turchi, Alessio; Fini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the abilities of an atmospherical mesoscale model in forecasting the classical atmospherical parameters relevant for astronomical applications at the surface layer (wind speed, wind direction, temperature, relative humidity) on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) site - Mount Graham, Arizona. The study is carried out in the framework of the ALTA project aiming at implementing an automated system for the forecasts of atmospherical parameters (Meso-Nh code) and the optical turbulence (Astro-Meso-Nh code) for the service-mode operation of the LBT. The final goal of such an operational tool is to provide predictions with high time frequency of atmospheric and optical parameters for an optimized planning of the telescope operation (dome thermalization, wind-dependent dome orientation, observation planning based on predicted seeing, adaptive optics optimization, etc...). Numerical simulations are carried out with the Meso-Nh and Astro-Meso-Nh codes, which were proven to give excellent results...

  14. Experimental study of lightning protection effects to a overhead ground wire by a lightning rod and projection rods; Yuraishin oyobi dosshi wo mochiita kakuchisen no raigai boshi ni kansuru jikkenteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuragi, Y. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan); Aihara, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    The overhead ground wire is generally used on transmission lines as one of the lightning protection devices for the power conductors. In recent years, the ground wire with an optical fiber cable in it (OPGW) has been employed on the transmission systems. The strands of the ground wire are, however, frequently melted down because of lightning strokes to them not only in summer but also in winter. For this reason, it is necessary to devise the new lightning protection method for the ground wire. As the protection method, lightning rods installed on the transmission tower arms and projection rods wound around a ground wire are proposed by authors. Lightning protection effects of these methods are shown by model experiments which simulate summer and winter lightning strokes. It has been made clear that these methods are useful as one of the lightning protection methods for transmission lines, and application conditions of them for practical use are also shown. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The effects of grounding (earthing on inflammation, the immune response, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oschman JL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available James L Oschman,1 Gaétan Chevalier,2 Richard Brown3 1Nature’s Own Research Association, Dover, NH, USA; 2Developmental and Cell Biology Department, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Human Physiology Department, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA Abstract: Multi-disciplinary research has revealed that electrically conductive contact of the human body with the surface of the Earth (grounding or earthing produces intriguing effects on physiology and health. Such effects relate to inflammation, immune responses, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this report is two-fold: to 1 inform researchers about what appears to be a new perspective to the study of inflammation, and 2 alert researchers that the length of time and degree (resistance to ground of grounding of experimental animals is an important but usually overlooked factor that can influence outcomes of studies of inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Specifically, grounding an organism produces measurable differences in the concentrations of white blood cells, cytokines, and other molecules involved in the inflammatory response. We present several hypotheses to explain observed effects, based on current research results and our understanding of the electronic aspects of cell and tissue physiology, cell biology, biophysics, and biochemistry. An experimental injury to muscles, known as delayed onset muscle soreness, has been used to monitor the immune response under grounded versus ungrounded conditions. Grounding reduces pain and alters the numbers of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes, and also affects various circulating chemical factors related to inflammation. Keywords: chronic inflammation, immune system, wound repair, white blood cells, macrophages, autoimmune disorders

  16. The uncertainty of crop yield projections is reduced by improved temperature response functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Enli; Martre, Pierre; Zhao, Zhigan

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the accuracy of crop productivity estimates is a key element in planning adaptation strategies to ensure global food security under climate change. Process-based crop models are effective means to project climate impact on crop yield, but have large uncertainty in yield simulations. Here...... response functions that when substituted in four wheat models reduced the error in grain yield simulations across seven global sites with different temperature regimes by 19% to 50% (42% average). We anticipate the improved temperature responses to be a key step to improve modelling of crops under rising...... temperature and climate change, leading to higher skill of crop yield projections. Process-based modelling of crop growth is an effective way of representing how crop genotype, environment and management interactions affect crop production to aid tactical and strategic decision making1. Process-based crop...

  17. Promises, Premises and Risks: Sharing Responsibilities, Working Up Trust and Sustaining Commitment in Participatory Design Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büscher, Monika; Hartswood, Mark; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    2002-01-01

    While participatory design crosses the boundaries between technology production and use, it does not erase them. In accounts of participatory projects, the work of negotiating and changing these boundaries often recedes into the background, yet it is crucial in shaping the very nature and scope...... and responsibilities. We compare and discuss the different strategies, methods we have devised to achieve this within the local politics of each setting....

  18. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) responses for sub-surface salt contamination and solid waste: modeling and controlled lysimeter studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewardana, Y N S; Shilpadi, A T; Mowjood, M I M; Kawamoto, K; Galagedara, L W

    2017-02-01

    The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2). A Pulse EKKO-Pro GPR system with 200- and 500-MHz center frequency antennae was used to collect GPR field data. Amplitudes of GPR-reflected waves (sub-surface reflectors and water table) were studied under different EC levels injected to the water table. Modeling results revealed that the signal strength of the reflected wave decreases with increasing EC levels and the disappearance of the subsurface reflection and wave amplitude reaching zero at higher EC levels (when EC >0.28 S/m). Further, when the EC level was high, the plume thickness did not have a significant effect on the amplitude of the reflected wave. However, it was also found that reflected signal strength decreases with increasing plume thickness at a given EC level. 2D GPR profile images under wet conditions showed stratification of the waste layers and relative thickness, but it was difficult to resolve the waste layers under dry conditions. These results show that the GPR as a non-destructive method with a relatively larger sample volume can be used to identify highly polluted areas with inorganic contaminants in groundwater and waste stratification. The current methods of MSW dumpsite investigation are tedious, destructive, time consuming, costly, and provide only point-scale measurements. However, further research is needed to verify the results under heterogeneous aquifer

  19. Vibratory response of a mirror support/positioning system for the Advanced Photon Source project at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basdogan, I.; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Royston, T.J.; Shabana, A.A. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The vibratory response of a typical mirror support/positioning system used at the experimental station of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) project at Argonne National Laboratory is investigated. Positioning precision and stability are especially critical when the supported mirror directs a high-intensity beam aimed at a distant target. Stability may be compromised by low level, low frequency seismic and facility-originated vibrations traveling through the ground and/or vibrations caused by flow-structure interactions in the mirror cooling system. The example case system has five positioning degrees of freedom through the use of precision actuators and rotary and linear bearings. These linkage devices result in complex, multi-dimensional vibratory behavior that is a function of the range of positioning configurations. A rigorous multibody dynamical approach is used for the development of the system equations. Initial results of the study, including estimates of natural frequencies and mode shapes, as well as limited parametric design studies, are presented. While the results reported here are for a particular system, the developed vibratory analysis approach is applicable to the wide range of high-precision optical positioning systems encountered at the APS and at other comparable facilities.

  20. Should ground-motion records be rotated to fault-normal/parallel or maximum direction for response history analysis of buildings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Juan C.; Kalkan, Erol

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, regulatory seismic codes (for example, California Building Code) require at least two sets of horizontal ground-motion components for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of building structures. For sites within 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal and fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHAs should be performed separately—when FN and then FP direction are aligned with transverse direction of the building axes. This approach is assumed to lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. The validity of this assumption is examined here using 3D computer models of single-story structures having symmetric (torsionally stiff) and asymmetric (torsionally flexible) layouts subjected to an ensemble of near-fault ground motions with and without apparent velocity pulses. In this parametric study, the elastic vibration period is varied from 0.2 to 5 seconds, and yield-strength reduction factors, R, are varied from a value that leads to linear-elastic design to 3 and 5. Further validations are performed using 3D computer models of 9-story structures having symmetric and asymmetric layouts subjected to the same ground-motion set. The influence of the ground-motion rotation angle on several engineering demand parameters (EDPs) is examined in both linear-elastic and nonlinear-inelastic domains to form benchmarks for evaluating the use of the FN/FP directions and also the maximum direction (MD). The MD ground motion is a new definition for horizontal ground motions for use in site-specific ground-motion procedures for seismic design according to provisions of the American Society of Civil Engineers/Seismic Engineering Institute (ASCE/SEI) 7-10. The results of this study have important implications for current practice, suggesting that ground motions rotated to MD or FN/FP directions do not necessarily provide

  1. Preliminary results of the PreViBOSS project: description of the fog life cycle by ground-based and satellite observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Thierry; Jolivet, Dominique; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Burnet, Frédéric

    2012-11-01

    The instrument set-up designed by the PreViBOSS project for the ParisFog field campaign is suitable to sound microphysical properties of droplets and interstitial aerosols during developed fog in a semi-urban environment. Developed fog is defined as LWC computed by Mie theory applied on size distribution observed during developed fog in ambient conditions by both PALAS WELAS and DMT FM100. Comparison with particle extinction coefficient directly measured by the Degreanne DF20 visibilimeter demonstrates satisfying agreement, within combined uncertainties. Ratio of computed over measured particle extinction coefficient is 1.15+/-0.35. Visibility smaller than 1000 m at 3 m above ground level is observed not only during developed fog but also during shallow fog, which presents a significant vertical gradient, as ΔT > 0.4 K/m. In this case, LWC is highly variable and may be observed below 7 mg m-3. The consequent month average of LWC is 30+/-80 mg m-3. The optical counters miss large droplets significantly contributing to extinction in shallow fogs. Consequently, it is not possible to reproduce with satisfaction the particle extinction coefficient in shallow fog. Fog type may be distinguished by association of groundbased visibilimeter and MSG/SEVIRI. When clear-sky is given by EUMETSAT/NWCSAF cloud type product while visibility is observed smaller than 1000 m at SIRTA, in 75% cases a shallow fog occurs, and in other cases, horizontal heterogeneity characterises the developed fog within the SIRTA pixel, as during the dissipation phase. Moreover, consistently, low and very low clouds are mostly detected by the satellite product when developed fog is observed by ground-based instrumentation.

  2. V S30, slope, H 800 and f 0: performance of various site-condition proxies in reducing ground-motion aleatory variability and predicting nonlinear site response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derras, Boumédiène; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Cotton, Fabrice

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the ability of various site-condition proxies (SCPs) to reduce ground-motion aleatory variability and evaluate how SCPs capture nonlinearity site effects. The SCPs used here are time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the top 30 m ( V S30), the topographical slope (slope), the fundamental resonance frequency ( f 0) and the depth beyond which V s exceeds 800 m/s ( H 800). We considered first the performance of each SCP taken alone and then the combined performance of the 6 SCP pairs [ V S30- f 0], [ V S30- H 800], [ f 0-slope], [ H 800-slope], [ V S30-slope] and [ f 0- H 800]. This analysis is performed using a neural network approach including a random effect applied on a KiK-net subset for derivation of ground-motion prediction equations setting the relationship between various ground-motion parameters such as peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and pseudo-spectral acceleration PSA ( T), and M w, R JB, focal depth and SCPs. While the choice of SCP is found to have almost no impact on the median ground-motion prediction, it does impact the level of aleatory uncertainty. V S30 is found to perform the best of single proxies at short periods ( T < 0.6 s), while f 0 and H 800 perform better at longer periods; considering SCP pairs leads to significant improvements, with particular emphasis on [ V S30- H 800] and [ f 0-slope] pairs. The results also indicate significant nonlinearity on the site terms for soft sites and that the most relevant loading parameter for characterising nonlinear site response is the "stiff" spectral ordinate at the considered period.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Response of deciduous trees spring phenology to recent and projected climate change in Central Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknys, Romualdas; Kanapickas, Arvydas; Šveikauskaitė, Irma; Sujetovienė, Gintarė

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of long-term time series of spring phenology for different deciduous trees species has shown that leaf unfolding for all the investigated species is the most sensitive to temperatures in March and April and illustrates that forcing temperature is the main driver of the advancement of leaf unfolding. Available chilling amount has increased by 22.5 % over the last 90 years, indicating that in the investigated geographical region there is no threat of chilling shortage. The projection of climatic parameters for Central Lithuania on the basis of three global circulation models has shown that under the optimistic climate change scenario (RCP 2.6) the mean temperature tends to increase by 1.28 °C and under the pessimistic scenario (RCP 8.5) by 5.03 °C until the end of the current century. Recently, different statistical models are used not only to analyze but also to project the changes in spring phenology. Our study has shown that when the data of long-term phenological observations are available, multiple regression models are suitable for the projection of the advancement of leaf unfolding under the changing climate. According to the RCP 8.5 scenario, the projected advancement in leaf unfolding for early-season species birch consists of almost 15 days as an average of all three used GSMs. Markedly less response to the projected far future (2071-2100), climate change is foreseen for other investigated climax species: -9 days for lime, 10 days for oak, and 11 days for maple.

  4. Radiative forcing and climate response to projected 21st century aerosol decreases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Westervelt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is widely expected that global emissions of atmospheric aerosols and their precursors will decrease strongly throughout the remainder of the 21st century, due to emission reduction policies enacted to protect human health. For instance, global emissions of aerosols and their precursors are projected to decrease by as much as 80% by the year 2100, according to the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP scenarios. The removal of aerosols will cause unintended climate consequences, including an unmasking of global warming from long-lived greenhouse gases. We use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 3 (GFDL CM3 to simulate future climate over the 21st century with and without the aerosol emission changes projected by each of the RCPs in order to isolate the radiative forcing and climate response resulting from the aerosol reductions. We find that the projected global radiative forcing and climate response due to aerosol decreases do not vary significantly across the four RCPs by 2100, although there is some mid-century variation, especially in cloud droplet effective radius, that closely follows the RCP emissions and energy consumption projections. Up to 1 W m−2 of radiative forcing may be unmasked globally from 2005 to 2100 due to reductions in aerosol and precursor emissions, leading to average global temperature increases up to 1 K and global precipitation rate increases up to 0.09 mm d−1. Regionally and locally, climate impacts can be much larger, with a 2.1 K warming projected over China, Japan, and Korea due to the reduced aerosol emissions in RCP8.5, as well as nearly a 0.2 mm d−1 precipitation increase, a 7 g m−2 LWP decrease, and a 2 μm increase in cloud droplet effective radius. Future aerosol decreases could be responsible for 30–40% of total climate warming by 2100 in East Asia, even under the high greenhouse gas emissions scenario (RCP8.5. The expected unmasking of global warming caused

  5. Mass Diffusion and Thermal Diffusivity of the Decane-pentane Mixture Under High Pressure as a Ground-based Study for SCCO Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Ion; Giraudet, Cédric; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Bou-Ali, M. Mounir; Bataller, Henri

    2016-10-01

    Thermodiffusion experiments on isomassic binary mixture of decane and pentane in the liquid phase have been performed between 25 ∘C and 50 ∘C and for pressures from 1MPa until 20MPa. By dynamic analysis of the light scattered by concentration non-equilibrium fluctuations in the binary mixture we obtained the mass diffusion coefficients of the mixture at each temperature and pressure. For the first time we were able to apply similar analysis to thermal fluctuations thus getting a simultaneous measurement of the thermal diffusivity coefficient. While mass diffusion coefficients decrease linearly with the pressure, thermal diffusivity coefficients increase linearly. In principle the proposed method can be used also for measuring the Soret coefficients at the same time. However, for the present mixture the intensity of the optical signal is limited by the optical contrast factor. This affects our capability of providing a reliable estimate of the Soret coefficient by means of dynamic Shadowgraph. Therefore the mass diffusion coefficients measurements would need to be combined with independent measurements of the thermodiffusion coefficients, e.g. thermogravitational column, to provide Soret coefficients. The obtained values constitute the on-ground reference measurements for one of the mixture studied in the frame of the project SCCO-SJ10, which aims to measure the Soret coefficients of multicomponents mixtures under reservoir conditions. Microgravity experiments will be performed on the Chinese satellite SJ10 launched in April 2016.

  6. Leptin Responsive and GABAergic Projections to the Rostral Preoptic Area in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuure, W A; Quennell, J H; Anderson, G M

    2016-03-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin plays a critical role in the control of reproduction via signalling in hypothalamic neurones. The drivers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones, do not have the receptors for leptin. Therefore, intermediate leptin responsive neurones must provide leptin-to-GnRH signalling. We investigated the populations of leptin responsive neurones that provide input to the rostral preoptic area (rPOA) where GnRH cell bodies reside. Fluorescent retrograde tracer beads (RetroBeads; Lumafluor Inc., Naples, FL, USA) were injected into the rPOA of transgenic leptin receptor enhanced green fluorescent protein (Lepr-eGFP) reporter mice. Uptake of the RetroBeads by Lepr-eGFP neurones was assessed throughout the hypothalamus. RetroBead uptake was most evident in the medial arcuate nucleus (ARC), the dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) and the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) of the hypothalamus. The uptake of RetroBeads specifically by Lepr-eGFP neurones was highest in the medial ARC (18% of tracer-labelled neurones Lepr-eGFP-positive). Because neurones that are both leptin responsive and GABAergic play a critical role in the regulation of fertility by leptin, we next focussed on the location of these populations. To address whether GABAergic neurones in leptin-responsive hypothalamic regions project to the rPOA, the experiment was repeated in GABA neurone reporter mice (Vgat-tdTomato). Between 10% and 45% of RetroBead-labelled neurones in the ARC were GABAergic, whereas uptake of tracer by GABAergic neurones in the DMN and PMV was very low (leptin responsive and GABAergic neurones from the ARC project to the region of the GnRH cell bodies. Our findings suggest that LEPR-expressing GABA neurones from the ARC may be mediators of leptin-to-GnRH signalling.

  7. Valence excitation energies of alkenes, carbonyl compounds, and azabenzenes by time-dependent density functional theory: Linear response of the ground state compared to collinear and noncollinear spin-flip TDDFT with the Tamm-Dancoff approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isegawa, Miho; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2013-04-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) holds great promise for studying photochemistry because of its affordable cost for large systems and for repeated calculations as required for direct dynamics. The chief obstacle is uncertain accuracy. There have been many validation studies, but there are also many formulations, and there have been few studies where several formulations were applied systematically to the same problems. Another issue, when TDDFT is applied with only a single exchange-correlation functional, is that errors in the functional may mask successes or failures of the formulation. Here, to try to sort out some of the issues, we apply eight formulations of adiabatic TDDFT to the first valence excitations of ten molecules with 18 density functionals of diverse types. The formulations examined are linear response from the ground state (LR-TDDFT), linear response from the ground state with the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDDFT-TDA), the original collinear spin-flip approximation with the Tamm-Dancoff (TD) approximation (SF1-TDDFT-TDA), the original noncollinear spin-flip approximation with the TDA approximation (SF1-NC-TDDFT-TDA), combined self-consistent-field (SCF) and collinear spin-flip calculations in the original spin-projected form (SF2-TDDFT-TDA) or non-spin-projected (NSF2-TDDFT-TDA), and combined SCF and noncollinear spin-flip calculations (SF2-NC-TDDFT-TDA and NSF2-NC-TDDFT-TDA). Comparing LR-TDDFT to TDDFT-TDA, we observed that the excitation energy is raised by the TDA; this brings the excitation energies underestimated by full linear response closer to experiment, but sometimes it makes the results worse. For ethylene and butadiene, the excitation energies are underestimated by LR-TDDFT, and the error becomes smaller making the TDA. Neither SF1-TDDFT-TDA nor SF2-TDDFT-TDA provides a lower mean unsigned error than LR-TDDFT or TDDFT-TDA. The comparison between collinear and noncollinear kernels shows that the noncollinear kernel

  8. A Canonical Response in Rainfall Characteristics to Global Warming: Projections by IPCC CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.; Kim, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in rainfall characteristics induced by global warming are examined based on probability distribution function (PDF) analysis, from outputs of 14 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), CMIP (5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) models under various scenarios of increased CO2 emissions. Results show that collectively CMIP5 models project a robust and consistent global and regional rainfall response to CO2 warming. Globally, the models show a 1-3% increase in rainfall per degree rise in temperature, with a canonical response featuring large increase (100-250 %) in frequency of occurrence of very heavy rain, a reduction (5-10%) of moderate rain, and an increase (10-15%) of light rain events. Regionally, even though details vary among models, a majority of the models (>10 out of 14) project a consistent large scale response with more heavy rain events in climatologically wet regions, most pronounced in the Pacific ITCZ and the Asian monsoon. Moderate rain events are found to decrease over extensive regions of the subtropical and extratropical oceans, but increases over the extratropical land regions, and the Southern Oceans. The spatial distribution of light rain resembles that of moderate rain, but mostly with opposite polarity. The majority of the models also show increase in the number of dry events (absence or only trace amount of rain) over subtropical and tropical land regions in both hemispheres. These results suggest that rainfall characteristics are changing and that increased extreme rainfall events and droughts occurrences are connected, as a consequent of a global adjustment of the large scale circulation to global warming.

  9. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  10. Below-ground process responses to elevated CO2 and temperature: a discussion of observations, measurement methods, and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elise Pendall; Scott Bridgham; Paul J. Hanson; Bruce Hungate; David W. Kicklighter; Dale W. Johnson; Beverly E. Law; Yiqi Luo; J. Patrick Megonigal; Maria Olsrud; Michael G. Ryan; Shiqiang Wan

    2004-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 and temperatures are probably altering ecosystem carbon cycling, causing both positive and negative feedbacks to climate. Below-ground processes play a key role in the global carbon (C) cycle because they regulate storage of large quantities of C, and are potentially very sensitive to direct and indirect effects of elevated...

  11. Above- and below-ground competition in high and low irradiance: tree seedling responses to a competing liana Byttneria grandifolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.Y.; Bongers, F.; Cao, K.F.; Cai, Z.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: In tropical forests, trees compete not only with other trees, but also with lianas, which may limit tree growth and regeneration. Liana effects may depend on the availability of above- and below-ground resources and differ between tree species. We conducted a shade house experiment to test

  12. Translational Response of Toe-Restrained Retaining Walls to Earthquake Ground Motions Using CorpsWallSlip (CWSlip)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    For some analyses, it is appropriate to use acceleration values of khg and kvg smaller than the horizontal and vertical peak accelerations...ground acceleration time-histories, ah (= khg ) and av (= kvg), respectively. Recall that g is the universal gravitational constant while kh and kv

  13. Parochial Dissonance: A Grounded Theory of Wisconsin's New North Response to the Employability Skills Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneck, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a theory that explained the beliefs and behaviors of participants from business, not-for-profit business, education, and government sectors when resolving the employability skills gap. Classical grounded theory was the inductive methodology applied to this study. The New North, an 18 county region located…

  14. One more thing: Faculty response to increased emphasis on project teams in undergraduate engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jane

    Tenured and tenure-track faculty members at institutions of higher education, especially those at Research I institutions, are being asked to do more than ever before. With rapidly changing technology, significant decreases in public funding, the shift toward privately funded research, and the ever increasing expectations of students for an education that adequately prepares them for professional careers, engineering faculty are particularly challenged by the escalating demands on their time. In 1996, the primary accreditation organization for engineering programs (ABET) adopted new criteria that required, among other things, engineering programs to teach students to function on multidisciplinary teams and to communicate effectively. In response, most engineering programs utilize project teams as a strategy for teaching these skills. The purpose of this qualitative study of tenured and tenure track engineering faculty at a Research I institution in the southwestern United States was to explore the variety of ways in which the engineering faculty responded to the demands placed upon them as a result of the increased emphasis on project teams in undergraduate engineering education. Social role theory and organizational climate theory guided the study. Some faculty viewed project teams as an opportunity for students to learn important professional skills and to benefit from collaborative learning but many questioned the importance and feasibility of teaching teamwork skills and had concerns about taking time away from other essential fundamental material such as mathematics, basic sciences and engineering sciences. Although the administration of the College of Engineering articulated strong support for the use of project teams in undergraduate education, the prevailing climate did little to promote significant efforts related to effective utilization of project teams. Too often, faculty were unwilling to commit sufficient time or effort to make project teamwork a

  15. An Ultralow Power Fast-Response Nano-TCD CH4 sensor for UAV Airborne Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this project, KWJ proposes to develop a low power, fast response, lightweight miniature CH4 measurement system based on KWJ nano-TCD sensor for airborne...

  16. 41 CFR 102-80.55 - Are Federal agencies responsible for managing the execution of risk reduction projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are Federal agencies responsible for managing the execution of risk reduction projects? 102-80.55 Section 102-80.55 Public... execution of risk reduction projects? Yes, Federal agencies must manage the execution of risk reduction...

