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Sample records for response program irrigation

  1. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  2. Climate change and irrigation. An Australian response

    Pigram, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Climatic changes on a global or regional scale, resulting from human activities, and the likely effects of such changes on Australia were discussed. Irrigation concerns of the Murray-Darling Basin in southeast Australia associated with global climate were described. Potential risks for regional economies and communities (agriculture in this instance) which may be significant, were assessed. Restructuring of the irrigation industry, and appropriate policy initiatives were urged now, while there is still some time to prepare. Application of the 'Precautionary Principle' to reduce global climate change effects was recommended. (This principle states that in areas threatened by severe climatic change lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as an excuse to delay decisive measures designed to mitigate environmental degradation). Bold policy adjustments and the creation of a new institutional framework to promote sustainable resource management were called for. It was suggested that the region could become a 'laboratory' for the whole world for assessing the effectiveness of managerial responses to environmental changes

  3. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    Marks, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilcox, Edmund [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-02

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as

  4. Economic analysis of different mulch applications and irrigation programs in apple production

    Dilek Karamürsel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of different mulch materials and irrigation programs on Fuji apple variety grafted onto M9 rootstock was made in this study. Mulch treatments consisted of four different mulch materials including black textile, wheat straw, rose oil processing wastes and no mulch. There were three different irrigation programs for each mulch treatment. Irrigation programs also consisted of three different programs including starting irrigation when available water holding capacity of 20%, 40% and 60% at the effective root zone. Total production costs had fluctuating according to treatments. While rose oil processing and the program starting irrigation when available water holding capacity of 60% at the root zone was used had the lowest total production costs, wheat straw and the program starting irrigation when available water holding capacity of 20% at the root zone was used had the highest values. But, black textile mulch and the program which starting at irrigation when available water holding capacity of 20% at the root zone was used had the lowest unit production cost with 0.39 TL kg-1 highest yield, extra and class I fruits. Furthermore, according to apple marketing prices of 2014, considering yield and fruit quality, the highest gross profit with 51 223 TL ha-1 was obtained from black textile mulch and the program starting irrigation when available water holding capacity of 20% at the root zone was used.

  5. Wheat-yield response to irrigation and nitrogen

    Kirda, C.; Derici, R.; Kanber, R.; Yazar, A.; Koc, M.; Barutcular, C.

    2000-01-01

    Wheat-yield responses to the application of different rates of N fertilizer, under irrigated and rainfed conditions, were evaluated over four growing seasons. Nitrogen applied at tillering was utilized more effectively with proportionately less residual in the soil compared to that applied at planting. Subsequent crops of maize or cotton were positively affected by residual fertilizer N. Volatilization and leaching losses of applied N were small. Crop-water consumption showed strong positive associations with N rate. No wheat-grain-yield benefits accrued from irrigation, although straw yields were increased. Tiller production increased with N-fertilizer usage, however, tiller survival decreased at high N and was highest at 160 kg N ha -1 . Higher N rates produced higher stomatal conductance, increased rates of CO 2 assimilation and higher water-use efficiency. The CERES-Wheat growth-simulation model predicted rather closely the progress of dry-matter production, leaf area index, seasonal evapotranspiration, phenological development and of many other plant-growth attributes. The data indicated that the rate of 160 kg N ha -1 , which is commonly used by the farmers of the region, is acceptable, not only for optimum grain yields but also to minimize the risks of leaching NO 3 - to groundwater. (author)

  6. Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation

    Kirda, C.; Kanber, R.; Tulucu, K.

    1995-01-01

    Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programmes in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of sugar beet with water stress imposed (i e.,irrigation omitted)during ripening,stage saved nearly 22 % water, yet with no significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Turkey Region, the European part of Turkey,and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower(i e,yield vs water consumption), revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stags influence yield the least , and 40 % savings of irrigation water supply , compared with traditional practices in the region, can be achieved without significant yield reduction. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiments aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was at the most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly wheat give good yield response if irrigated at booting,heading and milking stages, depending on w heather conditions. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of wheat crop. 1 tab; 9 figs; 59 refs (Author)

  7. Wheat Response to a Soil Previously Irrigated with Saline Water

    Vito Sardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted aimed at assessing the response of rainfed, lysimeter-grown wheat to various levels of soil salinity, in terms of dry mass production, inorganic and organic components, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SS activity. One additional scope was the assessment of soil ability to recover from applied salts by means of winter precipitations. The results confirmed the relatively high salt tolerance of wheat, as demonstrated by the mechanisms enacted by plants to contrast salinity at root and leaf level. Some insight was gained in the relationships between salinity and the various inorganic and organic components, as well as with SPS and SS activity. It was demonstrated that in a year with precipitations well below the average values (305 mm vs 500 the leaching action of rain was sufficient to eliminate salts accumulated during summer irrigation with saline water.

  8. Wheat Response to a Soil Previously Irrigated with Saline Water

    Marco Antonio Russo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted aimed at assessing the response of rainfed, lysimeter-grown wheat to various levels of soil salinity, in terms of dry mass production, inorganic and organic components, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SS activity. One additional scope was the assessment of soil ability to recover from applied salts by means of winter precipitations. The results confirmed the relatively high salt tolerance of wheat, as demonstrated by the mechanisms enacted by plants to contrast salinity at root and leaf level. Some insight was gained in the relationships between salinity and the various inorganic and organic components, as well as with SPS and SS activity. It was demonstrated that in a year with precipitations well below the average values (305 mm vs 500 the leaching action of rain was sufficient to eliminate salts accumulated during summer irrigation with saline water.

  9. A generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained linear fractional programming approach for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty

    Zhang, Chenglong; Guo, Ping

    2017-10-01

    The vague and fuzzy parametric information is a challenging issue in irrigation water management problems. In response to this problem, a generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained linear fractional programming (GFCCFP) model is developed for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty. The model can be derived from integrating generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained programming (GFCCP) into a linear fractional programming (LFP) optimization framework. Therefore, it can solve ratio optimization problems associated with fuzzy parameters, and examine the variation of results under different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and necessary. It has advantages in: (1) balancing the economic and resources objectives directly; (2) analyzing system efficiency; (3) generating more flexible decision solutions by giving different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and (4) supporting in-depth analysis of the interrelationships among system efficiency, credibility level and weight coefficient. The model is applied to a case study of irrigation water allocation in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwest China. Therefore, optimal irrigation water allocation solutions from the GFCCFP model can be obtained. Moreover, factorial analysis on the two parameters (i.e. λ and γ) indicates that the weight coefficient is a main factor compared with credibility level for system efficiency. These results can be effective for support reasonable irrigation water resources management and agricultural production.

  10. Analysis to develop a program for energy conservation in irrigated agriculture

    Cone, B.W.; Brix, V.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Laughlin, B.M.

    1978-09-01

    It is estimated by the FEA that 0.26 quadrillion Btus of energy is annually required to irrigate crops in the USA. The development of a DOE program for energy conservation in irrigation is described. Information is included on: studies of how this energy consumption can be reduced and by how much; engineering and economic studies of irrigation equipment and methods; proposals for improving the efficiency of pumps and prime movers; projects selected for demonstrating irrigation energy conservation; and recommendations for further research. (LCL)

  11. Effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality ...

    Evapotranspiration (ET) values varied from 93.1 to 466.3 mm for the treatments. The highest yield was obtained from the S3 and S4 treatments. A significant polynomial correlation was obtained between the yield and irrigation water, and between the yield and ET (P < 0.01). This indicated that when irrigation water and ET ...

  12. Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought

    Ward, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes vulnerability, impacts, and adaptability by irrigation to drought.It accounts for economic incentives affecting choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, and water sources.When surface water supplies fall, farmers increase pumping, even when pumping raises production costs.Conservation program subsidies raise the value of food production but can increase crop water depletions.

  13. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  14. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  15. Alfalfa response to irrigation from limited water supplies

    A five-year field study (2007-2011) of irrigated alfalfa production with a limited water supply was conducted in southwest Kansas with two years of above-average precipitation, one year of average precipitation, and two years of below-average precipitation. The irrigation treatments were designed to...

  16. Phenotypic Responses of Twenty Diverse Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L. Accessions to Irrigation

    Cedric Habiyaremye

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, little research has been conducted on the phenotypic responses of proso millet to drought and deficit irrigation treatments in the dryland wheat-based cropping systems of the Palouse bioregion of the U.S. The objectives of this study were to evaluate critical agronomic traits of proso millet, including emergence, plant height, days to heading, days to maturity, and grain yield, with and without supplemental irrigation. Twenty diverse proso millet accessions, originating from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Morocco, the former Soviet Union, Turkey, and the United States, were grown in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments under organic conditions in Pullman, WA, from 2012 to 2014. Irrigation was shown to significantly improve emergence and increase plant height at stem extension and to hasten ripening of all the varieties, whereas heading date was not affected by irrigation in two of the three years tested. Irrigation resulted in higher mean seed yield across all varieties, with ‘GR 665’ and ‘Earlybird’ performing best under irrigation. Seed yield was highest in ‘GR 658’ and ‘Minsum’ in the non-irrigated treatment, suggesting the importance of identification and utilization of varieties adapted to low rainfall conditions. The highest yielding varieties in irrigated systems are unlikely be the highest yielding in dryland systems. Our results suggest that millet has potential as a regionally novel crop for inclusion in traditional dryland cropping rotations in the Palouse ecosystem, thereby contributing to increased cropping system diversity.

  17. Simulation of Farmers’ Response to Irrigation Water Pricing and Rationing Policies (Case Study: Zabol City

    abouzar parhizkari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering that agricultural sector is the largest consumer of water, presenting integrated management for water resources and formulating effective policies to increase water productivity in this sector is essential. Therefore, using economic modeling , this study simulated the farmers’ responses to irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city. To achieve the study purpose, the State Wide Agricultural Production Model and Positive Mathematical Programming were applied. The required data for the years 2010-2011 was collected by completing questionnaires and collecting data sets from the relevant agencies of Zabol city in personal attendance. The results showed that imposing irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city leads to a reduction in the total cultivated area by 9/54 and 5/14 percent and a reduction in the water consumption by 6/23 and 7/01 percent, compared to the base year. Ultimately, irrigation water rationing policy, considering frugality of 18/9 million m3 of water, as the appropriate solution for the sustainability of water resources of Zabol city was proposed.

  18. Response of potato to drip and gun irrigation systems

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different irrigation and N fertilization regimes by gun irrigation and drip-fertigation on potato production, and subsequently optimize the supply of water and N fertilizer to the growth condition of the specific season and minimize nitrate......-fertigation system (DFdsNds) and two gun irrigation systems (GIdsN120 and GIaN120) to display the differences on growth, yield and water use efficiency of potato. All treatments were irrigated according to model simulated soil water content. For fertilization all treatments received a basic dressing at planting of P......, K, Mg and micronutrients, and in addition 120 kg N/ha in the gun irrigated treatments and 36 kg N/ha in the drip-fertigated. For the latter, portion of 20 kg N/ha was applied whenever plant N concentration approached a critical value as simulated by the Daisy model. As a result differences in soil...

  19. Crop yield response to deficit irrigation imposed at different plant growth stages

    Kovaks, T.; Kovaks, G.; Szito, J.

    1995-01-01

    A series of field experiments were conducted between 1991 - 1994 using 7 irrigation treatments at two fertilizer levels. Nitrogen fertilizers used were labelled with 15 N stable isotope to examine the effect of irrigation on the fertilizer N use efficiency by isotope technique. The irrigation were maintained at four different growth stages of maize, soybean and potato( vegetative, flowering, yield formation and ripening ) in 4 replicates. The aim of study was to compare deficit irrigation( i.e. the water stress imposed, during one growth stage ) with normal irrigation practice included the traditional one. Two watering regimes were established : (1) normal watering when available water was within the range of 60 - 90 %, and (2) deficit irrigation, when the AW was at 30 to 60 %. Neutron probe was used for measuring the soil water status and evaporation data were recorded to determine the amount of irrigation water demand. Reference evapotranspiration ( ETo) was calculated according to Penman - Monteith. Crop water requirement ( ETm) were determined in every year. Actual evapotranspiration ( ETa) was computed using CROPWAT: FAO computer program for irrigation planning and management (1992). Every irrigation treatment was equipped with neutron access tubes in two replicates at a depth from 10 to 130 cm. tensiometers were installed at depths of 30, 50, 60 and 80 cm in one replicate of treatments and were measured on a daily basis while neutron probe measurements were used to monitor the soil water table fluctuations. The irrigation method used was a special type of low pressure drop irrigation. There were measured the amount of rainfall with irrigation water supplied and the moisture distribution profiles were drown for the different treatments. Relationships between relative yield decrease and evapotranspiration and also between the crop yield and water use were determined. 9 tabs, 9 refs, ( Author )

  20. Response of Onion ( Allium cepa L.) to Irrigation Intervals and Plant ...

    08 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the College of Agriculture, Zuru, Kebbi State, Nigeria. The objective was to investigate the response of onion to irrigation interval and plant population density. The treatments consisted of factorial ...

  1. Using Audience Segmentation to Tailor Residential Irrigation Water Conservation Programs

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Rumble, Joy N.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Momol, Esen

    2017-01-01

    Today's complex issues require technical expertise as well as the application of innovative social science techniques within Extension contexts. Researchers have suggested that a social science approach will play a critical role in water conservation, and people who use home landscape irrigation comprise a critical target audience for agriculture…

  2. A review of mathematical programming models of irrigation water ...

    Crops modelled influence water values, but there is no apparent relationship between objective function specification and average value. Nor does the number of irrigation options seem to influence water value either. The policy implication is that while similar models for the same region produce consistent estimates, each ...

  3. Rainfall response to dam/irrigation projects in northern Nigeria ...

    In this paper, we examine the possibility that the increasing number and size of dam/irrigation projects in northern Nigeria are having a corresponding increase in rainfall in spite of the threat of climate change. We modeled the rainfall trends over 11 meteorological stations over a period of 34 years (1971 - 2004). The trends ...

  4. RESPONSE OF SESAME PROMISING LINES (Sesamum indicum L. TO NITROGEN IN IRRIGATED WETLAND AFTER PADDY

    Moch. Romli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on sesame was conducted in Nganjuk in 2005 to study the response of sesame promising lines to nitrogen in irrigated wetland after paddy. The experiment was arranged in factorial randomized block design with two factors and three replications. The first factor were two sesame lines (Si.25, Si.28 and Sbr.1 variety as control, whereas the second were five N dosage (0; 22.5; 45; 67.5 and 90 kg N/ha. Result showed that sesame in irrigated land after paddy was response to N. The respective optimum N dosages for irrigated wetland after paddy were: 83.34 kg/ha for Si.28, and 42.20 kg/ha for Sbr.1. The best N dosage for Si.25 was 22.5 kg N/ha. The superior line for irrigated land after paddy is Si.28.

  5. WHEAT CULTIVARS: RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION AND SOWING DATES

    Klar A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an Alfisol-Oxisol transition sandy-clay texture, using six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum, L.: two tall and tolerant to soil aluminium toxicity (BH-1146, and IAC-18, and four semi-dwarf cultivars - Anahuac, IAC-162, IAC-24, and IAC-60 - of which only the first two are sensitive to soil aluminium toxicity. Two minimum soil water potentials (ys levels were used: 1. watered, when Ys reached about -0.05 MPa; 2. dry, when the water potential reached around -1.5 MPa. Two sowing dates, 05/22/92 and 06/11/92, were used. The results showed that Anahuac and IAC-60 are the most indicated cultivars for the studied region; when irrigated all cultivars presented similar yield level under no irrigation conditions; the irrigation was not sufficient to avoid yield differences between the two growing seasons; differences in rainfall were important for the crop in the dry treatment for both seasons.

  6. Response of Silybum marianum plant to irrigation intervals combined with fertilization

    SABER F. HENDAWY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hendawy SF, Hussein MS, Youssef AA, El-Mergawi RA. 2013. Response of Silybum marianum plant to irrigation intervals combined with fertilization. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 21-28. This study was investigated to evaluate the influence of different kinds of organic and bio fertilization under different irrigation intervals on the growth, production and chemical constituents of Sylibium marianum plant. Data indicated that all studied growth and yield characters were significantly affected by the duration of irrigation intervals. Fertilizer treatments had a primitive effect on growth and yield characters. The interaction between irrigation intervals and fertilizer treatments has a clear considerable effect on growth and yield characters. The obtained results indicated the favorable effect of organic and bio fertilizers which reduce the harmful effect of water stress. Different treatments had a pronounced effect on silymarin content.

  7. Responsive Space Program Brief

    Dors, Eric E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-11

    The goal of the Responsive Space program is to make significant, integrated science and technology contributions to the end-to-end missions of the U.S. Government that protect against global emerging and nuclear threats, from the earliest adversary planning through resilient event response report describes the LANL space program, mission, and other activities. The report describes some of their activities.

  8. Using Home Irrigation Users' Perceptions to Inform Water Conservation Programs

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Lamm, Alexa J.; Rumble, Joy N.; Momol, Esen

    2017-01-01

    Targeted agricultural education programs can play a role in solving complex water issues. This article applies importance-performance analysis to examine dimensions of water resources that may inform local water conservation campaigns in the United States. The purpose of this study was to generate a deep understanding of home irrigation users'…

  9. Optimization of planting pattern plan in Logung irrigation area using linear program

    Wardoyo, Wasis; Setyono

    2018-03-01

    Logung irrigation area is located in Kudus Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Irrigation area with 2810 Ha of extent is getting water supply from Logung dam. Yet, the utilization of water at Logung dam is not optimal and the distribution of water is still not evenly distributed. Therefore, this study will discuss about the optimization of irrigation water utilization based on the beginning of plant season. This optimization begins with the analysis of hydrology, climatology and river discharge in order to determine the irrigation water needs. After determining irrigation water needs, six alternatives of planting patterns with the different early planting periods, i.e. 1st November, 2nd November, 3rd November, 1st December, 2nd December, and 3rd December with the planting pattern of rice-secondary crop-sugarcane is introduced. It is continued by the analysis of water distribution conducted using linear program assisted by POM-Quantity method for Windows 3 with the reliable discharge limit and the available land area. Output of this calculation are to determine the land area that can be planted based on the type of plant and growing season, and to obtaine the profits of harvest yields. Based on the optimum area of each plant species with 6 alternatives, the most optimum area was obtained at the early planting periods on 3rd December with the production profit of Rp 113.397.338.854,- with the planting pattern of rice / beans / sugarcane-rice / beans / sugarcane-beans / sugarcane.

  10. Inexact nonlinear improved fuzzy chance-constrained programming model for irrigation water management under uncertainty

    Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Shanshan; Liu, Xiao; Guo, Ping

    2018-01-01

    An inexact nonlinear mλ-measure fuzzy chance-constrained programming (INMFCCP) model is developed for irrigation water allocation under uncertainty. Techniques of inexact quadratic programming (IQP), mλ-measure, and fuzzy chance-constrained programming (FCCP) are integrated into a general optimization framework. The INMFCCP model can deal with not only nonlinearities in the objective function, but also uncertainties presented as discrete intervals in the objective function, variables and left-hand side constraints and fuzziness in the right-hand side constraints. Moreover, this model improves upon the conventional fuzzy chance-constrained programming by introducing a linear combination of possibility measure and necessity measure with varying preference parameters. To demonstrate its applicability, the model is then applied to a case study in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwest China. An interval regression analysis method is used to obtain interval crop water production functions in the whole growth period under uncertainty. Therefore, more flexible solutions can be generated for optimal irrigation water allocation. The variation of results can be examined by giving different confidence levels and preference parameters. Besides, it can reflect interrelationships among system benefits, preference parameters, confidence levels and the corresponding risk levels. Comparison between interval crop water production functions and deterministic ones based on the developed INMFCCP model indicates that the former is capable of reflecting more complexities and uncertainties in practical application. These results can provide more reliable scientific basis for supporting irrigation water management in arid areas.

  11. Simulation of trickle irrigation, an extension to the US Geological Survey's computer program VS2D

    Healy, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for simulating water movement through unsaturated porous media in response to a constant rate of application from a surface source. Because the rate at which water can be absorbed by soil is limited, the water will pond; therefore the actual surface area over which the water is applied may change with time and in general will not be known beforehand. An iterative method is used to determine the size of this ponded area at any time. This method will be most useful for simulating trickling irrigation, but also may be of value for simulating movement of water is soils as the result of an accidental spill. The method is an extension to the finite difference computer program VS2D developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, which simulates water movement through variably saturated porous media. The simulated region can be a vertical, 2-dimensional cross section for treatment of a surface line source or an axially symmetric, 3-dimensional cylinder for a point source. Five test problems, obtained from the literature , are used to demonstrate the ability of the method to accurately match analytical and experimental results. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Sugar cane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages

    Pene, C.B.G.

    1995-01-01

    A field study on sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages, in order to increase crop water use efficiency, was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou, in Northern Ivory Coast. This cane crop tested was Co 449, an early - maturing genotype of indian origin. This experiment has been conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop ( from November, 1991 to December 1992 ), first ratoon crop ( from December 1992 to January 1994 ) and as second ratoon crop ( from January 1994 to January 1995 ). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of 54 m sup2 sized plots. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratoon crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugar cane growth and yield decline due to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to tillering. As a result, the sugar cane tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice as to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering ( assuming that the crop is successfully established ), for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency.6 figs

  13. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) physiological, chemical and growth responses to irrigation with saline water

    Hirich, Abdelaziz; Omari, Halima El; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    and soluble sugars as osmolytes produced by chickpea to mitigate the effect of salinity stress. The added value of these results is that the crop's responses to salinity are quantified. The obtained values can be used to determine 'threshold values'; should the salinity of the irrigation water go above...... these threshold values one may expect the crop yield parameters to be affected. The quantified responses also indicate the rate of change of yield parameters in response to the irrigation water salinity level. This could help in avoiding significant yield reduction when deciding on the irrigation water salinity...

  14. Validation on wheat response to irrigation, CO2 and nitrogen fertilization in the Community Land Model

    Lu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in soil carbon balance, and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Understanding whether the Community Land Model (CLM) appropriate response to elevated CO2 and different levels of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation is a crucial question. We participated the AgMIP-wheat project and run 72 simulations at Maricopa spring wheat FACE sites and five winter wheat sites in North America forcing with site observed meteorology data. After calibration on the phenology, carbon allocation, and soil hydrology parameters, wheat in CLM45 has reasonable response to irrigation and elevated CO2. However, wheat in CLM45 has no response to low or high N fertilization because the low amount of N fertilization is sufficient for wheat growth in CLM45. We plan to further extend the same simulations for CLM5 (will release in Fall 2016), which has substantial improvements on soil hydrology (improved soil evaporation and plant hydraulic parameterization) and nitrogen dynamics (flexible leaf CN ratio and Vcmax25, plant pays for carbon to get nitrogen). We will evaluate the uncertainties of wheat response to nitrogen fertilization, irrigation, CO2 due to model improvements.

  15. Physiological and gene expression responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants differ according to irrigation placement.

    Aguado, Ana; Capote, Nieves; Romero, Fernando; Dodd, Ian C; Colmenero-Flores, José M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate effects of soil moisture heterogeneity on plant physiology and gene expression in roots and leaves, three treatments were implemented in sunflower plants growing with roots split between two compartments: a control (C) treatment supplying 100% of plant evapotranspiration, and two treatments receiving 50% of plant evapotranspiration, either evenly distributed to both compartments (deficit irrigation - DI) or unevenly distributed to ensure distinct wet and dry compartments (partial rootzone drying - PRD). Plants receiving the same amount of water responded differently under the two irrigation systems. After 3 days, evapotranspiration was similar in C and DI, but 20% less in PRD, concomitant with decreased leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and increased leaf xylem ABA concentration. Six water-stress responsive genes were highly induced in roots growing in the drying soil compartment of PRD plants, and their expression was best correlated with local soil water content. On the other hand, foliar gene expression differed significantly from that of the root and correlated better with xylem ABA concentration and Ψleaf. While the PRD irrigation strategy triggered stronger physiological and molecular responses, suggesting a more intense and systemic stress reaction due to local dehydration of the dry compartment of PRD plants, the DI strategy resulted in similar water savings without strongly inducing these responses. Correlating physiological and molecular responses in PRD/DI plants may provide insights into the severity and location of water deficits and may enable a better understanding of long-distance signalling mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Winter wheat response to irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, and cold hazards in the Community Land Model 5

    Lu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Winter wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in soil carbon balance, and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Accurate simulation of winter wheat growth is not only crucial for future yield prediction under changing climate, but also for understanding the energy and water cycles for winter wheat dominated regions. A winter wheat growth model has been developed in the Community Land Model 4.5 (CLM4.5), but its responses to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization have not been validated. In this study, I will validate winter wheat growth response to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization at five winter wheat field sites (TXLU, KSMA, NESA, NDMA, and ABLE) in North America, which were originally designed to understand winter wheat response to nitrogen fertilization and water treatments (4 nitrogen levels and 3 irrigation regimes). I also plan to further update the linkages between winter wheat yield and cold hazards. The previous cold damage function only indirectly affects yield through reduction on leaf area index (LAI) and hence photosynthesis, such approach could sometimes produce an unwanted higher yield when the reduced LAI saved more nutrient in the grain fill stage.

  17. Assessing the efficacy of the SWAT auto-irrigation function to simulate Irrigation, evapotranspiration and crop response to irrigation management strategies of the Texas High Plains

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is widely used for simulation of hydrologic processes at various temporal and spatial scales. Less common are long-term simulation analyses of water balance components including agricultural management practices such as irrigation management. In the se...

  18. A Computer Program for Drip Irrigation System Design for Small Plots

    Philipova, Nina; Nicheva, Olga; Kazandjiev, Valentin; Chilikova-Lubomirova, Mila

    2012-12-01

    A computer programhas been developed for design of surface drip irrigation system. It could be applied for calculation of small scale fields with an area up to 10 ha. The program includes two main parts: crop water requirements and hydraulic calculations of the system. It has been developed in Graphical User Interface in MATLAB and gives opportunity for selecting some parameters from tables such as: agro- physical soil properties, characteristics of the corresponding crop, climatic data. It allows the user of the program to assume and set a definite value, for example the emitter discharge, plot parameters and etc. Eight cases of system layout according to the water source layout and the number of plots of the system operation are laid into hydraulic section of the program. It includes the design of lateral, manifold, main line and pump calculations. The program has been compiled to work in Windows.

  19. Response of Cotton to Irrigation Methods and Nitrogen Fertilization: Yield Components, Water-Use Efficiency, Nitrogen Uptake, and Recovery

    Janat, M.

    2009-01-01

    Efficient crop use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is critical from economic and environmental viewpoints, especially under irrigated conditions. Cotton yield parameters, fiber quality, water- and N-use efficiency responses to N, and irrigation methods in northern Syria were evaluated. Field trials were conducted for two growing seasons on a Chromoxerertic Rhodoxeralf soil. Treatments consisted of drip fertigation, furrow irrigation, and five different rates of N fertilizer (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg N /ha). Cotton was irrigated when soil moisture in the specified active root depth was 80% of the field capacity as indicated by the neutron probe. Seed cotton yield was higher than the national average (3,928 kg/ha) by at least 12% as compared to all treatments. Lint properties were not negatively affected by the irrigation method or N rates. Water savings under drip fertigation ranged between 25 and 50% of irrigation water relative to furrow irrigation. Crop water-use efficiencies of the drip-fertigated treatments were in most cases 100% higher than those of the corresponding furrow-irrigated treatments. The highest water demand was during the fruit-setting growth stage. It was also concluded that under drip fertigation, 100 -150 N kg/ha was adequate and comparable with the highest N rates tested under furrow irrigation regarding lint yield, N uptake, and recovery. Based on cotton seed yield and weight of stems, the overall amount of N removed from the field for the drip-fertigated treatments ranged between 101-118 kg and 116-188 N/ha for 2001 and 2002, respectively. The N removal ranged between 94-113 and 111-144 kg N/ha for the furrow-irrigated treatments for 2001 and 2002, respectively. (author)

  20. Treatment of landfill leachate by irrigation of willow coppice - Plant response and treatment efficiency

    Aronsson, Paer; Dahlin, Torleif; Dimitriou, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Landfill leachates usually need to be treated before discharged, and using soil-plant systems for this has gained substantial interest in Sweden and in the UK. A three-year field study was conducted in central Sweden to quantify plant response, treatment efficiency and impact on groundwater quality of landfill leachate irrigation of short-rotation willow coppice (Salix). Two willow varieties were tested and four irrigation regimes in sixteen 400-m 2 plots. The willow plants did not react negatively, despite very high annual loads of nitrogen (≤2160 kg N/ha), chloride (≤8600 kg Cl/ha) and other elements. Mean annual growth was 1.5, 9.8 and 12.6 tonnes DM/ha during years 1-3. For one of two willow varieties tested, relative leaf length accurately predicted growth rate. Irrigation resulted in elevated groundwater concentrations of all elements applied. Treatment efficiency varied considerably for different elements, but was adequate when moderate loads were applied. - Short-rotation willow coppice was successfully used for treating a strong landfill leachate in central Sweden over three years.

  1. Separating heat stress from moisture stress: analyzing yield response to high temperature in irrigated maize

    Carter, Elizabeth K.; Melkonian, Jeff; Riha, Susan J.; Shaw, Stephen B.

    2016-09-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that high air temperatures are limiting maize (Zea mays L.) yields in the US Corn Belt and project significant yield losses with expected increases in growing season temperatures. Further work has suggested that high air temperatures are indicative of high evaporative demand, and that decreases in maize yields which correlate to high temperatures and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) likely reflect underlying soil moisture limitations. It remains unclear whether direct high temperature impacts on yields, independent of moisture stress, can be observed under current temperature regimes. Given that projected high temperature and moisture may not co-vary the same way as they have historically, quantitative analyzes of direct temperature impacts are critical for accurate yield projections and targeted mitigation strategies under shifting temperature regimes. To evaluate yield response to above optimum temperatures independent of soil moisture stress, we analyzed climate impacts on irrigated maize yields obtained from the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) corn yield contests for Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. In irrigated maize, we found no evidence of a direct negative impact on yield by daytime air temperature, calculated canopy temperature, or VPD when analyzed seasonally. Solar radiation was the primary yield-limiting climate variable. Our analyses suggested that elevated night temperature impacted yield by increasing rates of phenological development. High temperatures during grain-fill significantly interacted with yields, but this effect was often beneficial and included evidence of acquired thermo-tolerance. Furthermore, genetics and management—information uniquely available in the NCGA contest data—explained more yield variability than climate, and significantly modified crop response to climate. Thermo-acclimation, improved genetics and changes to management practices have the potential to partially or completely

  2. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

    Viyachai Taweesak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White” were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL, 6 (400 mL, and 8 (533 mL times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  3. Nitrogen utilization efficiency and yield response of drip-irrigated tomatoes grown in the glass house

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.

    1996-01-01

    This greenhouse study conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil, as a single crop production, heated only for anti frost, was designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) to four nitrogen levels continually applied with the irrigation stream. Water containing 0, 50, 100 or 150 mgN/l and uniformly supplied with 60 and 180 mg/l of P and K, respectively, were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N 15 labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). For each plant the amount of water, P,K and the N 15 applied through the bottles was equivalent to that amount applied through a single dripper. These treatments were compared with banded application of NH 4 S 2 O 4 at the rate of 400 kgN/ha that was equivalent to 100 mgN/l treatment. The resulting N application totals ranged from 200 to 600 kgN/ha.The total amount of water applied was 427mm. The results obtainedshowed that the percentage fertilizer utilization by the tomatoes was the highest in 50 mgN/l (200 kgN/ha) treatment, 100 mgN/l (400 kgN/ha) treatment, was on the second row, the percentage fertilizer utilization in 150 mgN/l (600 kgN/ha) and soil applications (400 kgN/ha) were the same and were significantly lower than the other treatments. The highest yield was achieved in the 100 and 150 mgN/l (400 and 600 kgN/ha) treatments. This experiment demonstrated that the amount of N fertilizer by applying in the irrigation water is to be recommended 100 mgN/l for tomatoes to obtain high yield in production under greenhouse conditions

  4. Yields and Nutritional of Greenhouse Tomato in Response to Different Soil Aeration Volume at two depths of Subsurface drip irrigation

    Li, Yuan; Niu, Wenquan; Dyck, Miles; Wang, Jingwei; Zou, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 4 aeration levels (varied by injection of air to the soil through subsurface irrigation lines) at two subsurface irrigation line depths (15 and 40 cm) on plant growth, yield and nutritional quality of greenhouse tomato. In all experiments, fruit number, width and length, yield, vitamin C, lycopene and sugar/acid ratio of tomato markedly increased in response to the aeration treatments. Vitamin C, lycopene, and sugar/acid ratio increased by 41%, 2%, and 43%, respectively, in the 1.5 times standard aeration volume compared with the no-aeration treatment. An interaction between aeration level and depth of irrigation line was also observed with yield, fruit number, fruit length, vitamin C and sugar/acid ratio of greenhouse tomato increasing at each aeration level when irrigation lines were placed at 40 cm depth. However, when the irrigation lines were 15 cm deep, the trend of total fruit yields, fruit width, fruit length and sugar/acid ratio first increased and then decreased with increasing aeration level. Total soluble solids and titrable acid decreased with increasing aeration level both at 15 and 40 cm irrigation line placement. When all of the quality factors, yields and economic benefit are considered together, the combination of 40 cm line depth and “standard” aeration level was the optimum combination. PMID:27995970

  5. Lettuce irrigated with contaminated water: Photosynthetic effects, antioxidative response and bioaccumulation of microcystin congeners.

    Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria do Carmo; Cordeiro-Araújo, Micheline Kézia; Chia, Mathias Ahii; Arruda-Neto, João Dias de Toledo; de Oliveira, Ênio Tiago; dos Santos, Flávio

    2016-06-01

    The use of microcystins (MCs) contaminated water to irrigate crop plants represents a human health risk due to their bioaccumulation potential. In addition, MCs cause oxidative stress and negatively influence photosynthetic activities in plants. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of MCs on photosynthetic parameters and antioxidative response of lettuce. Furthermore, the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of total MCs, MC-LR and MC-RR in the vegetable after irrigation with contaminated water was determined. Lettuce crops were irrigated for 15 days with water containing cyanobacterial crude extracts (Microcystis aeruginosa) with MC-LR (0.0, 0.5, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 µg L(-1)), MC-RR (0.0, 0.15, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 µg L(-1)) and total MCs (0.0, 0.65, 2.5, 6.5 and 13.0 µg L(-1)). Increased net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, leaf tissue transpiration and intercellular CO2 concentration were recorded in lettuce exposed to different MCs concentrations. Antioxidant response showed that glutathione S-transferase activity was down-regulated in the presence of MCs. On the other hand, superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities were upregulated with increasing MCs concentrations. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of total MCs and MC-LR was highest at 6.50 and 5.00 µg L(-1), respectively, while for MC-RR, the highest BAF was recorded at 1.50 µg L(-1) concentration. The amount of total MCs, MC-LR and MC-RR bioacumulated in lettuce was highest at the highest exposure concentrations. However, at the lowest exposure concentration, there were no detectable levels of MC-LR, MC-RR and total MCs in lettuce. Thus, the bioaccumulation of MCs in lettuce varies according to the exposure concentration. In addition, the extent of physiological response of lettuce to the toxins relies on exposure concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing the Efficacy of the SWAT Auto-Irrigation Function to Simulate Irrigation, Evapotranspiration, and Crop Response to Management Strategies of the Texas High Plains

    Yong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the semi-arid Texas High Plains, the underlying Ogallala Aquifer is experiencing continuing decline due to long-term pumping for irrigation with limited recharge. Accurate simulation of irrigation and other associated water balance components are critical for meaningful evaluation of the effects of irrigation management strategies. Modelers often employ auto-irrigation functions within models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. However, some studies have raised concerns as to whether the function is able to adequately simulate representative irrigation practices. In this study, observations of climate, irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET, leaf area index (LAI, and crop yield derived from an irrigated lysimeter field at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory at Bushland, Texas were used to evaluate the efficacy of the SWAT auto-irrigation functions. Results indicated good agreement between simulated and observed daily ET during both model calibration (2001–2005 and validation (2006–2010 periods for the baseline scenario (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency; NSE ≥ 0.80. The auto-irrigation scenarios resulted in reasonable ET simulations under all the thresholds of soil water deficit (SWD triggers as indicated by NSE values > 0.5. However, the auto-irrigation function did not adequately represent field practices, due to the continuation of irrigation after crop maturity and excessive irrigation when SWD triggers were less than the static irrigation amount.

  7. Simulating Crop Evapotranspiration Response under Different Planting Scenarios by Modified SWAT Model in an Irrigation District, Northwest China.

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Sufen; Xue, Han; Singh, Vijay P

    2015-01-01

    Modelling crop evapotranspiration (ET) response to different planting scenarios in an irrigation district plays a significant role in optimizing crop planting patterns, resolving agricultural water scarcity and facilitating the sustainable use of water resources. In this study, the SWAT model was improved by transforming the evapotranspiration module. Then, the improved model was applied in Qingyuan Irrigation District of northwest China as a case study. Land use, soil, meteorology, irrigation scheduling and crop coefficient were considered as input data, and the irrigation district was divided into subdivisions based on the DEM and local canal systems. On the basis of model calibration and verification, the improved model showed better simulation efficiency than did the original model. Therefore, the improved model was used to simulate the crop evapotranspiration response under different planting scenarios in the irrigation district. Results indicated that crop evapotranspiration decreased by 2.94% and 6.01% under the scenarios of reducing the planting proportion of spring wheat (scenario 1) and summer maize (scenario 2) by keeping the total cultivated area unchanged. However, the total net output values presented an opposite trend under different scenarios. The values decreased by 3.28% under scenario 1, while it increased by 7.79% under scenario 2, compared with the current situation. This study presents a novel method to estimate crop evapotranspiration response under different planting scenarios using the SWAT model, and makes recommendations for strategic agricultural water management planning for the rational utilization of water resources and development of local economy by studying the impact of planting scenario changes on crop evapotranspiration and output values in the irrigation district of northwest China.

  8. Simulating Crop Evapotranspiration Response under Different Planting Scenarios by Modified SWAT Model in an Irrigation District, Northwest China.

    Xin Liu

    Full Text Available Modelling crop evapotranspiration (ET response to different planting scenarios in an irrigation district plays a significant role in optimizing crop planting patterns, resolving agricultural water scarcity and facilitating the sustainable use of water resources. In this study, the SWAT model was improved by transforming the evapotranspiration module. Then, the improved model was applied in Qingyuan Irrigation District of northwest China as a case study. Land use, soil, meteorology, irrigation scheduling and crop coefficient were considered as input data, and the irrigation district was divided into subdivisions based on the DEM and local canal systems. On the basis of model calibration and verification, the improved model showed better simulation efficiency than did the original model. Therefore, the improved model was used to simulate the crop evapotranspiration response under different planting scenarios in the irrigation district. Results indicated that crop evapotranspiration decreased by 2.94% and 6.01% under the scenarios of reducing the planting proportion of spring wheat (scenario 1 and summer maize (scenario 2 by keeping the total cultivated area unchanged. However, the total net output values presented an opposite trend under different scenarios. The values decreased by 3.28% under scenario 1, while it increased by 7.79% under scenario 2, compared with the current situation. This study presents a novel method to estimate crop evapotranspiration response under different planting scenarios using the SWAT model, and makes recommendations for strategic agricultural water management planning for the rational utilization of water resources and development of local economy by studying the impact of planting scenario changes on crop evapotranspiration and output values in the irrigation district of northwest China.

  9. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching.

    Yaming Zhai

    Full Text Available To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt, quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1, 320 mm (W2 and 360 mm (W3, and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F, 3.0 dS/m (S1 and 5.0 dS/m (S2. Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym. After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual, and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China.

  10. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching.

    Zhai, Yaming; Yang, Qian; Wu, Yunyu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt), quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1), 320 mm (W2) and 360 mm (W3), and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F), 3.0 dS/m (S1) and 5.0 dS/m (S2). Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm) of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym). After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual), and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China.

  11. Climate, water use, and land surface transformation in an irrigation intensive watershed - streamflow responses from 1950 through 2010

    Dale, Joseph; Zou, Chris B.; Andrews, William J.; Long, James M.; Liang, Ye; Qiao, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Climatic variability and land surface change have a wide range of effects on streamflow and are often difficult to separate. We analyzed long-term records of climate, land use and land cover, and re-constructed the water budget based on precipitation, groundwater levels, and water use from 1950 through 2010 in the Cimarron–Skeleton watershed and a portion of the Cimarron–Eagle Chief watershed in Oklahoma, an irrigation-intensive agricultural watershed in the Southern Great Plains, USA. Our results show that intensive irrigation through alluvial aquifer withdrawal modifies climatic feedback and alters streamflow response to precipitation. Increase in consumptive water use was associated with decreases in annual streamflow, while returning croplands to non-irrigated grasslands was associated with increases in streamflow. Along with groundwater withdrawal, anthropogenic-induced factors and activities contributed nearly half to the observed variability of annual streamflow. Streamflow was more responsive to precipitation during the period of intensive irrigation between 1965 and 1984 than the period of relatively lower water use between 1985 and 2010. The Cimarron River is transitioning from a historically flashy river to one that is more stable with a lower frequency of both high and low flow pulses, a higher baseflow, and an increased median flow due in part to the return of cropland to grassland. These results demonstrated the interrelationship among climate, land use, groundwater withdrawal and streamflow regime and the potential to design agricultural production systems and adjust irrigation to mitigate impact of increasing climate variability on streamflow in irrigation intensive agricultural watershed.

  12. Effect of regulated deficit irrigation on growth, flowering and physiological responses of potted Syringa meyeri ‘Palibin’

    Michał Koniarski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the physiological and morphological response of Syringa meyeri ‘Palibin’ to different levels of irrigation and to evaluate regulated deficit irrigation (RDI as a possible technique for saving water in nursery production and promoting of flowering. Plants were grown in 3 liter containers in an unheated greenhouse and were subjected to six irrigation treatments for 18 weeks from the be- ginning of June to mid-October 2011. A drip irrigation system was used. Irrigation treatments were established on the basis of evapotranspiration (ETp. Three constant irrigation treatments were used: 1 1 ETp; 2 0.75 ETp; 3 0.5 ETp, while the other three with irrigation varying between phases were as follows: 4 1–0.5–1; 5 1–0.25–1; and 6 0.5–1–0.5 ETp. The 0.75 ETp and 0.5 ETp irrigation regimes adversely affected the growth and visual quality index of plants as well as they resulted in reduced leaf conductance, transpiration, maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm and CCI (chlorophyll content index. Plants grown under the 1–0.5–1 ETp regime had the same morphological parameters as plants grown under the 0.5 ETp treatment. A further reduction of water quantity supplied to plants in the 1–0.25–1 ETp regime resulted in further deterioration of the visual quality index of plants. In this study, the quality index of plants exposed to 0.5–1–0.5 ETp was similar to control plants (1 ETp. These plants were lower, more compact, and had smaller leaves than control plants. The irrigation regimes imposed in this study had no significant effect on the number of floral buds formed in relation to the control regime, except for 1–0.25–1 ETp where this number decreased.

  13. Assessing wheat yield, Biomass, and water productivity responses to growth stage based irrigation water allocation

    Increasing irrigated wheat yields is important to the overall profitability of limited-irrigation cropping systems in western Kansas. A simulation study was conducted to (1) validate APSIM's (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator) ability to simulate wheat growth and yield in Kansas, and (2) app...

  14. Response of lettuce to Cd-enriched water and irrigation frequencies ...

    Also, shoot Cd content showed a significant positive correlation with the final accumulated Cd concentration of soil and was expressed by a plateau model under the dry irrigation regime and linear models at other irrigation intervals. Overall, shoot Cd concentration was predicted by using a simple linear regression model ...

  15. Alternate furrow irrigation of four fresh-market tomato cultivars under semi-arid condition of Ethiopia – Part II: Physiological response

    Ashinie Bogale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the variation in physiological response to deficit irrigation together with better knowledge on physiological characteristics of different genotypes that contribute to drought adaptation mechanisms would be helpful in transferring different irrigation technologies to farmers. A field experiment was carried to investigate the physiological response of four tomato cultivars (Fetan, Chali, Cochoro and ARP Tomato d2 to moderate water deficit induced by alternate furrow irrigation (AFI and deficit irrigation (DI under semi-arid condition of Ethiopia during 2013 and 2014. The study also aimed at identifying physiological attributes to the fruit yield of tomato under different deficit irrigation techniques. A factorial combination of irrigation treatments and cultivar were arranged in a complete randomized design with three replicates. Results showed that stomatal conductance (g_s was significantly reduced while photosynthetic performance measured as chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv’/Fm’, relative water content (RWC and leaf ash content remained unaffected under deficit irrigations. Significant differences among cultivars were found for water use efficiency (WUE, g_s, chlorophyll content (Chl_SPAD, normal difference vegetation index (NDVI, leaf ash content and fruit growth rate. However, cultivar differences in WUE were more accounted for by the regulation of g_s, therefore, g_s could be useful for breeders for screening large numbers of genotypes with higher WUE under deficit irrigation condition. The study result also demonstrated that cultivar with traits that contribute to achieve higher yields under deficit irrigation strategies has the potential to increase WUE.

  16. Quality of Irrigation Water Affects Soil Functionality and Bacterial Community Stability in Response to Heat Disturbance.

    Frenk, Sammy; Hadar, Yitzhak; Minz, Dror

    2018-02-15

    Anthropogenic activities alter the structure and function of a bacterial community. Furthermore, bacterial communities structured by the conditions the anthropogenic activities present may consequently reduce their stability in response to an unpredicted acute disturbance. The present mesocosm-scale study exposed soil bacterial communities to different irrigation water types, including freshwater, fertilized freshwater, treated wastewater, and artificial wastewater, and evaluated their response to a disturbance caused by heat. These effectors may be considered deterministic and stochastic forces common in agricultural operations of arid and semiarid regions. Bacterial communities under conditions of high mineral and organic carbon availability (artificial wastewater) differed from the native bacterial community and showed a proteobacterial dominance. These bacterial communities had a lower resistance to the heat treatment disturbance than soils under conditions of low resource availability (high-quality treated wastewater or freshwater). The latter soil bacterial communities showed a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified as Bacilli These results were elucidated by soil under conditions of high resource availability, which lost higher degrees of functional potential and had a greater bacterial community composition change. However, the functional resilience, after the disturbance ended, was higher under a condition of high resource availability despite the bacterial community composition shift and the decrease in species richness. The functional resilience was directly connected to the high growth rates of certain Bacteroidetes and proteobacterial groups. A high stability was found in samples that supported the coexistence of both resistant OTUs and fast-growing OTUs. IMPORTANCE This report presents the results of a study employing a hypothesis-based experimental approach to reveal the forces involved in determining the stability of a

  17. Irrigation-induced contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the western United States-synthesis of data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Naftz, David L.; Nolan, B. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    In October 1985 the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), through the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), began a series of field investigations at 26 areas in the Western United States to determine whether irrigation drainage has had harmful effects on fish, wildlife, and humans or has reduced beneficial uses of water. In 1992 NIWQP initiated the Data Synthesis Project to evaluate data collected during the field investigations. Geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic data were evaluated and water, sediment, and biota from the 26 areas were analyzed to identify commonalities and dominant factors that result in irrigation-induced contamination of water and biota. Data collected for the 26 area investigations have been compiled and merged into a common data base. The structure of the data base is designed to enable assessment of relations between contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota. The data base is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web at URL http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp. Analysis of the data base for the Data Synthesis included use of summary statistics, factor analysis, and logistic regression. A Geographic Information System was used to store and analyze spatially oriented digital data such as land use, geology and evaporation rates. In the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) study areas, samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected for trace-element and pesticide analysis. Contaminants most commonly associated with irrigation drainage were identified by comparing concentrations in water with established criteria. For surface water, the criteria used were typically chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Because ground water can discharge to the surface where wildlife can be exposed to it, the criteria used for ground water were both the maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water and the chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life

  18. Effects of Different Irrigation Programs on Fruit, Trunk Growth Rates, Quality and Yield of Grapefruit Trees

    KANBER, Rıza; KÖKSAL, Harun; YAZAR, Attila; ÖZEKİCİ, Bülent; ÖNDER, Sermet

    1999-01-01

    Long-term field experiments were carried out between 1985 and 1988 to determine the effect of different irrigation intervals and pan coefficients on the fruit and trunk growth rates and yield of mature grapefruit trees grown in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey in a medium-light textured soil. Two different irrigation intervals (I 1 =15 and I 2 =25 days), and pan coefficients (k 1 =0.60 and k 2 =1.00) were used. Higher evapotranspiration values were obtained from the treatments with ...

  19. Crop response to biochar under differing irrigation levels in the southeastern USA

    Application of biochar to soils is hypothesized to increase crop yield. Crop productivity impacts of biochar application in Southeastern cropping systems consisting of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) produced under varying rates of irrigation have...

  20. Black walnut response to subsoiling, irrigation, and vegetation management on a site with a shallow fragipan

    F. D. McBride; J. W. Van Sambeek

    1995-01-01

    Vegetation management with glyphosate and simazine proved to be more effective than preplant subsoiling or irrigation for achieving acceptable walnut biomass growth on an upland old field site (SI = 70 for white oak). In 1980, we direct seeded germinating black walnut seed on an upland, slightly eroded, old field ridge with a 45 to 60 cm deep fragipan. We tested all...

  1. [Responses of antioxidation system of Cynodon dactylon to recirculated landfill leachate irrigation].

    Wang, Ruyi; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhang, Bin; Li, Guojian

    2005-05-01

    With pot experiment, this paper studied the membrane lipid peroxidation and the variations of antioxidation system in Cynodon dactylon under recirculated landfill leachate irrigation. The results showed that when irrigated with low dilution ratio ( 25%), there existed an obvious negative fect on Cynodon dactylon, i.e., the chlorophyll a/b ratio decreased, while cell membrane permeability and MDA and H2O2 contents increased, which meant that the membrane lipid peroxidation was accelerated. The contents antioxidants AsA, GSH and Car also showed the similar trend, i.e., they increased with increasing leachate dilution ratio when irrigated with low dilution ratio leachate, but decreased under medium or high dilution ratio leachate irrigation. Among three test anti-oxidative enzymes, SOD and POD activities showed a similar change test antioxidants, and POD activity was more sensitive, while CAT activity was on the contrary. The contents test antioxidants and the activities of SOD and POD were negatively and significantly correlated to MDA content, indicating that they might play an important role in preventing Cynodon dactylon from cell membrane lipid peroxdation.

