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Sample records for response measurement acquisition

  1. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor,Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Wire degradation has resulted in aircraft fatalities and critical space launches being delayed. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power is wirelessly provided to the sensing element by using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency, resistance and amplitude has been developed and is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be near the acquisition hardware. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed. Examples of magnetic field response sensors and the respective measurement characterizations are presented. Implementation of this method on an aerospace system is discussed.

  2. Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement-Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2006-01-01

    A measurement-acquisition system uses magnetic fields to power sensors and to acquire measurements from sensors. The system alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement-acquisition systems, which include a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with wires, use limited to a single type of measurement, wire degradation due to wear or chemical decay, and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Eliminating wiring for acquiring measurements can alleviate potential hazards associated with wires, such as damaged wires becoming ignition sources due to arcing. The sensors are designed as electrically passive inductive-capacitive or passive inductive-capacitive-resistive circuits that produce magnetic-field-responses. One or more electrical parameters (inductance, capacitance, and resistance) of each sensor can be variable and corresponds to a measured physical state of interest. The magnetic-field- response attributes (frequency, amplitude, and bandwidth) of the inductor correspond to the states of physical properties for which each sensor measures. For each sensor, the measurement-acquisition system produces a series of increasing magnetic-field harmonics within a frequency range dedicated to that sensor. For each harmonic, an antenna electrically coupled to an oscillating current (the frequency of which is that of the harmonic) produces an oscillating magnetic field. Faraday induction via the harmonic magnetic fields produces an electromotive force and therefore a current in the sensor. Once electrically active, the sensor produces its own harmonic magnetic field as the inductor stores and releases magnetic energy. The antenna of the measurement- acquisition system is switched from a transmitting to a receiving mode to acquire the magnetic-field response of the sensor. The rectified amplitude of the received response is compared to previous responses to prior transmitted harmonics, to ascertain if the measurement system has detected a

  3. Making Acquisition Measurable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    Corporation. All rights reserved End Users Administrator/ Maintainer (A/M) Subject Matter Expert ( SME ) Trainer/ Instructor Manager, Evaluator, Supervisor... CMMI ) - Acquisition (AQ) © 2011 The MITRE Corporation. All rights reserved 13 CMMI -Development Incremental iterative development (planning & execution...objectives Constructing games highlighting particular aspects of proposed CCOD® acquisition, and conducting exercises with Subject Matter Experts ( SMEs

  4. Using Item Response Theory to Develop Measures of Acquisitive and Protective Self-Monitoring From the Original Self-Monitoring Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmot, Michael P; Kostal, Jack W; Stillwell, David; Kosinski, Michal

    2017-07-01

    For the past 40 years, the conventional univariate model of self-monitoring has reigned as the dominant interpretative paradigm in the literature. However, recent findings associated with an alternative bivariate model challenge the conventional paradigm. In this study, item response theory is used to develop measures of the bivariate model of acquisitive and protective self-monitoring using original Self-Monitoring Scale (SMS) items, and data from two large, nonstudent samples ( Ns = 13,563 and 709). Results indicate that the new acquisitive (six-item) and protective (seven-item) self-monitoring scales are reliable, unbiased in terms of gender and age, and demonstrate theoretically consistent relations to measures of personality traits and cognitive ability. Additionally, by virtue of using original SMS items, previously collected responses can be reanalyzed in accordance with the alternative bivariate model. Recommendations for the reanalysis of archival SMS data, as well as directions for future research, are provided.

  5. Development of signal acquisition device of rotating coil measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianxin; Li Li; Kang Wen; Deng Chengdong; Yin Baogui; Fu Shinian

    2013-01-01

    A new rotating coil magnetic measurement system using the technical solution of the combination of a dynamic signal acquisition card and software with specific functions was developed. The acquisition device of the system successfully implemented the function of the PDI-5025 integrator. The sampling rate, the range, the accuracy and the flexibility of the system were improved. The development program of signal acquisition equipment, the realization of the acquisition function and the reliability and stability of the system were introduced. (authors)

  6. L-C Measurement Acquisition Method for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, B. Douglas; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement acquisition method for aerospace systems that eliminates the need for sensors to have physical connection to a power source (i.e., no lead wires) or to data acquisition equipment. Furthermore, the method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to any form of acquisition hardware. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The sensors consist of a capacitor, C(p), whose capacitance changes with changes to a physical property, p, electrically connected to an inductor, L. The method uses an antenna to broadcast electromagnetic energy that electrically excites one or more inductive-capacitive sensors via Faraday induction. This method facilitates measurements that were not previously possible because there was no practical means of providing power and data acquisition electrical connections to a sensor. Unlike traditional sensors, which measure only a single physical property, the manner in which the sensing element is interrogated simultaneously allows measurement of at least two unrelated physical properties (e.g., displacement rate and fluid level) by using each constituent of the L-C element. The key to using the method for aerospace applications is to increase the distance between the L-C elements and interrogating antenna; develop all key components to be non-obtrusive and to develop sensing elements that can easily be implemented. Techniques that have resulted in increased distance between antenna and sensor will be presented. Fluid-level measurements and pressure measurements using the acquisition method are demonstrated in the paper.

  7. Automatic data acquisition of anthropological measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N; Lynnerup, O

    1993-01-01

    A computer program in BASIC is presented which enables the input of measurement data from a caliper directly into specific records in a dBASE IV or PARADOX database. The program circumvents the tedious procedure of first recording measurement data manually and then entering the data into a computer....... Thus much time can be saved and the risk of wrong data entry is lowered. The program was easy to use, and no significant problems were encountered. Necessary hardware is a standard IBM compatible desktop computer, Mitotoyu Digimatic (TM) calipers and a Mitotoyu Digimatic MUX-10 Multiplexer (TM)....

  8. Measuring topographies from conventional SEM acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiwei; Roux, Stéphane; Latourte, Félix; Hild, François; Loisnard, Dominique; Brynaert, Nicolas

    2018-04-27

    The present study extends the stereoscopic imaging principle for estimating the surface topography to two orientations, namely, normal to the electron beam axis and inclined at 70° as suited for EBSD analyses. In spite of the large angle difference, it is shown that the topography can be accurately determined using regularized global Digital Image Correlation. The surface topography is compared to another estimate issued from a 3D FIB-SEM procedure where the sample surface is first covered by a Pt layer, and its initial topography is progressively revealed from successive FIB-milling. These two methods are successfully compared on a 6% strained steel specimen in an in situ mechanical test. This analysis is supplemented by a third approach estimating the change of topography from crystal rotations as measured from successive EBSD images. This last technique ignores plastic deformation, and thus only holds in an elastic regime. For the studied example, despite the large plastic flow, it is shown that crystal rotation already accounts for a significant part of the deformation-induced topography. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  10. A fast data acquisition system for PHA and MCS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijk, P.J.A. van; Keyser, C.J.; Rigterink, B.J.; Hasper, H.

    1985-01-01

    A microprocessor controlled data acquisition system for pulse height analysis and multichannel scaling is described. A 4K x 24 bit static memory is used to obtain a fast data acquisition rate. The system can store 12 bit ADC or TDC data within 150 ns. Operating commands can be entered via a small keyboard or by a RS-232-C interface. An oscilloscope is used to display a spectrum. The display of a spectrum or the transmission of spectrum data to an external computer causes only a short interruption of a measurement in progress and is accomplished by using a DMA circuit. The program is written in Modular Pascal and is divided into 15 modules. These implement 9 parallel processes which are synchronized by using semaphores. Hardware interrupts from the data acquisition, DMA, keyboard and RS-232-C circuits are used to signal these processes. (orig.)

  11. Optimisation of Data Acquisition in Wind Turbines with Data-Driven Conversion Functions for Sensor Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colone, Lorenzo; Reder, M.; Tautz-Weinert, J.

    2017-01-01

    and evaluate their performance. A subsequent sensitivity analysis measuring the impact of the input variables on the predicted response reveals hidden relationships between signals. The concept feasibility is tested in a case study using Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) data from an offshore...

  12. A data acquisition system for measuring ionization cross section in laser multi-step resonant ionization experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Dongbin; Guo Yuhui; Zhang Dacheng; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Ma Xinwen; Zhao Zhizheng; Wang Yanyu; Zu Kailing

    2006-01-01

    A CAMAC data acquisition system for measuring ionization cross section in laser multi-step resonant ionization experiment is described. The number of scalers in the front-end CAMAC can be adjusted by changing the data read-out table files. Both continuous and manual acquisition models are available, and there is a wide adjustable range from 1 ms to 800 s with the acquisition time unit. The long-term stability, Δt/t, for the data acquisition system with an acquisition time unit of 100 s was measured to be better than ±0.01%, thus validating its reliability in long-term online experimental data acquisition. The time response curves for three electrothermal power-meters were also measured by this DAQ system. (authors)

  13. Data acquisition and processing system for coincidence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xu

    1990-07-01

    An instrument has been designed for the absolute measurement of radioactivity with 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence. The instrument can be used as a standard device for the radioactivity measurement in metrology laboratories. Also it can be used in the nuclear science and engineering research for absolute measurement of nuclear decay rate. The control of the system dead time and coincidence resolving time is digitized. The precision can reach ±2 ns. For data acquisition and communication the normalizing GPIB interface system technique is adopted. The measuring error caused by this instrument itself can be better than ±0.02%

  14. Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewall, N.R.

    1989-01-01

    A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 Series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs

  15. Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewall, N.R.; Meassick, S.

    1989-01-01

    A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs

  16. Autoshaping the pigeon's gape response: acquisition and topography as a function of reinforcer type and magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, R W; Zeigler, H P

    1994-09-01

    The pigeon's key-pecking response is experimentally dissociable into transport (head movement) and gape (jaw movement) components. During conditioning of the key-pecking response, both components come under the control of the conditioned stimulus. To study the acquisition of gape conditioned responses and to clarify the contribution of unconditioned stimulus (reinforcer) variables to the form of the response, gape and key-contact responses were recorded during an autoshaping procedure and reinforcer properties were systematically varied. One group of 8 pigeons was food deprived and subgroups of 2 birds each were exposed to four different pellet sizes as reinforcers, each reinforcer signaled by a keylight conditioned stimulus. A second group was water deprived and received water reinforcers paired with the conditioned stimulus. Water- or food-deprived control groups received appropriate water or food reinforcers that were randomly delivered with respect to the keylight stimulus. Acquisition of the conditioned gape response frequently preceded key-contact responses, and gape conditioned responses were generally elicited at higher rates than were key contacts. The form of the conditioned gape was similar to, but not identical with, the form of the unconditioned gape. The gape component is a critical topographical feature of the conditioned key peck, a sensitive measure of conditioning during autoshaping, and an important source of the observed similarities in the form of conditioned and consummatory responses.

  17. Development of a data acquisition unit intended for pulsed plasma measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, B.

    1976-12-01

    A system suitable for the acquisition of the signals from measuring devices implanted in Petula and Wega is described. The technical specifications of the data acquisition system are discussed together with the results obtained [fr

  18. Acquisition, consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction of eyelid conditioning responses require de novo protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Mari Carmen; Delgado-García, José María; Carrión, Angel Manuel

    2005-02-23

    Memory, as measured by changes in an animal's behavior some time after learning, is a reflection of many processes. Here, using a trace paradigm, in mice we show that de novo protein synthesis is required for acquisition, consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction of classically conditioned eyelid responses. Two critical periods of protein synthesis have been found: the first, during training, the blocking of which impaired acquisition; and the second, lasting the first 4 h after training, the blocking of which impaired consolidation. The process of reconsolidation was sensitive to protein synthesis inhibition if anisomycin was injected before or just after the reactivation session. Furthermore, extinction was also dependent on protein synthesis, following the same temporal course as that followed during acquisition and consolidation. This last fact reinforces the idea that extinction is an active learning process rather than a passive event of forgetting. Together, these findings demonstrate that all of the different stages of memory formation involved in the classical conditioning of eyelid responses are dependent on protein synthesis.

  19. Time response measurements of LASL diagnostic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocker, L.P.

    1970-07-01

    The measurement and data analysis techniques developed under the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's detector improvement program were used to characterize the time and frequency response of selected LASL Compton, fluor-photodiode (NPD), and fluor-photomultiplier (NPM) diagnostic detectors. Data acquisition procedures and analysis methods presently in use are summarized, and detector time and frequency data obtained using the EG and G/AEC electron linear accelerator fast pulse (approximately 50 psec FWHM) as the incident radiation driving function are presented. (U.S.)

  20. Performance Measurement for Mobile Forensic Data Acquisition in Firefox OS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Najwadi Yusoff; Ramlan Mahmod; Mohd Taufik Abdullah; Ali Dehghantanha

    2015-01-01

    Mozilla Corporation has recently released a Linux-based open source operating system, namely Firefox OS. The arrival of this Firefox OS has created new challenges, concentrations and opportunities for digital investigators. Currently, Firefox OS is still not fully supported by most of the existing mobile forensic tools. Even when the phone is detected as Android, only pictures from removable memory was able to be captured. Furthermore, the internal data acquisition is still not working. There...

  1. Enhanced conditioned eyeblink response acquisition and proactive interference in anxiety vulnerable individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Holloway

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In classical conditioning, proactive interference may arise from experience with the conditioned stimulus (CS, the unconditional stimulus (US, or both, prior to their paired presentations. Interest in the application of proactive interference has extended to clinical populations as either a risk factor for disorders or as a secondary sign. Although the current literature is dense with comparisons of stimulus pre-exposure effects in animals, such comparisons are lacking in human subjects. As such, interpretation of proactive interference over studies as well as its generalization and utility in clinical research is limited. The present study was designed to assess eyeblink response acquisition after equal numbers of CS, US, and explicitly unpaired CS and US pre-exposures, as well as to evaluate how anxiety vulnerability might modulate proactive interference. In the current study, anxiety vulnerability was assessed using the State/Trait Anxiety Inventories as well as the adult and retrospective measures of behavioural inhibition (AMBI and RMBI, respectively. Participants were exposed to 1 of 4 possible pre-exposure contingencies: 30 CS, 30 US, 30 CS and 30 US explicitly unpaired pre-exposures, or context pre-exposure, immediately prior to standard delay training. Robust proactive interference was evident in all pre-exposure groups relative to context pre-exposure, independent of anxiety classification, with CR acquisition attenuated at similar rates. In addition, trait anxious individuals were found to have enhanced overall acquisition as well as greater proactive interference relative to non-vulnerable individuals. The findings suggest that anxiety vulnerable individuals learn implicit associations faster, an effect which persists after the introduction of new stimulus contingencies. This effect is not due to enhanced sensitivity to the US. Such differences would have implications for the development of anxiety psychopathology within a learning

  2. Enhanced conditioned eyeblink response acquisition and proactive interference in anxiety vulnerable individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Jacqueline L; Trivedi, Payal; Myers, Catherine E; Servatius, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    In classical conditioning, proactive interference may arise from experience with the conditioned stimulus (CS), the unconditional stimulus (US), or both, prior to their paired presentations. Interest in the application of proactive interference has extended to clinical populations as either a risk factor for disorders or as a secondary sign. Although the current literature is dense with comparisons of stimulus pre-exposure effects in animals, such comparisons are lacking in human subjects. As such, interpretation of proactive interference over studies as well as its generalization and utility in clinical research is limited. The present study was designed to assess eyeblink response acquisition after equal numbers of CS, US, and explicitly unpaired CS and US pre-exposures, as well as to evaluate how anxiety vulnerability might modulate proactive interference. In the current study, anxiety vulnerability was assessed using the State/Trait Anxiety Inventories as well as the adult and retrospective measures of behavioral inhibition (AMBI and RMBI, respectively). Participants were exposed to 1 of 4 possible pre-exposure contingencies: 30 CS, 30 US, 30 CS, and 30 US explicitly unpaired pre-exposures, or Context pre-exposure, immediately prior to standard delay training. Robust proactive interference was evident in all pre-exposure groups relative to Context pre-exposure, independent of anxiety classification, with CR acquisition attenuated at similar rates. In addition, trait anxious individuals were found to have enhanced overall acquisition as well as greater proactive interference relative to non-vulnerable individuals. The findings suggest that anxiety vulnerable individuals learn implicit associations faster, an effect which persists after the introduction of new stimulus contingencies. This effect is not due to enhanced sensitivity to the US. Such differences would have implications for the development of anxiety psychopathology within a learning framework.

  3. Configural Response Learning: The Acquisition of a Nonpredictive Motor Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Aparicio, Paul; Weinstein, Andrea; Ivry, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the representational nature of configural response learning using a task that required simultaneous keypresses with 2 or 3 fingers, similar to the production of chords on the piano. If the benefits of learning are related to the retrieval of individual stimulus-response mappings, performance should depend on the frequencies of…

  4. Measuring Acquisition Workforce Quality Through Dynamic Knowledge and Performance: An Exploratory Investigation to Interrelate Acquisition Knowledge with Process Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Nissen, Mark E.; Rendon, Rene G.

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition Research Program Sponsored Report Series Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The efficacy of defense acquisition is highly dependent upon acquisition workforce quality, but assessing such quality remains a major challenge, particularly given the knowledge-intensive and dynamic nature of acquisition organizations and processes. Hence, it is difficult to gauge?much less predict?the impact of leadership interventions in terms of policy, process, reg...

  5. Four-channel high speed synchronized acquisition multiple trigger storage measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jian; Wang Wenlian; Zhang Zhijie

    2010-01-01

    A new storage measurement system based on the CPLD, MCU and FLASH (large-capacity flash memory) is proposed. The large capacity storage characteristic of the FLASH MEMORY is used to realize multi channel synchronized acquisition and the function of multiple records and read once. The function of multi channel synchronization, high speed data acquisition, the triggering several times, and the adjustability of working parameters expands the application of storage measurement system. The storage measurement system can be used in a variety of pressure and temperature test in explosion field. (authors)

  6. Indices to measure risk of HIV acquisition in Rakai, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kagaayi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Targeting most-at-risk individuals with HIV preventive interventions is cost-effective. We developed gender-specific indices to measure risk of HIV among sexually active individuals in Rakai, Uganda. METHODS: We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate time-to-HIV infection associated with candidate predictors. Reduced models were determined using backward selection procedures with Akaike's information criterion (AIC as the stopping rule. Model discrimination was determined using Harrell's concordance index (c index. Model calibration was determined graphically. Nomograms were used to present the final prediction models. RESULTS: We used samples of 7,497 women and 5,783 men. 342 new infections occurred among females (incidence 1.11/100 person years, and 225 among the males (incidence 1.00/100 person years. The final model for men included age, education, circumcision status, number of sexual partners, genital ulcer disease symptoms, alcohol use before sex, partner in high risk employment, community type, being unaware of a partner's HIV status and community HIV prevalence. The Model's optimism-corrected c index was 69.1 percent (95% CI = 0.66, 0.73. The final women's model included age, marital status, education, number of sex partners, new sex partner, alcohol consumption by self or partner before sex, concurrent sexual partners, being employed in a high-risk occupation, having genital ulcer disease symptoms, community HIV prevalence, and perceiving oneself or partner to be exposed to HIV. The models optimism-corrected c index was 0.67 (95% CI = 0.64, 0.70. Both models were well calibrated. CONCLUSION: These indices were discriminative and well calibrated. This provides proof-of-concept that population-based HIV risk indices can be developed. Further research to validate these indices for other populations is needed.