  17. Geographic information system documentation of watershed data for Direct/Delayed Response Project. Northeast data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortenson, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    The Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) was designed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program to predict the long-term response of watersheds and surface waters to acidic deposition. The purpose of the DDRP is to investigate and distinguish the time scales over which surface water systems might change chemically under varying levels of acidic deposition. The DDRP is examining a subset of watersheds sampled as part of the National Surface Water Survey. In the Northeast Region of the United States, 145 watersheds are under study. The DDRP required detailed watershed information on those characteristics thought important relative to the effects of acid deposition. The information was then mapped, then entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS). The document discusses protocols, guidelines, and standards used to complete GIS entry of the mapping data, and quality control procedures used to ensure accuracy and consistency.

  18. Miniature Ground Mapping LADAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — System & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes a miniature solid state surface imaging LADAR, for imaging the landing areas providing precision...

  19. Practical methods for dealing with 'not applicable' item responses in the AMC Linear Disability Score project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwinderman Aeilko H

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whenever questionnaires are used to collect data on constructs, such as functional status or health related quality of life, it is unlikely that all respondents will respond to all items. This paper examines ways of dealing with responses in a 'not applicable' category to items included in the AMC Linear Disability Score (ALDS project item bank. Methods The data examined in this paper come from the responses of 392 respondents to 32 items and form part of the calibration sample for the ALDS item bank. The data are analysed using the one-parameter logistic item response theory model. The four practical strategies for dealing with this type of response are: cold deck imputation; hot deck imputation; treating the missing responses as if these items had never been offered to those individual patients; and using a model which takes account of the 'tendency to respond to items'. Results The item and respondent population parameter estimates were very similar for the strategies involving hot deck imputation; treating the missing responses as if these items had never been offered to those individual patients; and using a model which takes account of the 'tendency to respond to items'. The estimates obtained using the cold deck imputation method were substantially different. Conclusions The cold deck imputation method was not considered suitable for use in the ALDS item bank. The other three methods described can be usefully implemented in the ALDS item bank, depending on the purpose of the data analysis to be carried out. These three methods may be useful for other data sets examining similar constructs, when item response theory based methods are used.

  20. Practical methods for dealing with 'not applicable' item responses in the AMC Linear Disability Score project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Rebecca; Glas, Cees AW; Lindeboom, Robert; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; de Haan, Rob J

    2004-01-01

    Background Whenever questionnaires are used to collect data on constructs, such as functional status or health related quality of life, it is unlikely that all respondents will respond to all items. This paper examines ways of dealing with responses in a 'not applicable' category to items included in the AMC Linear Disability Score (ALDS) project item bank. Methods The data examined in this paper come from the responses of 392 respondents to 32 items and form part of the calibration sample for the ALDS item bank. The data are analysed using the one-parameter logistic item response theory model. The four practical strategies for dealing with this type of response are: cold deck imputation; hot deck imputation; treating the missing responses as if these items had never been offered to those individual patients; and using a model which takes account of the 'tendency to respond to items'. Results The item and respondent population parameter estimates were very similar for the strategies involving hot deck imputation; treating the missing responses as if these items had never been offered to those individual patients; and using a model which takes account of the 'tendency to respond to items'. The estimates obtained using the cold deck imputation method were substantially different. Conclusions The cold deck imputation method was not considered suitable for use in the ALDS item bank. The other three methods described can be usefully implemented in the ALDS item bank, depending on the purpose of the data analysis to be carried out. These three methods may be useful for other data sets examining similar constructs, when item response theory based methods are used. PMID:15200681

  1. Efficacy of the Valsalva Maneuver on Needle Projection Pain and Hemodynamic Responses During Spinal Puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussan Soltani Mohammadi, Amin Ghasemi Pajand, Gita Shoeibi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of the valsalva maneuver that can induce baroreceptor activation and nociception, on needle projection pain and hemodynamic responses associated with spinal puncture. Ninety adults, ASA physical status I and II undergoing elective surgeries were included. Patients were randomized into three equal groups. Group I (C: control; Group II (B: ball; pressed a rubber ball (attention-diverting method; Group III (V: valsalva; blew into sphygmomanometer tubing and hold the mercury column up to 30 mm Hg for a period of at least 20s. Spinal needle projection pain was graded using numeric rating scale (NRS: 1-10, where scales of 1-3 were rated as mild, 4-6 as moderate, and > 6 as severe. Blood pressure and heart rate, five minutes before the procedure, during the spinal puncture and first and third minutes after that, were also recorded. Significant reduction in NRS was observed in the valsalva group compared with the control and the ball groups (p=0.001. There were statistical but no significant clinical differences in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rates between the study groups (P=0.008 and P=0.016 respectively. In conclusion valsalva maneuver can decrease the skin puncture pain associated with spinal needle projection while observing hemodynamic changes.

  2. Responsibilities of the active participation of geoscientists in public funded projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Victor; Fernandez, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    The European Federation of Geologists (EFG) is based in 24 European countries and represents over 50,000 geoscientists in Europe, working in organisations dealing with many of the critical societal challenges that came with fast population growing: soils fertility; fresh water; energy; and raw materials supply. This calls for the concerted contribution of networks of geoscientists to frame and answer the global challenges we are facing. In Europe, the Research and Innovation funding program Horizon 2020 provided a unique opportunity for EFG to play an active role in this context, and this justifies the direct involvement of EFG in several funded projects, ranging from international cooperation on raw materials supply to groundwater research or combined heat, power and metal extraction from ultra-deep ore bodies. But an active participation of a not for profit organization of geoscientists in such public funded projects brings responsibilities and reputational risks. The authors will describe how EFG is taking these responsibilities and facing the correspondent risks, through the involvement of certified professionals. The authors will highlight why EFG is keen in promoting the EurGeol professional title, ensuring title holders are skilled and competent to deliver high quality services within the practice of geology, framed by a Code of Ethics and a commitment towards continuing professional development.

  3. Fos induction in lamina I projection neurons in response to noxious thermal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, A J; Spike, R C; Young, S; Puskár, Z

    2005-01-01

    Lamina I of the spinal cord contains many projection neurons: the majority of these are activated by noxious stimulation, although some respond to other stimuli, such as innocuous cooling. In the rat, approximately 80% of lamina I projection neurons express the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor, on which substance P acts. Lamina I neurons can be classified into three main morphological classes: pyramidal, fusiform and multipolar cells. It has been reported that in the cat, pyramidal cells respond to innocuous cooling, and whilst both fusiform and multipolar cells are activated by noxious mechanical and heat stimuli, only cells in the latter group respond to noxious cold [Nat Neurosci 1 (1998) 218]. However, we have previously shown that NK1 receptor-immunoreactive projection neurons belonging to each morphological class are equally likely to up-regulate the transcription factor Fos after noxious chemical stimulation, and that the density of innervation by substance P-containing (nociceptive) afferents is similar for cells of each type [J Neurosci 22 (2002) 4103]. This suggests that the morphological-physiological correlation that has been reported in the cat may not apply in the rat. We have tested this further by examining Fos expression in lamina I spinoparabrachial neurons in the rat after application of noxious heat or noxious cold stimuli under general anesthesia. Following noxious heat, 57-69% of NK1 receptor-immunoreactive spinoparabrachial neurons expressed Fos, and the proportion did not differ significantly between morphological groups. However, after noxious cold stimulation Fos was present in 63% of multipolar neurons, but only 19-26% of fusiform or pyramidal cells. These results suggest that although most NK1 receptor-expressing spinoparabrachial neurons are activated by noxious stimuli, responsiveness to noxious cold is significantly more common in those of the multipolar type. There therefore appears to be a correlation between morphology and function for

  4. Idiosyncratic responses of grizzly bear habitat to climate change based on projected food resource changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David R; Nielsen, Scott E; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2014-07-01

    Climate change vulnerability assessments for species of conservation concern often use species distribution and ecological niche modeling to project changes in habitat. One of many assumptions of these approaches is that food web dependencies are consistent in time and environmental space. Species at higher trophic levels that rely on the availability of species at lower trophic levels as food may be sensitive to extinction cascades initiated by changes in the habitat of key food resources. Here we assess climate change vulnerability for Ursus arctos (grizzly bears) in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains using projected changes to 17 of the most commonly consumed plant food items. We used presence-absence information from 7088 field plots to estimate ecological niches and to project changes in future distributions of each species. Model projections indicated idiosyncratic responses among food items. Many food items persisted or even increased, although several species were found to be vulnerable based on declines or geographic shifts in suitable habitat. These included Hedysarum alpinum (alpine sweet vetch), a critical spring and autumn root-digging resource when little else is available. Potential habitat loss was also identified for three fruiting species of lower importance to bears: Empetrum nigrum (crowberry), Vaccinium scoparium (grouseberry), and Fragaria virginiana (strawberry). A general trend towards uphill migration of bear foods may result in higher vulnerability to bear populations at low elevations, which are also those that are most likely to have human-bear conflict problems. Regardless, a wide diet breadth of grizzly bears, as well as wide environmental niches of most food items, make climate change a much lower threat to grizzly bears than other bear species such as polar bears and panda bears. We cannot exclude, however, future alterations in human behavior and land use resulting from climate change that may reduce survival rates.

  5. Improved ground-based remote-sensing systems help monitor plant response to climate and other changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Bogle, Rian C.

    2016-05-26

    Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey are improving and developing new ground-based remote-sensing instruments and techniques to study how Earth’s vegetation responds to changing climates. Do seasonal grasslands and forests “green up” early (or late) and grow more (or less) during unusually warm years? How do changes in temperature and precipitation affect these patterns? Innovations in ground-based remote-sensing instrumentation can help us understand, assess, and mitigate the effects of climate change on vegetation and related land resources.

  6. Application research for ground-source heat pump system applied to large port project%地源热泵空调在大型港口工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志强

    2009-01-01

    结合工程设计实例,对地源热泵空调在大型港口工程中的应用进行了探讨.对地源热泵和普通中央空调系统的运行费用进行估算和比较.%Combining with practical design example, this paper discusses the application of ground-source heat pump system applied to large port project, and carries out an estimation and comparison of the operating costs between the ground-source heat pump system and common HVAC system.

  7. Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project for Small and Medium Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Janie; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Chiu, Albert K.; Kellow, Bashar; Koch, Ed; Lipkin, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Small and medium commercial customers in California make up about 20-25% of electric peak load in California. With the roll out of smart meters to this customer group, which enable granular measurement of electricity consumption, the investor-owned utilities will offer dynamic prices as default tariffs by the end of 2011. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, which successfully deployed Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) Programs to its large commercial and industrial customers, started investigating the same infrastructures application to the small and medium commercial customers. This project aims to identify available technologies suitable for automating demand response for small-medium commercial buildings; to validate the extent to which that technology does what it claims to be able to do; and determine the extent to which customers find the technology useful for DR purpose. Ten sites, enabled by eight vendors, participated in at least four test AutoDR events per site in the summer of 2010. The results showed that while existing technology can reliably receive OpenADR signals and translate them into pre-programmed response strategies, it is likely that better levels of load sheds could be obtained than what is reported here if better understanding of the building systems were developed and the DR response strategies had been carefully designed and optimized for each site.

  8. Seismic Response and Performance Evaluation of Self-Centering LRB Isolators Installed on the CBF Building under NF Ground Motions

    OpenAIRE

    Junwon Seo; Jong Wan Hu

    2016-01-01

    This paper mainly treats the seismic behavior of lead-rubber bearing (LRB) isolation systems with superealstic shape memory alloy (SMA) bending bars functioning as damper and self-centering devices. The conventional LRB isolators that are usually installed at the column bases supply extra flexibility to the centrically braced frame (CBF) building with a view to elongate its vibration period, and thus make a contribution to mitigating seismic acceleration transferred from ground to structure. ...

  9. NuSTAR calibration facility and multilayer reference database: Optic response model comparison to NuSTAR on-ground calibration data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnholt, Nicolai

    the optic response for both on- and off-axis NuSTAR observations, detailed knowledge of the as-coated multilayer is required. The purpose of this thesis is to establish a multilayer reference database. As an integral part of this effort, a hard X-ray calibration facility was designed and constructed. Each......-ground calibration data. The on-ground calibration and flight witness sample investigations were carried out at a hard X-ray facility constructed for the same purpose. This thesis established the NuSTAR multilayer reference database and found that it provides a good description of the as-coated multilayers of the Nu......STAR optics. A thorough quantitative study of the NuSTAR effective area requires the utilized ray tracing tool to mature further. Currently, the effective area estimated from the multilayer reference database represents an optimistic upper limit. Along with a conservative estimate derived from on...

  10. Research on ground heat exchanger of Ground Source Heat Pump technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-sheng; SUN You-hong; GAO Ke; WU Xiao-hang

    2004-01-01

    Ground Source Heat Pump technique and its operating principle are described in this paper. Ground heat exchanger is the key technique of ground source heat pump and its pattems are discussed. Software is helpful to design ground heat exchanger. A project of Chinese Ground Source Heat Pump is introduced and its market is more and more extensive.

  11. Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based Radiation and Aerosol Validation Using the NOAA Mobile SURFRAD Station Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, Joseph [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Lantz, Kathy [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is preparing for the launch of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R) satellite in 2015. This satellite will feature higher time (5-minute versus 30-minute sampling) and spatial resolution (0.5 km vs 1 km in the visible channel) than current GOES instruments provide. NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service has funded the Global Monitoring Division at the Earth System Research Laboratory to provide ground-based validation data for many of the new and old products the new GOES instruments will retrieve specifically related to radiation at the surface and aerosol and its extensive and intensive properties in the column. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) had an emphasis on aerosol; therefore, we asked to be involved in this campaign to de-bug our new instrumentation and to provide a new capability that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Mobile Facilities (AMF) did not possess, namely surface albedo measurement out to 1625 nm. This gave us a chance to test remote operation of our new multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer/multi-filter radiometer (MFRSR/MFR) combination. We did not deploy standard broadband shortwave and longwave radiation instrumentation because ARM does this as part of every AMF deployment. As it turned out, the ARM standard MFRSR had issues, and we were able to provide the aerosol column data for the first 2 months of the campaign covering the summer flight phase of the deployment. Using these data, we were able to work with personnel at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to retrieve not only aerosol optical depth (AOD), but single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter, as well.

  12. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  13. Evaluation of ground grain versus pre- and post-pellet whole grain additions to poultry diets via a response surface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Amy F; Chrystal, Peter V; Truong, Ha H; Selle, Peter H; Liu, Sonia Yun

    2017-09-12

    1. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of pre- and post-pellet whole grain wheat additions to diets on growth performance, gizzard and pancreas development, nutrient utilisation and starch and protein (N) digestibility coefficients in broiler chickens via an equilateral triangle response surface design. 2. The three apical treatments of the equilateral triangle comprised (1A) a standard diet containing 600 g/kg ground wheat, (2B) the same diet containing 600 g/kg pre-pellet whole wheat and (3C) the same diet containing 300 g/kg ground wheat and 300 g/kg post-pellet whole wheat. Seven blends of the three apical diets were located within the triangle to complete the design and a total of 360 male Ross 308 chicks were offered the ten experimental diets from 7 to 28 d post-hatch. Model prediction and response surface plots were generated with R 3.0.3 software. 3. The most efficient FCR of 1.466 was observed in birds offered an almost equal mixture of the pre- and post-pellet whole grain apical dietary treatments, which corresponded to 172 g/kg ground grain, 256 g/kg pre-pellet whole grain, 172 g/kg post-pellet whole grain in a diet containing 600 g/kg wheat. 4. The most efficient energy utilisation (ME:GE ratio of 0.766) was observed in birds offered a blend of the ground grain and pre-pellet whole grain apical dietary treatments which corresponded to a mixture of 384 g/kg pre-pellet whole grain and 216 g/kg ground grain. 5. Pre-pellet whole grain feeding generated the most pronounced responses in increased relative gizzard contents, reduced gizzard pH and increased relative pancreas weights. Consideration is given to the likely differences between pre- and post-pellet whole grain feeding.

  14. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  15. 42 CFR 137.292 - How do Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities for construction projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental...-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities for construction projects under section 509 of the Act ? Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities by: (a) Adopting a resolution...

  16. Mangroves facing climate change: landward migration potential in response to projected scenarios of sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Di Nitto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests prominently occupy an intertidal boundary position where the effects of sea level rise will be fast and well visible. This study in East Africa (Gazi Bay, Kenya addresses the question whether mangroves can be resilient to a rise in sea level by focusing on their potential to migrate towards landwards areas. The combinatory analysis between remote sensing, DGPS-based ground truth and digital terrain models (DTM unveils how real vegetation assemblages can shift under different projected (minimum (+9 cm, relative (+20 cm, average (+48 cm and maximum (+88 cm scenarios of sea level rise (SLR. Under SLR scenarios up to 48 cm by the year 2100, the landward extension remarkably implies an area increase for each of the dominant mangrove assemblages, except for Avicennia marina and Ceriops tagal, both on the landward side. On one hand, the increase of most species in the first 3 scenarios, including the socio-economically most important species in this area, Rhizophora mucronata and C. tagal on the seaward side, strongly depends on the colonisation rate of these species. On the other hand, a SLR scenario of +88 cm by the year 2100 indicates that the area flooded only by equinoctial tides strongly decreases due to the topographical settings at the edge of the inhabited area. Consequently, the landward Avicennia-dominated assemblages will further decrease as a formation if they fail to adapt to a more frequent inundation. The topography is site-specific; however non-invadable areas can be typical for many mangrove settings.

  17. Bi-objective approach for placing ground and air ambulance base and helipad locations in order to optimize EMS response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Milad; Bozorgi-Amiri, Ali; Tavakoli, Shayan; Yousefi-Babadi, Abolghasem

    2017-06-15

    Shortening the travel time of patient transfer has clinical implications for many conditions such as cardiac arrest, trauma, stroke and STEMI. As resources are often limited precise calculations are needed. In this paper we consider the location problem for both ground and aerial emergency medical services. Given the uncertainty of when patients are in need of prompt medical attention we consider these demand points to be uncertain. We consider various ways in which ground and helicopter ambulances can work together to make the whole process go faster. We develop a mathematical model that minimizes travel time and maximizes service level. We use a compromising programming method to solve this bi-objective mathematical model. For numerical experiments we apply our model to a case study in Lorestan, Iran, using geographical and population data, and the location of the actual hospital based in the capital of the province. Results show that low-accessibility locations are the main focus of the proposed problem and with mathematical modeling access to a hospital is vastly improved. We also found out that once the budget reaches a certain point which suffices for building certain ambulance bases more investments does not necessarily result in less travel time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Variable Step-Size Proportionate Affine Projection Algorithm for Identification of Sparse Impulse Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Proportionate adaptive algorithms have been proposed recently to accelerate convergence for the identification of sparse impulse response. When the excitation signal is colored, especially the speech, the convergence performance of proportionate NLMS algorithms demonstrate slow convergence speed. The proportionate affine projection algorithm (PAPA is expected to solve this problem by using more information in the input signals. However, its steady-state performance is limited by the constant step-size parameter. In this article we propose a variable step-size PAPA by canceling the a posteriori estimation error. This can result in high convergence speed using a large step size when the identification error is large, and can then considerably decrease the steady-state misalignment using a small step size after the adaptive filter has converged. Simulation results show that the proposed approach can greatly improve the steady-state misalignment without sacrificing the fast convergence of PAPA.

  19. Overview of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project's Propulsion Technology Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project is focused on developing and demonstrating integrated systems technologies to TRL 4-6 by 2020 that enable reduced fuel burn, emissions, and noise for futuristic air vehicles. The specific goals aim to simultaneously reduce fuel burn by 50%, reduce Landing and Take-off Nitrous Oxides emissions by 75% relative to the CAEP 6 guidelines, and reduce cumulative noise by 42 Decibels relative to the Stage 4 guidelines. These goals apply to the integrated vehicle and propulsion system and are based on a reference mission of 3000nm flight of a Boeing 777-200 with GE90 engines. This paper will focus primarily on the ERA propulsion technology portfolio, which consists of advanced combustion, propulsor, and core technologies to enable these integrated air vehicle systems goals. An overview of the ERA propulsion technologies will be described and the status and results to date will be presented.

  20. Sensor Fusion for Measurement of Transonic Flow and Structural Dynamic Response Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses development of techniques that support experimental modeling, simulations, ground testing, wind tunnel tests, and flight experiments, with...

  1. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  2. Results of expert response when forming an exhaustive list of potential risks of constructions projects using energy efficient technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryzhkova Anastasiya Igorevna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with the most widely used methods of risk events identification. The expert response method is most applicable for construction projects using energy efficient technologies. The article presents the results of an opinion poll of the professional expert community using expert response method, which is aimed to identify the most likely potential “pure” risk of construction projects with energy-efficient technologies in use. 74 experts representing different levels of the construction process were polled: customers and directors of construction companies, project managers, risk managers, advisors. The answers were collected during private talks and also using a special website Survey Monkey. Experts from different countries took part: Russia, Great Britain, Austria, Luxemburg, Switzerland and Norway. Also the article presents the expert evaluation of the “effect” of risk implementation on the cost of a project, implementation time, the product quality, the environment and safety on the construction site.

  3. Seismic Response and Performance Evaluation of Self-Centering LRB Isolators Installed on the CBF Building under NF Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwon Seo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly treats the seismic behavior of lead-rubber bearing (LRB isolation systems with superealstic shape memory alloy (SMA bending bars functioning as damper and self-centering devices. The conventional LRB isolators that are usually installed at the column bases supply extra flexibility to the centrically braced frame (CBF building with a view to elongate its vibration period, and thus make a contribution to mitigating seismic acceleration transferred from ground to structure. However, these base isolation systems are somehow susceptible to shear failure due to the lack of lateral resistance. In the construction site, they have been used to be integrated with displacement control dampers additionally withstanding lateral seismic forces. For this motivation, LRB isolation systems equipped with superelastic SMA bending bars, which possess not only excellent energy dissipation but also outstanding recentering capability, are proposed in this study. These reinforced and recentering LRB base isolators are modeled as nonlinear component springs, and then assigned into the bases of 2D frame models used for numerical simulation. Their seismic performance and capacity in the base-isolated frame building can be evaluated through nonlinear dynamic analyses conducted with historic ground motion data. After comparative study with analyses results, it is clearly shown that 2D frame models with proposed LRB isolators generally have smaller maximum displacements than those with conventional LRB isolators. Furthermore, the LRB isolation systems with superelastic SMA bending bars effectively reduce residual displacement as compared to those with steel bending bars because they provide more flexibility and recentering force to the entire building structure.

  4. Grounded cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2008-01-01

    Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.