  2. Nitrogen utilization efficiencies and yield responses of drip-irrigated tomatoes and peppers as influenced by soil application and fertigation

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.

    1996-01-01

    These greenhouse studies conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil in an plastic greenhouse, were designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)grown as a spring production and peppers (Capsicum annuum) heated for anti frost to four nitrogen levels continually applied with the irrigation stream. Water containing 0,50,100 or 150 mgN/l for tomatoes, 0,70,140 or 210 mgN/l for peppers as NH 4 S 2 O 4 , and uniformly supplied with 60 and 180 mg/l of P and K respectively were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). These treatments were compared with banded application of NH 4 S 2 O 4 at the rate of 320 kgN/ha for tomatoe sand 350 kgN/ha for peppers that were equivalent to the 100 mgN/l and 140 mgN/l treatments. The total amount of water applied was 345 mm for tomatoes and 260 mm for peppers. The results obtained showed that the highest yield was achieved in 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and in 140 mgN/l for peppers. The percentage fertilizer N utilization and yield increase by tomatoes and peppers were significantly increased with applying the N fertilizer by the irrigation water, fertigation, relative to the soil application of N at the same level fertilization. Evidently, the nutrient uptake efficiency as indicated by the highest yield is higher with fertigation which is extend means more environmental friendly approach. These experiments demonstrated that the amount of N fertilizer by applying in the irrigation water is to be recommended 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and 140 mgN/l for peppers to obtain high yield

  3. Upland cotton growth and yield response to timing the initial postplant irrigation

    Steger, A.J.; Silvertooth, J.C.; Brown, P.W.

    1998-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) production in arid and semiarid regions depends on well-managed irrigation systems for optimum yield and production efficiency. Water deficit stress early in the growing season can affect the subsequent growth and development of short-season cotton. A 2-yr field study was conducted in southern Arizona to determine the optimum timing of the initial postplant irrigation for a short-season upland cotton variety based on midday leaf water potential (LWP) measurements, and to evaluate the season-long effects of delayed irrigation on subsequent plant growth patterns. In both years, the short-season upland variety, DPL 20, was planted into a Pima clay loam soil [fine-silty, mixed (calcareous), thermic Typic Torrifluvent] that had received a preplant irrigation of 152 (1993) or 254 mm (1994) approximately 3 wk prior to planting. Treatments, designated T1, T2, and T3, received the initial postplant irrigation when the average midday LWP of the uppermost, fully expanded leaf measured −1.5, −1.9, and −2.3 MPa, respectively. Daily midday LWP measurements were taken using the pressure chamber technique. Soil water was measured at 25-cm depth increments using neutron attenuation. Plant height, number of mainstem nodes, nodes above white flower (NAWF), and canopy closure were measured at weekly intervals. All treatments reached maturity, as measured by NAWF ≤ 5, at approximately the same time during the growing season. Complete canopy closure was delayed in the T3 plots resulting in reduced interception and utilization of available solar radiation early in the growing season. When treatments were initiated, approximately 84% (T1), 62% (T2), and 32% (T3) of the total plant-available water (field capacity less permanent wilting point) was present in the upper 1.5 of the soil profile. Yields were 1263, 1244, and 1110 kg lint ha−1 in 1993 and 1229, 1176, and 1095 kg lint ha −1 in 1994 for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Lint yields were significantly

  4. Yield and quality responses of drip-irrigated spinach to different irrigation quantities in a semi-arid region with a high altitude

    Yasemin KUSLU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different irrigation quantities on the growth, marketable yield, crop quality (antioxidant activity, mineral and total phenolic content and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE of spinach grown in a semi-arid region of high altitude (1795 m a.s.l. was determined. Plants were irrigated with three different irrigation quantities which determined considering 100 (I1, 85 (I2 and 70% (I3 of the evaporation obtained from a Class A pan. Irrigation quantities in the I1, I2 and I3 treatments as two years average were 290, 264.3 and 238.6 mm, respectively. The I1 treatment provided the highest growth, marketable yield (28.06 t*ha-1 and IWUE (9.7 kg*m-3. However, mineral and total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the leaves of spinach were significantly higher under lower water application conditions. The I2 treatment resulted with the highest antioxidant activity and content of N, K, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu and total phenolics. As a result of the study, I1 treatment in spinach production could be suitable for water sufficient regions due to higher yield and IWUE. However, I2 treatment may be more appropriate for water scarce semi-arid regions of high altitude for obtaining higher minerals and antioxidant activity.

  5. Heavy metals contamination of soils in response to wastewater irrigation in Rawalpindi region

    Mushtaq, N.; Khan, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the quality of effluents/ waste water samples from Rawalpindi region for irrigation purpose and to elucidate effects of their application on heavy metal contents in soils of area. Results indicated that the EC, SAR, RSC and TDS of most effluent/ waste water samples were above the critical limits. Cadmium and Cr were above the critical limits in almost all the effluent samples, whereas Ni was high in 14, Pb was high in 10, Cu was high in 5 and the Fe was high in 3 effluent samples as compared to critical limits. Regarding heavy metals contents of soils irrigated by these effluents/ waste water, total Fe, total Cd and total Ni were higher in almost all the sampled sites, whereas total Cr was high at 7 sampled sites. AB-DTPA extractable Fe and Zn were higher at all the sampled sites, while the extractable Cd was higher at 2 sampled sites. Overall, the effluent samples collected from Adiala showed high concentrations of heavy metals, whereas soils of Wah factory and Islamabad area had higher heavy metal contents (total and AB-DTPA extractable). On the basis of results it is concluded that quality of effluents/ waste water samples collected from different locations of Rawalpindi is not good for irrigation and the long term use of these effluents for crop production caused accumulation of some toxic metals in soils above critical limits which is harmful for soil health and may lead to elevated levels of heavy metals in crop plants. (author)

  6. An intuitionistic fuzzy multi-objective non-linear programming model for sustainable irrigation water allocation under the combination of dry and wet conditions

    Li, Mo; Fu, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Ma, Mingwei; Liu, Xiao

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity causes conflicts among natural resources, society and economy and reinforces the need for optimal allocation of irrigation water resources in a sustainable way. Uncertainties caused by natural conditions and human activities make optimal allocation more complex. An intuitionistic fuzzy multi-objective non-linear programming (IFMONLP) model for irrigation water allocation under the combination of dry and wet conditions is developed to help decision makers mitigate water scarcity. The model is capable of quantitatively solving multiple problems including crop yield increase, blue water saving, and water supply cost reduction to obtain a balanced water allocation scheme using a multi-objective non-linear programming technique. Moreover, it can deal with uncertainty as well as hesitation based on the introduction of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Consideration of the combination of dry and wet conditions for water availability and precipitation makes it possible to gain insights into the various irrigation water allocations, and joint probabilities based on copula functions provide decision makers an average standard for irrigation. A case study on optimally allocating both surface water and groundwater to different growth periods of rice in different subareas in Heping irrigation area, Qing'an County, northeast China shows the potential and applicability of the developed model. Results show that the crop yield increase target especially in tillering and elongation stages is a prevailing concern when more water is available, and trading schemes can mitigate water supply cost and save water with an increased grain output. Results also reveal that the water allocation schemes are sensitive to the variation of water availability and precipitation with uncertain characteristics. The IFMONLP model is applicable for most irrigation areas with limited water supplies to determine irrigation water strategies under a fuzzy environment.

  7. Responses of Grain Maize to Plant Density at Different Irrigation Regimes

    Sara SAMADVAND

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the effects of different plant densities, plant patterns and irrigation regimes on yield, yield components and harvest index of grain maize, a field experiment was conducted at Miyandoab Agricultural Research Station, Iran. A strip split plot experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that the effect of plant density was significant on kernel yield, harvest index, 1,000 kernel weight. The highest kernel yield was obtained from 90,000 plants ha-1 density. Maximum grain yield (18.530 t ha-1 was obtained from furrow irrigation. However, there was no significant difference between moisture levels of 100% and 120% of field capacity. The lowest kernel yield was obtained at 80% field capacity. This study also showed that mean kernel weight and the number of kernels per row were the most determinant factors in grain yield formation. The highest and the lowest harvest indices were obtained at 120% and 80% treatments of field capacity treatment, respectively.

  8. Understanding Irrigator Bidding Behavior in Australian Water Markets in Response to Uncertainty

    Alec Zuo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water markets have been used by Australian irrigators as a way to reduce risk and uncertainty in times of low water allocations and rainfall. However, little is known about how irrigators’ bidding trading behavior in water markets compares to other markets, nor is it known what role uncertainty and a lack of water in a variable and changing climate plays in influencing behavior. This paper studies irrigator behavior in Victorian water markets over a decade (a time period that included a severe drought. In particular, it studies the evidence for price clustering (when water bids/offers end mostly around particular numbers, a common phenomenon present in other established markets. We found that clustering in bid/offer prices in Victorian water allocation markets was influenced by uncertainty and strategic behavior. Water traders evaluate the costs and benefits of clustering and act according to their risk aversion levels. Water market buyer clustering behavior was mostly explained by increased market uncertainty (in particular, hotter and drier conditions, while seller-clustering behavior is mostly explained by strategic behavioral factors which evaluate the costs and benefits of clustering.

  9. Root growth, soil water variation, and grain yield response of winter wheat to supplemental irrigation

    Jianguo Man

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. Thus, we investigated the effect of supplemental irrigation (SI on the root growth, soil water variation, and grain yield of winter wheat in this region by measuring the moisture content in different soil layers. Prior to SI, the soil water content (SWC at given soil depths was monitored to calculate amount of irritation water that can rehydrate the soil to target SWC. The SWC before SI was monitored to depths of 20, 40, and 60 cm in treatments of W20, W40, and W60, respectively. Rainfed treatment with no irrigation as the control (W0. The mean root weight density (RWD, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction activity (TTC reduction activity, soluble protein (SP concentrations as well as catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities in W40 and W60 treatments were significantly higher than those in W20. The RWD in 60–100 cm soil layers and the root activity, SP concentrations, CAT and SOD activities in 40–60 cm soil layers in W40 treatment were significantly higher than those in W20 and W60. W40 treatment is characterized by higher SWC in the upper soil layers but lower SWC in the 60–100-cm soil layers during grain filling. The soil water consumption (SWU in the 60–100 cm soil layers from anthesis after SI to maturity was the highest in W40. The grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE, and irrigation water productivity were the highest in W40, with corresponding mean values of 9169 kg ha−1, 20.8 kg ha−1 mm−1, and 35.5 kg ha−1 mm−1. The RWD, root activities, SP concentrations, CAT and SOD activities, and SWU were strongly positively correlated with grain yield and WUE. Therefore, the optimum soil layer for SI of winter wheat after jointing is 0–40 cm.

  10. Physiological responses of PEA (Pisum sativum cv. meteor) to irrigation salinity

    Shahid, M.A.; Pervez, M.A.; Balal, R.M.; Azhar, N.; Shahzad, J.; Ubaidullah

    2008-01-01

    The effects of irrigation water or soil salinity on physiological aspects of pea (Pisum sativum cv.Meteor) were contrived. Ten weeks old pea plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 40, 90 and 140 mM in nutrient solution Plants were grown in controlled environment and harvested at each 3 days interval for decisiveness 0 physiological parameters. Photosynthetic rate, relative water content, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll contents reduced by increasing the NaCI concentration while CO/sub 2/ concentration and free proline content intensified. By experiment it was adumbrated that high salinity level along with prolonged accentuate duration is more drastic to pea plants physiology. Results also exhibited that pea plants could indulge 40 and 90 mM NaCl but are sensitive to 140 mM. (author)

  11. Nutritional responses to soil drying and rewetting cycles under partial root-zone drying irrigation

    Wang, Yaosheng; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Liu, Fulai

    2017-01-01

    signaling that regulates stomatal aperture. PRI induced soil DRW cycles and more soil water dynamics in the root zone enhance soil nutrient mineralization process and thus increase the bioavailability of soil nutrients, resulting in improved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake, in which soil microbial...... processes play a key role. Studies investigating how soil DRW cycles and water dynamics under PRI on nutrient transport in soil solution, soil microbe mediated P transformation, interactions between phytohormones and nutrient uptake, root morphological and architectural traits for nutrient acquisition......Abstract Repeated soil drying and rewetting (DRW) cycles occur in rainfed and irrigated agriculture. The intensity and frequency of DRW cycles regulate both microbial physiology and soil physical processes, hereby affecting the mineralization and immobilization of soil nutrients...

  12. Methodological approach for evaluating the response of soil hydrological behavior to irrigation with treated municipal wastewater

    Coppola, A.; Santini, A.; Botti, P.; Vacca, S.; Comegna, V.; Severino, G.

    2004-06-01

    This paper aims mainly to provide experimental evidence of the consequences of urban wastewater reuse in irrigation practices on the hydrological behavior of soils. The effects on both the hydraulic and dispersive properties of representative soils in southern Sardinia are illustrated. Ten undisturbed soil monoliths, 120 cm in height and 40 cm in diameter, were collected from plots previously selected through a soil survey. Soil hydraulic and solute transport properties were determined before and after application of wastewater using transient water infiltration and steady state-solute transport column experiments. Detailed spatial-temporal information on the propagation of water and solute through the soil profiles were obtained by monitoring soil water contents, θ, pressure heads, h, and solute concentrations, C, measured by a network of time domain reflectometry probes, tensiometers and solution samplers horizontally inserted in each column at different depths. A disturbed layer at the soil surface, which expands in depth with time, was observed, characterized by reduced soil porosity, translation of pore size distribution towards narrower pores and consequent decrease in water retention, hydraulic conductivity and hydrodynamic dispersion. It is shown that these changes occurring in the disturbed soil layer, although local by nature, affect the hydrological behavior of the whole soil profile. Due to the disturbed layer formation, the soil beneath never saturates. Such behavior has important consequences on the solute transport in soils, as unsaturated conditions mean higher residence times of solutes, even of those normally characterized by considerable mobility (e.g. boron), which may accumulate along the profile. The results mainly provide experimental evidence that knowledge of the chemical and microbiological composition of the water is not sufficient to evaluate its suitability for irrigation. Other factors, mainly soil physical and hydrological

  13. A new concept of irrigation response units for effective management of surface and groundwater resources: a case study from the multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    Awan, Usman Khalid

    2016-09-09

    When estimating canal water supplies for large-scale irrigation schemes and especially in arid regions worldwide, the impact of all factors affecting the gross irrigation requirements (GIR) are not properly accounted for, which results in inefficient use of precious freshwater resources. This research shows that the concept of irrigation response units (IRU)—areas having unique combinations of factors effecting the GIR—allows for more precise estimates of GIR. An overlay analysis of soil texture and salinity, depth and salinity of groundwater, cropping patterns and irrigation methods was performed in a GIS environment, which yielded a total of 17 IRUs combinations of the Oktepa Zilol Chashmasi water consumers’ association in multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia. Groundwater contribution, leaching requirements, losses in the irrigation system through field application and conveyance and effective rainfall were included in GIR estimates. The GIR varied significantly among IRUs [average of 851 mm (±143 mm)] with a maximum (1051 mm) in IRU-12 and a minimum (629 mm) in IRUs-15, 16. Owing to varying groundwater levels in each IRU, the groundwater contribution played a key role in the estimation of the GIR. The maximum groundwater contribution occurred in IRUs dominated by cotton–fallow rotations as evidenced by an average value of 159 mm but a maximum of 254 mm and a minimum of 97 mm. Percolation losses depended on irrigation methods for different crops in their respective IRUs. The novel approach can guide water managers in this and similar regions to increase the accuracy of irrigation demands based on all the factor effecting the GIR. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  14. Effect of inter-annual variability in pasture growth and irrigation response on farm productivity and profitability based on biophysical and farm systems modelling.

    Vogeler, Iris; Mackay, Alec; Vibart, Ronaldo; Rendel, John; Beautrais, Josef; Dennis, Samuel

    2016-09-15

    Farm system and nutrient budget models are increasingly being used in analysis to inform on farm decision making and evaluate land use policy options at regional scales. These analyses are generally based on the use of average annual pasture yields. In New Zealand (NZ), like in many countries, there is considerable inter-annual variation in pasture growth rates, due to climate. In this study a modelling approach was used to (i) include inter-annual variability as an integral part of the analysis and (ii) test the approach in an economic analysis of irrigation in a case study within the Hawkes Bay Region of New Zealand. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) was used to generate pasture dry matter yields (DMY) for 20 different years and under both dryland and irrigation. The generated DMY were linked to outputs from farm-scale modelling for both Sheep and Beef Systems (Farmaxx Pro) and Dairy Systems (Farmax® Dairy Pro) to calculate farm production over 20 different years. Variation in DMY and associated livestock production due to inter-annual variation in climate was large, with a coefficient of variations up to 20%. Irrigation decreased this inter-annual variation. On average irrigation, with unlimited available water, increased income by $831 to 1195/ha, but when irrigation was limited to 250mm/ha/year income only increased by $525 to 883/ha. Using pasture responses in individual years to capturing the inter-annual variation, rather than the pasture response averaged over 20years resulted in lower financial benefits. In the case study income from irrigation based on an average year were 10 to >20% higher compared with those obtained from individual years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Response of Soil Mesofauna to Long-Term Application of Feedlot Manure on Irrigated Cropland.

    Miller, Jim J; Battigelli, Jeff P; Beasley, Bruce W; Drury, Craig F

    2017-01-01

    Long-term application of feedlot manure to cropland may influence soil mesofauna. These organisms affect the health, structure, and fertility of soils, organic matter decomposition, and crop growth. The objective was to study the long-term (16-17 yr) influence of feedlot manure type and bedding on soil mesofauna over 2 yr (2014-2015). Stockpiled or composted feedlot manure with straw (ST) or wood-chip (WD) bedding (plus unamended control) was annually applied (13 Mg ha dry wt.) to an irrigated clay loam soil with continuous barley (). Intact cores were taken from surface (0-5 cm) soil in the fall, and the densities of Acari (mites) suborders and Collembola (springtails) families were determined. Manure type had no significant ( > 0.05) effect on soil mesofauna density. In contrast, there was a significant two- to sixfold increase in density with WD- compared with ST-amended soils of total Acari in 2014 and 2015, as well as total Collembola, total Acari and Collembola, oribatid mites, and entomobryid springtails in 2014. The bedding effect was attributed to significantly greater soil water content and lower bulk density for WD than ST. Density of soil mesofauna was not significantly greater in amended soils than in unamended soils. A shift by feedlot producers from stockpiled to composted feedlot manure application should have no effect on soil mesofauna density, whereas a shift from ST to WD bedding may increase the density of certain soil mesofauna, which may have a beneficial effect on soil. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Response of Biomass Development, Essential Oil, and Composition of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. to Irrigation Frequency and Harvest Time.

    Sabra, Ali S; Astatkie, Tessema; Alataway, Abed; Mahmoud, Abeer A; Gendy, Ahmed S H; Said-Al Ahl, Hussein A H; Tkachenko, Kirill G

    2018-03-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of four irrigation intervals (4, 8, 12, and 16 days) and six harvests (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months after transplanting) on biomass, essential oil content, and composition of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Fresh weight and essential oil yield decreased with increasing irrigation interval; whereas, essential oil content was stimulated by water stress and increased as the irrigation interval increased. Fresh weight of Plectranthus amboinicus irrigated every 4 days peaked when harvested at 6 months, but essential oil content peaked when irrigated every 16 days and harvested at 2 months after transplantation. On the other hand, essential oil yield peaked when irrigated every 8 days and harvested at 6 months. Thymol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, and β-caryophyllene were the major compounds, and they peaked at different irrigation intervals and harvest times. This study showed biomass, essential oil content, and yield as well as the major and minor constituents of Plectranthus amboinicus are influenced by irrigation interval and the timing of harvest. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  17. Growth Response Of Container Grown Japanese Azalea And Euonymus And Concentration Of Nitrates And Phosphates In The Runoff Water Under Different Irrigation And Fertilization

    Matysiak Bożena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study a growth response of two container-grown ornamentals (Euonymus japonicus ‘Ovatus Aureus’ and Rhododendron ‘Geisha Orange’ grown under different irrigation and fertilization rates was examined. The content of nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P in the plant leaves and in leachates was measured. Two levels of irrigation – standard irrigation (SI and – high irrigation rate (HI, and three control-release fertilizers (CRFs – Multicote 17-17-17, Osmocote Exact Standard 16-9-12 and Plantacote 15-10-15, applied at the rate of 1.5, 3.0 or 4.5 g·l−1, were applied. Fast-acting fertilizers were used as the control. HI adversely affected the growth and quality of Euonymus but stimulated the growth and increased quality of Rhododendron within two years of cultivation in relation to SI. There were no significant interactions between the irrigation and fertilization treatments; irrespective of water regimes, growth responses of both plant species to used fertilizers were similar. Osmocote and Plantacote at the rate of 3 g·l−1 were the most effective for the growth of Euonymus and Rhododendron plants, except of Euonymus in the second year, when 4.5 g·l−1 CRFs resulted in the best growth of plants. HI increased the amount of runoff water as well as N-NO3 and P-PO4 losses from containers during the entire growing period, irrespective of a fertilizer type. The amount of the nitrate and phosphate in leakage was higher when higher rates of CRFs were applied. Maximum nitrate concentration in leakage was the highest 14 days after the application of CRFs.

  18. Trait-specific responses of Scots pine to irrigation on a short vs long time scale

    Feichtinger, L.M.; Eilmann, Britta; Buchmann, Nina; Rigling, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In xeric environments, an increase in drought is related to reduced forest productivity and to enhanced mortality. However, predictions of future forest development remain difficult as the mechanisms underlying the responses of mature trees to long-term variations in water availability are not

  19. Assessment of irrigated maize yield response to climate change scenarios in Portugal

    Yang, Chenyao; Fraga, Helder; Ieperen, van W.; Andrade Santos, João

    2017-01-01

    Maize is an important crop for the Portuguese agricultural sector. Future climate change, with warmer and dryer conditions in this Mediterranean environment, will challenge this high-water demanding crop. The present study aims at assessing the response of maize yield, growth cycle, seasonal water

  20. Comparative efficiency of trickle and furrow irrigation

    Hanif, M.; Qureshi, R.H.; Sandhu, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Comparison of furrow and trickle methods of irrigation to know their relative efficiency with respect to water applied and fertilizer used on tomatoes, cauliflower and lettuce as test crops using canal water, showed a significant saving of about 44 and 41 per cent respectively for irrigation water and fertilizer applied with trickle as compared to furrow irrigation. Trickle irrigated crops also showed a better response as regards the rate of survival, crop growth and time of maturity

  1. Evaluation of the Increased Rates of Water Super Absorbent and Humic Acid Application under Deficit Irrigation Condition on Some Agroecological Characteristics of Zea Mays Using Response Surface Methodology

    M Jahan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water super absorbents are water absorbing natural or synthetic polymers (they may contain over 99% water. They have been defined as polymeric materials which exhibit the ability of swelling in water and retaining a significant fraction (> 20% of water within their structure, without dissolving in water content. The applications of hydrogels are grown extensively. These materials do not have any harm to the environment. Development of using super absorbent hydrogels to reduce crises such as soil erosion, frequent droughts or providing food security requires knowledge of their behaviors and performances in the soil. Humic substances are a mixture of different organic compounds that extract from various sources such as soil, humus, peat, oxidized lignite and coal. They are different in molecular size and chemical structure. A little amount of humic acid increase soil fertility by improving the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil. Increase in agricultural production and productivity depends, to a large extent, on the availability of water. Hence, the importance of irrigation is however, the availability of irrigation facilities which is highly inadequate in Iran. Determining the optimal amount of irrigation water has always been a main goal of researchers. Among the problems of excessive irrigation can be pointed to leach the nutrients especially nitrogen from the soil, the pollution of groundwater and environment and reduce fertilizer use efficiency, especially water-soluble fertilizers. To determine the optimal irrigation water and fertilizer, the use of mathematical models is inevitable. One of the most common methods used to optimize these factors is the central composite design. A central composite design is an experimental design, useful in response surface methodology, for building a second order (quadratic model for the response variable without needing to use a complete three-level factorial experiment

  2. Summary of the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program and evaluation of methods used to collect and analyze irrigation data in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins, 2004-2010

    Torak, Lynn J.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2011-01-01

    Since receiving jurisdiction from the State Legislature in June 2003 to implement the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program, the Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission (Commission) by year-end 2010 installed more than 10,000 annually read water meters and nearly 200 daily reporting, satellite-transmitted, telemetry sites on irrigation systems located primarily in southern Georgia. More than 3,000 annually reported meters and 50 telemetry sites were installed during 2010 alone. The Commission monitored rates and volumes of agricultural irrigation supplied by groundwater, surface-water, and well-to-pond sources to inform water managers on the patterns and amounts of such water use and to determine effective and efficient resource utilization. Summary analyses of 4 complete years of irrigation data collected from annually read water meters in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins during 2007-2010 indicated that groundwater-supplied fields received slightly more irrigation depth per acre than surface-water-supplied fields. Year 2007 yielded the largest disparity between irrigation depth supplied by groundwater and surface-water sources as farmers responded to severe-to-exceptional drought conditions with increased irrigation. Groundwater sources (wells and well-to-pond systems) outnumbered surface-water sources by a factor of five; each groundwater source applied a third more irrigation volume than surface water; and, total irrigation volume from groundwater exceeded that of surface water by a factor of 6.7. Metered irrigation volume indicated a pattern of low-to-high water use from northwest to southeast that could point to relations between agricultural water use, water-resource potential and availability, soil type, and crop patterns. Normalizing metered irrigation-volume data by factoring out irrigated acres allowed irrigation water use to be expressed as an irrigation depth and nearly eliminated the disparity

  3. UV-B effects on crops: response of the irrigated rice ecosystem

    Olszyk, D.; Dai, Q.; Teng, P.; Leung, H.; Luo, Y.; Peng, S.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation resulting from depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer could have damaging effects on crops. This paper reviews recent findings on direct effects of UV-B on rice growth and yield as well as indirect effects via impacts on other organisms in the rice (Oryza sativa) agroecosystem. The findings are based on research by scientists at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in Los Baños, the Philippines, and their collaborators in China and the United States; with comparison to research by scientists in other countries. Current results indicate that while enhanced UV-B directly impacts many aspects of rice growth, physiology, and biochemistry under controlled phytotron conditions; in general rice growth and yield are not affected under natural field conditions. The difference in response may be related both to the levels of UV-B exposure used in phytotron vs. field studies and the lower ratio of UV-A to UV-B in the phytotron compared to field. In terms of indirect effects on rice blast disease, enhanced UV-B affected both the fungus itself (Pyricularia grisea) and the susceptibility of the rice plant to the fungus. Based on these data, simulation models estimated potential impacts of higher UV-B levels on blast severity and rice yield in different countries of southeast and east Asia. Ultimately, results from rice studies can be used to identify strategies to minimize any negative effects of UV-B on rice productivity

  4. Programmed cellular response to ionizing radiation damage

    Crompton, N.E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Three forms of radiation response were investigated to evaluate the hypothesis that cellular radiation response is the result of active molecular signaling and not simply a passive physicochemical process. The decision whether or not a cell should respond to radiation-induced damage either by induction of rescue systems, e.g. mobilization of repair proteins, or induction of suicide mechanisms, e.g. programmed cell death, appears to be the expression of intricate cellular biochemistry. A cell must recognize damage in its genetic material and then activate the appropriate responses. Cell type is important; the response of a fibroblast to radiation damage is both quantitatively and qualitatively different form that of a lymphocyte. The programmed component of radiation response is significant in radiation oncology and predicted to create unique opportunities for enhanced treatment success. (orig.)

  5. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  6. Response of lupine plants irrigated with saline water to rhizobium inoculation using 15N-isotope dilution

    Gadalla, A.M.; El-Ghandour, I.A.; Abdel Aziz, H.A.; Hamdy, A.; Aly, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The lupine Rhizobium symbiosis and contribution of N 2 fixation under different levels of irrigation water salinity were examined. Lysimeter experiment was established under greenhouse conditions during the year 2002-2003. In this experiment, inoculated plants were imposed to different salinity levels of irrigation water and N-fertilizer treatment. Plant height was decreased under different salinity levels, nitrogen treatments and bacterial inoculation. Similar trend was noticed with leaf area. The highest leaf area was recorded with salt tolerant bacterial inoculation (SBI) and splitting N-treatment. Highest values of N-uptake occurred after 100 day intervals under the tested factors. Relative decrease in N-uptake did not exceed 40% of those recorded with the fresh water treatment as affected by experimental factors. Nitrogen uptake by the whole plant reflected an increase at 3 dS/m salinity level of irrigation water. Relative increases were 5% and 15% for normal bacteria inoculation under single dose (NI) and splitting

  7. Using container weights to determine irrigation needs: A simple method

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Mark E. Montville; Jeremiah R. Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Proper irrigation can reduce water use, water waste, and incidence of disease. Knowing when to irrigate plants in container nurseries can be determined by weighing containers. This simple method is quantifiable, which is a benefit when more than one worker is responsible for irrigation. Irrigation is necessary when the container weighs some target as a proportion of...

  8. Tree Canopy Light Interception Estimates in Almond and a Walnut Orchards Using Ground, Low Flying Aircraft, and Satellite Based Methods to Improve Irrigation Scheduling Programs

    Rosecrance, Richard C.; Johnson, Lee; Soderstrom, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Canopy light interception is a main driver of water use and crop yield in almond and walnut production. Fractional green canopy cover (Fc) is a good indicator of light interception and can be estimated remotely from satellite using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. Satellite-based Fc estimates could be used to inform crop evapotranspiration models, and hence support improvements in irrigation evaluation and management capabilities. Satellite estimates of Fc in almond and walnut orchards, however, need to be verified before incorporating them into irrigation scheduling or other crop water management programs. In this study, Landsat-based NDVI and Fc from NASA's Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) were compared with four estimates of canopy cover: 1. light bar measurement, 2. in-situ and image-based dimensional tree-crown analyses, 3. high-resolution NDVI data from low flying aircraft, and 4. orchard photos obtained via Google Earth and processed by an Image J thresholding routine. Correlations between the various estimates are discussed.

  9. Correlation between E. coli levels and the presence of foodborne pathogens in surface irrigation water: Establishment of a sampling program.

    Truchado, Pilar; Hernandez, Natalia; Gil, Maria I; Ivanek, Renata; Allende, Ana

    2018-01-01

    To establish the association between microbial indicators and the presence of foodborne pathogens in irrigation water, Escherichia coli was enumerated using two quantification methods (plate counts and PMA-qPCR) and presence/absence of pathogenic microorganisms, including five strains from the Shiga toxigenic E. coli (O157:H7, O26, O103, O111 and O145) and Salmonella spp. were evaluated. The results confirmed that surface water can be considered a microbial hazard when used for irrigation. The levels of viable E. coli were very similar to those of cultivable E. coli, except for irrigation water obtained from water reservoirs. Comparison between the E. coli counts in samples positive and negative for the presence of pathogenic bacteria for the evaluated water sources identified E. coli level of 2.35 log cfu/100 mL as a cut-off able to correctly predict positive and negative samples with 93% sensitivity and 66% specificity, respectively. Thus, for the samples with levels of E. coli under 2.35 log cfu/100 mL (e.g., 2.24 log cfu/100 mL) there was a 90% probability that the samples were not contaminated with pathogenic microorganism in locations with similar prevalence. E. coli levels in irrigation water were affected by the ambient temperature confirming that water source and climate conditions should be taken into account by growers when designing a sampling program and the frequency of the monitoring to make a better and more efficient use of their resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Response and Repairing of Three Kinds of Crops on Xi’an’s Sewage Irrigation Area Soil

    Xin, H.; Zhimei, Z.; Lei, H.; Huan, L.; Tian, Z.

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on the XiChaZhai village’s vegetable soil which is located in the northern suburbs of Xi’an and on its vegetables, thus analyzes the quality of sewage irrigation region soil and its influence on vegetables through the measurement of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd’s content in samples. The results show that the research area soil contains apparently excessive heavy metals, and there exists significant differences of different elements’ integrated intensity in soil, the content declines in sequence from Cd, Zn, Pb to Cu. The four heavy metals’ contents in sewage irrigation region soil vary greatly from that in non-sewage irrigation region soil(Prepairing effects on Xi’an sewage irrigation region soil are Raphanus sativus, Ottelia acuminate and Brassica chinensis, in that order. Different crop tissues differ in the accumulation of heavy metal, the order according as roots, stem and leaves, fruits. Therefore, based on differences of various crops on heavy metals’ absorption and translocation, appropriate crops should be scientifically planted in heavy metal contaminated area soil.

  11. Diurnal Activity of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Highbush Blueberry and Behavioral Response to Irrigation and Application of Insecticides.

    Van Timmeren, Steven; Horejsi, Logan; Larson, Shadi; Spink, Katherine; Fanning, Philip; Isaacs, Rufus

    2017-10-01

    Spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive vinegar fly that has become a primary direct pest of berry crops worldwide. We conducted 2 yr of behavioral studies in blueberry plantings to determine how fly activity varied throughout the day. Observations of diurnal activity of adult D. suzukii found the greatest activity in the morning hours between 0600 and 0800 hours, when the majority of flies were on the berries. Flies were also active in the evening mainly between 1800 and 2000 hours; however, this trend was more prominent in 2015, which had cooler and more humid evenings. Experiments examining the effect of irrigation on D. suzukii behavior showed that flies remained active during and after irrigation. The effect of insecticide treatments alone and in combination with irrigation revealed that treatment with spinosad had limited effects on the number of flies per bush, whereas spinetoram reduced the number flying and on the bushes in some cases. Zeta-cypermethrin caused longer and more consistent reduction in D. suzukii flying and on bushes. In all treatments, we observed surviving flies flying near and on treated bushes, indicating that these insecticides do not completely deter fly activity. Irrigation did not influence the effects of zeta-cypermethrin on fly behavior during daily observations up to 3 d after application. Our results highlight that the diurnal patterns of activity of D. suzukii on host plants are flexible and are relatively unaffected by irrigation or insecticide applications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems

    Foster, Timothy; Brozović, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated hydro-economic models have been widely applied to water management problems in regions of intensive groundwater-fed irrigation. However, policy interpretations may be limited as most existing models do not explicitly consider two important aspects of observed irrigation decision making, namely the limits on instantaneous irrigation rates imposed by well yield and the intraseasonal structure of irrigation planning. We develop a new modeling approach for determining irrigation demand that is based on observed farmer behavior and captures the impacts on production and water use of both well yield and climate. Through a case study of irrigated corn production in the Texas High Plains region of the United States we predict optimal irrigation strategies under variable levels of groundwater supply, and assess the limits of existing models for predicting land and groundwater use decisions by farmers. Our results show that irrigation behavior exhibits complex nonlinear responses to changes in groundwater availability. Declining well yields induce large reductions in the optimal size of irrigated area and irrigation use as constraints on instantaneous application rates limit the ability to maintain sufficient soil moisture to avoid negative impacts on crop yield. We demonstrate that this important behavioral response to limited groundwater availability is not captured by existing modeling approaches, which therefore may be unreliable predictors of irrigation demand, agricultural profitability, and resilience to climate change and aquifer depletion.

  13. Portable photovoltaic irrigation pumps

    Furber, J. D.

    1980-07-01

    Experiences in developing a solar-powered irrigation pump to meet the needs of poor farmers in developing nations are summarized. The design which evolved is small and portable, employing a high-efficiency electric pump, powered by photovoltaic panels. Particular emphasis is placed on how the system works, and on early field problems experienced with the first prototypes. The resolution of these problems and the performance of actual systems in various countries is presented and user responses are noted.

  14. Caregiver Responsiveness to the Family Bereavement Program: What predicts responsiveness? What does responsiveness predict?

    Schoenfelder, Erin N.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Berkel, Cady; Ayers, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    The study developed a multi-dimensional measure to assess participant responsiveness to a preventive intervention, and applied this measure to study how participant baseline characteristics predict responsiveness and how responsiveness predicts program outcomes. The study was conducted with caregivers who participated in the parenting-focused component of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a prevention program for families that have experienced parental death. The sample consisted of 89 ca...

  15. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    Bern, C. R.; Boehlke, A. R.; Engle, M. A.; Geboy, N. J.; Schroeder, K. T.; Zupancic, J. W.

    2013-10-04

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (~3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na–Mg–SO{sub 4} salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  16. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    Bern, Carleton R.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Engle, Mark A.; Geboy, Nicholas J.; Schroeder, K.T.; Zupancic, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (∼3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na–Mg–SO4 salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (∼24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  17. Automated irrigation systems for wheat and tomato crops in arid ...

    2017-04-02

    Apr 2, 2017 ... Many methods have been described and sensors developed to manage irrigation ... time, and automated irrigation systems based on crop water needs can .... output components, and a software program for decision support.

  18. Evaluation of superabsorbent efficiency in response to dehydration frequencies, salinity and temperature and its effect on yield and quality of cotton under deficit irrigation

    Hamid-Reza Fallahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Reduced availability of water resources in many arid countries including Iran, particularly in response to the indiscriminate harvesting of water reservoirs and climate change, has created concerns. Therefore, the sustainable use of water resources especially in agriculture is a necessity for these countries. Strategies such as deficit irrigation and superabsorbent application are two important ways for improving water use efficiency in agricultural lands. In deficit irrigation the crop must be irrigated less than its required water. Therefore, some reduction may occur in crop yield, but the savings in water will improve the water use efficiency (Akbari Nodehi, 2011. Superabsorbent polymers also increase the nutrients and water holding capacity of soil for a long time and thereby reduce crop water requirement. However, the effectiveness of these materials could be affected by dehydration frequencies, temperature and irrigation water quality (Karimi et al., 2009. Due to the limitation of water resources in many parts of Iran, the aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of cotton production under deficit irrigation along with application of different rates of superabsorbent. In addition, simulation of superabsorbent efficiency at different levels of salinity, temperature and dehydration frequencies (swelling and de-swelling were the other objectives in this study. Materials and methods 1. Laboratory experiments In these experiments the effects of temperature (4, 10, 20, 30 and 40 °C, salinity (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% NaCl solutions at two temperatures of 10 and 25°C and frequency of partial dehydration (from 1 to 5 stages watering and 70% dewatering were simulated on water absorption capacity of superabsorbent polymer at laboratory of environmental stresses, Sarayan Faculty of Agriculture, Birjand University. 2- Field experiment This experiment was designed at Research Station of Sarayan Faculty of Agriculture

  19. A new concept of irrigation response units for effective management of surface and groundwater resources: a case study from the multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    Awan, Usman Khalid; Ibrakhimov, Mirzakhayot; Benli, Bogachan; Lamers, John P A; Liaqat, Umar Waqas

    2016-01-01

    When estimating canal water supplies for large-scale irrigation schemes and especially in arid regions worldwide, the impact of all factors affecting the gross irrigation requirements (GIR) are not properly accounted for, which results

  20. Use of Irrigation to Extend the Seeding Window for Final Reclamation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    TRW Environmental Safety

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has implemented a program to investigate the feasibility of various techniques for reclaiming lands disturbed during site characterization at Yucca Mountain. As part of this program, two studies were conducted in 1997 to assess the effects of combinations of seeding date (date that seeds are planted) and supplemental irrigation on densities of native plant species at Yucca Mountain. Study objectives were to (1) determine whether the traditional seeding window (October-December) could be extended through combinations of seeding date and irrigation date, (2) determine which combination of seeding date and irrigation was most successful, and (3) assess the effects of irrigation versus natural precipitation on seedling establishment. In the first study, a multi-species seed mix of 16 native species was sown into plots on four dates (12/96, 2/97, 3/97, and 4/97). Irrigation treatments were control (no irrigation) or addition of 80 mm of supplemental water applied over a one month period. Plant densities were sampled in August and again in October, 1997. In the second study, Larrea tridentata and Lycium andersonii, two species that are common at Yucca Mountain, but difficult to establish from seed, were sown together into plots in January and August, 1997. Half the plots were irrigated with approximately 250 mm of water between August 18 and September 11, while the remaining plots received no irrigation (control). Plant densities were sampled in October, 1997. The August census for the multi-species mix study showed irrigated plots that were sown in February, March and April had higher plant densities and more species than plots that were not irrigated. Irrigation had no effect on plant densities on plots that were seeded in December. Plots were used again in October following 18 mm of precipitation in September. Densities of three species, Ambrosia dumosa, Hymenoclea salsola, and L. tridentata, (warm-season species) were lower on irrigated

  1. to Irrigation Intervals and Plant Density in Zuru, Northern Guinea

    ISSN 0794-5698. Response of Onion (Allium cepa L.) to Irrigation Intervals and Plant Density in ... The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Irrigation ..... System and Agronomic Practice in. Tropical Climates.

  2. Irrigation and Autocracy

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    We show that societies with a history of irrigation-based agriculture have been less likely to adopt democracy than societies with a history of rainfed agriculture. Rather than actual irrigation, the empirical analysis is based on how much irrigation potentially can increase yields.Irrigation pot...

  3. Significance of the tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata (hymenoptera: formicidae) as part of the natural enemy complex responsible for successful biological control of many tropical irrigated rice pests.

    Way, M J; Heong, K L

    2009-10-01

    The tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) often nests very abundantly in the earthen banks (bunds) around irrigated rice fields in the tropics. Where some farmers habitually drain fields to the mud for about 3-4 days, the ants can quickly spread up to about 20 m into the fields where they collect food, including pest prey such as the eggs and young of the apple snail Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck) and insects such as lepidopterous larvae and hoppers, notably Nilaparvata lugens (Stäl) the brown planthopper (Bph) and green leafhoppers Nephotettix spp. Even in drained fields, the activity of S. geminata is restricted by rainfall in the wet season. The relatively few ant workers that forage characteristically into drained fields and on to the transplanted clumps of rice plants (hills) kill the normally few immigrant Bph adults but are initially slower acting than other species of the natural enemy complex. However, larger populations of Bph are fiercely attacked and effectively controlled by rapidly recruited ant workers; whereas, in the absence of the ant, the other natural enemies are inadequate. In normal circumstances, there is no ant recruitment in response to initially small populations of immigrant Bph and no evidence of incompatibility between ant foragers and other natural enemies such as spiders. However, when many ants are quickly and aggressively recruited to attack large populations of Bph, they temporarily displace some spiders from infested hills. It is concluded that, in suitable weather conditions and even when insecticides kill natural enemies within the rice field, periodic drainage that enables S. geminata to join the predator complex is valuable for ant-based control of pests such as snails and Lepidoptera, and especially against relatively large populations of Bph. Drainage practices to benefit ants are fully compatible with recent research, which shows that periodic drainage combats problems of 'yield decline' in intensively irrigated

  4. Physiological and biochemical responses to the exogenous application of proline of tomato plants irrigated with saline water

    B. Kahlaoui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In scope of crop salinity tolerance, an experiment was carried out in a field using saline water (6.57 dS m−1 and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI on two tomato cultivars (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rio Grande and Heinz-2274 in a salty clay soil. Exogenous application of proline was done by foliar spray at two concentrations: 10 and 20 mg L−1, with a control (saline water without proline, during the flowering stage. Significant higher increases in proline and total soluble protein contents, glutamine synthetase (GS, EC6.3.1.2 activities and decreases in proline oxidase (l-proline: O2 Oxidoreductase, EC1.4.3.1 activities were detected in both tomato cultivars when irrigated with saline water (6.57 dS m−1 and exogenously applied by the lower concentration of proline. Taking in consideration the obtained results, it was concluded that the foliar spray of low concentration of proline can increase the tolerance of both cultivars of tomato to salinity under field conditions.

  5. Short radiological emergency response training program

    Williams, R.D.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of a radiological emergency response training program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the health physics and safety training staff. This course is given to groups from local, county, state, and federal agencies and industrial organizations. It is normally three days in length, although the structure is flexible to accommodate individual needs and prior training. An important feature of the course is an emergency exercise utilizing a short lived radionuclide to better simulate real accident conditions. Groups are encouraged to use their own instruments to gain better familiarity with their operating characteristics under field conditions. Immediately following the exercise, a critical review of the students' performance is conducted

  6. Point irrigation for locality Buchel in the north desert Gobi in Mongolia

    Pavel Spitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of point irrigation, created by Filip et al. (2007, was worked up as the bilateral projekt in the frame of abroad developing cooperation between the Czech Republic and Mongolia „Rehabilitation of plant production in semiarid territories of northern Gobi”. The period of project realization are years 2006–2009. The responsible institution for the project is Ministery of Agriculture of the Czech Republic and with the realization of the project was encharged Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno. The task was work irrigation design for experimental plants and vegetables on the choosen land in Gobi desert in Mongolia. To disposition was underground water source – bore with capacity about 2 l / s and temperature about 10 °C, electric power and land about area cca 1 ha. The condition was use simple irrigation equipment. The fundamental limitation was im­pos­si­bi­li­ty using technically more complex and more sophisticated equipment e.g. drip irrigation. The map was not to the disposition, only a judgment of slope 0,2 % in flat terrain. The technical design of surface and subsurface point irrigation are introduced, shortly described are hydrotechnical basis used to created and described the original PC program HYBOZAM (hydraulics of point irrigation for Mongolia developed in table editor of Microsoft Excel for pipe dimensions of point irrigation design. Part of the program is also evaluation of the irrigation uniformity from outflows on irrigation line.

  7. Modelling the economic trade-offs of irrigation pipeline investments ...

    The Soil Water Irrigation Planning and Energy Management (SWIP-E) mathematical programming model was developed and applied in this paper to provide decision support regarding the optimal mainline pipe diameter, irrigation system delivery capacity and size of the irrigation system. SWIP-E unifies the interrelated ...

  8. General RMP Guidance - Chapter 8: Emergency Response Program

    If you have a Program 2 or 3 process at your facility, 40 CFR Part 68 (risk management program) requires an emergency response program in place if employees respond to some releases involving regulated toxic or flammable substances.

  9. Nematode Community Composition under Various Irrigation Schemes in a Citrus Soil Ecosystem.

    Porazinska, D L; McSorley, R; Duncan, L W; Graham, J H; Wheaton, T A; Parsons, L R

    1998-06-01

    Interest in the sustainability of farming practices has increased in response to environmental problems associated with conventional agricultural management often adopted for the production of herbaceous crops, ornamentals, and fruit crops. Availability of measures of the status of the soil ecosystem is of immediate importance, particularly for environmental assessment and monitoring programs. This study investigated the effects of various irrigation regimes (an example of an agricultural management practice) on the structure of the nematode fauna in a citrus orchard in the sandy ridge area of Central Florida. Ecological measures such as community structure indices, diversity indices, and maturity indices were assessed and related to irrigation intensity. Maturity index was an effective measure in distinguishing differences between irrigation regimes, whereas other indices of community structure were not. Of various nematode genera and trophic groups, only omnivores and the omnivore genera. Aporcelaimellus and Eudorylaimus responded to irrigation treatments.

  10. Changes in fine-root production, phenology and spatial distribution in response to N application in irrigated sweet cherry trees.

    Artacho, Pamela; Bonomelli, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Factors regulating fine-root growth are poorly understood, particularly in fruit tree species. In this context, the effects of N addition on the temporal and spatial distribution of fine-root growth and on the fine-root turnover were assessed in irrigated sweet cherry trees. The influence of other exogenous and endogenous factors was also examined. The rhizotron technique was used to measure the length-based fine-root growth in trees fertilized at two N rates (0 and 60 kg ha(-1)), and the above-ground growth, leaf net assimilation, and air and soil variables were simultaneously monitored. N fertilization exerted a basal effect throughout the season, changing the magnitude, temporal patterns and spatial distribution of fine-root production and mortality. Specifically, N addition enhanced the total fine-root production by increasing rates and extending the production period. On average, N-fertilized trees had a length-based production that was 110-180% higher than in control trees, depending on growing season. Mortality was proportional to production, but turnover rates were inconsistently affected. Root production and mortality was homogeneously distributed in the soil profile of N-fertilized trees while control trees had 70-80% of the total fine-root production and mortality concentrated below 50 cm depth. Root mortality rates were associated with soil temperature and water content. In contrast, root production rates were primarily under endogenous control, specifically through source-sink relationships, which in turn were affected by N supply through changes in leaf photosynthetic level. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous factors interacted to control the fine-root dynamics of irrigated sweet cherry trees. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Irrigation Analysis Based on Long-Term Weather Data

    James R. Mahan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation management is based upon delivery of water to a crop in the correct amount and time, and the crop’s water need is determined by calculating evapotranspiration (ET using weather data. In 1994, an ET-network was established in the Texas High Plains to manage irrigation on a regional scale. Though producers used the ET-network, by 2010 public access was discontinued. Why did producers allow a valuable irrigation-management tool to be eliminated? Our objective was to analyze the effect of declining well capacities on the usefulness of cotton ET (ETc for irrigation. Thirty years (1975–2004 of daily ETc data were used to compare irrigation demand vs. irrigation responses at four locations, analyzed for multiple years and range of well capacities for three irrigation-intervals. Results indicated that when well capacities declined to the point that over-irrigation was not possible, the lower well capacities reduced the value of ETc in terms of the number of irrigations and total amount of water applied. At well capacities <1514 L·min−1 the fraction of irrigations for which ETc information was used to determine the irrigation amount was <35% across years and irrigation intervals. The value of an ETc-based irrigation may fall into disuse when irrigation-water supplies decline.