  7. Contingency awareness shapes acquisition and extinction of emotional responses in a conditioning model of pain-related fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eLabrenz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental learning process, fear conditioning promotes the formation of associations between predictive cues and biologically-significant signals. In its application to pain, conditioning may provide important insight into mechanisms underlying pain-related fear, although knowledge especially in interoceptive pain paradigms remains scarce. Furthermore, while the influence of contingency awareness on excitatory learning is subject of ongoing debate, its role in pain-related acquisition is poorly understood and essentially unknown regarding extinction as inhibitory learning. Therefore, we addressed the impact of contingency awareness on learned emotional responses to pain- and safety-predictive cues in a combined dataset of two pain-related conditioning studies.In total, 75 healthy participants underwent differential fear acquisition, during which rectal distensions as interoceptive unconditioned stimuli (US were repeatedly paired with a predictive visual cue (conditioned stimulus; CS+ while another cue (CS- was presented unpaired. During extinction, both CS were presented without US. CS valence, indicating learned emotional responses, and CS-US contingencies were assessed on visual analogue scales. Based on an integrative measure of contingency accuracy, a median-split was performed to compare groups with low versus high contingency accuracy regarding learned emotional responses. To investigate predictive value of contingency accuracy, regression analyses were conducted. Highly accurate individuals revealed more pronounced negative emotional responses to CS+ and increased positive responses to CS- when compared to participants with low contingency accuracy. Following extinction, highly accurate individuals had fully extinguished pain-predictive cue properties, while exhibiting persistent positive emotional responses to safety signals. In contrast, individuals with low accuracy revealed equally positive emotional responses to both, CS+ and

  8. Contingency Awareness Shapes Acquisition and Extinction of Emotional Responses in a Conditioning Model of Pain-Related Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrenz, Franziska; Icenhour, Adriane; Benson, Sven; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    As a fundamental learning process, fear conditioning promotes the formation of associations between predictive cues and biologically significant signals. In its application to pain, conditioning may provide important insight into mechanisms underlying pain-related fear, although knowledge especially in interoceptive pain paradigms remains scarce. Furthermore, while the influence of contingency awareness on excitatory learning is subject of ongoing debate, its role in pain-related acquisition is poorly understood and essentially unknown regarding extinction as inhibitory learning. Therefore, we addressed the impact of contingency awareness on learned emotional responses to pain- and safety-predictive cues in a combined dataset of two pain-related conditioning studies. In total, 75 healthy participants underwent differential fear acquisition, during which rectal distensions as interoceptive unconditioned stimuli (US) were repeatedly paired with a predictive visual cue (conditioned stimulus; CS(+)) while another cue (CS(-)) was presented unpaired. During extinction, both CS were presented without US. CS valence, indicating learned emotional responses, and CS-US contingencies were assessed on visual analog scales (VAS). Based on an integrative measure of contingency accuracy, a median-split was performed to compare groups with low vs. high contingency accuracy regarding learned emotional responses. To investigate predictive value of contingency accuracy, regression analyses were conducted. Highly accurate individuals revealed more pronounced negative emotional responses to CS(+) and increased positive responses to CS(-) when compared to participants with low contingency accuracy. Following extinction, highly accurate individuals had fully extinguished pain-predictive cue properties, while exhibiting persistent positive emotional responses to safety signals. In contrast, individuals with low accuracy revealed equally positive emotional responses to both, CS(+) and CS

  9. Measurement Bases for Acquisitions and Mergers in Financial Accounting and in Commercial Law

    OpenAIRE

    Vomáčková, Hana

    2011-01-01

    In association with transactions involving businesses, acquisitions and mergers, etc., commercial law stipulates the new measurement of business assets and thus also net business assets. Similarly, financial accounting stipulates the new measurement of assets, liabilities and net assets with an impact on the amount and structure of equity. It is a principal question as to whether the new measurement bases required by both commercial law and financial accounting are in principal identical. Pra...

  10. EWLMII: a measurement and data-acquisition system for radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Groer, P.G.

    1981-01-01

    Development of new methods and instruments for the measurement of WL and Rn-daughter concentrations has been in progress for several years. However, efficient methods of data acquisition has not been the primary thrust of this research. If large volumes of data from automated instruments are to be efficiently analyzed, a built in data acquisition system is needed. One such instrument, the EWLMII, is described. The need for accelerated research for the understanding and control of Rn-daughters can be enhanced by such an instrument.

  11. EWLMII: a measurement and data-acquisition system for radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Groer, P.G.

    1981-01-01

    Development of new methods and instruments for the measurement of WL and Rn-daughter concentrations has been in progress for several years. However, efficient methods of data acquisition has not been the primary thrust of this research. If large volumes of data from automated instruments are to be efficiently analyzed, a built in data acquisition system is needed. One such instrument, the EWLMII, is described. The need for accelerated research for the understanding and control of Rn-daughters can be enhanced by such an instrument

  12. Magnetic field measurements and data acquisition of a model magnet for the B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenming; Endo, Kuninori

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe magnetic field measurements and the field data-acquisition system used to measure the model magnet for the B-factory booster. The results of the measurements indicate that the method adopted here is good for acquiring field data. This type of measurement is highly accurate and involves almost no temperature coefficient. The instrument is used not only for ac, but also dc field measurements. It is especially good for field measurements in the case of simultaneous ac and dc field excitation. (author)

  13. A hybrid data acquisition system for magnetic measurements of accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Hafalia, R.; Joseph, J.; Lizarazo, J.; Martchevsky, M.; Sabbi, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid data acquisition system was developed for magnetic measurement of superconducting accelerator magnets at LBNL. It consists of a National Instruments dynamic signal acquisition (DSA) card and two Metrolab fast digital integrator (FDI) cards. The DSA card records the induced voltage signals from the rotating probe while the FDI cards records the flux increment integrated over a certain angular step. This allows the comparison of the measurements performed with two cards. In this note, the setup and test of the system is summarized. With a probe rotating at a speed of 0.5 Hz, the multipole coefficients of two magnets were measured with the hybrid system. The coefficients from the DSA and FDI cards agree with each other, indicating that the numerical integration of the raw voltage acquired by the DSA card is comparable to the performance of the FDI card in the current measurement setup.

  14. Estimate of pulse-sequence data acquisition system for multi-dimensional measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yasunori; Sakae, Takeji; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Matoba, Masaru; Matsumoto, Yuzuru.

    1996-01-01

    A pulse-sequence data acquisition system has been newly designed and estimated for the measurement of one- or multi-dimensional pulse train coming from radiation detectors. In this system, in order to realize the pulse-sequence data acquisition, the arrival time of each pulse is recorded to a memory of a personal computer (PC). For the multi-dimensional data acquisition with several input channels, each arrival-time data is tagged with a 'flag' which indicates the input channel of arriving pulse. Counting losses due to the existence of processing time of the PC are expected to be reduced by using a First-In-First-Out (FIFO) memory unit. In order to verify this system, a computer simulation was performed, Various sets of random pulse trains with different mean pulse rate (1-600 kcps) were generated by using Monte Carlo simulation technique. Those pulse trains were dealt with another code which simulates the newly-designed data acquisition system including a FIFO memory unit; the memory size was assumed to be 0-100 words. And the recorded pulse trains on the PC with the various FIFO memory sizes have been observed. From the result of the simulation, it appears that the system with 3 words FIFO memory unit works successfully up to the pulse rate of 10 kcps without any severe counting losses. (author)

  15. Estimate of pulse-sequence data acquisition system for multi-dimensional measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Yasunori; Sakae, Takeji; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Matoba, Masaru [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Matsumoto, Yuzuru

    1996-07-01

    A pulse-sequence data acquisition system has been newly designed and estimated for the measurement of one- or multi-dimensional pulse train coming from radiation detectors. In this system, in order to realize the pulse-sequence data acquisition, the arrival time of each pulse is recorded to a memory of a personal computer (PC). For the multi-dimensional data acquisition with several input channels, each arrival-time data is tagged with a `flag` which indicates the input channel of arriving pulse. Counting losses due to the existence of processing time of the PC are expected to be reduced by using a First-In-First-Out (FIFO) memory unit. In order to verify this system, a computer simulation was performed, Various sets of random pulse trains with different mean pulse rate (1-600 kcps) were generated by using Monte Carlo simulation technique. Those pulse trains were dealt with another code which simulates the newly-designed data acquisition system including a FIFO memory unit; the memory size was assumed to be 0-100 words. And the recorded pulse trains on the PC with the various FIFO memory sizes have been observed. From the result of the simulation, it appears that the system with 3 words FIFO memory unit works successfully up to the pulse rate of 10 kcps without any severe counting losses. (author)

  16. A New Acquisition and Imaging System for Environmental Measurements: An Experience on the Italian Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Leccese

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new acquisition system for remote control of wall paintings has been realized and tested in the field. The system measures temperature and atmospheric pressure in an archeological site where a fresco has been put under control. The measuring chain has been designed to be used in unfavorable environments where neither electric power nor telecommunication infrastructures are available. The environmental parameters obtained from the local monitoring are then transferred remotely allowing an easier management by experts in the field of conservation of cultural heritage. The local acquisition system uses an electronic card based on microcontrollers and sends the data to a central unit realized with a Raspberry-Pi. The latter manages a high quality camera to pick up pictures of the fresco. Finally, to realize the remote control at a site not reached by internet signals, a WiMAX connection based on different communication technologies such as WiMAX, Ethernet, GPRS and Satellite, has been set up.

  17. Ecological succession, hydrology and carbon acquisition of biological soil crusts measured at the micro-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Matthew; Haling, Rebecca E; Flavel, Richard J; Young, Iain M

    2012-01-01

    The hydrological characteristics of biological soil crusts (BSCs) are not well understood. In particular the relationship between runoff and BSC surfaces at relatively large (>1 m(2)) scales is ambiguous. Further, there is a dearth of information on small scale (mm to cm) hydrological characterization of crust types which severely limits any interpretation of trends at larger scales. Site differences and broad classifications of BSCs as one soil surface type rather than into functional form exacerbate the problem. This study examines, for the first time, some hydrological characteristics and related surface variables of a range of crust types at one site and at a small scale (sub mm to mm). X-ray tomography and fine scale hydrological measurements were made on intact BSCs, followed by C and C isotopic analyses. A 'hump' shaped relationship was found between the successional stage/sensitivity to physical disturbance classification of BSCs and their hydrophobicity, and a similar but 'inverse hump' relationship exists with hydraulic conductivity. Several bivariate relationships were found between hydrological variables. Hydraulic conductivity and hydrophobicity of BSCs were closely related but this association was confounded by crust type. The surface coverage of crust and the microporosity 0.5 mm below the crust surface were closely associated irrespective of crust type. The δ (13)C signatures of the BSCs were also related to hydraulic conductivity, suggesting that the hydrological characteristics of BSCs alter the chemical processes of their immediate surroundings via the physiological response (C acquisition) of the crust itself. These small scale results illustrate the wide range of hydrological properties associated with BSCs, and suggest associations between the ecological successional stage/functional form of BSCs and their ecohydrological role that needs further examination.

  18. Responsiveness of Clinical Outcome Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    Background The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of two standardised functional health measurement scales (HMS) recommended. Despite extensive psychometric testing, little is known about HMS behaviour and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in subgroups of LBP patients. Moreover...... obtainable by a certain treatment. Chronic LBP patients seem to have a reasonable idea of an acceptable change in pain but overestimate change in functional and psychological /affective domains....

  19. Improving quality of laser scanning data acquisition through calibrated amplitude and pulse deviation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennigbauer, Martin; Ullrich, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Newest developments in laser scanner technologies put surveyors in the position to comply with the ever increasing demand of high-speed, high-accuracy, and highly reliable data acquisition from terrestrial, mobile, and airborne platforms. Echo digitization in pulsed time-of-flight laser ranging has demonstrated its superior performance in the field of bathymetry and airborne laser scanning for more than a decade, however at the cost of somewhat time consuming off line post processing. State-of-the-art online waveform processing as implemented in RIEGL's V-Line not only saves users post-processing time to obtain true 3D point clouds, it also adds the assets of calibrated amplitude and reflectance measurement for data classification and pulse deviation determination for effective and reliable data validation. We present results from data acquisitions in different complex target situations.

  20. Automated acquisition and processing of data from measurements on aerodynamic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantlik, F.; Pilat, M.; Schmid, J.

    1981-01-01

    Hardware and software are described for processing data measured in the model research of local hydrodynamic conditions in fluid flow through channels with a complex cross sectional geometry, obtained usign aerodynamic models of parts of fast reactor fuel assemblies of the HEM-1 and HEM-2 type. A system was proposed and is being implemented of automatic control of the experiments and measured data acquisition. Basic information is given on the programs for processing and storing the results using a GIER computer. A CAMAC system is primarily used as part of the hardware. (B.S.)

  1. Using Arduino microcontroller boards to measure response latencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Thomas W; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Canto, Rosario

    2013-12-01

    Latencies of buttonpresses are a staple of cognitive science paradigms. Often keyboards are employed to collect buttonpresses, but their imprecision and variability decreases test power and increases the risk of false positives. Response boxes and data acquisition cards are precise, but expensive and inflexible, alternatives. We propose using open-source Arduino microcontroller boards as an inexpensive and flexible alternative. These boards connect to standard experimental software using a USB connection and a virtual serial port, or by emulating a keyboard. In our solution, an Arduino measures response latencies after being signaled the start of a trial, and communicates the latency and response back to the PC over a USB connection. We demonstrated the reliability, robustness, and precision of this communication in six studies. Test measures confirmed that the error added to the measurement had an SD of less than 1 ms. Alternatively, emulation of a keyboard results in similarly precise measurement. The Arduino performs as well as a serial response box, and better than a keyboard. In addition, our setup allows for the flexible integration of other sensors, and even actuators, to extend the cognitive science toolbox.

  2. Microprocessor-controlled data-acquisition instrument for neutron-activation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a microprocessor controlled data acquisition instrument designed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to provide experimenters with a diagnostic tool for measuring the performance of laser imploded fusion targets via neutron activation techniques. This instrument features the ability to count four independent inputs simultaneously while providing a front panel readout of these inputs, plus a time of day clock. A hardcopy printout of the data is also provided by a built-in thermal printer. All running modes and parameters are user selectable via a front panel keypad, and a complete set of internal self-testing diagnostics are available for debug

  3. Quantitative outcome measures for systemic sclerosis-related Microangiopathy - Reliability of image acquisition in Nailfold Capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, Graham; Moore, Tonia; O'Leary, Neil; Berks, Michael; Roberts, Christopher; Manning, Joanne; Allen, John; Anderson, Marina; Cutolo, Maurizio; Hesselstrand, Roger; Howell, Kevin; Pizzorni, Carmen; Smith, Vanessa; Sulli, Alberto; Wildt, Marie; Taylor, Christopher; Murray, Andrea; Herrick, Ariane L

    2017-09-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopic parameters hold increasing promise as outcome measures for clinical trials in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Their inclusion as outcomes would often naturally require capillaroscopy images to be captured at several time points during any one study. Our objective was to assess repeatability of image acquisition (which has been little studied), as well as of measurement. 41 patients (26 with SSc, 15 with primary Raynaud's phenomenon) and 10 healthy controls returned for repeat high-magnification (300×) videocapillaroscopy mosaic imaging of 10 digits one week after initial imaging (as part of a larger study of reliability). Images were assessed in a random order by an expert blinded observer and 4 outcome measures extracted: (1) overall image grade and then (where possible) distal vessel locations were marked, allowing (2) vessel density (across the whole nailfold) to be calculated (3) apex width measurement and (4) giant vessel count. Intra-rater, intra-visit and intra-rater inter-visit (baseline vs. 1week) reliability were examined in 475 and 392 images respectively. A linear, mixed-effects model was used to estimate variance components, from which intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were determined. Intra-visit and inter-visit reliability estimates (ICCs) were (respectively): overall image grade, 0.97 and 0.90; vessel density, 0.92 and 0.65; mean vessel width, 0.91 and 0.79; presence of giant capillary, 0.68 and 0.56. These estimates were conditional on each parameter being measurable. Within-operator image analysis and acquisition are reproducible. Quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy, at least with a single observer, provides reliable outcome measures for clinical studies including randomised controlled trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting and measuring fluid responsiveness with echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography is ideally suited to guide fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. It can be used to assess fluid responsiveness by looking at the left ventricle, aortic outflow, inferior vena cava and right ventricle. Static measurements and dynamic variables based on heart–lung interactions all combine to predict and measure fluid responsiveness and assess response to intravenous fluid esuscitation. Thorough knowledge of these variables, the physiology behind them and the pitfalls in their use allows the echocardiographer to confidently assess these patients and in combination with clinical judgement manage them appropriately.

  5. A harmonic coil measurement system based on a dynamic signal acquisition device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.X., E-mail: zhoujx@ihep.ac.c [Institute of High Energy Physics, P.O. Box 918-9, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, L.; Yin, B.G.; Deng, C.D.; Kang, W.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Fu, S.N. [Institute of High Energy Physics, P.O. Box 918-9, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-12-21

    A new harmonic coil measurement system based on a dynamic signal acquisition device has been successfully developed to check the field quality of the quadrupole magnet for the CSNS/RCS, which operates at the 25 Hz excitation cycle with a DC bias. It was designed to acquire multiple channels of data with a wide dynamic range of input signals, which are typically generated by a harmonic coil and an encoder. A dedicated algorithm was developed in LabView code to identify over specified intervals, synchronized to the coil's rotation in the magnetic field. Through full integration of hardware and software, the traditional device (PDI 5025) is replaced successfully. This paper summarizes the characteristics of the system and presents the results of DC measurements.