  5. Simulated effects of projected withdrawals from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifer on ground-water levels in the Camden, New Jersey, area and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navoy, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer is being considered as a potential source of future water supply for the Camden, New Jersey, area. The deeper Potomac- Raritan-Magothy aquifer system is currently the major major source of water supply for the area, but its use may be curtailed or reduced by 35 percent of 1983 withdrawals through its designation by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy as "Water Supply Critical Area#2." Withdrawals from the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer currently (1989) total about 7 million gallons per day. The anticipated use of this aquifer by communities with access to it, as an alternative supply, could increase to more than 14 million gallons per day by 2020. If the communities of Clayton and Glassboro decrease their withdrawals from the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system by 50 percent or cease them entirely because of their proximity to saline water, the use of Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer could increase to greater than 15 million gallons per day by 2020. Simulation of the ground-water system indicates that the projected increase in withdrawals will cause cones of depression in the potentiometric surface of the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer in the Camden metro- politan area by 2020 that extend to depths ranging from 10 feet above sea level to 60 feet below sea level. This represents a secline of about 40 to 100 feet thr 1990 conditions. Withdrawals in northeastern Burlington County will cause a large cone of depression that, by 2020, will extend to depths of about 220 feet below sea level, represent- ing a decline of about 140 feet from 1990 conditions. Simulation results indicate that water levels in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer near the Salem Nuclear Power Plant are somewhat insensitive to withdrawals elsewhere in the aquifer. In some areas, especially in Burlington County, the cones of depression have developed in proximity to the aquifer-outcrop area and could induce infiltration from streams crossing the

  6. Drought and root herbivory interact to alter the response of above-ground parasitoids to aphid infested plants and associated plant volatile signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tariq

    Full Text Available Multitrophic interactions are likely to be altered by climate change but there is little empirical evidence relating the responses of herbivores and parasitoids to abiotic factors. Here we investigated the effects of drought on an above/below-ground system comprising a generalist and a specialist aphid species (foliar herbivores, their parasitoids, and a dipteran species (root herbivore.We tested the hypotheses that: (1 high levels of drought stress and below-ground herbivory interact to reduce the performance of parasitoids developing in aphids; (2 drought stress and root herbivory change the profile of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs emitted by the host plant; (3 parasitoids avoid ovipositing in aphids feeding on plants under drought stress and root herbivory. We examined the effect of drought, with and without root herbivory, on the olfactory response of parasitoids (preference, plant volatile emissions, parasitism success (performance, and the effect of drought on root herbivory. Under drought, percentage parasitism of aphids was reduced by about 40-55% compared with well watered plants. There was a significant interaction between drought and root herbivory on the efficacy of the two parasitoid species, drought stress partially reversing the negative effect of root herbivory on percent parasitism. In the absence of drought, root herbivory significantly reduced the performance (e.g. fecundity of both parasitoid species developing in foliar herbivores. Plant emissions of VOCs were reduced by drought and root herbivores, and in olfactometer experiments parasitoids preferred the odour from well-watered plants compared with other treatments. The present work demonstrates that drought stress can change the outcome of interactions between herbivores feeding above- and below-ground and their parasitoids, mediated by changes in the chemical signals from plants to parasitoids. This provides a new insight into how the structure of terrestrial

  7. Ocean response to volcanic eruptions in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yanni

    2014-09-01

    We examine the oceanic impact of large tropical volcanic eruptions as they appear in ensembles of historical simulations from eight Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models. These models show a response that includes lowering of global average sea surface temperature by 0.1–0.3 K, comparable to the observations. They show enhancement of Arctic ice cover in the years following major volcanic eruptions, with long-lived temperature anomalies extending to the middepth and deep ocean on decadal to centennial timescales. Regional ocean responses vary, although there is some consistent hemispheric asymmetry associated with the hemisphere in which the eruption occurs. Temperature decreases and salinity increases contribute to an increase in the density of surface water and an enhancement in the overturning circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean following these eruptions. The strength of this overturning increase varies considerably from model to model and is correlated with the background variability of overturning in each model. Any cause/effect relationship between eruptions and the phase of El Niño is weak.

  8. Marshall Space Flight Center Ground Systems Development and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Ground Systems Development and Integration performs a variety of tasks in support of the Mission Operations Laboratory (MOL) and other Center and Agency projects. These tasks include various systems engineering processes such as performing system requirements development, system architecture design, integration, verification and validation, software development, and sustaining engineering of mission operations systems that has evolved the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) into a leader in remote operations for current and future NASA space projects. The group is also responsible for developing and managing telemetry and command configuration and calibration databases. Personnel are responsible for maintaining and enhancing their disciplinary skills in the areas of project management, software engineering, software development, software process improvement, telecommunications, networking, and systems management. Domain expertise in the ground systems area is also maintained and includes detailed proficiency in the areas of real-time telemetry systems, command systems, voice, video, data networks, and mission planning systems.

  9. Integrated plant phenotypic responses to contrasting above- and below-ground resources: key roles of specific leaf area and root mass fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Swart, Elferra M; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2015-06-01

    Plants adapt phenotypically to different conditions of light and nutrient supply, supposedly in order to achieve colimitation of these resources. Their key variable of adjustment is the ratio of leaf area to root length, which relies on plant biomass allocation and organ morphology. We recorded phenotypic differences in leaf and root mass fractions (LMF, RMF), specific leaf area (SLA) and specific root length (SRL) of 12 herbaceous species grown in factorial combinations of high/low irradiance and fertilization treatments. Leaf area and root length ratios, and their components, were influenced by nonadditive effects between light and nutrient supply, and differences in the strength of plant responses were partly explained by Ellenberg's species values representing ecological optima. Changes in allocation were critical in plant responses to nutrient availability, as the RMF contribution to changes in root length was 2.5× that of the SRL. Contrastingly, morphological adjustments (SLA rather than LMF) made up the bulk of plant response to light availability. Our results suggest largely predictable differences in responses of species and groups of species to environmental change. Nevertheless, they stress the critical need to account for adjustments in below-ground mass allocation to understand the assembly and responses of communities in changing environments.

  10. GIPL1.3 simulated mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) in Celsius averaged for particular decade for the entire Alaskan permafrost domain. NAD83, Alaska Albers projection

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This raster, created in 2010, is output from the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab (GIPL) model and represents simulated mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) in...

  11. False-color composite of Landsat data for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The false-color composite image of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an approximately 100,000 square-kilometer region of southern Nevada...

  12. False-color composite of Landsat data for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system project, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The false-color composite image of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), an approximately 100,000 square-kilometer region of southern Nevada...

  13. Modeling the high-latitude ground response to the excitation of the ionospheric MHD modes by atmospheric electric discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, E.; Mazur, N.; Pilipenko, V.; Baddeley, L.

    2016-11-01

    The ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) and fast magnetosonic (FMS) waveguide, which can trap the electromagnetic wave energy in the range from fractions of Hz to several Hz, are characteristic features of the upper ionosphere. Their role in the electromagnetic impulsive coupling between atmospheric discharge processes and the ionosphere can be elucidated with a proper model. The presented model is based on numerical solution of coupled wave equations for electromagnetic modes in the ionosphere and atmosphere in a realistic ionosphere modeled with the use of IRI (International Reference Ionosphere) vertical profiles. The geomagnetic field is supposed to be nearly vertical, so the model can be formally applied to high latitudes, though the main features of ground ULF structure will be qualitatively similar at middle latitudes as well. The modeling shows that during the lightning discharge a coupled wave system comprising IAR and MHD waveguide is excited. Using the model, the spatial structure, frequency spectra, and polarization parameters have been calculated at various distances from a vertical dipole. In the lightning proximity (about several hundred kilometer) only the lowest IAR harmonics are revealed in the radial magnetic component spectra. At distances >800 km the multiband spectral structure is formed predominantly by harmonics of FMS waveguide modes. The model predictions do not contradict the results of search coil magnetometer observations on Svalbard; however, the model validation demands more dedicated experimental studies.

  14. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku Earthquake Revealed by Joined Satellite and Ground Observations. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Romanov, Alexey; Romanov, Alexander; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positiv...

  15. Vertical ground reaction force responses to different head-out aquatic exercises performed in water and on dry land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberton, Cristine Lima; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Antunes, Amanda Haberland; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Tartaruga, Marcus Peikriszwili; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to analyse the vertical ground reaction forces (Fz) of head-out aquatic exercises [stationary running (SR), frontal kick (FK), cross-country skiing (CCS), jumping jacks (JJ), adductor hop (ADH) and abductor hop (ABH)] at two cadences in both aquatic and dry land environments. Twelve young women completed two sessions in each environment, each consisting of three exercises performed at two cadences (first and second ventilatory thresholds - C1 and C2, respectively). Two-way and three-way repeated measures analysis of variance were used to the statistical analysis. The results showed that the peak Fz and impulse were significantly lower in the aquatic environment, resulting in values from 28.2% to 58.5% and 60.4% to 72.8% from those obtained on dry land, respectively. In the aquatic environment, the peak Fz was lower and the impulse was higher at the C1 than at the C2. Furthermore, it was observed that SR and FK (0.9-1.1 BW) elicited a significantly higher peak Fz values compared to the ADH and JJ exercises (0.5-0.8 BW). It can be concluded that the aquatic environment reduces the Fz during head-out aquatic exercises. It should be noted that its magnitude is also dependent on the intensity and the identity of the exercise performed.

  16. Response of ground-dwelling spider assemblages to prescribed fire following stand structure manipulation in the southern Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Gillette; Richard S. Vetter; Sylvia R. Mori; Carline R. Rudolph; Dessa R. Welty

    2008-01-01

    We assessed spider (Arachnida: Araneae) responses to prescribed fire following stand s tructure treatments in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. & C. Laws.) stands in the Cascade Range of California. Stands were logged or left untreated to create three levels of structural diversity. We logged one treatment to minimize old-growth...

  17. Soil water repellency and ground cover effects on infiltration in response to prescribed burning of steeply-sloped sagebrush hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland managers and scientists are in need of predictive tools to accurately simulate post-fire hydrologic responses and provide hydrologic risk assessment. Rangeland hydrologic modeling has advanced in recent years; however, model advancements have largely been associated with data from gently ...

  18. A Promising Partnership: Uncovering the Middle Ground between Social Innovation and Social Work: Response to Dr. Marilyn L. Flynn's Remarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensoy Bahar, Ozge

    2017-01-01

    This response article discusses opportunities to bridge social work and social innovation as a promising partnership to address the issues impacting vulnerable populations across the global context. It starts by revisiting the conceptualization of innovation in social work and continues by considering factors that contribute to the growing…

  19. Hibernation is associated with depression of T-cell independent humoral immune responses in the 13-lined ground squirrel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Henning, Robert H.; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Carey, Hannah V.

    Mammalian hibernation consists of periods of low metabolism and body temperature (torpor), interspersed by euthermic arousal periods. The function of both the innate and adaptive immune system is suppressed during hibernation. In this study, we analyzed the humoral adaptive immune response to a

  20. A Promising Partnership: Uncovering the Middle Ground between Social Innovation and Social Work: Response to Dr. Marilyn L. Flynn's Remarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensoy Bahar, Ozge

    2017-01-01

    This response article discusses opportunities to bridge social work and social innovation as a promising partnership to address the issues impacting vulnerable populations across the global context. It starts by revisiting the conceptualization of innovation in social work and continues by considering factors that contribute to the growing…

  1. Simulations of Unsteady Effects and Dynamic Responses in Complex Valve Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable diagnostic tools to support system health monitoring are critical both for liquid rocket experimental ground test facilities and flight systems. Here, flow...

  2. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND CITIZENSHIP AWARENESS IN "THIS IS MY WORK" SCIENCE PROJECTS IN TERMS OF CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemalettin AYAS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Science is an individual and social activity with a long history, having unique characteristics, and is contributed to its development by many people from different cultures. This is closely related with the principle of economic and social benefits for the society as it is in the context of "This is My Work: Math and Science Projects Competition" carried out by the Ministry of National Education since 2006. Therefore, this study examined the notion of "Citizenship Awareness" in each of 455 Science and Technology projects which were among the top 100 projects in "This is My Work: Math Science Projects Competition" carried out across the country every year since 2006. For the methodology, Science projects entered the competition for the last seven years were subjected to content analysis in terms of content on "Citizenship and Social Responsibility." Conclusions were finally made with idea that student works in the projects competition were largely emerged from and implemented with an understanding of social responsibility; solving a problem in the society and environment; consciousness of environmental protection; cleanliness and the health; aesthetics; hazard prevention and safety of life; helping disabled people as one of the basic human values of the social life.

  3. Edge responses are different in edges under natural versus anthropogenic influence: a meta-analysis using ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Tibor; Lövei, Gábor L; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2017-02-01

    Most edges are anthropogenic in origin, but are distinguishable by their maintaining processes (natural vs. continued anthropogenic interventions: forestry, agriculture, urbanization). We hypothesized that the dissimilar edge histories will be reflected in the diversity and assemblage composition of inhabitants. Testing this "history-based edge effect" hypothesis, we evaluated published information on a common insect group, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in forest edges. A meta-analysis showed that the diversity-enhancing properties of edges significantly differed according to their history. Forest edges maintained by natural processes had significantly higher species richness than their interiors, while edges with continued anthropogenic influence did not. The filter function of edges was also essentially different depending on their history. For forest specialist species, edges maintained by natural processes were penetrable, allowing these species to move right through the edges, while edges still under anthropogenic interventions were impenetrable, preventing the dispersal of forest specialists out of the forest. For species inhabiting the surrounding matrix (open-habitat and generalist species), edges created by forestry activities were penetrable, and such species also invaded the forest interior. However, natural forest edges constituted a barrier and prevented the invasion of matrix species into the forest interior. Preserving and protecting all edges maintained by natural processes, and preventing anthropogenic changes to their structure, composition, and characteristics are key factors to sustain biodiversity in forests. Moreover, the increasing presence of anthropogenic edges in a landscape is to be avoided, as they contribute to the loss of biodiversity. Simultaneously, edges under continued anthropogenic disturbance should be restored by increasing habitat heterogeneity.

  4. Adaptive Generalized Projective Synchronization of Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Drive-response Dynamical Networks with Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Ai

    2012-02-01

    Time-delay Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy drive-response dynamical networks (TD-TSFDRDNs) are defined by extending the drive-response dynamical networks. Based on the LaSalle invariant principle, a simple and systematic adaptive control scheme is proposed to synchronize the TD-TSFDRDNs with a desired scalar factor. A sufficient condition for the generalized projective synchronization in TD-TSFDRDNs is derived. Moreover, numerical simulations are provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the scheme.

  5. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  6. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. I. The normal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandi, G. L.; Chiofalo, M. L.; Toncelli, R.; Bramanti, D.; Polacco, E.; Nobili, A. M.

    2006-03-01

    Recent theoretical work suggests that violation of the equivalence principle might be revealed in a measurement of the fractional differential acceleration η between two test bodies—of different compositions, falling in the gravitational field of a source mass—if the measurement is made to the level of η ≃10-13 or better. This being within the reach of ground based experiments gives them a new impetus. However, while slowly rotating torsion balances in ground laboratories are close to reaching this level, only an experiment performed in a low orbit around the Earth is likely to provide a much better accuracy. We report on the progress made with the "Galileo Galilei on the ground" (GGG) experiment, which aims to compete with torsion balances using an instrument design also capable of being converted into a much higher sensitivity space test. In the present and following articles (Part I and Part II), we demonstrate that the dynamical response of the GGG differential accelerometer set into supercritical rotation—in particular, its normal modes (Part I) and rejection of common mode effects (Part II)—can be predicted by means of a simple but effective model that embodies all the relevant physics. Analytical solutions are obtained under special limits, which provide the theoretical understanding. A simulation environment is set up, obtaining a quantitative agreement with the available experimental data on the frequencies of the normal modes and on the whirling behavior. This is a needed and reliable tool for controlling and separating perturbative effects from the expected signal, as well as for planning the optimization of the apparatus.

  7. Seasonality in calcification response of Hawaiian reef coral, Montipora capitata, under climate change projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, K.; Rodgers, K.; Jokiel, P. L.

    2016-02-01

    The response of coral reef communities to future environmental conditions is a topic of enormous concern and considerable debate. However, information is lacking concerning the interaction between local and global stressors on modern reefs. Irradiance and temperature, along with other numerous environmental factors that regulate coral calcification rates and productivity, are predicted to change with future elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Therefore, an experiment was performed in continuous flow mesocosms under full solar radiation to describe the direct and interactive effects of temperature, irradiance, and pCO2 on the calcification of the Hawaiian reef building coral, Montipora capitata across seasonal and temporal scales. Corals were subjected to twelve experimental treatments composed of two pCO2 levels (present day levels, 2X present), two temperature regimes (ambient, heated +2°C), and three conditions of irradiance (ambient, 50% and 90% reduction). Results revealed irradiance and temperature stress have the strongest influence on coral calcification with pCO2 playing a lesser role. The effects of pCO2 also varied among temperature and irradiance regimes. Large decreases in calcification were observed in corals under ambient irradiance levels that were exposed to elevated temperatures and high pCO2 levels. These results suggest the interaction of these environmental parameters may alter optimal growth conditions of M. capitata under future climate change projections.

  8. Climate Model Response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Caldeira, Ken; Boucher, Olivier; Robock, Alan; Rasch, Philip J.; Alterskjaer, Kari; Bou Karam, Diana; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Haywood, J.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Jones, A.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Lunt, Daniel; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Schulz, M.; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, S.; Watanabe, Shingo; Yang, Shuting; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-08-09

    Solar geoengineering—deliberate reduction in the amount of solar radiation retained by the Earth—has been proposed as a means of counteracting some of the climatic effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We present results from Experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, in which 12 climate models have simulated the climate response to an abrupt quadrupling of CO2 from preindustrial concentrations brought into radiative balance via a globally uniform reduction in insolation. Models show this reduction largely offsets global mean surface temperature increases due to quadrupled CO2 concentrations and prevents 97% of the Arctic sea ice loss that would otherwise occur under high CO2 levels but, compared to the preindustrial climate, leaves the tropics cooler (-0.3 K) and the poles warmer (+0.8 K). Annual mean precipitation minus evaporation anomalies for G1 are less than 0.2mmday-1 in magnitude over 92% of the globe, but some tropical regions receive less precipitation, in part due to increased moist static stability and suppression of convection. Global average net primary productivity increases by 120% in G1 over simulated preindustrial levels, primarily from CO2 fertilization, but also in part due to reduced plant heat stress compared to a high CO2 world with no geoengineering. All models show that uniform solar geoengineering in G1 cannot simultaneously return regional and global temperature and hydrologic cycle intensity to preindustrial levels.

  9. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project/General Electric Open Rotor Test Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale

    2013-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9'x15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8'x6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  10. Episodic acidification of small streams in the northeastern united states: episodic response project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigington, P.J.; Baker, J.P.; DeWalle, David R.; Kretser, W.A.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Simonin, H.A.; Van Sickle, J.; Mcdowell, M.K.; Peck, D.V.; Barchet, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Episodic Response Project (ERP) was an interdisciplinary study designed to address uncertainties about the occurrence, nature, and biological effects of episodic acidification of streams in the northeastern United States. The ERP research consisted of intensive studies of the chemistry and biological effects of episodes in 13 streams draining forested watersheds in the three study regions: the Northern Appalachian region of Pennsylvania and the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains of New York. Wet deposition was measured in each of the three study regions. Using automated instruments and samplers, discharge and chemistry of each stream was monitored intensively from fall 1988 through spring 1990. Biological studies focused on brook trout and native forage fish. Experimental approaches included in situ bioassays, radio transmitter studies of fish movement, and fish population studies. This paper provides an overview of the ERP, describes the methodology used in hydrologic and water chemistry components of the study, and summarizes the characteristics of the study sites, including the climatic and deposition conditions during the ERP and the general chemical characteristics of the study streams.

  11. Application of Construction Technology of Ground Source Heat Pump System in Dongying Software Park Project%土壤源热泵系统施工技术在东营软件大厦工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚秀委; 刘乐

    2011-01-01

    土壤源热泵是一种利用土壤所储藏的太阳能资源作为冷热源,进行能量转换的供暖制冷空调系统,是清洁的可再生能源的一种新技术.笔者结合工程实际情况,详细介绍了土壤源热泵系统的优点、组成及施工工艺,并且重点介绍了室外地埋管换热器的施工工艺,为今后土壤源热泵空调系统施工质量控制提供了宝贵经验.%The ground source heat pump is a heating and ventilating air conditioning system using the solar energy resources stored by earth as cold and heat sources,and also a new technology of the clean renewable energy.In combination with the project practice,the article expounds in detail the advantages,compositions and construction craft of the ground source heat pump(GSHP)system,and the introduction focuses on the construction craft of the outdoor ground heat exchanger,which provides valuable experience for the construction quality control of the future ground source heat pump air-conditioning system.

  12. From Idea to Action: Promoting Responsible Management Education through a Semester-Long Academic Integrity Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Marc H.; Roussin, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a semester-long action-learning project where undergraduate or graduate management students learn about ethics, responsibility, and organizational behavior by examining the policy of their college or university that addresses academic integrity. Working in teams, students adopt a stakeholder management approach as they make…

  13. From reactive to proactive use of social media in emergency response: A critical discussion of the Twitcident Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, F.K.; Diks, D.; Ferguson, J.E.; Wolbers, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the introduction and implementation of the pilot project Twitcident in an emergency response room setting. Twitcident is a web-based system for filtering, searching and analyzing data on real-world incidents or crises. Social media data is seen as important for emergency respon

  14. 42 CFR 137.350 - Is a Self-Governance Tribe responsible for completing a construction project in accordance with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a Self-Governance Tribe responsible for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Roles of Self-Governance Tribe in Establishing and Implementing Construction Project Agreements § 137.350 Is a...

  15. Corticofugal projections induce long-lasting effects on somatosensory responses in the trigeminal complex of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eNunez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The sensory information flow at subcortical relay stations is controlled by the action of topographic connections from the neocortex. To determinate the functional properties of the somatosensory corticofugal projections to the principal (Pr5 and caudal spinal (Sp5C trigeminal nuclei, we performed unitary recordings in anesthetized rats. To examine the effect of these cortical projections we used tactile stimulation of the whisker and electrical stimulation of somatosensory cortices. Corticofugal anatomical projections to Pr5 and Sp5C nuclei were detected by using retrograde fluorescent tracers. Neurons projecting exclusively to Pr5 were located in the cingulate cortex while neurons projecting to both Sp5C and Pr5 nuclei were located in the somatosensory and insular cortices (>75% of neurons. Physiological results indicated that primary somatosensory cortex produced a short-lasting facilitating or inhibiting effects (< 5 minutes of tactile responses in Pr5 nucleus through activation of NMDA glutamatergic or GABAA receptors since effects were blocked by iontophoretically application of APV and bicuculline, respectively. In contrast, stimulation of secondary somatosensory cortex did not affect most of the Pr5 neurons; however both cortices inhibited the nociceptive responses in the Sp5C nucleus through activation of glycinergic or GABAA receptors because effects were blocked by iontophoretically application of strychnine and bicuculline, respectively. These and anatomical results demonstrated that the somatosensory cortices projects to Pr5 nucleus to modulate tactile responses by excitatory and inhibitory actions, while projections to the Sp5C nucleus control nociceptive sensory transmission by only inhibitory effects. Thus, somatosensory cortices may modulate innocuous and noxious inputs simultaneously, contributing to the perception of specifically tactile or painful sensations.

  16. 2D ground motion at a soft viscoelastic layer/hard substratum site in response to SH cylindrical seismic waves radiated by deep and shallow line sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, A; Wirgin, Armand

    2004-01-01

    We show, essentially by theoretical means, that for a site with the chosen simple geometry and mechanical properties (horizontal, homogeneous, soft viscoelastic layer of infinite lateral extent overlying, and in welded contact with, a homogeneous, hard elastic substratum of half-infinite radial extent, shear-horizontal motion): 1) coupling to Love modes is all the weaker the farther the seismic source (modeled as a line, assumed to lie in the substratum) is from the lower boundary of the soft layer, 2) for a line source close to the lower boundary of the soft layer, the ground response is characterized by possible beating phenomena, and is of significantly-longer duration than for excitation by cylindrical waves radiated by deep sources. Numerical applications of the theory show, for instance, that a line source, located 40m below the lower boundary of a 60m thick soft layer in a hypothetical Mexico City-like site, radiating a SH pulse of 4s duration, produces substantial ground motion during 200s, with marke...

  17. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  18. Technical Work Plan For: Calculation of Waste Packave and Drip Shield Response to Vibratory Ground Motion and Revision of the Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2006-12-08

    The overall objective of the work scope covered by this technical work plan (TWP) is to develop new damage abstractions for the seismic scenario class in total system performance assessment (TSPA). The new abstractions will be based on a new set of waste package and drip shield damage calculations in response to vibratory ground motion and fault displacement. The new damage calculations, which are collectively referred to as damage models in this TWP, are required to represent recent changes in waste form packaging and in the regulatory time frame. The new damage models also respond to comments from the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT) postvalidation review of the draft TSPA model regarding performance of the drip shield and to an Additional Information Need (AIN) from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  19. Risk Identification and Control of Oilfield Ground Engineering Projects Based on Construction Supply Chain%基于工程供应链的油田地面工程项目风险识别与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永爱; 牛小成

    2016-01-01

    油田地面工程项目建设的每个环节都存在着风险.为此,根据我国油田地面工程项目风险管理的独立和封闭状态,从工程供应链的角度梳理了我国油田地面工程项目面临的风险类型,并从工程供应链系统的运作过程出发,分析了这些风险给工程供应链带来的危害,由此建立了油田地面工程项目三维风险识别模型,并提出相应的风险控制措施,以期为我国油田地面工程项目的风险识别与控制提供参考依据.%Risks exist at everylinkin the construction of oil field surface engineering project. Therefore,ac-cording to the independent and closed state of risk management about oil field ground engineering project,the risk types of surface engineering projects in oil fields are discussed from the angle of construction supply chain. Meanwhile,the damages to the construction supply chainresulted from these risks are analyzed based on the op-erating process ofconstruction supply chain. Finally,the 3D risk identification model of the oil field surface en-gineering project is established,andsome corresponding control measures are put forward,in order to provide some references for the risk identification and control of our oil ground engineering projects.