  12. Use of Peristeen® transanal colonic irrigation for bowel management in children: a single-center experience.

    Pacilli, Maurizio; Pallot, David; Andrews, Afiya; Downer, Angela; Dale, Louiza; Willetts, Ian

    2014-02-01

    Transanal colonic irrigation has been shown to be effective in bowel management program in adults. However, there exist limited data in children. We appraised the effectiveness of this technique in a series of children with incontinence or constipation and overflow soiling. Following ethical approval, a review of children with incontinence or constipation on a bowel management program with Peristeen® transanal colonic irrigation treated between 2007 and 2012 was performed. Irrigations were performed with a volume of 10-20 ml/kg of water with schedules depending on patient response. Data are reported as median (range). Twenty-three patients were reviewed. Median age at commencement of irrigations was 7 (2-15) years. Median follow-up is 2 (0.7-3.4) years. Diagnoses include the following: spina bifida (n=11), anorectal anomaly (n=6), Hirschsprung's (n=1), and other complex anomalies (n=5). Sixteen (70%) patients had associated anomalies. Twelve (52%) had constipation and overflow soiling, and 11 (48%) had fecal incontinence. Twenty (87%) had associated urinary wetting. Sixteen (70%) children used alternate-day irrigations, 4 (17%) daily irrigations, and 3 (13%) every third-day irrigations. Nine (39%) patients were taking oral laxatives. Sixteen (70%) reported to be clean and 3 (13%) reported a significant improvement, although were having occasional soiling. Four patients (17%) did not tolerate the irrigations and underwent subsequent colostomy formation for intractable soiling. In our experience, Peristeen® transanal colonic irrigation is an effective method of managing patients with focal soiling in childhood. Majority (83%) of children achieve social fecal continence or a significant improvement with occasional soiling. This was accompanied by high parental satisfaction. Peristeen® transanal colonic irrigation is a valid alternative to invasive surgical procedures and should be considered the first line of treatment for bowel management in children with soiling

  13. Ghana - Agriculture - Irrigation

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) financed the construction of a new irrigation scheme in Kpong and the renovation of two irrigation schemes in Botanga and...

  14. Adubarroz: a brazilian experience for fertilization and liming recommendation of irrigated rice via computational system

    Felipe de Campos Carmona

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Recommendations for fertilizing irrigated rice in southern Brazil have been constantly evolving over years. In this process, the influence of factors such as the development cycle of varieties and sowing period increased. Thus, computational tools that take these and others important aspects into account can potentiate the fertilization response of rice. This study describes the computer program "ADUBARROZ". The software provides recommendations of fertilizer rates and liming requirements of irrigated rice, based on information entered by the user. The system takes various factors that regulate the crop response to fertilization into account. A final report is established with the graphical representation of input management over time.

  15. Root canal irrigants

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  16. IRRIGATION USING SOLAR PUMP

    Prof. Nitin P.Choudhary*1 & Ms. Komal Singne2

    2017-01-01

    In this report the described design of a PV and soil moisture sensor based automated irrigation system is introduced. This project aims to provide a human friendly, economical and automated water pumping system which eliminates the problems of over irrigation and helps in irrigation water optimization and manage it in accordance with the availability of water. Our project not only tries to modernize the irrigation practices and ensure the optimum yield by carefully fulfilling the requirements...

  17. Irrigation in endodontic treatment.

    Basrani, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    The primary endodontic treatment goal is to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal system. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed and new delivery systems are introduced.

  18. 43 CFR 20.202 - Ethics program responsibilities.

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethics program responsibilities. 20.202... AND CONDUCT Department Ethics Program § 20.202 Ethics program responsibilities. (a) The Designated Agency Ethics Official (or the alternate agency ethics official in his or her absence) shall coordinate...

  19. On-farm irrigation reservoirs for surface water storage in eastern Arkansas: Trends in construction in response to aquifer depletion

    Yaeger, M. A.; Reba, M. L.; Massey, J. H.; Adviento-Borbe, A.

    2017-12-01

    On-farm surface water storage reservoirs have been constructed to address declines in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial aquifer, the primary source of irrigation for most of the row crops grown in eastern Arkansas. These reservoirs and their associated infrastructure represent significant investments in financial and natural resources, and may cause producers to incur costs associated with foregone crop production and long-term maintenance. Thus, an analysis of reservoir construction trends in the Grand Prairie Critical Groundwater Area (GPCGA) and Cache River Critical Groundwater Area (CRCGA) was conducted to assist future water management decisions. Between 1996 and 2015, on average, 16 and 4 reservoirs were constructed per year, corresponding to cumulative new reservoir surface areas of 161 and 60 ha yr-1, for the GPCGA and the CRCGA, respectively. In terms of reservoir locations relative to aquifer status, after 1996, 84.5% of 309 total reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and 91.0% of 78 in the CRCGA were located in areas with remaining saturated aquifer thicknesses of 50% or less. The majority of new reservoirs (74% in the GPCGA and 63% in the CRCGA) were constructed on previously productive cropland. The next most common land use, representing 11% and 15% of new reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and CRCGA, respectively, was the combination of a field edge and a ditch, stream, or other low-lying area. Less than 10% of post-1996 reservoirs were constructed on predominately low-lying land, and the use of such lands decreased in both critical groundwater areas during the past 20 years. These disparities in reservoir construction rates, locations, and prior land uses is likely due to groundwater declines being first observed in the GPCGA as well as the existence of two large-scale river diversion projects under construction in the GPCGA that feature on-farm storage as a means to offset groundwater use.

  20. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  1. Scheduling of Irrigation and Leaching Requirements

    Amer Hassan Al-haddad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iraq depends mainly on Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to provide high percentage of agricultural water use for thousands years. At last years, Iraq is suffering from shortage in water resources due to global climate changes and unfair water politics of the neighboring countries, which affected the future of agriculture plans for irrigation, added to that the lack of developed systems of water management in the irrigation projects and improper allocation of irrigation water, which reduces water use efficiency and lead to losing irrigation water and decreasing in agricultural yield. This study aims at studying the usability of irrigation and leaching scheduling within the irrigating projects and putting a complete annual or seasonal irrigation program as a solution for the scarcity of irrigation water, the increase of irrigation efficiency, lessening the salinity in the projects and preparing an integral irrigation calendar through field measurements of soil physical properties and chemical for project selected and compared to the results of the irrigation scheduling and leaching with what is proposed by the designers. The process is accomplished by using a computer program which was designed by Water Resources Department at the University of Baghdad, with some modification to generalize it and made it applicable to various climatic zone and different soil types. Study area represented by large project located at the Tigris River, and this project was (Al-Amara irrigation project. Sufficient samples of project's soil were collected so as to identify soil physical and chemical properties and the salinity of soil and water as well as identifying the agrarian cycles virtually applied to this project. Finally, a comparison was conducted between the calculated water quantities and the suggested ones by the designers. The research results showed that using this kind of scheduling (previously prepared irrigation and leaching scheduling with its properties

  2. Irrigating The Environment

    Adamson, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water insecurity and water inequality are international issues that reduce economic growth. Countries are adopting alternative approaches to rebalance the share of water between all users to mitigate economic loss for this and future generations. However, recent reforms have struggled to provide the necessary arguments to obtain political protection of the process. In the absence of proof, rent-seeking arguments have challenged the benefit of restoring environmental flows by arguing that policy design fails to maximise the environmental benefits. This is a problem in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), where despite establishing 3,200GL of environmental water, the policy is still under threat. Applied water economic policy advice fails, when it does not deal with uncertainty. The state-contingent analysis approach can map how individual decision makers can adapt to alternative states of water supply (i.e. drought, normal and wet) by reallocating inputs to obtain state-described outputs. By modelling changes to the states, or the frequency of the states occurring, climate change can modelled, and decision management responses explored. By treating the environment as another set of production systems, lessons learnt from managing perennial and annual agricultural production systems during the Millennium Drought in the MDB can be applied to explore the limits of irrigating the environment. The demand for water by a production system is a combination of state-general (must be irrigated every year e.g. perennial crop or permanent wetland) and state specific inputs (irrigate in response to the realise state). In simple terms, the greater the component of state-general water requirements a production system has, the less resilience it has when water supply is highly variable and if water is not available then production systems are irreversibly lost. While production systems that only need state-allocable water can adapt to alternative levels of scarcity without

  3. Privatizing or socializing corporate responsibility: business participation in voluntary programs

    Fransen, L.W.; Burgoon, B.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores why companies choose some Corporate Responsibility initiatives over others. The focus is on competing voluntary programs to oversee and protect labor standards. These programs may differ with regard to two aspects: the governance of the program and the financial and managerial

  4. Armenia - Irrigation Infrastructure

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This study evaluates irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation in Armenia. The study separately examines the impacts of tertiary canals and other large infrastructure...

  5. Soil Nutrient Availability, Plant Nutrient Uptake, and Wild Blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Yield in Response to N-Viro Biosolids and Irrigation Applications

    Aitazaz A. Farooque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the impact of surface broadcasted N-Viro biosolids and inorganic fertilizer (16.5% Ammonium sulphate, 34.5% Diammonium phosphate, 4.5% Potash, and 44.5% s and/or clay filler applications on soil properties and nutrients, leaf nutrient concentration, and the fruit yield of lowbush blueberry under irrigated and nonirrigated conditions during 2008-2009 at Debert, NS, Canada. Application rates of N-Viro biosolids were more than double of inorganic fertilizer applied at a recommended N rate of 32 kg ha−1. The experimental treatments NI: N-Viro with irrigation, FI: inorganic fertilizer with irrigation, N: N-Viro without irrigation, and F: inorganic fertilizer without irrigation (control were replicated four times under a randomized complete block design. The NI treatment had the highest OM (6.68% followed by FI (6.32%, N (6.18%, and F (4.43% treatments during the year 2008. Similar trends were observed during 2009 with the highest soil OM values (5.50% for NI treatment. Supplemental irrigation resulted in a 21% increase in the ripe fruit yield. Nonsignificant effect of fertilizer treatments on most of the nutrient concentrations in soil and plant leaves, and on ripe fruits yield reflects that the performance of N-Viro was comparable with that of the inorganic fertilizer used in this study.

  6. Grey mould development in greenhouse tomatoes under drip and furrow irrigation

    Aissat , Kamel; Nicot , Philippe ,; Guechi , Abdelhadi; Bardin , Marc; Chibane , Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Several methods can be used to provide water to plants in cropping systems where irrigation is necessary. For instance, drip irrigation has recently received much attention due to its advantages for water conservation. The type of irrigation can also impact the development of several pathogens responsible for soilborne diseases. Here, we studied the effect of drip irrigation and furrow irrigation on the development of grey mould, caused by the airborne fungus Botrytis cinerea, on tomato plant...

  7. Hazardous materials transportation and emergency response programs

    Joy, D.S.; Fore, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    This presentation consists of the following visual aids; (1) detailed routing capabilities of truck, rail, barge; (2) legislative data base for hazardous materials; and (3) emergency response of accident site Eddyville, Kentucky (airports in vicinity of Eddyville, KY)

  8. Irrigation and Autocracy

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    2017-01-01

    . We argue that the effect has historical origins: irrigation allowed landed elites in arid areas to monopolize water and arable land. This made elites more powerful and better able to oppose democratization. Consistent with this conjecture, we show that irrigation dependence predicts land inequality...

  9. Effective colostomy irrigation.

    Mazier, W P; Dignan, R D; Capehart, R J; Smith, B G

    1976-06-01

    The ultimate goal of the cone method of colostomy irrigation is to return patients with colostomies to their former role in society with confidence in themselves to the extent that having a colostomy is not considered a handicap. The results have generally been excellent. We believe all patients with stomas should be afforded the opportunity to attempt colostomy irrigation.

  10. RMP Guidance for Warehouses - Chapter 8: Emergency Response Program

    Implementing an emergency response program along with your risk management plan may be required if you have at least one Program 2 or 3 process in place, and if your employees will respond to some releases involving regulated toxic or flammable substances.

  11. Online decision support system for surface irrigation management

    Wang, Wenchao; Cui, Yuanlai

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation has played an important role in agricultural production. Irrigation decision support system is developed for irrigation water management, which can raise irrigation efficiency with few added engineering services. An online irrigation decision support system (OIDSS), in consist of in-field sensors and central computer system, is designed for surface irrigation management in large irrigation district. Many functions have acquired in OIDSS, such as data acquisition and detection, real-time irrigation forecast, water allocation decision and irrigation information management. The OIDSS contains four parts: Data acquisition terminals, Web server, Client browser and Communication system. Data acquisition terminals are designed to measure paddy water level, soil water content in dry land, ponds water level, underground water level, and canals water level. A web server is responsible for collecting meteorological data, weather forecast data, the real-time field data, and manager's feedback data. Water allocation decisions are made in the web server. Client browser is responsible for friendly displaying, interacting with managers, and collecting managers' irrigation intention. Communication system includes internet and the GPRS network used by monitoring stations. The OIDSS's model is based on water balance approach for both lowland paddy and upland crops. Considering basic database of different crops water demands in the whole growth stages and irrigation system engineering information, the OIDSS can make efficient decision of water allocation with the help of real-time field water detection and weather forecast. This system uses technical methods to reduce requirements of user's specialized knowledge and can also take user's managerial experience into account. As the system is developed by the Browser/Server model, it is possible to make full use of the internet resources, to facilitate users at any place where internet exists. The OIDSS has been applied in

  12. Modeling and prioritizing demand response programs in power markets

    Aalami, H.A.; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Yousefi, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the responsibilities of power market regulator is setting rules for selecting and prioritizing demand response (DR) programs. There are many different alternatives of DR programs for improving load profile characteristics and achieving customers' satisfaction. Regulator should find the optimal solution which reflects the perspectives of each DR stakeholder. Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM) is a proper method for handling such optimization problems. In this paper, an extended responsive load economic model is developed. The model is based on price elasticity and customer benefit function. Prioritizing of DR programs can be realized by means of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method. Considerations of ISO/utility/customer regarding the weighting of attributes are encountered by entropy method. An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used for selecting the most effective DR program. Numerical studies are conducted on the load curve of the Iranian power grid in 2007. (author)

  13. Response Matrix Method Development Program at Savannah River Laboratory

    Sicilian, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The Response Matrix Method Development Program at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has concentrated on the development of an effective system of computer codes for the analysis of Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactors. The most significant contribution of this program to date has been the verification of the accuracy of diffusion theory codes as used for routine analysis of SRP reactor operation. This paper documents the two steps carried out in achieving this verification: confirmation of the accuracy of the response matrix technique through comparison with experiment and Monte Carlo calculations; and establishment of agreement between diffusion theory and response matrix codes in situations which realistically approximate actual operating conditions

  14. Technology transfer: Promoting irrigation progress and best management practices

    Educational efforts promoting irrigation best management practices are designed to increase adoption of these practices and increase public understanding of the importance of irrigation. They increase visibility and the impact of the Ogallala Aquifer Program and promote affiliated research and exten...

  15. Seismic Safety Program: Ground motion and structural response

    1993-05-01

    In 1964, John A. Blume & Associates Research Division (Blume) began a broad-range structural response program to assist the Nevada Operations Office of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in ensuring the continued safe conduct of underground nuclear detonation testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere. Blume`s long experience in earthquake engineering provided a general basis for the program, but much more specialized knowledge was required for the AEC`s purposes. Over the next 24 years Blume conducted a major research program to provide essential understanding of the detailed nature of the response of structures to dynamic loads such as those imposed by seismic wave propagation. The program`s results have been embodied in a prediction technology which has served to provide reliable advanced knowledge of the probable effects of seismic ground motion on all kinds of structures, for use in earthquake engineering and in building codes as well as for the continuing needs of the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). This report is primarily an accounting of the Blume work, beginning with the setting in 1964 and the perception of the program needs as envisioned by Dr. John A. Blume. Subsequent chapters describe the structural response program in detail and the structural prediction procedures which resulted; the intensive data acquisition program which, as is discussed at some length, relied heavily on the contributions of other consultant-contractors in the DOE/NV Seismic Safety Support Program; laboratory and field studies to provide data on building elements and structures subjected to dynamic loads from sources ranging from testing machines to earthquakes; structural response activities undertaken for testing at the NTS and for off-NTS underground nuclear detonations; and concluding with an account of corollary studies including effects of natural forces and of related studies on building response.

  16. Improving yield and water use efficiency of sugarcane under drip irrigation in the Gharb region of Morocco

    M. AABAD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most limiting factors for agricultural development in Morocco is water scarcity linked to climate change. Since 2008, an important program promoting drip irrigation was undertaken by the state to achieve water saving and productivity. An experiment on sugarcane was conducted in the Gharb region under Mediterranean climate with a silty clay soil during two cropping seasons. The objectives were to assess the sugarcane water requirements, optimize WUE and test the crop response to variable irrigation water supplies under drip irrigation. The experiment was conducted using ‘’CP70-321’’ sugarcane cultivar in an experimental station using a randomized block design with four replications and five water regimes. The results showed a highly significant effect of the water regime on sugar and stems yields and also on height of stems. Water requirements for sugarcane were estimated at 7500 m³.ha-1, but 5000 m³.ha-1 equivalent to 67%ETc, was sufficient to optimize WUE (132 to 157 kg of stems ha-1.mm-1 and 22.2 to 24.2 kg of sugar ha-1.mm-1. This means that drip irrigation on sugarcane could potentially i save about 50% of the irrigation volume, comparatively to sprinkler irrigation, ii almost double the stem yields and iii increase the sugar yields from 8 to 23 tons/ha.

  17. Responsive Feeding: Implications for Policy and Program Implementation12

    Engle, Patrice L.; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine responsive feeding as a nutrition intervention, with an emphasis on the development and incorporation of responsive feeding into policies and programs over the last 2 decades and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of responsive feeding interventions. A review of policy documents from international agencies and high-income countries reveals that responsive feeding has been incorporated into nutrition policies. Official guidelines from international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and professional organizations often include best practice recommendations for responsive feeding. Four potential explanations are offered for the rapid development of policies related to responsive feeding that have occurred despite the relatively recent recognition that responsive feeding plays a critical role in child nutrition and growth and the paucity of effectiveness trials to determine strategies to promote responsive feeding. Looking to the future, 3 issues related to program implementation are highlighted: 1) improving intervention specificity relative to responsive feeding; 2) developing protocols that facilitate efficient adaptation of generic guidelines to national contexts and local conditions; and 3) development of program support materials, including training, monitoring, and operational evaluation. PMID:21270361

  18. The Effects of Two Different Deficit Irrigation Managements on the Root Length of Maize

    M. Gheysari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of root to water stress is one of the most important parameters for researchers. Study of growth and distribution of root under different irrigation managements helpsresearchersto a better understanding of soil water content, and the availability of water and nutrition in water stress condition. To investigate the effects of four levels of irrigation under two different deficit irrigation managements on the root length of maize, a study was conducted in 2009. Irrigation managements included fixed irrigation interval-variable irrigation depth (M1 and variable irrigation interval-fixed irrigation depth (M2. Maize plants were planted in 120 large 110-liter containers in a strip-plot design in a randomized complete block with three replications. Root data sampling was done after root washing in five growth stages. The results showed that the effect of irrigation levels on root length was significant (P

  19. Bereavement Photography for Children: Program Development and Healthcare Professionals’ Response

    Michelson, Kelly Nicole; Blehart, Kathleen; Hochberg, Todd; James, Kristin; Frader, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Reports of in-hospital bereavement photography focus largely on stillborns and neonates. Empiric data regarding the implementation of bereavement photography in pediatrics beyond the neonatal period and the impact of such programs on healthcare professionals (HCPs) is lacking. We describe the implementation of a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) bereavement photography program and use questionnaire data from HCPs to describe HCPs’ reflections on the program and to identify program barriers. From July, 2007 through April, 2010 families of 59 (36%) of the 164 patients who died in the PICU participated in our bereavement photography program. Forty questionnaires from 29 HCPs caring for 39 participating patients/families indicated that families seemed grateful for the service (n=34, 85%) and that the program helped HCPs feel better about their role (n=30, 70%). Many HCPs disagreed that the program consumed too much of his/her time (n=34, 85%) and that the photographer made his/her job difficult (n=37, 92.5%). Qualitative analysis of responses to open ended questions revealed four categories: the program’s general value; positive aspects of the program; negative aspects of the program; and suggestions for improvements. Implementing bereavement photography in the PICU is feasible though some barriers exist. HCPs may benefit from such programs. PMID:24520925

  20. ISO New England: Results of Ancillary Service Pilot Programs, Alternative Technology Regulation Pilot Program and Demand Response Reserves Pilot Program

    Lowell, Jon [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States); Yoshimura, Henry [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States)

    2011-10-26

    This PowerPoint presentation compares performance of pilot program assets and generation resources in alternative technology regulation and demand response reserves for flywheels and residential electric thermal storage.

  1. When should irrigators invest in more water-efficient technologies as an adaptation to climate change?

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Yoder, J.

    2015-12-01

    The western US is expected to experience more frequent droughts with higher magnitudes and persistence due to the climate change, with potentially large impacts on agricultural productivity and the economy. Irrigated farmers have many options for minimizing drought impacts including changing crops, engaging in water markets, and switching irrigation technologies. Switching to more efficient irrigation technologies, which increase water availability in the crop root zone through reduction of irrigation losses, receives significant attention because of the promise of maintaining current production with less. However, more efficient irrigation systems are almost always more capital-intensive adaptation strategy particularly compared to changing crops or trading water. A farmer's decision to switch will depend on how much money they project to save from reducing drought damages. The objective of this study is to explore when (and under what climate change scenarios) it makes sense economically for farmers to invest in a new irrigation system. This study was performed over the Yakima River Basin (YRB) in Washington State, although the tools and information gained from this study are transferable to other watersheds in the western US. We used VIC-CropSyst, a large-scale grid-based modeling framework that simulates hydrological processes while mechanistically capturing crop water use, growth and development. The water flows simulated by VIC-CropSyst were used to run the RiverWare river system and water management model (YAK-RW), which simulates river processes and calculates regional water availability for agricultural use each day (i.e., the prorationing ratio). An automated computational platform has been developed and programed to perform the economic analysis for each grid cell, crop types and future climate projections separately, which allows us to explore whether or not implementing a new irrigation system is economically viable. Results of this study indicate that

  2. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  3. 77 FR 4239 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program

    2012-01-27

    ... victims of sexual assault. The ASD(HA) shall direct that all sexual assault patients be given priority, so... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 103 [DoD-2008-OS-0124; 0790-AI37] Sexual... Program on prevention, response, and oversight to sexual assault. It is DoD policy to establish a culture...

  4. Drip irrigation using a PLC based adaptive irrigation system

    Shahidian, S.; Serralheiro, R. P.; Teixeira, J. L.; Santos, F. L.; Oliveira, M. R. G.; Costa, J. L.; Toureiro, C.; Haie, Naim; Machado, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the water used by man goes to irrigation. A major part of this water is used to irrigate small plots where it is not feasible to implement full-scale Evapotranspiration based irrigation controllers. During the growth season crop water needs do not remain constant and varies depending on the canopy, growth stage and climate conditions such as temperature, wind, relative humidity and solar radiation. Thus, it is necessary to find an economic irrigation controller that can adapt the dail...

  5. Dementia caregivers' responses to 2 Internet-based intervention programs.

    Marziali, Elsa; Garcia, Linda J

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact on dementia caregivers' experienced stress and health status of 2 Internet-based intervention programs. Ninety-one dementia caregivers were given the choice of being involved in either an Internet-based chat support group or an Internet-based video conferencing support group. Pre-post outcome measures focused on distress, health status, social support, and service utilization. In contrast to the Chat Group, the Video Group showed significantly greater improvement in mental health status. Also, for the Video Group, improvements in self-efficacy, neuroticism, and social support were associated with lower stress response to coping with the care recipient's cognitive impairment and decline in function. The results show that, of 2 Internet-based intervention programs for dementia caregivers, the video conferencing intervention program was more effective in improving mental health status and improvement in personal characteristics were associated with lower caregiver stress response.

  6. Utility Green Pricing Programs: Design, Implementation, and Consumer Response

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.; Aabakken, J.

    2004-02-01

    The term green pricing refers to programs offered by utilities in traditionally regulated electricity markets, which allow customers to support the development of renewable energy sources by paying a small premium on their electric bills. Since the introduction of the concept in the United States, the number of unique utility green pricing programs has expanded from just a few programs in 1993 to more than 90 in 2002. About 10% of U.S. utilities offered a green pricing option to about 26 million consumers by the end of 2002. This report provides: (1) aggregate industry data on consumer response to utility programs, which indicate the collective impact of green pricing on renewable energy development nationally; and (2) market data that can be used by utilities as a benchmark for gauging the relative success of their green pricing programs. Specifically, the paper presents current data and trends in consumer response to green pricing, as measured by renewable energy sales, participants, participation rates, and new renewable energy capacity supported. It presents data on various aspects of program design and implementation, such as product pricing, ownership of supplies, retention rates, marketing costs, the effectiveness of marketing techniques, and methods of enrolling and providing value to customers.

  7. A Reevaluation of Price Elasticities for Irrigation Water

    Howitt, Richard E.; Watson, William D.; Adams, Richard M.

    1980-08-01

    The effectiveness of pricing systems in the allocation of irrigation water is linked with the price elasticity of demand of farmers for water. Using microeconomic theory, it is shown that omission of the elasticity of demand for the crop produced leads to an inelastic bias in the demand for irrigated water. Linear programing approaches omit the product elasticity of demand and are consequently biased, whereas quadratic programing approaches to estimating derived demands for irrigation water include product demand functions. The difference between the resulting estimates are empirically demonstrated for regional derived demand functions estimated from a model of California's agricultural industry.

  8. Agronomic and physiological impacts of irrigation frequency on green basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    Gao, Peng; Dodd, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is a major factor restricting agricultural production and irrigation globally, with sustainable agricultural development calling for less irrigation water use and more production per unit of water applied. Improved understanding of plant physiological responses to water stress, and the effect of irrigation frequency on plant biomass production and quality, may help to optimize irrigation scheduling. Glasshouse-grown basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) received three different irrigatio...

  9. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P

  10. A decision support for an integrated multi-scale analysis of irrigation: DSIRR.

    Bazzani, Guido M

    2005-12-01

    The paper presents a decision support designed to conduct an economic-environmental assessment of the agricultural activity focusing on irrigation called 'Decision Support for IRRigated Agriculture' (DSIRR). The program describes the effect at catchment scale of choices taken at micro scale by independent actors, the farmers, by simulating their decision process. The decision support (DS) has been thought of as a support tool for participatory water policies as requested by the Water Framework Directive and it aims at analyzing alternatives in production and technology, according to different market, policy and climate conditions. The tool uses data and models, provides a graphical user interface and can incorporate the decision makers' own insights. Heterogeneity in preferences is admitted since it is assumed that irrigators try to optimize personal multi-attribute utility functions, subject to a set of constraints. Consideration of agronomic and engineering aspects allows an accurate description of irrigation. Mathematical programming techniques are applied to find solutions. The program has been applied in the river Po basin (northern Italy) to analyze the impact of a pricing policy in a context of irrigation technology innovation. Water demand functions and elasticity to water price have been estimated. Results demonstrate how different areas and systems react to the same policy in quite a different way. While in the annual cropping system pricing seems effective to save the resource at the cost of impeding Water Agencies cost recovery, the same policy has an opposite effect in the perennial fruit system which shows an inelastic response to water price. The multidimensional assessment conducted clarified the trades-off among conflicting economic-social-environmental objectives, thus generating valuable information to design a more tailored mix of measures.

  11. Investigation of Yield and Yield Components of Canary Seed Forage (Phalaris canariensis L. in Response to Different Levels of Irrigation, Organic and Chemical Fertilizers and their integration

    V Varnaseri Ghandali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canary seed (Phalaris canariensis L. is a forage plant from Poaceae family. This plant is drought tolerant. Canary seed is originally a native to Mediterranean region, which can be grown commercially in several parts of the word, especially in semi-arid conditions. Increasing growth of population and lack of ability of pastures to satisfy the food requirement of animal has led to more interest in cultivating forage plants. In this regard, Canary seed having properties such as high yield per unit area, high tillering power, very fast growth and appropriate nutritional value, is of considerable importance and its cultivation development especially in arid and semi-arid regions can be effective in providing part of the country forage needs. Optimum water requirement is considered as one the important factors to obtain a high growth and yield of the product. On the other hand, Iran is located in arid and semi-arid climate region of the world . Therefore, determination of appropriate amount of irrigation water can lead to the improvement of water use efficiency and preventing the water loss. In order to achieve a high yield and desirable quality in plants one of the important requirements in agricultural planning is the evaluation of different systems of plant feeding. By applying an appropriate method in soil productivity, in addition to protecting the environment, optimization of water usage, reduction of erosion and protection of biodiversity can be increased. Therefore, gradually replacing chemical fertilizers with biological and organic fertilizers will result in providing feed requirements of plants, improvement of physical, chemical and biological conditions of soil and reduction of adverse environmental effects resulting from application of chemical inputs. The aim of this research was to study the effects of deficit irrigation and fertilizer management based on sole chemical and organic fertilizers or their integrated

  12. An assessment of colostomy irrigation.

    Laucks, S S; Mazier, W P; Milsom, J W; Buffin, S E; Anderson, J M; Warwick, M K; Surrell, J A

    1988-04-01

    One hundred patients with permanent sigmoid colostomies were surveyed to determine their satisfaction and success with the "irrigation" technique of colostomy management. Most patients who irrigate their colostomies achieve continence. Odors and skin irritation are minimized. The irrigation method is economical, time efficient, and allows a reasonably liberal diet. It avoids bulky appliances and is safe. In appropriately selected patients, the irrigation technique is the method of choice for management of an end-sigmoid colostomy.

  13. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  14. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-07-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  15. Evaluasi dan Analisis Dampak Program Corporate Social Responsibility Badak LNG

    Hanes Utama

    2017-08-01

    programs that implemented, and also to evaluate the CSR impact. The research methods are, input output and impact study by peoples satisfactory index, Importance Performance Analysis, and Compass Sustainability Analysis. The research result shows that the peoples satisfaction towards CSR program are in the very good category. The appropriate between satisfaction performance and people urgency also in a very good category. The performance, responsibility, ability, kindness, and the certain of services cost of assistant officer belongs to high prospect indicator from the society. Therefore, company has a very good performance in that program. The positive impact of CSR programs in the nature, well-being, economy, social in Bontang City are very high. There is an improvement of environment quality, the utilization of nature potential, the increase of people income, poverty reduction, SME’s tenacity improvement, cultural advertisement, and people satisfaction are in the high level towards CSR programs of Badak LNG.

  16. China’s Water-Saving Irrigation Management System: Policy, Implementation, and Challenge

    Liuyang Yao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the increased competition for water, the Chinese government has determined to promote water-saving irrigation (WSI followed by a range of institutional arrangements and policy goals. Three management mechanisms are analyzed in this study in terms of effectiveness, including the top-down regulation mechanism using direct control or economic instruments, the design-bid funding mechanism mobilizing local governments by competitive grants program, and the bottom-up participation mechanism transferring more irrigation management responsibilities to end-users. Although the WSI management has achieved notable improvements by the combination of different mechanisms, conflicts among different policy goals, uneven distribution of financial resources, and insufficient participation from water users caused the difficulty in aligning stakeholders’ incentives. Approaches are needed to enable sustainable management by coordinating incentives from different stakeholders in the management, as well as incorporating end water users to assist decision-making.

  17. Directory of personnel responsible for radiological health programs

    1977-01-01

    This is a directory of professional personnel who administer the radiological health program activities in state and local governmental agencies. Included in the directory is a listing of each state health officer or the head of the agency responsible for the radiological health program. The name, address, and telephone number of the radiological health personnel are listed, followed by the alternate contact who, in many instances, may be chief of a larger administrative unit of which the radiological health program is a subunit. The address for the program is also included if it differs from the official health department or agency. Generally, the titles of the personnel listed will indicate the administrative status of the radiological health program. The directory also includes a list of key professional personnel in the Bureau of Radiological Health, Radiation Operations Staff, Regional Radiological Health Representatives, Winchester Engineering and Analytical Center, Food and Drug Administration; Office of Radiation Programs, Regional Radiation Representatives, National Environmental Research Center, and Eastern Environmental Radiation Laboratory, Environmental Protection Agency; selected personnel in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and selected personnel in the National Bureau of Standards

  18. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation's irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western's wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western's power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage

  19. DOE enforcement program roles and responsibilities: DOE handbook

    1995-08-01

    The Price-Anderson Act provides indemnification to DOE contractors who manage and conduct nuclear activities in the DOE complex. The government acts as an insurer for these contractors against any findings of liability from the nuclear activities of the contractor within the scope of its contract. 10 CFR Part 820 establishes the legal framework for implementing DOE's Nuclear Safety Enforcement Program. Integration with other DOE organizations and programs would assure that the enforcement process properly considers the actual or potential safety significance of a violation when determining an appropriate enforcement sanction. Achieving a proactive contractor compliance assurance rather than a heavy enforcement hand, will require a foundation of cooperation and teamwork across DOE organizations. This handbook identifies the areas of interface for the DOE Enforcement Program and provides guidance on roles and responsibilities for the key DOE organizational areas. It complements DOE-HDBK-1087-95 and 1089-95

  20. Radioactive source recovery program responses to neutron source emergencies

    Dinehart, S.M.; Hatler, V.A.; Gray, D.W.; Guillen, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    Recovery of neutron sources containing Pu 239 and Be is currently taking place at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The program was initiated in 1979 by the Department of Energy (DOE) to dismantle and recover sources owned primarily by universities and the Department of Defense. Since the inception of this program, Los Alamos has dismantled and recovered more than 1000 sources. The dismantlement and recovery process involves the removal of source cladding and the chemical separation of the source materials to eliminate neutron emissions. While this program continues for the disposal of 239 Pu/Be sources, there is currently no avenue for the disposition of any sources other than those containing Pu 239 . Increasingly, there have been demands from agencies both inside and outside the Federal Government and from the public to dispose of unwanted sources containing 238 Pu/Be and 241 Am/Be. DOE is attempting to establish a formal program to recover these sources and is working closely with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on a proposed Memorandum of Understanding to formalize an Acceptance Program. In the absence of a formal program to handle 238 Pu/Be and 241 Am/Be neutron sources, Los Alamos has responded to several emergency requests to receive and recover sources that have been determined to be a threat to public health and safety. This presentation will: (1) review the established 239 Pu neutron source recovery program at Los Alamos, (2) detail plans for a more extensive neutron source disposal program, and (3) focus on recent emergency responses

  1. Optimized Subsurface Irrigation System: The Future of Sugarcane Irrigation

    M. H. J. P. Gunarathna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may harm the growth and yield of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. without the introduction of appropriate irrigation facilities. Therefore, new irrigation methods should be developed to maximize water use efficiency and reduce operational costs. OPSIS (optimized subsurface irrigation system is a new solar-powered automatic subsurface irrigation system that creates a phreatic zone below crop roots and relies on capillarity to supply water to the root zone. It is designed for upland crops such as sugarcane. We investigated the performance of OPSIS for irrigating sugarcane and evaluated its performance against sprinkler irrigation under subtropical conditions. We conducted field experiments in Okinawa, Japan, over the period from 2013 to 2016 and took measurements during spring- and summer-planted main crops and two ratoon crops of the spring-planted crop. Compared with sprinkler irrigation, OPSIS produced a significantly higher fresh cane yield, consumed less irrigation water and provided a higher irrigation water use efficiency. We conclude that OPSIS could be adopted as a sustainable solution to sugarcane irrigation in Okinawa and similar environments.

  2. Accounting for water : institutional viability and impacts of market-oriented irrigation interventions in Central Mexico

    Kloezen, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    During the past decade, many countries throughout the world have attempted to improve their generally poor performance record of agency-managed irrigation systems by designing and implementing institutional policy programs. This thesis analyses the institutional viability and the local impact on irrigation performance of two such institutional intervention programs. This is done in the context of the Alto Río Lerma irrigation district (ARLID),...

  3. [Irrigation in colostomies].

    Campo, Juana; Lecona, Ana; Caparrós, M Rosario; Barbero, M Antonia; Javier Cerdán, F

    2002-01-01

    The degree of acceptation of irrigation from a colostomy varies ostensibly from some cases to others, therefore, we study what occurs in our medium, separating those patients which have previously undergone other procedures (Group A) from those patients who have been informed and trained about the immediate postoperative period (Group B). 48 patients, 22 or 46% of these patients were considered not apt for irrigation. Of the 26 to whom this procedure was proposed, 14 or 54% accepted. Of these, 5 or 36% abandoned its use while 9 continued its use; this is 64% of those who accepted this procedure, 35% of those to whom it was proposed and 19% of the total study group. 189 patients. This procedure was not recommended to 95 patients, 50%. Of the 94 patients to whom this procedure was proposed, 65 or 69% accepted. Of these, 22 or 34% abandoned its use while 43 continued its use; this is 66% of those; who accepted this procedure, 46% of those to whom it was proposed and 23% of the total study group. In our medium, the practice of irrigation oscillates between 19 and 23% of patients who have undergone a colostomy, without any significant difference referring to the moment when a patient started this procedure. A first report on this study was submitted in the III National Congress for Nursing in Colostomies.

  4. The optimization of demand response programs in smart grids

    Derakhshan, Ghasem; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali; Kazemi, Ahad

    2016-01-01

    The potential to schedule portion of the electricity demand in smart energy systems is clear as a significant opportunity to enhance the efficiency of the grids. Demand response is one of the new developments in the field of electricity which is meant to engage consumers in improving the energy consumption pattern. We used Teaching & Learning based Optimization (TLBO) and Shuffled Frog Leaping (SFL) algorithms to propose an optimization model for consumption scheduling in smart grid when payment costs of different periods are reduced. This study conducted on four types residential consumers obtained in the summer for some residential houses located in the centre of Tehran city in Iran: first with time of use pricing, second with real-time pricing, third one with critical peak pricing, and the last consumer had no tariff for pricing. The results demonstrate that the adoption of demand response programs can reduce total payment costs and determine a more efficient use of optimization techniques. - Highlights: •An optimization model for the demand response program is made. •TLBO and SFL algorithms are applied to reduce payment costs in smart grid. •The optimal condition is provided for the maximization of the social welfare problem. •An application to some residential houses located in the centre of Tehran city in Iran is demonstrated.

  5. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    Aniketh; Mohamed; Geeta; Nandakishore; Gourav Kumar; Patrick Timothy; Jayson Mathew; Sahle Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and con...

  6. Irrigation water policy analysis using a business simulation game

    Buchholz, M.; Holst, G.; Musshoff, O.

    2016-10-01

    Despite numerous studies on farmers' responses to changing irrigation water policies, uncertainties remain about the potential of water pricing schemes and water quotas to reduce irrigation. Thus far, policy impact analysis is predominantly based upon rational choice models that assume behavioral assumptions, such as a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker. Also, econometric techniques are applied which could lack internal validity due to uncontrolled field data. Furthermore, such techniques are not capable of identifying ill-designed policies prior to their implementation. With this in mind, we apply a business simulation game for ex ante policy impact analysis of irrigation water policies at the farm level. Our approach has the potential to reveal the policy-induced behavioral change of the participants in a controlled environment. To do so, we investigate how real farmers from Germany, in an economic experiment, respond to a water pricing scheme and a water quota intending to reduce irrigation. In the business simulation game, the participants manage a "virtual" cash-crop farm for which they make crop allocation and irrigation decisions during several production periods, while facing uncertain product prices and weather conditions. The results reveal that a water quota is able to reduce mean irrigation applications, while a water pricing scheme does not have an impact, even though both policies exhibit equal income effects for the farmers. However, both policies appear to increase the variation of irrigation applications. Compared to a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker, the participants apply less irrigation on average, both when irrigation is not restricted and when a water pricing scheme applies. Moreover, the participants' risk attitude affects the irrigation decisions.

  7. Milton Hydro's Energy Drill Program : demand response based on behavioural responses to price signals

    Thorne, D.; Heeney, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Energy Drill Program is a demand response tool and economic instrument based on a fire drill protocol. The aim of the program is to reduce peak demand and emissions and improve system reliability and price volatility. This presentation provided details of an Energy Drill pilot program, conducted in Milton, Ontario. Customized approaches were used in the buildings partaking in the drill, which included the Milton Hydro Headquarters, the Robert Baldwin Public School, and a leisure centre. Building assessments inventoried building systems and equipment usage patterns. Pilot monitoring and evaluation was conducted through the use of checklists completed by marshals and building coordinators. Energy use data was tracked by Milton Hydro, and report cards were sent after each drill. A short-term drop in demand was observed in all the buildings, as well as overall reductions in peak period demand. Energy consumption data for all the buildings were provided. Results of the pilot program suggested that rotating the drills among participating buildings may prove to be a more effective strategy for the program to adopt in future. A greater emphasis on energy efficiency was also recommended. It was concluded that the eventual roll-out strategy should carefully consider the number and types of buildings involved in the program; internal commitment to the program; available resources; and timing for implementation. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  9. Irrigation water management: Basic principles and applications

    Ella, Victor B.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation defines the term, irrigation, as well as explains the common methods of irrigation in attempt to define the fundamental principles needed to wisely design an irrigation system. It outlines a typical drip irrigation set-up, and discusses management of an irrigation system, including water volume application suggestions. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  10. Agriculture Irrigation and Water Use

    Bajwa, Rajinder S.; Crosswhite, William M.; Hostetler, John E.; Wright, Olivia W.; United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

    1992-01-01

    The 17 Western States, plus Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana, account for 91 percent of all U.S. irrigated acreage, with the Western States alone contributing over 85 percent. This report integrates data on the distribution, characteristics, uses, and management of water resources from a wide variety of data sources. The report includes charts and tables on water use in irrigation; farm data comparing selected characteristics of irrigated and nonirrigated farms; and data on water applicatio...

  11. Untangling the effects of shallow groundwater and deficit irrigation on irrigation water productivity in arid region: New conceptual model.

    Xue, Jingyuan; Huo, Zailin; Wang, Fengxin; Kang, Shaozhong; Huang, Guanhua

    2018-04-01

    Water scarcity and salt stress are two main limitations for agricultural production. Groundwater evapotranspiration (ET g ) with upward salt movement plays an important role in crop water use and water productivity in arid regions, and it can compensate the impact of deficit irrigation on crop production. Thus, comprehensive impacts of shallow groundwater and deficit irrigation on crop water use results in an improvement of irrigation water productivity (IWP). However, it is difficult to quantify the effects of groundwater and deficit irrigation on IWP. In this study, we built an IWP evaluation model coupled with a water and salt balance model and a crop yield estimation model. As a valuable tool of IWP simulation, the calibrated model was used to investigate the coupling response of sunflower IWP to irrigation water depths (IWDs), groundwater table depth (GTDs) and groundwater salinities (GSs). A total of 210 scenarios were run in which five irrigation water depths (IWDs) and seven groundwater table depths (GTDs) and six groundwater salinities (GSs) were used. Results indicate that increasing GS clearly increases the negative effect on a crop's actual evapotranspiration (ET a ) as salt accumulation in root zone. When GS is low (0.5-1g/L), increasing GTD produces more positive effect than negative effect. In regard to relatively high GS (2-5g/L), the negative effect of shallow-saline groundwater reaches a maximum at 2m GTD. Additionally, the salt concentration in the root zone maximizes its value at 2.0m GTD. In most cases, increasing GTD and GS reduces the benefits of irrigation water and IWP. The IWP increases with decreasing irrigation water. Overall, in arid regions, capillary rise of shallow groundwater can compensate for the lack of irrigation water and improve IWP. By improving irrigation schedules and taking advantages of shallow saline groundwater, we can obtain higher IWP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Irrigation management of sigmoid colostomy.

    Jao, S W; Beart, R W; Wendorf, L J; Ilstrup, D M

    1985-08-01

    Questionnaires were sent to 270 patients who had undergone abdominoperineal resection and sigmoid colostomy at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the ten years from 1972 to 1982; 223 patients returned their questionnaires with evaluable data. Sixty percent of the patients were continent with irrigation, and 22% were incontinent with irrigation. Eighteen percent had discontinued irrigation for various reasons. The proportion continent was higher in women, younger patients, and previously constipated patients. A poorly constructed colostomy may cause acute angle, parastoma hernia, stomal prolapse, or stenosis and thus be the cause of failure of irrigation.

  13. Radiological Assistance Program, DOE Region 6 response plan

    Jakubowski, F.M.

    1993-02-01

    This program plan meets all the requirements identified in DOE Order 5530.3, Radiological Assistance Program and supports those requirements leading to the establishment of a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) as required by DOE 5530-5. Requests for radiological assistance may come from other DOE facilities, Federal or state agencies, tribal officials, or from any private corporation or individual. Many of the requests will be handled by a telephone call, a conference or a letter, teletype or memorandum. Other requests for assistance may involve radioactive material in serious accidents, fire, personal injuries, contamination or possible hazards to the general public. Some occurrences may require the dispatch of trained personnel equipped with radiation monitoring instruments and related equipment necessary to evaluate, control and neutralize the hazard. The primary responsibility for incidents involving radioactive material always remains with the party having custody of the radioactive materials. In addition, the DOE recognizes that the assistance provided shall not in any way preempt state, tribal, or local authority and/or responsibility on state or tribal properties. Toward this end, DOE assistance for non-DOE radioactive materials, is limited to technical assistance, advice, measurement and other resources as deemed necessary by the local authorities but excludes DOE interface with the public media. This is a function handled by the local or state Incident Commander

  14. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities

  15. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  16. Effect of irrigation on heavy metals content of wastewater irrigated ...

    There is an urgent need to educate farmers on the dangers of the presence of heavy metals in soils as well as the quality of irrigation water especially if it comes from tanning industries for increased crop production. Accordingly, soil and irrigation wastewater study was conducted to assess the concentrations of heavy ...

  17. Conflicts during response selection affect response programming: reactions toward the source of stimulation.

    Buetti, Simona; Kerzel, Dirk

    2009-06-01

    In the Simon effect, participants make a left or right keypress in response to a nonspatial attribute (e.g., color) that is presented on the left or right. Reaction times (RTs) increase when the response activated by the irrelevant stimulus location and the response retrieved by instruction are in conflict. The authors measured RTs and movement parameters (MPs) of pointing responses in a typical Simon task. Their results show that the trajectories veer toward the imperative stimulus. This bias decreased as RTs increased. The authors suggest that the time course of trajectory deviations reflects the resolution of the response conflict over time. Further, time pressure did not affect the size of the Simon effect in MPs or its time course, but strongly reduced the Simon effect in RTs. In contrast, response selection before the onset of a go signal on the left or right did not affect the Simon effect in RTs, but reduced the Simon effect in MPs and reversed the time course. The authors speculate about independent Simon effects associated with response selection and programming. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Sustainable Eco Coastal Development Through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Program

    Rakhmanissazly, Arsi; Mursito Ardy, Yong; Abdullah

    2017-02-01

    Besides technical problems the company’s operational constraints that may effect high deficiency for the company is the company - community conflicts. Company - community conflict can also arise depends on the geographic conditions and characteristics of the community itself. Some studies has show that coastal community have higher level of social risk when compared to non-coastal community. Also, the coastal community ussually only rely on what sea provides as their main livelihood. Because of the level of education still contemtible the community couldn’t optimized the potential of their own area. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) har emerged as an important approach for addressing the social and environmental impact of company activities. Through CSR program, PT Pertamina EP Asset 3 Tambun Field (PEP) try to form value integration by utilizing resources from the community and the company by making sustainable eco - coastal living in Desa Tambaksari, Karawang, one of PEP working area. Using sustainable livelihood approach begin with compiling data by doing social mapping PEP has initiate the area to becoming Fish Processing Industry Centre. By implementing PDCA in every steps of the program, PEP has multiplied some other programs such as Organic Fish Feed Processing, Seaweed Farming and Waste Bank for Green Coastal Village. These program is PEP’s effort to create a sustainability environment by enhancing the community’s potentials as well as resolving social problems around Tambaksari. The most important result besides getting our license to operate from the community, is the community itself can grow into an eco coastal sustainable system.

  19. Comparative study on agro-physiology of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum l.) genotypes at different irrigation co-efficient values

    Farooq, Z.; Mehmood, S.

    2015-01-01

    Drought is the primary factor limiting sugarcane growth and physiological development under the climatic conditions of Pakistan; especially in those areas where without supplemental irrigation, productivity is not possible. Lack of detailed information regarding the performance of cane varieties under drought during formative stage and poor selection breeding program played key role in limiting cane productivity. The proposed study was conducted to investigate the genetic response of different cultivars viz., CSSG-676, CSSG-668, HoSG-795, HoSG-529, NSG-59 and HSF- 240 (standard) regarding the physiological development of sugarcane and its productivity at different irrigation co-efficient levels (100%, 80% and 60%). This study elucidates that moisture has a pronounced impact on the physiological attributes of sugarcane and proper irrigation scheduling with 20 no. of irrigations were reported best in-term of better germination (69.65%), leaf area index (7.13), crop growth rate (8.44), net assimilation rate (1.06) and chlorophyll contents (5.98). Similarly in case of genomic response, NSG-59 was reported significant best as compared to all other test cultivars in term of better physiological performance, showing significant higher leaf area index, crop growth rate, chlorophyll contents and water use efficiency that maximized the crop growth and resulted in higher net assimilation rate. Higher proline contents (1.59) produced in NSG-59 also made it best under drought conditions. (author)

  20. Estimating irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States

    Levin, Sara B.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate accounting of irrigation water use is an important part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program and the WaterSMART initiative to help maintain sustainable water resources in the Nation. Irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States is not well characterized because of inadequate reporting and wide variability associated with climate, soils, crops, and farming practices. To better understand irrigation water use in the eastern United States, two types of predictive models were developed and compared by using metered irrigation water-use data for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops in Georgia and turf farms in Rhode Island. Reliable metered irrigation data were limited to these areas. The first predictive model that was developed uses logistic regression to predict the occurrence of irrigation on the basis of antecedent climate conditions. Logistic regression equations were developed for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops by using weekly irrigation water-use data from 36 metered sites in Georgia in 2009 and 2010 and turf farms in Rhode Island from 2000 to 2004. For the weeks when irrigation was predicted to take place, the irrigation water-use volume was estimated by multiplying the average metered irrigation application rate by the irrigated acreage for a given crop. The second predictive model that was developed is a crop-water-demand model that uses a daily soil water balance to estimate the water needs of a crop on a given day based on climate, soil, and plant properties. Crop-water-demand models were developed independently of reported irrigation water-use practices and relied on knowledge of plant properties that are available in the literature. Both modeling approaches require accurate accounting of irrigated area and crop type to estimate total irrigation water use. Water-use estimates from both modeling methods were compared to the metered irrigation data from Rhode Island and Georgia that were used to

  1. Soil nitrate testing supports nitrogen management in irrigated annual crops

    Patricia A. Lazicki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil nitrate (NO3− tests are an integral part of nutrient management in annual crops. They help growers make field-specific nitrogen (N fertilization decisions, use N more efficiently and, if necessary, comply with California's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program, which requires an N management plan and an estimate of soil NO3− from most growers. As NO3− is easily leached into deeper soil layers and groundwater by rain and excess irrigation water, precipitation and irrigation schedules need to be taken into account when sampling soil and interpreting test results. We reviewed current knowledge on best practices for taking and using soil NO3− tests in California irrigated annual crops, including how sampling for soil NO3− differs from sampling for other nutrients, how tests performed at different times of the year are interpreted and some of the special challenges associated with NO3− testing in organic systems.