  6. Signs management and acquisition system for measurement of thermo physics properties of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliorini, Fabricio Lima; Silva, Egonn Hendrigo Carvalho; Neto Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto; Miranda, Odair; Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Camarano, Denise das Merces

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the management and acquisition system (SGA-LMPT) developed in a Lab View platform implemented at the Laboratory for Measurement of Thermophysics Properties at the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CDTN/CNEN-MG). The SGA-LMPT is a tool which guarantee the complete fulfilment of the regulatory regulations, allowing a much more quality, productivity, costs reduction and optimization of the laboratory process. Besides, the SGA-LMPT presents the necessary requirements for demonstration a management system capable to produce results technically valid. The determination of the thermal diffusivity of the UO 2 pellet fabricated with microspheres was used for demonstration of the new system adequacy for the measurement of nuclear fuel thermo physics properties. The results were discussed and compared with literature

  7. Development of a scintillator detector set with counter and data acquisition for flow measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, F E D

    2002-01-01

    A portable counter with data acquisition system for flow measurements was developed, using the pulse velocity technique. This consists in determining the tracer transit time mixed homogeneously to the liquid or gas pipelines. The counter comprises: (a) two CsI(Tl) crystals solid state detectors, associated with Si PIN photodiodes, with compatible sensitivity to the injected radiotracers activities; (b) amplification units; (c) analogue-to-digital interface, which processes and displays the detectors counting separately and in real time, but in a same temporal axis, via a computer screen and (d) 30-m coaxial cables for signals transmission from each detector to the processing unit. Experiments were carried out for the detector and associated electronic characterizations. The equipment showed to be suitable for flow measurements in an industrial plant, in the real situation.

  8. Net root growth and nutrient acquisition in response to predicted climate change in two contrasting heathland species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndal, M.F.; Merrild, M.P.; Michelsen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate predictions of nutrient acquisition by plant roots and mycorrhizas are critical in modelling plant responses to climate change.We conducted a field experiment with the aim to investigate root nutrient uptake in a future climate and studied root production by ingrowth cores, mycorrhizal...... to elevated CO2. The species-specific response to the treatments suggests different sensitivity to global change factors, which could result in changed plant competitive interactions and belowground nutrient pool sizes in response to future climate change....

  9. Value for money: Defining and measuring 'value' in MoD's acquisition policy of obtaining best value for money

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, A.

    2006-01-01

    Obtaining value for money is a keystone of UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) acquisition strategy embedded in its Smart Acquisition policy. This thesis examines how best to measure the relative value of competing tender submissions for major projects. There is a comprehensive discussion of a wide range of relevant definitions and over three dozen documents are scrutinised including just some sixteen published by the Government. Commercially available models, algorithms and software are examined as...

  10. Determining the Best Loci of Knowledge, Responsibilities and Decision Rights in Major Acquisition Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dillard, John; Nissen, Mark E

    2005-01-01

    .... Building upon prior research on acquisition centralization and knowledge dynamics, the authors employ computational methods to assess the behavior and performance of different organizational designs...

  11. Determining the Best Loci of Knowledge, Responsibilities and Decision Rights in Major Acquisition Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dillard, John; Nissen, Mark E

    2005-01-01

    ... in varying environments. Their results reinforce Contingency Theory and suggest that particular characteristics of different acquisition environments make one organizational form relatively more or less appropriate than another...

  12. Determining the Best Loci of Knowledge, Responsibilities and Decision Rights in Major Acquisition Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dillard, John; Nissen, Mark E

    2005-01-01

    .... Our results reinforce Contingency Theory and suggest particular characteristics of different acquisition environments make one organizational form relatively more or less appropriate than another...

  13. Determining the Best Loci of Knowledge, Responsibilities and Decision Rights in Major Acquisition Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dillard, John; Nissen, Mark E

    2005-01-01

    .... Building upon prior research of acquisition centralization and knowledge dynamics we employ computational methods to assess the behavior and performance of different organizational designs in varying environments...

  14. Effects of GABA[subscript A] Modulators on the Repeated Acquisition of Response Sequences in Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Una C.; Winsauer, Peter J.; Stevenson, Michael W.; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of positive and negative GABA[subscript A] modulators under three different baselines of repeated acquisition in squirrel monkeys in which the monkeys acquired a three-response sequence on three keys under a second-order fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of food reinforcement. In two of these baselines, the…

  15. Diagnostic-management system and test pulse acquisition for WEST plasma measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojenski, A.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K.T.; Byszuk, A.; Juszczyk, B.; Zabolotny, W.; Zienkiewicz, P.; Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes current status of electronic, firmware and software development for new plasma measurement system for use in WEST facility. The system allows to perform two dimensional plasma visualization (in time) with spectrum measurement. The analog front-end is connected to Gas Electron Multiplier detector (GEM detector). The system architecture have high data throughput due to use of PCI-Express interface, Gigabit Transceivers and sampling frequency of ADC integrated circuits. The hardware is based on several years of experience in building X-ray spectrometer system for Joint European Torus (JET) facility. Data streaming is done using Artix7 FPGA devices. The system in basic configuration can work with up to 256 channels, while the maximum number of measurement channels is 2048. Advanced firmware for the FPGA is required in order to perform high speed data streaming and analog signal sampling. Diagnostic system management has been developed in order to configure measurement system, perform necessary calibration and prepare hardware for data acquisition. (authors)

  16. Neutron energy response measurement of scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongqiong; Peng Taiping; Yang Jianlun; Tang Zhengyuan; Yang Gaozhao; Li Linbo; Hu Mengchun; Wang Zhentong; Zhang Jianhua; Li Zhongbao; Wang Lizong

    2004-01-01

    Neutron sensitivities of detectors composed of plastic scintillator ST401, ST1422, ST1423 and phyotomultiplier tube in primary energy range of fission neutron are calibrated by direct current. The energy response curve of the detectors is obtained in this experiment. The experimental result has been compared with the theoretical calculation and they are in agreement within measuring uncertainty. (authors)

  17. Fast response densitometer for measuring liquid density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Densitometer was developed which produces linear voltage proportional to changes in density of flowing liquid hydrogen. Unit has fast response time and good system stability, statistical variation, and thermal equilibrium. System accuracy is 2 percent of total density span. Basic design may be altered to include measurement of other flowing materials.

  18. On the optimal sampling of bandpass measurement signals through data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angrisani, L; Vadursi, M

    2008-01-01

    Data acquisition systems (DAS) play a fundamental role in a lot of modern measurement solutions. One of the parameters characterizing a DAS is its maximum sample rate, which imposes constraints on the signals that can be alias-free digitized. Bandpass sampling theory singles out separated ranges of admissible sample rates, which can be significantly lower than carrier frequency. But, how to choose the most convenient sample rate according to the purpose at hand? The paper proposes a method for the automatic selection of the optimal sample rate in measurement applications involving bandpass signals; the effects of sample clock instability and limited resolution are also taken into account. The method allows the user to choose the location of spectral replicas of the sampled signal in terms of normalized frequency, and the minimum guard band between replicas, thus introducing a feature that no DAS currently available on the market seems to offer. A number of experimental tests on bandpass digitally modulated signals are carried out to assess the concurrence of the obtained central frequency with the expected one

  19. Acquisition and deconvolution of seismic signals by different methods to perform direct ground-force measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Flavio; Schleifer, Andrea; Zgauc, Franco; Meneghini, Fabio; Petronio, Lorenzo

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of a novel borehole-seismic experiment in which we used different types of onshore-transient-impulsive and non-impulsive-surface sources together with direct ground-force recordings. The ground-force signals were obtained by baseplate load cells located beneath the sources, and by buried soil-stress sensors installed in the very shallow-subsurface together with accelerometers. The aim was to characterize the source's emission by its complex impedance, function of the near-field vibrations and soil stress components, and above all to obtain appropriate deconvolution operators to remove the signature of the sources in the far-field seismic signals. The data analysis shows the differences in the reference measurements utilized to deconvolve the source signature. As downgoing waves, we process the signals of vertical seismic profiles (VSP) recorded in the far-field approximation by an array of permanent geophones cemented at shallow-medium depth outside the casing of an instrumented well. We obtain a significant improvement in the waveform of the radiated seismic-vibrator signals deconvolved by ground force, similar to that of the seismograms generated by the impulsive sources, and demonstrates that the results obtained by different sources present low values in their repeatability norm. The comparison evidences the potentiality of the direct ground-force measurement approach to effectively remove the far-field source signature in VSP onshore data, and to increase the performance of permanent acquisition installations for time-lapse application purposes.

  20. Measurement of meteorological data based on wireless data acquisition system monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benghanem, M.

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of solar energy potential of a region requires detailed solar radiation climatology, and it is necessary to collect extensive radiation data of high accuracy covering all climatic zones of the region. In this regard, a wireless data acquisition system (WDAS) would help to estimate solar energy potential considering the remote region's energy requirement. This article explains the design and implementation of WDAS for assessment of solar energy. The proposed system consists of a set of sensors for measuring meteorological parameters. The collected data are first conditioned using precision electronic circuits and then interfaced to a PC using RS232 connection via wireless unit. The LabVIEW program is used to further process, display and store the collected data in the PC disk. The proposed architecture permits the rapid system development and has the advantage of flexibility and it can be easily extended for controlling the renewable energy systems like photovoltaic system. The WDAS with executive information systems and reporting tools helps to tap vast data resources and deliver information.

  1. Computer data-acquisition and control system for Thomson-scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, K.A.; Foskett, R.D.; Kindsfather, R.R.; Lazarus, E.A.; Thomas, C.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Thomson-Scattering Diagnostic System (SCATPAK II) used to measure the electron temperature and density in the Impurity Study Experiment is interfaced to a Perkin-Elmer 8/32 computer that operates under the OS/32 operating system. The calibration, alignment, and operation of this diagnostic are all under computer control. Data acquired from 106 photomultiplier tubes installed on 15 spectrometers are transmitted to the computer by eighteen 12-channel, analog-to-digital integrators along a CAMAC serial highway. With each laser pulse, 212 channels of data are acquired: 106 channels of signal plus background and 106 channels of background only. Extensive use of CAMAC instrumentation enables large amounts of data to be acquired and control processes to be performed in a time-dependent environment. The Thomson-scattering computer system currently operates in three modes: user interaction and control, data acquisition and transmission, and data analysis. This paper discusses the development and implementation of this system as well as data storage and retrieval

  2. CAMAC system for data acquisition on output of digital panel meter for DC voltage measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Nobuaki.

    1979-03-01

    An interface between the digital panel meter (DPM) for DC voltage measurement and the CAMAC system for T-2 experiment in JIPP (Japan Institute of Plasma Physics) was designed and produced. This panel meter is used for the purpose of monitoring the deflected electrode voltage of a 6 channel, neutral particle, energy analyzer (parallel plate electrodes, electro static type). The method of connecting the DPM to the CAMAC system is that of taking the gate pulses with the width proportional to the voltage to be measured out of the output of the DPM and counting the clock pulses. This system uses each one channel of output register, interrupting register, scaler and clock generator, and the binary digital data is obtained in the scaler, and sent to the main memory of the computer HITAC 10-2 through the CAMAC crate controller. At this time, the interface gives the output of the gate pulses with the width proportional to the DPM input voltage from the DPM BUSY output and PRINT COMMAND output, depending on the sampling pulses from the output register. The interface also gives the end pulse communicating the completion of the output of gate pulses to the interrupting register. The software is summarized in the flow chart of the program and in the program list used for the test on this data acquisition system. The features of this system are to be able to obtain the binary data directly, and to be capable of saving the number of transmission lines required for data transfer. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  3. Fast charge digitizer and digital data acquisition system for measuring time varying radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.R.; Schneider, R.H.; Wyatt, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation measuring instrument including a fast charge digitizer and a digital data acquisition system has been developed. The fast charge digitizer includes a charge integrator connected to a conventional ionization chamber which generates an output current in proportion to ionizing radiation exposure rate. The charge integrator has an output connected to a comparator which is switched from a high state to a low state when the output of the integrator goes above the comparator threshold. The comparator output is connected to a bistable multivibrator consisting of two non-retriggerable one shot multivibrators connected in a feedback configuration. As long as the comparator output is in the low state, the bistable multivibrator generates a train of pluses which are fed back through an analog switch and a high megohm resistance to the input of the integrator. This feedback is negative and has the effect of removing the charge from the integrating capacitor, thus causing the integrator output eventually to drop below the comparator threshold. When this occurs the comparator output returns to the high state and the bistable multivibrator ceases to generate output pulses. An output terminal is connected between the bistable multivibrator and the analog switch and feeds a train of pulses proportional to the amount of charge generated by the multivibrator output voltage and the high megohm resistance to a counter connected to a random access memory device. The output pulses are counted for a predetermined time and then stored in one of the data locations of the random access memory device. The counter is then reset and a further predetermined sample period is counted. This continues until all of the locations in the random access memory device are filled and then the data is read from the random access memory device

  4. Measurement and Analysis of Horizontal Vibration Response of Pile Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boominathan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pile foundations are frequently used in very loose and weak deposits, in particular soft marine clays deposits to support various industrial structures, power plants, petrochemical complexes, compressor stations and residential multi-storeyed buildings. Under these circumstances, piles are predominantly subjected to horizontal dynamic loads and the pile response to horizontal vibration is very critical due to its low stiffness. Though many analytical methods have been developed to estimate the horizontal vibration response, but they are not well validated with the experimental studies. This paper presents the results of horizontal vibration tests carried out on model aluminium single piles embedded in a simulated Elastic Half Space filled with clay. The influence of various soil and pile parameters such as pile length, modulus of clay, magnitude of dynamic load and frequency of excitation on the horizontal vibration response of single piles was examined. Measurement of various response quantities, such as the load transferred to the pile, pile head displacement and the strain variation along the pile length were done using a Data Acquisition System. It is found that the pile length, modulus of clay and dynamic load, significantly influences the natural frequency and peak amplitude of the soil-pile system. The maximum bending moment occurs at the fundamental frequency of the soil-pile system. The maximum bending moment of long piles is about 2 to 4 times higher than that of short piles and it increases drastically with the increase in the shear modulus of clay for both short and long piles. The active or effective pile length is found to be increasing under dynamic load and empirical equations are proposed to estimate the active pile length under dynamic loads.

  5. A Response to Jordan's (2004) "Explanatory Adequacy and Theories of Second Language Acquisition"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Kevin R.

    2005-01-01

    In a recent paper (Jordan, Geoff Jordan takes issue with some of my claims about second language acquisition (SLA) theory. Specifically, he queries the necessity of a property theory, and he finds my discussion of explanation unsatisfactory. In this brief reply, I try to answer his criticisms. In a brief but interesting paper, Geoff Jordan (2004:…

  6. Development of controller of acquisition and sample positioner for activation for use in measurements of short half-life radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secco, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    High resolution gamma spectroscopy measurements have several applications. Those involving short half-life radioisotope measurements may present low precision problems when the radioactive source is far from detector end cup and in the very high activity situations also can present accuracy loss due to dead time and pile-up effects. A way to overcome these problems is changing the source detector distance as the activity is decreasing, and thereby maximizing the statistical counting. In the present study, the Controller of Acquisition and Sample Positioner for Activation (CASPA) was developed. It is a low cost and weight device, made with low atomic number materials designed to assist gamma spectroscopy measurements, which is able to control the distance between the source and the detector, even allowing that there is a change of this distance during the measurement process. Because it is automated it optimizes the time of the operator, who has complete freedom to program their routine measurements in the device besides minimizing the radiation dose in the operator. An interface that allow the user control the CASPA system and to program the acquisition system was created. Tests aiming to optimize the operation of CASPA system were carried out and the safety of the CASPA operation was verified, it was not presented any failure during their tests. It was applied the repeatability tests by the acquisition 60 Co standard source and was found that the positioning of automated system has reproduced the results of static system with a 95% of confidence level. (author)

  7. Coil measurement data acquisition and curing press control system for SSC dipole magnet coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, C.E.

    1989-03-01

    A coil matching program, similar in theory to the methods used to match Tevatron coils, is being developed at Fermilab. Modulus of elasticity and absolute coil size will be determined at 18-inch intervals along the coils while in the coil curing press immediately following the curing process. A data acquisition system is under construction to automatically acquire and manage the large quantities of data that result. Data files will be transferred to Fermilab's VAX Cluster for long-term storage and actual coil matching. The data acquisition system will also provide the control algorithm for the curing press hydraulic system. A description of the SSC Curing Press Data Acquisition and Controls System will be reported. 20 figs

  8. Measurement of Photomultipier Plateau Curves and Single MIP response in the AD detector at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez Falero, Sebastian De Jesus

    2015-01-01

    The Alice Diffractive (AD) detector is a forward detector in the ALICE experiment at CERN. It is aimed to the triggering on diffractive events and extends the pseudorapidity coverage to about 4.9 < /n/ < 6.3. In this work, a PMT's efficiency plateau and single MIP response are measured using a replica of the detector's scintillator modules, electronic and data acquisition system and cosmic rays as particle source.

  9. Different opinions of physicians on the importance of measures to prevent acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, Gratiana; Ullrich, Gerald

    2003-12-01

    Since chronic infection with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is associated with deteriorating lung function, many parents of young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) fear the first PA positive throat swab as a milestone in the progression of the disease. To reduce the risk of PA acquisition from the environment, they perform preventive measures at home or outdoors. In an attempt to evaluate the attitude of CF physicians towards these measures and the respective consulting practice, we mailed a questionnaire to all 65 certified paediatric CF centres in Germany. Physicians from 54 (83%) CF clinics replied. They expressed widely different ideas about the impact of the environment for the acquisition of P. aeruginosa, and recommended a large spectrum of preventive measures. Some physicians proposed only few precautions, which focussed on the prevention of cross-infection between patients, whereas others suggested prevention of any contact with moist or wet places, e.g. use different toothbrushes for mornings and evenings, or do without air-conditioning in the car. CF physicians have different opinions on the risk of PA acquisition from the environment. Doctors who recommend strict precautions could engender a parental fear of a ubiquous threat from invisible bacteria. The resulting extended safety measures might impair the family's quality of life. Copyright 2003 European Cystic Fibrosis Society

  10. Submicronic Particle Measurement Instrumentation Test Bench Data Acquisition and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Sanz, D.; Gomez, F. J.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the SAD-100 system characteristics. The unit makes the instrumentation test bench data acquisition and control, SAD-100 was designed and developed by Electronic and Automation Area (CIEMAT) and Aerosol Technology in Energy Generation Project (CIEMAT). (Author) 2 refs

  11. Measuring treatment response in psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Meyers, Barnett S; Flint, Alastair J

    2014-01-01

    ). The response to the two regimens was compared using both a mixed effects model and effect size statistics on the total scores of three rating scales: the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), its 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6), and the 11-item PDAS consisting of the HAM-D6 plus five items......BACKGROUND: There is no established psychometric instrument dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new composite rating scale, the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), covering both the psychotic...... and the depressive domains of PD, could detect differences in effect between two psychopharmacological treatment regimens. METHODS: We reanalyzed the data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression (STOP-PD), which compared the effect of Olanzapine+Sertraline (n=129) versus Olanzapine+Placebo (n=130...