  20. Assessment of the stress response in Columbian ground squirrels: laboratory and field validation of an enzyme immunoassay for fecal cortisol metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Curtis O; Palme, Rupert; Boonstra, Rudy

    2009-01-01

    Stress responses play a critical role in the ecology and demography of wild animals, and the analysis of fecal hormone metabolites is a powerful noninvasive method to assess the role of stress. We characterized the metabolites of injected radiolabeled cortisol in the urine and feces of Columbian ground squirrels and validated an enzyme immunoassay for measuring fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) with a 5 alpha-3beta,11 beta-diol structure by stimulation and suppression of adrenocortical activity and by evaluation of the circadian pattern of FCM excretion. In addition, we also evaluated the impact of capture, handling, and acclimation to the laboratory on FCM. Cortisol is highly metabolized, with virtually none being excreted, and of the radiolabeled cortisol injected, 31% was recovered in urine and 6.5% in feces. The lag time between cortisol injection and its appearance in urine and feces was 4.5 +/- 0.82 (SE) h and 7.0 +/- 0.53 (SE) h, respectively. FCM levels varied over the day, reflecting circadian variation in endogenous cortisol. Dexamethasone decreased FCM levels by 33%, and ACTH increased them by 255%. Trapping and housing initially increased FCM levels and decreased body mass, but these reversed within 3-7 d, indicating acclimation. Finally, FCM levels were modestly repeatable over time (r=0.57) in wild, live trapped, nonbreeding animals, indicating that FCMs provide a measure of the squirrel's stress-axis state. This assay provides a robust noninvasive assessment of the stress response of the Columbian ground squirrel and will facilitate an integration of its life history and physiology.

  1. GPS and InSAR observations of ground deformation in the northern Malawi (Nyasa) rift from the SEGMeNT project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, W. J., IV; Pritchard, M. E.; Elliott, J.; Zheng, W.; Saria, E.; Ntambila, D.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Nooner, S. L.; Henderson, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    We describe new ground deformation observations from the SEGMeNT (Study of Extension and maGmatism in Malawi aNd Tanzania) spanning the northern sector of the Malawi (Nyasa) rift, which is one of the few places in the world suitable for a comprehensive study of early rifting processes. We installed 12 continuous GPS sensors spanning 700 km across the rift including Tanzania, Malawi, and Zambia to measure the width and gradient within the actively deforming zone. Most of these stations have 3 or more years of data now, although a few have shorter time series because of station vandalism. Spanning a smaller area, but with higher spatial resolution, we have created a time series of ground deformation using 150 interferograms from the Japanese ALOS-1 satellite spanning June 2007 to December 2010. We also present interferograms from other satellites including ERS, Envisat, and Sentinel spanning shorter time intervals. The observations include the 2009-2010 Karonga earthquake sequence and associated postseismic deformation as seen by multiple independent satellite lines-of-sight, that we model using a fault geometry determined using relocated aftershocks recorded by a local seismic array. We have not found any ground deformation at the Rungwe volcanic province from InSAR within our detection threshold ( 2 cm/yr), but we have observed localized seasonal ground movements exceeding 8 cm that are associated with subsidence in the dry season and uplift at the beginning of the wet season.

  2. SMART GROUND Project: SMART data collection and inteGRation platform to enhance availability and accessibility of data and infOrmation in the EU territory on SecoNDary Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Piergiorgio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; de la Feld, Marco; Pizza, Antonietta; Coulon, Frederic; Wagland, Stuart; Gomes, Diogo

    2016-04-01

    The issue of resource security has come to the forefront of the debate over recent years, partly due to considerable concern over the security of supply of the so called 'critical' materials, with rare earths attracting the greatest attention in the press. Their supply is fundamental to maintain and develop EU economy and its industries relied on a steady supply of Raw Materials. Thus considering the increasing scarcity and raising prices of both, energy raw materials and other raw materials, such as metals and minerals, the recycling and recovery of these materials from anthropogenic deposits such as landfills is of increasing relevance. Europe has somewhere between 150,000 and 500,000 landfill sites, with an estimated 90% of them being "non-sanitary" pre-dating the EU Landfill Directive of 1999. Thus historical background makes the numerous old waste dumps as possible sources of critical and secondary raw materials (SRM and CRM). However, to date there is no inventory available of SRM and CRM present in EU landfills, and best management practices to recover SRM from landfill activities are inefficient. In this context, the EU SMART GROUND (SG) project (Grant Agreement No 641988) intends to foster resource recovery in landfills by improving both the availability and the accessibility of data and information on SRM in the EU and creating synergies among the different stakeholders involved in the SRM value chain. To do so, the project aims to collect and integrate in a single EU databank (SMART GROUND Data Bank) all the data from existing databases and new information retrieved during project activities. Such data will be collected from the different waste streams including municipal, industrial and mining wastes across EU landfills. It will improve data gathering on SRM from different types of waste, by defining new and integrated data acquisition methods and standards. At last, but not least, the project will also improve the SRM economic and employment potential

  3. Response to the independent technical review of the UMTRA Project procedures and practices for well drilling and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This report is a response to the findings and recommendations contained in the ITR report. The text of this document summarizes each ITR finding and recommendation, presents the TAC response, and concludes that implementation of many of the recommendations would benefit the UMTRA Project. Implementation of the recommendations represents ongoing improvement to the TAC well installation and development procedures and will result, in lower overall project costs. Appendix B is an implementation plan that groups similar or complementary action items, provides a schedule for implementation, identifies the group or people responsible for the changes, and estimates hours to implement the changes. The four major action items are as follows: (1) ITR Reevaluation, (2) Well Installation SOP Review and Revision, (3) Well Installation Contract Review and Revision, and (4) TAC and DOE Communications Improvement. The hours listed to implement the improvements are intended to be estimates for budgeting and planning purposes for the remainder of this fiscal year and the upcoming fiscal year.

  4. Roles and Responsibilities of Construction Players in Projects Using Building Information Modeling (BIM)

    OpenAIRE

    Latiffi, Aryani,; Brahim, Juliana; Fathi, Mohamad,

    2015-01-01

    Part 4: Building Information Modeling (BIM); International audience; Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been implemented in construction projects to overcome problems such as project delay, cost overrun and poor quality of project. BIM enhances construction player to perform their activities in effective and efficient through the development of three dimensional (3D) model. However, BIM requires changes in current practices among construction players in terms of the processes and technol...

  5. Response to Challenges and Opportunities for Mega-Infrastructure Projects and Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Sutphin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a very helpful and informative essay written by someone who is clearly very experienced with the complexity of urban archaeology. I would like to offer a perspective about these issues from New York City as although there are no projects that are truly analogous in both the scale and scope of the archaeology of the Crossrail Project, we do have similar projects from a construction standpoint (see New York City Department of Environment 2013 and MTA 2013.

  6. Study on ground temperature change and characteristic response of engineering geology of permafrost along Qinghai-Tibet Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Weidong; WANG Quancai; YU Shaoshui; ZHANG Xiaoyan

    2003-01-01

    Along with the global warming in the recent scores of years, comparatively big changes have taken place in the weather and other environmental conditions of the permafrost area in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and very big changes have also occurred in the engineering geological conditions of the permafrost area. Based on a large volume of field survey data, this paper discusses the regularities of horizontal and vertical distribution of permafrost, with its focus of analysis on the temperature change characteristics of the soil in different frozen-soil zones, as well as presents simulation analysis and research for the engineering geologic characteristic response changes that would occur in the future when the temperature of the frozen soil in different zones rises by 1 and 2.6℃ respectively, which will have a tremendous impact on the stability of constructional work.

  7. 接地线缆HEMP电流响应规律研究%Study on Current Response of Grounding Cable in HEMP Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴焱杰; 张春光; 许凯; 赵煜

    2014-01-01

    The cable connecting the information systems may be coupled by the electromagnetic pulse energy to the internal cir-cuit,resulting in system performance degradation,damage and even burned,and bringing great harm. Therefore,the work to research cables’ effects under electromagnetic pulse is the precondition to take electromagnetic protective measures. The finite-difference time-domain ( FDTD) method and Noda thin models are used to establish the space and computational model with high-altitude nuclear elec-tromagnetic pulse (HEMP) as the incident source,the grounding cable HEMP current response in the different states is analyzed and calculated. The results show that the response current of grounding cable attenuates rapidly in the oscillation process with a large peak at a position higher;the incident direction changes of the wave source can produce different results in response,and the response current mainly appears from the cable laid in the same direction with the electric field excitation component. The conclusions can provide useful guidance for the cable electromagnetic protection.%连接电子系统的线缆能够将电磁脉冲能量耦合至系统的内部电路,造成系统性能降级、损伤甚至烧毁,带来极大的危害,因此开展线缆的电磁脉冲效应研究工作是采取针对性电磁防护措施的必要前提。以高空核爆电磁脉冲(HEMP)为入射源,基于时域有限差分(FDTD)方法和Noda细线模型建立仿真空间和计算模型,分析计算了不同状态下接地线缆的HEMP电流响应。结果表明,接地线缆的响应电流在振荡过程中迅速衰减,且在较高位置处峰值较大;波源入射方向的改变会产生不同的响应结果,线缆响应电流主要来自与其布设方向一致的电场分量的激励。所得结论能够为线缆的电磁防护提供有益指导。

  8. Episodic response project: Wet deposition at watersheds in three regions of the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R.

    1991-11-01

    During the period from August 1988 to June 1990, wet-only sampling of precipitation was carried out at three Episodic Response Project sites and at one supplemental site. The three watershed sites are Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, and Linn Run. The supplemental site was the MAP3S site at Pennsylvania State University that characterizes the central group of northern Appalachian streams. The site operators adhered by varying degrees to the sample collection protocol based on the daily sampling protocol of the MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network. Sulfate and nitrate ion together accounted for more than 80% of total anions (in {mu}Eq/L) in the precipitation at all sites. Wet deposition of sulfate at Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, Penn State, and Linn Run averaged 223, 230, 253, and 402 mg/m{sup 2}/month, respectively, whereas nitrate wet deposition averaged 197, 195, 160, and 233 mg/m{sup 2}/month, respectively. Sulfate deposition was a factor of 2 to 4 higher in summer than in winter. The seasonal pattern for nitrate deposition was weak; the seasonal contrast was less than a factor of 2.5 at all sites. The association between the wet deposition and precipitation chemistry at the MAP3S monitoring site and the average for the study watersheds was dependent on the distance between the site and watershed and the intervening terrain. Precipitation chemistry at the monitoring site is representative of that at the ERP study watersheds in the Adirondack and Catskill regions and in the south-western group of watersheds in the Appalachian region. High spatial variability in precipitation amounts makes this assumption weaker for wet deposition. Chemical input to watersheds from dry deposition has not been determined at any site but could range from a factor of 0.3 to 1.0 of the wet deposition. 7 refs., 38 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Ground-based observations of the auroral zone and polar cap ionospheric responses to dayside transient reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Davies

    Full Text Available Observations from the EISCAT VHF incoherent scatter radar system in northern Norway, during a run of the common programme CP-4, reveal a series of poleward-propagating F-region electron density enhancements in the pre-noon sector on 23 November 1999. These plasma density features, which are observed under conditions of a strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field, exhibit a recurrence rate of under 10 min and appear to emanate from the vicinity of the open/closed field-line boundary from where they travel into the polar cap; this is suggestive of their being an ionospheric response to transient reconnection at the day-side magnetopause (flux transfer events. Simultaneous with the density structures detected by the VHF radar, poleward-moving radar auroral forms (PMRAFs are observed by the Finland HF coherent scatter radar. It is thought that PM-RAFs, which are commonly observed near local noon by HF radars, are also related to flux transfer events, although the specific mechanism for the generation of the field-aligned irregularities within such features is not well understood. The HF observations suggest, that for much of their existence, the PMRAFs trace fossil signatures of transient reconnection rather than revealing the footprint of active reconnection itself; this is evidenced not least by the fact that the PMRAFs become narrower in spectral width as they evolve away from the region of more classical, broad cusp scatter in which they originate. Interpretation of the HF observations with reference to the plasma parameters diagnosed by the incoherent scatter radar suggests that as the PMRAFs migrate away from the reconnection site and across the polar cap, entrained in the ambient antisunward flow, the irregularities therein are generated by the presence of gradients in the electron density, with these gradients having been formed through structuring of the ionosphere in the cusp region in response to transient reconnection

  10. A qualitative assessment of personal and social responsibility for kidney disease: the Increasing Kidney Disease Awareness Network Transplant Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigner, Clarence; Lyles, Courtney Rees; Galvin, Georgia; Sabin, Janice; Davis, Connie; Dick, Andre; Young, Bessie A

    2011-01-01

    Limited qualitative research has explored opinions of kidney disease health care providers regarding racial and ethnic disparities in access to and receipt of kidney transplantation. Key informant interviews were conducted among transplant nephrologists, nephrologists, transplant social workers, and transplant coordinators to determine barriers to transplantation among African Americans compared to whites with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-eight interviews were audio recorded and transcribed to hardcopy for content analysis. Grounded theory was used to determine dominant themes within the interviews. Reliability and validity were ensured by several coinvestigators independently sorting verbatim responses used for generating themes and subsequent explanations. Several major categories arose from analysis of the transcripts. Under the category of personal and social responsibility for kidney transplantation, interviews revealed 4 major themes: negative personal behaviors, acquisition of and lack of self-treatment of comorbid conditions, lack of individual responsibility, and the need for more social responsibility. Many providers perceived patients as being largely responsible for the development of ESRD, while some providers expressed the idea that more social responsibility was needed to improve poor health status and disparities in kidney transplantation rates. Kidney disease health providers seemed torn between notions of patients' accountability and social responsibility for racial disparities in chronic kidney disease and ESRD. Further research is needed to clarify which aspects contribute most to disparities in access to transplantation.

  11. Assessing ecosystem response to multiple disturbances and climate change in South Africa using ground- and satellite-based measurements and model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, W. L.; Falge, E. M.; Brümmer, C.; Mukwashi, K.; Schmullius, C.; Hüttich, C.; Odipo, V.; Scholes, R. J.; Mudau, A.; Midgley, G.; Stevens, N.; Hickler, T.; Scheiter, S.; Martens, C.; Twine, W.; Iiyambo, T.; Bradshaw, K.; Lück, W.; Lenfers, U.; Thiel-Clemen, T.; du Toit, J.

    2015-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa currently experiences rapidly growing human population, intrinsically tied to substantial changes in land use on shrubland, savanna and mixed woodland ecosystems due to over-exploitation. Significant conversions driving degradation, affecting fire frequency and water availability, and fueling climate change are expected to increase in the immediate future. However, measured data of greenhouse gas emissions as affected by land use change are scarce to entirely lacking from this region. The project 'Adaptive Resilience of Southern African Ecosystems' (ARS AfricaE) conducts research and develops scenarios of ecosystem development under climate change, for management support in conservation or for planning rural area development. This will be achieved by (1) creation of a network of research clusters (paired sites with natural and altered vegetation) along an aridity gradient in South Africa for ground-based micrometeorological in-situ measurements of energy and matter fluxes, (2) linking biogeochemical functions with ecosystem structure, and eco-physiological properties, (3) description of ecosystem disturbance (and recovery) in terms of ecosystem function such as carbon balance components and water use efficiency, (4) set-up of individual-based models to predict ecosystem dynamics under (post) disturbance managements, (5) combination with long-term landscape dynamic information derived from remote sensing and aerial photography, and (6) development of sustainable management strategies for disturbed ecosystems and land use change. Emphasis is given on validation (by a suite of field measurements) of estimates obtained from eddy covariance, model approaches and satellite derivations.

  12. A multi-sensor study of the impact of ground-based glaciogenic seeding on clouds and precipitation over mountains in Wyoming. Part I: Project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Binod; Geerts, Bart

    2016-12-01

    The AgI Seeding Cloud Impact Investigation (ASCII) campaign was conducted in early 2012 and 2013 over two mountain ranges in southern Wyoming to examine the impact of ground-based glaciogenic seeding on snow growth in winter orographic clouds. The campaign was supported by a network of ground-based instruments, including microwave radiometers, two profiling Ka-band Micro-Rain Radars (MRRs), a Doppler on Wheels (DOW) X-band radar, and a Parsivel disdrometer. The University of Wyoming King Air operated the profiling Wyoming Cloud Radar, the Wyoming Cloud Lidar, and in situ cloud and precipitation particle probes. The characteristics of the orographic clouds, flow field, and upstream stability profiles in 27 intensive observation periods (IOPs) are described here. A composite analysis of the impact of seeding on snow growth is presented in Part II of this study (Pokharel et al., 2017).

  13. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Focused Feasibility Study, Final Quality Assurance Project Plan, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Appendix A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Powell, Robert M., Clark, Don A., and Paul , Cynthia J.; 1991, Facilitated Transport of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water: Part II Colloidal...Transport In "EPA Environmental Research Brief EPA/600/M-91/040", July 1991 Puls, Robert W., Powell, Robert M., Bledsoe, Bert, Clark, Don A., and Paul ...1 of 2 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE 022 SEDIMENT AND BENTIIIC MACROINVERTEBRATESAMPLING WITH ECKMAN GRAB 1.0 Scope and Application This standard

  14. Canal Creek Study Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Groundwater Monitoring Plan, Final Quality Assurance Project Plan, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Appendix A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    023", December 1990 Puls, Robert W., Powell, Robert M., Clark, Don A., and Paul , Cynthia J.; 1991, Facilitated Transport of Inorganic Contaminants in...Bledsoe, Bert, Clark, Don A., and Paul , Cynthia J.; 1992, Metals in Ground Water: Sampling Artifacts and Reproducibility In "Hazardous Waste & Hazardous...Revision: 3 Page: 1 of 2 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE 022 SEDIMENT AND BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATESAMPLING WITH ECKMAN GRAB * 1.0 Scope and Application

  15. Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Work

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae and ground beetles (Carabidae, immediately following 1 stem-only harvesting (SOH, in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches are retained on site, and 2 whole-tree harvesting (WTH, in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, A. klagesi, A. strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus (Carabidae. Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH and stem only (SOH harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species.

  16. CMOS-MEMS Microgravity Accelerometer with High-Precision DC Response Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II SBIR project a high-sensitivity low-noise all-silicon CMOS-MEMS accelerometer for quasi-steady measurements of accelerations at sub 1 micro-g levels...

  17. Responses of the central nervous system to high linear energy transfer radiation: NSCOR project highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory; Fike, John; Limoli, Charles; Obenaus, André; Raber, Jacob; Soltesz, Ivan; Vlkolinský, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Overview: The five-university NSCOR project investigates the responses of the central nervous system to space-like charged particle exposure by evaluating: synaptic function, in vitro and in vivo neurogenesis, behavior and behaviorally induced gene expression, and oxidative stress of the mouse hippocampus and cultured neural precursor cells. To test the role of reactive oxygen species in mediating the effects of radiation exposure, we compare responses in a catalase overexpressing transgenic mouse strain to wild type. We also use computational models of the hippocampus in three dimensions, informed by experimental measurements, to provide insight into network behavior. Radiation exposure protocols include single, acute whole-body exposures to 1H, 28Si and 56Fe ions and mixed field exposures using 1H + 56Fe ions (24 h later). The animal models are 10-week-old C57BL/6J and MCATtg males which are evaluated at 30 and 90 days postirradiation. In vitro models are cultured murine and human neural stem cells irradiated with 1H, 16O, 28Si and 56Fe ions at multiple energies and are evaluated at times from days to weeks. Highlights: Neural stem cells organized into neurospheres were irradiated with several ions at doses as low as 0.75 cGy. Data show that significant oxidative stress occurs that alters survival, proliferation and differentiation. Overall trends indicate that changes in oxidative stress (persisting for weeks) correlate with particle linear energy transfer (LET). 56Fe ions elicited the largest and most persistent changes in stress markers, including antioxidant enzyme expression levels. The hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and novel object recognition (NOR) paradigms were used to assess cognition and showed cognitive deficits after irradiation with the NOR paradigm more sensitive than CFC. Analysis of neurogenesis indicates that overall neurogenesis is inhibited at doses ≥1 Gy, but newly born activated microglia are significantly

  18. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    preliminary ARSs show some adaptation options allow recover up to ca. 2000 kg/ha. Compared to the historical yields recorded at Lleida province (2550 kg/ha in 1981-2010) our results indicate that adaptation is feasible and may help to reduce detrimental effects of CC. Our analysis evaluates if the explored adaptations fulfill the biophysical requirements to become a practical adaptive solution. This study exemplifies how adaptation options and their impacts can be analyzed, evaluated and communicated in a context of high regional uncertainty for current and future conditions and for short to long-term perspective. This work was funded by MACSUR project within FACCE-JPI. References Abeledo, L.G., R. Savin and G.A. Slafer (2008). European Journal of Agronomy 28:541-550. Cartelle, J., A. Pedró, R. Savin, G.A. Slafer (2006) European Journal of Agronomy 25:365-371. Pirttioja, N., T. Carter, S. Fronzek, M. Bindi, H. Hoffmann, T. Palosuo, M. Ruiz-Ramos, F. Tao, M. Acutis, S. Asseng, P. Baranowski, B. Basso, P. Bodin, S. Buis, D. Cammarano, P. Deligios, M.-F. Destain, B. Dumont, R. Ewert, R. Ferrise, L. François, T. Gaiser, P. Hlavinka, I. Jacquemin, K.C. Kersebaum, C. Kollas, J. Krzyszczak, I.J. Lorite, J. Minet, M.I. Minguez, M. Montesino, M. Moriondo, C. Müller, C. Nendel, I. Öztürk, A. Perego, A. Rodríguez, A.C. Ruane, F. Ruget, M. Sanna, M.A. Semenov, C. Slawinski, P. Stratonovitch, I. Supit, K. Waha, E. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Zhao, and R.P. Rötter, 2015: A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces. Clim. Res., 65, 87-105, doi:10.3354/cr01322. IRS2 TEAM: Alfredo Rodríguez(1), Ignacio J. Lorite(3), Fulu Tao(4), Nina Pirttioja(5), Stefan Fronzek(5), Taru Palosuo(4), Timothy R. Carter(5), Marco Bindi(2), Jukka G Höhn(4), Kurt Christian Kersebaum(6), Miroslav Trnka(7,8), Holger Hoffmann(9), Piotr Baranowski(10), Samuel Buis(11), Davide Cammarano(12), Yi Chen(13,4), Paola Deligios

  19. Insights into Spatial Sensitivities of Ice Mass Response to Environmental Change from the SeaRISE Ice Sheet Modeling Project I: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Sophie; Bindschadler, Robert A.; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Aschwanden, Andy; Bueler, Ed; Choi, Hyengu; Fastook, Jim; Granzow, Glen; Greve, Ralf; Gutowski, Gail; Herzfeld, Ute; Jacskon, Charles; Johnson, Jesse; Khroulev, Constantine; Larour, Eric; Levermann, Anders; Lipscomb, William H.; Martin, Maria A.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Parizek, Byron R; Pollard, David; Price, Stephen F.; Seroussi, Helene; Walker, Ryan; Wang, Wei Li

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric, oceanic, and subglacial forcing scenarios from the Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution (SeaRISE) project are applied to six three-dimensional thermomechanical ice-sheet models to assess Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity over a 500 year timescale and to inform future modeling and field studies. Results indicate (i) growth with warming, except within low-latitude basins (where inland thickening is outpaced by marginal thinning); (ii) mass loss with enhanced sliding (with basins dominated by high driving stresses affected more than basins with low-surface-slope streaming ice); and (iii) mass loss with enhanced ice shelf melting (with changes in West Antarctica dominating the signal due to its marine setting and extensive ice shelves; cf. minimal impact in the Terre Adelie, George V, Oates, and Victoria Land region of East Antarctica). Ice loss due to dynamic changes associated with enhanced sliding and/or sub-shelf melting exceeds the gain due to increased precipitation. Furthermore, differences in results between and within basins as well as the controlling impact of sub-shelf melting on ice dynamics highlight the need for improved understanding of basal conditions, grounding-zone processes, ocean-ice interactions, and the numerical representation of all three.