  2. Gypsiferous mine water use in irrigation on rehabilitated open-cast mine land: Crop production, soil water and salt balance

    Annandale, J.; Jovanovic, N.; Pretorius, J.; Lorentz, S.; Rethman, N.; Tanner, P.

    2001-01-01

    The use of gypsiferous mine water for irrigation of agricultural crops is a promising technology, which could alleviate a shortage of irrigation water and address the problem of disposal of mine effluent. A field trial was established at Kleinkopje Colliery in Witbank (Mpumalanga Province, South Africa) during the 1997-1998 season. Sugar beans and wheat were irrigated with three center pivots, on both virgin and rehabilitated land. The objectives were to determine crop response to irrigation ...

  3. How Patients Experience Antral Irrigation

    Karin Blomgren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Antral irrigation earlier had an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of rhinosinusitis. Nowadays, it is often considered too unpleasant. However, the experience of patients of this procedure has been very seldom evaluated. Nor has the effect on pain in rhinosinusitis been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients’ experience of discomfort and pain during antral irrigation. We also assessed facial pain caused by rhinosinusitis before the procedure and pain soon after the procedure. Methods Doctors and 121 patients completed their questionnaires independently after antral irrigation in a university clinic, in a private hospital, and at a communal health center. Results Patients experienced mild pain during antral irrigation (mean and median visual analog scale score: <3. Their experience of pain during antral irrigation was closely comparable to pain during dental calculus scaling. Facial pain assessed before antral irrigation decreased quickly after the procedure. Conclusions Antral irrigation was well tolerated as an outpatient procedure. The procedure seems to relieve facial pain caused by the disease quickly. The role of antral irrigation in the treatment of acute rhinosinusitis will need further investigation.

  4. Irrigation management in organic greenhouse

    Voogt, W.; Balendonck, J.; Berkelmans, R.; Enthoven, N.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigation in protected cultivation is essential due to the absence of natural precipitation. High evapotranspiration, due to higher temperature and prolonged cropping period, requires ample an adequate supply of water. The water supply in a greenhouse is solely carried out by irrigation and thus

  5. Scintigraphic assessment of colostomy irrigation.

    Christensen, P.; Olsen, N.; Krogh, K.; Laurberg, S.

    2002-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate colonic transport following colostomy irrigation with a new scintigraphic technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To label the bowel contents 19 patients (11 uncomplicated colostomy irrigation, 8 complicated colostomy irrigation) took 111In-labelled polystyrene pellets one and two days before investigation. 99mTc-DTPA was mixed with the irrigation fluid to assess its extent within the bowel. Scintigraphy was performed before and after a standardized washout procedure. The colon was divided into three segments 1: the caecum andascending colon; 2: the transverse colon; 3: the descending and sigmoid colon. Assuming ordered evacuation of the colon, the contribution of each colonic segment to the total evacuation was expressed as a percentage of the original segmental counts. These were added to reach a total defaecation score (range: 0-300). RESULTS: In uncomplicated colostomy irrigation, the median defaecation score was 235 (range: 145-289) corresponding to complete evacuation of the descending and transverse colon and 35% evacuation of the caecum/ascending colon. In complicated colostomy irrigation it was possible to distinguish specific emptying patterns. The retained irrigation fluid reached the caecum in all but one patient. CONCLUSION: Scintigraphy can be used to evaluate colonic emptying following colostomy irrigation.

  6. Are There Infinite Irrigation Trees?

    Bernot, M.; Caselles, V.; Morel, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    In many natural or artificial flow systems, a fluid flow network succeeds in irrigating every point of a volume from a source. Examples are the blood vessels, the bronchial tree and many irrigation and draining systems. Such systems have raised recently a lot of interest and some attempts have been made to formalize their description, as a finite tree of tubes, and their scaling laws [25], [26]. In contrast, several mathematical models [5], [22], [10], propose an idealization of these irrigation trees, where a countable set of tubes irrigates any point of a volume with positive Lebesgue measure. There is no geometric obstruction to this infinitesimal model and general existence and structure theorems have been proved. As we show, there may instead be an energetic obstruction. Under Poiseuille law R(s) = s -2 for the resistance of tubes with section s, the dissipated power of a volume irrigating tree cannot be finite. In other terms, infinite irrigation trees seem to be impossible from the fluid mechanics viewpoint. This also implies that the usual principle analysis performed for the biological models needs not to impose a minimal size for the tubes of an irrigating tree; the existence of the minimal size can be proven from the only two obvious conditions for such irrigation trees, namely the Kirchhoff and Poiseuille laws.

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Various Irrigating Solutions on Dentine Permeability.

    1980-09-01

    during intra-appointment periods. Therefore, in cases of flare -up, further instrumentation with irrigation may be more effective than irrigation alone...contents than irrigation alone. . . t , . . ’ ,... ... ’ . ,. . . .. Dr. Cecic is a second year endodontic resident at Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma...Washington; Dr. Peters is assistant director, endodontic residency program, US Army Institute of Dental Research, Washington, DC; and Dr. Grower is

  8. 22 CFR 139.4 - Responsibilities of the Program Administrator.

    2010-04-01

    ... of living, support infrastructure, and other relevant factors. The Program Administrator, from time... program regulations, including rules of the Program Administrator and the code of code of conduct; or the...

  9. Maximizing the value of limited irrigation water: USDA researchers study how producers on limited irrigation can save water and be profitable

    Water shortages are responsible for the greatest crop losses around the world and are expected to worsen. In arid areas where agriculture is dependent on irrigation, various forms of deficit irrigation management have been suggested to optimize crop yields for available soil water. The relationshi...

  10. Conserving energy through new irrigation technologies. Technical briefing report

    1982-07-01

    The benefits and applications of five irrigation technologies are explored: mobile drop-tube irrigation, computerized scheduling, reduced-pressure center pivots, well design and development, and automated gated-pipe systems. Perhaps the most promising of the new irrigation technologies is the low-energy, precision-application (LEPA) system. This mobile system used one-half the energy of conventional sprinkler systems and distributes water with greater efficiency through a series of low-pressure drop tubes suspended above the crop. Computerized methods of irrigation scheduling have been developed to help farmers conserve water and energy. Special computer programs determine when a crop needs water and how much to apply for optimal plant growth, thus preventing the unnecessary costs of pumping more water than the crop needs. Field test results show that replacing traditional scheduling methods of irrigation with computerized scheduling can reduce energy and water use by as much as 35%. The irrigation industry is actively promoting reduced-pressure water application methods, particularly for center-pivot systems. Reduced-pressure systems expend less energy but produce the same crop yields as conventional high-pressure systems, as long as excessive water runoff does not occur. If well design and development techniques are applied when a well is drilled into an unconsolidated acquifer, the well's life expectancy, as well as its operating efficiency, can increase, the later by as much as 40%.

  11. Water requirement and irrigation schedule for tomato in northern guinea savanna zone, Nigeria

    Ibraheem Alhassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of water requirement and irrigation schedule for tomato with the support of FAO-CROPWAT simulation model was carried out for Yola, Nigeria with the aim of planning irrigation schedules for tomato and develop recommendations for improve irrigation practices. The climatic data for 2012/2013 and soil properties of the study area were input into the program. Tomato crop properties were updated by the FAO data and three irrigation intervals were tested (7 and 10 days irrigation intervals and irrigation schedule of 10 days interval during initial and development stage and 6 days interval at mid and late season stages of tomato crop. The simulated results analysis for tomato according to the irrigation schedule showed that highest yield reduction of 16.2% was recorded with 10 days irrigation interval treatment and the least of 0.4% with irrigation interval of 10 days at first two growth stages and 6 days at last two stages. FAO-CROPWAT 8.0 can be used in planning proper irrigation schedule for tomato in Yola, Nigeria.

  12. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  13. Role of operator response guidelines in CANDU 9 design program

    Jaitly, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The CANDU 9 is a large version of the CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) system developed in Canada. With an electrical output of approximately 935 MWe, the CANDU 9 complements the established mid-size CANDU 6 (700 MWe) and makes use of proven technology updated with state of the art features resulting from ongoing development. The CANDU 9 builds on the reactor and process system designs of the operating Darlington and Bruce B plants, and incorporates a modified CANDU 6 station layout, as well as improved construction methods and operational features. A high level of standardization has always been a feature of CANDU reactors. This theme is emphasized in the CANDU 9; all key components (reactor core, steam generators, coolant pumps, pressure tubes, etc.) are of the same design as those proven in service in the operating CANDU power stations. Including Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as part of the CANDU 9 design process from the outset of the program was seen as key to ensuring completeness of safety related requirements. The PSA work provided an in-depth understanding of the plant response to various postulated accidents. As well, the time frame for recovery and the related operator actions were identified. This information together with AECL's experience in supporting the development of Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) for the operating CANDU reactors are the basis for preparation of CANDU 9 Operator Response Guidelines (ORGs). Technical content, format and human factors considerations adopted for the ORGs are such that these can be readily converted to EOPs. The scope of ORGs includes generic as well as event specific ORGs. This dual approach is required to provide defense-in-depth. This paper describes the process used to prepare ORGs for the CANDU 9 reactor and discusses important benefits gained from the application of ORGs as input to the control center design and future preparation of the EOPs. (author)

  14. Colostomy irrigation: are we offering it enough?

    Woodhouse, Fran

    This article discusses the use of irrigation for suitable colostomists and reasons why it can have a very positive effect on lifestyle. While it is evidence-based it also includes anecdotal tips from patients who irrigate. The suitability of patients to irrigate and ways to 'get started' with irrigation are discussed.

  15. Evaluation model development for sprinkler irrigation uniformity ...

    use

    Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. The. Blackburn Press, New Jersey, USA. Li JS, Rao MJ (1999). Evaluation method of sprinkler irrigation nonuniformity. Trans. CSAE. 15(4): 78-82. Lin Z, Merkley GP (2011). Relationships between common irrigation application uniformity indicators. Irrig Sci. Online First™, 27 January. 2011.

  16. Wireless sensor networks for irrigation management

    Sustaining an adequate food supply for the world's population will require advancements in irrigation technology and improved irrigation management. Site-specific irrigation and automatic irrigation scheduling are examples of strategies to deal with declining arable land and limited fresh water reso...

  17. Condensation irrigation a system for desalination and irrigation

    Lindblom, J.; Nordell, B

    2006-01-01

    condensation irrigation is a system for both desalination and irrigation. The principles is that humidified air is let into an underground horizontal pipe system, where the air is cooled by the ground and humidity falls out as fresh water. The humidification could e.g. be achieved by evaporation of seawater in solar stills or any other heat source. By using drainage pipes for underground air transportation the water percolates into the soil, thereby irrigating the land. This study focuses on drinking water production, which means that humid air is led into plan pipes where the condensed water is collected at the pipe endings. Numerical simulations gave a study-state diurnal mean water production of 1.8 kg per meter of pipe over a 50 m pipe. Shorter pipes result in a greater mean production rate. Since the heat transfer of drainage pipes would be greater, current study indicates that condensation irrigation is a promising method for desalination and irrigation. Performed studies in condensation irrigation started at LTU in 2003. Current paper reports the initial theoretical work on the system.(Author)

  18. Effect of Deficit irrigation on the Productivity of Processing Potato

    Darwish, T.M.; Atallah, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    The area under potatoes in Lebanon has extended to over 15.000 ha to form 17% of irrigated arable land. More farmers rely on processing varieties for prices and marketing reasons. Studies focused so far on irrigation and fertilization of table potatoes. The current recommendations indicate excess N fertilizer input exceeding 600 kg N/ha in the form of compound fertilizers. Potato is irrigated with macro sprinklers with a water input reaching 850 mm/season. Water mismanagement and shortage eventually influence the yield quantity and quality of processing potatoes. Therefore, deficit irrigation is an important water saving tool regarding the increasing pressure on limited water resources in the dry areas. Information on potato response to water stress imposed at different crop stages is available. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of continuous deficit irrigation imposed from the stage of maximum plant development-flowering stage until physiological maturity on the performance of processing potato (Santana) and water and fertilizer use efficiency. Fertilizer placement and irrigation were done through fertigation using drip system. A neutron probe was used to assess water consumption from the soil. The 15 N methodology was used to follow the N recovery as affected by water deficit

  19. Bureaucratic Reform in Irrigation: A Review of Four Case Studies

    Diana Suhardiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poor performance of government-managed irrigation systems persists globally. This paper argues that addressing performance requires not simply more investment or different policy approaches, but reform of the bureaucracies responsible for irrigation management. Based on reform experiences in The Philippines, Mexico, Indonesia, and Uzbekistan, we argue that irrigation (policy reform cannot be treated in isolation from the overall functioning of government bureaucracies and the wider political structure of the states. Understanding of how and why government bureaucracies shape reform processes and outcomes is crucial to increase the actual significance of reforms. To demonstrate this, the paper links reform processes in the irrigation sector with the wider discourse of bureaucratic reform in the political science, public administration, and organisational science literature. Doing so brings to light the need for systematic comparative research on the organisational characteristic of the irrigation bureaucracies, their bureaucratic identities, and how these are shaped by various segments within the bureaucracies to provide the insights needed to improve irrigation systems performance.

  20. Optimal design of pressurized irrigation systems. Application cases (Ecuador

    Carmen Mireya Lapo Pauta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research completed with the intention of finding the most economical solution in the design of pressurized irrigation networks, while efficiently meet service delivery. A systematic methodology is proposed that combines two optimization techniques through a “hybrid method” in, which linear programming, nonlinear programming and genetic algorithms are fused. The overall formulations of the problem of optimal dimensioning consist of minimizing an objective function constituted through the associated cost of the pipes that form the network. This methodology was implemented in three networks a fictitious irrigation and two irrigation networks (Tuncarta and Cariyacu located in the cities of Loja and Chimborazo which yielded optimal design  solutions. Finally different scenarios were simulated in both models to obtain an overview of the operation of the hydraulic variables

  1. Program to determine space vehicle response to wind turbulence

    Wilkening, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program was developed as prelaunch wind monitoring tool for Saturn 5 vehicle. Program accounts for characteristic wind changes including turbulence power spectral density, wind shear, peak wind velocity, altitude, and wind direction using stored variational statistics.

  2. The long-term resistance mechanisms, critical irrigation threshold and relief capacity shown by Eugenia myrtifolia plants in response to saline reclaimed water

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Hernández, José Antonio; Álvarez, Sara

    2017-01-01

    water potential, the relative water content of leaves, leaf stomatal conductance, the leaf photosynthetic rate, water-use efficiency and accumulated evapotranspiration in order to limit water loss; and 4) changes in the antioxidant defence mechanisms. These different responses induced oxidative stress...... to different electric conductivities of the treatments. Based on these premises, we studied the long-term effect of three reclaimed water treatments with different saline concentrations on Eugenia myrtifolia plants. We also looked at the ability of these plants to recover when no drainage was applied. The RW...... with the highest electric conductivity (RW3, EC = 6.96 dS m(-1)) provoked a number of responses to salinity in these plants, including: 1) accumulation and extrusion of phytotoxic ions in roots; 2) a decrease in the shoot/root ratio, leaf area, number of leaves; 3) a decrease in root hydraulic conductivity, leaf...

  3. Local Irrigation Management Institutions Mediate Changes Driven by External Policy and Market Pressures in Nepal and Thailand

    Bastakoti, Ram C.; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.; Lebel, Louis

    2010-09-01

    This article assesses the role of local institutions in managing irrigation water use. Fifty irrigation systems in each country were studied in Nepal and Thailand to compare the influence of local institutions on performance of irrigation systems amid changes in external policy and market pressures. Nepal’s new irrigation policy after the re-instatement of multiparty democracy in 1990 emphasized participatory irrigation management transferring the management responsibility from state authorities to water users. The water user associations of traditional farmer-managed irrigation systems were formally recognized by requiring registration with related state authorities. In Thailand also government policies encouraged people’s participation in irrigation management. Today water users are directly involved in management of even some large irrigation systems at the level of tertiary canals. Traditional communal irrigation systems in northern Thailand received support for system infrastructure improvement but have faced increased interference from government. In Thailand market development supported diversification in farming practices resulting in increased areas under high water-demanding commercial crops in the dry season. In contrast, the command areas of most irrigation systems in Nepal include cereal-based subsistence farming with only one-third having commercial farming. Cropping intensities are higher in Nepal than in Thailand reflecting, in part, differences in availability of land and management. In both countries local institutions play an important role in maintaining the performance of irrigation systems as external drivers and local contexts change. Local institutions have provided alternative options for irrigation water use by mediating external pressures.

  4. Price responsive load programs: U.S. experience in creating markets for peak demand reductions

    Goldberg, Miriam L.; Michelman, Thomas; Rosenberg, Mitchell

    2003-01-01

    Demand response programs use a variety of pricing mechanisms to induce end-use customers to reduce demand at specified periods. U.S. distribution utilities, regional market operators, and their regulators have implemented demand response programs with the objectives of improving electric system reliability, avoiding price spikes, and relieving local transmission congestion. This paper reviews the design and performance of market-linked demand response programs operated in 2001 and 2002, focusing on the relationship between program design and customer participation and the development of accurate and feasible methods to measure demand response at the facility level

  5. Effects of rootstocks and irrigation levels on grape quality of Vitis ...

    Moreover, T1 or T2 treatments caused an increase in TA, TP, AA, TSS, total sugar content, ash, and CIRG index values of grape samples in comparison to that of vines irrigated with T3, T4 and T5 levels. Grape quality response to irrigation levels was altered by rootstocks and quality of grapes harvested from vines grafted on ...

  6. Adapting irrigation management to water scarcity: constraints of plant growth, hydraulics and carbon assimilation.

    Water shortages are responsible for the greatest crop losses around the world and are expected to worsen. In arid areas where agriculture is dependent on irrigation, various forms of deficit irrigation management have been suggested to optimize crop yields for available soil water. The relationshi...

  7. Improved irrigation scheduling for pear-jujube trees based on trunk ...

    A suitable indicator for scheduling pear-jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) irrigation in China was developed based on trunk diameter fluctuations (TDF). Parameters derived from TDF responses to variations in soil matrix potential (Ψsoil) were compared under deficit and well irrigation. Maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) increased ...

  8. performance evaluation of sprinkler irrigation system at mambilla

    HOD

    ratio (DPR), irrigation productivity (IP), labour requirements and water quality. Standard procedure was ... The exchangeable cations analysis of Kakara irrigation ... Keywords: Tea, irrigation System, Performance Evaluation. 1. INTRODUCTION.

  9. Awareness Training Program on Responsible Gambling for Casino Employees

    Giroux, Isabelle; Boutin, Claude; Ladouceur, Robert; Lachance, Stella; Dufour, Magali

    2008-01-01

    Over the last years, several comprehensive training programs for problem gambling have been developed and implemented in various casinos around the world. However, the efficacy of these programs has rarely been assessed and evaluated scientifically. A workshop called "Des gens qui font la difference" (People Making a Difference) was…

  10. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina [Studsvik RadWaste AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  11. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  12. Adaptive Effectiveness of Irrigated Area Expansion in Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change on Crop Yields in Northern China

    Tianyi Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve adaptive capacity and further strengthen the role of irrigation in mitigating climate change impacts, the Chinese government has planned to expand irrigated areas by 4.4% by the 2030s. Examining the adaptive potential of irrigated area expansion under climate change is therefore critical. Here, we assess the effects of irrigated area expansion on crop yields based on county-level data during 1980–2011 in northern China and estimate climate impacts under irrigated area scenarios in the 2030s. Based on regression analysis, there is a statistically significant effect of irrigated area expansion on reducing negative climate impacts. More irrigated areas indicate less heat and drought impacts. Irrigated area expansion will alleviate yield reduction by 0.7–0.8% in the future but associated yield benefits will still not compensate for greater adverse climate impacts. Yields are estimated to decrease by 4.0–6.5% under future climate conditions when an additional 4.4% of irrigated area is established, and no fundamental yield increase with an even further 10% or 15% expansion of irrigated area is predicted. This finding suggests that expected adverse climate change risks in the 2030s cannot be mitigated by expanding irrigated areas. A combination of this and other adaptation programs is needed to guarantee grain production under more serious drought stresses in the future.

  13. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  14. Testing the structure of a hydrological model using Genetic Programming

    Selle, Benny; Muttil, Nitin

    2011-01-01

    SummaryGenetic Programming is able to systematically explore many alternative model structures of different complexity from available input and response data. We hypothesised that Genetic Programming can be used to test the structure of hydrological models and to identify dominant processes in hydrological systems. To test this, Genetic Programming was used to analyse a data set from a lysimeter experiment in southeastern Australia. The lysimeter experiment was conducted to quantify the deep percolation response under surface irrigated pasture to different soil types, watertable depths and water ponding times during surface irrigation. Using Genetic Programming, a simple model of deep percolation was recurrently evolved in multiple Genetic Programming runs. This simple and interpretable model supported the dominant process contributing to deep percolation represented in a conceptual model that was published earlier. Thus, this study shows that Genetic Programming can be used to evaluate the structure of hydrological models and to gain insight about the dominant processes in hydrological systems.

  15. 34 CFR 403.204 - What are the State's responsibilities for program evaluation and improvement?

    2010-07-01

    ... APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State Under the State Vocational and Applied Technology Education Program? § 403.204 What are the State's... description of vocational education strategies designed to improve the performance of the program as measured...

  16. Differential segmentation responses to an alcohol social marketing program.

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Schuster, Lisa; Drennan, Judy; Russell-Bennett, Rebekah; Leo, Cheryl; Gullo, Matthew J; Connor, Jason P

    2015-10-01

    This study seeks to establish whether meaningful subgroups exist within a 14-16 year old adolescent population and if these segments respond differently to the Game On: Know Alcohol (GOKA) intervention, a school-based alcohol social marketing program. This study is part of a larger cluster randomized controlled evaluation of the GOKA program implemented in 14 schools in 2013/2014. TwoStep cluster analysis was conducted to segment 2,114 high school adolescents (14-16 years old) on the basis of 22 demographic, behavioral, and psychographic variables. Program effects on knowledge, attitudes, behavioral intentions, social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking refusal self-efficacy of identified segments were subsequently examined. Three segments were identified: (1) Abstainers, (2) Bingers, and (3) Moderate Drinkers. Program effects varied significantly across segments. The strongest positive change effects post-participation were observed for Bingers, while mixed effects were evident for Moderate Drinkers and Abstainers. These findings provide preliminary empirical evidence supporting the application of social marketing segmentation in alcohol education programs. Development of targeted programs that meet the unique needs of each of the three identified segments will extend the social marketing footprint in alcohol education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  18. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  19. [Continent colostomy and colon irrigation].

    Kostov, D; Temelkov, T; Kiriazov, E; Ivanov, K; Ignatov, V; Kobakov, G

    2000-01-01

    The authors have studied a functional activity of a continent colostomy at 20 patients, undergone an abdomeno-perineal extirpation of rectum and carried out periodic colonirrigations, during a period of 6 months. A conus type, closed irrigating system has been used. The degree of an incontinency at patients has been compared before and after the beginning of the colonirrigations. The irrigating procedures have reduced spontaneous defications at patients during a week 28 times and have improved the quality of life significantly. The application of colostomy bags has been restricted in 8 (40%) patients. An intraluminal ultrasonographic investigation has been done at 12 (60%) patients at the end of 6 month irrigating period. No changes of the ultrasonographic image of the precolostomic segment of colon has been observed.

  20. Liquid crystal elastomer coatings with programmed response of surface profile

    Babakhanova, G.; Turiv, T.; Guo, Y.; Hendrikx, M.; Wei, Q.H.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Broer, D.J.; Lavrentovich, O.D.

    2018-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive liquid crystal elastomers with molecular orientation coupled to rubber-like elasticity show a great potential as elements in soft robotics, sensing, and transport systems. The orientational order defines their mechanical response to external stimuli, such as thermally activated

  1. AGROCLIMATIC DETERMINANTS OF IRRIGATION NEEDS

    Leszek Łabędzki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of the so far used in Poland methods and criteria for assessing the needs of irrigation for planning purposes, the assessment because of the agroclimatic conditions and taking into account the soil water retention. Irrigation needs of the most are determined taking into account crop water deficits. This is the factor that is characterized by a shortage of precipitation in relation to the water requirements of crops. Some methods use only the meteorological parameters that determine the state of the atmosphere-soil-plant system, and some also take into account soil water retention and its availability for plants.

  2. Irrigation of pistachios : strategies to confront water scarcity

    Pérez-López, David; Memmi, Houssem; Gijón-López, Maria del Carmen; Moreno, Marta Maria; Couceiro, José Francisco; Centeno, Ana; Martín-Palomo, Maria J.; Corell, Mireia; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Torrecillas, Arturo; Moriana, Alfonso; Tejero, Ivan Francisco Garcia; Zuazo, Victor Hugo Duran

    2017-01-01

    Pistachio trees are capable to be profitable under rain-fed conditions. They also have a good response to low amounts of irrigation water, so are a great candidate to be considered for water-scarcity scenarios. The pistachio tree has a singular way of alternate bearing, losing a percentage of its

  3. The effect of different sowing patterns and deficit irrigation ...

    . The responses of sweet corn (Zea mays) to irrigation frequency and sowing patterns were studied in the field from December 2005 to December 2006. This research was laid out in split plot, with water quantity as main plot and sowing ...

  4. Plenary III–04: Responses to Drug Costs: Year Three of the Medicare Part D Program

    Fung, Vicki; Reed, Mary; Hsu, John

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Many Medicare Part D beneficiaries face substantial prescription drug cost-sharing. In the first year of the program, many beneficiaries reported substantial drug use changes in response to the coverage gap. In response, an increasing number of plans offer generic drug coverage during the gap. We compared responses to Part D costs among beneficiaries with generic-only gap coverage and full gap coverage in 2008, the third year of the Part D program.

  5. Soil Suitability Classification of Tomas Irrigation Scheme for Irrigated ...

    The need for sustainable rice production in Nigeria cannot be over-emphasized. Since rice can be grown both under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, the need for soil suitability evaluation becomes very necessary in order for supply to meet up with demand. Six land qualities viz; climate, soil physical properties, drainage, ...

  6. Subsystem response review. Seismic safety margins research program

    Kennedy, R.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.; Kamil, H.; Gantayat, A.; Vasudevan, R.

    1981-07-01

    A study was conducted to document the state of the art in seismic qualification of nuclear power plant components and subsystems by analysis and testing and to identify the sources and magnitude of the uncertainties associated with analysis and testing methods. The uncertainties are defined in probabilistic terms for use in probabilistic seismic risk studies. Recommendations are made for the most appropriate subsystem response analysis methods to minimize response uncertainties. Additional studies, to further quantify testing uncertainties, are identified. Although the general effect of non-linearities on subsystem response is discussed, recommendations and conclusions are based principally on linear elastic analysis and testing models. (author)

  7. Irrigation System through Intelligent Agents Implemented with Arduino Technology

    Rodolfo SALAZAR

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The water has become in recent years a valuable and increasingly scarce. Its proper use in agriculture has demanded incorporate new technologies, mainly in the area of ICT. In this paper we present a smart irrigation system based on multi-agent architecture using fuzzy logic. The architecture incorporates different types of intelligent agents that an autonomous way monitor and are responsible for deciding if required enable / disable the irrigation system. This project proposes a real and innovative solution to the problem of inadequate water use with current irrigation systems employed in agricultural projects. This article presents the different technologies used, their adaptation to the solution of the problem and briefly discusses the first results obtained.

  8. Modernisation Strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines: Balanac and Sta. Maria River Irrigation Systems

    Delos Reyes, M.L.F.

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the nature and impact of irrigation system rehabilitation on increasing the actual area irrigated by the publicly funded canal irrigation systems of the Philippines. It proposes a system diagnosis approach for the development of a more appropriate and climate-smart irrigation

  9. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district

    Urrutia Cobo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Colombiais a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands

  10. Persepsi Masyarakat Terhadap Program Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) PT Pln Sektor Pembangkitan Tarahan Provinsi Lampung

    Nurmayasari, Indah; Gitosaputro, Sumaryo; Kusnani, Dedeh Kurniasih

    2013-01-01

    Indicators of Corporate Social Responsibility programs by PT PLN Tarahan Power Sector, South Lampung are suitability, sustainability, and sociality of CSR programs. CSR programs are given for community and the environment. People who receive the programs will have perceptions. The external and internal factors of individuals suspected related to the perceptions are people€™s age, gender, educational level, emotional level, income level, the number of family members, and benefits of CSR progra...

  11. GSM BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM

    GODFREY A. MILLS; STEPHEN K. ARMOO; AGYEMAN K. ROCKSON; ROBERT A. SOWAH; MOSES A. ACQUAH

    2013-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  12. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  13. Subsystem response analysis for the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    Chuang, T.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the state-of-the-art of seismic qualification methods of subsystem has been completed. This task assesses the accuracy of seismic analysis techniques to predict dynamic response, and also identifies and quantifies sources of random and modeling undertainty in subsystem response determination. The subsystem has been classified as two categories according to the nature of support: multiply supported subsystems (e.g., piping systems) and singly supported subsystems (e.g., pumps, turbines, electrical control panels, etc.). The mutliply supported piping systems are analyzed by multisupport input time history method. The input motions are the responses of major structures. The dynamic models of the subsystems identified by the event/fault tree are created. The responses calculated by multisupport input time history method are consistent with the fragility parameters. These responses are also coordinated with the event/fault tree description. The subsystem responses are then evaluated against the fragility curves of components and systems and incorporated in the event/fault tree analysis. (orig./HP)

  14. Region 8 radiological assistance program team response manual

    Webb, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance so that a request for radiological assistance is responded to in an effective and consistent manner. These procedures are specific to the trained and qualified members of the Region 8 Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) team. Procedures provide steps for responding to the request, notification and activation of the team members, position descriptions, and checklists

  15. Inspiring Leaders: Unique Museum Programs Reinforce Professional Responsibility

    Ciardelli, Jennifer; Wasserman, JoAnna

    2011-01-01

    Since 1998, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum has developed educational programs targeting adult audiences. Engaging public service professionals--those charged with serving and protecting our nation's democratic principles--has become a core outreach strategy to achieve the Museum's mission. This article describes the Museum's process…

  16. Response (re-)programming in aging: a kinematic analysis.

    Bellgrove, M A; Phillips, J G; Bradshaw, J L; Gallucci, R M

    1998-05-01

    Age-related motor slowing may reflect either motor programming deficits, poorer movement execution, or mere strategic preferences for online guidance of movement. We controlled such preferences, limiting the extent to which movements could be programmed. Twenty-four young and 24 older adults performed a line drawing task that allowed movements to be prepared in advance in one case (i.e., cue initially available indicating target location) and not in another (i.e., no cue initially available as to target location). Participants connected large or small targets illuminated by light-emitting diodes upon a graphics tablet that sampled pen tip position at 200 Hz. Older adults had a disproportionate difficulty initiating movement when prevented from programming in advance. Older adults produced slower, less efficient movements, particularly when prevented from programming under greater precision requirements. The slower movements of older adults do not simply reflect a preference for online control, as older adults have less efficient movements when forced to reprogram their movements. Age-related motor slowing kinematically resembles that seen in patients with cerebellar dysfunction.

  17. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    Sushma Jaju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation.

  18. 21 CFR 876.5895 - Ostomy irrigator.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy irrigator. 876.5895 Section 876.5895 Food... DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5895 Ostomy irrigator. (a) Identification. An ostomy irrigator is a device that consists of a container for fluid, tubing with a cone-shaped...

  19. Climate forcing and desert malaria: the effect of irrigation.

    Baeza, Andres; Bouma, Menno J; Dobson, Andy P; Dhiman, Ramesh; Srivastava, Harish C; Pascual, Mercedes

    2011-07-14

    Rainfall variability and associated remote sensing indices for vegetation are central to the development of early warning systems for epidemic malaria in arid regions. The considerable change in land-use practices resulting from increasing irrigation in recent decades raises important questions on concomitant change in malaria dynamics and its coupling to climate forcing. Here, the consequences of irrigation level for malaria epidemics are addressed with extensive time series data for confirmed Plasmodium falciparum monthly cases, spanning over two decades for five districts in north-west India. The work specifically focuses on the response of malaria epidemics to rainfall forcing and how this response is affected by increasing irrigation. Remote sensing data for the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) are used as an integrated measure of rainfall to examine correlation maps within the districts and at regional scales. The analyses specifically address whether irrigation has decreased the coupling between malaria incidence and climate variability, and whether this reflects (1) a breakdown of NDVI as a useful indicator of risk, (2) a weakening of rainfall forcing and a concomitant decrease in epidemic risk, or (3) an increase in the control of malaria transmission. The predictive power of NDVI is compared against that of rainfall, using simple linear models and wavelet analysis to study the association of NDVI and malaria variability in the time and in the frequency domain respectively. The results show that irrigation dampens the influence of climate forcing on the magnitude and frequency of malaria epidemics and, therefore, reduces their predictability. At low irrigation levels, this decoupling reflects a breakdown of local but not regional NDVI as an indicator of rainfall forcing. At higher levels of irrigation, the weakened role of climate variability may be compounded by increased levels of control; nevertheless this leads to no significant decrease

  20. Speed control variable rate irrigation

    Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

  1. Position paper : Whole bowel irrigation

    2004-01-01

    Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) should not be used routinely in the management of the poisoned patient. Although some volunteer studies have shown substantial decreases in the bioavailability of ingested drugs, no controlled clinical trials have been performed and there is no conclusive evidence that

  2. Behavioural modelling of irrigation decision making under water scarcity

    Foster, T.; Brozovic, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    Providing effective policy solutions to aquifer depletion caused by abstraction for irrigation is a key challenge for socio-hydrology. However, most crop production functions used in hydrological models do not capture the intraseasonal nature of irrigation planning, or the importance of well yield in land and water use decisions. Here we develop a method for determining stochastic intraseasonal water use that is based on observed farmer behaviour but is also theoretically consistent with dynamically optimal decision making. We use the model to (i) analyse the joint land and water use decision by farmers; (ii) to assess changes in behaviour and production risk in response to water scarcity; and (iii) to understand the limits of applicability of current methods in policy design. We develop a biophysical model of water-limited crop yield building on the AquaCrop model. The model is calibrated and applied to case studies of irrigated corn production in Nebraska and Texas. We run the model iteratively, using long-term climate records, to define two formulations of the crop-water production function: (i) the aggregate relationship between total seasonal irrigation and yield (typical of current approaches); and (ii) the stochastic response of yield and total seasonal irrigation to the choice of an intraseasonal soil moisture target and irrigated area. Irrigated area (the extensive margin decision) and per-area irrigation intensity (the intensive margin decision) are then calculated for different seasonal water restrictions (corresponding to regulatory policies) and well yield constraints on intraseasonal abstraction rates (corresponding to aquifer system limits). Profit- and utility-maximising decisions are determined assuming risk neutrality and varying degrees of risk aversion, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the formulation of the production function has a significant impact on the response to water scarcity. For low well yields, which are the major concern

  3. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. under different Plant Density and Limited Irrigation Condition

    Sh Rezvan Beidokhti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on crop response to deficit irrigation is important to reduce agriculture water use in areas where water is limited resource. Using drought resistant landraces with irrigation scheduling based on phenological stages in semi-arid and arid regions may provide an opportunity to optimize irrigation efficiency and water savings in these regions. In order to evaluate of yield and yield components of black cumin under different plant density and limited irrigation condition an experiment was conducted in Research Farm of Islamic Azad University of Damghan during growing season of 2007-2008. The experimental treatments were arranged in split plots based on a complete randomized block design with three replications. The limited irrigation (based on phenological stages treatments were included: cutting irrigation at blooming (folded flowers, cutting irrigation at flowering stage, cutting irrigation at seed formation and normal weekly irrigation (control were allocated to the main plots and different plant density: 100, 150, 200 and 250 plant per square meter (m2 were allocated to sub plots. The results showed that the effect of limited irrigation, plant density and their interaction on plant height, number of follicle, follicle weight, number of seed, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index Black Cumin. The highest yield and yield components was obtained in normal irrigation (control and 200 plant density and the lowest yield were obtained when irrigation cut at the blooming stage and 250 plant density. There was a significant correlation between seed yield and number (r=0.90, 1000 seed weight (r=0.95 and biological yield (r=0.97. Optimum plant density of black cumin was decreased under limited irrigation treatments. Under normal (control and limited irrigation, optimum plant density was 200 and 150 plant per (m2 respectively.

  4. Testing the Structure of Hydrological Models using Genetic Programming

    Selle, B.; Muttil, N.

    2009-04-01

    Genetic Programming is able to systematically explore many alternative model structures of different complexity from available input and response data. We hypothesised that genetic programming can be used to test the structure hydrological models and to identify dominant processes in hydrological systems. To test this, genetic programming was used to analyse a data set from a lysimeter experiment in southeastern Australia. The lysimeter experiment was conducted to quantify the deep percolation response under surface irrigated pasture to different soil types, water table depths and water ponding times during surface irrigation. Using genetic programming, a simple model of deep percolation was consistently evolved in multiple model runs. This simple and interpretable model confirmed the dominant process contributing to deep percolation represented in a conceptual model that was published earlier. Thus, this study shows that genetic programming can be used to evaluate the structure of hydrological models and to gain insight about the dominant processes in hydrological systems.

  5. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt. II. Irrigation strategies.

    Evett, Steven R; Zalesny, Ronald S; Kandil, Nabil F; Stanturf, John A; Soriano, Chris

    2011-01-01

    An Egyptian national program targets annual reuse of 2.4 billion m3 of treated wastewater (TWW) to irrigate 84,000 ha of manmade forests in areas close to treatment plants and in the desert. To evaluate the feasibility of such afforestation efforts, we describe information about TWW irrigation strategies based on (1) water use of different tree species, (2) weather conditions in different climate zones of Egypt, (3) soil types and available irrigation systems, and (4) the requirement to avoid deep percolation losses that could lead to groundwater contamination. We conclude that drip irrigation systems are preferred, that they should in most cases use multiple emitters per tree in order to increase wetted area and decrease depth of water penetration, that deep rooting should be encouraged, and that in most situations irrigation system automation is desirable to achieve several small irrigations per day in order to avoid deep percolation losses. We describe directed research necessary to fill knowledge gaps about depth of rooting of different species in sandy Egyptian soils and environments, tree crop coefficients needed for rational irrigation scheduling, and depth of water penetration under different irrigation system designs. A companion paper addresses recommendations for afforestation strategies (see Zalesny et al. 2011, this issue).

  6. Testing an Irrigation Decision Support Tool for California Specialty Crops

    Johnson, L.; Cahn, M.; Benzen, S.; Zaragoza, I.; Murphy, L.; Melton, F. S.; Martin, F.; Quackenbush, A.; Lockhart, T.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of crop evapotranspiration supports efficiency of irrigation water management, which in turn can mitigate nitrate leaching, groundwater depletion, and provide energy savings. Past research in California and elsewhere has revealed strong relationships between photosynthetically active vegetation fraction (Fc) and crop evapotranspiration (ETc). Additional research has shown the potential of monitoring Fc by satellite remote sensing. The U.C. Cooperative Extension developed and operates CropManage (CM) as on-line database irrigation (and nitrogen) scheduling tool. CM accounts for the rapid growth and typically brief cycle of cool-season vegetables, where Fc and fraction of reference ET can change daily during canopy development. The model automates crop water requirement calculations based on reference ET data collected by California Dept. Water Resources. Empirically-derived equations are used to estimate daily Fc time-series for a given crop type primarily as a function of planting date and expected harvest date. An application programming interface (API) is under development to provide a check on modeled Fc of current crops and facilitate CM expansion to new crops. The API will enable CM to extract field scale Fc observations from NASA's Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS). SIMS is mainly Landsat based and currently monitors Fc over about 8 million irrigation acres statewide, with potential for adding data from ESA/Sentinel for improved temporal resolution. In the current study, a replicated irrigation trial was performed on romaine lettuce at the USDA Agricultural Research Station in Salinas, CA. CropManage recommendations were used to guide water treatments by drip irrigation at 50%, 75%, 100% ETc replacement levels, with an added treatment at 150% ET representing grower standard practice. Experimental results indicate that yields from the 100% and 150% treatments were not significantly different and were in-line with industry average, while

  7. Radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of potato affected by different N fertigation and irrigation regimes

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Three years of field experiments were carried out to explore the response of potato dry matter production, accumulated intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (Aipar) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) to five N levels providing 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 kg N ha−1 and three drip irrigation...... strategies, which were full, deficit and none irrigation. Results showed that, irrespective of years, dry matter production and Aipar were increased by prolonged N fertigation, even though N fertigation was carried out from middle to late growing season. The highest total and tuber dry matter and accumulated...... fertilization occurred when most N was applied early in the growing season and the latest N fertilization should be applied no later than 41–50 days after emergence. Deficit irrigation, which received ca.70% of irrigation applied to full irrigation, did not reduce radiation interception and radiation use...

  8. A Unique ISR Program Determines Cellular Responses to Chronic Stress

    Guan, B.J.; van Hoef, V.; Jobava, R.; Elroy-Stein, O.; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya; Cargnello, M.; Gao, X.H.; Krokowski, D.; Merrick, W.C.; Kimball, S.R.; Komar, A.A.; Koromilas, A.E.; Wynshaw-Boris, A.; Topisirovic, I.; Larsson, O.; Hatzoglou, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 5 (2017), s. 885-900 ISSN 1097-2765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06238S EU Projects: Wellcome Trust(GB) 090812/B/09/A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE * EUKARYOTIC TRANSLATION INITIATION * ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM STRESS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 14.714, year: 2016

  9. Modernized Irrigation Technologies in West Africa

    Hakan Büyükcangaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop production in West Africa is mostly dependent upon rainfed agriculture. Irrigation is a vital need due to uneven distribution of rainfall and seasonality of water resources. However, management and sustainability of irrigation are under risk due to notably weak database, excessive cost, unappropriate soil or land use, environmental problems and extreme pessimism in some quarters since rainfed agriculture is seen as potentially able to support the present population. This paper focuses on modernized irrigation technologies and systems that utilize less water. Information about irrigation systems in Ghana and Liberia were gathered through: 1 Irrigation development authorities in both countries, by reviewing past literatures, online publications, reports and files about irrigation in West Africa, specifically Ghana and Liberia; 2 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI; 3 Collation of information, reports and data from Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA and 4 International Water Management Institute (IWMI. The result shows that both countries have higher irrigation potential. However, the areas developed for irrigation is still a small portion as compare to the total land available for irrigation. On the other hand, as seen in the result, Liberia as compare to Ghana has even low level of irrigation development.

  10. Multiple-use Management of Irrigation Systems: Technical Constraints and Challenges

    Gowing, J.; Li, Q.; Mayilswami, C.; Gunawardhana, K.

    selected distributary commands combined with longitudinal studies based on available long- term data from the full command. The reliability and duration of flows and/or storages represent a constraint to effective integration of aquaculture within the case-study sys- tems. Although fish production is non-consumptive and can be seen as a complemen- tary use of irrigation water, the challenge is to devise operating procedures that will 1 guarantee reliability and duration of flows and/or storages for fish production without increasing total water-use within the system. This is a particular problem during the rainy season when irrigation demand fluctuates widely and rapidly. The problem is ex- acerbated by deficient information systems, which constrain the scope for responsive management in these extensive canal systems. 2

  11. Adaptive management of irrigation and crops' biodiversity: a case study on tomato

    De Lorenzi, Francesca; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Monaco, Eugenia; Riccardi, Maria; Menenti, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    evaluate the tomato crop adaptability to future climate. To this purpose, for several tomato cultivars, threshold values of their yield responses to soil water availability were determined (data from scientific literature). Cultivars' threshold values were evaluated, in all soil units, against the indicators' values, for irrigation levels with different ΔT/I. Less water intensive cultivars and irrigation volumes that optimize transpiration (and yield) could thus be identified in both climate scenarios, and irrigation management scenarios were determined taking into account soils' hydrological properties, crop biodiversity, and efficient use of water resource. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008) Keywords: climate change, adaptation, simulation models, deficit irrigation, water resource efficiency, SWAP

  12. Developmental programming in response to maternal over-nutrition

    Maria eAlfaradhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders have seen an increased prevalence in recent years in developed as well as developing countries. While it is clear lifestyle choices and habits have contributed to this epidemic, mounting evidence suggests the nutritional milieu during critical stages of development in early life can ‘program’ individuals to develop the metabolic syndrome later in life. Extensive epidemiological data presents an association between maternal obesity and nutrition during pregnancy and offspring obesity, and a number of animal models have been established in order to uncover the underlying mechanisms contributing to the programming of physiological systems. It is hard to distinguish the causal factors due to the complex nature of the maternal-fetal relationship; however, in order to develop adequate prevention strategies it is vital to identify which maternal factor(s – be it the diet, diet-induced obesity or weight gain – and at which time during early development instigate the programmed phenotype. Curtailing the onset of obesity at this early stage in life presents a promising avenue through which to stem the growing epidemic of obesity.

  13. Dealing with drought in irrigated agriculture through insurance schemes: an application to an irrigation district in Southern Spain

    Ruiz, M.; Bielza, J.; Garrido, A.; Iglesias, A.

    2015-07-01

    Hydrological drought is expected to have an increasing impact on both crop and fruit yields in arid and semi-arid regions. Some existing crop insurance schemes provide coverage against water deficits in rain-fed agriculture. The Prevented Planting Program in the USA covers against drought for irrigated agriculture. However, drought insurance for irrigated agriculture is still a challenge for companies and institutions because of the complexity of the design and implementation of this type of insurance. Few studies have attempted to evaluate the risk of loss due to irrigation water scarcity using both stand-alone production functions and crop simulation models. This paper’s contributions are that it evaluates the suitability of AquaCrop for calculating drought insurance premiums for irrigated agriculture and that it discusses contract conditions and insurance design for hydrological drought risk coverage as part of a traditional insurance product, with on-field loss assessment in combination with a trigger index. This method was applied to an irrigation district in southern Spain. Our insurance premium calculation showed that it is feasible to apply this method provided that its data requirements are met, such as a large enough set of reliable small-scale yield and irrigation time series data, especially soil data, to calibrate AquaCrop. The choice of a trigger index should not be underestimated because it proved to have a decisive influence on insurance premiums and indemnities. Our discussion of the contract conditions shows that hydrological drought insurance must comply with a series of constraints in order to avoid moral hazard and basis risk. (Author)

  14. Dealing with drought in irrigated agriculture through insurance schemes: an application to an irrigation district in Southern Spain

    Jorge Ruiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological drought is expected to have an increasing impact on both crop and fruit yields in arid and semi-arid regions. Some existing crop insurance schemes provide coverage against water deficits in rain-fed agriculture. The Prevented Planting Program in the USA covers against drought for irrigated agriculture. However, drought insurance for irrigated agriculture is still a challenge for companies and institutions because of the complexity of the design and implementation of this type of insurance. Few studies have attempted to evaluate the risk of loss due to irrigation water scarcity using both stand-alone production functions and crop simulation models. This paper’s contributions are that it evaluates the suitability of AquaCrop for calculating drought insurance premiums for irrigated agriculture and that it discusses contract conditions and insurance design for hydrological drought risk coverage as part of a traditional insurance product, with on-field loss assessment in combination with a trigger index. This method was applied to an irrigation district in southern Spain. Our insurance premium calculation showed that it is feasible to apply this method provided that its data requirements are met, such as a large enough set of reliable small-scale yield and irrigation time series data, especially soil data, to calibrate AquaCrop. The choice of a trigger index should not be underestimated because it proved to have a decisive influence on insurance premiums and indemnities. Our discussion of the contract conditions shows that hydrological drought insurance must comply with a series of constraints in order to avoid moral hazard and basis risk.

  15. Doing well by doing good. The 7 benefits of a meaningful corporate social responsibility program.

    Macdonald, Deborah

    2008-08-01

    You want your medical group to be a good community player--but you need to attract new patients, retain top staff and manage your bottom line. A corporate social responsibility program may be the shrewd solution.

  16. Phosphorus distribution in sandy soil profile under drip irrigation system

    El-Gendy, R.W.; Rizk, M.A.; Abd El Moniem, M.; Abdel-Aziz, H.A.; Fahmi, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at to studying the impact of irrigation water applied using drip irrigation system in sandy soil with snap bean on phosphorus distribution. This experiment was carried out in soils and water research department farm, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority, cairo, Egypt. Snap bean was cultivated in sandy soil and irrigated with 50,37.5 and 25 cm water in three water treatments represented 100, 75 and 50% ETc. Phosphorus distribution and direction of soil water movement had been detected in three sites on the dripper line (S1,S2 and S3 at 0,12.5 and 25 cm distance from dripper). Phosphorus fertilizer (super phosphate, 15.5% P 2 O 5 in rate 300 kg/fed)was added before cultivation. Neutron probe was used to detect the water distribution and movement at the three site along soil profile. Soil samples were collected before p-addition, at end developing, mid, and late growth stages to determine residual available phosphorus. The obtained data showed that using 50 cm water for irrigation caused an increase in P-concentration till 75 cm depth in the three sites of 100% etc treatment, and covered P-requirements of snap bean for all growth stages. As for 37.5 and 25 cm irrigation water cannot cover all growth stages for P-requirements of snap bean. It could be concluded that applied irrigation water could drive the residual P-levels till 75 cm depth in the three sites. Yield of the crop had been taken as an indicator as an indicator profile. Yield showed good response according to water quantities and P-transportation within the soil profile

  17. Water-Yield Relations of Drip Irrigated Watermelon in Temperate Climatic Conditions

    Pejić Borivoj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study, conducted in Vojvodina a northern part of the Serbia Republic, was to analyse the effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water productivity of watermelon (Cirullus lanatus Thunb. grown with plasticulture. Irrigation was scheduled on the basis of water balance method. Daily evapotranspiration was computed using the reference evapotranspiration and crop coefficient. The yield of watermelon in irrigation conditions (37,28 t/ha was significantly higher compared to non irrigated (9,98 t/ha. Water used on evapotranspiration in irrigation conditions was 398 mm and 117 mm on non irrigated variant. The crop yield response factor of 1,04 for the whole growing season reveals that relative yield decrease was nearly equal to the rate of evapotranspiration deficit. The values of irrigation water use efficiency and evapotranspiration water use efficiency were 9,93 kg/m3 and 10,29 kg/m3 respectively. The determined results could be used as a good platform for watermelon growers in the region, in terms of improvement of the optimum utilization of irrigation water.