  12. Real time alpha value measurement with Feynman-α method utilizing time series data acquisition on low enriched uranium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonoike, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Shoichi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2003-01-01

    As a part of the development of a subcriticality monitoring system, a system which has a time series data acquisition function of detector signals and a real time evaluation function of alpha value with the Feynman-alpha method was established, with which the kinetic parameter (alpha value) was measured at the STACY heterogeneous core. The Hashimoto's difference filter was implemented in the system, which enables the measurement at a critical condition. The measurement result of the new system agreed with the pulsed neutron method. (author)

  13. Application of expert system in measurement instrument instrumentation's maintenance on a acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinastiko, W.S.

    1997-01-01

    Expert system is a part of the artificial intelligence, a solution software for complicated problems, which solving the problems need experiences and knowledge. This paper discussed about the research's result, that is a design of expert system to help instrumentation's maintenance on a data acquisition system. By using application of expert system, the system can do health monitoring, automatic trouble trouble tracing ang gives advise toward the trouble. this instrumentation's maintenance system is a tool which has an analytic and inference ability toward th trouble. This smart system is a very useful tool to get a good data acquisition system quality. the model system also can be developed to be a specific application as a remote instrumentation's management system

  14. Control and acquisition system of a space instrument for cosmic ray measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, M.; Martín, C.; Quesada, M.; Meziat, D.; Medina, J.; Sánchez, S.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.

    2000-04-01

    The PESCA Instrument Control and Acquisition System (PICAS) design, building and tests are presented. The purpose of the PESCA instrument is the study of the Solar Energetic Particles and the Anomalous Cosmic Rays. It is, therefore, a satellite on-board instrument. The PICAS is basically a computer, composed of a microprocessor with a memory block and a set of interfaces for the communication with the rest of the instrument and the satellite. The PICAS manages all the comunication processes with the satellite, that comprises the order reception from the ground station, and the telemetry sending, that includes scientific data and housekeeping data. By means of telecommands, the PICAS is completely controllable from the ground. The PICAS is also a reliable data acquisition system that guarantees the correct reception of the Cosmic Rays data collected in the ground.

  15. Measuring Bank Financial Performance Between Pre and Post Acquisition of Bii Maybank in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorongan, Marselly

    2013-01-01

    Banking institutions are one of the key sectors within the financial system. For this reason, the government opens investment opportunities on a large scale to attract foreign investors. This is evident with the increasing number of the Indonesian banking companies which have been taken over by foreign institutions; for instance the acquisition of PT. Bank Internasional Indonesia by Maybank. A Financial report is a tool for analyzing the development of the bank's performance of pre and post-a...

  16. Measuring student responsibility in Physical Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Contextual Self-Responsibility Questionnaire (CSRQ) and Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire (PSRQ) were developed to meausre student responsibility within the field of physical education. In the present study, the factor structure of the CSRQ and PSRQ was examined. Unlike previous structure ...

  17. Temperature transient response measurement in flowing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbird, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A specially developed procedure is described for determining the thermal transient response of thermocouples and other temperature transducers when totally immersed in flowing water. The high velocity heat transfer conditions associated with this facility enable thermocouple response times to be predicted in other fluids. These predictions can be confirmed by electrical analogue experiments. (author)

  18. Signal processing and general purpose data acquisition system for on-line tomographic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, A.; Martin, P.; Hemming, O.; Manduchi, G.; Marrelli, L.; Taliercio, C.; Hoffmann, A.

    1997-01-01

    New analog signal conditioning electronics and data acquisition systems have been developed for the soft x-ray and bolometric tomography diagnostic in the reverse field pinch experiment (RFX). For the soft x-ray detectors the analog signal processing includes a fully differential current to voltage conversion, with up to a 200 kHz bandwidth. For the bolometers, a 50 kHz carrier frequency amplifier allows a maximum bandwidth of 10 kHz. In both cases the analog signals are digitized with a 1 MHz sampling rate close to the diagnostic and are transmitted via a transparent asynchronous xmitter/receiver interface (TAXI) link to purpose built Versa Module Europa (VME) modules which perform data acquisition. A software library has been developed for data preprocessing and tomographic reconstruction. It has been written in C language and is self-contained, i.e., no additional mathematical library is required. The package is therefore platform-free: in particular it can perform online analysis in a real-time application, such as continuous display and feedback, and is portable for long duration fusion or other physical experiments. Due to the modular organization of the library, new preprocessing and analysis modules can be easily integrated in the environment. This software is implemented in RFX over three different platforms: open VMS, digital Unix, and VME 68040 CPU.

  19. Microcomputer-based equipment-control and data-acquisition system for fission-reactor reactivity-worth measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.P.; Bucher, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Material reactivity-worth measurements are one of the major classes of experiments conducted on the Zero Power research reactors (ZPR) at Argonne National Laboratory. These measurements require the monitoring of the position of a servo control element as a sample material is positioned at various locations in a critical reactor configuration. In order to guarantee operational reliability and increase experimental flexibility for these measurements, the obsolete hardware-based control unit has been replaced with a microcomputer based equipment control and data acquisition system. This system is based on an S-100 bus, dual floppy disk computer with custom built cards to interface with the experimental system. To measure reactivity worths, the system accurately positions samples in the reactor core and acquires data on the position of the servo control element. The data are then analyzed to determine statistical adequacy. The paper covers both the hardware and software aspects of the design

  20. Microcomputer-based equipment-control and data-acquisition system for fission-reactor reactivity-worth measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, W.P.; Bucher, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Material reactivity-worth measurements are one of the major classes of experiments conducted on the Zero Power research reactors (ZPR) at Argonne National Laboratory. These measurements require the monitoring of the position of a servo control element as a sample material is positioned at various locations in a critical reactor configuration. In order to guarantee operational reliability and increase experimental flexibility for these measurements, the obsolete hardware-based control unit has been replaced with a microcomputer based equipment control and data acquisition system. This system is based on an S-100 bus, dual floppy disk computer with custom built cards to interface with the experimental system. To measure reactivity worths, the system accurately positions samples in the reactor core and acquires data on the position of the servo control element. The data are then analyzed to determine statistical adequacy. The paper covers both the hardware and software aspects of the design.

  1. Proteomic analysis of iron acquisition, metabolic and regulatory responses of Yersinia pestis to iron starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the bubonic plague. Efficient iron acquisition systems are critical to the ability of Y. pestis to infect, spread and grow in mammalian hosts, because iron is sequestered and is considered part of the innate host immune defence against invading pathogens. We used a proteomic approach to determine expression changes of iron uptake systems and intracellular consequences of iron deficiency in the Y. pestis strain KIM6+ at two physiologically relevant temperatures (26°C and 37°C. Results Differential protein display was performed for three Y. pestis subcellular fractions. Five characterized Y. pestis iron/siderophore acquisition systems (Ybt, Yfe, Yfu, Yiu and Hmu and a putative iron/chelate outer membrane receptor (Y0850 were increased in abundance in iron-starved cells. The iron-sulfur (Fe-S cluster assembly system Suf, adapted to oxidative stress and iron starvation in E. coli, was also more abundant, suggesting functional activity of Suf in Y. pestis under iron-limiting conditions. Metabolic and reactive oxygen-deactivating enzymes dependent on Fe-S clusters or other iron cofactors were decreased in abundance in iron-depleted cells. This data was consistent with lower activities of aconitase and catalase in iron-starved vs. iron-rich cells. In contrast, pyruvate oxidase B which metabolizes pyruvate via electron transfer to ubiquinone-8 for direct utilization in the respiratory chain was strongly increased in abundance and activity in iron-depleted cells. Conclusions Many protein abundance differences were indicative of the important regulatory role of the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Iron deficiency seems to result in a coordinated shift from iron-utilizing to iron-independent biochemical pathways in the cytoplasm of Y. pestis. With growth temperature as an additional variable in proteomic comparisons of the Y. pestis fractions (26°C and 37°C, there was

  2. A microcomputer-based data acquisition system for ECG, body and ambient temperatures measurement during bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uokawa, Y; Yonezawa, Y; Caldwell, W M; Hahn, A W

    2000-01-01

    A data acquisition system employing a low power 8 bit microcomputer has been developed for heart rate variability monitoring before, during and after bathing. The system consists of three integral chest electrodes, two temperature sensors, an instrumentation amplifier, a low power 8-bit single chip microcomputer (SMC) and a 4 MB compact flash memory (CFM). The ECG from the electrodes is converted to an 8-bit digital format at a 1 ms rate by an A/D converter in the SMC. Both signals from the body and ambient temperature sensors are converted to an 8-bit digital format every 1 second. These data are stored by the CFM. The system is powered by a rechargeable 3.6 V lithium battery. The 4 x 11 x 1 cm system is encapsulated in epoxy and silicone, yielding a total volume of 44 cc. The weight is 100 g.

  3. Concept for a Microcontroller Based Data Acquisition Device for Use in Nuclear Environments Measuring and Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, Sam; Stevenson, Dave; Magnifico, Matteo

    2013-06-01

    Micro-controllers, (which are a superset of microprocessors), usually include a microprocessor, RAM, nonvolatile memory and an interface controller all on a single chip. Micro-controllers are widely used in what are known as 'embedded systems'. An embedded system is designed for a specific function often in a larger overall system. Where the home PC is designed for flexibility and many different types of software applications, embedded systems are most often fixed in their functionality and typically will not change during the life of their implementation. By the same token, the software developed for a micro-controller will not typically change during device deployment and is therefore called 'firmware'. A Data Acquisition (DAQ) micro-controller will also include an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) on the chip. The current state of nuclear power plant control systems is somewhat antiquated and even though there have been great strides made in the upgrade of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) systems, the industry as a whole has been slow to adopt the latest in technology. The benefits of digital technology are widely recognized in the NPP industry and yet adoption has still been slow due at least to some degree by the significant safety concerns of the industry. Results in other industries including satellite manufacture however, have shown that risk can be managed and high reliability achieved to produce electronics that function without errors for many years. In addition, the catastrophe that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi plant is causing some in the NPP industry to consider electronics that can withstand severe radiation and temperature conditions. The technology exists today to develop a single chip micro-controller data acquisition system that can survive and function reliably in radiation and other harsh environments and would be suitable for implementation in an NPP system. (authors)

  4. Avoiding measurement dogma: a response to Rossiter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigdon, E.E.; Preacher, K.J.; Lee, N.; Howell, R.D.; Franke, G.R.; Borsboom, D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to respond to John Rossiter's call for a "Marketing measurement revolution" in the current issue of EJM, as well as providing broader comment on Rossiter's C-OAR-SE framework, and measurement practice in marketing in general. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is

  5. Horizontal acquisition of a hypoxia-responsive molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis pathway contributed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathoadaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levillain, Florence; Poquet, Yannick; Mallet, Ludovic; Mazères, Serge; Marceau, Michael; Brosch, Roland; Bange, Franz-Christoph; Supply, Philip; Magalon, Axel; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2017-11-01

    The unique ability of the tuberculosis (TB) bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to persist for long periods of time in lung hypoxic lesions chiefly contributes to the global burden of latent TB. We and others previously reported that the M. tuberculosis ancestor underwent massive episodes of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), mostly from environmental species. Here, we sought to explore whether such ancient HGT played a part in M. tuberculosis evolution towards pathogenicity. We were interested by a HGT-acquired M. tuberculosis-specific gene set, namely moaA1-D1, which is involved in the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor. Horizontal acquisition of this gene set was striking because homologues of these moa genes are present all across the Mycobacterium genus, including in M. tuberculosis. Here, we discovered that, unlike their paralogues, the moaA1-D1 genes are strongly induced under hypoxia. In vitro, a M. tuberculosis moaA1-D1-null mutant has an impaired ability to respire nitrate, to enter dormancy and to survive in oxygen-limiting conditions. Conversely, heterologous expression of moaA1-D1 in the phylogenetically closest non-TB mycobacterium, Mycobacterium kansasii, which lacks these genes, improves its capacity to respire nitrate and grants it with a marked ability to survive oxygen depletion. In vivo, the M. tuberculosis moaA1-D1-null mutant shows impaired survival in hypoxic granulomas in C3HeB/FeJ mice, but not in normoxic lesions in C57BL/6 animals. Collectively, our results identify a novel pathway required for M. tuberculosis resistance to host-imposed stress, namely hypoxia, and provide evidence that ancient HGT bolstered M. tuberculosis evolution from an environmental species towards a pervasive human-adapted pathogen.

  6. Mutations in Cas9 Enhance the Rate of Acquisition of Viral Spacer Sequences during the CRISPR-Cas Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heler, Robert; Wright, Addison V; Vucelja, Marija; Bikard, David; Doudna, Jennifer A; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2017-01-05

    CRISPR loci and their associated (Cas) proteins encode a prokaryotic immune system that protects against viruses and plasmids. Upon infection, a low fraction of cells acquire short DNA sequences from the invader. These sequences (spacers) are integrated in between the repeats of the CRISPR locus and immunize the host against the matching invader. Spacers specify the targets of the CRISPR immune response through transcription into short RNA guides that direct Cas nucleases to the invading DNA molecules. Here we performed random mutagenesis of the RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease to look for variants that provide enhanced immunity against viral infection. We identified a mutation, I473F, that increases the rate of spacer acquisition by more than two orders of magnitude. Our results highlight the role of Cas9 during CRISPR immunization and provide a useful tool to study this rare process and develop it as a biotechnological application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A response strategy predicts acquisition of schedule-induced polydipsia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, James Gardner; Hawken, Emily R; Banasikowski, Tomek J; Dumont, Eric C; Beninger, Richard J

    2015-08-03

    Schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) is excessive, non-regulatory drinking. We aimed to identify phenotypic learning traits representative of neural circuitry that underlies SIP and hypothesized that rats that are response-learners will be more susceptible in developing compulsive water drinking. Using the Y-maze, the rats were characterized as either place- or response-learners. They were exposed to the SIP protocol for a period of 21days. Subsequent histological staining for FosB/ΔFosB examined neuronal activation associated with SIP in several brain regions. The rats with a preference for a response-learning strategy were more likely to develop SIP than the rats using a place-learning strategy. Furthermore amphetamine sensitization, observed to increase SIP, also shifted learning strategy to a response-learning strategy. No differences were observed in FosB/ΔFosB expression between SIP and non-SIP rats in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and CA1 region of the hippocampus. However, SIP rats had greater FosB/ΔFosB expression in prefrontal cortex regions. The rats that develop SIP have a preference for response-learning strategies and increased neuronal activation in frontal cortical regions associated with habit formation and compulsion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Segmental duplications and evolutionary acquisition of UV damage response in the SPATA31 gene family of primates and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekpen, Cemalettin; Künzel, Sven; Xie, Chen; Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Lin, Yen-Lung; Gokcumen, Omer; Akdis, Cezmi A; Tautz, Diethard

    2017-03-06

    Segmental duplications are an abundant source for novel gene functions and evolutionary adaptations. This mechanism of generating novelty was very active during the evolution of primates particularly in the human lineage. Here, we characterize the evolution and function of the SPATA31 gene family (former designation FAM75A), which was previously shown to be among the gene families with the strongest signal of positive selection in hominoids. The mouse homologue for this gene family is a single copy gene expressed during spermatogenesis. We show that in primates, the SPATA31 gene duplicated into SPATA31A and SPATA31C types and broadened the expression into many tissues. Each type became further segmentally duplicated in the line towards humans with the largest number of full-length copies found for SPATA31A in humans. Copy number estimates of SPATA31A based on digital PCR show an average of 7.5 with a range of 5-11 copies per diploid genome among human individuals. The primate SPATA31 genes also acquired new protein domains that suggest an involvement in UV response and DNA repair. We generated antibodies and show that the protein is re-localized from the nucleolus to the whole nucleus upon UV-irradiation suggesting a UV damage response. We used CRISPR/Cas mediated mutagenesis to knockout copies of the gene in human primary fibroblast cells. We find that cell lines with reduced functional copies as well as naturally occurring low copy number HFF cells show enhanced sensitivity towards UV-irradiation. The acquisition of new SPATA31 protein functions and its broadening of expression may be related to the evolution of the diurnal life style in primates that required a higher UV tolerance. The increased segmental duplications in hominoids as well as its fast evolution suggest the acquisition of further specific functions particularly in humans.

  9. A case of timely satellite image acquisitions in support of coastal emergency environmental response management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Werle, Dirk; Lu, Zhong; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic application of optical and radar satellite imagery improves emergency response and advance coastal monitoring from the realm of “opportunistic” to that of “strategic.” As illustrated by the Hurricane Ike example, synthetic aperture radar imaging capabilities are clearly applicable for emergency response operations, but they are also relevant to emergency environmental management. Integrated with optical monitoring, the nearly real-time availability of synthetic aperture radar provides superior consistency in status and trends monitoring and enhanced information concerning causal forces of change that are critical to coastal resource sustainability, including flooding extent, depth, and frequency.

  10. Psycholinguistic measures for German verb pairs: Semantic transparency, semantic relatedness, verb family size, and age of reading acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Eva; Eulitz, Carsten

    2018-06-18

    A central issue in visual and spoken word recognition is the lexical representation of complex words-in particular, whether the lexical representation of complex words depends on semantic transparency: Is a complex verb like understand lexically represented as a whole word or via its base stand, given that its meaning is not transparent from the meanings of its parts? To study this issue, a number of stimulus characteristics are of interest that are not yet available in public databases of German. This article provides semantic association ratings, lexical paraphrases, and vector-based similarity measures for German verbs, measuring (a) the semantic transparency between 1,259 complex verbs and their bases, (b) the semantic relatedness between 1,109 verb pairs with 432 different bases, and (c) the vector-based similarity measures of 846 verb pairs. Additionally, we include the verb regularity of all verbs and two counts of verb family size for 184 base verbs, as well as estimates of age of acquisition and age of reading for 200 verbs. Together with lemma and type frequencies from public lexical databases, all measures can be downloaded along with this article. Statistical analyses indicate that verb family size, morphological complexity, frequency, and verb regularity affect the semantic transparency and relatedness ratings as well as the age of acquisition estimates, indicating that these are relevant variables in psycholinguistic experiments. Although lexical paraphrases, vector-based similarity measures, and semantic association ratings may deliver complementary information, the interrater reliability of the semantic association ratings for each verb pair provides valuable information when selecting stimuli for psycholinguistic experiments.