  20. Pre-waste-emplacement ground-water travel time sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed to estimate critical factors in the performance of the site with respect to a criterion in terms of pre-waste-emplacement ground-water travel time. The degree of failure in the analytical model to meet the criterion is sensitive to the estimate of fracture porosity in the upper welded unit of the problem domain. Fracture porosity is derived from a number of more fundamental measurements including fracture frequency, fracture orientation, and the moisture-retention characteristic inferred for the fracture domain.

  1. Postsynaptic odorant concentration dependent inhibition controls temporal properties of spike responses of projection neurons in the moth antennal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Terufumi; Kazawa, Tomoki; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    Although odorant concentration-response characteristics of olfactory neurons have been widely investigated in a variety of animal species, the effect of odorant concentration on neural processing at circuit level is still poorly understood. Using calcium imaging in the silkmoth (Bombyx mori) pheromone processing circuit of the antennal lobe (AL), we studied the effect of odorant concentration on second-order projection neuron (PN) responses. While PN calcium responses of dendrites showed monotonic increases with odorant concentration, calcium responses of somata showed decreased responses at higher odorant concentrations due to postsynaptic inhibition. Simultaneous calcium imaging and electrophysiology revealed that calcium responses of PN somata but not dendrites reflect spiking activity. Inhibition shortened spike response duration rather than decreasing peak instantaneous spike frequency (ISF). Local interneurons (LNs) that were specifically activated at high odorant concentrations at which PN responses were suppressed are the putative source of inhibition. Our results imply the existence of an intraglomerular mechanism that preserves time resolution in olfactory processing over a wide odorant concentration range.

  2. Postsynaptic odorant concentration dependent inhibition controls temporal properties of spike responses of projection neurons in the moth antennal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terufumi Fujiwara

    Full Text Available Although odorant concentration-response characteristics of olfactory neurons have been widely investigated in a variety of animal species, the effect of odorant concentration on neural processing at circuit level is still poorly understood. Using calcium imaging in the silkmoth (Bombyx mori pheromone processing circuit of the antennal lobe (AL, we studied the effect of odorant concentration on second-order projection neuron (PN responses. While PN calcium responses of dendrites showed monotonic increases with odorant concentration, calcium responses of somata showed decreased responses at higher odorant concentrations due to postsynaptic inhibition. Simultaneous calcium imaging and electrophysiology revealed that calcium responses of PN somata but not dendrites reflect spiking activity. Inhibition shortened spike response duration rather than decreasing peak instantaneous spike frequency (ISF. Local interneurons (LNs that were specifically activated at high odorant concentrations at which PN responses were suppressed are the putative source of inhibition. Our results imply the existence of an intraglomerular mechanism that preserves time resolution in olfactory processing over a wide odorant concentration range.

  3. A Fast-Response Atmospheric Turbulence (FRAT) Probe with Gas-Sampling Ducts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to design, construct and test a high-frequency-response air-data probe, the Fast Response Atmospheric Turbulence probe (FRAT probe)...

  4. A Fast-Response Atmospheric Turbulence (FRAT) Probe with Gas-Sampling Ducts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aeroprobe proposes to design, construct and test an air-data probe with substantially higher frequency response than currently available. This fast-response...

  5. Rock mass response to strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events and blasting observed at the surface of the excavations in deep level gold mines in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Ray; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied to characterize the rock mass response and to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instruments, especially designed for recording strong ground motions, were installed underground at a number of deep level gold mines in South Africa. The instruments were recording data at the surface of the stope hangingwalls. A maximum value of 3 m/s was measured. Therefore data were compared to the data recorded in the solid rock by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response. The site response was defined as the ratio of the peak ground velocity measured at the surface of the excavations to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data measured in the solid rocks. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to extreme ground motion and derive the attenuation factors in near field. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of the ground motion was found to be proportional to the distance from the source following R^-1.1 & R^-1.7 for compact rock and R^-3.1 & R^-3.4 for more fractured rock close to the surface of the tunnel. In addition the ground motion was compared to the quasi-static deformations taking place around the underground excavations. The quasi-static deformations were measured by means of strain, tilt and closure. A good correspondence

  6. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  7. Simulated hydrologic response to projected changes in precipitation and temperature in the Congo River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aloysius

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite their global significance, the impacts of climate change on water resources and associated ecosystem services in the Congo River basin (CRB have been understudied. Of particular need for decision makers is the availability of spatial and temporal variability of runoff projections. Here, with the aid of a spatially explicit hydrological model forced with precipitation and temperature projections from 25 global climate models (GCMs under two greenhouse gas emission scenarios, we explore the variability in modeled runoff in the near future (2016–2035 and mid-century (2046–2065. We find that total runoff from the CRB is projected to increase by 5 % [−9 %; 20 %] (mean – min and max – across model ensembles over the next two decades and by 7 % [−12 %; 24 %] by mid-century. Projected changes in runoff from subwatersheds distributed within the CRB vary in magnitude and sign. Over the equatorial region and in parts of northern and southwestern CRB, most models project an overall increase in precipitation and, subsequently, runoff. A simulated decrease in precipitation leads to a decline in runoff from headwater regions located in the northeastern and southeastern CRB. Climate model selection plays an important role in future projections for both magnitude and direction of change. The multimodel ensemble approach reveals that precipitation and runoff changes under business-as-usual and avoided greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP8.5 vs. RCP4.5 are relatively similar in the near term but deviate in the midterm, which underscores the need for rapid action on climate change adaptation. Our assessment demonstrates the need to include uncertainties in climate model and emission scenario selection during decision-making processes related to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  8. Current induced magnetic flux response in frustrated three-band superconductors as a bulk probe of broken time reversal symmetry (BTRS) ground states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerin, Yuriy; Omelyanchouk, Alexander [Verkin Inst. for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering. 61103 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Drechsler, Stefan-Ludwig; Brink, Jeroen van den; Efremov, Dmitriy [Inst. for Theorretical Solid State Physics at the Leibniz Inst. for Solid State an Materials Research, IFW-Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Within the Ginzburg-Landau formalism we provide a classification of all possible ground states (GS) of a three-band superconductor (3BSC) where either frustrated states with BTRS or a single non-BTRS GS with unconventional/conventional s-wave symmetry, respectively, exist. The necessary condition for a BTRS GS in general cannot be reduced to a ''-''sign of the product of all interband couplings (IBC) valid in the case of 3 equivalent bands with repulsive equal IBC, only. It corresponds to a maximal IBC frustration. We show that with increasing diversity of the parameter space this frustration is reduced and the regions of possible BTRS GS start to shrink. We track possible evolutions of a BTRS GS of a 3BSC based doubly-connected system in an external magnetic field. Depending on its parameters, a magnetic flux can induce various current density leaps, connected with adiabatic or non-adiabatic transitions from BTRS to non-BTRS states and vice versa. The current induced magnetic flux response of samples with a doubly-connected geometry e.g. as a thin tube provides a suitable experimental tool for the detection of BTRS GS.

  9. Adaptive Generalized Projective Synchronization of Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Drive-response Dynamical Networks with Time Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yong-Ai

    2012-01-01

    Time-delay Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy drive-response dynamical networks (TD-TSFDRDNs) are defined by extending the drive-response dynamical networks. Based on the LaSalle invariant principle, a simple and systematic adaptive control scheme is proposed to synchronize the TD-TSFDRDNs with a desired scalar factor. A sufficient condition for the generalized projective synchronization in TD-TSFDRDNs is derived. Moreover, numerical simulations are provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the scheme.%Time-delay Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy drive-response dynamical networks (TD-TSFDRDNs) are defined by extending the drive-response dynamical networks.Based on the LaSalle invariant principle,a simple and systematic adaptive control scheme is proposed to synchronize the TD-TSFDRDNs with a desired scalar factor.A sufficient condition for the generalized projective synchronization in TD-TSFDRDNs is derived.Moreover,numerical simulations are provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the scheme.

  10. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program, Phase I. Project II: seismic input. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouse, C B; Hileman, J A; Turner, B E; Martin, G R

    1980-04-01

    A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms, (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications.

  11. Prediction of Pseudo relative velocity response spectra at Yucca Mountain for underground nuclear explosions conducted in the Pahute Mesa testing area at the Nevada testing site; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), managed by the Office of Geologic Disposal of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy, is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for commercial, high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This work, intended to extend our understanding of the ground motion at Yucca Mountain resulting from testing of nuclear weapons on the NTS, was funded by the Yucca Mountain project and the Military Applications Weapons Test Program. This report summarizes one aspect of the weapons test seismic investigations conducted in FY88. Pseudo relative velocity response spectra (PSRV) have been calculated for a large body of surface ground motions generated by underground nuclear explosions. These spectra have been analyzed and fit using multiple linear regression techniques to develop a credible prediction technique for surface PSRVs. In addition, a technique for estimating downhole PSRVs at specific stations is included. A data summary, data analysis, prediction development, prediction evaluation, software summary and FORTRAN listing of the prediction technique are included in this report.

  12. The Rescue911 Emergency Response Information System (ERIS): A Systems Development Project Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jason F.; Thiel, Franz H.

    2010-01-01

    This teaching case presents a systems development project useful for courses in object-oriented analysis and design. The case has a strong focus on the business, methodology, modeling and implementation aspects of systems development. The case is centered on a fictitious ambulance and emergency services company (Rescue911). The case describes that…

  13. Responsible Management and Use of a Personal Take-Home Naloxone Supply: A Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Andrew; Lindsay, George; Woods, Maureen; Louttit, Derek

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To assess if Scottish drug users, their family and friends could be trained in critical incident management and the safe and effective administration of naloxone. The project also sought to monitor whether drug users can manage their own personal take-home naloxone (THN) supply and use it appropriately in an emergency opiate overdose…

  14. How Do Students Define Their Roles and Responsibilities in Online Learning Group Projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen C.; Morgan, Kari; Cameron, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the processes of group role formation in online class settings. Qualitative analysis was used to code chat logs and discussion threads in six undergraduate Family and Consumer Sciences online courses that required online group projects. Four themes related to the process of group role formation emerged:…

  15. Educating for Freedom and Responsibility: Lessons From the First Amendment Schools Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The First Amendment Schools project holds rich lessons in how to change school cultures into "laboratories of democracy"--as well as in how to increase the odds of success for any school reform effort. School reform programs of any sort need to make sure to build in sustainability, to provide ways to spread their lessons beyond the…

  16. Civil Rights Project's Response to "Re-Analysis" of Charter School Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Civil Rights Project (CRP) was founded, in part, to bring rigorous social science inquiry to bear on the most pressing civil rights issues. On-going trends involving public school segregation have been a primary focus of the CRP's research, and the expanding policy emphasis on school choice prompted analysis of the much smaller--but…

  17. The Rescue911 Emergency Response Information System (ERIS): A Systems Development Project Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jason F.; Thiel, Franz H.

    2010-01-01

    This teaching case presents a systems development project useful for courses in object-oriented analysis and design. The case has a strong focus on the business, methodology, modeling and implementation aspects of systems development. The case is centered on a fictitious ambulance and emergency services company (Rescue911). The case describes that…

  18. The uncertainty of crop yield projections is reduced by improved temperature response functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Enli; Martre, Pierre; Zhao, Zhigan; Ewert, Frank; Maiorano, Andrea; Rötter, Reimund P.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Ottman, Michael J.; Wall, Gerard W.; White, Jeffrey W.; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Alderman, Phillip D.; Aggarwal, Pramod K.; Anothai, Jakarat; Basso, Bruno; Biernath, Christian; Cammarano, Davide; Challinor, Andrew J.; Sanctis, De Giacomo; Doltra, Jordi; Fereres, Elias; Garcia-Vila, Margarita; Gayler, Sebastian; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Hunt, Leslie A.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Jabloun, Mohamed; Jones, Curtis D.; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Koehler, Ann Kristin; Liu, Leilei; Müller, Christoph; Naresh Kumar, Soora; Nendel, Claas; O'Leary, Garry; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Palosuo, Taru; Priesack, Eckart; Eyshi Rezaei, Ehsan; Ripoche, Dominique; Ruane, Alex C.; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Shcherbak, Iurii; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Streck, Thilo; Supit, Iwan; Tao, Fulu; Thorburn, Peter J.; Waha, Katharina; Wallach, Daniel; Wang, Zhimin; Wolf, Joost; Zhu, Yan; Asseng, Senthold

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the accuracy of crop productivity estimates is a key element in planning adaptation strategies to ensure global food security under climate change. Process-based crop models are effective means to project climate impact on crop yield, but have large uncertainty in yield simulations. Here,

  19. Transcutaneous Noninvasive Device for the Responsive Delivery of Melatonin in Microgravity. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our goal is develop a smart, transcutaneous device for individualized circadian (sleep) therapy by responsive release of melatonin, in microgravity. Additionally,...

  20. Leaf traits and photosynthetic responses of Betula pendula saplings to a range of ground-level ozone concentrations at a range of nitrogen loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmens, Harry; Hayes, Felicity; Sharps, Katrina; Mills, Gina; Calatayud, Vicent

    2017-04-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition rates have increased strongly since the 1950s. Rising ground-level O3 concentrations and atmospheric N deposition both affect plant physiology and growth, however, impacts have often been studied in isolation rather than in combination. In addition, studies are often limited to a control treatment and one or two elevated levels of ozone and/or nitrogen supply. In the current study, three-year old Betula pendula saplings were exposed to seven different O3 profiles (24h mean O3 concentration of 36-68ppb in 2013, with peaks up to an average of 105ppb) in precision-controlled hemispherical glasshouses (solardomes) and four different N loads (10, 30, 50 or 70kgNha(-1)y(-1)) in 2012 and 2013. Here we report on the effects of enhanced O3 concentrations and N load on leaf traits and gas exchange in leaves of varying age and developmental stage in 2013. The response of leaf traits to O3 (but not N) vary with leaf developmental stage. For example, elevated O3 did not affect the chlorophyll content of the youngest fully expanded leaf, but it reduced the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic parameters in aging leaves, relatively more so later than earlier in the growing season. Elevated O3 enhanced the N content of senesced leaves prior to leaf fall, potentially affecting subsequent N cycling in the soil. Enhanced N generally stimulated the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic capacity. Whilst elevated O3 reduced the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Asat) in aging leaves, it did not affect stomatal conductance (gs). This suggests that photosynthesis and gs are not closely coupled at elevated O3 under-light saturating conditions. We did not observe any interactions between O3 and N regarding photosynthetic parameters (Vc,max, Jmax, Asat), chlorophyll content, gs, N content in senesced leaves and leaf number. Hence, the sensitivity of these leaf traits to O3 in young silver birch trees is

  1. 葛洲坝电厂调度对中华鲟产卵场水流条件的影响%Influence of Gezhouba Project Dispatching on the Flow Condition of Chinese Sturgeon's Spawning Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明海; 郭辉; 邢领航; 姜伟; 杨伟

    2013-01-01

    建立中华鲟产卵场三维水流数学模型,模拟葛洲坝电厂不同调度情况下产卵场水流条件;分析了葛洲坝下游近坝段适宜中华鲟产卵的水深、近底层流速和两者叠加的区域范围;研究了葛洲坝电厂调度对中华鲟产卵场水流条件影响,并初步提出了中华鲟产卵场水流条件改善措施.研究结果表明:葛洲坝下泄流量在15 000~6 000 m3/s范围变化时,适宜中华鲟产卵的水流区域范围随下泄流量减小相应减小;在下泄流量为6000 m3/s情况下,若下泄流量全由大江电厂泄流时有利于增大大江尾水区适宜产卵的水流区域范围.%A three-dimensional mathematical model of the flow at Chinese sturgeon's spawning ground was established.The flow condition in the presence of different dispatching operation modes of Gezhouba power station was simulated by this model.The area of water depth,bottom velocity and the superposing of the two suitable for Chinese sturgeon' s spawning in the downstream near the Gezhouba Project was analyzed.The influence of Gezhouba Project dispatching on the flow condition of Chinese sturgeon' s spawning ground was studied,and measures of improving the flow condition of Chinese sturgeon' s spawning ground were discussed.The results show that:when the discharge of Gezhouba Project varies in the range of 15 000-6 000 m3/s,the flow area suitable for Chinese sturgeon' s spawning decreases accordingly with the reducing of discharge ; when the discharge is 6 000 m3/s,if all the flow is discharged by Dajiang Powerplant,it will be beneficial to increase the suitable flow area for Chinese sturgeon spawning.

  2. Spikes and bursts in two types of thalamic projection neurons differentially shape sleep patterns and auditory responses in a songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnloser, Richard H R; Wang, Claude Z-H; Nager, Aymeric; Naie, Katja

    2008-05-07

    In mammals, the thalamus plays important roles for cortical processing, such as relay of sensory information and induction of rhythmical firing during sleep. In neurons of the avian cerebrum, in analogy with cortical up and down states, complex patterns of regular-spiking and dense-bursting modes are frequently observed during sleep. However, the roles of thalamic inputs for shaping these firing modes are largely unknown. A suspected key player is the avian thalamic nucleus uvaeformis (Uva). Uva is innervated by polysensory input, receives indirect cerebral feedback via the midbrain, and projects to the cerebrum via two distinct pathways. Using pharmacological manipulation, electrical stimulation, and extracellular recordings of Uva projection neurons, we study the involvement of Uva in zebra finches for the generation of spontaneous activity and auditory responses in premotor area HVC (used as a proper name) and the downstream robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA). In awake and sleeping birds, we find that single Uva spikes suppress and spike bursts enhance spontaneous and auditory-evoked bursts in HVC and RA neurons. Strong burst suppression is mediated mainly via tonically firing HVC-projecting Uva neurons, whereas a fast burst drive is mediated indirectly via Uva neurons projecting to the nucleus interface of the nidopallium. Our results reveal that cerebral sleep-burst epochs and arousal-related burst suppression are both shaped by sophisticated polysynaptic thalamic mechanisms.

  3. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Whiting, Allan H.

    2007-12-06

    This report is the third annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration action in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). The project is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce. Measurement of the cumulative effects of ecological restoration projects in the Columbia River estuary is a formidable task because of the size and complexity of the estuarine landscape and the meta-populations of salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Despite the challenges presented by this system, developing and implementing appropriate indicators and methods to measure cumulative effects is the best way to enable estuary managers to track the overall effectiveness of investments in estuarine restoration projects. This project is developing methods to quantify the cumulative effects of multiple restoration activities in the CRE. The overall objectives of the 2006 study were to continue to develop techniques to assess cumulative effects, refine the standard monitoring protocols, and initiate development of an adaptive management system for Corps of Engineers’ habitat restoration monitoring efforts in the CRE. (The adaptive management effort will be reported at a later date.) Field studies during 2006 were conducted in tidal freshwater at Kandoll Farm on the lower Grays River and tidal brackish water at Vera Slough on Youngs Bay. Within each of area, we sampled one natural reference site and one restoration site. We addressed the overall objectives with field work in 2006 that, coupled with previous field data, had specific objectives and resulted in some important findings that are summarized here by chapter in this report. Each chapter of the report contains data on particular monitored variables for pre- and post

  4. 40 CFR 300.120 - On-scene coordinators and remedial project managers: general responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Committees, responsible parties, and contractors to assure compliance with the NCP, decision document... Engineers, and all other agencies and contractors to assure compliance with the NCP. Based upon the reports..., responsible parties, and contractors to assure compliance with the NCP, Record of Decision (ROD),...

  5. Groundwater Recharge Evaluation in Semi-Arid Northeast Mexico in Response to Projected Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolaver, B. D.

    2007-12-01

    This research evaluates the effects of projected climate change on mountain recharge in the semi-arid Cuatrocinegas Basin (CCB) of northeast Mexico. The CCB UNESCO Biosphere Reserve is located in Coahuila, Mexico (~27° N, ~102° W) and includes > 500 springs that discharge from a regional flow system to wetlands with > 70 endemic species and to an irrigation network. This study tests the hypothesis that projected climate changes will reduce CCB recharge. In CCB, ~75% of annual precipitation (~220 mm at 700 m, ~400 mm at 2350 m) falls between May and October and ~40% falls during the North American Monsoon in June, July, and August. Environmental isotopes indicate aquifer residence times of > 50 years. Stable isotopes (O and H) show that mountain precipitation (at an elevation of ~1170 to 2350 m) dominates groundwater recharge. Recharge is insignificant at lower- elevation valleys that cover the majority of the study area due to high evapotranspiration rates. A Cl--balance water-budget recharge analysis estimates a spatially distributed recharge rate of ~1 to 3% of precipitation to provide at least 35x106 m3/year spring discharge (as measured in canals that drain dozens of springs). IPCC AR4 climate projections predict an annual temperature increase of 3.0 to 3.5°C and an annual precipitation decrease of 5 to 10% for Subregion CNA (located adjacent to CCB) by 2099. During June to August, models project a temperature increase of 3.5 to 4.0°C and a precipitation increase of 0 to 5%. Although global and regional circulation models evaluate mountain regions poorly, a first-order evaluation of climate projections on CCB recharge is needed input to develop effective long-term groundwater management policies. Climate projections suggest that the minimum elevation at which recharge occurs in CCB may increase by ~615 m to 1785 m, which would limit recharge to the highest mountain elevations. If annual precipitation is reduced by 5 to 10% and temperatures increase as

  6. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  7. SEISMIC RESPONSE OF LARGE CROSSING TRANSMISSION TOWER-LINE SYSTEM SUBJECTED TO NEAR-FAULT GROUND MOTIONS%大跨越输电塔-线体系的近场脉冲型地震反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武钢; 翟长海; 李爽; 谢礼立

    2013-01-01

    分析了大跨越输电塔-线体系的动力特性,对比了大跨越输电塔-线体系的近-远场地震反应,研究了大跨越塔-线体系的近场脉冲地震反应规律.结果表明在同幅值的近场脉冲型地震动作用下,大跨越输电塔-线体系的动力反应远大于其在一般地震动下的反应,大跨越输电塔-线体系的近场脉冲型地震反应幅值随地震动脉冲周期增大而增大.将等效脉冲模型引入大跨越输电塔-线体系近场响应分析,结果表明:塔-线体系在等效脉冲作用下的响应与实际地震动相近,将等效脉冲用于分析大跨越输电塔-线体系的地震响应能够弥补实际近场脉冲型地震动数目过少的不足.%Dynamic characteristics of a large crossing transmission tower-line system (LCTTL) are analyzed.The seismic responses of a large crossing transmission tower-line system subjected to near-fault pulse-like ground motions and ordinary ground motions are compared.The characteristics of responses caused by near-fault pulse-like ground motions are presented.It is shown that the seismic responses of LCTL induced by near-fault pulse-like ground motions are severer than the responses subjected to ordinary ground motions.The amplitude of seismic responses increases with the pulse period of near-fault pulse-like ground motions.An equivalent pulse model is introduced to seismic response evaluation of LCTL.The results demonstrate that the equivalent pulse model can capture the important response characteristics of the near-fault records.The application of equivalent pulse model in seismic responses analysis of LCTL can augment the number of near-fault record set.

  8. Study of Ground Response Curve (GRC) Based on a Damage Model / Badanie Krzywej Odpowiedzi Gruntu (Grc) W Oparciu O Model Pękania Skał

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molladavoodi, H.