  18. Decadal Variation of Precipitation in Saudi Arabia induced by Agricultural Irrigation

    Lo, M. H.; Wey, H. W.; Wada, Y.; IM, E. S.; Chien, R. Y.; Wu, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Decadal variation of wet-season precipitation has been found in the arid region of central Saudi Arabia. 1980s has been a rather wet decade compared with the decades before. Previous studies have mentioned that the irrigation moisture may contribute to the precipitation anomalies in Saudi Arabia. In the current study, we show from observational data that the contribution of the variation comes mostly from February to May. As the irrigation is a localized forcing, we therefore use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model to simulate the response of the land-atmosphere interaction to the wet soil moisture resulted from additional irrigation moisture supply. Preliminary result shows in the irrigated simulation that precipitation in central Saudi Arabia is enhanced, indicating the possible link between irrigation expansion in the 1980s and the decadal precipitation variation over central Saudi Arabia. We propose it is the anomalous convergence induced by irrigation as well as additional moisture that contribute to the enhanced precipitation over heavily irrigation region in the central Saudi Arabian. In addition, analysis on the daily precipitation from the WRF outputs indicates that positive rainfall anomalies tend to happen when there is rainfall originally; that is, irrigation enhances rainfall but not creates rainfall.

  19. Nitrogen uptake efficiency of irrigated wheat in Egypt

    Abdel Monem, M.A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Egypt's current wheat production would be impossible without N fertilizers, the consumption of which has increased more than 75% in the last 20 years. The efficiency of uptake of applied N is low, and better management of both fertilizer and irrigation is needed to improve N recovery by crops and reduce losses from the plant/soil system. Field trials were conducted over a 3-year period, on Egypt's three main soil types: old irrigated land of the Nile valley, newly reclaimed sandy and calcareous soils, and salt-affected soil of the north delta. The responses of wheat cultivars to N, and patterns of N uptake and N loss, as affected by irrigation regime, were examined using 15 N. Cultivar Sakha 69 was more responsive to applied N and assimilated N more efficiently than other varieties under different soil types. Nitrogen loss from the sandy soil was as high as 57% whereas average loss in the clay soil was 17%. A higher water table in the salt-affected soil negatively affected N uptake. Irrigation with 75% of the required water for wheat had no effect on yield or N-uptake. (author)

  20. Integrating Corporate Social Responsability Programs into the Ethical Dimension of the Organization

    Ibrian CARAMIDARU; Sabina IRIMIE

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to indicate the need to integrate corporate social responsibility programs into the global ethical vision of organizations. Such an approach requires the definition of the corporation in relation to the moral values it assumes and the ways in which moral values occur within the organization. On this foundation, the authors examined the various implications that moral values have on the initiation and conduct of corporate social responsibility programs.

  1. PRODUCTION PROGRAM OPTIMIZATION – RESPONSIBLE MANAGEMENT METHOD OF LOGGING

    Severian Vlăduț IACOB

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aggression of any kind on the environment and especially uncontrolled exploitation of forests has generated mixed reaction among the public and politicians, but especially in the academic sphere where actually were fired early warning signs of the effects of these actions. Reduction of Earth's forested areas was discussed by specialists as continuous and highly accelerated, especially in the last century when reserve "green gold" of mankind has halved. As a result, the conservation of forests and prevention of environmental degradation have become great concerns of each nation, but the need for global action required the transformation into strategic objectives of regional and international bodies. They have designed policies and measures generally available and have created favorable framework implementation in the Member States and beyond. One of the projects that came to life and expanded worldwide was the sustainable development today, basically there are no area where the activity is not subrogated to achieve a balance between the components of economic, social and environmental. From this perspective forestry and forestry exploitation is the place where really have achieved sustainability. Achieving this requirement becomes an obligation, both for woodland owners and operators seeking to obtain profit from logging. Compliance and ensuring responsible management are certainly prerequisites of sustainability in this sector. Scientific planning of production is a method of management responsible. This study takes into account, on the one hand, highlighting the effects generated by uncontrolled deforestation and the importance of sustainable forest exploitation, and on the other hand, presenting the need to use scientific methods to practice responsible management.

  2. Otimização do uso da água no perímetro irrigado do Gorutuba, utilizando-se a técnica da programação linear Optimization of water use in the Gorutuba irrigation district, Minas Gerais (Brazil using the linear programming model

    Daniel Fonseca de Carvalho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se selecionar as culturas e os meses de plantio que proporcionem a maximização da renda do agricultor e da utilização de recursos hídricos no Perímetro Irrigado do Gorutuba, utilizando-se um modelo de programação linear cuja função-objetivo visa maximizar as receitas líquidas mensais em função da área cultivada com as culturas normalmente utilizadas na região, tendo-se como restrição a área irrigável do lote e a quantidade de água disponível. A diferença observada entre as receitas líquidas obtidas na otimização, com e sem restrição de área por cultura, foi de 15,2% nos lotes empresariais e de 10,2% nos demais lotes. O sistema de distribuição de água não limita a escolha das culturas a serem implantadas no projeto Gorutuba, mas a diferença entre a ocupação das áreas irrigadas e, conseqüentemente, as receitas líquidas observadas, foram mais influenciadas pelos sistemas de irrigação utilizados que pelas variações na capacidade de retenção de água dos solos considerados.This research was developed with the objective of selecting the crops and planting dates in order to maximize the farmers income and the water resources in the Gorutuba Irrigation District. A linear programming model was used with an objective function to maximize the monthly income as a function of the cultivated area with the crops used in the region, subjected to the restrictions of the irrigated area and the availability of water. The net income differences obtained in the optimization with and without restriction in the cultivated area of yearly crops were 15.2% and 10.2%, for the large and the small farm plots, respectively. The water distribution system does not limit the crop selection in the irrigation district. The difference in the net income caused by the crops used was influenced more by the type of irrigation systems than by the soil water holding capacity.

  3. Waveforms and Sonic Boom Perception and Response (WSPR): Low-Boom Community Response Program Pilot Test Design, Execution, and Analysis

    Page, Juliet A.; Hodgdon, Kathleen K.; Krecker, Peg; Cowart, Robbie; Hobbs, Chris; Wilmer, Clif; Koening, Carrie; Holmes, Theresa; Gaugler, Trent; Shumway, Durland L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR) Program was designed to test and demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of techniques to gather data relating human subjective response to multiple low-amplitude sonic booms. It was in essence a practice session for future wider scale testing on naive communities, using a purpose built low-boom demonstrator aircraft. The low-boom community response pilot experiment was conducted in California in November 2011. The WSPR team acquired sufficient data to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of the various physical and psychological data gathering techniques and analysis methods.

  4. 76 FR 41186 - Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments on New Agency Policies and...

    2011-07-13

    ... Service [Docket No. FSIS-2008-0008] Salmonella Verification Sampling Program: Response to Comments on New Agency Policies and Clarification of Timeline for the Salmonella Initiative Program (SIP) AGENCY: Food... Federal Register notice (73 FR 4767- 4774), which described upcoming policy changes in the FSIS Salmonella...

  5. Determinants of Private Long-Term Care Insurance Purchase in Response to the Partnership Program.

    Lin, Haizhen; Prince, Jeffrey T

    2016-04-01

    To assess three possible determinants of individuals' response in their private insurance purchases to the availability of the Partnership for Long-Term Care (PLTC) insurance program: bequest motives, financial literacy, and program awareness. The health and retirement study (HRS) merged with data on states' implementation of the PLTC program. Individual-level decision on private long-term care insurance is regressed on whether the PLTC program is being implemented for a given state-year, asset dummies, policy determinant variable, two-way and three-way interactions of these variables, and other controls, using fixed effects panel regression. Analysis used a sample between 50 and 69 years of age from 2002 to 2010, resulting in 12,695 unique individuals with a total of 39,151 observations. We find mild evidence that intent to bequest influences individual purchase of insurance. We also find that program awareness is necessary for response, while financial literacy notably increases responsiveness. Increasing response to the PLTC program among the middle class (the stated target group) requires increased efforts to create awareness of the program's existence and increased education about the program's benefits, and more generally, about long-term care risks and needs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Post decommissioning monitoring of uranium mines; a watershed monitoring program based on biological response

    Russel, C.; Coggan, A.; Ludgate, I.

    2006-01-01

    Rio Algom Limited and Denison Mines own and operated uranium mines in the Elliot Lake area. The mines operated from the late 1950's to the mid 1960's and again for the early 1970's to the 1990's when the mines ceased operations. There are eleven decommissioned mines in the Serpent River watershed. At the time of decommissioning each mine had it's own monitoring program, which had evolved over the operating life of the mine and did not necessarily reflect the objectives associated with the monitoring of decommissioned sites. In order to assess the effectiveness of the decommissioning plans and monitoring the cumulative effects within the watershed, a single watershed monitoring program was developed in 1999: the Serpent River Watershed Monitoring Program which focused on water and sediment quality within the watershed and response of the biological community over time. In order to address other 'source area' monitoring, three complimentary objective-focused programs were developed 1) the In- Basin Monitoring Program, 2) the Source Area Monitoring Program and 3) the TMA Operational Monitoring Program. Through development this program framework and monitoring programs that were objective- focused, more meaningful data has been provided while providing a significant reduction in the cost of monitoring. These programs allow for the reduction in scope over time in response to improvement in the watershed. This talk will describe the development of these programs, their implementation and effectiveness. (author)

  7. Pilot program: NRC severe reactor accident incident response training manual: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission response

    Sakenas, C.A.; McKenna, T.J.; Perkins, K.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Giitter, J.G.; Watkins, R.M.

    1987-02-01

    This pilot training manual has been written to fill the need for a general text on NRC response to reactor accidents. The manual is intended to be the foundation for a course for all NRC response personnel. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Response is the fifth in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume describes NRC response modes, organizations, and official positions; roles of other federal agencies are also described briefly. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses for NRC response personnel. These materials do not provide guidance or license requirements for NRC licensees. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material. The slides are called out in the text

  8. Measuring implementation of a school-based violence prevention program : Fidelity and teachers' responsiveness as predictors of proximal outcomes

    Schultes, Marie Therese; Stefanek, Elisabeth; van de Schoot, Rens; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    When school-based prevention programs are put into practice, evaluation studies commonly only consider one indicator of program implementation. The present study investigates how two different aspects of program implementation - fidelity and participant responsiveness - jointly influence proximal

  9. Demand response modeling considering Interruptible/Curtailable loads and capacity market programs

    Aalami, H.A.; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Yousefi, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a massive focus has been made on demand response (DR) programs, aimed to electricity price reduction, transmission lines congestion resolving, security enhancement and improvement of market liquidity. Basically, demand response programs are divided into two main categories namely, incentive-based programs and time-based programs. The focus of this paper is on Interruptible/Curtailable service (I/C) and capacity market programs (CAP), which are incentive-based demand response programs including penalties for customers in case of no responding to load reduction. First, by using the concept of price elasticity of demand and customer benefit function, economic model of above mentioned programs is developed. The proposed model helps the independent system operator (ISO) to identify and employ relevant DR program which both improves the characteristics of the load curve and also be welcome by customers. To evaluate the performance of the model, simulation study has been conducted using the load curve of the peak day of the Iranian power system grid in 2007. In the numerical study section, the impact of these programs on load shape and load level, and benefit of customers as well as reduction of energy consumption are shown. In addition, by using strategy success indices the results of simulation studies for different scenarios are analyzed and investigated for determination of the scenarios priority. (author)

  10. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  11. Phosphorus absorption in drip irrigation

    Guennelon, R.; Habib, R.

    1979-01-01

    Introducing the use of solute phosphate with drip irrigation may be an unsatisfying practice on account of the very weak mobility of PO 4 anion. Nevertheless P can move down to 30-40 cm depth by following the saturated flux along earth-worms holes or crakes, or by displacement in very narrow structural porosity, even in heavy soils. In this case roots cannot easily absorb PO 4 from soil solution, as soon as the soil is quite saturated. On the other hand, it seems that P absorption occurs very quickly and easily when the implantation of 32 P tagged solution is carried out at the border of zone which is concerned by the irrigation effects [fr

  12. Managing Water Resources for Environmentally Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan

    Muhammad Afzal

    1996-01-01

    Pakistan’s agriculture is almost wholly dependent on irrigation and irrigated land supplies more than 90 percent of agricultural production. Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s economy. Massive investments in irrigation contributed to the development of one of the largest Indus Basin Irrigation System. Despite heavy budgetary inputs in irrigation system, it is facing shortage of resources and suffering from operational problems. The sustainability of irrigated agriculture is threatened due to...

  13. 41 CFR 102-192.150 - What are your general responsibilities as a program level mail manager?

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibilities as a program level mail manager? 102-192.150 Section 102-192.150 Public Contracts and Property... general responsibilities as a program level mail manager? Your responsibilities at the program level include— (a) Working closely with the agency mail manager and mail center managers who handle significant...

  14. Clustering of Groundwater Used in Isfahan Landscape Irrigation and Their Qualititative Changes Over one Decade

    Jahangir Abedi Koupai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten irrigation wells were selected along Chaharbagh Street and the Zayandehrood River bank to investigate and classify the groundwaters used for irrigating Isfahan landscape for their quality. Monthly sampling was performed and the results of the quality tests were used as seasonal averages. Different measurements such as pH, EC, Na+, C1-, HCO3-, Fe+2 were made according to standard methods and the Surfer program was used and the results were represented as isolines. Also seasonal classification of wells was performed based on similarities found among the water quality of the wells using statistical programs. Results revealed the poor quality of water from some of the study wells due to the discharge of urban and industrial wastewaters, chemical manure, etc. Besides, investigation of changes in water quality indicated the declining irrigation water quality and the increasing availability of water for landscape irrigation.

  15. IRRIGATION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANT NURSERY

    Eduardo de Aguiar do Couto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Airports consume significant amounts of water which can be compared to the volume consumed by mid-size cities, thus practices aimed at reducing water consumption are important and necessar y. The objective of this study was to assess the reuse potential of sewage effluent produced at a mid-size international airport for nursery irri gation. The sewage treatment system consisted of a facultative pond followed by a constructed wetland, which were monitored during one hydrological year a nd the parameters COD, pH, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and Escherichia coli we re analyzed. Removal efficiencies of 85% and 91% were achieved for C OD and solids, respectively. Removal efficiencies for ammonia nitrogen a nd total phosphorus were 77% and 59%, respectively. In terms of E. coli concen tration, the treated effluent met the recommendations by the World Health Organization for reuse in irrigation with the advantage of providing high levels of residual nutrient. The ornamental species Impatiens walleriana was irrigated with treated sewage effluent and plant growth characteristics were evalua ted. The experiment showed that reuse can enhance plant growth without signi ficantly affecting leaf tissue and soil characteristics. This study highlighted th e importance of simple technologies for sewage treatment especially in count ries which still do not present great investment in sanitation and proved that effluent reuse for landscape irrigation can provide great savings of water and financial resources for airport environments.

  16. Is current irrigation sustainable in the United States? An integrated assessment of climate change impact on water resources and irrigated crop yields

    Blanc, Elodie; Caron, Justin; Fant, Charles; Monier, Erwan

    2017-08-01

    While climate change impacts on crop yields has been extensively studied, estimating the impact of water shortages on irrigated crop yields is challenging because the water resources management system is complex. To investigate this issue, we integrate a crop yield reduction module and a water resources model into the MIT Integrated Global System Modeling framework, an integrated assessment model linking a global economic model to an Earth system model. We assess the effects of climate and socioeconomic changes on water availability for irrigation in the U.S. as well as subsequent impacts on crop yields by 2050, while accounting for climate change projection uncertainty. We find that climate and socioeconomic changes will increase water shortages and strongly reduce irrigated yields for specific crops (i.e., cotton and forage), or in specific regions (i.e., the Southwest) where irrigation is not sustainable. Crop modeling studies that do not represent changes in irrigation availability can thus be misleading. Yet, since the most water-stressed basins represent a relatively small share of U.S. irrigated areas, the overall reduction in U.S. crop yields is small. The response of crop yields to climate change and water stress also suggests that some level of adaptation will be feasible, like relocating croplands to regions with sustainable irrigation or switching to less irrigation intensive crops. Finally, additional simulations show that greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation can alleviate the effect of water stress on irrigated crop yields, enough to offset the reduced CO2 fertilization effect compared to an unconstrained GHG emission scenario.

  17. 77 FR 76034 - National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change

    2012-12-26

    ... Strategy: Response to Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change'' (2012 Strategy). The Strategy describes a set of long-term visions and goals for the management of water resources in light of climate change and charts key...

  18. Financial Performance of Irrigation Associations: Selected Cases from Turkey

    Erol H. Cakmak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to trace the performance of selected irrigation associations after the transfer of operation and maintenance (O&M activities from the state to the farmers. Four irrigation associations were selected according to the regional and cropping pattern diversity. The area of the selected associations made up slightly more than 5 percent of the total transferred area. The data for the different types of revenues and expenses of the associations were obtained from the annual reports of the associations to the State Hydraulic Works. Results suggest that irrigation associations are able to fulfill irrigation tasks to a large extent using enhanced equipment. Fee collection rates are at improved levels, despite delays in payments, mainly due to the mismatch of the financial and production calendars. Dominant cropping patterns for cotton lead to higher and increasing O&M expenditures compared to cereals. Although the transfers increased the adjustment ability of farmers to exogenous factors, the findings suggest that it is still too early to decide on the sustainability of the transfer program.

  19. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    Cortez, Michael J.; Rowe, Hunter G.

    2011-01-01

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  20. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    Cortez, Michael J.; Rowe, Hunter G. [BP - Gulf Coast Restoration (United States)], email: michael.cortez@bp.com

    2011-07-01

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  1. Training programs for emergency response personnel at Hanford

    Oscarson, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Three Mile Island reactor accident has focused attention on emergency planning and preparedness including selection and training of personnel. At Hanford, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is in the unique position of providing emergency response personnel, planning, training and equipment not only for its own organization and facilities but also for the Hanford Site in general, as well as the Interagency Radiological Assistance Plan (IRAP) Region 8 Team. Team members are chosen for one or more of the emergency teams based upon professional education and/or experience as well as interest, aptitude and specialized knowledge. Consequently, the initial training orientation of each new team member is not directed toward general professional ability, but rather toward specialized knowledge required to carry out their assigned emergency tasks. Continual training and practice is necessary to maintain the interest and skills for effectively coping with major emergencies. The types of training which are conducted include: tests of emergency systems and/or procedures; drills involving plant employees and/or emergency team members (e.g., activation of emergency notification systems); short training sessions on special topics; and realistic emergency exercises involving the simulation of major accidents wherein the emergency team must solve specific problems on a real time basis

  2. MONTEC, an interactive fortran program to simulate radiation dose and dose-rate responses of populations

    Perry, K.A.; Szekely, J.G.

    1983-09-01

    The computer program MONTEC was written to simulate the distribution of responses in a population whose members are exposed to multiple radiation doses at variable dose rates. These doses and dose rates are randomly selected from lognormal distributions. The individual radiation responses are calculated from three equations, which include dose and dose-rate terms. Other response-dose/rate relationships or distributions can be incorporated by the user as the need arises. The purpose of this documentation is to provide a complete operating manual for the program. This version is written in FORTRAN-10 for the DEC system PDP-10

  3. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Microbial Stress Response, Schedule and Speaker/Poster Program

    Donohue, Timothy J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-07-20

    The Gordon Research Conference on Microbial Stress Response was held at Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts, July 15-20, 2012. The Conference was well-attended with 180 participants. The 2012 Microbial Stress Responses Gordon Research Conference will provide a forum for the open reporting of recent discoveries on the diverse mechanisms employed by microbes to respond to stress. Approaches range from analysis at the molecular level (how are signals perceived and transmitted to change gene expression or function) to cellular and microbial community responses. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program.

  4. CiOpt: a program for optimization of the frequency response of linear circuits

    Miró Sans, Joan Maria; Palà Schönwälder, Pere

    1991-01-01

    An interactive personal-computer program for optimizing the frequency response of linear lumped circuits (CiOpt) is presented. CiOpt has proved to be an efficient tool in improving designs where the inclusion of more accurate device models distorts the desired frequency response, as well as in device modeling. The outputs of CiOpt are the element values which best match the obtained and the desired frequency response. The optimization algorithms used (the Fletcher-Powell and Newton's methods,...

  5. Demand Response Programs Design and Use Considering Intensive Penetration of Distributed Generation

    Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita; Baptista, José

    2015-01-01

    Further improvements in demand response programs implementation are needed in order to take full advantage of this resource, namely for the participation in energy and reserve market products, requiring adequate aggregation and remuneration of small size resources. The present paper focuses on SPIDER, a demand response simulation that has been improved in order to simulate demand response, including realistic power system simulation. For illustration of the simulator’s capabilities, the prese...

  6. African Farmer-led Irrigation Development: re-framing agricultural policy and investment?

    Woodhouse, Philip; Veldwisch, Gert Jan; Venot , Jean-Philippe; Brockington, Daniel; Komakech, Hans; Manjichi , Ângela

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an intensifying focus on the development of irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa. It follows a 20-year hiatus in the wake of disappointing irrigation performance during the 1970s and 1980s. Persistent low productivity in African agriculture and vulnerability of African food supplies to increasing instability in international commodity markets are driving pan-African agricultural investment initiatives, such as the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program...

  7. Resposta de híbridos de milho irrigado à densidade de plantas em três épocas de semeadura Response of irrigated corn hybrids to plant density in three sowing dates

    Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A determinação da densidade ótima de semeadura do milho, além de ser influenciada pelas características dos híbridos, pelo nível de fertilidade do solo e pela disponibilidade hídrica, pode também variar de acordo com a época da semeadura, uma vez que ela afeta o crescimento e desenvolvimento da planta. Com o objetivo de determinar a densidade ótima de planta em híbridos de milho com elevado potencial de rendimento de grãos, em três épocas de semeadura, com relação a rendimento de grãos, componentes do rendimento e outras características agronômicas, foram feitos quatro experimentos na região fisiográfica da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, município de Eldorado do Sul, com suplementação hídrica por aspersão. Os tratamentos constaram de quatro híbridos (Pioneer 3063, Pioneer 3207, XL 212 e Cargill 901, quatro densidades de plantas (50, 70, 90 e 110.000 pl/ha e de três épocas de semeadura (agosto, outubro e dezembro. Não há resposta à densidade de plantas dos híbridos de milho testados nas épocas de semeadura de agosto e dezembro. O aumento na densidade de plantas somente foi vantajosa na semeadura de outubro, quando se obtiveram maiores rendimentos de grãos na densidade de 70.000 pl/ha, independentemente do híbrido avaliado, nas duas estações de crescimento.Plant density response of corn besides influenced by hybrids traits, soil fertility level and water availability, could also vary with sowing date, since it affects plant growth and development. With the objective of determining the most adequate plant density of corn hybrids with high potential grain yields, in three sowing dates, in relation to grain yields, yield components and other agronomic traits, four experiments were conducted in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with complementary irrigation. The treatments were composed by four hybrids (Pioneer 3063, Pioneer 3207, XL 212 and Cargill 901, four plant densities (50, 70, 90 and 110

  8. Irrigation-water quality during 1976 irrigation season in the Sulphur Creek basin, Yakima and Benton counties, Washington

    Boucher, P.R.; Fretwell, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    A water-quality-sampling network was designed for the Sulphur Creek basin to observe the effects of farming practices on irrigation. Sediment and nutrient yield, discharge, and water temperature data were collected during the 1976 irrigation season and the following fall and winter. The suspended-sediment yield of the basin during this period was 2.0 tons per acre of irrigated cropland. Only about 3% of the net outflow of sediment occurred during the nonirrigation season. The yield computed by subbasin ranged from 0.7 to 7 tons per acre, depending mainly on land slope, but a high percentage of orchard land in the subbasins was probably also significant in reducing loads. Nutrient outflows during the study period were 1,180,000 pounds of nitrogen and 120,000 pounds of phosphorous. Nitrate-plus-nitrite represent 70% of the nitrogen outflow in the irrigation season and 84% in the nonirrigation season. The monitoring network was discontinued at the end of the study period, due largely to insufficient farmer participation. Network sensitivity in the control subbasins was inadequate to detect the effects of a planned demonstration program of best management practices. (USGS)

  9. Stochastic–multiobjective market equilibrium analysis of a demand response program in energy market under uncertainty

    Hu, Ming-Che; Lu, Su-Ying; Chen, Yen-Haw

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyze the impact of a demand response program under uncertainty. • Stochastic Nash–Cournot competition model is formulated. • Case study of the Taiwanese electric power market is conducted. • Demand response decreases power price, generation, and emissions. • Demand uncertainty increases energy price and supply risk in the results. - Abstract: In the electricity market, demand response programs are designed to shift peak demand and enhance system reliability. A demand response program can reduce peak energy demand, power transmission congestion, or high energy-price conditions by changing consumption patterns. The purpose of this research is to analyze the impact of a demand response program in the energy market, under demand uncertainty. A stochastic–multiobjective Nash–Cournot competition model is formulated to simulate demand response in an uncertain energy market. Then, Karush–Kuhn–Tucker optimality conditions and a linear complementarity problem are derived for the stochastic Nash–Cournot model. Accordingly, the linear complementarity problem is solved and its stochastic market equilibrium solution is determined by using a general algebraic modeling system. Additionally, the case of the Taiwanese electric power market is taken up here, and the results show that a demand response program is capable of reducing peak energy consumption, energy price, and carbon dioxide emissions. The results show that demand response program decreases electricity price by 2–10%, total electricity generation by 0.5–2%, and carbon dioxide emissions by 0.5–2.5% in the Taiwanese power market. In the simulation, demand uncertainty leads to an 2–7% increase in energy price and supply risk in the market. Additionally, tradeoffs between cost and carbon dioxide emissions are presented.

  10. Never look a gift horse in the mouth or should you? Upgrading the Hare irrigation system in Southern Ethiopia

    Wegerich, K.; Dubale, T.; Bruins, B.

    2008-01-01

    The upgrading of the Hare Irrigation System was a joint undertaking of the governments of Ethiopia and the People's Republic of China. After completion of the primary and the secondary canals, farmers refused to take over responsibility of the system. Existing literature on the Hare Irrigation

  11. A rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in Pakistan; Evaluacion rapida de una zona de riego tipica de Pakistan

    Ruiz-Carmona, Victor Manuel; Ojeda-Bustamante, Waldo [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Contijoch, Manuel [Banco Mundial (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    This paper presents the results obtained on the implementation of a rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in the province of Punjab in Pakistan. The purpose of the evaluation was to know the present irrigation service quality and to propose some alternative to improve it. The evaluation results were: the canal inflow is smaller than peak crop water requirement; net aquifer loss; crops are always under stress which is reflected on low crop yields, the secondary canal network has not control structures and was not designed for rotation, insufficient human-human communication between canal operators; the operators have no complementary training course to enhance their capacity; discrepancy between the service the canal is supposed to provide and the real service it offers. The suggested actions to improve the irrigation service were: the irrigation service must be client oriented; the irrigation users should participate to determine the irrigation service characteristics; the difference between actual and stage irrigation service must be eliminated; clear definition on water allocation; implement a modernization program to provide the irrigation service required. The evaluation methodology used can be applied in other countries like Mexico for the analysis of large irrigation systems making an optimal use of time and resources. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos al aplicar una metodologia de evaluacion rapida de sistemas de riego a una zona de la provincia del Punjab, Pakistan. El objetivo de la evaluacion fue conocer el estado actual del servicio de riego que ofrece la agencia responsable del manejo del riego en un distrito del Punjab y proponer alternativas para mejorarlo. Los principales resultados de esta evaluacion fueron los siguientes: la falta de capacidad de los canales, el abatimiento neto del acuifero; el estres hidrico continuo de los cultivos, que propicia un bajo rendimiento; la red secundaria de canales no

  12. Linear programming model to optimize the water resource use in irrigation projects: an application to the Senator Nilo Coelho Project Modelo de programação linear para otimizar o uso da água em projetos de irrigação: uma aplicação ao projeto Senador Nilo Coelho

    J.A. Frizzone

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to develop a separable linear programming model, considering a set of technical factors which may influence the profit of an irrigation project The model presents an objective function that maximizes the net income and specifies the range of water availability. It is assumed that yield functions in response to water application are available for differents crops and describe very well the water-yield relationships. The linear programming model was developed genetically, so that, the rational use of the available water resource could be included in an irrigation project Specific equations were developed and applied in the irrigation project "Senator Nilo Coelho" (SNCP, located in Petrolina - Brazil Based on the water-yield functions considered, cultivated land constraints, production costs and products prices, it was concluded that: (a the model was suitable for the management of the SNCP, resulting in optimal cropping patterns and showing the water requirements; (b for 7,424 ha of land and 66, 644,500 m³ of water available on a year basis, the shadow price of these resources were respectively, US$ 1,115.20/ha e USS 281.60/1000 m³; (c for the total monthly water availability of 9,861,040 m³, the total annual water availability of 66,644,500 m³ became an effective restriction to the increase of the net income of the production system in the SNCP; (d maintaining the total monthly water availability of 9,861,040 m³, annual volumes lower than 88,338,983 m³ were used fully to reach the optimal solution, and that higher volumes than this limit, did not increase the net return; (e the optimization model presented, estimated a net return of 5234 % higher than the traditional cropping pattern used hi the SNCP, considering the agricultural year of 1992.O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo de programação linear separável, que considera um conjunto de fatores técnicos que influencia a

  13. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase 1. Project V. Structural sub-system response: subsystem response review

    Fogelquist, J.; Kaul, M.K.; Koppe, R.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.; Thailer, H.; Uffer, R.

    1980-03-01

    This project is directed toward a portion of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program which includes one link in the seismic methodology chain. The link addressed here is the structural subsystem dynamic response which consists of those components and systems whose behavior is often determined decoupled from the major structural response. Typically the mathematical model utilized for the major structural response will include only the mass effects of the subsystem and the main model is used to produce the support motion inputs for subsystem seismic qualification. The main questions addressed in this report have to do with the seismic response uncertainty of safety-related components or equipment whose seismic qualification is performed by (a) analysis, (b) tests, or (c) combinations of analysis and tests, and where the seismic input is assumed to have no uncertainty

  14. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    2010-07-27

    ... to the Turlock Irrigation District's Tuolumne Substation; (2) 23-mile-long, 69-kV Don Pedro-Hawkins Line extending from the Don Pedro switchyard to the Turlock Irrigation District's Hawkins Substation...

  15. Effect of low-cost irrigation methods on microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with untreated wastewater

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of simple irrigation methods such as drip irrigation kits, furrow irrigation and use of watering cans in reducing contamination of lettuce irrigated with polluted water in urban farming in Ghana. METHODS: Trials on drip kits, furrow irrigation and watering...... cans were conducted with urban vegetable farmers. Trials were arranged in a completely randomised block design with each plot having all three irrigation methods tested. This was conducted in both dry and wet seasons. Three hundred and ninety-six lettuce, 72 soil, 15 poultry manure and 32 water samples...... were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: Lettuce irrigated with drip kits had the lowest levels of contamination, with, on average, 4 log units per 100 g, fewer thermotolerant coliforms than that irrigated with watering cans. However, drip kits often got clogged, required...

  16. Introduction: Panda or Hydra? The untold stories of drip irrigation

    Kuper, M.; Venot, J.P.; Zwarteveen, M.; Venot, J.P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigated areas in the world are witnessing a transformation from open canal systems to more ‘modern’ irrigation methods such as drip irrigation that convey water through closed pipe systems. Initially associated with hi-tech irrigated agriculture, drip irrigation is now being used by a wide range

  17. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Singh, S S; Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India)

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation.

  18. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  19. Bereavement photography for children: program development and health care professionals' response.

    Michelson, Kelly Nicole; Blehart, Kathleen; Hochberg, Todd; James, Kristin

    2013-07-01

    Reports of in-hospital bereavement photography focus largely on stillborns and neonates. Empiric data regarding the implementation of bereavement photography in pediatrics beyond the neonatal period and the impact of such programs on healthcare professionals (HCPs) is lacking. The authors describe the implementation of a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) bereavement photography program and use questionnaire data from HCPs to describe HCPs' reflections on the program and to identify program barriers. From July 2007 through April 2070, families of 59 (36%) of the 164 patients who died in the PICU participated in our bereavement photography program. Forty questionnaires from 29 HCPs caring for 39 participating patients/families indicated that families seemed grateful for the service (n = 34; 85%) and that the program helped HCPs feel better about their role (n = 30; 70%). Many HCPs disagreed that the program consumed too much of his/her time (n = 34; 85%) and that the photographer made his/her job difficult (n = 37; 92.5%). Qualitative analysis of responses to open-ended questions revealed 4 categories: the program's general value; positive aspects of the program; negative aspects of the program; and suggestions for improvements. Implementing bereavement photography in the PICU is feasible though some barriers exist. HCPs may benefit from such programs.

  20. Senegal - Irrigation and Water Resource Management

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — IMPAQ: This evaluation report presents findings from the baseline data collected for the Irrigation and Water Resources Management (IWRM) project, which serves as...

  1. Choice of root canal irrigants by Serbian dental practitioners

    Tošić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Root canal treatment is considered to be the one of the most important procedures in endodontic treatment. To irrigate the root canal it is most common to use sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, chlorhexodine, ethylenediami-netetraacetic acid (EDTA, local anesthetic solution, while the most used in Serbia is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The aim of this survey was to reveal the preferred root canal irrigants used by general dental practitioners in Serbia and to determine the influence of the continuing education program, delivered over the 3-year observation period, on work habits of dental practitioners. This was the first comprehensive survey of this nature carried out in Serbia. Methods. The survey was conducted in two instances, a 4-month observation period each, from November 1, 2009 to March 1, 2010 and from November 1, 2012 to March 1, 2013. Internet Web Page Survey was posted on the official web site of the Serbian Association of Private Dentists. In the first survey, 569 completed questionnaires were subjected to analysis. In the next attempt (3 years later, the survey was launched again and 615 completed questionnaires were analyzed using the same criteria. The statistical analysis was carried out with simple descriptive statistics applying the χ2 test, at a significance level of p < 0.05. Results. The first survey included 569 dental practitioners, while 3 years later the number of them was 615. Analyzing the questionnaires revealed the number of 10 to 30 interventins on the root canal montly. The most commonly used irrigant solution was H2O2 in 2009, while in 2012 it was yet H2O2, but also NaOCl, chlorhexodine, and a little less EDTA. Conclusion. This study shows significant changes in the irrigation protocol applied in Serbian dental community. After 3 years of observation, NaOCl became widely accepted as the irrigant of choice, whereas H2O2 lost its popularity.

  2. Estimated Colorado Golf Course Irrigation Water Use, 2005

    Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Golf course irrigation water-use data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Program's 2005 compilation to provide baseline information, as no golf course irrigation water-use data (separate from crop irrigation) have been reported in previous compilations. A Web-based survey, designed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rocky Mountain Golf Course Superintendents Association (RMGCSA), was electronically distributed by the association to the 237 members in Colorado. Forty-three percent of the members returned the survey, and additional source water information was collected by telephone for all but 20 of the 245 association member and non-member Colorado golf courses. For golf courses where no data were collected at all, an average 'per hole' coefficient, based on returned surveys from that same county, were applied. In counties where no data were collected at all, a State average 'per hole' value of 13.2 acre-feet was used as the coefficient. In 2005, Colorado had 243 turf golf courses (there are 2 sand courses in the State) that had an estimated 2.27 acre-feet per irrigated course acre, and 65 percent of the source water for these courses was surface water. Ground water, potable water (public supply), and reclaimed wastewater, either partially or wholly, were source waters for the remaining courses. Fifty-three of the 64 counties in Colorado have at least one golf course, with the greatest number of courses in Jefferson (23 courses), Arapahoe (22 courses), and El Paso Counties (20 courses). In 2005, an estimated 5,647.8 acre-feet in Jefferson County, 5,402 acre-feet in Arapahoe County, and 4,473.3 acre-feet in El Paso County were used to irrigate the turf grass.

  3. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  4. An Investigation of the Basic Physics of Irrigation in Urology and the Role of Automated Pump Irrigation in Cystoscopy

    Dwayne Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of height, external pressure, and bladder fullness on the flow rate in continuous, non-continuous cystoscopy and the automated irrigation fluid pumping system (AIFPS. Materials. Each experiment had two 2-litre 0.9% saline bags connected to a continuous, non-continuous cystoscope or AIFPS via irrigation tubing. Other equipment included height-adjustable drip poles, uroflowmetry devices, and model bladders. Methods. In Experiment 1, saline bags were elevated to measure the increment in flow rate. In Experiment 2, saline bags were placed under external pressures to evaluate the effect on flow rate. In Experiment 3, flow rate changes in response to variable bladder fullness were measured. Results. Elevating saline bags caused an increase in flow rates, however the increment slowed down beyond a height of 80 cm. Increase in external pressure on saline bags elevated flow rates, but inconsistently. A fuller bladder led to a decrease in flow rates. In all experiments, the AIFPS posted consistent flow rates. Conclusions. Traditional irrigation systems were susceptible to changes in height of irrigation solution, external pressure application, and bladder fullness thus creating inconsistent flow rates. The AIFPS produced consistent flow rates and was not affected by any of the factors investigated in the study.

  5. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    Paudel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since

  6. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  7. Factors affecting irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation: a systematic review

    Boutsioukis, C.; Psimma, Z.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and critical analysis of published data on irrigant extrusion to identify factors causing, affecting or predisposing to irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation of human mature permanent teeth. An electronic search was conducted

  8. Effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Pejić Borivoj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments showing the effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water productivity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. were conducted at the experimental field of the Alternative Crops Department, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. Irrigation was scheduled on the basis of the water balance method. Daily evapotranspiration (ETd was computed from the reference evapotranspiration (ETo and crop coefficient (kc in May, June, July and August of 0.5, 0.6, 1.1 and 1.0, respectively. ETo was calculated using Hargreaves equation. The irrigation depth was restricted to the soil depth of 0.3 m. In other words, irrigation started when readily available water in the soil layer of 0.3 m was completely depleted by plants. The irrigation rate was 30 mm (30 l m-2 while the amount of water added by irrigation during the season was 140 mm. Basil sensitivity to water stress was determined using a yield response factor (Ky. According to the results, the yield of fresh herb of basil under irrigation (32.015 t ha-1 was higher by 9% compared to non-irrigated, control variant (29.364 t ha-1. Worthy of note, basil essential oil yield was significantly affected by irrigation (35.329/28.766 kg ha-1. The content of essential oil was significantly higher in irrigated (6.45 g kg-1 than in non-irrigated variant (5.33 g kg-1 in the first harvest, while no significant difference between irrigated and non-irrigated variants was obtained in the second harvest (6.83 and 6.62 g kg-1 , respectively. Water used on evapotranspiration in irrigation conditions (ETm was 431 mm and 270 mm in non-irrigated, control variant (ETa. The values of irrigation water use efficiency (Iwue and evapotranspiration water use efficiency (ETwue were 1.89 kg m-3 and 1.65 kg m-3 respectively. Ky value (0.22 exhibits all essential characteristics of climate conditions of 2016 rainy year. These preliminary results could be used as a good platform for basil growers in the

  9. Full-scale Mark II CRT program: dynamic response evaluation test of pressure transducers

    Kukita, Yutaka; Namatame, Ken; Takeshita, Isao; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1982-12-01

    A dynamic response evaluation test of pressure transducers was conducted in support of the JAERI Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Program. The test results indicated that certain of the cavity-type transducers used in the early blowdown test had undesirable response characteristics. The transducer mounting scheme was modified to avoid trapping of air bubbles in the pressure transmission tubing attached to the transducers. The dynamic response of the modified transducers was acceptable within the frequency range of 200 Hz. (author)

  10. A constructive Indian country response to the evidence-based program mandate.

    Walker, R Dale; Bigelow, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 20 years governmental mandates for preferentially funding evidence-based "model" practices and programs has become doctrine in some legislative bodies, federal agencies, and state agencies. It was assumed that what works in small sample, controlled settings would work in all community settings, substantially improving safety, effectiveness, and value-for-money. The evidence-based "model" programs mandate has imposed immutable "core components," fidelity testing, alien programming and program developers, loss of familiar programs, and resource capacity requirements upon tribes, while infringing upon their tribal sovereignty and consultation rights. Tribal response in one state (Oregon) went through three phases: shock and rejection; proposing an alternative approach using criteria of cultural appropriateness, aspiring to evaluability; and adopting logic modeling. The state heard and accepted the argument that the tribal way of knowing is different and valid. Currently, a state-authorized tribal logic model and a review panel process are used to approve tribal best practices for state funding. This constructive response to the evidence-based program mandate elevates tribal practices in the funding and regulatory world, facilitates continuing quality improvement and evaluation, while ensuring that practices and programs remain based on local community context and culture. This article provides details of a model that could well serve tribes facing evidence-based model program mandates throughout the country.

  11. [Influence of saltwater irrigation on the yield and quality of Cynodon dactylon under desert conditions].

    Zhou, Ruilian; Dov, Paternak; Zhao, Halin

    2002-08-01

    Responses of six varieties (Suwannee, Coast cross, Tifton44, Tifton68, Tifton78 and Tifton85) of Cynodon dactylon to irrigation-water salinity were investigated in field by means of a double line source experimental design. The digestibility of the grass by goat was analyzed using the rumen gastric justice digestion method. The results showed that the six varieties grew well, and had a high yield of fresh grass when eletro-conductivity (Eci) Cynodon dactylon were not effected by saltwater irrigation.

  12. The U.S. Minerals Management Service - oil spill response research program

    Mullin, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    The Minerals Management Service (MMS), is the principal U.S. Government agency funding offshore oil spill response research. The MMS, a bureau of the Department of the lnterior, maintains a comprehensive Oil Spill Response Research program in support of oil spill prevention and response. Through funding provided by MMS, scientists and engineers from the public and private sectors worldwide are working to address outstanding gaps in information and technology concerning the cleanup of oil spills. A large portion of the program is executed through cooperation with major research centers to leverage funds and maximize sharing of research results. This paper outlines the program, its goals, results from recently funded projects and future research directions. (author)

  13. Basin Irrigation Design with Multi-Criteria Analysis Focusing on Water Saving and Economic Returns: Application to Wheat in Hetao, Yellow River Basin

    Qingfeng Miao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of the Hetao Irrigation System, located in the water scarce upper Yellow River basin, is a priority considering the need for water saving, increased water productivity, and higher farmers’ incomes. The upgrading of basin irrigation, the main irrigation method, is essential and includes the adoption of precise land levelling, cut-off management, improved water distribution uniformity, and adequate irrigation scheduling. With this objective, the current study focuses on upgrading wheat basin irrigation through improved design using a decision support system (DSS model, which considers land parcels characteristics, crop irrigation scheduling, soil infiltration, hydraulic simulation, and environmental and economic impacts. Its use includes outlining water saving scenarios and ranking alternative designs through multi-criteria analysis considering the priorities of stakeholders. The best alternatives concern flat level basins with a 100 and 200 m length and inflow rates between 2 and 4 L s−1 m−1. The total irrigation cost of designed projects, including the cost of the autumn irrigation, varies between 2400 and 3300 Yuan ha−1; the major cost component is land levelling, corresponding to 33–46% of total irrigation costs. The economic land productivity is about 18,000 Yuan ha−1. The DSS modelling defined guidelines to be applied by an extension service aimed at implementing better performing irrigation practices, and encouraged a good interaction between farmers and the Water Users Association, thus making easier the implementation of appropriate irrigation management programs.

  14. Achieving sustainable irrigation water withdrawals: global impacts on food security and land use

    Liu, Jing; Hertel, Thomas W.; Lammers, Richard B.; Prusevich, Alexander; Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Grogan, Danielle S.; Frolking, Steve

    2017-10-01

    Unsustainable water use challenges the capacity of water resources to ensure food security and continued growth of the economy. Adaptation policies targeting future water security can easily overlook its interaction with other sustainability metrics and unanticipated local responses to the larger-scale policy interventions. Using a global partial equilibrium grid-resolving model SIMPLE-G, and coupling it with the global Water Balance Model, we simulate the consequences of reducing unsustainable irrigation for food security, land use change, and terrestrial carbon. A variety of future (2050) scenarios are considered that interact irrigation productivity with two policy interventions— inter-basin water transfers and international commodity market integration. We find that pursuing sustainable irrigation may erode other development and environmental goals due to higher food prices and cropland expansion. This results in over 800 000 more undernourished people and 0.87 GtC additional emissions. Faster total factor productivity growth in irrigated sectors will encourage more aggressive irrigation water use in the basins where irrigation vulnerability is expected to be reduced by inter-basin water transfer. By allowing for a systematic comparison of these alternative adaptations to future irrigation vulnerability, the global gridded modeling approach offers unique insights into the multiscale nature of the water scarcity challenge.

  15. Proposed Fuzzy-NN Algorithm with LoRaCommunication Protocol for Clustered Irrigation Systems

    Sotirios Kontogiannis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern irrigation systems utilize sensors and actuators, interconnected together as a single entity. In such entities, A.I. algorithms are implemented, which are responsible for the irrigation process. In this paper, the authors present an irrigation Open Watering System (OWS architecture that spatially clusters the irrigation process into autonomous irrigation sections. Authors’ OWS implementation includes a Neuro-Fuzzy decision algorithm called FITRA, which originates from the Greek word for seed. In this paper, the FITRA algorithm is described in detail, as are experimentation results that indicate significant water conservations from the use of the FITRA algorithm. Furthermore, the authors propose a new communication protocol over LoRa radio as an alternative low-energy and long-range OWS clusters communication mechanism. The experimental scenarios confirm that the FITRA algorithm provides more efficient irrigation on clustered areas than existing non-clustered, time scheduled or threshold adaptive algorithms. This is due to the FITRA algorithm’s frequent monitoring of environmental conditions, fuzzy and neural network adaptation as well as adherence to past irrigation preferences.

  16. Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river basin resilience

    Scott, C. A.; Vicuña, S.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, I.; Meza, F.; Varela-Ortega, C.

    2014-04-01

    Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface water and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox) may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly considers three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions - central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain - where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

  17. Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river-basin resilience

    Scott, C. A.; Vicuña, S.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, I.; Meza, F.; Varela-Ortega, C.

    2013-07-01

    Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface- and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river-basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox) may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly examines policy frameworks in three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions - central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain - where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

  18. Economic assessment at farm level of the implementation of deficit irrigation for quinoa production in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano

    J. Cusicanqui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Bolivian Altiplano recent research has suggested to introduce deficit irrigation as a strategy to boost quinoa yields and to stabilize it at 2.0 ton ha-1. In this study we carried out an economic assessment of the implementation of deficit irrigation at farm level using a hydro-economic model for simulating profit for quinoa production. As input of the model we worked with previously developed farms typology (livestock, quinoa and subsistence farms, simulated quinoa production with and without irrigation using AquaCrop model, and calculated yield response functions for four different climate scenarios (wet, normal, dry and very dry years. Results from the hydro-economic model demonstrate that maximum profit is achieved with less applied irrigated water than for maximum yield, and irrigated quinoa earned more profit than rainfed production for all farms types and climate scenarios. As expected, the benefits of irrigation under dry and very dry climate conditions were higher than those under normal and wet years, and benefits among farms types were higher for quinoa farms. In fact, profit of irrigated quinoa might be stabilized at around BOB 6500 ha-1 (about USD 920 compared with the huge differences found for rainfed conditions for all climate scenarios. Interestingly, the economic water productivity, expressed in terms of economic return for amount of applied irrigated water (BOB mm-1, reached the highest values with intermediate and low level of water availability schemes of deficit irrigation for all climate scenarios.

  19. Corporate Social Responsibility Program Impacts the Customer Loyalty of Bank Rakyat Indonesia Branch Manado

    Mekel, Peggy A.; Talumepa, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    The successfulness of a firm is not just determined by its financial metrics. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) lately becomes one major concern in businesses which are indicating whether the company goes well or not. CSR program is the major concern that will be elaborate in this research. The aim of this research is to know if CSR programs of BRI branch Manado impact its customer loyalty and what are the factors that influence. This study is conducted by quantitative technique with asso...

  20. improving of irrigation management: a learning based approach

    p2333147

    Irrigation farms are small businesses and like any other business, the managers or ... human factors and constraints that impact on the adoption of irrigation ... Informal interaction with other irrigation farmers and social networks played a ...