  11. 76 FR 71823 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Responsibility and Liability for Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    .... The purpose of the DFARS rule is to standardize policy for negotiated fixed-price contracts, whether.... Response: The intent of this rule is to standardize policy treatment for negotiated FAR part 15 fixed-price... (``assumption of risk''). The current exception to this policy (see FAR 45.104) is for negotiated fixed-price...

  12. The application of image acquisition and processing technology in measurement of beam profile on particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Zhenpeng; Zheng Yong; Shen Zhiqing; Wang Shaoming

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the real-time measuring method which can measure the intensity and profile of the beam by a scintillator screen on HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou). Hardware structure is described briefly, methods of the software design are mainly presented. The system can make a dynamic analysis on the faculae image and has many advantages, such as good reliability, high precision, intuitional measurement, friendly interface of the application software etc. Finally some results of measurement are given

  13. Organization of measurements of nonelectric quantities in the T-15 tokamak technological data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, V.P.; Grachev, V.F.; Komina, V.F.; Skosarev, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Equipment for and organization of measurements of signals of the T-15 tokamak cryogenic and vacuum subsystems including temperature measurements of surfaces of the device units and structures are considered. TVO type resistors are used as transducers for low-temperature measurements. High-temperature measurements are performed by thermocouple transducers. The signal conversion apparatus for transducers includes low-level signal commutators and analog-to-digital converters of integrating type. The constitutuent errors of measurement conversions are considered. It is shown that, to decrease the effect of magnetic field, twisted wires with an additional armoured screen of zinc-plated iron should be used

  14. Results of the first tests measurements using the prototype trigger-less data acquisition for the anti PANDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Milan; Gessler, Thomas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Soeren; Spruck, Bjoern; Werner, Marcel [JLU Giessen (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The anti PANDA detector will be a located at the high energy storage ring (HESR), at the facility for anti protons and ion research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. It will operate with a very high average interaction rate of about 20 MHz, in a free streaming mode without hardware trigger. Instead of triggering, data filtering will be performed by complete online event reconstruction with a highly parallelized farm of FPGAs as first level and on a farm of GPUs or PCs as a second level. The requirement is a background reduction by a factor of >1000. Parts of the anti PANDA detector will be pre-assembled and tested at the Forschungszentrum Juelich, before being transported to GSI at a later stage. A prototype trigger-less data acquisition (PTDAQ) will be used during this phase. The main component of the PTDAQ is the Compute Nodes (CN), a xTCA-compliant board based on a Virtex-5 FX70T FPGA, with a μTCA-formfactor. Synchronization is done via a Synchronization Of Data Acquisition (SODA) source. Parts of the functionality were tested in a setup using a 210 MeV electrons beam with a rate of 1 MHz at the Mainz Microtron. In this contribution, we present the first results of test measurements using the PTDAQ system.

  15. The Development of Instruments to Measure Motivational Interviewing Skill Acquisition for School-Based Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Jason W.; Lee, Jon; Frey, Andy J.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.

    2014-01-01

    As specialized instructional support personnel begin learning and using motivational interviewing (MI) techniques in school-based settings, there is growing need for context-specific measures to assess initial MI skill development. In this article, we describe the iterative development and preliminary evaluation of two measures of MI skill adapted…

  16. Measuring long impulse responses with pseudorandom sequences and sweep signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    In architectural acoustics, background noise, loudspeaker nonlinearities, and time variances are the most common disturbances that can compromise a measurement. The effects of such disturbances on measurement of long impulse responses with pseudorandom sequences (maximum-length sequences (MLS) an...

  17. Methods of measurement signal acquisition from the rotational flow meter for frequency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świsulski Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the simplest and commonly used instruments for measuring the flow of homogeneous substances is the rotational flow meter. The main part of such a device is a rotor (vane or screw rotating at a speed which is the function of the fluid or gas flow rate. A pulse signal with a frequency proportional to the speed of the rotor is obtained at the sensor output. For measurements in dynamic conditions, a variable interval between pulses prohibits the analysis of the measuring signal. Therefore, the authors of the article developed a method involving the determination of measured values on the basis of the last inter-pulse interval preceding the moment designated by the timing generator. For larger changes of the measured value at a predetermined time, the value can be determined by means of extrapolation of the two adjacent interpulse ranges, assuming a linear change in the flow. The proposed methods allow analysis which requires constant spacing between measurements, allowing for an analysis of the dynamics of changes in the test flow, eg. using a Fourier transform. To present the advantages of these methods simulations of flow measurement were carried out with a DRH-1140 rotor flow meter from the company Kobold.

  18. Pricing decisions from experience: the roles of information-acquisition and response modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Hagai; Ert, Eyal

    2015-03-01

    While pricing decisions that are based on experience are quite common, e.g., setting a selling price for a used car, this type of decision has been surprisingly overlooked in psychology and decision research. Previous studies have focused on either choice decisions from experience, or pricing decisions from description. Those studies revealed that pricing involves cognitive mechanisms other than choice, while experience-based decisions involve mechanisms that differ from description-based ones. Thus, the mutual effect of pricing and experience on decision-making remains unclear. To test this effect, we experimentally compared real-money pricing decisions from experience with those from description, and with choices from experience. The results show that the mode of acquiring information affects pricing: the tendency to underprice high-probability prospects and overprice low-probability ones is diminished when pricing is based on experience rather than description. The findings further reveal attenuation of the tendency to underweight rare events, which underlies choices from experience, in pricing decisions from experience. The difference occurs because the response mode affects the search effort and decision strategy in decisions from experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned…

  20. The Influence of Matching and Motor-Imitation Abilities on Rapid Acquisition of Manual Signs and Exchange-Based Communicative Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Meagan K.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Richman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Establishing a relation between existing skills and acquisition of communicative responses may be useful in guiding selection of alternative communication systems. Matching and motor-imitation skills were assessed for 6 children with developmental disabilities, followed by training to request the same set of preferred items using exchange-based…

  1. The Theory and Measurement of Interorganizational Collaborative Capacity in the Acquisition and Contracting Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-22

    members) of some defined population” ( Thorndike , 1971, p. 533). Norms in this context would allow an organization to understand its relative standing on...theory. New York: McGraw-Hill. Thorndike , R.L. (1971). Educational measurement (2nd Ed.). Washington, DC: American Council on Education. USD (AT&L

  2. A coatable, light-weight, fast-response nanocomposite sensor for the in situ acquisition of dynamic elastic disturbance: from structural vibration to ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhihui; Liu, Menglong; Xu, Hao; Liu, Weijian; Liao, Yaozhong; Jin, Hao; Zhou, Limin; Zhang, Zhong; Su, Zhongqing

    2016-06-01

    Inspired by an innovative sensing philosophy, a light-weight nanocomposite sensor made of a hybrid of carbon black (CB)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) has been developed. The nanoscalar architecture and percolation characteristics of the hybrid were optimized in order to fulfil the in situ acquisition of dynamic elastic disturbance from low-frequency vibration to high-frequency ultrasonic waves. Dynamic particulate motion induced by elastic disturbance modulates the infrastructure of the CB conductive network in the sensor, with the introduction of the tunneling effect, leading to dynamic alteration in the piezoresistivity measured by the sensor. Electrical analysis, morphological characterization, and static/dynamic electromechanical response interrogation were implemented to advance our insight into the sensing mechanism of the sensor, and meanwhile facilitate understanding of the optimal percolation threshold. At the optimal threshold (˜6.5 wt%), the sensor exhibits high fidelity, a fast response, and high sensitivity to ultrafast elastic disturbance (in an ultrasonic regime up to 400 kHz), yet with an ultralow magnitude (on the order of micrometers). The performance of the sensor was evaluated against a conventional strain gauge and piezoelectric transducer, showing excellent coincidence, yet a much greater gauge factor and frequency-independent piezoresistive behavior. Coatable on a structure and deployable in a large quantity to form a dense sensor network, this nanocomposite sensor has blazed a trail for implementing in situ sensing for vibration- or ultrasonic-wave-based structural health monitoring, by striking a compromise between ‘sensing cost’ and ‘sensing effectiveness’.

  3. Measuring procedure of experimental data acquisition and data evaluation of acoustic emission in rock disintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ivaničová

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the results of measurements of acoustic signal arising in rock disintegration on the drilling standof the Institute of Geotechnics SAS in Košice. The acoustic signal was registered with sonometer Mediator 2238. Registrationand processing of the acoustic signal is solved as a part of the research grant task within the basic research of the rock disintegrationby drilling.

  4. Test of PPV and kVp magnitudes using a non invasive voltage test aiming an improvement on the measurement acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucena, Rodrigo F. de; Dias, Daniel M.; Franciscatto, Priscila C.; Correa, Eduardo de L.; Vivolo, Vitor; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the measurements of PPV (Practical Peak Voltage) and kVp (Peak Voltage) were studied obtained by use of voltage non invasive, under different conditions, viewing an improvement on the acquisition measurements at the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, for the implantation of the radiation quality required for the required calibrations for X radiation instruments

  5. Measuring consumers' information acquisition and decision behavior with the computer-based information-display-matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hamm, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    development of the method: starting points are choice of location, increased relevance of choice, individual adjustment of task structure, simplified navigation and realistic layout. Used in multi-measurement-approaches, the IDM can provide detailed background information about consumer information behaviour...... prior to decisions reached in interviews or choice experiments. The contribution introduces to the method and its´ development, use and (dis-)advantages. Results of a survey illustrate the options for analysis and indicate that consumer behaviour in the IDM, compared to face-to-face-interviews, is less...

  6. Measurement and Monte Carlo modeling of the spatial response of scintillation screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistrui-Maximean, S.A. [CNDRI (NDT using Ionizing Radiation) Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: spistrui@gmail.com; Letang, J.M. [CNDRI (NDT using Ionizing Radiation) Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: jean-michel.letang@insa-lyon.fr; Freud, N. [CNDRI (NDT using Ionizing Radiation) Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Koch, A. [Thales Electron Devices, 38430 Moirans (France); Walenta, A.H. [Detectors and Electronics Department, FB Physik, Siegen University, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Montarou, G. [Corpuscular Physics Laboratory, Blaise Pascal University, 63177 Aubiere (France); Babot, D. [CNDRI (NDT using Ionizing Radiation) Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    2007-11-01

    In this article, we propose a detailed protocol to carry out measurements of the spatial response of scintillation screens and to assess the agreement with simulated results. The experimental measurements have been carried out using a practical implementation of the slit method. A Monte Carlo simulation model of scintillator screens, implemented with the toolkit Geant4, has been used to study the influence of the acquisition setup parameters and to compare with the experimental results. An algorithm of global stochastic optimization based on a localized random search method has been implemented to adjust the optical parameters (optical scattering and absorption coefficients). The algorithm has been tested for different X-ray tube voltages (40, 70 and 100 kV). A satisfactory convergence between the results simulated with the optimized model and the experimental measurements is obtained.

  7. Measuring kinetic energy changes in the mesoscale with low acquisition rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roldán, É. [ICFO–Institut de Ciències Fotòniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Av. Carl Friedrich Gauss 3, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); GISC–Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos, Madrid (Spain); Martínez, I. A.; Rica, R. A., E-mail: rul@ugr.es [ICFO–Institut de Ciències Fotòniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Av. Carl Friedrich Gauss 3, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Dinis, L. [GISC–Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-06-09

    We report on the measurement of the average kinetic energy changes in isothermal and non-isothermal quasistatic processes in the mesoscale, realized with a Brownian particle trapped with optical tweezers. Our estimation of the kinetic energy change allows to access to the full energetic description of the Brownian particle. Kinetic energy estimates are obtained from measurements of the mean square velocity of the trapped bead sampled at frequencies several orders of magnitude smaller than the momentum relaxation frequency. The velocity is tuned applying a noisy electric field that modulates the amplitude of the fluctuations of the position and velocity of the Brownian particle, whose motion is equivalent to that of a particle in a higher temperature reservoir. Additionally, we show that the dependence of the variance of the time-averaged velocity on the sampling frequency can be used to quantify properties of the electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloid. Our method could be applied to detect temperature gradients in inhomogeneous media and to characterize the complete thermodynamics of biological motors and of artificial micro and nanoscopic heat engines.

  8. On the influence of typicality and age of acquisition on semantic processing: Diverging evidence from behavioural and ERP responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räling, Romy; Holzgrefe-Lang, Julia; Schröder, Astrid; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2015-08-01

    Various behavioural studies show that semantic typicality (TYP) and age of acquisition (AOA) of a specific word influence processing time and accuracy during the performance of lexical-semantic tasks. This study examines the influence of TYP and AOA on semantic processing at behavioural (response times and accuracy data) and electrophysiological levels using an auditory category-member-verification task. Reaction time data reveal independent TYP and AOA effects, while in the accuracy data and the event-related potentials predominantly effects of TYP can be found. The present study thus confirms previous findings and extends evidence found in the visual modality to the auditory modality. A modality-independent influence on semantic word processing is manifested. However, with regard to the influence of AOA, the diverging results raise questions on the origin of AOA effects as well as on the interpretation of offline and online data. Hence, results will be discussed against the background of recent theories on N400 correlates in semantic processing. In addition, an argument in favour of a complementary use of research techniques will be made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization and Interpretation of Serial QuantiFERON Testing to Measure Acquisition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Elisa; Rozot, Virginie; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Bilek, Nicole; Mabwe, Simbarashe; Abrahams, Deborah; Makhethe, Lebohang; Erasmus, Mzwandile; Keyser, Alana; Toefy, Asma; Cloete, Yolundi; Ratangee, Frances; Blauenfeldt, Thomas; Ruhwald, Morten; Walzl, Gerhard; Smith, Bronwyn; Loxton, Andre G; Hanekom, Willem A; Andrews, Jason R; Lempicki, Maria D; Ellis, Ruth; Ginsberg, Ann M; Hatherill, Mark; Scriba, Thomas J

    2017-09-01

    Conversion from a negative to positive QuantiFERON-TB test is indicative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, which predisposes individuals to tuberculosis disease. Interpretation of serial tests is confounded by immunological and technical variability. To improve the consistency of serial QuantiFERON-TB testing algorithms and provide a data-driven definition of conversion. Sources of QuantiFERON-TB variability were assessed, and optimal procedures were identified. Distributions of IFN-γ response levels were analyzed in healthy adolescents, Mtb-unexposed control subjects, and patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Individuals with no known Mtb exposure had IFN-γ values less than 0.2 IU/ml. Among individuals with IFN-γ values less than 0.2 IU/ml, 0.2-0.34 IU/ml, 0.35-0.7 IU/ml, and greater than 0.7 IU/ml, tuberculin skin test positivity results were 15%, 53%, 66%, and 91% (P 0.7 IU/ml) would allow more definitive detection of recent Mtb infection and potentially improve identification of those more likely to develop disease.

  10. Optimization of the imaging response of scanning microwave microscopy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardi, G. M.; Lucibello, A.; Proietti, E.; Marcelli, R., E-mail: romolo.marcelli@imm.cnr.it [National Research Council, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Kasper, M.; Gramse, G. [Biophysics Institute, Johannes Kepler University, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Kienberger, F. [Keysight Technologies Austria GmbH, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria)

    2015-07-20

    In this work, we present the analytical modeling and preliminary experimental results for the choice of the optimal frequencies when performing amplitude and phase measurements with a scanning microwave microscope. In particular, the analysis is related to the reflection mode operation of the instrument, i.e., the acquisition of the complex reflection coefficient data, usually referred as S{sub 11}. The studied configuration is composed of an atomic force microscope with a microwave matched nanometric cantilever probe tip, connected by a λ/2 coaxial cable resonator to a vector network analyzer. The set-up is provided by Keysight Technologies. As a peculiar result, the optimal frequencies, where the maximum sensitivity is achieved, are different for the amplitude and for the phase signals. The analysis is focused on measurements of dielectric samples, like semiconductor devices, textile pieces, and biological specimens.

  11. Accuracy of respiratory motion measurement of 4D-MRI: A comparison between cine and sequential acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yilin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Rhee, DongJoo; Cai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The authors have recently developed a cine-mode T2*/T1-weighted 4D-MRI technique and a sequential-mode T2-weighted 4D-MRI technique for imaging respiratory motion. This study aims at investigating which 4D-MRI image acquisition mode, cine or sequential, provides more accurate measurement of organ motion during respiration. A 4D digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) human phantom with a hypothesized tumor was used to simulate the image acquisition and the 4D-MRI reconstruction. The respiratory motion was controlled by the given breathing signal profiles. The tumor was manipulated to move continuously with the surrounding tissue. The motion trajectories were measured from both sequential- and cine-mode 4D-MRI images. The measured trajectories were compared with the average trajectory calculated from the input profiles, which was used as references. The error in 4D-MRI tumor motion trajectory (E) was determined. In addition, the corresponding respiratory motion amplitudes of all the selected 2D images for 4D reconstruction were recorded. Each of the amplitude was compared with the amplitude of its associated bin on the average breathing curve. The mean differences from the average breathing curve across all slice positions (D) were calculated. A total of 500 simulated respiratory profiles with a wide range of irregularity (Ir) were used to investigate the relationship between D and Ir. Furthermore, statistical analysis of E and D using XCAT controlled by 20 cancer patients' breathing profiles was conducted. Wilcoxon Signed Rank test was conducted to compare two modes. D increased faster for cine-mode (D = 1.17 × Ir + 0.23) than sequential-mode (D = 0.47 × Ir + 0.23) as irregularity increased. For the XCAT study using 20 cancer patients' breathing profiles, the median E values were significantly different: 0.12 and 0.10 cm for cine- and sequential-modes, respectively, with a p-value of 0.02. The median D values were significantly different: 0.47 and 0.24 cm for cine

  12. Modulation of 7 T fMRI Signal in the Cerebellar Cortex and Nuclei During Acquisition, Extinction, and Reacquisition of Conditioned Eyeblink Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Thomas M; Thürling, Markus; Müller, Sarah; Kahl, Fabian; Maderwald, Stefan; Schlamann, Marc; Boele, Henk-Jan; Koekkoek, Sebastiaan K E; Diedrichsen, Jörn; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Ladd, Mark E; Timmann, Dagmar

    2017-08-01

    Classical delay eyeblink conditioning is likely the most commonly used paradigm to study cerebellar learning. As yet, few studies have focused on extinction and savings of conditioned eyeblink responses (CRs). Saving effects, which are reflected in a reacquisition after extinction that is faster than the initial acquisition, suggest that learned associations are at least partly preserved during extinction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that acquisition-related plasticity is nihilated during extinction in the cerebellar cortex, but retained in the cerebellar nuclei, allowing for faster reacquisition. Changes of 7 T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals were investigated in the cerebellar cortex and nuclei of young and healthy human subjects. Main effects of acquisition, extinction, and reacquisition against rest were calculated in conditioned stimulus-only trials. First-level β values were determined for a spherical region of interest (ROI) around the acquisition peak voxel in lobule VI, and dentate and interposed nuclei ipsilateral to the unconditioned stimulus. In the cerebellar cortex and nuclei, fMRI signals were significantly lower in extinction compared to acquisition and reacquisition, but not significantly different between acquisition and reacquisition. These findings are consistent with the theory of bidirectional learning in both the cerebellar cortex and nuclei. It cannot explain, however, why conditioned responses reappear almost immediately in reacquisition following extinction. Although the present data do not exclude that part of the initial memory remains in the cerebellum in extinction, future studies should also explore changes in extracerebellar regions as a potential substrate of saving effects. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3957-3974, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A high-speed data acquisition system to measure low-level current from self-powered flux detectors in CANDU nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, C.B.; Hall, D.S.