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of stresses and displacements around underground openings is necessary in a wide variety of civil, petroleum and mining engineering problems. In addition, an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) is generally formed around underground openings as a result of high stress magnitudes even in the absence of blasting effects. The rock materials surrounding the underground excavations typically demonstrate nonlinear and irreversible mechanical response in particular under high in situ stress states. The dominant cause of irreversible deformations in brittle rocks is damage process. One of the most widely used methods in tunnel design is the convergence-confinement method (CCM) for its practical application. The elastic-plastic models are usually used in the convergence-confinement method as a constitutive model for rock behavior. The plastic models used to simulate the rock behavior, do not consider the important issues such as stiffness degradation and softening. Therefore, the use of damage constitutive models in the convergence-confinement method is essential in the design process of rock structures. In this paper, the basic concepts of continuum damage mechanics are outlined. Then a numerical stepwise procedure for a circular tunnel under hydrostatic stress field, with consideration of a damage model for rock mass has been implemented. The ground response curve and radius of excavation damage zone were calculated based on an isotropic damage model. The convergence-confinement method based on damage model can consider the effects of post-peak rock behavior on the ground response curve and excavation damage zone. The analysis of results show the important effect of brittleness parameter on the tunnel wall convergence, ground response curve and excavation damage radius. Analiza naprężeń i przemieszczeń powstałych wokół otworu podziemnego wymagana jest przy szerokiej gamie projektów z zakresu budownictwa lądowego, inżynierii górniczej oraz naftowej. Ponadto

  9. Hydrological response of the central Pyrenees to projected environmental change in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    López-Moreno, J. I.; S. M. Vicente-Serrano; J. Zabalza; J. Revuelto; Gilaberte, M.; Azorín-Molina, C.; Morán-Tejeda, E.; García-Ruiz, J. M.; Tague, C

    2014-01-01

    Streamflows in five Mediterranean mountain headwaters in the central Spanish Pyrenees were projected under various climate and land use change scenarios. Streamflows were simulated using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys). The results show that changes in precipitation and temperature could cause a decline of annual streamflow between 13% and 23%, depending on the considered catchment. When the effect of increased forest cover in the basins is added to climate change effe...

  10. Projected asymmetric response of Adélie penguins to Antarctic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Megan A.; Lynch, Heather J.; Saba, Vincent S.; Oliver, Matthew J.

    2016-06-01

    The contribution of climate change to shifts in a species’ geographic distribution is a critical and often unresolved ecological question. Climate change in Antarctica is asymmetric, with cooling in parts of the continent and warming along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). The Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) is a circumpolar meso-predator exposed to the full range of Antarctic climate and is undergoing dramatic population shifts coincident with climate change. We used true presence-absence data on Adélie penguin breeding colonies to estimate past and future changes in habitat suitability during the chick-rearing period based on historic satellite observations and future climate model projections. During the contemporary period, declining Adélie penguin populations experienced more years with warm sea surface temperature compared to populations that are increasing. Based on this relationship, we project that one-third of current Adélie penguin colonies, representing ~20% of their current population, may be in decline by 2060. However, climate model projections suggest refugia may exist in continental Antarctica beyond 2099, buffering species-wide declines. Climate change impacts on penguins in the Antarctic will likely be highly site specific based on regional climate trends, and a southward contraction in the range of Adélie penguins is likely over the next century.

  11. In-house coordination project for organ and tissue procurement: social responsibility and promising results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vanessa Silva E; Moura, Luciana Carvalho; Martins, Luciana Ribeiro; Santos, Roberta Cristina Cardoso Dos; Schirmer, Janine; Roza, Bartira de Aguiar

    2016-01-01

    to report the results of evaluation regarding changes in the number of potential donor referrals, actual donors, and conversion rates after the implementation of an in-house organ and tissue donation for transplantation coordination project. epidemiological study, both retrospective and transversal, was performed with organ donation data from the Secretariat of Health for the State and the in-house organ donation coordination project of a beneficent hospital. The data was compared using nonparametric statistical Mann-Whitney test, and the Student's t-test, considering a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). there were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05), before and after the implementation of the project on the number of potential donor notification/month (3.05 - 4.7 ), number of actual donor/month (0.78 to 1.60) and rate of conversion ( 24.7 to 34.8 %). The hospitals 1, 2, 7 and 8 had significant results in potential donor, actual donor or conversion rate. the presence of an in-house coordinator is promising and beneficial, the specialist is important to change the indicators of efficiency, which consequently reduces the waiting lists for organ transplants.

  12. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Cameron, April; Coleman, Andre M.; Corbett, C.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Kauffman, Ronald; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Silva, April; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Woodruff, Dana L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2010-10-26

    This is the sixth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (USACE) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), and the University of Washington. The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the 235-km-long LCRE. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2009, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tidegate replacement vs. culvert replacement vs. dike breach).

  13. In-house coordination project for organ and tissue procurement: social responsibility and promising results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Silva e Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to report the results of evaluation regarding changes in the number of potential donor referrals, actual donors, and conversion rates after the implementation of an in-house organ and tissue donation for transplantation coordination project. Methods: epidemiological study, both retrospective and transversal, was performed with organ donation data from the Secretariat of Health for the State and the in-house organ donation coordination project of a beneficent hospital. The data was compared using nonparametric statistical Mann-Whitney test, and the Student's t-test, considering a significance level of 5% (p <0.05. Results: there were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05, before and after the implementation of the project on the number of potential donor notification/month (3.05 - 4.7 , number of actual donor/month (0.78 to 1.60 and rate of conversion ( 24.7 to 34.8 %. The hospitals 1, 2, 7 and 8 had significant results in potential donor, actual donor or conversion rate. Conclusion: the presence of an in-house coordinator is promising and beneficial, the specialist is important to change the indicators of efficiency, which consequently reduces the waiting lists for organ transplants.

  14. Comparing different methods for assessing ground truth of rover data analysis for the 2005 season of the Life in the Atacama Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G. W.; Peate, I. Ukstins; Nakamoto, J.; Pudenz, E.; Glasgow, J.; Bretthauer, J.; Cabrol, N.; Wettergreen, D.; Grin, E.; Coppin, P.; Dohm, J. M.; Piatek, J. L.; Warren-Rhodes, K.; Hock, A. N.; Weinstein, S.; Fisher, G.; Diaz, G. Chong; Cockell, C.; Marinangeli, L.; Minkley, N.; Moersch, J.; Ori, G. G.; Smith, T.; Stubb, K.; Wagner, M.; Waggoner, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    The scientific success of a remote exploration rover mission depends on the right combination of technology, teamwork and scientific insight. In order to quantitatively evaluate the success of a rover field trial, it is necessary to assess the accuracy of scientific interpretations made during the field test. This work compares three structured approaches to assessing the ground truth of scientific findings from a science team conducting a remote investigation of a locale using an autonomous rover. For the first approach, independent assessment, the daily science summaries were analyzed and reduced to a series of 1082 factual statements, which were treated as hypotheses. An independent scientist traveled to the field area to assess these hypotheses. For the second approach, guided self-study, the mission scientists themselves traveled to the field area and evaluated their own scientific interpretations. The third approach, discrepancy investigation, searched for the root causes of differences between the scientific interpretations made in the control room and those made in the field. The independent investigation provided sensitive, quantitative data, but suffered from the lack of context and continuity developed in the mission control room. The guided evaluation benefited from the context of the mission, but lacked clarity and consistency. The discrepancy investigation provided insight into the root causes behind the discrepancies, but was expensive and time consuming. The independent investigation method yielded particularly compelling results, but each method offers advantages and a comprehensive rover field trial assessment should include a combination of all three.

  15. Response of streamflow to projected climate change scenarios in an eastern Himalayan catchment of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K T Senzeba; S Rajkumari; A Bhadra; A Bandyopadhyay

    2016-04-01

    Snowmelt run-off model (SRM) based on degree-day approach has been employed to evaluate the change in snow-cover depletion and corresponding streamflow under different projected climatic scenarios foran eastern Himalayan catchment in India. Nuranang catchment located at Tawang district of ArunachalPradesh with an area of 52 km^2 is selected for the present study with an elevation range of 3143–4946 mabove mean sea level. Satellite images from October to June of the selected hydrological year 2006–2007were procured from National Remote Sensing Centre, Hyderabad. Snow cover mapping is done usingNDSI method. Based on long term meteorological data, temperature and precipitation data of selectedhydrological year are normalized to represent present climatic condition. The projected temperatureand precipitation data are downloaded from NCAR’s GIS data portal for different emission scenarios(SRES), viz., A1B, A2, B1; and IPCC commitment (non-SRES) scenario for different future years (2020,2030, 2040 and 2050). Projected temperature and precipitation data are obtained at desired locationby spatially interpolating the gridded data and then by statistical downscaling using linear regression.Snow depletion curves for all projected scenarios are generated for the study area and compared withconventional depletion curve for present climatic condition. Changes in cumulative snowmelt depth fordifferent future years are highest under A1B and lowest under IPCC commitment, whereas A2 andB1 values are in-between A1B and IPCC commitment. Percentage increase in streamflow for differentfuture years follows almost the same trend as change in precipitation from present climate under allprojected climatic scenarios. Hence, it was concluded that for small catchments having seasonal snowcover, the total streamflow under projected climatic scenarios in future years will be primarily governedby the change in precipitation and not by change in snowmelt depth. Advancing of depletion curves

  16. Ice-dynamic projections of the Greenland ice sheet in response to atmospheric and oceanic warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Fürst

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuing global warming will have a strong impact on the Greenland ice sheet in the coming centuries. During the last decade (2000–2010, both increased melt-water runoff and enhanced ice discharge from calving glaciers have contributed 0.6 ± 0.1 mm yr−1 to global sea-level rise, with a relative contribution of 60 and 40% respectively. Here we use a higher-order ice flow model, spun up to present day, to simulate future ice volume changes driven by both atmospheric and oceanic temperature changes. For these projections, the flow model accounts for runoff-induced basal lubrication and ocean warming-induced discharge increase at the marine margins. For a suite of 10 atmosphere and ocean general circulation models and four representative concentration pathway scenarios, the projected sea-level rise between 2000 and 2100 lies in the range of +1.4 to +16.6 cm. For two low emission scenarios, the projections are conducted up to 2300. Ice loss rates are found to abate for the most favourable scenario where the warming peaks in this century, allowing the ice sheet to maintain a geometry close to the present-day state. For the other moderate scenario, loss rates remain at a constant level over 300 years. In any scenario, volume loss is predominantly caused by increased surface melting as the contribution from enhanced ice discharge decreases over time and is self-limited by thinning and retreat of the marine margin, reducing the ice–ocean contact area. As confirmed by other studies, we find that the effect of enhanced basal lubrication on the volume evolution is negligible on centennial timescales. Our projections show that the observed rates of volume change over the last decades cannot simply be extrapolated over the 21st century on account of a different balance of processes causing ice loss over time. Our results also indicate that the largest source of uncertainty arises from the surface mass balance and the underlying climate change

  17. Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns derived from ground-based MAX-DOAS system in Guangzhou, China and comparison with satellite observations: First results within the EU FP7 project MarcoPolo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosoglou, Theano; Kouremeti, Natalia; Bais, Alkis; Zyrichidou, Irene; Li, Shu; Balis, Dimitris; Huang, Zhonghui

    2016-04-01

    A miniature MAX-DOAS system, Phaethon, has been developed at the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, for ground-based monitoring of column densities of atmospheric gases. Simultaneous measurements with two Phaethon systems at the city centre of Thessaloniki and at a rural location about 30 km away have shown that Phaethon provides NO2 and HCHO tropospheric column measurements of acceptable accuracy under both low and high air-pollution levels. Currently three systems have been deployed in areas with different pollution patterns to support air quality and satellite validation studies. In the framework of the EU FP7 Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations, Project Of Long-term sino-european co-Operation, MarcoPolo project, one of the Phaethon systems has been installed since April 2015 in the Guangzhou region in China. Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns derived at Guangzhou during the first 10 months of operation are compared with corresponding retrievals from OMI/Aura and GOME-2/Metop-A and /Metop-B satellite sensors. The area is characterized by humid subtropical monsoon climate and cloud-free conditions are rather rare from early March to mid-October. Despite this limitation and the short period of operation of Phaethon in Guangzhou, the agreement between ground-based and satellite observations is generally good for both NO2 and HCHO. It appears that GOME-2 sensors seem to underestimate the tropospheric NO2, possibly due to their large pixel size, whereas the comparison with OMI data is better, especially when a small cloud fraction (< 0.2) is used for cloud screening.

  18. Optimized ground coupled heat pump mechanical package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catan, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This project addresses the question of how well a ground coupled heat pump system could perform with a heat pump which was designed specifically for such systems operating in a northern climate. Conventionally, systems are designed around water source heat pumps which are not designed for ground coupled heat pump application. The objective of the project is to minimize the life cycle cost for a ground coupled system given the freedom to design the heat pump and the ground coil in concert. In order to achieve this objective a number of modeling tools were developed which will likely be of interest in their own right.

  19. Cloud-Based Social Media Visual Analytics Disaster Response System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a next-generation cloud-based social media visual analytics disaster response system that will enable decision-makers and first-responders to obtain...

  20. Cloud-Based Crowdsourced Semantic Social Mobile App for Disaster Response Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For effective disaster response, software technology needs to provide several key features: enable real-time reporting of events, aggregate and analyze event reports...

  1. Completion report for Early Detection Rapid Response Projects : Inventory and control of yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) on Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Completion report for Early Detection Rapid Response Project (EDRR) "Inventory and control of yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) on Kulm Wetland Management District"...

  2. Science in Hawaii/Haawina Hoopapau: A Culturally Responsive Curriculum Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, L. M.; Roberts, K.; Leake, D. W.; Stodden, R. S.; Crabbe, V.

    2005-12-01

    The marvels of modern science often fail to engage indigenous students, as the content and instructional style are usually rooted in the Western experience. This 3 year project, funded by the US Dept. of Education for the Education of Native Hawaiians, offers a curriculum that teaches science through (rather than just about) Native Hawaiian culture. The curriculum focuses on the interdependence of natural resources in our ahupuaa, or watersheds, and helps students strengthen their sense of place and self to malama i ka aina, to care for the land. Further, the curriculum is designed to: engage students in scientific study with relevant, interesting content and activities; improve student achievement of state department of education standards; increase student knowledge and skills in science, math and language arts; respond to the learning needs of Native Hawaiian and/or at-risk students. The project will be presented by a curriculum writer who created and adapted more than a year's worth of materials by teaming with kupuna (respected elders), local cultural experts and role models, educators (new, veteran, Hawaiian, non-Hawaiian, mainland, general and special education teachers), and professionals at the Center on Disability Studies at the University of Hawaii and ALU LIKE, Inc, a non-profit organization to assist Native Hawaiians. The materials created thus far are available for viewing at: www.scihi.hawaii.edu The curriculum, designed for grades 8-11 science classes, can be used to teach a year-long course, a unit, or single lesson related to astronomy, biology, botany, chemistry, geology, oceanography, physical and environmental sciences. This project is in its final year of field testing, polishing and dissemination, and therefore this session will encourage idea sharing, as does our copyright free Web site.

  3. Circumpolar arctic tundra biomass and productivity dynamics in response to projected climate change and herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Epstein, Howard; Engstrom, Ryan; Walker, Donald

    2017-09-01

    Satellite remote sensing data have indicated a general 'greening' trend in the arctic tundra biome. However, the observed changes based on remote sensing are the result of multiple environmental drivers, and the effects of individual controls such as warming, herbivory, and other disturbances on changes in vegetation biomass, community structure, and ecosystem function remain unclear. We apply ArcVeg, an arctic tundra vegetation dynamics model, to estimate potential changes in vegetation biomass and net primary production (NPP) at the plant community and functional type levels. ArcVeg is driven by soil nitrogen output from the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model, existing densities of Rangifer populations, and projected summer temperature changes by the NCAR CCSM4.0 general circulation model across the Arctic. We quantified the changes in aboveground biomass and NPP resulting from (i) observed herbivory only; (ii) projected climate change only; and (iii) coupled effects of projected climate change and herbivory. We evaluated model outputs of the absolute and relative differences in biomass and NPP by country, bioclimate subzone, and floristic province. Estimated potential biomass increases resulting from temperature increase only are approximately 5% greater than the biomass modeled due to coupled warming and herbivory. Such potential increases are greater in areas currently occupied by large or dense Rangifer herds such as the Nenets-occupied regions in Russia (27% greater vegetation increase without herbivores). In addition, herbivory modulates shifts in plant community structure caused by warming. Plant functional types such as shrubs and mosses were affected to a greater degree than other functional types by either warming or herbivory or coupled effects of the two. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Ground-based experiments complement microgravity flight opportunities in the investigation of the effects of space flight on the immune response: is protein kinase C gravity sensitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapes, S. K.; Woods, K. M.; Armstrong, J. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    This manuscript briefly reviews ground-based and flight experiments, discusses how those experiments complement each other, and details how those experiments lead us to speculate about the gravity-sensitive nature of protein kinase C.

  5. Projected long-term response of Southeastern birds to forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.S.; Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Smith, M.L.; Wood, P.B.; Beebe, J.A.; Keyser, P.D.; Loehle, C.; Reynolds, C.J.; Van Deusen, P.; White, D.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have explored the influence of forest management on avian communities empirically, but uncertainty about causal relationships between landscape patterns and temporal dynamics of bird communities calls into question how observed historical patterns can be projected into the future, particularly to assess consequences of differing management alternatives. We used the Habplan harvest scheduler to project forest conditions under several management scenarios mapped at 5-year time steps over a 40-year time span. We used empirical models of overall avian richness, richness of selected guilds, and probability of presence for selected species to predict avian community characteristics for each of the mapped landscapes generated for each 5-year time step for each management scenario. We then used time series analyses to quantify relationships between changes in avian community characteristics and management-induced changes to forest landscapes over time. Our models of avian community and species characteristics indicated habitat associations at multiple spatial scales, although landscape-level measures of habitat were generally more important than stand-level measures. Our projections showed overall avian richness, richness of Neotropical migrants, and the presence of Blue-gray Gnatcatchers and Eastern Wood-pewees varied little among management scenarios, corresponding closely to broad, overall landscape changes over time. By contrast, richness of canopy nesters, richness of cavity nesters, richness of scrub-successional associates, and the presence of Common Yellowthroats showed high temporal variability among management scenarios, likely corresponding to short-term, fine-scale changes in the landscape. Predicted temporal variability of both interior-forest and early successional birds was low in the unharvested landscape relative to that in the harvested landscape. Our results also suggested that early successional species can be sensitive to both

  6. Research on the Effect of Well Completion Technology of Ground Temperature Air-Conditioner Project on Groundwater System%地温空调成井工艺参数对地下水系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米庆彬; 付博; 窦明; 韩涛; 张彦; 张坤; 张华云

    2014-01-01

    在对成井环节分析的基础上,识别了对地下水系统影响较为显著的成井工艺参数(即井径和滤水管孔隙率),基于地下水水热运移基本原理,建立了地下水流动和热量输运耦合模型。选取典型地温空调项目,通过设计不同成井工艺参数,模拟地温空调运行对地下水流场和温度场的影响。结果显示:不同井径和孔隙率在地温空调运行中,对地下水系统影响程度差别较大,井径对抽水井、回水井的影响比较明显,孔隙率对抽水井的影响大于对回水井的影响,适合安阳市地温空调的井径为30 cm、滤水管孔隙率为30%。%According to the analysis of well completion process,this paper distinguished that the well completion tech-parameters (well diameter and filter porosity)could largely affect the groundwater system. Based on the fundamental principle of water and heat transfer,the coupling model of the flow of groundwater and the transport of heat was established. It selected several typical ground temperature air-conditioning projects in order to simulate the effect of ground temperature air-conditioning to the underground flow field and temperature field by design well completion technolo-gies with different parameters. From the results of simulation,it finds out that the different well diameter and filter porosity can make a great differ-ence on the effect of groundwater system. The well diameter can affect the pumping wells and recharge wells obviously,on another hand,the filter porosity parameter’s effect on the pumping wells is bigger than on recharge wells. It finds out that 30cm of well diameter and 30% of the porosity of filter are more suitable for the ground temperature air-conditioning project in Anyang City.

  7. Geographic information system documentation of watershed data for Direct/Delayed Response Project. Southern Blue Ridge Province data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortenson, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    The Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) was designed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program to predict the long-term response of watersheds and surface waters to acidic deposition. The purpose of the DDRP is to investigate and distinguish the time scales over which surface-water systems might change chemically under varying levels of acidic deposition. The DDRP is examining a subset of watersheds sampled as part of the National Surface Water Survey. In the Southern Blue Ridge Province Region of the United States, 35 watersheds are under study. The DDRP required detailed watershed information on those characteristics thought important relative to the effects of acid deposition. The information was then mapped, then entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS). The document discuss protocols, guidelines, and standards used to complete GIS entry of the mapping data, and quality-control procedures were used to ensure accuracy and consistency.

  8. Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions in Ilan, Taiwan: Establishment and Analysis of Attenuation Relations for Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Peak Ground Velocity (PGV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.

    2009-12-01

    An evaluation of seismic hazards requires an estimate of the expected ground motion at the site of interest. The most common means of estimating this ground motion in engineering practice is the use of an attenuation relation. A number of developments have arisen recently to suggest that a new generation of attenuation relationships is warranted. The project named Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA) Project was developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) in response to a core objective: reducing uncertainty in earthquake ground motion estimation. This objective reflects recognition from industry sponsors that improvements in earthquake ground motion estimation will result in significant cost savings and will result in improved system performance in the event of a large earthquake. The Central Weather Bureau has implemented the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) to collect high-quality instrumental recordings of strong earthquake shaking.It is necessary for us to study the strong ground motion characteristics at the Ilan area of northeastern Taiwan. Further analyses using a good quality data base that includes 486 events and 4172 recordings of magnitude greater than 4.0 are required to derive the next generation attenuation of ground motion in Ilan area. In addition, Liu and Tsai (2007) used a catalog of more than 1840 shallow earthquakes with homogenized Mw magnitude ranging from 5.0 to 8.2 in 1900-2007 to estimate the seismic hazard potential in Taiwan. As a result, the PGA and PGV contour patterns of maximum ground motion show that Ilan Plain has high values of 0.2g and 80cm/sec with respect to MMI intensity VII and IX, respectively. Furthermore, from the mean ground motion and the seismic intensity rate analyses, they show that a high annul probability of MMI > VI greater than 35 percents are located at the Chianan area of western Taiwan and Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan. However, these results was

  9. Projecting impacts of climate change on hydrological conditions and biotic responses in a chalk valley riparian wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, A. R.; Thompson, J. R.; Acreman, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Projected changes in climate are likely to substantially impact wetland hydrological conditions that will in turn have implications for wetland ecology. Assessing ecohydrological impacts of climate change requires models that can accurately simulate water levels at the fine-scale resolution to which species and communities respond. Hydrological conditions within the Lambourn Observatory at Boxford, Berkshire, UK were simulated using the physically based, distributed model MIKE SHE, calibrated to contemporary surface and groundwater levels. The site is a 10 ha lowland riparian wetland where complex geological conditions and channel management exert strong influences on the hydrological regime. Projected changes in precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, channel discharge and groundwater level were derived from the UK Climate Projections 2009 ensemble of climate models for the 2080s under different scenarios. Hydrological impacts of climate change differ through the wetland over short distances depending on the degree of groundwater/surface-water interaction. Discrete areas of groundwater upwelling are associated with an exaggerated response of water levels to climate change compared to non-upwelling areas. These are coincident with regions where a weathered chalk layer, which otherwise separates two main aquifers, is absent. Simulated water levels were linked to requirements of the MG8 plant community and Desmoulin's whorl snail (Vertigo moulinsiana) for which the site is designated. Impacts on each are shown to differ spatially and in line with hydrological impacts. Differences in water level requirements for this vegetation community and single species highlight the need for separate management strategies in distinct areas of the wetland.