  1. Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Fruit Characteristics and Photosynthesis of Olive Trees under Two Irrigation Systems

    N. Ashrafi

    2016-02-01

    (Ci, and stomatal conductance (gs between (09.30 – 11.30 h on a fully expanded current season leaves situated at mid canopy height. Statistical assessments of differences between mean values were performed by the LSD test at P = 0.05. Results and Discussion The results revealed that reclaimed water enhanced fruit yield, weight (15%, volume (23% and leaf photosynthesis (22% in plants compared with clear water. Recycled water was found to supply more nutrients than clear water. High nutrient concentrations in RW, compared to those in clear water, result in nutrient accumulation in the soil, making them available to plant roots to promote overall plant growth and fruit production. Improved N, P, K nutrition of wastewater-irrigated plants has been reported (Farooq et al, 2006. Olive leaves and stems represent storage organs for N and release it in response to the metabolic demands of developing reproductive and vegetative organs (Fernandez-Escobar et al., 2004. However, Al-Abasi et al. (2009 found no statistical differences. Irrigation with SLI systems increased the photosynthesis (33%, and stomatal conductance (57% when compared with surface irrigation systems. The results showed that reclaimed water had a significant effect on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. However, fruit length and firmness had no significant difference. Substomatal CO2 decreased when the SI systems were used for irrigation. Also SLI system could enhance fruit yield (65%, weight (17%, photosynthesis (32% and chlorophyll Fluorescence (Fv/Fm (18%. The SLI systems with recycled water induced greater shoot growth, total leaf surface area, and transpiration during the entire growing period. This led to an overall positive effect on mean fruit weight and total fruit production per tree. The SLI system applying RW led to more photosynthesis by 34% as compared to the SI system. In the present study, the SLI system delivered water directly in the root zone and improved water availability, which

  2. Analysis of the Economic and Welfare Impacts of Establishing Irrigation Water Market in Qazvin Province

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study economic and welfare impacts of establishing irrigation water market in Qazvin province as well as potentiality of irrigation water transfer under stress irrigation conditions in the cities of Qazvin province were analyzed. To achieve the above objectives, Positive Mathematical Programming model and State Wide Agricultural Production functions were used. To achieve applicable results, the production function with a constant elasticity of substitution and cost function with an exponential form were included into the Positive Mathematical Programming model was imported. The study data for the year 2011-2012 was collected by asking the relevant offices in each city of Qazvin province. The proposed model was solved in six successive stages using the GAMS software. After solving the model, amount changes in the area of irrigated crops, farmer's gross profit and labor surplus under the two conditions of “existence of water market” and “lack of water market “at the regional level were calculated. The results showed that establishing irrigation water market increases total irrigated lands for 1/2 percent, total farmer’s gross profit for 1/86 percent and total labor force employed in agriculture for 1/8 percent in the province. Ultimately, considering the supportive and constructive role of regional water markets, it is recommended to provide necessary conditions and tools to establish an optimal use of such a mechanism associated with the type of market in Qazvin province.

  3. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  4. SHOCK-JR: a computer program to analyze impact response of shipping container

    Ikushima, Takeshi; Nakazato, Chikara; Shimoda, Osamu; Uchino, Mamoru.

    1983-02-01

    The report is provided for using a computer program, SHOCK-JR, which is used to analyze the impact response of shipping containers. Descriptions are the mathematical model, method of analysis, structures of the program and the input and output variables. The program solves the equations of motion for a one-dimensional, lumped mass and nonlinear spring model. The solution procedure uses Runge-Kutta-Gill and Newmark-β methods. SHOCK-JR is a revised version of SHOCK, which was developed by ORNL. In SHOCK-JR, SI dimension is used and graphical output is available. (author)

  5. Comparing responses to horticultural-based and traditional activities in dementia care programs.

    Jarrott, Shannon E; Gigliotti, Christina M

    2010-12-01

    Engaging persons with dementia in meaningful activities supports well-being; however, care staff are challenged to implement age- and ability-appropriate activities in a group setting. We compared a randomly assigned treatment group, who received horticultural therapy-based (HT-based) programming to a comparison group, who engaged in traditional activities (TA) programming, on engagement and affect. Horticultural therapy-based programming was implemented twice weekly at 4 treatment sites for 6 weeks, while regular TA were observed at comparison sites. Results revealed no differences between groups on affective domains. Levels of adaptive behavior differed between the groups, with the treatment group demonstrating higher levels of active, passive, and other engagement and the comparison group demonstrating higher levels of self-engagement. Our results highlight the value of HT-based programs and the importance of simultaneously capturing participants' affective and behavioral responses. Theoretical and practical considerations about the facilitation of and context in which the programming occurs are discussed.

  6. Program to Promote Personal and Social Responsibility in the Secondary Classroom

    Miguel A. Carbonero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of school children has been studied by considering partial relationships between several personal variables such as the link between cognition and motivation. However, contextual variables, such as a child’s willingness to accept social responsibility, also influence students’ social and academic performance. Thus, students with greater responsibility have a better attitude toward their studies, resulting in higher academic achievement. This 2-year study aims to reveal to what extent an intervention program affects student performance and is based on the Theory of Positive Action among young people proposed by Don Hellison and the Theory of Reasoned Action by Fishbein and Ajzen. The program focuses on positive influences on social and personal responsibility, taking into consideration parental styles, gender, and academic performance. The program was a part of the educational curricula in participating schools and it targeted four main areas: (a teaching units using academic texts about social responsibility, (b student training in mediation processes, (c teacher training, and (d family training and involvement. A total of 271 students took part from first and second year of Secondary Education (12–14 years old. The experimental group was made up of 132 students while the remaining 139 formed the control group. All participants completed the Assessment Scale of Social Responsibility Attitudes in Secondary Education and the Parent–Adolescent Communication Scale. Results show that students in the experimental group performed significantly better than those in the control group. Additionally, the issue of social responsibility seems to be related to commitment, self-discipline and perseverance. Regarding gender, males appear to score higher in the factor for well-mannered, friendly and tidy. Finally, a positive relationship has been identified between social responsibility attitudes and parenting with an open communicational

  7. Program to Promote Personal and Social Responsibility in the Secondary Classroom.

    Carbonero, Miguel A; Martín-Antón, Luis J; Otero, Lourdes; Monsalvo, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    The performance of school children has been studied by considering partial relationships between several personal variables such as the link between cognition and motivation. However, contextual variables, such as a child's willingness to accept social responsibility, also influence students' social and academic performance. Thus, students with greater responsibility have a better attitude toward their studies, resulting in higher academic achievement. This 2-year study aims to reveal to what extent an intervention program affects student performance and is based on the Theory of Positive Action among young people proposed by Don Hellison and the Theory of Reasoned Action by Fishbein and Ajzen. The program focuses on positive influences on social and personal responsibility, taking into consideration parental styles, gender, and academic performance. The program was a part of the educational curricula in participating schools and it targeted four main areas: (a) teaching units using academic texts about social responsibility, (b) student training in mediation processes, (c) teacher training, and (d) family training and involvement. A total of 271 students took part from first and second year of Secondary Education (12-14 years old). The experimental group was made up of 132 students while the remaining 139 formed the control group. All participants completed the Assessment Scale of Social Responsibility Attitudes in Secondary Education and the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale. Results show that students in the experimental group performed significantly better than those in the control group. Additionally, the issue of social responsibility seems to be related to commitment, self-discipline and perseverance. Regarding gender, males appear to score higher in the factor for well-mannered, friendly and tidy. Finally, a positive relationship has been identified between social responsibility attitudes and parenting with an open communicational style. This paper

  8. Modelling human agency in ancient irrigation

    Ertsen, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity is key in understanding ancient irrigation systems. Results of short term actions build up over time, affecting civilizations on larger temporal and spatial scales. Irrigation systems, with their many entities, social and physical, their many interactions within a changing environment

  9. Technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among ...

    This study was carried out to analyse the technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among smallholder farmers in the guinea savannah, Nigeria, and determine the cost and returns on irrigated vegetable production. Two-stage sampling technique was used, purposive selection of two states and three Local ...

  10. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  11. Using Automation to Improve Surface Irrigation Management

    In the Lower Mississippi Water Resource Area (WRA 08), also called the Mid-South, 2 million ha of cropland (80% of the irrigated farmland) employ surface irrigation, almost equally divided between furrow (52%) and controlled flooding (48%). Because Mid-South farmers experience less-than-optimal surf...

  12. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Basrani, B.

    2015-01-01

    Syringe irrigation remains a widely used irrigant delivery method during root canal treatment. An interdisciplinary approach involving well-established methods from the field of fluid dynamics can provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system

  13. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    Boutsioukis, Christos; van der Sluis, Lucas; Basrani, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the available information on bacterial disinfection in endodontics, with emphasis on the chemical treatment of root canals based on current understanding of the process of irrigation. It describes recent advances in knowledge of the chemistry associated with irrigants and delivery

  14. A scintigraphic study of colostomy irrigation

    Yasuda, Shinji; Fujii, Hisao; Nakano, Hiroshige (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    Colostomy irrigation was investigated by colonoscintigraphy. Twelve rectal cancer and one sigmoid colon cancer patients were examined. The tepid water whose volume was determined by barium enema was mixed with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA. Dynamic scanning was started on commencement of colostomy irrigation. The sampling time was 3 seconds and scanning was performed for 30 minutes. The mean volume of remnant colon as measured by barium enema was 650 ml. The mean number of mass movements was 4.3. The mean evacuation time was 11 minutes 56 seconds and the mean half emptying time was calculated to be 9.5 minutes. The evacuation time in the patients who underwent colostomy irrigation for more than 2 years was greater than that in the patients who underwent irrigation for less than 2 years. Colonic motility was thought to have weakened. The half emptying time and the number of mass movements in the patients whose irrigation water went into the terminal ileum was more than that in the patients whose irrigation water was within the colon and cecum. Irrigation water which went into the terminal ileum was caused evacuation after the contents of the remnant colon were washed out. In conclusion, patients should have their colostomy irrigated with the tepid water, volume is determined by barium enema. Furthermore single infusion of the water is recommended. (author).

  15. A scintigraphic study of colostomy irrigation

    Yasuda, Shinji; Fujii, Hisao; Nakano, Hiroshige

    1991-01-01

    Colostomy irrigation was investigated by colonoscintigraphy. Twelve rectal cancer and one sigmoid colon cancer patients were examined. The tepid water whose volume was determined by barium enema was mixed with 99m Tc-DTPA. Dynamic scanning was started on commencement of colostomy irrigation. The sampling time was 3 seconds and scanning was performed for 30 minutes. The mean volume of remnant colon as measured by barium enema was 650 ml. The mean number of mass movements was 4.3. The mean evacuation time was 11 minutes 56 seconds and the mean half emptying time was calculated to be 9.5 minutes. The evacuation time in the patients who underwent colostomy irrigation for more than 2 years was greater than that in the patients who underwent irrigation for less than 2 years. Colonic motility was thought to have weakened. The half emptying time and the number of mass movements in the patients whose irrigation water went into the terminal ileum was more than that in the patients whose irrigation water was within the colon and cecum. Irrigation water which went into the terminal ileum was caused evacuation after the contents of the remnant colon were washed out. In conclusion, patients should have their colostomy irrigated with the tepid water, volume is determined by barium enema. Furthermore single infusion of the water is recommended. (author)

  16. Irrigation scheduling with the neutron probe

    Travers, P.

    1987-01-01

    The operational theory of the neutron probe is briefly outlined and its application and uses discussed in relation to determination of soil compaction and irrigation scheduling. Graphic examples are given of alluvial soil moisture profiles and how this information can be used to improve trickle irrigation in vineyards. 3 refs., 7 figs

  17. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. Methods: This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. Results: The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layer and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, ultrasound, smear layer, endodontics. PMID:22143738

  18. Do 'enabling technologies' affect customer performance in price-responsive load programs?

    Goldman, Charles A.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Heffner, Grayson

    2002-01-01

    Price-responsive load (PRL) programs vary significantly in overall design, the complexity of relationships between program administrators, load aggregators, and customers, and the availability of ''enabling technologies''. Enabling technologies include such features as web-based power system and price monitoring, control and dispatch of curtailable loads, communications and information systems links to program participants, availability of interval metering data to customers in near real time, and building/facility/end-use automation and management capabilities. Two state agencies - NYSERDA in New York and the CEC in California - have been conspicuous leaders in the demonstration of demand response (DR) programs utilizing enabling technologies. In partnership with key stakeholders in these two states (e.g., grid operator, state energy agencies, and program administrators), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) surveyed 56 customers who worked with five contractors participating in CEC or NYSERDA-sponsored DR programs. We combined market research and actual load curtailment data when available (i.e., New York) or customer load reduction targets in order to explore the relative importance of contractor's program design features, sophistication of control strategies, and reliance on enabling technologies in predicting customer's ability to deliver load reductions in DR programs targeted to large commercial/industrial customers. We found preliminary evidence that DR enabling technology has a positive effect on load curtailment potential. Many customers indicated that web-based energy information tools were useful for facilitating demand response (e.g., assessing actual performance compared to load reduction contract commitments), that multiple notification channels facilitated timely response, and that support for and use of backup generation allowed customers to achieve significant and predictable load

  19. IMPLEMENTASI PROGRAM CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR USED MOTORCYCLE DEPARTMENT DALAM MENINGKATKAN CITRA PT. SUMMIT OTO FINANCE

    FERRIANSYAH FIRDAUS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is a program that held by the company as a form of social or environmental responsibility. UMC Dept of PT Summit Oto Finance do the CSR programs to establish good relations with the public and dealers. CSR program is handled by some sections, namely UMC Dept. Head, UMC Staff, Branch Manager and Marketing Head.The purpose of this report is to investigate the preparation, implementation and evaluation of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR UMC Department to improve the image of PT Summit Oto Finance. The concept of this research is public relations, corporate social responsibility and corporate image. This study used a qualitative approach with case study method. The data obtained by using observation, library research and in-depth interviews of key informants. The results of this study discusses the UMC Dept. CSR program in improving the image of PT Summit Oto Finance are divided into three stages, namely the preparation and planning stages, stages of implementation and evaluation stages. These three stages are carried out by the HO (head office that UMC Dept. Head and Staff and from the branch are Branch Manager and Marketing Head. The conclusion of this report is the CSR program UMC held on July 22, 2014. The three stages are performed optimally for results that have been planned, namely to establish good relations with the community and dealers as well as increasing the image that has been built.   Tanggung Jawab Sosial Perusahaan (CSR adalah program yang diselenggarakan oleh perusahaan sebagai bentuk tanggung jawab sosial atau lingkungan. UMC Dept dari PT Summit Oto Finance melakukan program CSR untuk menjalin hubungan baik dengan masyarakat dan dealer. Program CSR ditangani oleh beberapa bagian, yaitu Kepala Dept UMC, Staf UMC, Branch Manager dan Marketing Head. Tujuan dari laporan ini adalah untuk mengetahui persiapan, pelaksanaan dan evaluasi Tanggung Jawab Sosial Perusahaan UMC untuk memperbaiki

  20. [Irrigants and intracanal medicaments in endodontics].

    Zehnder, Matthias; Lehnert, Birgit; Schönenberger, Kathrin; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2003-01-01

    Modern, biologic root canal therapy should be performed with suitable irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. The goal of endodontic treatment is to free the treated tooth from infection and prevent reinfection as thoroughly as possible by means which do not put the organism at risk. In this review of the literature, an evidence-based concept for irrigation and medication of root canal systems is presented. Irrigants and medicaments are discussed with respect to their antimicrobial, tissue-dissolving and endotoxin-decontaminating capacity in relation to their systemic toxicity. Recent findings pertaining to interactions of root canal medicaments and irrigating solutions and their impact on a sound irrigating and medicating concept are discussed.

  1. Dampak Program Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) PT. Perkebunan Nusantara II Terhadap Tingkat Pendapatan Dan Penyerapan Tenaga Kerja

    Hidayat Siregar, Arief Gibran; Iskandarini, Salmiah

    2013-01-01

    Tujuan penelitianini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi konsep dan kebijakan program CSR PT. Perkebunan Nusantara III; untukmengidentifikasi dampak program CSR PT. Perkebunan Nusantara III terhadap pendapatan mitra CSR; danmengidentifikasi dampak program CSR PT. Perkebunan Nusantara III terhadap penyerapan tenaga kerja mitra CSR. Metodeanalisis data yang digunakana dalahadalah analisis uji T berpasangan (Paired T-Test) untuk mengidentifikasi dampak program Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) ter...

  2. Trend Detection for the Extent of Irrigated Agriculture in Idaho’s Snake River Plain, 1984–2016

    Eric W. Chance

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding irrigator responses to changes in water availability is critical for building strategies to support effective management of water resources. Using remote sensing data, we examine farmer responses to seasonal changes in water availability in Idaho’s Snake River Plain for the time series 1984–2016. We apply a binary threshold based on the seasonal maximum of the Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI using Landsat 5–8 images to distinguish irrigated from non-irrigated lands. We find that the NDMI of irrigated lands increased over time, consistent with trends in irrigation technology adoption and increased crop productivity. By combining remote sensing data with geospatial data describing water rights for irrigation, we show that the trend in NDMI is not universal, but differs by farm size and water source. Farmers with small farms that rely on surface water are more likely than average to have a large contraction (over −25% in irrigated area over the 33-year period of record. In contrast, those with large farms and access to groundwater are more likely than average to have a large expansion (over +25% in irrigated area over the same period.

  3. Trasax '90: An integrated transportation emergency response exercise program involving transuranic waste shipments

    Kouba, S.; Everitt, J.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last five years, the US Department of Energy (DOE), and several states and numerous local governments have been preparing for the transportation of transuranic (TRU) waste to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, near Carlsbad. Seven western states, represented by the Western Governors' Association (WGA), submitted a report to the US Congress that discussed the concerns of their constituents related to the transportation of TRU waste through their communities. One of the three major concerns identified was emergency preparedness. Initial funding to resolve concerns identified in the WGA report to Congress was provided by the US Department of Transportation. Upon receiving funding, lead states were assigned responsibilities to devise programs aimed at increasing public confidence in the areas of most concern. The responsibility for emergency response readiness, as demonstrated through a program of training and responding to simulated accident scenarios, was accepted by the state of Colorado. The state of Colorado laid out an exercise program which expanded upon the DOE training programs already offered to emergency responders along Colorado's designated TRU-waste transportation corridor. The ongoing program included a full-scale field exercise staged in Colorado Springs and dubbed, ''TRANSAX '90.''

  4. Predictors of Response to an Attention Modification Program in Generalized Social Phobia

    Amir, Nader; Taylor, Charles T.; Donohue, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: At least 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies have supported the efficacy of computerized attention modification programs (AMPs) in reducing symptoms of anxiety in patients diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. In this study we examined patient characteristics that predicted response to AMP in a large sample of…

  5. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats

    Gunia, M.; Phocas, F.; Gourdine, J.L.; Bijma, P.; Mandonnet, N.

    2013-01-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasites resistance

  6. Predicting Social Responsibility and Belonging in Urban After-School Physical Activity Programs with Underserved Children

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Byrd, Brigid; Garn, Alex; McCaughtry, Nate; Kulik, Noel; Centeio, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross sectional study was to predict feelings of belonging and social responsibility based on the motivational climate perceptions and contingent self-worth of children participating in urban after-school physical activity programs. Three-hundred and four elementary school students from a major Midwestern city participated.…

  7. Integrating Social Responsibility into an Entrepreneurship Education Program: A Case Study

    Maistry, Suriamurthee Moonsamy; Ramdhani, Jugathambal

    2010-01-01

    Entrepreneurship education in South Africa is often presented as a neutral discipline. Yet fundamental to any entrepreneurship education program should be the integration of key issues, such as ethics, values and social responsibility. This paper reports on a study that set out to explore student teachers experiences of engaging in an…

  8. Enhancing Understanding of Social Responsibility through Intentional Teacher Education Programming: A Profession's Imperative

    Miels, Jill C.

    2011-01-01

    Universities are central to promoting the idea of civic engagement. As for teacher education programs, the author believes that civic engagement is the ultimate outcome for the profession. She argues that civic engagement should be the responsibility of every individual, but often it rests solely on the shoulders of classroom teachers. In offering…

  9. 20 CFR 411.245 - What are a PM's responsibilities under the Ticket to Work program?

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are a PM's responsibilities under the Ticket to Work program? 411.245 Section 411.245 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE... formats. For purposes of this section, accessible format means by media that is appropriate to a...

  10. 44 CFR 8.3 - Senior FEMA official responsible for the information security program.

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Senior FEMA official... Senior FEMA official responsible for the information security program. The Director of the Security Division, has been designated as the senior official to direct and administer the FEMA information security...

  11. Review of current Southern California edison load management programs and proposal for a new market-driven, mass-market, demand-response program

    Weller, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Utility load management programs, including direct load control and interruptible load programs, constitute a large installed base of controllable loads that are employed by utilities as system reliability resources. In response to energy supply shortfalls expected during the summer of 2001, the California Public Utilities Commission in spring 2001 authorized new utility load management programs as well as revisions to existing programs. This report provides an independent review of the designs of these new programs for a large utility (Southern California Edison) and suggests possible improvements to enhance the price responsiveness of the customer actions influenced by these programs. The report also proposes a new program to elicit a mass-market demand response to utility price signals.

  12. PENGARUH PROGRAM CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR TERHADAP KESEJAHTERAAN KELUARGA DI SEKITAR TAMBANG

    Gilar Cahya Nirmaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR program onfamily’s well-being in Batulicin mining area, South Kalimantan. This study applied a combination of cross-sectional andretrospective design. The data were collected in Sarigadung village. Samples in this study were poor families, whom distinguished by the benefits that received from CSR program. Samples were 70 families that selected purposively; half were identified as CSR program receiver families while other difined as nonreceiver family of CSR program. The results showed that more than three-forth of the samples considered CSR programs were very positive. Generally, the family’s income increased after followed CSR program. Number of poor families under the poverty line decreased and the number of satisfied family increased. Total income of receiver families of CSR program was higher than nonreceiver families. This research also found there was no significancedifference between subjective wellbeing of receiver and nonreceiver families of CSR program. Factors that affected objective family wellbeing were family size and the benefits of CSR, while the factors that influence subjective family wellbeing were occapation status of wife and the benefits of CSR.

  13. A 12-week resistance training program elicits positive changes in hemodynamic responses in the elderly

    Cinthya Campos Salazar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a resistance training program in hemodynamic responses and adaptations in 60 yr. old elderly. Volunteers were 60 healthy-elderly who underwent a training program 3 times/wk. for 12 wk. Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group, an exercise group who trained at 30% intensity of 5 maximal repetitions (5RM (30% of 5RM or an exercise group at an intensity of 70% (70% of 5RM. Hemodynamic variables measured were mean arterial pressure (MAP, calculated before and immediately after the training session, and rate pressure product (RPP, estimated once a month and before and after finishing the program. Results indicated that resistance exercise training at 30% and 70% of 5RM, with a total exercise work of 872.7 and 890.9 kg did not elicited cardiovascular risks for the elderly. A 12-wk resistance exercise training reduced the cardiovascular strain as shown by the RPP (~16% and the MAP (~9%, with no adverse effects throughout the program. Unfortunately, all the hemodynamic benefits were reverted 6 days following completion of the program. In conclusion, a healthy elderly population must perform resistance training exercises to significantly reduce the cardiovascular stress. We suggest to conduct further research that looks into different exercise intensities in longer program duration and to determine the mechanisms responsible for the deleterious effects of the detraining by using physiological, biochemical and biomechanical variables.

  14. Climate change, irrigation, and Israeli agriculture. Will warming be harmful?

    Fleischer, Aliza; Lichtman, Ivgenia [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel); Mendelsohn, Robert [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2008-04-15

    This paper utilizes a Ricardian model to test the relationship between annual net revenues and climate across Israeli farms. The study finds that it is important to include the amount of irrigation water available to each farm in order to measure the response of farms to climate. With irrigation water omitted, the model predicts climate change is strictly beneficial. However, with water included, the model predicts that only modest climate changes are beneficial while drastic climate change in the long run will be harmful. Using the AOGCM Scenarios we show that farm net revenue is expected to increase. Although Israel has a relatively warm climate a mild increase in temperature is beneficial due to the ability to supply international markets with farm product early in the season. (author)

  15. Climate change, irrigation, and Israeli agriculture. Will warming be harmful?

    Fleischer, Aliza; Lichtman, Ivgenia; Mendelsohn, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This paper utilizes a Ricardian model to test the relationship between annual net revenues and climate across Israeli farms. The study finds that it is important to include the amount of irrigation water available to each farm in order to measure the response of farms to climate. With irrigation water omitted, the model predicts climate change is strictly beneficial. However, with water included, the model predicts that only modest climate changes are beneficial while drastic climate change in the long run will be harmful. Using the AOGCM Scenarios we show that farm net revenue is expected to increase. Although Israel has a relatively warm climate a mild increase in temperature is beneficial due to the ability to supply international markets with farm product early in the season. (author)

  16. Chlorophyll meter for estimating nitrogen status of irrigated wheat

    Schepers, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Chlorophyll-meter readings, generated from the leaves of irrigated wheat at particular growth stages, were normalized to the data obtained with locally recommended rates of fertilizer N, in Chile China, India and Mexico. Normalizing permitted comparisons of crop-N status across growth stages, locations, cultivars, and years. Relative yields and meter readings at growth-stage Z-50 are presented; they revealed similar trends for India, China, and Chile, however, for Mexico, the combination of soil, wheat cultivar, and climate resulted in much less response to N fertilization in the meter data. The implications are discussed. The SPAD meter proved to be a good tool to monitor and evaluate the N status of irrigated wheat. (author)

  17. Optimization of modern irrigation for biosaline agriculture

    Shahid, S.A.; Hasbini, B.

    2007-01-01

    Supplementation water is a must to offset the water requirement to produce profitable crops in most arid and semiarid zones, where fresh water resources are insufficient to meet the pressure of irrigated agriculture. This necessitates the use of poor quality water resources. These waters if not properly managed and used can cause serious soil related problems (salinity, sodicity, destruction of soil structure) in addition to decline in crop yields. Biosaline agriculture (using saline water on saline soils to grow salt-tolerant crops) becomes the only option for the farmer when both soil and water resources are saline and the water resource is scarce. In this regards key design considerations must be taken into account when irrigating with salty waters to optimize water uses and to reduce subsequent soil salinity development. Sprinkler irrigation systems are commonly used in irrigation of large-scale irrigational production systems. However they tend to concentrate salts on the leaves of plants. For this reason discharge and degree of overlap between consecutive sprinkler heads, are key design parameters when applying salty waters. Trickle irrigation is the most efficient system and is gaining importance in the GCC countries in the agriculture and landscape irrigation. The objective of this study was to optimize modern irrigation systems through development of design standards for drip (emitters spacing) and sprinkler irrigation systems (single head jet and overlapping) by applying saline water. The effect of emitter spacing (drip) and overlapping (sprinkler) were tested for the formation of salt contours in soil. The leaching ratio (LR) is the overall soil sanity within rhizosphere divided by the average irrigation water salinity. In this study LR is used to evaluate the effectiveness of irrigation systems in developing soil sanity. From the present investigations it is concluded that when using saline water for irrigation, the soil sanity development can be

  18. Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water

    Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema

    2010-05-01

    Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly

  19. PSOD: an interactive Fortran program to simulate the radiation dose response of membrane populations

    Perry, K.A.; Szekely, J.G.

    1982-04-01

    Program PSOD was written to simulate the distribution in responses of membrane populations subjected to random radiation doses and dose rates. It computes the response (damage) according to one of three formulas selected by the user, and outputs statistical results to the terminal. It will plot simulated dose- and response-frequency distributions in two or three dimensions. Doses and dose rates are selected from the log normal distribution; other distributions can be incorporated as the need arises. A true log normal curve with defined mean and standard deviation can also be generated. The purpose of this documentation is to provide a complete operating manual for the program. A user guide is available on-line after initiating a session of PSOD. Detailed examinations of the statistical validity of various steps have been included to aid future modifications and updating

  20. Nucleus management with irrigating vectis

    Srinivasan Aravind

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in modern cataract surgery is to achieve a better unaided visual acuity with rapid post-surgical recovery and minimal surgery-related complications. Early visual rehabilitation and better unaided vision can be achieved only by reducing the incision size. In manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS, incision is between 5.5 to 7 mm. Once the nucleus is prolapsed into the anterior chamber, it can be extracted through the tunnel. Nucleus extraction with an irrigating vectis is a very simple technique, which combines mechanical and hydrostatic forces to express out the nucleus. This technique is time-tested with good results and more than 95% of nuclei in MSICS are extracted in this way offering all the merits of phacoemulsification with the added benefits of having wider applicability, better safety, shorter learning curve and lower cost.

  1. Rational use of water in trickle irrigation design.

    Saad, J. C. C.; da Silva Junior, H. M.

    2012-04-01

    In trickle irrigation systems, the design is based on the pre-established emission uniformity (EU) which is the combined result of the equipment characteristics and its hydraulic configuration. However, this desired value of the EU may not be confirmed by the final project (in field conditions) and neither by the yield uniformity. However, the most important is to assure yield uniformity with rational use of water. The hypotheses of this research were: a) the EU of a trickle irrigation system at field conditions is equal to the emission uniformity pre-established in the design; b) EU has always the lowest value when compared with other indicators of uniformity; c) the discharge variation coefficient is not equal to production variation coefficient in the operational unit; d) the productivity variation coefficient is more dependent on water depth applied than the EU. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships among EU used in the irrigation system design, water depth applied and the final yield uniformity. The uniformity indicators evaluated were: EU, distribution uniformity (UD) and the index proposed by Barragan & Wu (2005). They were compared estimating the performance of a trickle irrigation system applied in a citrus orchard with dimensions of 400m x 600m. The design of the irrigation system was optimized by a Linear Programming model. The tree rows were leveled in the larger direction and the spacing adopted in the orchard was 7m x 4m. The manifold line was always operating on a slope condition. The sensitivity analysis involved different slopes, 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12%, and different values of emission uniformity, 60, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90 and 94%. The citrus yield uniformity was evaluated by the variation coefficient. The emission uniformity (EU) after design differed from the EU pre-established, more sharply in the initial values lower than 90%. Comparing the uniformity indexes, the EU always generated lower values when compared with the UD and with the index

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility: Keterkaitan Letak Geografis Terhadap Desain Program dan Pelaporan Perusahaan

    Deasy Sagitaningrum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the role of the geographical area surrounds company in the linkage with the design of corporate social responsibility (CSR program and CSR reporting. This study uses qualitative approach by comparing two companies in different location. They are Indonesian companies (PT Indo Tambangraya Megah Tbk and Australian company (OZ Minerals. Content analysis method is used to collect the public data. The result conveys factual information that the geographical area, natural environment, local value, and government policy create the differences for each company in designing the CSR program and the ways companies provide CSR report. Company which is located in cultural society are tend to design the CSR program by regarding the cultural values. Company which is located in certain jurisdiction tends to report CSR based on the regulated standard. Moreover, environment, education, health, and economic condition are also considered in designing CSR programs.

  3. Multiple system responses program: Identification of concerns related to a number of specific regulatory issues

    Murphy, G.A.; Casada, M.L.; Palko, L.E.; Roberts, M.W.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the activities and results of the Multiple System Responses (MSR) program conducted by the Nuclear Operations Analysis Center (NOAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the MSR program was to gather and review documentation for several unresolved safety issues and related programs of interest, and from that documentation, describe any additional potential safety concerns. The MSR program provides information that will aid the NRC staff in making an assessment of the relative safety significance of the concerns through the established prioritization process. Judgments were not made regarding the validity of the concerns expressed by others. Rather, the concerns were documented and potential safety issues were developed and defined as specifically as possible. Twenty-one potential safety issues were developed from the documented concerns. Additional information was gathered to support the NRC efforts in reviewing these issues for prioritization. 73 refs., 2 tabs

  4. The Temporal Variation of Leaf Water Potential in Pistachio under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Conditions

    Yusuf AYDIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the experimental field of Pistachio Research Institute on pistachio trees which has uzun variety that was 30 years old. The aim of this research was to determine the Leaf Water Potential (LWP of Pistacia vera L. under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. In the study, the leaf water potential of pistachio was investigated under fully irrigated and non irrigated conditions. The leaf water potential values were measured one day before and after irrigation by using pressure chamber technique at the beginning, mid and end of irrigation season. According to the results obtained from measurements, the LWP value at the beginning of the irrigation season was -3.7 MPa at noon time due to relatively high temperature for both treatments. At the time of pre-dawn and sunset, this value increased and reached to - 1.6 MPa due to relatively low temperature. In general, the LWP values during the mid of irrigation season, in the irrigated treatments, reached to almost -2.5 MPa in the non-irrigated treatment and the value was measured as -3.68 MPa.

  5. Biological degradation of chernozems under irrigation

    Oksana Naydyonova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the changes in the state of microbial cenosis of Ukraine’s chernozems under irrigation. Considerable part of Ukraine’s chernozems is located in the areas where humidification is insufficient and unstable. Irrigation is a soil-reclamation measure for chernozems of Ukrainian Forest-steppe and Steppe which enables getting the assured yield, especially vegetable and fodder crops. At the same time, irrigation is a powerful anthropogenic factor that affects the soil, causes a significant transformation of many of its properties and regimes including biological ones. Often these changes are negative. The purpose of our investigation was to identify changes in the state of microbial cenoses of chernozem soils under irrigation which depend on such factors as the quality of irrigation water, the duration and intensity of irrigation, the initial properties of soil, the structure of crop rotation, usage of fertilizing systems and agroameliorative techniques. We identified direction and evaluated a degree of changes in biological properties of chernozems under influence of irrigation in different agro-irrigational and soil-climatic conditions. In the long-term stationary field experiments we identified the following biological indices of irrigated soils and their non-irrigated analogues: a number of microorganisms which belong to main ecological-trophic groups, activity of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidase, soil phytotoxic activity, cellulose destroying capacity of soil, indices of oligotrophy and mineralization, summary biological index (SBI and index of biological degradation (BDI. Results of researches showed that irrigation unbalanced the soil ecosystem and stipulated the forming of microbial cenosis with new parameters. Long-term intensive irrigation of typical chernozem (Kharkiv Region with fresh water under condition of 4-fields vegetable crop rotation led to the degradation changes of its microbial cenosis such as

  6. Comportamento de cultivares de mamona em níveis de irrigação por gotejamento em Pentecoste, CE Response of three castor bean cultivars under five levels of irrigation in Pentecoste, CE

    Cley A. S. de Freitas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho das variáveis produtivas de três cultivares de mamoneira, a cinco níveis de irrigação por gotejamento, conduziu-se um experimento a campo, na Fazenda Experimental Vale do Curu, Pentecoste, CE. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3 com três repetições, sendo cinco lâminas de irrigação (25, 50, 75, 100 e 125% da evaporação do tanque Classe "A" e três cultivares de mamoneira (IAC Guarani, Mirante 10 e BRS Paraguaçu. A cultivar IAC Guarani produziu racemos de maior comprimento e número de frutos enquanto a Mirante 10 obteve maior rendimento de racemos por planta e teor de óleo; já a BRS Paraguaçu superou as demais cultivares quanto à massa de cem sementes e potencial produtivo. O aumento da disponibilidade hídrica proporcionou aumento de todas as variáveis produtivas, nas três cultivares. Obteve-se a melhor eficiência do uso da água com o tratamento T5 (913,4 mm na cultivar BRS Paraguaçu, que resultou na produtividade de 2.872,42 kg ha-1. Os racemos secundários foram os que mais contribuíram com a produtividade total da mamoneira.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the productive characteristics of three castor bean cultivars under different levels of drip irrigation. This work was carried out at the Experimental Farm Vale do Curu, Pentecoste (CE. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design in split plots, with factorial scheme consisting of 5 irrigation levels and 3 cultivars. The levels of irrigation were based on evaporation of the Tank Class "A" - ECA (T1 = 0.25 ECA; T2 = 0.50 ECA; T3 = 0.75 ECA; T4 = 1.00 ECA; T5 = 1.25 ECA. The variables length and number of fruits per racemes were higher for the IAC Guarani, while the content of oil and number of racemes per plant were higher for the Mirante 10. However the Paraguaçu BRS stood out in comparison to other cultivars as for the mass of one hundred seeds and

  7. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  8. Development and process evaluation of a Web-based responsible beverage service training program.

    Danaher, Brian G; Dresser, Jack; Shaw, Tracy; Severson, Herbert H; Tyler, Milagra S; Maxwell, Elisabeth D; Christiansen, Steve M

    2012-09-22

    Responsible beverage service (RBS) training designed to improve the appropriate service of alcohol in commercial establishments is typically delivered in workshops. Recently, Web-based RBS training programs have emerged. This report describes the formative development and subsequent design of an innovative Web-delivered RBS program, and evaluation of the impact of the program on servers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. Formative procedures using focus groups and usability testing were used to develop a Web-based RBS training program. Professional alcohol servers (N = 112) who worked as servers and/or mangers in alcohol service settings were recruited to participate. A pre-post assessment design was used to assess changes associated with using the program. Participants who used the program showed significant improvements in their RBS knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. Although the current study did not directly observe and determine impact of the intervention on server behaviors, it demonstrated that the development process incorporating input from a multidisciplinary team in conjunction with feedback from end-users resulted in creation of a Web-based RBS program that was well-received by servers and that changed relevant knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The results also help to establish a needed evidence base in support of the use of online RBS training, which has been afforded little research attention.

  9. Optimal Allocation of the Irrigation Water Through a Non Linear Mathematical Model

    P. Rubino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on the optimal allocation of the irrigation water among 9 crops (autumnal and spring sugar beet, spring and summer grain maize, dry and shell bean, eggplant, pepper and processing tomato has been carried out, utilizing experimental data of yield response to irrigation obtained in different years in Southern Italy (Policoro MT, 40° 12’ Northern Lat.; 16° 40’Western Long.. Fitting Mitscherlich’s equation modified by Giardini and Borin to the experimental data of each crop, the curve response parameters have been calculated: A = maximum achievable yield in the considered area (t ha-1; b = extra-irrigation water used by the crop (m3 ha-1; c = water action factor (ha m- 3; K, calculated only for tomato crop. ,decreasing factor due to the water exceeding the optimal seasonal irrigation volume (100% of the Crop Maximum Evapotranspiration less effective rainfall, ETMlr. The A values, using the prices of the agricultural produces and the irrigation water tariffs applied by the Consorzio Irriguo della Capitanata, have been converted in Value of Production (VP less the fixed and variable irrigation costs (VPlic. The equation parameters were used in a non linear mathematical model written in GAMS (General Algebraic Modelling System, in order to define the best irrigation water allocation amongst the 9 crops across the entire range of water availability and the volume of maximum economical advantage, hypothesising that each crop occupied the same surface (1 ha. This seasonal irrigation volume, that corresponded to the maximum total VPlic, was equal to 37000 m3. Moreover, the model allowed to define the best irrigation water distribution among the crops also for total available volumes lower than that of maximum economical advantage (37000 m3. Finally, it has been underlined that the vegetable crops should be irrigated with seasonal irrigation volumes equal to 100% of the ETM, whereas the summer and spring maize and the autumnal and spring

  10. Drip and Surface Irrigation Water Use Efficiency of Tomato Crop Using Nuclear Techniques

    Mellouli, H.J.; Askri, H.; Mougou, R.

    2003-01-01

    Nations in the arid and semi-arid regions, especially the Arab countries, will have to take up an important challenge at the beginning of the 21 st century: increasing food production in order to realise food security for growing population, wile optimising the use of limited water resources. Using and adapting management techniques like the drip irrigation system could obtain the later. This would allow reduction in water losses by bare soil evaporation and deep percolation. Consequently improved water use efficiency could be realised. In this way, this work was conducted as a contribution on the Tunisian national programs on the optimisation of the water use. By mean a field study at Cherfech Experimental Station (30 km from Tunis), the effect of the irrigation system on the water use efficiency (WUE)-by a season tomato crop-was monitored by comparing three treatments receiving equivalent quantities of fertiliser: Fertigation, Drip irrigation and Furrow irrigation. Irrigation was scheduled by mean calculation of the water requirement based on the agro meteorological data, the plant physiological stage and the soil water characteristics (Clay Loam). The plant water consumption (ETR) was determined by using soil water balance method, where rainfall and amount of irrigation water readily measured

  11. Program Corporate Social Responsibility di Industri Hotel: Sebuah Keuntungan atau Kerugian untuk Hotel

    Maria Pia Adiati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A word of CSR which stands for Corporate Social Responsibility is now becoming popular and more often many companies insert the CSR activities into its company profile. CSR has another different names such as Social Activity or Sustainability Development. CSR program according to wikipedia ia an organization or company has a responsibility to its customer, employees, share holders, community and environment in every aspect involved in company operasional. In the management science, there is a level whereas it is called social responsibility or it is just social obligation. Many opinions argues that CSR program will reduce the profit of the respected company. But many opinions denies the previous argue by saying the CSR program is a long term program profit gain since the short term result is good public image. The good public image will lead the loyalti of customer to keep using the product or service from the hotel. The customer loyalti also affected by the customer’s opinion, if they involves in the social activities held by the hotel, they also participate in a social activity.

  12. Transanal irrigation is effective in functional fecal incontinence

    Jørgensen, Cecilie Siggaard; Kamperis, Konstantinos; Modin, Line

    2017-01-01

    Functional fecal incontinence (FFI) is divided into cases related to functional constipation (FC) and cases without concomitant constipation termed functional non-retentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI). Transanal irrigation (TAI) is widely used in children with neurogenic fecal incontinence...... and 35% (n = 25) were titrated to daily sessions. Of the 63 children who fulfilled the Rome III criteria of constipation, 46 (73%) showed full response with complete remission of incontinence episodes. Eleven (17%) showed partial response (≥50% reduction). Of nine children with FNRFI, four (44%) showed...

  13. Smallholder Led Irrigation Development in the Humid Ethiopian highlands

    Tilahun, S. A.; Schmitter, P.; Alemie, T. C.; Yilak, D. L.; Yimer, A.; Mamo, A.; Langan, S.; Baronn, J.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    More than 70% of the population of in sub-Saharan Africa are living in rural areas that depend on the rainfed agriculture for their livelihood on the rainfed agriculture. With the rapidly increasing population, competition for land and water is growing is intensifying. This, together with future landscape and climate change, the rainfed agriculture is unlikely to meet the future food demands. Many donors see irrigation a rational way to solve the future food crises. In Ethiopia, less than 10% of the irrigatable area has been developed. The main limitation of increasing the irrigatable areas is a severe lack of surface water during an extended dry phase of almost seven months. Flow in most rivers currently have dried up before the rain phase begins middle of the dry periods. In response, the Ethiopian government is installing large reservoirs at great cost to store water from the wet monsoon phase. At the same time, small scale household have started using irrigation using wells on sloping lands that have sprung up with minimal governmental intervention. It could be one of the strategies to increase the irrigated acreage without large investments. Donors and governmental planners are eager to follow the farmer's initiatives and intensify irrigation on these hillside areas. However, it is not yet known to the extent that it is sustainable. For this reason, shallow ground water levels and river discharge were measured over a three-year period in the Robit Bata and Dangishta watersheds in Northern Ethiopian highlands for assessing recharge and use of shallow groundwater irrigation during dry period. The theoretical results show that the ground water availability depends on the slope of the land and the depth of the soil. In sloping Robit Bata watershed the groundwater runs out under gravity to the stream channel in 3-4 months after the rainfall stops. The only wells that remain productive are those associated with fractures in the bedrock. For the less sloping

  14. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats.

    Gunia, M; Phocas, F; Gourdine, J-L; Bijma, P; Mandonnet, N

    2013-02-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasite resistance and resilience traits. The overall breeding goal included traits for production, reproduction, and parasite resilience and resistance to ensure a balanced selection outcome. The production traits were BW and dressing percentage (DP). The reproduction trait was fertility (FER), which was the number of doe kiddings per mating. The resistance trait was worm fecal egg count (FEC), which is a measurement of the number of gastro-intestinal parasite eggs found in the feces. The resilience trait was the packed cell volume (PCV), which is a measurement of the volume of red blood cells in the blood. Dressing percentage, BW, and FEC were measured at 11 mo of age, which is the mating or selling age. Fertility and PCV were measured on females at each kidding period. The breeding program accounting for the overall breeding goal and a selection index including all traits gave annual selection responses of 800 g for BW, 3.75% for FER, 0.08% for DP, -0.005 ln(eggs/g) for FEC, and 0.28% for PCV. The expected selection responses for BW and DP in this breeding program were reduced by 2% and 6%, respectively, compared with a breeding program not accounting for FEC and PCV. The overall breeding program, proposed for the Creole breed, offers the best breeding strategy in terms of expected selection responses, making it possible to improve all traits together. It offers a good balance between production and adaptation traits and may present some interest for the selection of other goat breeds in the tropics.

  15. EVALUATION OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION IN BOGOR PDAM TIRTA PAKUAN, WEST JAVA PROVINCE

    Ismartaya Ismartaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine whether the evaluation corporate social responsibility program implementation in Bogor PDAM Tirta Pakuan has been implemented in accordance with the vision, mission, and objectives of the company. PDAM Tirta Pakuan has a vision of CSR as a pioneer in the implementation of social responsibility in Bogor city especially and Indonesia in general. Through this vision, PDAM Tirta Pakuan Bogor city, would really seriously on the implementation of the CSR programs. Based on these purposes, this research is done by evaluating the CSR programs which implemented by PDAM Tirta Pakuan Bogor city and use CIPP evaluation model to conduct an evaluation of the program. The type which used on this research is evaluation research with using a qualitative approach. The source of information used is the Chief Executive of CSR PDAM Tirta Pakuan Bogor. Data collected by the observation, interview and documentation. Test validity of this research by using triangulation technique, while data analysis is done by reducing the data, presenting and concluding. The result shows that the program Tirta Pakuan care as the company’s strategy goes according to the purposes and plans that have been made by the company.

  16. A program to calculate pulse transmission responses through transversely isotropic media

    Li, Wei; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Zou, Changchun; Chen, Xiwei

    2018-05-01

    We provide a program (AOTI2D) to model responses of ultrasonic pulse transmission measurements through arbitrarily oriented transversely isotropic rocks. The program is built with the distributed point source method that treats the transducers as a series of point sources. The response of each point source is calculated according to the ray-tracing theory of elastic plane waves. The program could offer basic wave parameters including phase and group velocities, polarization, anisotropic reflection coefficients and directivity patterns, and model the wave fields, static wave beam, and the observed signals for pulse transmission measurements considering the material's elastic stiffnesses and orientations, sample dimensions, and the size and positions of the transmitters and the receivers. The program could be applied to exhibit the ultrasonic beam behaviors in anisotropic media, such as the skew and diffraction of ultrasonic beams, and analyze its effect on pulse transmission measurements. The program would be a useful tool to help design the experimental configuration and interpret the results of ultrasonic pulse transmission measurements through either isotropic or transversely isotropic rock samples.

  17. Ancestral irrigation method by kanis in Bolivia

    Roldán-Cañas, José; Chipana, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation in the Andean region is an ancient practice. For centuries, farmers were able to use the waters of rivers, lakes and springs to complement or supplement the scarce rainfall regime. The inter-Andean valleys of the Department of La Paz are the best areas for the study of traditional irrigation systems. This work has been carried out in the community of Jatichulaya located in te town of Charazani, 300 km from the city of La Paz, which lies 3250 meters above sea level. The annual rainfall ranges around 450 mm distributed mainly between the months of December to March. Therefore, water is needed to achieve adequate crop yields. The traditional irrigation system is done by the method of Kanis, consisting of a surface irrigation already developed by traditional Andean cultures of the country, in harmony with the ecological and productive characteristics of the area. Water enters the irrigation plot through a main channel (mama kani) from which the secondary channels (juchuy kanis) are derived. The fundamental characteristic of this irrigation is that these channels are open at the same time the water enters into the plot. The system works properly, adapting to the topography of the area. The irrigation method practiced in this community does not cause water erosion of soils because water management within the plot is based on the ancient knowledge of farmers following the contour lines. This practice allows good irrigation development and soil protection without causing any problems. However, it was evident a high use of labor in irrigation practice. Irrigation scheduling is done according to requests made by the irrigators in a given period. Delivering of water to the farmers is made by the so-called Water Agent (Agente de Aguas) or person in charge of the distribution of water. The Water Agent is elected annually and its functions include the maintenance and care of all system waterworks. The period between August and January is the highest water demand and

  18. Impact of Demand Response Programs on Optimal Operation of Multi-Microgrid System

    Anh-Duc Nguyen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased penetration of renewables is beneficial for power systems but it poses several challenges, i.e., uncertainty in power supply, power quality issues, and other technical problems. Backup generators or storage system have been proposed to solve this problem but there are limitations remaining due to high installation and maintenance cost. Furthermore, peak load is also an issue in the power distribution system. Due to the adjustable characteristics of loads, strategies on demand side such as demand response (DR are more appropriate in order to deal with these challenges. Therefore, this paper studies how DR programs influence the operation of the multi-microgrid (MMG. The implementation is executed based on a hierarchical energy management system (HiEMS including microgrid EMSs (MG-EMSs responsible for local optimization in each MG and community EMS (C-EMS responsible for community optimization in the MMG. Mixed integer linear programming (MILP-based mathematical models are built for MMG optimal operation. Five scenarios consisting of single DR programs and DR groups are tested in an MMG test system to evaluate their impact on MMG operation. Among the five scenarios, some DR programs apply curtailing strategies, resulting in a study about the influence of base load value and curtailable load percentage on the amount of curtailed load and shifted load as well as the operation cost of the MMG. Furthermore, the impact of DR programs on the amount of external and internal trading power in the MMG is also examined. In summary, each individual DR program or group could be handy in certain situations depending on the interest of the MMG such as external trading, self-sufficiency or operation cost minimization.

  19. Enhancing Adoption of Irrigation Scheduling to Sustain the Viability of Fruit and Nut Crops in California

    Fulton, A.; Snyder, R.; Hillyer, C.; English, M.; Sanden, B.; Munk, D.

    2012-04-01

    stress in order to manage it in heterogeneous fields; and (iii) predicting crop responses to water stress. The capacities of this IMO include: 1. Modeling of the disposition of applied water in spatially variable fields; 2. Conjunctive scheduling for multiple fields, rather than scheduling each field independently; 3. Long range forecasting of crop water requirements to better utilize limited water or limited delivery system capacity: and 4. Explicit modeling of the uncertainties of water use and crop yield. This was one of the first efforts to employ a "Next Generation" type computer irrigation scheduling advisory model or IMO in orchard crops. This paper discusses experiences with introducing this model to fruit and nut growers of various size and scale in the northern Sacramento Valley of California and the accuracy of its forecasts of irrigation needs in fruit and nut crops. Strengths and opportunities to forge ahead in the development of a "Next Generation" irrigation scheduler were identified from this on-farm evaluation.