    1982-05-01

    Self-powered flux detectors are used in CANDU nuclear power reactors to determine the spatial neutron flux distribution in the reactor core for use by both the reactor control and safety systems. To establish the dynamic response of different types of flux detectors, the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories have an ongoing experimental irradiation program in the NRU research reactor for which a data acquistion system has been developed. The system described in this paper is used to measure the currents from the detectors both at a slow, regular logging interval, and at a rapid, adaptive rate following a reactor shutdown. Currents that range from 100 pA to 1 mA full scale can be measured from up to 38 detectors and stored at sampling rates of up to 20 samples per second. The dynamic characteristics of the detectors can be computed from the stored records. The data acquisition system comprises a DEC LSI-11/23 microcomputer, dual cartridge disks, floppy disks, a hard copy and a video display terminal. The RT-11 operating system is used and all application programs are written in FORTRAN

  14. Estimation of waves and ship responses using onboard measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Najmeh

    This thesis focuses on estimation of waves and ship responses using ship-board measurements. This is useful for development of operational safety and performance efficiency in connection with the broader concept of onboard decision support systems. Estimation of sea state is studied using a set...... of measured ship responses, a parametric description of directional wave spectra (a generalised JONSWAP model) and the transfer functions of the ship responses. The difference between the spectral moments of the measured ship responses and the corresponding theoretically calculated moments formulates a cost...... information. The model is tested on simulated data based on known unimodal and bimodal wave scenarios. The wave parameters in the output are then compared with the true wave parameters. In addition to the numerical experiments, two sets of full-scale measurements from container ships are analysed. Herein...

  15. Development of Data Acquisition and Measurement Software for Neutron Triple Axis Spectrometer at BATAN-Serpong, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bharoto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neutron Scattering Laboratory at the National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN possesses several neutron beam instruments for materials science research. One of the instruments is a neutron triple-axis spectrometer (TAS. Due to the malfunction of the main computer, the original main control system had to be replaced with a new one. For this reason, a new data acquisition and measurement software program based on GNU C++ programming language was developed for restoring the spectrometer's functionality. However, using the resulting control system, triple-axis mode experiments were very difficult to perform and their types that can be performed were limited. In order to conduct the experiments more effectively and efficiently, several improvements in both hardware and software have been developed. The Visual Basic programming language was used in developing the data acquisition and measurement software that makes it possible for all motors to move simultaneously, so that the time spent for the experiments is reduced significantly. Also, programmable motor controller cards were used for driving all the 23 motors of the instrument. All the 23 axes can be controlled by clicking the appropriate buttons or inputting text command in the main window of the software's user interface. The software has also been used to perform an elastic experiment, as well as an inelastic experiment for investigating the phenomenon of phonon. The software developed is more user friendly than the older ones, since the spectrometer status and the experiment results can be displayed in real time at the windows, and it also makes experiments more effective and efficient since the experiments can be automated and run without any user intervention until the experiments finish. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso

  16. A framework for geometry acquisition, 3-D printing, simulation, and measurement of head-related transfer functions with a focus on hearing-assistive devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    of a three-dimensional (3D) head model for acquisition of individual HRTFs. Two aspects were investigated; whether a 3D-printed model can replace measurements on a human listener and whether numerical simulations can replace acoustic measurements. For this purpose, HRTFs were acoustically measured for four...... human listeners and for a 3D printed head model of one of these listeners. Further, HRTFs were simulated by applying the finite element method to the 3D head model. The monaural spectral features and spectral distortions were very similar between re-measurements and between human and printed...... measurements, however larger deviations were observed between measurement and simulation. The binaural cues were in agreement among all HRTFs of the same listener, indicating that the 3D model is able to provide localization cues potentially accessible to HAD users. Hence, the pipeline of geometry acquisition...

  17. Measuring caloric response: comparison of different analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, A I; Longridge, N S; Pace-Asciak, P; Ngo, R

    2010-01-01

    Electronystagmography (ENG) testing has been supplanted by newer techniques of measuring eye movement with infrared cameras (VNG). Most techniques of quantifying caloric induced nystagmus measure the slow phase velocity in some manner. Although our analysis is carried out by very experienced assessors, some systems have computer algorithms that have been "taught" to locate and quantify maximum responses. We wondered what differences in measurement might show up when measuring calorics using different techniques and systems, the relevance of this being that if there was a change in slow phase velocity between ENG and VNG testing when measuring caloric response, then normative data would have to be changed. There are also some subjective but important aspects of ENG interpretation which comment on the nature of the response (e.g. responses which might be "sporadic" or "scant"). Our experiment compared caloric responses in 100 patients analyzed four different ways. Each caloric was analyzed by our old ENG system, our new VNG system, an inexperienced assessor and the computer algorithm, and data was compared. All four systems made similar measurements but our inexperienced assessor failed to recognize responses as sporadic or scant, and we feel this is a limitation to be kept in mind in the rural setting, as it is an important aspect of assessment in complex patients. Assessment of complex VNGs should be left to an experienced assessor.

  18. Temporal resolution measurement of 128-slice dual source and 320-row area detector computed tomography scanners in helical acquisition mode using the impulse method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takanori; Urikura, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Hoshino, Takashi; Nishimaru, Eiji; Niwa, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    To analyse the temporal resolution (TR) of modern computed tomography (CT) scanners using the impulse method, and assess the actual maximum TR at respective helical acquisition modes. To assess the actual TR of helical acquisition modes of a 128-slice dual source CT (DSCT) scanner and a 320-row area detector CT (ADCT) scanner, we assessed the TRs of various acquisition combinations of a pitch factor (P) and gantry rotation time (R). The TR of the helical acquisition modes for the 128-slice DSCT scanner continuously improved with a shorter gantry rotation time and greater pitch factor. However, for the 320-row ADCT scanner, the TR with a pitch factor of pitch factor of >1.0, it was approximately one half of the gantry rotation time. The maximum TR values of single- and dual-source helical acquisition modes for the 128-slice DSCT scanner were 0.138 (R/P=0.285/1.5) and 0.074s (R/P=0.285/3.2), and the maximum TR values of the 64×0.5- and 160×0.5-mm detector configurations of the helical acquisition modes for the 320-row ADCT scanner were 0.120 (R/P=0.275/1.375) and 0.195s (R/P=0.3/0.6), respectively. Because the TR of a CT scanner is not accurately depicted in the specifications of the individual scanner, appropriate acquisition conditions should be determined based on the actual TR measurement. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acquisition with partial and continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel A

    2004-08-01

    Contemporary time accumulation models make the unique prediction that acquisition of a conditioned response will be equally rapid with partial and continuous reinforcement, if the time between conditioned stimuli is held constant. To investigate this, acquisition of conditioned responding was examined in pigeon autoshaping under conditions of 100% and 25% reinforcement, holding intertrial interval constant. Contrary to what was predicted, evidence for slowed acquisition in partially reinforced animals was observed with several response measures. However, asymptotic performance was superior with 25% reinforcement. A switching of reinforcement contingencies after initial acquisition did not immediately affect responding. After further sessions, partial reinforcement augmented responding, whereas continuous reinforcement did not, irrespective of an animal's reinforcement history. Subsequent training with a novel stimulus maintained the response patterns. These acquisition results generally support associative, rather than time accumulation, accounts of conditioning.

  20. Measurement of the Energy-Dependent Angular Response of the ARES Detector System and Application to Aerial Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Tenzing H. Y.; Quiter, Brian J.; Maltz, Jonathan S.; Bandstra, Mark S.; Haefner, Andrew; Eikmeier, Nicole; Wagner, Eric; Luke, Tanushree; Malchow, Russell; McCall, Karen

    2017-07-01

    The Airborne Radiological Enhanced-sensor System (ARES) includes a prototype helicopter-borne CsI(Na) detector array that has been developed as part of the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office Advanced Technology Demonstration. The detector system geometry comprises two pairs of 23-detector arrays designed to function as active masks, providing additional angular resolution of measured gamma rays in the roll dimension. Experimental measurements, using five radioisotopes (137Cs, 60Co, 241Am, 131I, and 99mTc), were performed to map the detector response in both roll and pitch dimensions. This paper describes the acquisition and analysis of these characterization measurements, calculation of the angular response of the ARES system, and how this response function is used to improve aerial detection and localization of radiological and nuclear threat sources.

  1. Use of Response Time for Measuring Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Kyllonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review some of the key literature on response time as it has played a role in cognitive ability measurement, providing a historical perspective as well as covering current research. We discuss the speed-level distinction, dimensions of speed and level in cognitive abilities frameworks, speed–accuracy tradeoff, approaches to addressing speed–accuracy tradeoff, analysis methods, particularly item response theory-based, response time models from cognitive psychology (ex-Gaussian function, and the diffusion model, and other uses of response time in testing besides ability measurement. We discuss several new methods that can be used to provide greater insight into the speed and level aspects of cognitive ability and speed–accuracy tradeoff decisions. These include item-level time limits, the use of feedback (e.g., CUSUMs, explicit scoring rules that combine speed and accuracy information (e.g., count down timing, and cognitive psychology models. We also review some of the key psychometric advances in modeling speed and level, which combine speed and ability measurement, address speed–accuracy tradeoff, allow for distinctions between response times on items responded to correctly and incorrectly, and integrate psychometrics with information-processing modeling. We suggest that the application of these models and tools is likely to advance both the science and measurement of human abilities for theory and applications.

  2. Measuring Emotional Responses to TV Commercials: The Warmth Monitor Modernized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Roy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been a lot of interest in measuring emotional responses to advertising. This study focuses on the measurement of a specific emotional response to television advertising; warmth. Nearly thirty years ago, (Aaker, Stayman and Hagerty, 1986 developed a procedure they called the Warmth Monitor; “paper and pencil” self-report process recording method. The Warmth Monitor has been used in a large number of empirical studies in marketing since, but the most recent versions of the procedure are computerized. The two methods of administering the Warmth Monitor are compared in this research.

  3. Effects of Stress, Reactive Oxygen Species, and the SOS Response on De Novo Acquisition of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Händel, N.; Hoeksema, M.; Freijo Mata, M.; Brul, S.; ter Kuile, B.H.

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria are needed to reduce the threat of infectious diseases to human health. The de novo acquisition of resistance due to mutations and/or phenotypic adaptation occurs rapidly as a result of interactions of gene expression and

  4. Using item response theory to measure extreme response style in marketing research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Martijn G.; Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M.; Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Baumgartner, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Extreme response style (ERS) is an important threat to the validity of survey-based marketing research. In this article, the authors present a new item response theory–based model for measuring ERS. This model contributes to the ERS literature in two ways. First, the method improves on existing

  5. Deterministic Predictions of Vessel Responses Based on Past Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with a prediction procedure from which global wave-induced responses can be deterministically predicted a short time, 10-50 s, ahead of current time. The procedure relies on the autocorrelation function and takes into account prior measurements only; i.e. knowledge about wave...

  6. BIAS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE: RESPONSE SHIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim SENOL

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Life (QoL is a descriptive term that refers to people’s emotional, social and physical wellbeing, and their ability to function in the ordinary task of living. The importance of QoL makes it critical to improve and refine measure to understand patients’ experience of health, illness and treatment. However individuals change with time and the basis on which they make a QoL judgment may also change, a phenomenon increasingly referred to as response shift. The definition of response shift is recalibration of internal standards of measurement and reconceptualization of the meaning of item. The purpose of study is to discuss the effects of response shift bias. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(5.000: 382-389

  7. Imaging tools to measure treatment response in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Doyle, Anthony J

    2018-01-01

    Imaging tests are in clinical use for diagnosis, assessment of disease severity and as a marker of treatment response in people with gout. Various imaging tests have differing properties for assessing the three key disease domains in gout: urate deposition (including tophus burden), joint inflammation and structural joint damage. Dual-energy CT allows measurement of urate deposition and bone damage, and ultrasonography allows assessment of all three domains. Scoring systems have been described that allow radiological quantification of disease severity and these scoring systems may play a role in assessing the response to treatment in gout. This article reviews the properties of imaging tests, describes the available scoring systems for quantification of disease severity and discusses the challenges and controversies regarding the use of imaging tools to measure treatment response in gout. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Variable reflectivity signal mirrors and signal response measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, Glenn de; Shaddock, Daniel A; McClelland, David E

    2002-01-01

    Future gravitational wave detectors will include some form of signal mirror in order to alter the signal response of the device. We introduce interferometer configurations which utilize a variable reflectivity signal mirror allowing a tunable peak frequency and variable signal bandwidth. A detector configured with a Fabry-Perot cavity as the signal mirror is compared theoretically with one using a Michelson interferometer for a signal mirror. A system for the measurement of the interferometer signal responses is introduced. This technique is applied to a power-recycled Michelson interferometer with resonant sideband extraction. We present broadband measurements of the benchtop prototype's signal response for a range of signal cavity detunings. This technique is also applicable to most other gravitational wave detector configurations

  9. Variable reflectivity signal mirrors and signal response measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vine, G D; McClelland, D E

    2002-01-01

    Future gravitational wave detectors will include some form of signal mirror in order to alter the signal response of the device. We introduce interferometer configurations which utilize a variable reflectivity signal mirror allowing a tunable peak frequency and variable signal bandwidth. A detector configured with a Fabry-Perot cavity as the signal mirror is compared theoretically with one using a Michelson interferometer for a signal mirror. A system for the measurement of the interferometer signal responses is introduced. This technique is applied to a power-recycled Michelson interferometer with resonant sideband extraction. We present broadband measurements of the benchtop prototype's signal response for a range of signal cavity detunings. This technique is also applicable to most other gravitational wave detector configurations.

  10. Stochastic Measurement Models for Quantifying Lymphocyte Responses Using Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Andrey; Pavlyshyn, Damian; Markham, John F.; Dowling, Mark R.; Heinzel, Susanne; Zhou, Jie H. S.; Marchingo, Julia M.; Hodgkin, Philip D.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive immune responses are complex dynamic processes whereby B and T cells undergo division and differentiation triggered by pathogenic stimuli. Deregulation of the response can lead to severe consequences for the host organism ranging from immune deficiencies to autoimmunity. Tracking cell division and differentiation by flow cytometry using fluorescent probes is a major method for measuring progression of lymphocyte responses, both in vitro and in vivo. In turn, mathematical modeling of cell numbers derived from such measurements has led to significant biological discoveries, and plays an increasingly important role in lymphocyte research. Fitting an appropriate parameterized model to such data is the goal of these studies but significant challenges are presented by the variability in measurements. This variation results from the sum of experimental noise and intrinsic probabilistic differences in cells and is difficult to characterize analytically. Current model fitting methods adopt different simplifying assumptions to describe the distribution of such measurements and these assumptions have not been tested directly. To help inform the choice and application of appropriate methods of model fitting to such data we studied the errors associated with flow cytometry measurements from a wide variety of experiments. We found that the mean and variance of the noise were related by a power law with an exponent between 1.3 and 1.8 for different datasets. This violated the assumptions inherent to commonly used least squares, linear variance scaling and log-transformation based methods. As a result of these findings we propose a new measurement model that we justify both theoretically, from the maximum entropy standpoint, and empirically using collected data. Our evaluation suggests that the new model can be reliably used for model fitting across a variety of conditions. Our work provides a foundation for modeling measurements in flow cytometry experiments thus

  11. Modal response of interior mass based upon external measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, C T; Eli, M; Jorgensen, B R; Woehrle, T.

    1999-01-01

    Modal response testing has been used to predict the motion of interior masses of a system in which only external instrumentation is allowed. Testing of this form may occasionally be necessary in validation of a computer model, but also has potential as a tool for validating individual assemblies in a QA process. Examination of the external frequency response and mode shapes can offer insight into interior response. The interpretation of these results is improved through parallel analytical solutions. A simple, three-mass model has been examined experimentally and analytically to demonstrate modal theory. These results show the limitations of the external measurement in predicting internal response due to transmissibility. A procedure for utilizing external testing is described. The question posed through this research is whether or not modal correlation analysis can be adapted for use in systems for which instrumentation of critical components is missing

  12. Data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clout, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    Data acquisition systems are discussed for molecular biology experiments using synchrotron radiation sources. The data acquisition system requirements are considered. The components of the solution are described including hardwired solutions and computer-based solutions. Finally, the considerations for the choice of the computer-based solution are outlined. (U.K.)

  13. Low background α β measuring and acquisition PC card based on single chip microcomputer 89C51 and Max528 DAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weihong; Pan Zhongtao; Zhang Liqiong

    1996-01-01

    A low background α β measuring and data acquisition PC card based on 89C51 microcomputer and eight bites eight channels digital to analog converter are introduced. It has four digital threshold adjustments and two high voltage controllers on one card and has functions of processing signals from nuclear detector, such as amplifying, comparing, shaping, coincidence or anti-coincidence, counting and saving data

  14. Taiwan's Travel and Border Health Measures in Response to Zika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Li-Li; Tsai, Yu-Hui; Lee, Wang-Ping; Liao, Szu-Tsai; Wu, Li-Gin; Wu, Yi-Chun

    Zika virus has recently emerged as a worldwide public health concern. Travel and border health measures stand as one of the main strategies and frontline defenses in responding to international epidemics. As of October 31, 2016, Taiwan has reported 13 imported cases, 5 of which were detected through routine entry screening and active monitoring at international airports. This article shares Taiwan's disease surveillance activities at designated points of entry and travel and border health measures in response to Zika. The Taiwan government collaborates with its tourism industry to disseminate information about precautionary measures and encourages tour guides to report suspected individuals or events to activate early response measures. Taiwan also engages in vector control activities at points of entry, including targeting aircraft from countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic, implementing mosquito sweep measures, and collecting vector surveillance data. In future emerging and reemerging disease events, entry surveillance at designated points of entry may enable early detection of diseases of international origin and more rapid activation of public health preparedness activities and international collaboration. Taiwan will continue to maximize border and travel health measures in compliance with IHR (2005) requirements, which rely on continued risk assessment, practical implementation activities, and engagement with all stakeholders.