  10. Response of the extremely halophilic Halococcus dombrowskii strain H4 to UV radiation and space conditions in the EXPOSE -ADAPT project on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrihan, Sergiu; Grosbacher, Michael; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2010-05-01

    The international project ADAPT focuses on the response of different microorganisms to outer space conditions. In 2007, the European Space Agency (ESA) has installed the Columbus laboratory and the exposure facility EXPOSE-E on the International Space Station (ISS). One of the microorganisms that were exposed for 18 months on the ISS is Halococcus dombrowskii strain H4, an extremely halophilic archaeon which was isolated from about 250 million years old alpine salt deposits (1). Ground experiments with Hcc. dombrowskii included irradiation with different wavelengths and doses of UV, using a Hg low pressure lamp, a solar simulator SOL2 (both at the DLR, Cologne) and a Mars UV simulation lamp (2). Cells were embedded in halite crystals which were formed on quartz discs by evaporation of high salt buffers. Methods for analyzing the effects of exposure on Hcc. dombrowskii include the estimation of colony forming units (CFUs), staining for viability with the BacLight LIVE/DEAD kit (2), establishing long term liquid cultures and determination of the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) with specific antibodies (3). Counting of viable (green) and dead (red) cells showed an apparent preservation of viability following exposure to about 21 kJ/m2 in ground experiments, but the calculated D37 (dose of 37 % survival) for Hcc. dombrowskii was about 400 kJ/m2 in salt crystals (2). CPDs were detected in about 6-8% of cells of Hcc. dombrowskii following exposure to a dose of 3000 kJ/m2 (200-400 nm). Preliminary results with the samples of Hcc. dombrowskii from the ISS suggested preservation of cellular morphology and stainability with the fluorescent dyes of the LIVE/DEAD kit, as well as formation of CPDs in about 2-3 % of the cells. The determination of the survival of cells by measuring proliferation requires months of incubation; data can be expected in May or June 2010. (1) Stan-Lotter H, Pfaffenhuemer M, Legat A, Busse H-J, Radax C, Gruber C (2002) Halococcus

  11. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2012-05-01

    This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  12. Unmanned ground vehicles for integrated force protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Daniel M.; Mikell, Kenneth; Denewiler, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The combination of Command and Control (C2) systems with Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) provides Integrated Force Protection from the Robotic Operation Command Center. Autonomous UGVs are directed as Force Projection units. UGV payloads and fixed sensors provide situational awareness while unattended munitions provide a less-than-lethal response capability. Remote resources serve as automated interfaces to legacy physical devices such as manned response vehicles, barrier gates, fence openings, garage doors, and remote power on/off capability for unmanned systems. The Robotic Operations Command Center executes the Multiple Resource Host Architecture (MRHA) to simultaneously control heterogeneous unmanned systems. The MRHA graphically displays video, map, and status for each resource using wireless digital communications for integrated data, video, and audio. Events are prioritized and the user is prompted with audio alerts and text instructions for alarms and warnings. A control hierarchy of missions and duty rosters support autonomous operations. This paper provides an overview of the key technology enablers for Integrated Force Protection with details on a force-on-force scenario to test and demonstrate concept of operations using Unmanned Ground Vehicles. Special attention is given to development and applications for the Remote Detection Challenge and Response (REDCAR) initiative for Integrated Base Defense.

  13. The Involvement of the Business Sector in Corporate Social Responsability (SCR Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia NEGREA

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper endeavors to test the hypothesis according to which by non-governmental organizations and private companies, by means of social corporate activities, can interfere with the functioning of the market in the sense of reducing the effects of negative externalities generated by the market. The structure of the article is threefold: the first section represents the theoretical framework for the analysis (main concepts: social corporate responsibility, externalities, market failures; the second section addresses the evolution of this phenomenon in Romania while the third part discusses a case study that is focused on social corporate responsibility practices.

  14. Responses to Projected Changes in Climate and UV-B at the Species Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaghan, Terry V. [Abisko Scientific Research Station, Abisko (Sweden); Bjoern, Lars Olof [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cell and Organism Biology; Cernov, Yuri [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.N. Severtsov Inst. of Evolutionary Morphology and Animal Ecology] (and others)

    2004-11-01

    Environmental manipulation experiments showed that species respond individualistically to each environmental-change variable. The greatest responses of plants were generally to nutrient, particularly nitrogen, addition. Summer warming experiments showed that woody plant responses were dominant and that mosses and lichens became less abundant. Responses to warming were controlled by moisture availability and snow cover. Many invertebrates increased population growth in response to summer warming, as long as desiccation was not induced. CO{sub 2} and UV-B enrichment experiments showed that plant and animal responses were small. However, some microorganisms and species of fungi were sensitive to increased UV-B and some intensive mutagenic actions could, perhaps, lead to unexpected epidemic outbreaks. Tundra soil heating, CO{sub 2} enrichment and amendment with mineral nutrients generally accelerated microbial activity. Algae are likely to dominate cyanobacteria in milder climates. Expected increases in winter freeze-thaw cycles leading to ice-crust formation are likely to severely reduce winter survival rate and disrupt the population dynamics of many terrestrial animals. A deeper snow cover is likely to restrict access to winter pastures by reindeer/caribou and their ability to flee from predators while any earlier onset of the snow-free period is likely to stimulate increased plant growth. Initial species responses to climate change might occur at the sub-species level: an Arctic plant or animal species with high genetic/racial diversity has proved an ability to adapt to different environmental conditions in the past and is likely to do so also in the future. Indigenous knowledge, air photographs, satellite images and monitoring show that changes in the distributions of some species are already occurring: Arctic vegetation is becoming more shrubby and more productive, there have been recent changes in the ranges of caribou, and 'new' species of insects and

  15. Responses to projected changes in climate and UV-B at the species level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Terry V; Björn, Lars Olof; Chernov, Yuri; Chapin, Terry; Christensen, Torben R; Huntley, Brian; Ims, Rolf A; Johansson, Margareta; Jolly, Dyanna; Jonasson, Sven; Matveyeva, Nadya; Panikov, Nicolai; Oechel, Walter; Shaver, Gus; Elster, Josef; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Laine, Kari; Taulavuori, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja; Zöckler, Christoph

    2004-11-01

    Environmental manipulation experiments showed that species respond individualistically to each environmental-change variable. The greatest responses of plants were generally to nutrient, particularly nitrogen, addition. Summer warming experiments showed that woody plant responses were dominant and that mosses and lichens became less abundant. Responses to warming were controlled by moisture availability and snow cover. Many invertebrates increased population growth in response to summer warming, as long as desiccation was not induced. CO2 and UV-B enrichment experiments showed that plant and animal responses were small. However, some microorganisms and species of fungi were sensitive to increased UV-B and some intensive mutagenic actions could, perhaps, lead to unexpected epidemic outbreaks. Tundra soil heating, CO2 enrichment and amendment with mineral nutrients generally accelerated microbial activity. Algae are likely to dominate cyanobacteria in milder climates. Expected increases in winter freeze-thaw cycles leading to ice-crust formation are likely to severely reduce winter survival rate and disrupt the population dynamics of many terrestrial animals. A deeper snow cover is likely to restrict access to winter pastures by reindeer/caribou and their ability to flee from predators while any earlier onset of the snow-free period is likely to stimulate increased plant growth. Initial species responses to climate change might occur at the sub-species level: an Arctic plant or animal species with high genetic/racial diversity has proved an ability to adapt to different environmental conditions in the past and is likely to do so also in the future. Indigenous knowledge, air photographs, satellite images and monitoring show that changes in the distributions of some species are already occurring: Arctic vegetation is becoming more shrubby and more productive, there have been recent changes in the ranges of caribou, and "new" species of insects and birds previously

  16. Social and Environmental Responsibility and Local Sustainable Development: The Case of the Environmental Education Project and Asset – PEAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Rosa Cabral

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the actions of social responsibility expressed by the Environmental and Heritage Education Project (PEAP, which has been  implemented in the Boa Vista and Moura communities, both located in Oriximiná, State of Pará. This project purported to promote the rescue and preservation of environmental and cultural heritage in local communities, developed in a partnership between the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (Emilio Goeldi [a painter] Pará Museum] (MPEG, the private company Mineração Rio do Norte (Rio do Norte Mining (MRN and representatives of local communities. This study examines to what extent the actions of PEAP can be considered drivers of sustainable local development. To answer this question, the research focused on the implementation of the PEAP actions and their effects on the two communities under study. Specifically, we sought to identify potential social, cultural and economic impacts of the actions of PEAP on both communities, and to identify future expectations of social subjects involved. This is a case study that follows a qualitative approach. The data collected in documents and interviews were analyzed according to the concepts of sustainable local development, corporate social responsibility and tri-sector partnership. The study identified that the actions taken by the PEAP result of management practices and participatory social planning, and reflecting the redemption of traditional practices, socialization of information and income generation, which together contribute to sustainable local development.

  17. Estimating the exposure-response relationships between particulate matter and mortality within the APHEA multicity project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samoli, E; Analitis, A; Touloumi, G; Schwartz, J; Anderson, HR; Sunyer, J; Bisanti, L; Zmirou, D; Vonk, JM; Pekkanen, J; Goodman, P; Paldy, A; Schindler, C; Katsouyanni, K

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have reported significant health effects of air pollution even at low levels of air pollutants, but in most of theses studies linear nonthreshold relations were assumed. We investigated the exposure-response association between ambient particles and mortality in the 22 European citie

  18. The Coconut Wireless Project: Sharing Culturally Responsive Pedagogy through the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Barber, Sharon; Trumbull, Elise; Wenn, Richard

    Beginning in the 1997-98 school year, WestEd staff, with the support of the Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL), worked intensively with a group of five Chamorro teachers from Rota Elementary School (Hawaii) to develop culturally responsive, standards-based science units. The larger goal was to develop Web-based case examples of…

  19. Practical methods for dealing with 'not applicable' item responses in the AMC Linear Disability Score project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holman, Rebecca; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Lindeboom, Robert; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; de Haan, Rob J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Whenever questionnaires are used to collect data on constructs, such as functional status or health related quality of life, it is unlikely that all respondents will respond to all items. This paper examines ways of dealing with responses in a 'not applicable' category to items included

  20. Responses of grape berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity to the projected climate change across the Western Australian wine regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Mpelasoka, Freddie; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    More than a century of observations has established that climate influences grape berry composition. Accordingly, the projected global climate change is expected to impact on grape berry composition although the magnitude and direction of impact at regional and subregional scales are not fully known. The aim of this study was to assess potential impacts of climate change on levels of berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity (TA) of the major grapevine varieties grown across all of the Western Australian (WA) wine regions. Grape berry anthocyanin and TA responses across all WA wine regions were projected for 2030, 2050 and 2070 by utilising empirical models that link these berry attributes and climate data downscaled (to ˜5 km resolution) from the csiro_mk3_5 and miroc3_2_medres global climate model outputs under IPCC SRES A2 emissions scenario. Due to the dependence of berry composition on maturity, climate impacts on anthocyanin and TA levels were assessed at a common maturity of 22 °Brix total soluble solids (TSS), which necessitated the determination of when this maturity will be reached for each variety, region and warming scenario, and future period. The results indicate that both anthocyanin and TA levels will be affected negatively by a warming climate, but the magnitude of the impacts will differ between varieties and wine regions. Compared to 1990 levels, median anthocyanins concentrations are projected to decrease, depending on global climate model, by up to 3-12 % and 9-33 % for the northern wine regions by 2030 and 2070, respectively while 2-18 % reductions are projected in the southern wine regions for the same time periods. Patterns of reductions in the median Shiraz berry anthocyanin concentrations are similar to that of Cabernet Sauvignon; however, the magnitude is lower (up to 9-18 % in southern and northern wine regions respectively by 2070). Similarly, uneven declines in TA levels are projected across the study regions. The largest reductions

  1. Development of retinal projections and response to photic input in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of New Zealand White Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Claudia; Morgado, Elvira; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Aguilar-Roblero, Raúl; Caba, Mario

    2013-03-07

    In rabbit pups, nursing by the mother is the prevailing entraining signal for their circadian rhythms during at least the first two weeks of life. Therefore, they are considered a natural model of food anticipatory activity. However, the photic entrainment of the circadian system in rabbit pups during this developmental stage is not well understood. The present study examined the retinal projections to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the functional responses of the SCN to light exposure. Using the anterograde tracer cholera toxin-B, we examined the retinal projections to the SCN at postnatal days (PD) 1, 9, 19 and in adult animals. The results revealed that the retinal projections were present at PD1 with a bilateral symmetry, and with a contralateral tendency at PD19 and adults. We also explored the response of the SCN to a light pulse by assessing the induction of FOS protein, a marker of neuronal activation, at PD1, 12, 19 and in adults. Light-induced FOS was observed during day and night at PD1, but mainly during night at PD12, 19 and adults. We conclude that in the SCN there is a "gating" mechanism to FOS induction by light that develops several days after birth, as in other mammals, and in the rabbit is already present at PD12. Moreover, in contrast to other altricial mammals, the circadian visual system, although not essential for entraining the rhythm during first two weeks of life, is present and functional in rabbit pups from birth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid Response Products of The ARIA Project for the M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Milillo, P.; Fielding, E. J.; Hudnut, K. W.; Dawson, T. E.; Mccrink, T. P.; Jo, M. J.; Barnhart, W. D.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Agram, P. S.; Moore, A. W.; Jung, H. S.; Webb, F.; Milillo, G.; Rosinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    A magnitude 6.0 earthquake struck southern Napa county northeast of San Francisco, California, on Aug. 24, 2014, causing significant damage in the city of Napa and nearby areas. One day after the earthquake, the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) team produced and released observations of coseismic ground displacement measured with continuous GPS stations of the Plate Boundary Observatory (operated by UNAVCO for the National Science Foundation) and the Bay Area Rapid Deformation network (operated by Berkeley Seismological Laboratory). Three days after the earthquake (Aug. 27), the Italian Space Agency's (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) satellite acquired their first post-event data. On the same day, the ARIA team, in collaboration with ASI and University of Basilicata, produced and released a coseismic interferogram that revealed ground deformation and surface rupture. The depiction of the surface rupture - discontinuities of color fringes in the CSK interferogram - helped guide field geologists from the US Geological Survey and the California Geological Survey (CGS) to features that may have otherwise gone undetected. Small-scale cracks were found on a runway of the Napa County Airport, as well as bridge damage and damaged roads. ARIA's response to this event highlighted the importance of timeliness for mapping surface deformation features. ARIA's rapid response products were shared through Southern California Earthquake Center's response website and the California Earthquake Clearinghouse. A damage proxy map derived from InSAR coherence of CSK data was produced and distributed on Aug. 27. Field crews from the CGS identified true and false positives, including mobile home damage, newly planted grape vines, and a cripple wall failure of a house. Finite fault slip models constrained from CSK interferograms and continuous GPS observations reveal a north-propagating rupture with well-resolved slip from 0-10.5 km depth. We also measured along-track coseismic

  3. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Russell, Micah; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this multi-year study (2004-2010) is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. Field research in 2005, 2006, and 2007 involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp vs. marsh), trajectory (restoration vs. reference site), and restoration action (tide gate vs. culvert vs. dike breach). The field work established two kinds of monitoring indicators for eventual cumulative effects analysis: core and higher-order indicators. Management implications of limitations and applications of site-specific effectiveness monitoring and cumulative effects analysis were identified.

  4. Leveraging Healthcare to Promote Responsive Parenting: Impacts of the Video Interaction Project on Parenting Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Weisleder, Adriana; Dreyer, Benard P; Johnson, Samantha Berkule; Vlahovicova, Kristina; Ledesma, Jennifer; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    We sought to determine impacts of a pediatric primary care intervention, the Video Interaction Project, on 3-year trajectories of parenting stress related to parent-child interactions in low socioeconomic status (SES) families. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted, with random assignment to one of two interventions (Video Interaction Project [VIP]; Building Blocks [BB]) or control (C). As part of VIP, dyads attended one-on-one sessions with an interventionist who facilitated interactions in play and shared reading through review of videotaped parent-child interactions made on primary care visit days; learning materials and parenting pamphlets were also provided to facilitate parent-child interactions at home. Parenting stress related to parent-child interactions was assessed for VIP and Control groups at 6, 14, 24, and 36 months using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale of the Parenting Stress Index- Short Form, with 378 dyads (84%) assessed at least once. Group differences emerged at 6 months with VIP associated with lower parenting stress at 3 of 4 ages considered cross-sectionally and an 17.7% reduction in parenting stress overall during the study period based on multi-level modeling. No age by group interaction was observed, indicating persistence of early VIP impacts. Results indicated that VIP, a preventive intervention targeting parent-child interactions, is associated with decreased parenting stress. Results therefore support the expansion of pediatric interventions such as VIP as part of a broad public health strategy to address poverty-related disparities in school-readiness.

  5. Features of the Deployed NPOESS Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Grant, K. D.; Route, G.; Heckmann, G.

    2009-12-01

    NOAA, DoD, and NASA are jointly acquiring the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) replacing the current NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The NPOESS satellites will carry a suite of sensors to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere and space. The ground data processing segment is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence & Information Systems (IIS). The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to US NOAA and DoD processing centers. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. The command and telemetry segment is the Command, Control and Communications Segment (C3S), also developed by Raytheon IIS. C3S is responsible for managing the overall NPOESS mission from control and status of the space and ground assets to ensuring delivery of timely, high quality data from the Space Segment (SS) to IDPS for processing. In addition, the C3S provides the globally distributed ground assets necessary to collect and transport mission, telemetry, and command data between the satellites and the processing locations. The C3S provides all functions required for day-to-day commanding and state-of-health monitoring of the NPP and NPOESS satellites, and delivery of SMD to each Central IDP for data products development and transfer to System subscribers. The C3S also monitors and reports system-wide health, status and data communications with external systems and between the NPOESS segments. The NPOESS C3S and IDPS ground segments have been delivered and transitioned to operations for NPP. C3S was transitioned to operations at the NOAA Satellite Operations Facility in Suitland MD in August

  6. Operation Upshot-Knothole, Nevada Proving Grounds, March-June 1953. Project 3. 1 Tests on the loading of building and equipment shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, E.V.; Schiffman, T.H.

    1955-07-01

    This report deals with pretest and post-test work on the Air Force Structures Test, Project 3.1, Tests on the Loading of Building and Equipment Shapes. The test was designed to check and improve upon previously developed methods of predicting blast loadings on simple structures representative of targets of military interest. The specific objectives dealt with the influence of certain geometric and blast parameters on the loading of solid structures (e.g., the effects of shock strength on building height, width, shielding, orientation, etc.). The test items consisted of a series of 17 cubical structures of reinforced concrete construction which were designed to rigidly withstand the effects of the blast. The structures were rather extensively instrumented with pressure gages and were included in both Shots 9 and 10. Most of the structures were located in the Mach reflection region on both shots; two structures were located in the regular reflection region of Shot 9 and in the precursor region of Shot 10. Primary emphasis was placed on the study of diffraction phenomena since the pressure gage data were not expected to be sufficiently accurate to resolve the relatively small drag forces. A comparison between measured and predicted diffraction loads served to confirm certain aspects of the pretest load prediction methods and led to revisions of others. In the remaining instances the form of the data was inadequate to either confirm or revise the methods. This latter category includes those cases in which the test data clearly disagreed with predictions but was too sparse to warrant revision of the prediction scheme.

  7. The ARIA project: Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis for Natural Hazard Monitoring and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Cruz, J.; Yun, S.; Fielding, E. J.; Moore, A. W.; Hua, H.; Agram, P.; Lundgren, P.

    2012-12-01

    ARIA is a joint JPL/Caltech coordinated effort to automate geodetic imaging capabilities for hazard response and societal benefit. Over the past decade, space-based geodetic measurements such as InSAR and GPS have provided new assessment capabilities and situational awareness on the size and location of earthquakes following seismic disasters and on volcanic eruptions following magmatic events. Geodetic imaging's unique ability to capture surface deformation in high spatial and temporal resolution allow us to resolve the fault geometry and distribution of slip associated with any given earthquake in correspondingly high spatial & temporal detail. In addition, remote sensing with radar provides change detection and damage assessment capabilities for earthquakes, floods and other disasters that can image even at night or through clouds. These data sets are still essentially hand-crafted, and thus are not generated rapidly and reliably enough for informing decision-making agencies and the public following an earthquake. We are building an end-to-end prototype geodetic imaging data system that would form the foundation for an envisioned operational hazard response center integrating InSAR, GPS, seismology, and modeling to deliver monitoring, actionable science, and situational awareness products. This prototype exploits state-of-the-art analysis algorithms from technologists and scientists, These algorithms enable the delivery of actionable products from larger data sets with enhanced modeling and interpretation, and the development of next generation techniques. We are collaborating with USGS scientists in both the earthquake and volcano science program for our initial data product infusion. We present our progress to date on development of prototype data system and demonstration data products, and example responses we have run such as generating products for the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-oki, M6.3 Christchurch earthquakes, the 2011 M7.1 Van earthquake, and several simulated

  8. 项目法人责任制工程建设环境探讨%Discussion on construction environment of project legal person responsibility system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程伟

    2012-01-01

    对项目法人责任制工程的建设环境进行了分析,对影响项目法人责任制工程建设的基本因素进行了论述,提出了完善法律法规、加强执行实施项目法人责任制方面的建议,以适应市场的发展需求。%This paper analyzed the construction environment of project legal person responsibility system project,discussed the basic factors to impact project legal person responsibility system construction,put forward suggestions from perfecting laws and regulations,strengthening the implementation of project legal person responsibility system,in order to adapt to market development needs.

  9. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field.

  10. Evaluating the response of Lake Prespa (SW Balkan) to future climate change projections from a high-resolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schriek, Tim; Varotsos, Konstantinos V.; Giannakopoulos, Christos

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean stands out globally due to its sensitivity to (future) climate change. Projections suggest that the Balkans will experience precipitation and runoff decreases of up to 30% by 2100. However, these projections show large regional spatial variability. Mediterranean lake-wetland systems are particularly threatened by projected climate changes that compound increasingly intensive human impacts (e.g. water extraction, drainage, pollution and dam-building). Protecting the remaining systems is extremely important for supporting global biodiversity. This protection should be based on a clear understanding of individual lake-wetland hydrological responses to future climate changes, which requires fine-resolution projections and a good understanding of the impact of hydro-climate variability on individual lakes. Climate change may directly affect lake level (variability), volume and water temperatures. In turn, these variables influence lake-ecology, habitats and water quality. Land-use intensification and water abstraction multiply these climate-driven changes. To date, there are no projections of future water level and -temperature of individual Mediterranean lakes under future climate scenarios. These are, however, of crucial importance to steer preservation strategies on the relevant catchment-scale. Here we present the first projections of water level and -temperature of the Prespa Lakes covering the period 2071-2100. These lakes are of global significance for biodiversity, and of great regional socio-economic importance as a water resource and tourist attraction. Impact projections are assessed by the Regional Climate Model RCA4 of the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) driven by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology global climate model MPI-ESM-LR under two RCP future emissions scenarios, the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5, with the simulations carried out in the framework of EURO-CORDEX. Temperature, evapo(transpi)ration and

  11. The MODIS Rapid Response Project: Near-Real-Time Processing for Fire Monitoring and Other Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloitres, J.; Justice, C.; Sohlberg, R.; Giglio, L.; Schmaltz, J.; Seaton, J.; Davies, D.; Anyamba, A.; Hansen, M.; Carroll, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the Terra and Aqua satellites offers an unprecedented combination of daily spatial coverage, spatial resolution, and spectral characteristics. These capabilities make MODIS ideal to observe a variety of rapid events: active fires, floods, smoke transport, dust storms, severe storms, iceberg calving, and volcanic eruptions. The MODIS Rapid Response System (http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov) was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a rapid response to those events, with initial emphasis on active fire detection and 250m-resolution imagery. MODIS data for most of the Earth's land surface is processed just a few hours after data acquisition. A collaboration between NASA, the University of Maryland and the U.S.D.A. Forest Service has been developed to provide fire information derived from MODIS to federal fire managers. Active fire locations in the conterminous United States are produced by the MODIS Rapid Response System and communicated to the Forest Service within a few minutes of production. The MODIS Rapid Response processing was also adapted to Direct Broadcast to reduce the product turn-around to just minutes after data acquisition regionally. MODIS active fire locations are used by the Forest Service to generate regional fire maps over the United States, updated twice daily and provided to the fire managers to help them allocate firefighting resources. Active fire locations are also distributed in near-real-time to the Global Observation of Forest Cover (G.O.F.C.) user community through a web interface integrating MODIS active fire locations and Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) datasets. The suite of MODIS rapid fire products is currently being complemented with a Smoke Index product and a Burned Area product that will represent two new key tools available to the fire community. Finally a new collaboration with the U.S.D.A. Foreign Agricultural Service was

  12. Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Wong

    2004-11-05

    This report describes a site-response model and its implementation for developing earthquake ground motion input for preclosure seismic design and postclosure assessment of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model implements a random-vibration theory (RVT), one-dimensional (1D) equivalent-linear approach to calculate site response effects on ground motions. The model provides results in terms of spectral acceleration including peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and dynamically-induced strains as a function of depth. In addition to documenting and validating this model for use in the Yucca Mountain Project, this report also describes the development of model inputs, implementation of the model, its results, and the development of earthquake time history inputs based on the model results. The purpose of the site-response ground motion model is to incorporate the effects on earthquake ground motions of (1) the approximately 300 m of rock above the emplacement levels beneath Yucca Mountain and (2) soil and rock beneath the site of the Surface Facilities Area. A previously performed probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) (CRWMS M&O 1998a [DIRS 103731]) estimated ground motions at a reference rock outcrop for the Yucca Mountain site (Point A), but those results do not include these site response effects. Thus, the additional step of applying the site-response ground motion model is required to develop ground motion inputs that are used for preclosure and postclosure purposes.