  20. Sustainable Ergonomic Program - Basic Condition for Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Marková, Petra; Beňo, Rastislav; Hatiar, Karol

    2012-12-01

    Gradually increasing pressure on companies to start to behave socially responsible is a response to social, environmental and economic requirements. The society faces a period of changes that have occurred since the beginning of the crisis and revealing weaknesses in the economy. We become witnesses of rapid changes and challenges posed by globalization, lack of resources, demographic structure and innovation. Objective necessity becomes a corporate social responsibility (CSR) already at the companies’ level, which is supported by the approach of the EU institutions and the Slovak Republic. One of the possible appliance through which we can contribute to the sustainability of CSR are sustainable ergonomic programs. When we want to talk about sustainable ergonomic program is important to focus on three key areas. The first area is the Impact of technic and technology to employees at work, the second area is the Importance and impact of socially responsible HR in ergonomics and last area is the Creation of the work environment in relation to environmental sustainability. Ergonomic programs sustainability requires to apply appropriate methods for evaluation of their cost benefit and health effect.

  1. Delineation of diverse macrophage activation programs in response to intracellular parasites and cytokines.

    Shuyi Zhang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reside and proliferate in macrophages is characteristic of several infectious agents that are of major importance to public health, including the intracellular parasites Trypanosoma cruzi (the etiological agent of Chagas disease and Leishmania species (etiological agents of Kala-Azar and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Although recent studies have elucidated some of the ways macrophages respond to these pathogens, the relationships between activation programs elicited by these pathogens and the macrophage activation programs elicited by bacterial pathogens and cytokines have not been delineated.To provide a global perspective on the relationships between macrophage activation programs and to understand how certain pathogens circumvent them, we used transcriptional profiling by genome-wide microarray analysis to compare the responses of mouse macrophages following exposure to the intracellular parasites T. cruzi and Leishmania mexicana, the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and the cytokines IFNG, TNF, IFNB, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17. We found that LPS induced a classical activation state that resembled macrophage stimulation by the Th1 cytokines IFNG and TNF. However, infection by the protozoan pathogen L. mexicana produced so few transcriptional changes that the infected macrophages were almost indistinguishable from uninfected cells. T. cruzi activated macrophages produced a transcriptional signature characterized by the induction of interferon-stimulated genes by 24 h post-infection. Despite this delayed IFN response by T. cruzi, the transcriptional response of macrophages infected by the kinetoplastid pathogens more closely resembled the transcriptional response of macrophages stimulated by the cytokines IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17 than macrophages stimulated by Th1 cytokines.This study provides global gene expression data for a diverse set of biologically significant pathogens and cytokines and identifies the relationships between

  2. Spatially dependent burnup implementation into the nodal program based on the finite element response matrix method

    Yoriyaz, H.

    1986-01-01

    In this work a spatial burnup scheme and feedback effects has been implemented into the FERM ( 'Finite Element Response Matrix' )program. The spatially dependent neutronic parameters have been considered in three levels: zonewise calculation, assembly wise calculation and pointwise calculation. Flux and power distributions and the multiplication factor were calculated and compared with the results obtained by CITATIOn program. These comparisons showed that processing time in the Ferm code has been hundred of times shorter and no significant difference has been observed in the assembly average power distribution. (Author) [pt

  3. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  4. effect of deficit irrigation on growth and yield of okro

    User

    reduce the demand for irrigation water (Boland et al., 1993). Deficit irrigation is another way in which water use efficiency can be maximized for higher yields per unit of irrigation water. Stegman (1982) reported that the yield of maize, sprinkler irrigated to induce a 30 - 40 percent depletion of available water between.

  5. Emergency Response Program Designing Based On Case Study ERP Regulations In Ilam Gas Refinery

    Mehdi Tahmasbi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of Emergency response plan designing is one of the most important prevention approaches in crisis management. This study aims to design emergency response plan based on case study ERP regulations in Ilam gas refinery. On the basis of risk assessment and identification techniques such as HAZOP and FMEA in Ilam gas refinery the risks have been prioritized and then according to this prioritization the design of possible scenarios which have the highest rate of occurrence and the highest level of damage has been separated. Possible scenarios were simulated with PHAST software. Then emergency response program has been designed for the special mode or similar cases. According to the internal emergency response plan for Ilam gas refinery and predictable conditions of the process special instructions should be considered at the time of the incident to suffer the least damage on people and environment in the shortest time possible.

  6. Growth adjustments of conifers to drought and to century-long irrigation

    Feichtinger, L.M.; Eilmann, B.; Buchmann, N.; Rigling, A.

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge on tree responses to drought is mainly based on short-term manipulation experiments which do not capture any possible long-term adjustments in this response. Therefore, historical water channels in inner-Alpine dry valleys were used as century-long irrigation experiments to investigate

  7. Organic cultivation of onion under castor cake fertilization and irrigation depths

    Gabriel Alves Botelho de Mello

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects that different doses of castor bean (0, 200, and 300 g m-2 and irrigation levels (204, 224, 278, and 321 mm in 2014, and 278, 302, 397, and 444 mm in 2015 have on both the productivity and quality of onion bulbs. In the experiments, the experimental design was randomized blocks (4 x 3 factorial scheme, with five replicates. Irrigation management was performed using a Simplified Irrigation Device (SID in response to soil water tension in the treatment of highest irrigation depth. The following variables were evaluated: plant dry biomass (PDB, bulb dry biomass (BDB, total yield (TY, mean bulb fresh weight (MBFW, mean bulb dry weight (MBDW, mean bulb diameter (MBD and water use efficiency (WUE. The highest irrigation depths positively influenced the mean production of onion bulbs, regardless of the applied dose of castor cake. The doses of castor cake positively influenced the production of onion bulbs when higher irrigation depths were applied.

  8. Farmers’ willingness to pay for surface water in the West Mitidja irrigated perimeter, northern Algeria

    Malika Azzi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Algeria is among the most water-stressed countries in the world. Because of its climatic conditions, irrigation is essential for agricultural production. Water prices paid by farmers in public irrigation districts are very low and do not cover the operation and maintenance (O&M costs of the irrigated perimeters, thus leading to the deterioration of these infrastructures. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether farmer’s in the West Mitidja irrigation district in northern Algeria would be willing to pay more for surface water in order to maintain the water supply service in its current conditions. We estimated farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP for water using data from a dichotomous choice contingent valuation survey to 112 randomly selected farmers. Farmers’ responses were modelled using logistic regression techniques. We also analysed which technical, structural, social and economic characteristics of farms and farmers explain the differences in WTP. Our results showed that nearly 80% of the surveyed farmers are willing to pay an extra price for irrigation water. The average WTP was 64% greater than the price currently paid by farmers, suggesting some scope for improving the financial resources of the Mitidja irrigated perimeter, but insufficient to cover all O&M costs. Some of the key identified factors that affect WTP for surface water relate to farm ownership, access to groundwater resources, cropping patterns, farmers’ agricultural training and risk exposure.

  9. Survey of Endodontic Irrigants Used by Dentists With Varying Years of Professional Experience

    Sharkov Nikolai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The aim of the present study was to describe the use of irrigants by dentists in Bulgaria in relation to their years of professional experience. Material and Methods: The data were collected with the help of a questionnaire. The survey included questions concerning frequency of irrigants applied, their respective concentrations, as well as spectrum of disinfectants used in endodontics. In addition, information about respondents’ age, years of professional experience, gender, and main areas of continuing education was collected. The statistical analysis was performed with the help of IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0. Results: 219 replies were analysed (response rate 27,3%. The majority of the respondents (31.1% had 21 to 30 years of professional experience. 18.7% had over 30 years. Most of the practitioners reported their continuing education to be in the area of general dentistry - 52%, while about 1.2 % had specialised in endodontics. Dentists with long-standing professional experience use predominantly H2O2 - 78%. Dentists with least experience use 17% EDTA - 53.6%. No significant differences were established for the use of sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine. 82% of the respondents use conventional needle 27G for intracanal irrigation; 60% never use ultrasonic irrigation. Conclusions: The analysis of the usage of irrigants shows that many general dental practitioners do not follow the quality recommended protocols for endodontic irrigation protocols.

  10. A coupled agronomic-economic model to consider allocation of brackish irrigation water

    Ben-Gal, Alon; Weikard, Hans-Peter; Shah, Syed Hamid Hussain; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.

    2013-05-01

    In arid and semiarid regions, irrigation water is scarce and often contains high concentrations of salts. To reduce negative effects on crop yields, the irrigated amounts must include water for leaching and therefore exceed evapotranspiration. The leachate (drainage) water returns to water sources such as rivers or groundwater aquifers and increases their level of salinity and the leaching requirement for irrigation water of any sequential user. We develop a conceptual sequential (upstream-downstream) model of irrigation that predicts crop yields and water consumption and tracks the water flow and level of salinity along a river dependent on irrigation management decisions. The model incorporates an agro-physical model of plant response to environmental conditions including feedbacks. For a system with limited water resources, the model examines the impacts of water scarcity, salinity and technically inefficient application on yields for specific crop, soil, and climate conditions. Moving beyond the formulation of a conceptual frame, we apply the model to the irrigation of Capsicum annum on Arava Sandy Loam soil. We show for this case how water application could be distributed between upstream and downstream plots or farms. We identify those situations where it is beneficial to trade water from upstream to downstream farms (assuming that the upstream farm holds the water rights). We find that water trade will improve efficiency except when loss levels are low. We compute the marginal value of water, i.e., the price water would command on a market, for different levels of water scarcity, salinity and levels of water loss.

  11. Proanthocyanidin Accumulation and Biosynthesis Are Modulated by the Irrigation Regime in Tempranillo Seeds

    Tania Genebra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main effects of three different irrigation regimes, i.e., sustained deficit irrigation (SDI, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI and non-irrigated (NI, on seed traits namely proanthocyanidins (PAs were evaluated in the wine grape cultivar Aragonez (syn. Tempranillo grown in Alentejo (Portugal over two growing seasons. Results showed that while the number of seeds per berry was not affected by water availability, seed fresh weight differed among treatments, the NI treatment exhibiting the lowest values. The biosynthetic pathway of flavanols appeared to be modified by the irrigation treatment, and several genes responsible for PA synthesis were up-regulated in the most stressed seeds (RDI and NI. However, this effect had no impact on PA content, suggesting the influence of other factors such as oxidation and/or degradation of PAs at late stages of maturation in grape seeds. The seeds’ non-enzymatic antioxidant capacities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and hydroxyl radical adverting capacity (HORAC were modulated by water deficit and correlated well with PA content. The impact of irrigation strategy on PA biosynthesis, content, and anti-radical activity during seed ripening is discussed in the context of increasing interest in the role of PAs in the color and taste of wine, and the potential health benefits relating to their antioxidant capacity.

  12. Farmers’ willingness to pay for surface water in the West Mitidja irrigated perimeter, northern Algeria

    Azzi, M.; Calatrava, J.; Bedrani, S.

    2018-01-01

    Algeria is among the most water-stressed countries in the world. Because of its climatic conditions, irrigation is essential for agricultural production. Water prices paid by farmers in public irrigation districts are very low and do not cover the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of the irrigated perimeters, thus leading to the deterioration of these infrastructures. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether farmer’s in the West Mitidja irrigation district in northern Algeria would be willing to pay more for surface water in order to maintain the water supply service in its current conditions. We estimated farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for water using data from a dichotomous choice contingent valuation survey to 112 randomly selected farmers. Farmers’ responses were modelled using logistic regression techniques. We also analysed which technical, structural, social and economic characteristics of farms and farmers explain the differences in WTP. Our results showed that nearly 80% of the surveyed farmers are willing to pay an extra price for irrigation water. The average WTP was 64% greater than the price currently paid by farmers, suggesting some scope for improving the financial resources of the Mitidja irrigated perimeter, but insufficient to cover all O&M costs. Some of the key identified factors that affect WTP for surface water relate to farm ownership, access to groundwater resources, cropping patterns, farmers’ agricultural training and risk exposure.

  13. Optimizing nitrogen-fertilizer application to wheat under irrigation

    Boaretto, A.E.; Spolidoirio, E.S.; Trivelin, P.C.O.; Muraoka, T.; Freitas, J.G. de; Cantarella, H.

    2000-01-01

    The responses of wheat to urea, its time of application and the fate of the applied N under irrigation were studied over 2 years. Also studied was the recovery of residual N by soybean planted in the same plots. Maximum grain productivity was obtained with 90 kg N ha -1 . Urea-N uptake ranged from 52% for application at sowing, to 85% when applied at tillering. The main loss of fertilizer N occurred as ammonia volatilized, which ranged from 5 to 12%. Loss of N by leaching was less than 1%, even with an application of 135 kg N ha -1 , which is higher than the rate locally recommended for irrigated wheat. The small leaching loss was due to little rainfall during the growing season and irrigation sufficient only to moisten the root zone. The residual N after wheat harvest represented around 40% of that applied: 21% in soil (to a depth of 60 cm), 3% in roots and 16% in the wheat straw. Soybean recovered less than 2% of the N applied to the wheat. (author)

  14. Revisiting the extended producer responsibility program for metal packaging in South Korea.

    Kim, Soyoung; Mori, Akihisa

    2015-05-01

    Recently, developed and emerging countries have increasingly adopted the principle of extended producer responsibility (EPR) to reduce waste. In 2003, South Korea replaced the waste deposit recycling (WDR) program with the EPR program. Previous comparative analyses between the WDR and EPR programs have been qualitative evaluations and have not yet quantitatively shown whether the change has increased benefits. The aim of this paper is to explore which program brings larger net benefits. Because of limited data availability, here we focus on metal packaging exclusively. We find that the recycling rate dropped from 59% in 2000 to 40% in 2011 and recycling volume dropped accordingly. Cost-benefit incidence analysis shows that net social benefits decreased by 2.8 billion won (2.5 million US dollars), while the net benefits to producers increased by 1.9 billion won (1.7 million US dollars) under the EPR program compared with the WDR program. The government of South Korea should set an ambitious recycling target and narrow the scope of the exemption from the mandatory recycling requirement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The inclusion of disadvantaged children in preschool programs: The children’s rights and social responsibility

    Jager Jerneja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation of at least 95% of children between the ages of 4 and the mandatory school age in high-quality preschool programs represents an important contribution to the achievement of the Europe 2020 strategy. Slovenia is not far from achieving this objective; however, if we consider participation in preschool programs from the perspective of the entire population of preschool children and the realisation of children’s rights, we note that nearly a quarter of children - among them (at least in the wider European area the most disadvantaged - have not realised the right to education. We studied the awareness of the importance of ensuring access to preschool programs for all children on a representative sample of 106 Slovenian preschool principals by means of quantitative pedagogical research. The results show a high percentage of disadvantaged children in the preschool areas and in the preschools themselves; on the other hand, only a low percentage (only one-third of preschools collect data about disadvantaged children and implement preschool programs for them; only one-fifth of preschools implement preschool programs for disadvantaged children. In order to act responsibly and enable all children the right to education, we must start devoting greater attention to identifying and including disadvantaged children in preschool programs.

  16. Response of a clingstone peach cultivar to regulated deficit irrigation Resposta de um cultivar de pêssego com caroço aderente à irrigação por défice regulado

    Thomas Sotiropoulos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI involves inducing water stress during specific fruit growth phases by irrigating at less than full evapotranspiration. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of RDI perfomed at stage II of fruit growth and postharvest, on productivity of clingstone peaches, fruit quality as well as photosynthetic rate and midday leaf water potential. The research was conducted in a commercial clingstone peach (Prunus persica L. Batch cv. A-37 orchard in Greece. Trees were irrigated by means of microsprinklers and their frequency was determined using local meteorological station data and the FAO 56 Pennman-Monteith method. Photosynthetic rate was measured by a portable infrared gas analyzer. Midday leaf water potential was measured by the pressure chamber technique. During the years 2005 and 2006, the treatment RDII with irrigation applied at growth stage II of the peach tree did not affect productivity, fresh and dry mass of fruits. RDII reduced preharvest fruit drop in comparison to the control. RDII as well as the combined treatment RDII plus RDIP with irrigation applied at postharvest, at both years reduced shoot length of the vigorous shoots inside the canopy. RDII in comparison to the control increased the soluble solids content of the fruits and the ratio soluble solids/acidity. However it did not affect fruit acidity and fruit firmness. RDII as well as RDII plus RDIP in 2006 increased 'double' fruits and fruits with open cavity in comparison to the control and RDIP. Water savings were considerable and associated with the climatic conditions of each year.A irrigação por défice regulado (RDI envolve a indução de défice de água durante fases específicas do crescimento das frutas, irrigando a taxas menores que a evapotranspiração. Os objetivos desse estudo foram verificar os efeitos da RDI no estágio II do crescimento das frutas e no periodo pós-colheita, avaliando a produtividade de p

  17. Local land-atmosphere feedbacks limit irrigation demand

    Decker, Mark; Ma, Shaoxiu; Pitman, Andy

    2017-05-01

    Irrigation is known to influence regional climate but most studies forecast and simulate irrigation with offline (i.e. land only) models. Using south eastern Australia as a test bed, we demonstrate that irrigation demand is fundamentally different between land only and land-atmosphere simulations. While irrigation only has a small impact on maximum temperature, the semi-arid environment experiences near surface moistening in coupled simulations over the irrigated regions, a feedback that is prevented in offline simulations. In land only simulations that neglect the local feedbacks, the simulated irrigation demand is 25% higher and the standard deviation of the mean irrigation rate is 60% smaller. These local-scale irrigation-driven feedbacks are not resolved in coarse-resolution climate models implying that use of these tools will overestimate irrigation demand. Future studies of irrigation demand must therefore account for the local land-atmosphere interactions by using coupled frameworks, at a spatial resolution that captures the key feedbacks.

  18. Modeling transducer impulse responses for predicting calibrated pressure pulses with the ultrasound simulation program Field II

    Bæk, David; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Willatzen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    FIELD II is a simulation software capable of predicting the field pressure in front of transducers having any complicated geometry. A calibrated prediction with this program is, however, dependent on an exact voltage-to-surface acceleration impulse response of the transducer. Such impulse response...... is not calculated by FIELD II. This work investigates the usability of combining a one-dimensional multilayer transducer modeling principle with the FIELD II software. Multilayer here refers to a transducer composed of several material layers. Measurements of pressure and current from Pz27 piezoceramic disks...... transducer model and the FIELD II software in combination give good agreement with measurements....

  19. Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for Improved Productivity

    AR Sanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11082 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 235-240

  20. Perceived profitability and well-being in Australian dryland farmers and irrigators.

    Peel, Dominic; Berry, Helen L; Schirmer, Jacki

    2015-08-01

    To describe the relationship between self-reported farm profitability and farmer well-being, and to explore potential implications for farmer assistance policy. Cross-sectional analysis of farmers from Regional Wellbeing Survey data (wave 1, 2013) and comparison between groups. Participants were 1172 dryland farmers (35% women) and 707 irrigators (24% women). The Personal Wellbeing Index and the Kessler 10-item measure of general psychological distress. There is a consistent and significant relationship between higher profitability, greater well-being and less distress among dryland farmers and irrigators. The relationship between farm profitability and the well-being of Australian dryland farmers and irrigators has the potential to inform farmer assistance policy. Assistance programs can be more effective if they explicitly incorporate a profitability assessment into their targeting and eligibility requirements and a well-being component into program design and delivery. Rural Australia. Not applicable. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. 16. PRE-OPERATIVE BLADDER IRRIGATION

    Esem

    effectiveness of using preoperative bladder irrigation with 1% povidone iodine in reducing ... consenting patient who presented to the department of surgery for open ..... infections in a tertiary care center in south-western. Nigeria. International ...

  2. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic

    Groundwater quality; irrigation and domestic suitability; ionic balance, Suri I and II ... is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. ... total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study.

  3. Parasitological Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw ...

    Tadesse

    Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater- irrigated vegetables ..... reported the health hazards of agricultural reuse of untreated wastewater through detection of .... State of knowledge in land treatment of wastewater.

  4. The Regularity of Optimal Irrigation Patterns

    Morel, Jean-Michel; Santambrogio, Filippo

    2010-02-01

    A branched structure is observable in draining and irrigation systems, in electric power supply systems, and in natural objects like blood vessels, the river basins or the trees. Recent approaches of these networks derive their branched structure from an energy functional whose essential feature is to favor wide routes. Given a flow s in a river, a road, a tube or a wire, the transportation cost per unit length is supposed in these models to be proportional to s α with 0 measure is the Lebesgue density on a smooth open set and the irrigating measure is a single source. In that case we prove that all branches of optimal irrigation trees satisfy an elliptic equation and that their curvature is a bounded measure. In consequence all branching points in the network have a tangent cone made of a finite number of segments, and all other points have a tangent. An explicit counterexample disproves these regularity properties for non-Lebesgue irrigated measures.

  5. Environmental and emergency response capabilities of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's radiological air sampling program

    Gunderson, T.C.

    1980-05-01

    Environmental and emergency response radiological air sampling capabilities of the Environmental Surveillance Group at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are described. The air sampling program provides a supplementary check on the adequacy of containment and effluent controls, determines compliance with applicable protection guides and standards, and assesses potential environmental impacts on site environs. It also allows evaluation of potential individual and total population doses from airborne radionuclides that may be inhaled or serve as a source of external radiation. The environmental program is sufficient in scope to detect fluctuations and long-term trends in atmospheric levels of radioactivity originating onsite. The emergency response capabilities are designed to respond to both onsite unplanned releases and atmospheric nuclear tests

  6. Workplace disaster preparedness and response: the employee assistance program continuum of services.

    Paul, Jan; Blum, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    Response programs for workplace critical and traumatic events are becoming an acknowledged and sought after standard of care. The current trauma literature recognizes what goes on in the workplace between the Employee Assistance Program (EAP) and management. The authors have taken this intra-organizational relationship, assimilated the information, and developed a model that recognizes and supports management throughout the continuum of response to workplace traumatic events. The model recognizes the EAP as an important workplace resource and tool in management's ability to strike the balance of managing the workforce while assisting in recovery following workplace trauma. The introduced concept defines the continuum and highlights the before, during, and after phases, showing how EAP supports management in most effectively doing their job.

  7. Ablation, Thermal Response, and Chemistry Program for Analysis of Thermal Protection Systems

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2010-01-01

    In previous work, the authors documented the Multicomponent Ablation Thermochemistry (MAT) and Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal response (FIAT) programs. In this work, key features from MAT and FIAT were combined to create the new Fully Implicit Ablation, Thermal response, and Chemistry (FIATC) program. FIATC is fully compatible with FIAT (version 2.5) but has expanded capabilities to compute the multispecies surface chemistry and ablation rate as part of the surface energy balance. This new methodology eliminates B' tables, provides blown species fractions as a function of time, and enables calculations that would otherwise be impractical (e.g. 4+ dimensional tables) such as pyrolysis and ablation with kinetic rates or unequal diffusion coefficients. Equations and solution procedures are presented, then representative calculations of equilibrium and finite-rate ablation in flight and ground-test environments are discussed.

  8. 41 CFR 102-118.350 - Does establishing a prepayment audit system or program change the responsibilities of the...

    2010-07-01

    ... prepayment audit system or program change the responsibilities of the certifying officers? 102-118.350... System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT... Does establishing a prepayment audit system or program change the responsibilities of the certifying...

  9. An improved delivery system for bladder irrigation.

    Moslemi, Mohammad K; Rajaei, Mojtaba

    2010-10-05

    Occasionally, urologists may see patients requiring temporary bladder irrigation at hospitals without stocks of specialist irrigation apparatus. One option is to transfer the patient to a urology ward, but often there are outstanding medical issues that require continued specialist input. Here, we describe an improved system for delivering temporary bladder irrigation by utilizing readily available components and the novel modification of a sphygmomanometer blub. This option is good for bladder irrigation in patients with moderate or severe gross hematuria due to various causes. In this prospective study from March 2007 to April 2009, we used our new system in eligible cases. In this system, an irrigant bag with 1 L of normal saline was suspended 80 cm above the indwelled 3-way Foley catheter, and its drainage tube was inserted into the irrigant port of the catheter. To increase the flow rate of the irrigant system, we inserted a traditional sphygmomanometer bulb at the top of the irrigant bag. This closed system was used for continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). This high-pressure system is also used for irrigation during cystourethroscopy, internal urethrotomy, and transurethral lithotripsy. Our 831 eligible cases were divided into two groups: group 1 were endourologic cases and group 2 were open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB cases. The maximum and average flow rates were evaluated. The efficacy of our new system was compared prospectively with the previous traditional system used in 545 cases. In group 1, we had clear vision at the time of endourologic procedures. The success rate of this system was 99.5%. In group 2, the incidence of clot retention decreased two fold in comparison to traditional gravity-dependent bladder flow system. These changes were statistically significant (P = 0.001). We did not observe any adverse

  10. Resposta da cana-de-açúcar, primeira soca, a níveis de irrigação e adubação de cobertura Response of sugarcane, second leaf, to irrigation levels and topdressing manuring

    José Dantas Neto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada na Fazenda Capim da Destilaria Miriri, situada no município de Capim na Paraíba, com o objetivo de se identificar o comportamento da cultura da cana-de-açúcar, primeira soca (segunda folha, diante de diferentes lâminas de irrigação e níveis de adubação de cobertura. Com este propósito, conduziu-se um experimento utilizando-se a variedade SP79-1011, em blocos casualizados num arranjo fatorial de 4 x 2 (quatro lâminas de irrigação e dois níveis de adubação de cobertura, com três repetições. O total de água aplicada nos respectivos tratamentos foi 807, 986, 1164 e 1343 mm e os níveis de adubação de cobertura utilizados foram 85 e 305 kg ha-1 da mistura, contendo N e K2O na proporção 1 para 0,94, respectivamente. Analisaram-se parâmetros de crescimento, qualidade e rendimento da cana-de-açúcar. As irrigações influenciaram na fase inicial de crescimento e no início do máximo desenvolvimento da primeira soca. A dose de adubação influenciou mais nos parâmetros analisados que a lâmina de irrigação. A lâmina de irrigação influenciou significativamente, segundo um comportamento linear positivo, os parâmetros de crescimento, enquanto a sacarose (POL da cana apresentou comportamento quadrático.This research was accomplished in the Capim Farm of the Distillery Miriri located in the municipality of Capim city in Paraíba state, Brazil, with the objective of identifying the behavior of sugarcane crop, second leaf, for different irrigation water depths and levels of topdressing manuring with a mixture containing N and K2O in 1:0.94 proportion. With this purpose, an experiment was conducted using the variety SP79-1011, in completely randomized blocks in a factorial scheme of 4 x 2 (four irrigation depths and two levels of topdressing manuring, with three replications. The total water applied in the respective treatments was 807, 986, 1164 and 1343 mm and the levels of topdressing manuring

  11. Evaluation of Modern Irrigation Techniques with Brackish Water

    Aboulila, Tarek Selim

    2012-01-01

    Modern irrigation techniques are becoming increasingly important in water-scarce countries especially in arid and semiarid regions. Higher crop production and better water use efficiency are usually achieved by drip irrigation as compared to other irrigation methods. Furthermore, by using drip irrigation simultaneously with brackish irrigation water, some of the water stress due to shortage of fresh water resources can be managed. The objective of the current study was to investigate the infl...

  12. Prospects for Improving Gravity-Fed Surface Irrigation Systems in Mediterranean European Contexts

    Daniele Masseroni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, most irrigation practices in Southern Europe have been based on gravity-fed surface irrigation systems. Currently, these systems remain a relevant typology in the European Union (EU member states of the Mediterranean areas, where it is often the only sustainable method for farmers due to the small size of agricultural holdings, their reduced capacity and readiness to invest and the low ratio between yield profits and irrigation costs. In the last several years, in response to European and national directives, surface irrigation has garnered increasing attention at the political and bureaucratic levels due to frequent criticisms of its postulated low efficiency and high water wastage. However, these systems commonly provide a number of ecosystem services and nature-based solutions that increase the positive externalities in different rural socio-ecological contexts and often have the potential to extend these services and provide solutions that are compatible with economical sustainability. This study aims to discuss the prospects for new practices and for the rehabilitation and modernization of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems in EU Mediterranean areas to enhance water efficiency, thus gaining both economic advantages and environmental benefits. The difficulties, stimuli for improvements and peculiarities of the irrigation water management of four rural environments located in Italy, Spain and Portugal were analyzed and compared to the current state of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems with hypothetical future improvements achievable by innovative technologies and practices. In these different case studies, the current gravity-fed surface irrigation systems have an obsolete regulatory structure; water-use efficiency is not a driving criterion for the management of the conveyance and distribution canal network, and farmers are not yet adequately encouraged to adopt more efficient gravity-fed irrigation practices

  13. Effect of irrigation return flow on groundwater recharge in an overexploited aquifer in Bangladesh

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Huysmans, Marijke

    2016-04-01

    depth and groundwater recharge shows that the groundwater depth is continuously increasing with a little response to groundwater recharge. Groundwater abstraction for irrigation is not sustainable. Hence, more detailed studies on the effect of different irrigation scenarios on the groundwater system are recommended to strategize sustainable management of overexploited aquifer in Bangladesh.

  14. Interactive Fuzzy Goal Programming approach in multi-response stratified sample surveys

    Gupta Neha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we applied an Interactive Fuzzy Goal Programming (IFGP approach with linear, exponential and hyperbolic membership functions, which focuses on maximizing the minimum membership values to determine the preferred compromise solution for the multi-response stratified surveys problem, formulated as a Multi- Objective Non Linear Programming Problem (MONLPP, and by linearizing the nonlinear objective functions at their individual optimum solution, the problem is approximated to an Integer Linear Programming Problem (ILPP. A numerical example based on real data is given, and comparison with some existing allocations viz. Cochran’s compromise allocation, Chatterjee’s compromise allocation and Khowaja’s compromise allocation is made to demonstrate the utility of the approach.

  15. Decision support system for surface irrigation design

    Gonçalves, José M.; Pereira, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The SADREG decision support system was developed to help decision makers in the process of design and selection of farm surface irrigation systems to respond to requirements of modernization of surface irrigation—furrow, basin, and border irrigation. It includes a database, simulation models, user-friendly interfaces, and multicriteria analysis models. SADREG is comprised of two components: design and selection. The first component applies database information, and through several si...

  16. System contemplations for precision irrigation in agriculture

    Schubert, Martin J. W.

    2017-04-01

    This communication contemplates political, biological and technical aspects for efficient and profitable irrigation in sustainable agriculture. A standard for irrigation components is proposed. The need for many, and three-dimensionally distributed, soil measurement points is explained, thus enabling the control of humidity in selected layers of earth. Combined wireless and wired data transmission is proposed. Energy harvesting and storage together with mechanical sensor construction are discussed.

  17. Management of poor quality irrigation water

    Change, M.H.; Leghari, A.M.; Sipio, Q.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of poor quality drainage effluent on moderately saline sodic, medium textured soil at different growth stages of wheat and cotton is reported. The irrigation treatments were: I) All canal irrigations, II) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent (EC = 3 dS m1) after four weeks sowing of the crop, III) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after seven weeks sowing of the crop, and IV) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after ten weeks sowing of the crop. The treatments receiving saline water gave significant decrease in crop yields as compared to canal irrigation treatment. The higher yield of wheat and seed cotton was recorded T1 followed by T2, T3 and T4. The trend of produce was T1< T2< T3< T4 respectively. Electrical conductivity of the soil (Ece) in T1 was decreased and in other three treatments was increased, whereas, pH decreased in T1 and T2. The SAR of soil decreased in all the treatments as compared with initial values. Treatment receiving an irrigation with saline water after four weeks of sowing (T2) was better in reducing soil salinity as compared to treatments receiving such water after 7 or 10 weeks os sowing. Poor quality water (EC = 3 d Sm/sup -1/) can be managed for irrigation after four weeks of swing of crops provided certain soil and water management practices like good seed bed preparation and proper drainage measures are adopted. (author)

  18. PELAPORAN PROGRAM KEMITRAAN DAN BINA LINGKUNGAN SERTA CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY BADAN USAHA MILIK NEGARA

    Mukti Fajar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Act number 13 of 2003 on State Owned Enterprise obligate State Owned Enterprise to pay attention on social issues through Partnership and Community Development Program (PKBL. Meanwhile Act number 40 of 2007 on the Limited Liability Company instruct Limited Liability Company to implement Social and Environmental Responsibility which often called as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. These two programs are practically have almost the same form, thus assign a double burden for SOEs on its implementation. This study aims  are to find out the mechanism of implementation and reporting of PKBL and CSR from SOEs which are both regulated in different legal regimes. This research is conducted normatively by reviewing various rules and legal documents and empirically by assessing various implementation of PKBL and CSR by SOEs. The result of this study indicate that SOEs must perform PKBL if they have profits, while SOEs related to natural resources industry have to implement CSR which obtained from company’s budget. Both programs are implemented in the same form in providing social assistance and community business. The CSR report is only reported in the Company's annual report to be accounted in front of General Meeting of Shareholders. While the aims of Partnership and Community Development Program financial reporting is to provide information on financial position, activity and cash flow statement and records, for stakeholder’s decision making.

  19. 'Responsible drinking' programs and the alcohol industry in Brazil: killing two birds with one stone?

    Pantani, Daniela; Sparks, Robert; Sanchez, Zila M; Pinsky, Ilana

    2012-10-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian alcohol industry - which for years has ignored alcohol problems - inaugurated responsible drinking programs (RDPs). This paper reports findings from an exploratory study that investigated the RDP-related activities of six leading alcohol companies in Brazil (three national, three transnational) focusing on program goals and components, target populations and evaluation methods. Interviews were conducted from October 2007 to February 2008 with nine key-informants, and 71 corporate documents were collected along with additional web information about the programs. Content analysis of interviews and institutional documents was used to identify the companies' RDP activities. Three types of RDPs were found that focused respectively on institutional action, drinking and driving, and underage drinking. All three transnational firms were involved in RDPs, whereas national firms demonstrated limited involvement. The majority of RDPs were implemented using television. No targeted research appears to have been undertaken by the companies to assess the efficacy of the strategies in terms of changes in drinking behavior. The evidence for both national and transnational firms means that is difficult to confirm that the responsible drinking programs produced so far in Brazil have been undertaken to systematically reduce alcohol problems, or mainly as part of a public relations strategy to reduce criticism and potentially forestall government regulations (Babor, 2006, 2009; Jernigan, 2009). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Consumer and provider responses to a computerized version of the Illness Management and Recovery Program.

    Wright-Berryman, Jennifer L; Salyers, Michelle P; O'Halloran, James P; Kemp, Aaron S; Mueser, Kim T; Diazoni, Amanda J

    2013-12-01

    To explore mental health consumer and provider responses to a computerized version of the Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) program. Semistructured interviews were conducted to gather data from 6 providers and 12 consumers who participated in a computerized prototype of the IMR program. An inductive-consensus-based approach was used to analyze the interview responses. Qualitative analysis revealed consumers perceived various personal benefits and ease of use afforded by the new technology platform. Consumers also highly valued provider assistance and offered several suggestions to improve the program. The largest perceived barriers to future implementation were lack of computer skills and access to computers. Similarly, IMR providers commented on its ease and convenience, and the reduction of time intensive material preparation. Providers also expressed that the use of technology creates more options for the consumer to access treatment. The technology was acceptable, easy to use, and well-liked by consumers and providers. Clinician assistance with technology was viewed as helpful to get clients started with the program, as lack of computer skills and access to computers was a concern. Access to materials between sessions appears to be desired; however, given perceived barriers of computer skills and computer access, additional supports may be needed for consumers to achieve full benefits of a computerized version of IMR. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Design of capacity incentive and energy compensation for demand response programs

    Liu, Zhoubin; Cui, Wenqi; Shen, Ran; Hu, Yishuang; Wu, Hui; Ye, Chengjin

    2018-02-01

    Variability and Uncertainties caused by renewable energy sources have called for large amount of balancing services. Demand side resources (DSRs) can be a good alternative of traditional generating units to provide balancing service. In the areas where the electricity market has not been fully established, e.g., China, DSRs can help balance the power system with incentive-based demand response programs. However, there is a lack of information about the interruption cost of consumers in these areas, making it hard to determine the rational amount of capacity incentive and energy compensation for the participants of demand response programs. This paper proposes an algorithm to calculate the amount of capacity incentive and energy compensation for demand response programs when there lacks the information about interruption cost. Available statistical information of interruption cost in referenced areas is selected as the referenced data. Interruption cost of the targeted area is converted from the referenced area by product per electricity consumption. On this basis, capacity incentive and energy compensation are obtained to minimize the payment to consumers. Moreover, the loss of consumers is guaranteed to be covered by the revenue they earned from load serving entities.

  2. Optimal crop selection and water allocation under limited water supply in irrigation

    Stange, Peter; Grießbach, Ulrike; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with limited water resources in irrigation systems, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand at the same time. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). These functions take into account different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. The SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies.

  3. Grower demand for sensor-controlled irrigation

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Majsztrik, John; Saavoss, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is likely to increase in the coming years, making improvements in irrigation efficiency increasingly important. An emerging technology that promises to increase irrigation efficiency substantially is a wireless irrigation sensor network that uploads sensor data into irrigation management software, creating an integrated system that allows real-time monitoring and control of moisture status that has been shown in experimental settings to reduce irrigation costs, lower plant loss rates, shorten production times, decrease pesticide application, and increase yield, quality, and profit. We use an original survey to investigate likely initial acceptance, ceiling adoption rates, and profitability of this new sensor network technology in the nursery and greenhouse industry. We find that adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are decreasing in price, as expected. The price elasticity of the probability of adoption suggests that sensor networks are likely to diffuse at a rate somewhat greater than that of drip irrigation. Adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are increasing in specialization in ornamental production: growers earning greater shares of revenue from greenhouse and nursery operations are willing to pay more for a base system and are willing to purchase larger numbers of expansion components at any given price. We estimate that growers who are willing to purchase a sensor network expect investment in this technology to generate significant profit, consistent with findings from experimental studies.

  4. Physician practice responses to financial incentive programs: exploring the concept of implementation mechanisms.

    Cohen, Genna R; Erb, Natalie; Lemak, Christy Harris

    2012-01-01

    required to obtain buy-in and support. We identify gaps in previous research regarding actual changes occurring in physician practices in response to physician incentive programs. We offer suggestions for future evaluation by proposing a framework for understanding implementation. Our model will assist future scholars in translating site-specific experiences with incentive programs into more broadly relevant guidance for practices by facilitating comparisons across seemingly disparate programs.

  5. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I final report - Subsystem response (Project V)

    Shieh, L.C.; Chuang, T.Y.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1981-10-01

    This document reports on (1) the computation of the responses of subsystems, given the input subsystem support motion for components and systems whose failure can lead to an accident sequence (radioactive release), and (2) the results of a sensitivity study undertaken to determine the contributions of the several links in the seismic methodology chain (SMC) - seismic input (SI), soil-structure interaction (SSI), structure response (STR), and subsystem response (SUB) - to the uncertainty in subsystem response. For the singly supported subsystems (e.g., pumps, turbines, electrical control panels, etc.), we used the spectral acceleration response of the structure at the point where the subsystem components were mounted. For the multiple supported subsystems, we developed 13 piping models of five safety-related systems, and then used the pseudostatic-mode method with multisupport input motion to compute the response parameters in terms of the parameters used in the fragility descriptions (i.e., peak resultant accelerations for valves and peak resultant moments for piping). Damping and frequency were varied to represent the sources of modeling and random uncertainty. Two codes were developed: a modified version of SAPIV which assembles the piping supports into groups depending on the support's location relative to the attached structure, and SAPPAC a stand-alone modular program from which the time-history analysis module is extracted. On the basis of our sensitivity study, we determined that the variability in the combined soil-structure interaction, structural response, and subsystem response areas contribute more to uncertainty in subsystem response than does the variability in the seismic input area, assuming an earthquake within the limited peak ground acceleration range, i.e., 0.15 to 0.30g. The seismic input variations were in terms of different earthquake time histories. (author)

  6. A programmatic response to the Secretary of Energy's review of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    Benson, A.B.

    1994-01-01

    On January 19, 1993, in response to a question during her confirmation hearing, Secretary of Energy Hazel R. O'Leary stated that she believed that a comprehensive review of nuclear waste disposal programs and policies was needed. Her preferred approach to such a review would be to engage in a consensus-seeking effort in which all involved parties would be brought to the table to deal with contentious issues. This paper describes both the process and the separate elements of the review of the civilian radioactive waste management program conducted in 1993 and 1994 by Secretary O'Leary. The paper will trace the review beginning with the Secretary's statement at her confirmation hearing, through her interim guidance redirecting certain aspects of the program. It describes some initiatives and changes that are already underway as a result of this review. Throughout the year, stakeholders expressed their concerns, opinions, and recommendations regarding the program. These communications reflected the diversity of perspective that has become a hallmark of the radioactive waste program

  7. Maternal programming of defensive responses through sustained effects on gene expression.

    Zhang, Tie-Yuan; Bagot, Rose; Parent, Carine; Nesbitt, Cathy; Bredy, Timothy W; Caldji, Christian; Fish, Eric; Anisman, Hymie; Szyf, Moshe; Meaney, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    There are profound maternal effects on individual differences in defensive responses and reproductive strategies in species ranging literally from plants to insects to birds. Maternal effects commonly reflect the quality of the environment and are most likely mediated by the quality of the maternal provision (egg, propagule, etc.), which in turn determines growth rates and adult phenotype. In this paper we review data from the rat that suggest comparable forms of maternal effects on defensive responses stress, which are mediated by the effects of variations in maternal behavior on gene expression. Under conditions of environmental adversity maternal effects enhance the capacity for defensive responses in the offspring. In mammals, these effects appear to 'program' emotional, cognitive and endocrine systems towards increased sensitivity to adversity. In environments with an increased level of adversity, such effects can be considered adaptive, enhancing the probability of offspring survival to sexual maturity; the cost is that of an increased risk for multiple forms of pathology in later life.

  8. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS). Thinking along

  9. Documentation of methods and inventory of irrigation data collected for the 2000 and 2005 U.S. Geological Survey Estimated use of water in the United States, comparison of USGS-compiled irrigation data to other sources, and recommendations for future compilations

    Dickens, Jade M.; Forbes, Brandon T.; Cobean, Dylan S.; Tadayon, Saeid

    2011-01-01

    Every five years since 1950, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Use Information Program (NWUIP) has compiled water-use information in the United States and published a circular report titled "Estimated use of water in the United States," which includes estimates of water withdrawals by State, sources of water withdrawals (groundwater or surface water), and water-use category (irrigation, public supply, industrial, thermoelectric, and so forth). This report discusses the impact of important considerations when estimating irrigated acreage and irrigation withdrawals, including estimates of conveyance loss, irrigation-system efficiencies, pasture, horticulture, golf courses, and double cropping.

  10. Effect of Subsurface Irrigation with Porous Clay Capsules on Quantitative and Quality of Grape Plant

    H. Ghorbani Vaghei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maintaining soil moisture content at about field capacity and reducing water loss in near root zone plays a key role for developing soil and water management programs. Clay pot or porous pipe is a traditional sub-irrigation method and is ideal for many farms in the world’s dry land with small and medium sized farms and gardens and is still used limitedly in dry lands of India, Iran, Pakistan, the Middle East, and Latin-America. Clay capsule is one of porous pipes in sub irrigation that is able to release water in near root zone with self- regulative capacity. Watering occurs only in amounts that the plants actually need (this amount is equal to field capacity and released water in near root zone without electricity or use of an automatic dispenser. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out in 2013 on the experimental field of agriculture faculty of Tarbiat Modares University, to study the effect of two irrigation types on qualitative and quantitative characters in grape production (Vitis vinifera L.. In order to provide the water requirement of grape plant were used porous clay capsules for sub irrigation with height and diameter of 12 cm and 3.5 cm and dripper with Neta film type for drip irrigation, respectively. Porous clay capsules provided from soil science group at Tarbiat Modares University. In this research, the volume of water delivered to grape plants during entire growth period in two different irrigation methods was measured separately with water-meters installed at all laterals. The water consumption, yield production and water use efficiency were evaluated and compared in two drip and porous clay irrigation systems at veraison phonological stages. In the veraison stages, cluster weight, cluster length, solid solution and pH content were measured in grape fruits. Leaf chlorophyll content and leaf water content were also measured in two irrigation systems. Results and Discussion: The results of fruit quality

  11. Classification of irrigated land using satellite imagery, the High Plains aquifer, nominal date 1992

    Qi, Sharon L.; Konduris, Alexandria; Litke, David W.; Dupree, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (nominal date 1992) was used to classify and map the location of irrigated land across the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a waterquality study of the High Plains aquifer as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. To help interpret data and select sites for the study, it is helpful to know the location of irrigated land within the study area. To date, the only information available for the entire area is 20 years old. To update the data on irrigated land, 40 summer and 40 spring images (nominal date 1992) were acquired from the National Land Cover Data set and processed using a band-ratio method (Landsat Thematic Mapper band 4 divided by band 3) to enhance the vegetation signatures. The study area was divided into nine subregions with similar environmental characteristics, and a band-ratio threshold was selected from imagery in each subregion that differentiated the cutoff between irrigated and nonirrigated land. The classified images for each subregion were mosaicked to produce an irrigated land map for the study area. The total amount of irrigated land classified from the 1992 imagery was 13.1 million acres, or about 12 percent of the total land in the High Plains. This estimate is approximately 1.5 percent greater than the amount of irrigated land reported in the 1992 Census of Agriculture (12.8 millions acres). This information was also compared to a similar data set based on 1980 imagery. The 1980 data classified 13.7 million acres as irrigated. Although the change in the amount of irrigated land between the two times was not substantial, the location of the irrigated land did shift from areas where there were large ground-water-level declines to other areas where ground-water levels were static or rising.

  12. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  13. ASPECTS OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON SLOPES

    Oprea Radu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  14. Chemical colostomy irrigation with glyceryl trinitrate solution.

    O'Bichere, A; Bossom, C; Gangoli, S; Green, C; Phillips, R K

    2001-09-01

    Colostomy irrigation may improve patient quality of life, but is time consuming. This study tests the hypothesis that irrigation with glyceryl trinitrate solution, by inducing gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation, may accelerate expulsion of stool by passive emptying, thereby reducing irrigation time. Fifteen colostomy irrigators(with more than 3 years' experience) performed washout with tap water compared with water containing 0.025 mg/kg glyceryl trinitrate. Fluid inflow time, total washout time, and hemodynamic changes occurring during glyceryl trinitrate irrigation were documented by an independent observer. Subjects recorded episodes of fecal leakage and overall satisfaction on a visual analog scale. Cramps, headaches, and whether or not a stoma bag was used were expressed as a percentage of number of irrigations. Comparison of fluid inflow time, total washout time, leakage, and satisfaction was by Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and headaches, cramps, and stoma bag use was by McNemar's test. Pulse rate (paired t-test), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (Wilcoxon's test) at 20 and 240 minutes after washout with glyceryl trinitrate solution were compared with baseline. Fifteen patients (9 female), with a mean age of 53 (31-73) years, provided 30 sessions (15 with water and 15 with glyceryl trinitrate). Medians (interquartile ranges) for water vs. glyceryl trinitrate were fluid inflow time 7 (4-10) vs. 4, (3-5; P = 0.001); total washout time 40 (30-55) vs. 21, (15-24; P colostomy irrigation time compared with the generally recommended tap water. Patients suffer fewer leakages and are highly satisfied, but side effects are potential drawbacks. Other colonoplegic agent solutions should now be evaluated.

  15. Difficult airway response team: a novel quality improvement program for managing hospital-wide airway emergencies.

    Mark, Lynette J; Herzer, Kurt R; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I; Berkow, Lauren C; Haut, Elliott R; Hillel, Alexander T; Miller, Christina R; Feller-Kopman, David J; Schiavi, Adam J; Xie, Yanjun J; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W; Mirski, Marek A

    2015-07-01

    Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. We developed a quality improvement program-the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)-to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had 3 core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a Web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index >40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous or current tracheostomy. Twenty

  16. Accounting for water : institutional viability and impacts of market-oriented irrigation interventions in Central Mexico

    Kloezen, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    During the past decade, many countries throughout the world have attempted to improve their generally poor performance record of agency-managed irrigation systems by designing and implementing institutional policy programs. This thesis analyses the

  17. Community engagement in the CTSA program: stakeholder responses from a national Delphi process.

    Freeman, Elmer; Seifer, Sarena D; Stupak, Matthew; Martinez, Linda Sprague

    2014-06-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee's December 2012 public request for stakeholder input on the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, two nonprofit organizations, the Center for Community Health Education Research and Service, Inc. (CCHERS) and Community-Campus Partnerships for Health (CCPH), solicited feedback from CTSA stakeholders using the Delphi method. Academic and community stakeholders were invited to participate in the Delphi, which is an exploratory method used for group consensus building. Six questions posed by the IOM Committee to an invited panel on community engagement were electronically sent to stakeholders. In Round 1 stakeholder responses were coded thematically and then tallied. Round 2 asked stakeholders to state their level of agreement with each of the themes using a Likert scale. Finally, in Round 3 the group was asked to rank the Round 2 based on potential impact for the CTSA program and implementation feasibility. The benefits of community engagement in clinical and translational research as well as the need to integrate community engagement across all components of the CTSA program were common themes. Respondents expressed skepticism as to the feasibility of strengthening CTSA community engagement. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Integrated experimental test program on waterhammer pressure pulses and associated structural responses within a feedwater sparger

    Nurkkala, P.; Hoikkanen, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and systems as utilized in an integrated experimental thermohydraulic/mechanics analysis test program on waterhammer pressure pulses within a revised feedwater sparger of a Loviisa generation VVER-440-type reactor. This program was carried out in two stages: (1) measurements with a strictly limited set of operating parameters at Loviisa NPP, and (2) measurements with the full set of operating parameters on a test article simulating the revised feedwater sparger. The experiments at Loviisa NPS served as an invaluable source of information on the nature of waterhammer pressure pulses and structural responses. These tests thus helped to set the objectives and formulate the concept for series of tests on a test article to study the water hammer phenomena. The heavily instrumented full size test article of a steam generator feedwater sparger was placed within a pressure vessel simulating the steam generator. The feedwater sparger was subjected to the full range of operating parameters which were to result in waterhammer pressure pulse trains of various magnitudes and duration. Two different designs of revised feedwater sparger were investigated (i.e. 'grounded' and 'with goose neck'). The following objects were to be met within this program: (1) establish the thermohydraulic parameters that facilitate the occurrence of water hammer pressure pulses, (2) provide a database for further analysis of the pressure pulse phenomena, (3) establish location and severity of these water hammer pressure pulses, (4) establish the structural response due to these pressure pulses, (5) provide input data for structural integrity analysis. (orig.)