  15. Taiwan's Travel and Border Health Measures in Response to Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Li-Li; Tsai, Yu-Hui; Lee, Wang-Ping; Liao, Szu-Tsai; Wu, Li-Gin

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus has recently emerged as a worldwide public health concern. Travel and border health measures stand as one of the main strategies and frontline defenses in responding to international epidemics. As of October 31, 2016, Taiwan has reported 13 imported cases, 5 of which were detected through routine entry screening and active monitoring at international airports. This article shares Taiwan's disease surveillance activities at designated points of entry and travel and border health measures in response to Zika. The Taiwan government collaborates with its tourism industry to disseminate information about precautionary measures and encourages tour guides to report suspected individuals or events to activate early response measures. Taiwan also engages in vector control activities at points of entry, including targeting aircraft from countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic, implementing mosquito sweep measures, and collecting vector surveillance data. In future emerging and reemerging disease events, entry surveillance at designated points of entry may enable early detection of diseases of international origin and more rapid activation of public health preparedness activities and international collaboration. Taiwan will continue to maximize border and travel health measures in compliance with IHR (2005) requirements, which rely on continued risk assessment, practical implementation activities, and engagement with all stakeholders. PMID:28418744

  16. Evaluation of linear measurements of implant sites based o head orientation during acquisition: An ex vivo study using cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabban, Hanadi; Mahdian, Mina; Dhingra, Ajay; Lurie, Alan G.; Tadinada, Aditya [University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This study evaluated the effect of various head orientations during cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image acquisition on linear measurements of potential implant sites. Six dry human skulls with a total of 28 implant sites were evaluated for seven different head orientations. The scans were acquired using a Hitachi CB-MercuRay CBCT machine. The scanned volumes were reconstructed. Horizontal and vertical measurements were made and were compared to measurements made after simulating the head position to corrected head angulations. Data was analyzed using a two-way ANOVA test. Statistical analysis revealed a significant interaction between the mean errors in vertical measurements with a marked difference observed at the extension head position (P<0.05). Statistical analysis failed to yield any significant interaction between the mean errors in horizontal measurements at various head positions. Head orientation could significantly affect the vertical measurements in CBCT scans. The main head position influencing the measurements is extension.

  17. Effects of continuous vs. cycling estrogen replacement on the acquisition, retention and expression of place- and response-learning in the open-field tower maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, Olga; Byrd, Dennis; Green, John T; Toufexis, Donna J

    2014-10-01

    Estrogen has been shown to either enhance or impair learning and memory in female rats. The use of different experimental paradigms or estrogen treatment regimens may contribute to these disparate findings. In order to assess the effect of different estradiol (E2) treatments on several aspects of cognition, we trained ovariectomized female rats with either continuous, cycling, or vehicle E2 replacement, in an open-field tower maze task (OFTM) designed to test reference memory in a low-stress environment. In addition, in order to compare two distinct learning and memory systems, rats were trained to use either a dorsolateral striatum-based response type learning or a hippocampal-based place type learning to solve the maze. Results showed that cyclic, but not continuous, E2 replacement facilitated the acquisition of spatial memory in place-learners. Neither E2 regimen affected acquisition in response-learners. Additionally, when all experimental groups were performing at asymptote, rats were evaluated for performance stability by changing the location of their start position in the OFTM. Both regimens of E2 disrupted the expression of spatial memory in place-learners following the novel start position. However, E2 replacement protected ovariectomized female rats from the disruption of memory expression following a start position change in response-learners. Additionally all experimental groups performed equally well when tested following a 21-day period during which rats were absent from the maze. These results suggest that E2 fluctuation is particularly important in the acquisition of hippocampal-mediated spatial learning, and that hippocampal-based memory may be subject to disruption following environmental change, while striatum-based memory is subject to protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SU-E-J-11: Measurement of Eye Lens Dose for Varian On-Board Imaging with Different CBCT Acquisition Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S; Dhote, D; Kumar, R; Thakur, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To measure actual patient eye lens dose for different cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) acquisition protocol of Varian’s On Board Imagining (OBI) system using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimeter and study the eye lens dose with patient geometry and distance of isocenter to the eye lens Methods: OSL dosimeter was used to measure eye lens dose of patient. OSL dosimeter was placed on patient forehead center during CBCT image acquisition to measure eye lens dose. For three different cone beam acquisition protocol (standard dose head, low dose head and high quality head) of Varian On-Board Imaging, eye lens doses were measured. Measured doses were correlated with patient geometry and distance between isocenter to eye lens. Results: Measured eye lens dose for standard dose head was in the range of 1.8 mGy to 3.2 mGy, for high quality head protocol dose was in range of 4.5mGy to 9.9 mGy whereas for low dose head was in the range of 0.3mGy to 0.7mGy. Dose to eye lens is depends upon position of isocenter. For posterioraly located tumor eye lens dose is less. Conclusion: From measured doses it can be concluded that by proper selection of imagining protocol and frequency of imaging, it is possible to restrict the eye lens dose below the new limit set by ICRP. However, undoubted advantages of imaging system should be counter balanced by careful consideration of imaging protocol especially for very intense imaging sequences for Adoptive Radiotherapy or IMRT

  19. Indexing mergers and acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Jianhua; Guo, Jie (Michael); Hu, Nan; Li, Xi

    2017-01-01

    We measure the efficiency of mergers and acquisitions by putting forward an index (the ‘M&A Index’) based on stochastic frontier analysis. The M&A Index is calculated for each takeover deal and is standardized between 0 and 1. An acquisition with a higher index encompasses higher efficiency. We find that takeover bids with higher M&A Indices are more likely to succeed. Moreover, the M&A Index shows a strong and positive relation with the acquirers’ post-acquisition stock perfo...

  20. Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow in patients with palliated univentricular heart physiology: measurement using cardiovascular magnetic resonance 4D velocity acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde Israel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic-to-pulmonary collateral flow (SPCF may constitute a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in patients with single-ventricle physiology (SV. However, clinical research is limited by the complexity of multi-vessel two-dimensional (2D cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR flow measurements. We sought to validate four-dimensional (4D velocity acquisition sequence for concise quantification of SPCF and flow distribution in patients with SV. Methods 29 patients with SV physiology prospectively underwent CMR (1.5 T (n = 14 bidirectional cavopulmonary connection [BCPC], age 2.9 ± 1.3 years; and n = 15 Fontan, 14.4 ± 5.9 years and 20 healthy volunteers (age, 28.7 ± 13.1 years served as controls. A single whole-heart 4D velocity acquisition and five 2D flow acquisitions were performed in the aorta, superior/inferior caval veins, right/left pulmonary arteries to serve as gold-standard. The five 2D velocity acquisition measurements were compared with 4D velocity acquisition for validation of individual vessel flow quantification and time efficiency. The SPCF was calculated by evaluating the disparity between systemic (aortic minus caval vein flows and pulmonary flows (arterial and venour return. The pulmonary right to left and the systemic lower to upper body flow distribution were also calculated. Results The comparison between 4D velocity and 2D flow acquisitions showed good Bland-Altman agreement for all individual vessels (mean bias, 0.05±0.24 l/min/m2, calculated SPCF (−0.02±0.18 l/min/m2 and significantly shorter 4D velocity acquisition-time (12:34 min/17:28 min,p 2; Fontan 0.62±0.82 l/min/m2 and not in controls (0.01 + 0.16 l/min/m2, (3 inverse relation of right/left pulmonary artery perfusion and right/left SPCF (Pearson = −0.47,p = 0.01 and (4 upper to lower body flow distribution trend related to the weight (r = 0.742, p  Conclusions 4D

  1. Selection and acquisition of data for the measurement of the spin rotation parameters in pion-proton scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoul, Jean-Claude

    1971-01-01

    The experiment consists in measuring the polarisation of the recoil protons from elastic scattering of positive or negative pions on a polarised proton target (L. M. N.). The polarimeter consists in carbon plates alternated with wire spark chambers, The associated electronics has the following main functions: selective triggering of the spark chambers, acquisition and transcription on magnetic tape of all relevant information, continuous check of the various parts of the equipment. About one hundred scintillation counters provide information on the geometry of the pion-proton scattering. A fast logic treats these information. This logic, made of integrated circuits MECL, generates the selective trigger with a transit time of less than 150 ns, it reduces the triggering rate on background events by almost one order of magnitude. A small computer is used for acquisition and transcription of the data, and for the control of the experiment. (author) [fr

  2. Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.; Motloch, Chester G.

    2013-01-08

    Methods of rapidly measuring an impedance spectrum of an energy storage device in-situ over a limited number of logarithmically distributed frequencies are described. An energy storage device is excited with a known input signal, and a response is measured to ascertain the impedance spectrum. An excitation signal is a limited time duration sum-of-sines consisting of a select number of frequencies. In one embodiment, magnitude and phase of each frequency of interest within the sum-of-sines is identified when the selected frequencies and sample rate are logarithmic integer steps greater than two. This technique requires a measurement with a duration of one period of the lowest frequency. In another embodiment, where selected frequencies are distributed in octave steps, the impedance spectrum can be determined using a captured time record that is reduced to a half-period of the lowest frequency.

  3. Trait-abundance relation in response to nutrient addition in a Tibetan alpine meadow: The importance of species trade-off in resource conservation and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiying; Li, Ying; Ren, Fei; Lin, Li; Zhu, Wenyan; He, Jin-Sheng; Niu, Kechang

    2017-12-01

    In competition-dominated communities, traits promoting resource conservation and competitive ability are expected to have an important influence on species relative abundance (SRA). Yet, few studies have tested the trait-abundance relations in the line of species trade-off in resource conservation versus acquisition, indicating by multiple traits coordination. We measured SRA and key functional traits involving leaf economic spectrum (SLA, specific leaf area; LDMC, leaf dry matter content; LCC, leaf carbon concentration; LNC, leaf nitrogen concentration; LPC, leaf phosphorus concentration; Hs, mature height) for ten common species in all plots subjected to addition of nitrogen fertilizer (N), phosphorus fertilizer (P), or both of them (NP) in a Tibetan alpine meadow. We test whether SRA is positively related with traits promoting plant resource conservation, while negatively correlated with traits promoting plant growth and resource acquisition. We found that species were primarily differentiated along a trade-off axis involving traits promoting nutrient acquisition and fast growth (e.g., LPC and SLA) versus traits promoting resource conservation and competition ability (e.g., large LDMC). We further found that SRA was positively correlated with plant height, LDMC, and LCC, but negatively associated with SLA and leaf nutrient concentration irrespective of fertilization. A stronger positive height-SRA was found in NP-fertilized plots than in other plots, while negative correlations between SRA and SLA and LPC were found in N or P fertilized plots. The results indicate that species trade-off in nutrient acquisition and resource conservation was a key driver of SRA in competition-dominated communities following fertilization, with the linkage between SRA and traits depending on plant competition for specific soil nutrient and/or light availability. The results highlight the importance of competitive exclusion in plant community assembly following fertilization and

  4. Effects of repeated administration of chemotherapeutic agents tamoxifen, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil on the acquisition and retention of a learned response in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, John J.; Clark-Vetri, Rachel; Raffa, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale A number of cancer chemotherapeutic agents have been associated with a loss of memory in breast cancer patients although little is known of the causality of this effect. Objectives To assess the potential cognitive effects of repeated exposure to chemotherapeutic agents, we administered the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen or the antimetabolite chemotherapy, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil, alone and in combination to mice and tested them in a learning and memory assay. Methods Swiss-Webster male mice were injected with saline, 32 mg/kg tamoxifen, 3.2 or 32 mg/kg methotrexate, 75 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil, 3.2 or 32 mg/kg methotrexate in combination with 75 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil once per week for 3 weeks. On days 23 and 24, mice were tested for acquisition and retention of a nose-poke response in a learning procedure called autoshaping. In addition, the acute effects of tamoxifen were assessed in additional mice in a similar procedure. Results The chemotherapeutic agents alone and in combination reduced body weight relative to saline treatment over the course of 4 weeks. Repeated treatment with tamoxifen produced both acquisition and retention effects relative to the saline-treated group although acute tamoxifen was without effect except at a behaviorally toxic dose. Repeated treatment with methotrexate in combination with 5-fluorouracil produced effects on retention, but the magnitude of these changes depended on the methotrexate dose. Conclusions These data demonstrate that repeated administration of tamoxifen or certain combination of methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil may produce deficits in the acquisition or retention of learned responses which suggest potential strategies for prevention or remediation might be considered in vulnerable patient populations. PMID:21537942

  5. Measuring older adults' sedentary time: reliability, validity, and responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Paul A; Clark, Bronwyn K; Healy, Genevieve N; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Owen, Neville

    2011-11-01

    With evidence that prolonged sitting has deleterious health consequences, decreasing sedentary time is a potentially important preventive health target. High-quality measures, particularly for use with older adults, who are the most sedentary population group, are needed to evaluate the effect of sedentary behavior interventions. We examined the reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change of a self-report sedentary behavior questionnaire that assessed time spent in behaviors common among older adults: watching television, computer use, reading, socializing, transport and hobbies, and a summary measure (total sedentary time). In the context of a sedentary behavior intervention, nonworking older adults (n = 48, age = 73 ± 8 yr (mean ± SD)) completed the questionnaire on three occasions during a 2-wk period (7 d between administrations) and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph model GT1M) for two periods of 6 d. Test-retest reliability (for the individual items and the summary measure) and validity (self-reported total sedentary time compared with accelerometer-derived sedentary time) were assessed during the 1-wk preintervention period, using Spearman (ρ) correlations and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Responsiveness to change after the intervention was assessed using the responsiveness statistic (RS). Test-retest reliability was excellent for television viewing time (ρ (95% CI) = 0.78 (0.63-0.89)), computer use (ρ (95% CI) = 0.90 (0.83-0.94)), and reading (ρ (95% CI) = 0.77 (0.62-0.86)); acceptable for hobbies (ρ (95% CI) = 0.61 (0.39-0.76)); and poor for socializing and transport (ρ < 0.45). Total sedentary time had acceptable test-retest reliability (ρ (95% CI) = 0.52 (0.27-0.70)) and validity (ρ (95% CI) = 0.30 (0.02-0.54)). Self-report total sedentary time was similarly responsive to change (RS = 0.47) as accelerometer-derived sedentary time (RS = 0.39). The summary measure of total sedentary time has good repeatability and modest validity and is

  6. Extracting Earth's Elastic Wave Response from Noise Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel; Larose, Eric

    2013-05-01

    Recent research has shown that noise can be turned from a nuisance into a useful seismic source. In seismology and other fields in science and engineering, the estimation of the system response from noise measurements has proven to be a powerful technique. To convey the essence of the method, we first treat the simplest case of a homogeneous medium to show how noise measurements can be used to estimate waves that propagate between sensors. We provide an overview of physics research—dating back more than 100 years—showing that random field fluctuations contain information about the system response. This principle has found extensive use in surface-wave seismology but can also be applied to the estimation of body waves. Because noise provides continuous illumination of the subsurface, the extracted response is ideally suited for time-lapse monitoring. We present examples of time-lapse monitoring as applied to the softening of soil after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the detection of a precursor to a landslide, and temporal changes in the lunar soil.

  7. Measurement of TLD Albedo response on various calibration phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Shinohara, K.; Ishiguro, H.; Nakamura, T.

    1996-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) has recommended that individual dosemeter should be calibrated on a suitable phantom and has pointed out that the calibration factor of a neutron dosemeter is strongly influenced by the the exact size and shape of the body and the phantom to which the dosemeter is attached. As the principle of an albedo type thermoluminescent personal dosemeter (albedo TLD) is essentially based on a detection of scattered and moderated neutron from a human body, the sensitivity of albedo TLD is strongly influenced by the incident neutron energy and the calibration phantom. (1) Therefore for albedo type thermoluminescent personal dosemeter (albedo TLD), the information of neutron albedo response on the calibration phantom is important for appropriate dose estimation. In order to investigate the effect of phantom type on the reading of the albedo TLD, measurement of the TLD energy response and angular response on some typical calibration phantoms was performed using dynamitron accelerator and 252 Cf neutron source. (author)

  8. Design of a master Fastbus for the data acquisition of the DELPHI external detector. Measurement of the strong interaction coupling constant in the Z neutral boson hadronic decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorowicz, V.

    1990-05-01

    The thesis was prepared at the Delphi experiment. The work, performed in the LPNHE-Paris group, consists of two steps: the data acquisition at the Delphi External Detector and the analysis of the hadronic data, in order to extract the coupling constant of the strong interactions at √s = 91 GeV. In the first part of the thesis, the constraints relating to the data acquisition and the Delphi output are discussed. The data acquisition system of the External Detector and the implementation of the AM29000 on the main Fastbus are described. The AM29000 is a RISC type processor, which can support the high frequencies expected from the beam luminosity increase at LEP. This module will replace front end freeing monitor which is presently controlled by a 68020 microprocessor. In the second part of the thesis, the data acquired at Delphi from September to December 1989 is analyzed. The investigation is focused on the hadronic events in order to obtain the Standard Model basic parameter: the Λ QCD , which determines the energy dependence of the strong interactions coupling constant. A method based on the measurement of the energy-energy correlations in the hadronic jets is used and the results are discussed. The Λ QCD value is obtained by fitting the theoretical expected value to the distribution of the energy-energy correlations asymmetry [fr

  9. Successfull operation of biogas plants. Data acquisition as a basis of successful optimization measures; Erfolgreicher Betrieb von Biogasanlagen. Datenerfassung als Grundlage erfolgreicher Optimierungsmassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-19

    Within the 2nd Bayreuth expert meeting on biomass at 6th June, 2012 in Bayreuth (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Presentation of the activities in the bio energy sector of the Landwirtschaftliche Lehranstalt Bayreuth (Rainer Prischenk); (2) State of the art of utilizing biogas in Oberfranken from the view of FVB e.V. (Wolfgang Holland Goetz); (3) Optimization of the plant operation by means of an intelligent control (Christian Seier); (4) Process optimization by means of identification of losses of biogas and evaluation of the load behaviour and emission behaviour of gas engines (Wolfgang Schreier); (5) Data acquisition and implementation of optimization measures from the point of view of an environmental verifier (Thorsten Grantner); (6) Economic analysis and optimization by means of the Lfl program BZA Biogas (Josef Winkler); (7) Detailed data acquisition as a necessary basis of the process optimization (Timo Herfter); (8) Case examples of the biologic support of biogas plants and their correct evaluation (Birgit Pfeifer); (9) A systematic acquisition of operational data as a basis for the increase of efficiency using the Praxisforschungsbiogasanlage of the University Hohenheim (Hans-Joachim Naegele); (10) Practical report: The biogas plant Sochenberg towards 100% utilization of energy (Uli Bader).