  13. Microbial and biogeochemical responses to projected future nitrate enrichment in the California upwelling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal California is a dynamic upwelling region where nitrogen (N and iron (Fe can both limit productivity and influence biogeochemistry over different spatial and temporal scales. With global change, the flux of nitrate from upwelling is expected to increase over the next century, potentially driving additional oceanic regions toward Fe limitation. In this study we explored the effect of changes in Fe/N ratio on native phytoplankton from five currently Fe-replete sites near the major California upwelling centers at Bodega Bay and Monterey Bay using nutrient addition incubation experiments. Despite the high nitrate levels (13-30 M in the upwelled water, phytoplankton at three of the five sites showed increased growth when 10 M nitrate was added. None of the sites showed enhanced growth following addition of 10 nM Fe. Nitrate additions favored slow sinking single-celled diatoms over faster sinking chain-forming diatoms, suggesting that future increases in nitrate flux could affect carbon and silicate export and alter grazer populations. In particular, solitary cells of Cylindrotheca were more abundant than the toxin-producing genus Pseudonitzschia following nitrate addition. These responses suggest the biogeochemistry of coastal California could change in response to future increases in nitrate, and multiple stressors like ocean acidification and hypoxia may further result in ecosystem shifts.

  14. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  15. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  16. Rapid, reliable geodetic data analysis for hazard response: Results from the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Simons, M.; Hua, H.; Yun, S.; Cruz, J.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Fielding, E. J.; Moore, A. W.; Polet, J.; Liu, Z.; Agram, P. S.; Lundgren, P.

    2013-12-01

    ARIA is a joint JPL/Caltech coordinated project to automate InSAR and GPS imaging capabilities for scientific understanding, hazard response, and societal benefit. Geodetic imaging's unique ability to capture surface deformation in high spatial and temporal resolution allows us to resolve the fault geometry and distribution of slip associated with earthquakes in high spatial & temporal detail. In certain cases, it can be complementary to seismic data, providing constraints on location, geometry, or magnitude that is difficult to determine with seismic data alone. In addition, remote sensing with SAR provides change detection and damage assessment capabilities for earthquakes, floods and other disasters that can image even at night or through clouds. We have built an end-to-end prototype geodetic imaging data system that forms the foundation for a hazard response and science analysis capability that integrates InSAR, high-rate GPS, seismology, and modeling to deliver monitoring, science, and situational awareness products. This prototype incorporates state-of-the-art InSAR and GPS analysis algorithms from technologists and scientists. The products have been designed and a feasibility study conducted in collaboration with USGS scientists in the earthquake and volcano science programs. We will present results that show the capabilities of this data system in terms of latency, data processing capacity, quality of automated products, and feasibility of use for analysis of large SAR and GPS data sets and for earthquake response activities.

  17. Arctic cryosphere response in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project G3 and G4 scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Mira; Robock, Alan; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John C.; Jones, Andy; Kravitz, Ben; Watanabe, Shingo

    2014-02-01

    We analyzed output from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project for the two most "realistic" scenarios, which use the representative concentration pathway of 4.5 Wm-2 by 2100 (RCP4.5) as the control run and inject sulfate aerosol precursors into the stratosphere. The first experiment, G3, is specified to keep RCP4.5 top of atmosphere net radiation at 2020 values by injection of sulfate aerosols, and the second, G4, injects 5 Tg SO2 per year. We ask whether geoengineering by injection of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere from the years 2020 to 2070 is able to prevent the demise of Northern Hemispere minimum annual sea ice extent or slow spring Northern Hemispere snow cover loss. We show that in all available models, despite geoengineering efforts, September sea ice extents still decrease from 2020 to 2070, although not as quickly as in RCP4.5. In two of five models, total September ice loss occurs before 2060. Spring snow extent is increased from 2020 to 2070 compared to RCP4.5 although there is still a negative trend in 3 of 4 models. Because of the climate system lag in responding to the existing radiative forcing, to stop Arctic sea ice and snow from continuing to melt, the imposed forcing would have to be large enough to also counteract the existing radiative imbalance. After the cessation of sulfate aerosol injection in 2070, the climate system rebounds to the warmer RCP4.5 state quickly, and thus, any sea ice or snow retention as a result of geoengineering is lost within a decade.

  18. The Norwegian Earth System Model, NorESM1-M – Part 2: Climate response and scenario projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Iversen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NorESM is a generic name of the Norwegian earth system model. The first version is named NorESM1, and has been applied with medium spatial resolution to provide results for CMIP5 (http://cmip-pcmdi.llnl.gov/cmip5/index.html without (NorESM1-M and with (NorESM1-ME interactive carbon-cycling. Together with the accompanying paper by Bentsen et al. (2012, this paper documents that the core version NorESM1-M is a valuable global climate model for research and for providing complementary results to the evaluation of possible anthropogenic climate change. NorESM1-M is based on the model CCSM4 operated at NCAR, but the ocean model is replaced by a modified version of MICOM and the atmospheric model is extended with online calculations of aerosols, their direct effect and their indirect effect on warm clouds. Model validation is presented in the companion paper (Bentsen et al., 2012. NorESM1-M is estimated to have equilibrium climate sensitivity of ca. 2.9 K and a transient climate response of ca. 1.4 K. This sensitivity is in the lower range amongst the models contributing to CMIP5. Cloud feedbacks dampen the response, and a strong AMOC reduces the heat fraction available for increasing near-surface temperatures, for evaporation and for melting ice. The future projections based on RCP scenarios yield a global surface air temperature increase of almost one standard deviation lower than a 15-model average. Summer sea-ice is projected to decrease considerably by 2100 and disappear completely for RCP8.5. The AMOC is projected to decrease by 12%, 15–17%, and 32% for the RCP2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5, respectively. Precipitation is projected to increase in the tropics, decrease in the subtropics and in southern parts of the northern extra-tropics during summer, and otherwise increase in most of the extra-tropics. Changes in the atmospheric water cycle indicate that precipitation events over continents will become more intense and dry spells more frequent. Extra

  19. Visible-Light-Responsive Catalyst Development for Volatile Organic Carbon Remediation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Hintze, Paul E.; Coutts, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysis is a process in which light energy is used to 'activate' oxidation/reduction reactions. Unmodified titanium dioxide (TiO2), a common photocatalyst, requires high-energy UV light for activation due to its large band gap (3.2 eV). Modification of TiO2 can reduce this band gap, leading to visible-light-responsive (VLR) photocatalysts. These catalysts can utilize solar and/or visible wavelength LED lamps as an activation source, replacing mercury-containing UV lamps, to create a "greener," more energy-efficient means for air and water revitalization. Recently, KSC developed several VLR catalysts that, on preliminary evaluation, possessed high catalytic activity within the visible spectrum; these samples out-performed existing commercial VLR catalysts.

  20. A constrained variable projection reconstruction method for photoacoustic computed tomography without accurate knowledge of transducer responses

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Qiwei; Matthews, Thomas P; Xia, Jun; Zhu, Liren; Wang, Lihong V; Anastasio, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is an emerging computed imaging modality that exploits optical contrast and ultrasonic detection principles to form images of the absorbed optical energy density within tissue. When the imaging system employs conventional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers, the ideal photoacoustic (PA) signals are degraded by the transducers' acousto-electric impulse responses (EIRs) during the measurement process. If unaccounted for, this can degrade the accuracy of the reconstructed image. In principle, the effect of the EIRs on the measured PA signals can be ameliorated via deconvolution; images can be reconstructed subsequently by application of a reconstruction method that assumes an idealized EIR. Alternatively, the effect of the EIR can be incorporated into an imaging model and implicitly compensated for during reconstruction. In either case, the efficacy of the correction can be limited by errors in the assumed EIRs. In this work, a joint optimization approach to PACT image r...

  1. Initial response of small ground-dwelling mammals to forest alternative buffers along headwater streams in the Washington Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Wilk; Martin G. Raphael; Christopher S. Nations; Jeffrey D. Ricklefs

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the short-term effects of alternative designs of forested buffer treatments along headwater streams on small ground-dwelling mammals in managed forests in western Washington, USA. Over three summers (one pretreatment and two posttreatment), we trapped 19 mammalian species along 23 streams in the northern Coast Range. We compared faunal communities in...

  2. Projected changes in African easterly wave intensity and track in response to greenhouse forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Christopher Bryan; Diffenbaugh, Noah S

    2014-05-13

    Synoptic-scale African easterly waves (AEWs) impact weather throughout the greater Atlantic basin. Over the African continent, AEWs are instrumental in initiating and organizing precipitation in the drought-vulnerable Sahel region. AEWs also serve as the precursors to the most intense Atlantic hurricanes, and contribute to the global transport of Saharan dust. Given the relevance of AEWs for the climate of the greater Atlantic basin, we investigate the response of AEWs to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Using an ensemble of general circulation models, we find a robust increase in the strength of the winds associated with AEWs along the Intertropical Front in West Africa by the late 21st century of the representative concentration pathway 8.5. AEW energy increases directly due to an increase in baroclinicity associated with an enhanced meridional temperature gradient between the Sahara and Guinea Coast. Further, the pattern of low-level warming supports AEW development by enhancing monsoon flow, resulting in greater convergence and uplift along the Intertropical Front. These changes in energetics result in robust increases in the occurrence of conditions that currently produce AEWs. Given relationships observed in the current climate, such changes in the location of AEW tracks and the magnitude of AEW winds carry implications for the relationship between AEWs and precipitation in the Sahel, the mobilization of Saharan dust, and the likelihood of cyclogenesis in the Atlantic. Our results therefore suggest that changes in AEW characteristics could play a critical role in shaping the response of Atlantic basin climate to future increases in greenhouse gas concentrations.

  3. The Chinese Lexicon Project: a repository of lexical decision behavioral responses for 2,500 Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Wei Ping; Rickard Liow, Susan J; Yap, Melvin J

    2014-03-01

    The Chinese language has more native speakers than any other language, but research on the reading of Chinese characters is still not as well-developed as it is for the reading of words in alphabetic languages. Two areas notably lacking are the paucity of megastudies in Chinese and the relatively infrequent use of the lexical decision paradigm to investigate single-character recognition. The Chinese Lexicon Project, described in this article, is a database of lexical decision latencies for 2,500 Chinese single characters in simplified script, collected from a sample of native mainland Chinese (Mandarin) speakers (N = 35). This resource will provide a valuable adjunct to influential mega-databases, such as the English, French, and Dutch Lexicon Projects. Using two separate analyses, some advantages associated with megastudies are exemplified. These include the selection of the strongest measure to represent Chinese character frequency (Cai & Brysbaert's (PLoS ONE 5(6): e10729, 2010) subtitle contextual diversity frequency count), and the conducting of virtual studies to replicate and clarify existing findings. The unique morpho-syllabic nature of the Chinese writing system makes it a valuable case study for functional language contrasts. Moreover, this is the first publicly available large-scale repository of behavioral responses pertaining to Chinese language processing (the behavioral dataset is attached to this article, as a supplemental file available for download). For these reasons, the data should be of substantial interest to psychologists, linguists, and other researchers.

  4. Computer input and output files associated with ground-water-flow simulations of the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-95, with projections to 2020; (supplement three to U.S. Geological Survey Water-resources investigations report 94-4251)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernodle, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the computer input files required to run the three-dimensional ground-water-flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, documented in Kernodle and others (Kernodle, J.M., McAda, D.P., and Thorn, C.R., 1995, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, central New Mexico, 1901-1994, with projections to 2020: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251, 114 p.) and revised by Kernodle (Kernodle, J.M., 1998, Simulation of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, 1901-95, with projections to 2020 (supplement two to U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4251): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-209, 54 p.). Output files resulting from the computer simulations are included for reference.

  5. Local Responses to Inundation and De-Farming in the Reservoir Region of the Three Gorges Project (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C. Y.; Yang, Felix Y.

    2006-10-01

    Large-scale infrastructural developments in rural areas often impose significant direct and indirect impacts on environment and people. The Three Gorges Project to dam the Yangtze River in China will create a huge reservoir, inundate farmlands and villages, and incur large-scale resettlement. The concurrent de-farming program to reforest marginal farmlands on steep slopes imposes additional stresses on local people. This study evaluates the ecological and economic adjustments in rural areas affected by both projects, and explores villagers’ knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and expectations vis-à-vis the drastic changes. Eleven villages in Yunyang County in Sichuan Province, stratified into three zones based on topography and agriculture, were assessed by field studies, questionnaire surveys, maps, satellite imagery, and census and government reports. Multiple regressions identified predictors for 17 dependent variables. Spatial variations in the difficult terrain imposed zone-differentiated agricultural constraints, ecological impacts, and human responses. The dominant farming population—mainly young adults working as migrant laborers in cities—has adopted some nonagricultural work to supplement incomes. Expected per-capita standardized farmland (SF) exceeded threshold SF, which surpasses existing SF. Motivations to reclaim more farmlands, de-farm marginal lands, and become migrant laborers were explained by different multiple-regression predictors. Reduction in farmland stock by inundation and de-farming, aggravated by unwillingness towards nonlocal resettlement, would impose ecological pressures and stimulate demands for nonfarming incomes. Common anticipation of better future income and occupation has been subdued by unfavorable feedbacks from early relocatees. Future environmental and landscape changes are hinged upon changing human responses. Government policies could be informed by research findings to match economic, ecological, and social realities.

  6. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SENSITIVITY OF DOUBLE SHELL DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO THE WASTE ELASTIC PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; ABATT FG; JOHNSON KI

    2009-01-16

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the dynamic response of the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) to the assumptions regarding the constitutive properties of the contained waste. In all cases, the waste was modeled as a uniform linearly elastic material. The focus of the study was on the changes in the modal response of the tank and waste system as the extensional modulus (elastic modulus in tension and compression) and shear modulus of the waste were varied through six orders of magnitude. Time-history analyses were also performed for selected cases and peak horizontal reaction forces and axial stresses at the bottom of the primary tank were evaluated. Because the analysis focused on the differences in the responses between solid-filled and liquid-filled tanks, it is a comparative analysis rather than an analysis of record for a specific tank or set of tanks. The shear modulus was varied between 4 x 10{sup 3} Pa and 4.135 x 10{sup 9} Pa. The lowest value of shear modulus was sufficient to simulate the modal response of a liquid-containing tank, while the higher values are several orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of expected properties for tank contents. The range of elastic properties used was sufficient to show liquid-like response at the lower values, followed by a transition range of semi-solid-like response to a clearly identifiable solid-like response. It was assumed that the mechanical properties of the tank contents were spatially uniform. Because sludge-like materials are expected only to exist in the lower part of the tanks, this assumption leads to an exaggeration of the effects of sludge-like materials in the tanks. The results of the study show that up to a waste shear modulus of at least 40,000 Pa, the modal properties of the tank and waste system are very nearly the same as for the equivalent liquid-containing tank. This suggests that the differences in critical tank responses between liquid-containing tanks

  7. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SENSITIVITY OF DOUBLE SHELL DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO THE WASTE ELASTIC PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; ABATT FG; JOHNSON KI

    2009-01-16

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the dynamic response of the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) to the assumptions regarding the constitutive properties of the contained waste. In all cases, the waste was modeled as a uniform linearly elastic material. The focus of the study was on the changes in the modal response of the tank and waste system as the extensional modulus (elastic modulus in tension and compression) and shear modulus of the waste were varied through six orders of magnitude. Time-history analyses were also performed for selected cases and peak horizontal reaction forces and axial stresses at the bottom of the primary tank were evaluated. Because the analysis focused on the differences in the responses between solid-filled and liquid-filled tanks, it is a comparative analysis rather than an analysis of record for a specific tank or set of tanks. The shear modulus was varied between 4 x 10{sup 3} Pa and 4.135 x 10{sup 9} Pa. The lowest value of shear modulus was sufficient to simulate the modal response of a liquid-containing tank, while the higher values are several orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of expected properties for tank contents. The range of elastic properties used was sufficient to show liquid-like response at the lower values, followed by a transition range of semi-solid-like response to a clearly identifiable solid-like response. It was assumed that the mechanical properties of the tank contents were spatially uniform. Because sludge-like materials are expected only to exist in the lower part of the tanks, this assumption leads to an exaggeration of the effects of sludge-like materials in the tanks. The results of the study show that up to a waste shear modulus of at least 40,000 Pa, the modal properties of the tank and waste system are very nearly the same as for the equivalent liquid-containing tank. This suggests that the differences in critical tank responses between liquid-containing tanks

  8. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  9. Study on Site Specific Design Earthquake Ground Motion of Nuclear Power Plants in China1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Bochang; Li Xiaojun; Li Yaqi

    2008-01-01

    The main technical backgrounds and requirements are introduced with regard to earthquake ground motion design parameters in several domestic and American standards,codes and guides involved in the seismic analysis and design activities of nuclear power plants in China.Based on the research results from site seismic safety evaluation of domestic nuclear power plant projects in the last years,characteristics and differences of site specific design spectra are analyzed in comparison with standard response spectra,and the suitability of standard response spectra for domestic nuclear power plant projects is discussed.

  10. Response of acid mobilization of iron-containing mineral dust to improvement of air quality projected in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ito

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acidification of dust aerosols may increase aerosol iron (Fe solubility, which is linked to mineral properties. Combustion aerosols can also elevate aerosol iron solubility when aerosol loading is low. Here, we use an atmospheric chemical transport model to investigate the deposition of filterable iron and its response to changes in anthropogenic emissions of both combustion aerosols and precursor gases. By introducing three classes of iron-containing minerals into the detailed aerosol chemistry model, we provide a theoretical examination of the effects of different dissolution behaviors on the acid mobilization of iron. Comparisons of modeled Fe dissolution curves with the measured dissolution rates for African (Tibesti and Asian (Beijing dust samples show overall good agreement under acidic conditions. The improved treatment of Fe in mineral dust and its dissolution scheme results in reasonable predictive capability for iron solubility over the oceans in the Northern Hemisphere. Our model results suggest that the improvement of air quality projected in the future will lead to a decrease of the filterable iron deposition from iron-containing mineral dust to the northeastern Pacific due to less acidification in Asian dust, which is mainly associated with the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions. These results could have important implications for iron fertilization of phytoplankton growth, and highlight the necessity of improving the process-based quantitative understanding of the response of the chemical modification in iron-containing minerals to environmental changes.

  11. An item response theory analysis of the Executive Interview and development of the EXIT8: A Project FRONTIER Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Danielle R; Dressel, Jeffrey A; Gavett, Brandon E; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2015-01-01

    The Executive Interview (EXIT25) is an effective measure of executive dysfunction, but may be inefficient due to the time it takes to complete 25 interview-based items. The current study aimed to examine psychometric properties of the EXIT25, with a specific focus on determining whether a briefer version of the measure could comprehensively assess executive dysfunction. The current study applied a graded response model (a type of item response theory model for polytomous categorical data) to identify items that were most closely related to the underlying construct of executive functioning and best discriminated between varying levels of executive functioning. Participants were 660 adults ages 40 to 96 years living in West Texas, who were recruited through an ongoing epidemiological study of rural health and aging, called Project FRONTIER. The EXIT25 was the primary measure examined. Participants also completed the Trail Making Test and Controlled Oral Word Association Test, among other measures, to examine the convergent validity of a brief form of the EXIT25. Eight items were identified that provided the majority of the information about the underlying construct of executive functioning; total scores on these items were associated with total scores on other measures of executive functioning and were able to differentiate between cognitively healthy, mildly cognitively impaired, and demented participants. In addition, cutoff scores were recommended based on sensitivity and specificity of scores. A brief, eight-item version of the EXIT25 may be an effective and efficient screening for executive dysfunction among older adults.

  12. A Study of Ground Deformation in the Guangzhou Urban Area with Persistent Scatterer Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available TheInterferometric Point Target Analysis (IPTA technique and Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR images acquired over Hong Kong from 2007–2008 were used to detect ground deformation in the urban area of Guangzhou city in South China. A ground deformation rate map with scattered distribution of point targets shows the maximum subsidence (rise rate as high as -26 to -20 mma-1 (16–21 mma-1, implying that the study area is an active zone for ground deformation. Based on the point target map, a contour ground deformation rate map is generated. The map shows three major subsidence zones located in the middle-west, the east, and the southwest of the study area, respectively. All the six ground collapse accidents that occurred in 2007–2008 fall within the subsidence zones, qualitatively validating the IPTA results. Ground subsidence and geological conditions on Datansha Island are examined. The results indicate that the local geological conditions, such as limestone Karst geomorphology as well as silt layers characterized by high water content, high void ratio, high compressibility, low bearing capacity and low shear strength, and underground engineering projects are responsible for ground subsidence and ground collapse accidents occurred there.

  13. A study of ground deformation in the guangzhou urban area with persistent scatterer interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Lin, Hui; Jiang, Liming; Chen, Fulong; Cheng, Shilai

    2009-01-01

    The Interferometric Point Target Analysis (IPTA) technique and Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) images acquired over Hong Kong from 2007-2008 were used to detect ground deformation in the urban area of Guangzhou city in South China. A ground deformation rate map with scattered distribution of point targets shows the maximum subsidence (rise) rate as high as -26 to -20 mma(-1) (16-21 mma(-1)), implying that the study area is an active zone for ground deformation. Based on the point target map, a contour ground deformation rate map is generated. The map shows three major subsidence zones located in the middle-west, the east, and the southwest of the study area, respectively. All the six ground collapse accidents that occurred in 2007-2008 fall within the subsidence zones, qualitatively validating the IPTA results. Ground subsidence and geological conditions on Datansha Island are examined. The results indicate that the local geological conditions, such as limestone Karst geomorphology as well as silt layers characterized by high water content, high void ratio, high compressibility, low bearing capacity and low shear strength, and underground engineering projects are responsible for ground subsidence and ground collapse accidents occurred there.

  14. Beyond the line: exploring the HRM responsibilities of line managers, project managers and the HRM department in four project-oriented companies in the Netherlands, Austria, the UK and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegan, A.; Huemann, M.; Turner, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of what human resource management (HRM) responsibilities are devolved from the HRM department to line managers has attracted much interest in recent years. We report findings from a study on the devolution of HRM practices in four project-oriented companies (POCs) and argue that although H

  15. Optimization of a ground coupled heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, V.D.; Catan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A cooperative analytical project has optimized a horizontal ground coil heat pump system for the Pittsburgh climate. This is the first step in the exploration of several advanced designs including various ground coil devices and advanced heat pump components. The project made use of new and existing design tools to simulate system performance and determine first cost. The system life cycle cost was minimized while constraining the system to meet the design day cooling load using a function minimizing program. Among the system parameters considered were: air-to-refrigerant frontal area, air-to-refrigerant fin pitch, air-to-refrigerant air flowrate, compressor displacement, liquid-to-refrigerant coil length, liquid-to-refrigerant coil diameter, ground coil fluid flowrate, ground coil length, and ground coil depth.

  16. Observing Muostakh Island disappear: erosion of a ground-ice-rich coast in response to summer warming and sea ice reduction on the East Siberian shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Günther

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Observations of coastline retreat using contemporary very high resolution satellite and historical aerial imagery were compared to measurements of open water fractions and summer air temperatures. We analyzed seasonal and interannual variations of thawing-induced cliff top retreat (thermo-denudation and marine abrasion (thermo-abrasion on Muostakh Island in the southern central Laptev Sea. The island is composed of ground-ice-rich permafrost deposits of Ice Complex type that render it particularly susceptible to erosion along the coast, resulting in land loss. Based on topographic reference measurements during field campaigns, we generated digital elevation models using stereophotogrammetry, in order to block adjust and ortho-rectify aerial photographies from 1951 and GeoEye, QuickBird, WorldView-1, and WorldView-2 imagery from 2010 to 2012 for change detection. Coastlin