  19. Effects of drought and irrigation on ecosystem functioning in a mature Scots pine forest

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Brunner, Ivano; Egli, Simon; Eilmann, Britta; Graf Pannatier, Eisabeth; Schleppi, Patrick; Zingg, Andreas; Rigling, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    . Soil water content was significantly reduced during irrigation periods. Irrigation doubled tree stem growth, increased shoot growth and thus increased volume growth and crown dimensions. Annual tree mortality rates were reduced by 50% in irrigated plots. The growing period for stem growth was extended in pines as a result of irrigation. Altogether, increased growth and reduced mortality significantly increased tree stem basal area at breast height per ha. As irrigation also increased needle length, estimated mean foliage amount per tree and stand leaf area index significantly increased. However, the number of needle generations was not altered or even reduced due to irrigation. Root growth, was less affected by irrigation and only resulted in increased fine root length. Species richness and fruit body numbers of mycorrhizal fungi were several times higher on the irrigated plots. Overall, it can be concluded that water availability was the main ecosystem limiting factor and that any changes in water availability will result in changes in ecosystem functioning. References Brunner I, Graf-Pannatier E, Frey B, Rigling A, Landolt W, Dobbertin M (2009) Morphological and physiological responses of Scots pine fine roots to water supply in a climatic dry area in Switzerland. Tree Physiology 29:541-550. Dobbertin M, Eilmann B, Bleuler P, Giuggiola A, Graf Pannatier E, Landolt W, Schleppi P, Rigling A (2010) Effect of irrigation on needle, shoot and stem growth in natural drought-exposed Pinus sylvestris forests, Tree Physiology, doi:10.1093/treephys/tpp123. Eilmann B, Zweifel R, Buchmann N, Fonti P, Rigling A (2009) Drought induced adaptation of the xylem in Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pubescens. Tree Physiology 29:1011-1020.

  20. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  1. Meeting the challenge of mobility in nursing education: one program's response.

    Brady, Marilyn S; Horton, Muriel G

    2002-01-01

    Plans for the future include exploring linkages with baccalaureate programs, developing online offerings for courses at the ADN level, and tracking retention according to admission requirements. The department head has presented a proposal to the local BSN programs that will allow selected students in the ADN program to take one of their nursing courses at the RN-BSN level prior to graduation. A lead instructor at the ADN level is participating in a Title III grant to design online course offerings. A faculty member has been assigned the responsibility to track retention and develop a retention plan for the division. So far, we have recognized the following advantages of the new curriculum. 1) The liberal articulation for CNA and LPN means that these individuals can become registered nurses in less time. 2) Students have the opportunity to become credentialed at an earlier level and enter the workforce prior to becoming a registered nurse. 3) Implementation of the new curriculum has been a way to capitalize on college resources in order to maximize enrollment. In the past, some slots in the low enrollment NA and PN programs were not filled. As a result of the implementation of the new curriculum, we admitted a total of 65 (37%) more students in 2001 than we did in 2000 because we were able to fill available spaces in these low enrollment programs with ADN students. In a time of tight fiscal resources and increasing demands for healthcare providers, this multiple entry, multiple exit program provides an effective strategy for meeting the challenges confronting nursing education in the 21st century.

  2. Demand Response Programs Design and Use Considering Intensive Penetration of Distributed Generation

    Pedro Faria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Further improvements in demand response programs implementation are needed in order to take full advantage of this resource, namely for the participation in energy and reserve market products, requiring adequate aggregation and remuneration of small size resources. The present paper focuses on SPIDER, a demand response simulation that has been improved in order to simulate demand response, including realistic power system simulation. For illustration of the simulator’s capabilities, the present paper is proposes a methodology focusing on the aggregation of consumers and generators, providing adequate tolls for the demand response program’s adoption by evolved players. The methodology proposed in the present paper focuses on a Virtual Power Player that manages and aggregates the available demand response and distributed generation resources in order to satisfy the required electrical energy demand and reserve. The aggregation of resources is addressed by the use of clustering algorithms, and operation costs for the VPP are minimized. The presented case study is based on a set of 32 consumers and 66 distributed generation units, running on 180 distinct operation scenarios.

  3. Management options for implementing a basic and applied research program responsive to CS technology base needs. Task VIII. Review existing CS materials R and D programs

    1980-02-28

    Possibilities for setting up a basic and applied research program that would be responsive to the Conservation and Solar energy base needs are considered with emphasis on the area of materials research. Several organizational arrangements for the implementation of this basic and applied research program are described and analyzed. The key functions of the system such as resources allocation, and program coordination and management follow from two fundamental characteristics: assignment of lead responsibility (CS and the Office of Energy Research, ER); and nature of the organizational chain-of-command. Three options are categorized in terms of these two characteristics and discussed in detail. The first option retains lead responsibility in ER, with CS personnel exercising sign-off authority and filling the coordination role. Option 2 places lead responsibility with CS program office management, and utilizes the existing chain-of-command, but adds a Basic and Applied Research Division to each program office. Option 3 also places lead responsibility with CS, but within a new Office of Basic and Applied Research, which would include a Research Coordinator to manage interactions with ER, and Research Managers for each CS program area. (MCW)

  4. Location of irrigated land classified from satellite imagery - High Plains Area, nominal date 1992

    Qi, Sharon L.; Konduris, Alexandria; Litke, David W.; Dupree, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (nominal date 1992) was used to classify and map the location of irrigated land overlying the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water-quality study of the High Plains aquifer as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. To help interpret data and select sites for the study, it is helpful to know the location of irrigated land within the study area. To date, the only information available for the entire area is 20 years old. To update the data on irrigated land, 40 summer and 40 spring images (nominal date 1992) were acquired from the National Land Cover Data set and processed using a band-ratio method (Landsat Thematic Mapper band 4 divided by band 3) to enhance the vegetation signatures. The study area was divided into nine subregions with similar environmental characteristics, and a band-ratio threshold was selected from imagery in each subregion that differentiated the cutoff between irrigated and nonirrigated land. The classified images for each subregion were mosaicked to produce an irrigated-land map for the study area. The total amount of irrigated land classified from the 1992 imagery was 13.1 million acres, or about 12 percent of the total land in the High Plains. This estimate is approximately 1.5 percent greater than the amount of irrigated land reported in the 1992 Census of Agriculture (12.8 millions acres).

  5. The effect of irrigation time and type of irrigation fluid on cartilage surface friction.

    Stärke, F; Awiszus, F; Lohmann, C H; Stärke, C

    2018-01-01

    It is known that fluid irrigation used during arthroscopic procedures causes a wash-out of lubricating substances from the articular cartilage surface and leads to increased friction. It was the goal of this study to investigate whether this effect depends on the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. Rabbit hind legs were used for the tests. The knees were dissected and the friction coefficient of the femoral cartilage measured against glass in a boundary lubrication state. To determine the influence of irrigation time and fluid, groups of 12 knees received either no irrigation (control), 15, 60 or 120min of irrigation with lactated Ringer's solution or 60min of irrigation with normal saline or a sorbitol/mannitol solution. The time of irrigation had a significant effect on the static and kinetic coefficient of friction (CoF), as had the type of fluid. Longer irrigation time with Ringer's solution was associated with increased friction coefficients (relative increase of the kinetic CoF compared to the control after 15, 60 and 120min: 16%, 76% and 88% respectively). The sorbitol/mannitol solution affected the static and kinetic CoF significantly less than either Ringer's or normal saline. The washout of lubricating glycoproteins from the cartilage surface and the associated increase of friction can be effectively influenced by controlling the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. The time of exposure to the irrigation fluid should be as short as possible and monosaccharide solutions might offer a benefit compared to salt solutions in terms of the resultant friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbon and water footprints of irrigated corn and non-irrigated wheat in Northeast Spain.

    Abrahão, Raphael; Carvalho, Monica; Causapé, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    Irrigation increases yields and allows several crops to be produced in regions where it would be naturally impossible due to limited rainfall. However, irrigation can cause several negative environmental impacts, and it is important to understand these in depth for the correct application of mitigation measures. The life cycle assessment methodology was applied herein to compare the main irrigated and non-irrigated crops in Northeast Spain (corn and wheat, respectively), identifying those processes with greater contribution to environmental impacts (carbon and water footprint categories) and providing scientifically-sound information to facilitate government decisions. Due to concerns about climate change and water availability, the methods selected for evaluation of environmental impacts were IPCC 2013 GWP (carbon footprint) and water scarcity indicator (water footprint). The area studied, a 7.38-km 2 basin, was monitored for 12 years, including the period before, during, and after the implementation of irrigation. The functional unit, to which all material and energy flows were associated with, was the cultivation of 1 ha, throughout 1 year. The overall carbon footprint for irrigated corn was higher, but when considering the higher productivity achieved with irrigation, the emissions per kilogram of corn decrease and finally favor this irrigated crop. When considering the water footprint, the volumes of irrigation water applied were so high that productivity could not compensate for the negative impacts associated with water use in the case of corn. Nevertheless, consideration of productivities and gross incomes brings the results closer. Fertilizer use (carbon footprint) and irrigation water (water footprint) were the main contributors to the negative impacts detected.

  7. Motor response programming and movement time in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Simmons, Roger W; Thomas, Jennifer D; Levy, Susan S; Riley, Edward P

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment assessed motor response programming and movement time in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PEA). Alcohol-exposed children between the ages of 7 and 17 years were classified into two groups: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS: n=9) and children with PEA (PEA: n=19) but who did not have the defining characteristics of FAS. The FAS and PEA children were compared with non-alcohol-exposed children (NC: n=23) when completing two tasks: a simple reaction time task (RT alone condition) and a reaction plus movement task (RT+Move condition). The movement involved responding to an imperative stimulus signal and depressing three target buttons in a set sequence. Participants completed 24 trials each for the RT alone and RT+Move response conditions. Results indicated no significant differences in performance among FAS, PEA, and NC groups during the RT alone condition. However, during the RT+Move condition, the FAS group produced significantly longer and more variable RTs than the PEA and NC groups, which produced comparable RTs. The FAS group also produced significantly slower movement times when moving to all three targets, whereas movement time variability did not significantly differ as a function of group. The observed results indicate children with FAS experience deficits in response programming and movement time production. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Organizational structures, roles and responsibilities within the Swiss waste management program

    McCombie, C.; Issler, H.; Kowalski, E.

    1993-01-01

    The organizational structures and the division of responsibilities within the Swiss radioactive waste management program are based strongly on the principle that waste producers must assume full responsibility for choosing and implementing appropriate methods for treatment and disposal of residues while independent oversight and control by government safety authorities must be guaranteed. The structures within the governmental bodies ensure that proper regulatory and control functions are as free as possible from any conflicts of interest and that appropriate technical expertise is available. The more detailed organization within Nagra, which is necessary to over the wide range of tasks--in technical projects as well as in legal matters and in the area of communication--is also described. Important boundary conditions which determine the allocation of roles and responsibilities, and which are rather specific to Switzerland, include the small absolute size of the country and its nuclear program, the absence of a major centralized national geological survey, the high level of technical expertise in engineering organizations and in the university system, and the modest size of all bodies involved

  9. Association between body mass index and response to a brief interdisciplinary treatment program in fibromyalgia.

    Kim, Chul-Hyun; Luedtke, Connie A; Vincent, Ann; Thompson, Jeffrey M; Oh, Terry H

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between baseline body mass index (BMI) and treatment outcome after a brief interdisciplinary fibromyalgia treatment program. Subjects (n = 477) with fibromyalgia participated in the fibromyalgia treatment program. They completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Short Form-36 Health Status Questionnaire (SF-36) at baseline and 6 to 12 mos after the fibromyalgia treatment program. Posttreatment changes in FIQ and SF-36 scores were compared after stratifying participants into four BMI groups: nonobese, overweight, moderately obese, and severely obese. All BMI groups achieved significant improvement in the FIQ total score; the FIQ subscales feel good, pain, fatigue, and morning tiredness; and the SF-36 subscales pain index, vitality, social functioning, and mental health index. Posttreatment changes in mean scores for each subscale generally did not differ significantly across BMI groups after adjusting for age and baseline scores. However, the SF-36 subscale scores of physical functioning and role-emotional were significantly less improved in the severely obese compared with the nonobese. Baseline BMI did not affect response to the fibromyalgia treatment program, as measured by the FIQ total score or SF-36 physical and mental component summary scores. However, the severely obese group showed less improvement compared with the nonobese group in the SF-36 physical functioning and role-emotional subscales.

  10. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  11. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.

    2018-06-01

    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  12. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.

    2018-03-01

    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  13. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  14. Difficult Airway Response Team: A Novel Quality Improvement Program for Managing Hospital-Wide Airway Emergencies

    Mark, Lynette J.; Herzer, Kurt R.; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I.; Berkow, Lauren C.; Haut, Elliott R.; Hillel, Alexander T.; Miller, Christina R.; Feller-Kopman, David J.; Schiavi, Adam J.; Xie, Yanjun J.; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W.; Mirski, Marek A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. Methods We developed a quality improvement program—the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)—to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had three core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Results Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index > 40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous

  15. NASA Earth Science Disasters Program Response Activities During Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria in 2017

    Bell, J. R.; Schultz, L. A.; Molthan, A.; Kirschbaum, D.; Roman, M.; Yun, S. H.; Meyer, F. J.; Hogenson, K.; Gens, R.; Goodman, H. M.; Owen, S. E.; Lou, Y.; Amini, R.; Glasscoe, M. T.; Brentzel, K. W.; Stefanov, W. L.; Green, D. S.; Murray, J. J.; Seepersad, J.; Struve, J. C.; Thompson, V.

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 Atlantic hurricane season included a series of storms that impacted the United States, and the Caribbean breaking a 12-year drought of landfalls in the mainland United States (Harvey and Irma), with additional impacts from the combination of Irma and Maria felt in the Caribbean. These storms caused widespread devastation resulting in a significant need to support federal partners in response to these destructive weather events. The NASA Earth Science Disasters Program provided support to federal partners including the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Guard Bureau (NGB) by leveraging remote sensing and other expertise through NASA Centers and partners in academia throughout the country. The NASA Earth Science Disasters Program leveraged NASA mission products from the GPM mission to monitor cyclone intensity, assist with cyclone center tracking, and quantifying precipitation. Multispectral imagery from the NASA-NOAA Suomi-NPP mission and the VIIRS Day-Night Band proved useful for monitoring power outages and recovery. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the Copernicus Sentinel-1 satellites operated by the European Space Agency were used to create flood inundation and damage assessment maps that were useful for damage density mapping. Using additional datasets made available through the USGS Hazards Data Distribution System and the activation of the International Charter: Space and Major Disasters, the NASA Earth Science Disasters Program created additional flood products from optical and radar remote sensing platforms, along with PI-led efforts to derive products from other international partner assets such as the COSMO-SkyMed system. Given the significant flooding impacts from Harvey in the Houston area, NASA provided airborne L-band SAR collections from the UAVSAR system which captured the daily evolution of record flooding, helping to guide response and mitigation decisions for critical infrastructure and public safety. We

  16. Concentração de nitrogênio, fósforo e potásiio na parte aérea do feijoeiro em resposta à irrigação, fertirrigação e micronutrientes Concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in drybean shoots in response to irrigation, fertirrigation and micronutrients

    Eder João Pozzebon

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a concentração de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na parte aérea do feijoeiro em resposta à irrigação, fertirrigação com nitrogênio parcelado e aplicação de micronutrientes via semente. O experimento foi conduzido a campo em solo Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo, de textura média, em Santa Maria, RS. Os tratamentos consistiram de combinações do uso de irrigação por aspersão, micronutrientes via semente e modo de aplicação de nitrogênio em cobertura. Os tratamentos com adubação de cobertura convencional receberam o nitrogênio (85kg N ha-1 na forma de uréia granulada aos 12 dias após a emergência. Na fertirrigação usou-se o parcelamento do nitrogênio aos 12, 24 e 30 dias após a emergência. Os micronutrientes foram aplicados numa dosagem de 3,5 g kg ha-1 de sementes de uma formulação de 38% de zinco, 9% de molibdênio, 2% de boro e 0,5% de cobalto. As concentrações de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio foram determinadas nas folhas, talos e sementes aos 49 e 71 dias após a emergência. A irrigação promoveu maior concentração de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio nas folhas aos 49 dias após a emergência. Aos 71 dias após a emergência, ocorreram menores concentrações de nitrogênio e fósforo nas folhas e talos para os tratamentos irrigados e nas sementes houve maior concentração de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio para os tratamentos não irrigados. Não houve efeito do parcelamento do nitrogênio via fertirrigação e aplicação de micronutrientes às sementes sobre a concentração de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na parte aérea das plantas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in drybean shoots in response to irrigation, fertirrigation with nitrogen and seed micronutrient application. The experiment was conducted on a loam Podzolic soil, in Santa Maria, RS. Treatments with conventional

  17. Effect of pasture irrigation on the technical and management indicators of dairy farms

    Flávio de Moraes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pasture irrigation on the technical and management indicators of 20 demonstrative units participating in the “Balde Cheio” Program in the state of Rio de Janeiro from January to December 2011. The following variables were obtained: dam/labor ratio, herd size/labor ratio, milk yield/labor ratio, animals/production area, percentage of lactating cows, and milk yield. Return was analyzed considering gross margin, net margin, outcome (profit or loss, and profitability. The data were analyzed using the PASW 18.0 software. Pasture irrigation did not significantly alter the indicators studied. The greater profitability and return of farms using pasture irrigation were the consequence of better animal production rates/day and per ha/year. When gross margin, net margin and outcome using total revenue are considered, there is decapitalization of the farms. 

  18. Effect of social desirability on adolescent girls' responses to an eating disorders prevention program.

    Tilgner, Linda; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Paxton, Susan J

    2004-03-01

    The current study examined whether a social desirability response bias is a source of measurement error in prevention research. Six hundred and seventy-seven female students in Grade 7 (n = 345) and Grade 8 (n = 332) were divided into either an intervention condition, in which participants watched a videotape promoting body acceptance and discouraging dieting and then discussed issues related to the video, or a control condition. Questionnaires were completed at baseline, postintervention, and at 1-month follow-up. Social desirability scores were correlated at a low but significant level with baseline body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic tendencies, intention to diet, and size discrepancy for intervention participants. Social desirability did not correlate significantly with change over time in the outcome measures. The findings suggested that changes in girls' self-reports related to a prevention program were relatively free of social desirability response bias. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 211-216, 2004.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy Region 6 Radiological Assistance Program response plan. Revision 2

    Jakubowski, F.M.

    1998-02-01

    Upon request, the DOE, through the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP), makes available and will provide radiological advice, monitoring, and assessment activities during radiological incidents where the release of radioactive materials is suspected or has occurred. Assistance will end when the need for such assistance is over, or if there are other resources available to adequately address the incident. The implementation of the RAP is usually accomplished through the recommendation of the DOE Regional Coordinating Office's (RCO) on duty Regional Response Coordinator (RRC) with the approval of the Regional Coordinating Office Director (RCOD). The DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is the designated RCO for DOE Region 6 RAP. The purpose of this document is: to describe the mechanism for responding to any organization or private citizen requesting assistance to radiological incidents; to coordinate radiological assistance among participating federal agencies, states, and tribes in DOE Region 6; and to describe the RAP Scaled Response concept of operations

  20. Development of emergency response training program for on-site commanders (1)

    Hikono, Masaru; Matsui, Yuko; Kanayama, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Since the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, there have been increasing calls for developing the leadership capabilities of managers who are in charge of command and control of the on-site emergency response center at nuclear power plants. Training programs to improve non-technical skills are being developed and introduced. The authors developed an active learning exercise that can be repeatedly performed on-site, targeting on-site commander teams in charge of the initial response in an emergency situation. The exercise forms the core element of a non-technical skills training curriculum. This paper outlines the developed exercise, evaluates the stress on the participants caused by the exercise, and identifies any issues before actually introducing it to a site. (author)

  1. Applications of the new program system UFOMOD in the field of emergency response planning

    Burkart, K.; Ehrhardt, J.; Hasemann, I.

    1988-01-01

    In addition to the main purpose of assessing the consequences of nuclear accidents, the new program system UFOMOD is designed to be a very flexible tool for investigation of alternatives in emergency response planning and emergency management, and for studies of the differences in collective exposure due to different response of parts of the population (disregard or misinterpretation of alarms, spontaneous evacuation etc.). After a brief summary of the main features of the countermeasures submodel, scope, flexibility and variety of results are demonstrated by means of calculations with both an early short and a slightly delayed longer lasting release. Risks and benefits of 3 types of evacuation, i.e. prophylactic, during release and after passage of the plume, are discussed by comparing CCFDs of early fatalities. The number of injuries and fatalities as well as areas and numbers of persons affected by countermeasures may depend considerably on the intervention levels applied. Correlations between these quantities obtained within a parameter study are presented

  2. Water deficit imposed by partial irrigation at different plant growth stages of common bean

    Calvache, M.; Reichardt, K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify specific growth stages of common bean crop, at which the plant is less sensitive to water stress so that irrigation can be omitted without significant decrease in biological nitrogen fixation and yield. Two field experiments were conducted at a University experiments station, Tumbaco, Pichincha, Ecuador, on a sandy loam soil ( Typic durustoll ). The climate is warm and dry ( mean air temperature 16 degree Celcius and mean relative humidity 74% ) during the cropping season and rainfall of 123 mm was recorded during the cropping period. The treatments consisted of combinations of 7 irrigation regimes ( I1 = all normal watering; I2 = all stres; I3 = traditional practice; I4 = single stress at vegetation; I5 flowering; I6 = yield formation and I7 = ripening stages ) and 2 levels of applied N ( 20 and 80 kg/ ha ). Differential irrigation was started after 3 uniform irrigations for germination and crop establishment. Soil moisture was monitored with a neutron probe down to 0.60 m depth, before and 24 h after each irrigation. Biological Nitrogen Fixation was calculated using the N- 15 metodology in the 20 kg N/ ha treatment. From the yield data, it can be concluded that treatments which had irrigation deficit had lower yield than those that had suplementary irrigation. The flowering stage was the most sensitive to number of pods and grain yield. Biological Nitrogen Fixation was significantly affected by water stress at flowering and formation stages. The crop water use efficiency ( kg/ m 3 ) was the lowest at flowering period and the yield response factor ( Ky ) was higher in treatments I2 ( all stress ) and I5 (stress at flowering ). Comparing with traditional practice by farmers of the region, only treatments I1 and I7 had 13 and 10 % higher crop water use effeciency. 15 tabs., 7 refs. ( Author )

  3. Quantifying the link between crop production and mined groundwater irrigation in China.

    Grogan, Danielle S; Zhang, Fan; Prusevich, Alexander; Lammers, Richard B; Wisser, Dominik; Glidden, Stanley; Li, Changsheng; Frolking, Steve

    2015-04-01

    In response to increasing demand for food, Chinese agriculture has both expanded and intensified over the past several decades. Irrigation has played a key role in increasing crop production, and groundwater is now an important source of irrigation water. Groundwater abstraction in excess of recharge (which we use here to estimate groundwater mining) has resulted in declining groundwater levels and could eventually restrict groundwater availability. In this study we used a hydrological model, WBMplus, in conjunction with a process based crop growth model, DNDC, to evaluate Chinese agriculture's recent dependence upon mined groundwater, and to quantify mined groundwater-dependent crop production across a domain that includes variation in climate, crop choice, and management practices. This methodology allowed for the direct attribution of crop production to irrigation water from rivers and reservoirs, shallow (renewable) groundwater, and mined groundwater. Simulating 20 years of weather variability and circa year 2000 crop areas, we found that mined groundwater fulfilled 20%-49% of gross irrigation water demand, assuming all demand was met. Mined groundwater accounted for 15%-27% of national total crop production. There was high spatial variability across China in irrigation water demand and crop production derived from mined groundwater. We find that climate variability and mined groundwater demand do not operate independently; rather, years in which irrigation water demand is high due to the relatively hot and dry climate also experience limited surface water supplies and therefore have less surface water with which to meet that high irrigation water demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An assessment of irrigation needs and crop yield for the United States under potential climate changes

    Brumbelow, Kelly; Georgakakos, Aris P.

    2000-01-01

    Past assessments of climate change on U.S. agriculture have mostly focused on changes in crop yield. Few studies have included the entire conterminous U.S., and few studies have assessed changing irrigation requirements. None have included the effects of changing soil moisture characteristics as determined by changing climatic forcing. This study assesses changes in irrigation requirements and crop yields for five crops in the areas of the U.S. where they have traditionally been grown. Physiologically-based crop models are used to incorporate inputs of climate, soils, agricultural management, and drought stress tolerance. Soil moisture values from a macroscale hydrologic model run under a future climate scenario are used to initialize soil moisture content at the beginning of each growing season. Historical crop yield data is used to calibrate model parameters and determine locally acceptable drought stress as a management parameter. Changes in irrigation demand and crop yield are assessed for both means and extremes by comparing results for atmospheric forcing close to the present climate with those for a future climate scenario. Assessments using the Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis General Circulation Model (CGCM1) indicate greater irrigation demands in the southern U.S. and decreased irrigation demands in the northern and western U.S. Crop yields typically increase except for winter wheat in the southern U.S. and corn. Variability in both irrigation demands and crop yields increases in most cases. Assessment results for the CGCM1 climate scenario are compared to those for the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research GCM (HadCM2) scenario for southwestern Georgia. The comparison shows significant differences in irrigation and yield trends, both in magnitude and direction. The differences reflect the high forecast uncertainty of current GCMs. Nonetheless, both GCMs indicate higher variability in future climatic forcing and, consequently

  5. Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater used for irrigation in Rumphi and Karonga districts, Northern Malawi

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Gulula, Lewis C.; Phiri, Ambrose

    Irrigation water quality is an essential component of sustainable agriculture. Irrigation water quality concerns have often been neglected over concerns of quantity in most irrigation projects in Malawi. In this study, a hydrochemical assessment of groundwater was carried out to characterize, classify groundwater and evaluate its suitability for irrigation use in Karonga and Rumphi districts, Northern Malawi. Groundwater samples were collected during wet (January-April 2011) and dry (July-September 2011) seasons from 107 shallow wells and boreholes drilled for rural water supply using standard sampling procedures. The water samples were analysed for pH, major ions, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity (EC), using standard methods. Multivariate chemometric (such as Kruskal Wallis test), hydrographical methods (i.e. Piper diagram) and PHREEQC geochemical modelling program were used to characterise the groundwater quality. Electrical conductivity, percentage sodium ion (% Na+), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), Kelly’s ratio (KR) and permeability index (PI) were used to evaluate the suitability of water for irrigation. It was established that groundwater is neutral to alkaline and mostly freshwater (TDS management is suggested for sustainable development of the water resources for better plant growth, long-term as well as maintaining human health in the study area.

  6. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  7. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  8. Maternal programming of sex-specific responses to predator odor stress in adult rats.

    St-Cyr, Sophie; Abuaish, Sameera; Sivanathan, Shathveekan; McGowan, Patrick O

    2017-08-01

    Prenatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term adaptations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. This study tested the long-lasting effect of prenatal exposure to predator odor, an ethologically relevant and psychogenic stressor, in the second half of pregnancy. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anxiety-like behaviors in commonly used laboratory tasks assessing novelty-induced anxiety, increased defensive behavior in males and increased ACTH stress reactivity in females in response to predator odor. Female offspring from predator odor-exposed dams showed increased transcript abundance of glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) on the day of birth and FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) in adulthood in the amygdala. The increase in FKBP5 expression was associated with decreased DNA methylation in Fkbp5 intron V. These results indicate a sex-specific response to maternal programming by prenatal predator odor exposure and a potential epigenetic mechanism linking these responses with modifications of the stress axis in females. These results are in accordance with the mismatch hypothesis stating that an animal's response to cues within its life history reflects environmental conditions anticipated during important developmental periods and should be adaptive when these conditions are concurring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Employee response to a company-sponsored program of colorectal and prostate cancer screening.

    Myers, R E; Vernon, S W; Carpenter, A V; Balshem, A M; Lewis, P G; Wolf, T A; Hilbert, J; DeFonso, L R; Ross, E A

    1997-01-01

    Studies done in the mid-1970s documented increased risk for respiratory cancer and leukemia among employees in a chemical company manufacturing plant where chloromethyl ethers were used in production from 1948 to 1971. In the late 1980s, the company informed current and former employees about the results of follow-up studies which showed a moderation of risk of respiratory cancer and leukemia. New data showing elevated rates of mortality from colorectal, prostate, bladder, and pancreatic cancer in the population were also reported. Via mailed correspondence, the company made a no-cost program of colorectal and prostate cancer screening available to employees upon request; and information about bladder and pancreatic cancer was made available. Thirteen percent of employees in the population indicated interest in colorectal and prostate cancer screening (response). Thirty-one percent of these responders were screened (adherence). Multivariate analyses showed that education and length of employment in the plant were positively associated with response. Being white was positively associated with response for younger workers; while among older workers being male was positively associated with response. In terms of adherence, we found that older, more highly educated workers were more likely to have a screening examination. Findings indicate that employee participation in workplace-sponsored colorectal and prostate cancer screening can vary according to worker sociodemographic factors and length of employment in areas of potential exposure.

  10. Heavy metal accumulation imparts structural differences in fragrant Rosa species irrigated with marginal quality water.

    Ahsan, Muhammad; Younis, Adnan; Jaskani, Muhammad Jafar; Tufail, Aasma; Riaz, Atif; Schwinghamer, Timothy; Tariq, Usman; Nawaz, Fahim

    2018-09-15

    Wastewater is an alternative to traditional sources of renewable irrigation water in agriculture, particularly in water-scarce regions. However, the possible risks due to heavy metals accumulation in plant tissues are often overlooked by producers. The present study aimed to identify heavy metals-induced structural modifications to roots of scented Rosa species that were irrigated with water of marginal quality. The chemical and mineral contents from the experimental irrigation canal water (control) and treated wastewater were below the limits recommended by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA) for medicinal plants. The experimentally untreated wastewater contained electrical conductivity (EC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and heavy metals (Co, Cu, Cd, Pb) that were above the recommended limits. The responses by wastewater-treated Rosa species (Rosa damascena, R. bourboniana, R. Gruss-an-Teplitz, and R. centifolia) were evaluated. The experimental data revealed that treated wastewater significantly increased the thickness of collenchyma (cortex and pith) and parenchyma tissues (vascular bundle, xylem, and phloem) of R. Gruss-an-Teplitz. Root dermal tissues (epidermis) of R. bourboniana also responded to treated wastewater. R. damascena and R. centifolia were the least affected species, under the experimental irrigation conditions. Collenchyma and dermal tissues were thicker in R. damascena and R. Gruss-an-Teplitz under untreated wastewater conditions. In parenchyma tissues, vascular bundles were thicker in R. damascena in untreated wastewater conditions, while the xylem and phloem of R. Gruss-an-Teplitz were thicker where treated wastewater was applied. In tissues other than the vascular bundle, the differences in anatomical metrics due to the experimental irrigation treatments were greater during the second year of the experiment than in the first year. The contents of metals other than chromium in the roots and

  11. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  12. Expanding a community's justice response to sex crimes through advocacy, prosecutorial, and public health collaboration: introducing the RESTORE program.

    Koss, Mary P; Bachar, Karen J; Hopkins, C Quince; Carlson, Carolyn

    2004-12-01

    Problems in criminal justice system response to date-acquaintance rape and nonpenetration sexual offenses include (a) they are markers of a sexual offending career, yet are viewed as minor; (b) perpetrators are not held accountable in ways that reduce reoffense; and (c) criminal justice response disappoints and traumatizes victims. To address these problems, a collaboration of victim services, prosecutors, legal scholars, and public health professionals are implementing and evaluating RESTORE, a victim-driven, community-based restorative justice program for selected sex crimes. RESTORE prepares survivors, responsible persons (offenders), and both parties' families and friends for face-to-face dialogue to identify the harm and develop a redress plan. The program then monitors the offender's compliance for 12 months. The article summarizes empirical data on problems in criminal justice response, defines restorative justice models, and examines outcome. Then the RESTORE program processes and goals are described. The article highlights community collaboration in building and sustaining this program.

  13. Contribution to the improvement of irrigation management practices through water - deficit irrigation

    Bazza, M.

    1995-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying irrigation management practices which could result in water savings through -water deficit irrigation. Two field experiments, one on wheat and the other on sugar beet, were conducted and consisted of refraining from supplying water during specific stages of the cycle so as to identy the period(s) during which water deficit would have a limited effect on crop production. In the case of wheat, high water deficit occurred during the early and during these stages was the most beneficial for the crop. However, one water application during the tillering stage allowed the yield to be lower only to that of the treatement with three irrigations. Irrigation during the stage of grain filling caused the kernel weight to be as high as under three irrigations. The lowest value corresponded to the treatement with one irrigation during grain filling and that under rainfed conditions. For sugar beet, when water stress was was applied early in the crop cycle, its effect could be almost entirely recovered with adequate watering during the rest of the growing season. On the opposite, good watering early in cycle, followed by a stress, resulted in the second lowest yield. Water deficit during the maturity stage had also a limited effect on yield. The most crucial periods for adequate watering were which correspond to late filiar development and root growth which coincided with the highest water requirements period. For the same amount of water savings through deficit irrigation, it was better to partition the stress throughout the cycle than during the critical stages of the crop. However, at the national level, it would have been more important to practice deficit irrigation and the irrigated area. For both crops, high yields as high as water - use efficiency values could have been obtained. 8 tabs; 5 refs ( Author )

  14. Evaluation of mulched drip irrigation for cotton in arid Northwest China

    Wang, Z.; Jin, M.; Simunek, J.; van Genuchten, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in arid Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China, for 3 years to evaluate sustainable irrigation regimes for cotton. The experiments involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterward. The drip irrigation experiments included control

  15. Irrigation Practices, State Intervention and Farmers' Life- Worlds in Drought-Prone Tigray, Ethiopia

    Teshome, W.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigrayregion ofEthiopia

  16. Deficit irrigation: is it impacting yield and nutritional quality of fruits?

    Water scarcity, impaired water quality, and decreased soil quality threaten agricultural production in many regions of the world. Farmers’ responses to water shortage and recurrent droughts will ultimately result in the reduced application of water, designated as deficit irrigation (DI). DI may resu...

  17. Optimization of in-vivo monitoring program for radiation emergency response

    Ha, Wi Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In case of radiation emergencies, internal exposure monitoring for the members of public will be required to confirm internal contamination of each individual. In-vivo monitoring technique using portable gamma spectrometer can be easily applied for internal exposure monitoring in the vicinity of the on-site area. In this study, minimum detectable doses (MDDs) for '1'3'4Cs, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 131}I were calculated adjusting minimum detectable activities (MDAs) from 50 to 1,000 Bq to find out the optimal in-vivo counting condition. DCAL software was used to derive retention fraction of Cs and I isotopes in the whole body and thyroid, respectively. A minimum detectable level was determined to set committed effective dose of 0.1 mSv for emergency response. We found that MDDs at each MDA increased along with the elapsed time. 1,000 Bq for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, and 100 Bq for {sup 131}I were suggested as optimal MDAs to provide in-vivo monitoring service in case of radiation emergencies. In-vivo monitoring program for emergency response should be designed to achieve the optimal MDA suggested from the present work. We expect that a reduction of counting time compared with routine monitoring program can achieve the high throughput system in case of radiation emergencies.

  18. 48 CFR 3019.705 - Responsibilities for the contracting officer under the subcontracting program.

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 3019.705...

  19. Evaluasi Program Corporate Social Responsibility “Organic Integrated System” PT. Pembangkitan Jawa-Bali Unit Pembangkitan Paiton

    Harianto, Ruth Carissa

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi program Corporate Social Responsibility “Organic Integrated System” yang dijalankan oleh divisi umum dan CSR PT. Pembangkitan Jawa – Bali Unit Pembangkitan Paiton. Di dalam melaksanakan program Corporate Social Responsibility “Organic Integrated System” ini, PT. Pembangkitan Jawa – Bali Unit Pembangkitan Paiton bekerja sama dengan Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat Sekola Konang dan Kelompok Suko Tani sebagai publik sasarannya. Penelitian ini menggunakan pe...

  20. Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate ...

    Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate Change Adaptation in Nigeria: Engineering Design and Calibration. ... The drip system comprises of abarrel, sub-main line, lateral lines, tubes and emitters, it can irrigate140 crop ...

  1. Influence of local topography on precision irrigation management

    Precision irrigation management is currently accomplished using spatial information about soil properties through soil series maps or electrical conductivity (EC measurements. Crop yield, however, is consistently influenced by local topography, both in rain-fed and irrigated environments. Utilizing ...

  2. The Reticulation Irrigation Scheme at Sankana, Upper West Region ...

    farmers utilizing the irrigation project are food secure. ... The effects of ... Often, lack of maintenance, bad management and financial difficulties decrease the ...... and Mushunje A. (2010), 'Analysis of Irrigation Development Post Fast Track Land ...

  3. Modernisation strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines

    Delos Reyes, Mona Liza Fortunado

    2017-01-01

    The performance of publicly funded canal irrigation systems or more commonly called national irrigation systems (NIS) in the Philippines remained below expectations despite considerable system rehabilitation and improvement efforts. The continued suboptimal performances were attributed to

  4. Evaluation some Forage Legumes in Limited Irrigation Condition

    Hassan Moniri Far

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage legumes respond differently to limited irrigation regimes. Their evaluation may, thus, help to select drought tolerant types for limited irrigation conditions. In this study four type of forage legume were studied for two years in Tikma-Dash Research Station of East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Research Center, Tabriz, Iran, in a randomized complete block design using split-plot experiment in 2011-2013 years. Irrigation regimes (without irrigation, one irrigation and two irrigations were assigned to main plots and four forage types (hairy vetch, grass pea, Pannonica sativa and lathyrus were assigned to subplots. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of irrigation on plant height, number of shoots, leaf area and plant fresh and dry weights were not significant. Howere, legume types affected these traits significantly (P≤0.01. The effect of irrigation levels and legume types on protein content of hay were significant (P

  5. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha

    water quality and permissible levels of metals in food and water. It revealed that the heavy .... irrigation with partially treated or untreated sewage. This was reported by .... Reuse of domestic grey water for irrigation of food crops, unpublished ...

  6. Wireless sensor networks for canopy temperature sensing and irrigation management

    For researchers, canopy temperature measurements have proven useful in characterizing crop water stress and developing protocols for irrigation management. Today, there is heightened interest in using remote canopy temperature measurements for real-time irrigation scheduling. However, without the us...

  7. Is the Revitalisation of Smallholder Irrigation Schemes (RESIS ...

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... including rainwater harvesting, flood recession, flood water spreading, river ... Smallholder irrigation systems can comprise farmers who use shared or ...... on Irrigation and Drainage, 15-17 November 2006, Aventura. Swadini.

  8. Economic Analysis of Crop Production under Jibiya Irrigation Project ...

    Majority of the farmers were married and can read and write. Most of ... The performance of the farmers, though ... holder irrigation dependent on the shadoof system of lifting water as .... implies that in Jibiya Irrigation Project, women were not.

  9. Performance of arthroscopic irrigation systems assessed with automatic blood detection

    Tuijthof, G. J. M.; de Vaal, M. M.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Blankevoort, L.; van der List, M. P. J.

    2011-01-01

    During arthroscopies, bleeding episodes occur as a result of tissue damage. Irrigation systems assist in minimizing these disturbances. The performance of three arthroscopic irrigation systems in clearing bleeding episodes was evaluated objectively. One surgeon performed 99 shoulder arthroscopies

  10. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and ... Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt ... Presence of heavy metals in concentration higher than the recommended ...

  11. Irrigation of steppe soils in the south of Russia: Problems and solutions (Analysis of Irrigation Practices in 1950-1990)

    Minashina, N. G.

    2009-07-01

    Experience in irrigation of chernozems in the steppe zone of Russia for a period from 1950 to 1990 is analyzed. By the end of this period and in the subsequent years, the areas under irrigation reduced considerably, and the soil productivity worsened. This was caused by the improper design of irrigation systems, on the one hand, and by the low tolerance of chernozems toward increased moistening upon irrigation, on the other hand. The analysis of the factors and regimes of soil formation under irrigation conditions shows that irrigation-induced changes in the soil hydrology also lead to changes in the soil physicochemical, biochemical, and other properties. In particular, changes in the composition of exchangeable cations lead to the development of solonetzic process. In many areas, irrigation of chernozems was accompanied by the appearance of solonetzic, vertic, saline, and eroded soils. The development of soil degradation processes is described. In general, the deterioration of irrigated chernozems was related to the absence of adequate experience in irrigation of steppe soils, unskilled personnel, improper regime of irrigation, and excessively high rates of watering. In some cases, the poor quality of irrigation water resulted in the development of soil salinization and alkalization. To improve the situation, the training of personnel is necessary; the strategy of continuous irrigation should be replaced by the strategy of supplementary irrigation in the critical periods of crop development.

  12. The impact of corporate social responsibility and employees' perception on participating and contributing to charitable programs

    Allen, Belinda A.

    The goal for this research was to understand the perceptions of employees regarding a company's corporate social responsibility (CSR). The specific goal was to discover and understand the level of employee giving to corporate CSR initiatives. In this instance, the fund was a corporate fund for community development program. A qualitative, single-case-study was conducted at a specific division of an aerospace corporation. The topic was explored through an analysis of employee perceptions about advertisement, trust, campaigns, and CSR engagement. Data collection included a pilot study, one-on-one private interviews, and a focus group. The results indicated that (a) the corporation can be a model company for CSR programs, and (b) employees at the specific division under study want to become aware and play their part in bringing about social change. However, the findings indicated that the division must become more visible with its CSR activities. It is through CSR commitment and strategies that the corporation seeks to be a good corporate citizen, which is carried out in collaboration with its employees. The results indicated that employees felt that increased awareness through annual campaign drives and advertisement throughout the year would strengthen giving to the CFCD program and would allow employees to be more engaged in CSR activities.

  13. Expansion of urban area and wastewater irrigated rice area in Hyderabad, India

    Gumma, K.M.; van, Rooijen D.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Aakuraju, Radha V.; Amerasinghe, P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate land use changes in urban and peri-urban Hyderabad and their influence on wastewater irrigated rice using Landsat ETM + data and spectral matching techniques. The main source of irrigation water is the Musi River, which collects a large volume of wastewater and stormwater while running through the city. From 1989 to 2002, the wastewater irrigated area along the Musi River increased from 5,213 to 8,939 ha with concurrent expansion of the city boundaries from 22,690 to 42,813 ha and also decreased barren lands and range lands from 86,899 to 66,616 ha. Opportunistic shifts in land use, especially related to wastewater irrigated agriculture, were seen as a response to the demand for fresh vegetables and easy access to markets, exploited mainly by migrant populations. While wastewater irrigated agriculture contributes to income security of marginal groups, it also supplements the food basket of many city dwellers. Landsat ETM + data and advanced methods such as spectral matching techniques are ideal for quantifying urban expansion and associated land use changes, and are useful for urban planners and decision makers alike. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. Use of plant woody species electrical potential for irrigation scheduling.

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Morales-Moraga, David; Alcalde, José A; Gurovich, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The electrical response of plants to environmental stimuli can be measured and quantitatively related to the intensity of several stimulating sources, like temperature, solar radiation, soil water content, evapotranspiration rates, sap flow and dendrometric cycles. These relations can be used to assess the influence of different environmental situations on soil water availability to plants, defined as a steady state condition between leaf transpirative flow and soil water flow to plant roots. A restricted soil water flow due to soil dryness can trigger water stress in plants, if the atmospheric evaporative demand is high, causing partial stomata closure as a physiological response to avoid plant dehydration; water stressed and unstressed plants manifest a differential electrical response. Real time plant electrical response measurements can anticipate actions that prevent the plant reaching actual stress conditions, optimizing stomata gas exchange and photosynthetic rates. An electrophysiological sensor developed in this work, allows remote real-time recording information on plant electrical potential (EP) in the field, which is highly related to EP measurements obtained with a laboratory Keithley voltmeter sensor used in an highly controlled experimental setup. Our electrophysiological sensor is a wireless, autonomous devise, which transmits EP information via Internet to a data server. Using both types of sensors (EP electrodes with a Keithley voltmeter and the electrophysiological sensor), we measured in real time the electrical responses of Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants, to induced water deficits. The differential response for 2 scenarios: irrigation and water restriction is identified by a progressive change in slope on the daily maximal and minimal electric signal values in stressed plants, and a zero-slope for similar signals for well-watered plants. Results show a correspondence between measured signals obtained by our electrophysiological

  15. Irrigated Agriculture in Morocco: An Agent-Based Model of Adaptation and Decision Making Amid Increasingly Frequent Drought Events

    Norton, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past 100 years, Morocco has undertaken a heavy investment in developing water infrastructure that has led to a dramatic expansion of irrigated agriculture. Irrigated agriculture is the primary user of water in many arid countries, often accounting for 80-90% of total water usage. Irrigation is adopted by farmers not only because it leads to increased production, but also because it improves resilience to an uncertain climate. However, the Mediterranean region as a whole has also seen an increase in the frequency and severity of drought events. These droughts have had a dramatic impact on farmer livelihoods and have led to a number of coping strategies, including the adoption or disadoption of irrigation. In this study, we use a record of the annual extent of irrigated agriculture in Morocco to model the effect of drought on the extent of irrigated agriculture. Using an agent-based socioeconomic model, we seek to answer the following questions: 1) Do farmers expand irrigated agriculture in response to droughts? 2) Do drought events entail the removal of perennial crops like orchards? 3) Can we detect the retreat of irrigated agriculture in the more fragile watersheds of Morocco? Understanding the determinants of irrigated crop expansion and contractions will help us understand how agro-ecological systems transition from 20th century paradigms of expansion of water supply to a 21st century paradigm of water use efficiency. The answers will become important as countries learn how to manage water in new climate regimes characterized by less reliable and available precipitation.

  16. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    Chukalla, Abebe Demissie; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and

  17. Integrated experimental test program on waterhammer pressure pulses and associated structural responses within a feedwater sparger

    Nurkkala, P.; Hoikkanen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the methods and systems as utilized in an integrated experimental thermohydraulic/mechanics analysis test program on waterhammer pressure pulses within a revised feedwater sparger of a Loviisa generation VVER-440-type reactor. This program was carried out in two stages: (1) measurements with a strictly limited set of operating parameters at Loviisa NPP, and (2) measurements with the full set of operating parameters on a test article simulating the revised feedwater sparger. The experiments at Loviisa NPS served as an invaluable source of information on the nature of waterhammer pressure pulses and structural responses. These tests thus helped to set the objectives and formulate the concept for series of tests on a test article to study the water hammer phenomena. The heavily instrumented full size test article of a steam generator feedwater sparger was placed within a pressure vessel simulating the steam generator. The feedwater sparger was subjected to the full range of operating parameters which were to result in waterhammer pressure pulse trains of various magnitudes and duration. Two different designs of revised feedwater sparger were investigated (i.e. `grounded` and `with goose neck`). The following objects were to be met within this program: (1) establish the thermohydraulic parameters that facilitate the occurrence of water hammer pressure pulses, (2) provide a database for further analysis of the pressure pulse phenomena, (3) establish location and severity of these water hammer pressure pulses, (4) establish the structural response due to these pressure pulses, (5) provide input data for structural integrity analysis. (orig.). 3 refs.

  18. Environmental components of OCS policy committee recommendations regarding national oil spill prevention and response program

    Groat, C.G.; Thorman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989 resulted in thousands of pages of analytical reports assessing the environmental, organizational, legal, procedural, social, economic, and political aspects of the event. Even though the accident was a transportation incident, it had a major impact on the public and political perception of offshore oil operations. This caused the OCS Policy Committee, which advises the Secretary of the Interior and the Minerals Management Service on Outer Continental Shelf resource development and environmental matters, to undertake a review of the reports for the purpose of developing recommendations to the secretary for improvements in OCS operations that would insure maximum efforts to prevent spills and optimal ability to deal with any that occur. The Committee felt strongly that 'a credible national spill prevention and response program from both OCS and non-OCS oil spills in the marine environment is needed to create the political climate for a viable OCS program.' The report of the Committee described eight essential elements of this program; four of these focused on the environmental aspects of oil spills, calling for (1) adequate characterization of the marine and coastal environment, including both information and analysis, accessible to decision makers, (2) the capacity to restore economic and environmental resources as quickly as possible if damage occurs, (3) a mechanism for research on oil spill impacts, and (4) a meaningful role for all interested and responsible parties, including the public, in as many of these activities as possible, from spill prevention and contingency planning to environmental oversight of ongoing operations and participation in clean-up and restoration activities

  19. Integrated experimental test program on waterhammer pressure pulses and associated structural responses within a feedwater sparger

    Nurkkala, P; Hoikkanen, J [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the methods and systems as utilized in an integrated experimental thermohydraulic/mechanics analysis test program on waterhammer pressure pulses within a revised feedwater sparger of a Loviisa generation VVER-440-type reactor. This program was carried out in two stages: (1) measurements with a strictly limited set of operating parameters at Loviisa NPP, and (2) measurements with the full set of operating parameters on a test article simulating the revised feedwater sparger. The experiments at Loviisa NPS served as an invaluable source of information on the nature of waterhammer pressure pulses and structural responses. These tests thus helped to set the objectives and formulate the concept for series of tests on a test article to study the water hammer phenomena. The heavily instrumented full size test article of a steam generator feedwater sparger was placed within a pressure vessel simulating the steam generator. The feedwater sparger was subjected to the full range of operating parameters which were to result in waterhammer pressure pulse trains of various magnitudes and duration. Two different designs of revised feedwater sparger were investigated (i.e. `grounded` and `with goose neck`). The following objects were to be met within this program: (1) establish the thermohydraulic parameters that facilitate the occurrence of water hammer pressure pulses, (2) provide a database for further analysis of the pressure pulse phenomena, (3) establish location and severity of these water hammer pressure pulses, (4) establish the structural response due to these pressure pulses, (5) provide input data for structural integrity analysis. (orig.). 3 refs.

  20. 12 CFR 361.5 - What are the FDIC's oversight and monitoring responsibilities in administering this program?

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the FDIC's oversight and monitoring responsibilities in administering this program? 361.5 Section 361.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY MINORITY AND WOMEN OUTREACH PROGRAM CONTRACTING § 361...