  10. Changes in growth characters and nutrient acquisition of guava (psidium guajava l.) in response to coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, S.C.; Padhi, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Coal ash management would remain a great concern all over the world. Several studies proposed that there is an ample scope for safe utilization of coal ash as a soil ameliorant that may improve physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil and is a source of readily available plant micro and macro nutrient. With this concept a pot culture experiment was carried out in the eastern ghat high land zone of Odisha, India under open condition in the nursery. Different levels of coal ash and soil mixture were used in different combinations to check their effect on the physio-morphological and biochemical parameters of guava. The study on the effect of varying levels of coal ash on guava revealed that the combination of 50:50 and 25:75 coal ash and soil mixture increased the seed germination, seedling characteristics, biomass, vegetative growth and chlorophyll content of the seedlings. The increase in growth traits was attributed to increase in nutrient acquisition of plants grown under above combinations. On contrary 100% coal ash in the growing medium reduced seed germination, seedling vigour, growth and biomass per plant. The leaf nutrient status of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and the micro nutrients Zn, Mn, B, Mo, Fe and Cu were found to be higher in the treatments having higher proportion of coal ash in the growing medium than other treatments and the lowest was recorded in control ( no coal ash). The findings suggest that application of coal ash in certain proportion is beneficial in terms of growth parameters and nutrient acquisition in guava. (author)

  11. Measurement result of the neutron monitor onboard the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment - Attached Payload (SEDA-AP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, K.; Muraki, Y.; Shibata, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Okudaira, O.; Kawano, H.; Yumoto, K.

    2013-12-01

    To support future space activities, it is crucial to acquire space environmental data related to the space-radiation degradation of space parts and materials, and spacecraft anomalies. Such data are useful for spacecraft design and manned space activity. SEDA-AP was mounted on 'Kibo' of the ISS (International Space Station) to measure the space environment at a 400-kilometer altitude. Neutrons are very harmful radiation, with electrical neutrality that makes them strongly permeable. SEDA-AP measures the energy of neutrons from thermal to 100 MeV in real time using a Bonner Ball Detector (BBND) and a Scintillation Fiber Detector (FIB). BBND detects neutrons using He-3 counters, which have high sensitivity to thermal neutrons. Neutron energy is derived using the relative response function of polyethylene moderators of 6 different thicknesses. FIB measures the tracks of recoil protons caused by neutrons within a cubic arrayed sensor of 512 scintillation fibers. The charged particles are excluded using an anti-scintillator which surrounds the cube sensor, and the neutron energy is obtained from the track length of a recoil proton. There are three sources of neutrons in space; 1. Albedo Neutrons Produced by reactions of galactic cosmic rays or radiation belt particles with the atmosphere 2. Local Neutrons Produced by the reactions of galactic cosmic rays or radiation belt particles with spacecraft 3. Solar Neutrons Produced by accelerated particles in solar flares An accurate energy spectrum of the solar neutrons includes important information on high-energy particle generation mechanism in a solar flare, because neutrons are unaffected by interplanetary magnetic fields. These data will become useful to forecast solar energetic particles in future. Some candidate events involving solar neutrons were found as a result of analyzing data of the solar flare of M>2 since September 2009. Moreover, it is important to measure albedo neutrons, since protons generated by neutron

  12. Measurement of human normal tissue and tumour responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.; Yarnold, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The scarcity of quantitative measures of normal tissue damage and tumour response in patients undergoing radiotherapy is an obstacle to the clinical evaluation of new treatment strategies. Retrospective studies of complications in critical normal tissues taught important lessons in the past concerning the potential dangers of hypofractionation. However, it is unethical to use serious complications as planned end-points in prospective studies. This paper reviews the desirable characteristics of clinical end-points required to compare alternative treatments employing radiotherapy, with emphasis on simple scales applied by clinicians or even the patients themselves

  13. Estimation of road profile variability from measured vehicle responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauriat, W.; Mattrand, C.; Gayton, N.; Beakou, A.; Cembrzynski, T.

    2016-05-01

    When assessing the statistical variability of fatigue loads acting throughout the life of a vehicle, the question of the variability of road roughness naturally arises, as both quantities are strongly related. For car manufacturers, gathering information on the environment in which vehicles evolve is a long and costly but necessary process to adapt their products to durability requirements. In the present paper, a data processing algorithm is proposed in order to estimate the road profiles covered by a given vehicle, from the dynamic responses measured on this vehicle. The algorithm based on Kalman filtering theory aims at solving a so-called inverse problem, in a stochastic framework. It is validated using experimental data obtained from simulations and real measurements. The proposed method is subsequently applied to extract valuable statistical information on road roughness from an existing load characterisation campaign carried out by Renault within one of its markets.

  14. Direct measurement of the plasma response to electrostatic ion waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfaty, M.; DeSouza-Machado, S.; Skiff, F.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma wave-wave and wave-particle interactions are studied in a linear magnetized plasma. The relatively quiet plasma is produced by an argon gas-discharge. The plasma density is n e ≅ 10 9 cm -3 and the electron/ion temperatures are T e ≅ 5eV and T i = 0.05eV. A grid and a four ring antenna, both mounted on a scanning carriage, are used to launch electrostatic ion waves in the plasma. Laser Induced Fluorescence measurements of both the linear and the nonlinear plasma response to the wave fields are presented. The Vlasov-Poisson equations are used to explain the measured zero, first and second order terms of the ion distribution function in the presence of wave fields. In addition to the broadening (heating) of the ion distribution as the authors increase the wave amplitudes, induced plasma flows are observed both along and across the magnetic field

  15. Femtosecond response time measurements of a Cs2Te photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryshev, A.; Shevelev, M.; Honda, Y.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.

    2017-07-01

    Success in design and construction of a compact, high-brightness accelerator system is strongly related to the production of ultra-short electron beams. Recently, the approach to generate short electron bunches or pre-bunched beams in RF guns directly illuminating a high quantum efficiency semiconductor photocathode with femtosecond laser pulses has become attractive. The measurements of the photocathode response time in this case are essential. With an approach of the interferometer-type pulse splitter deep integration into a commercial Ti:Sa laser system used for RF guns, it has become possible to generate pre-bunched electron beams and obtain continuously variable electron bunch separation. In combination with a well-known zero-phasing technique, it allows us to estimate the response time of the most commonly used Cs2Te photocathode. It was demonstrated that the peak-to-peak rms time response of Cs2Te is of the order of 370 fs, and thereby, it is possible to generate and control a THz sequence of relativistic electron bunches by a conventional S-band RF gun. This result can also be applied for investigation of other cathode materials and electron beam temporal shaping and further opens a possibility to construct wide-range tunable, table-top THz free electron laser.

  16. An Investigation of Chinese Students’ Acquisition of Oral and Written English through the Measurement of Processability Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Processability Theory (PT believes that L2 learner can not understand and produce those linguistic forms which are beyond the current stage of the language processor (Pienemann, 2007. Based on the understanding of the architecture of the language processor and how L2 is acquired under it, teachers can not only better predict the learners’ L2 developmental stages, explain the learners’ acquiring variations, but also indicate some constructive and objective guidelines for L2 teaching. So this study adopts the hierarchy of processing procedures applied to English (Pienemann, 1998 as the instrument to explore the two aspects of the English language acquisition. The final results support that Chinese college students’ written English is better than their oral English. Besides, there is indeed a positive relationship between Chinese college students’ written and oral English.

  17. Multi-modal Intelligent Seizure Acquisition (MISA) system - A new approach towards seizure detection based on full body motion measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sándor; Wolf, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Many epilepsy patients cannot call for help during a seizure, because they are unconscious or because of the affection of their motor system or speech function. This can lead to injuries, medical complications and at worst death. An alarm system setting off at seizure onset could help to avoid...... hazards. Today no reliable alarm systems are available. A Multi-modal Intelligent Seizure Acquisition (MISA) system based on full body motion data seems as a good approach towards detection of epileptic seizures. The system is the first to provide a full body description for epilepsy applications. Three...... test subjects were used for this pilot project. Each subject simulated 15 seizures and in addition performed some predefined normal activities, during a 4-hour monitoring with electromyography (EMG), accelerometer, magnetometer and gyroscope (AMG), electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG...

  18. Synchronization of dynamic response measurements for the purpose of structural health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, K.; Reynders, E.; De Roeck, G.; Lombaert, G.; Rezayat, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for offline time synchronization of data acquisition systems for linear structures with proportional damping. The technique can be applied when direct synchronization of data acquisition systems is impossible or not sufficiently accurate. The synchronization is based on the acquired dynamic response of the structure only, and does not require the acquisition of a shared sensor signal or a trigger signal. The time delay is identified from the spurious phase shift of the mode shape components that are obtained from system identification. A demonstration for a laboratory experiment on a cantilever steel beam shows that the proposed methodology can be used for accurate time synchronization, resulting in a significant improvement of the accuracy of the identified mode shapes. (paper)

  19. Intra-examiner repeatability and agreement in accommodative response measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, B; Sanchez, I; Barrio, A; Barra, F; Gonzalez, E

    2009-11-01

    Clinical measurement of the accommodative response (AR) identifies the focusing plane of a subject with respect to the accommodative target. To establish whether a significant change in AR has occurred, it is important to determine the repeatability of this measurement. This study had two aims: First, to determine the intraexaminer repeatability of AR measurements using four clinical methods: Nott retinoscopy, monocular estimate method (MEM) retinoscopy, binocular crossed cylinder test (BCC) and near autorefractometry. Second, to study the level of agreement between AR measurements obtained with the different methods. The AR of the right eye at one accommodative demand of 2.50 D (40 cm) was measured on two separate occasions in 61 visually normal subjects of mean age 19.7 years (range 18-32 years). The intraexaminer repeatability of the tests, and agreement between them, were estimated by the Bland-Altman method. We determined mean differences (MD) and the 95% limits of agreement [coefficient of repeatability (COR) and coefficient of agreement (COA)]. Nott retinoscopy and BCC offered the best repeatability, showing the lowest MD and narrowest 95% interval of agreement (Nott: -0.10 +/- 0.66 D, BCC: -0.05 +/- 0.75 D). The 95% limits of agreement for the four techniques were similar (COA = +/- 0.92 to +/-1.00 D) yet clinically significant, according to the expected values of the AR. The two dynamic retinoscopy techniques (Nott and MEM) had a better agreement (COA = +/-0.64 D) although this COA must be interpreted in the context of the low MEM repeatability (COR = +/-0.98 D). The best method of assessing AR was Nott retinoscopy. The BCC technique was also repeatable, and both are recommended as suitable methods for clinical use. Despite better agreement between MEM and Nott, agreement among the remaining methods was poor such that their interchangeable use in clinical practice is not recommended.

  20. Mergers + acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-05-01

    The hospital sector in 2001 led the health care field in mergers and acquisitions. Most deals involved a network augmenting its presence within a specific region or in a market adjacent to its primary service area. Analysts expect M&A activity to increase in 2002.

  1. Measurement of amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, P.

    1961-01-01

    In order to measure amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier, two independent random variables are introduced which determine the shape of the anode pulse. The energy of each pulse, which depends directly on the gain and the variance, is the first variable; amplitude fluctuations, functions of the first variable, depend as well on the pulse width which in turn constitutes the second variable. The results obtained on the variations of the maximum impulse, using a steep-edged pulse broadening circuit, and those obtained on the statistical variations of the gain, are compared to show that the variance relative to the maximum amplitude of the signal is greater than that of the gain. Within the limits of these fluctuations are shown the contribution of the secondary emission coefficient of the first dynode, and that of the mean secondary emission coefficient of the multiplier. (author) [fr

  2. Measurement of the open loop plasma equilibrium response in TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutlis, A.; Bandyopadhyay, I.; Lister, J.B.; Vyas, P.; Albanese, R.; Limebeer, D.J.N.; Villone, F.; Wainwright, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    A new technique and results are presented for the estimation of the open loop frequency response of the plasma on TCV. Voltages were applied to poloidal field coils and the resulting plasma current, position and shape related parameters were measured. The results are compared with the CREATE-L model, and good agreement is confirmed. The results are a significant advance on previous comparisons with closed loop data, which were limited by the role of feedback in the system. A simpler circuit equation model has also been developed in order to understand the reasons for the good agreement and identify which plasma properties are important in determining the response. The reasons for the good agreement with this model are discussed. An alternative modelling method has been developed, combining features of both the theoretical and experimental techniques. Its advantage is that it incorporates well defined knowledge of the electromagnetic properties of the tokamak with experimental data to derive plasma related parameters. This new model provides further insight into the plasma behaviour. (author)

  3. Measuring Maize Seedling Drought Response in Search of Tolerant Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hays

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To identify and develop drought tolerant maize (Zea mays L., high-throughput and cost-effective screening methods are needed. In dicot crops, measuring survival and recovery of seedlings has been successful in predicting drought tolerance but has not been reported in C4 grasses such as maize. Seedlings of sixty-two diverse maize inbred lines and their hybrid testcross progeny were evaluated for germination, survival and recovery after a series of drought cycles. Genotypic differences among inbred lines and hybrid testcrosses were best explained approximately 13 and 18 days after planting, respectively. Genotypic effects were significant and explained over 6% of experimental variance. Specifically three inbred lines had significant survival, and 14 hybrids had significant recovery. However, no significant correlation was observed between hybrids and inbreds (R2 = 0.03, indicating seedling stress response is more useful as a secondary screening parameter in hybrids than in inbred lines per se. Field yield data under full and limited irrigation indicated that seedling drought mechanisms were independent of drought responses at flowering in this study.

  4. Acquisition: Acquisition of Targets at the Missile Defense Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ugone, Mary L; Meling, John E; James, Harold C; Haynes, Christine L; Heller, Brad M; Pomietto, Kenneth M; Bobbio, Jaime; Chang, Bill; Pugh, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    Who Should Read This Report and Why? Missile Defense Agency program managers who are responsible for the acquisition and management of targets used to test the Ballistic Missile Defense System should be interested in this report...

  5. Impulse response measurements as dependent on crack depth. Delamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulriksen, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the project is to investigate the impulse-response method's ability to detect delamination at different depths. This method is of particular interest, since some of it's realizations strongly resembles established methods like 'bomknackning' . Since the personnel that will be responsible for future measurements with new technology, should feel confidence in new methods, it is an advantage if the new methods connect to older, accepted methods. The project consists of three parts and a fourth is planned. The first part of the investigation is made with a vibrator connected to an impedance head which in turn is connected to the surface of the concrete test specimen with internal delaminations at different depths. The vibrator is controlled by a dynamic signal analyze, which also measures the force- and acceleration signals from the impedance head and convert them to impedance. Since the impedance head must be glued to the surface of the concrete this method is only of laboratory interest. This method gives a complete description of the behavior of the concrete for the frequencies investigated. Thus in following investigations the frequencies of interest are known. From the experiment it follows that delamination down to a depth of 80-100 mm can be detected through a clear and solitary resonance peak. This resonance frequency is a function of concrete slab thickness and extension, so if the extension can be measured it may be possible to calculate depth. The second part of the investigation is about using an instrumented hammer to hit the different delamination specimens. The hammer is equipped with a force transducer giving an opportunity to measure the force exerted by the strike against the concrete surface. When a hammer is struck against a concrete surface a spectrum of vibrations is created, dependent on the weight of the hammer and the elasticity of the concrete. A light hammer generates higher frequencies than a heavy one. Three different hammer

  6. Response function measurement of plastic scintillator for high energy neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Ban, Syuichi; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Takada, Masashi

    2003-01-01

    The response function and detection efficiency of 2''φ x 2''L plastic (PilotU) and NE213 liquid (2''NE213) scintillators, which were used for the measurement of secondary neutrons from high energy electron induced reactions, were measured at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). High energy neutrons were produced via 400 MeV/n C beam bombardment on a thick graphite target. The detectors were placed at 15 deg with respect to C beam axis, 5 m away from the target. As standard, a 5''φ x 5''L NE213 liquid scintillator (5''NE213) was also placed at same position. Neutron energy was determined by the time-of-flight method with the beam pickup scintillator in front of the target. In front of the detectors, veto scintillators were placed to remove charged particle events. All detector signals were corrected with list mode event by event. We deduce neutron spectrum for each detectors. The efficiency curves for pilotU and 2''NE213 were determined on the bases of 5 N E213 neutron spectrum and its efficiency calculated by CECIL code. (author)

  7. On-line acquisition of plant related and environmental parameters (plant monitoring) in gerbera: determining plant responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, R.; Slootweg, G.

    2004-01-01

    For on-line plant monitoring equipment to be functional in commercial glasshouse horticulture, relations between sensor readings and plant responses on both the short (days) and long term (weeks) are required. For this reason, systems were installed to monitor rockwool grown gerbera plants on a

  8. Transverse impedance measurement using response matrix fit method at APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajaev, V.

    2007-01-01

    of an accelerator. The orbit bump method was done at BINP, APS, and ESRF. All these methods have one common feature: they employ the fact that the beam sees the impedance as an additional defocusing quadrupole whose strength depends on the beam current. At APS we use an orbit response matrix fit to determine the distribution of focusing errors around the machine, and then use these errors to calculate beta functions. Since the beam sees the impedance as a quadrupole whose strength depends on the beam current, the measurement of the beta functions with different currents could be used to determine the impedance distribution around the machine. This approach was first used at APS and reported in.

  9. Measures of the inflammatory response in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantin, C.F.; Valind, S.O.; Sweatman, M.; Lawrence, R.; Rhodes, C.G.; Brudin, L.; Britten, A.; Hughes, J.M.; Turner-Warwick, M.

    1988-01-01

    Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) is characterized by interstitial fibrosis and parenchymal inflammation. Eleven patients with CFA (10 proved by lung biopsy) were followed over 2 yr using clinical symptoms, radiographic change, and pulmonary function tests to adjust their treatment. Lung lavage, positron camera (PET) measurements of regional extravascular lung density (Dev), pulmonary blood volume (Vb), and the metabolic rate for 18F-deoxyglucose (MRglc), clearance of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentacetate (99mTc-DTPA) aerosol, and lung uptake of 67Ga were measured initially and at the end of the first year to give a profile of the inflammatory response. Compared with normal subjects, there was an increased percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils in the lung lavage, increased Dev (p less than 0.002) with no significant difference in Vb, increased MRglc (p less than 0.02), 99mTc-DTPA clearance (p less than 0.002), and 67Ga uptake (p less than 0.02). The smallest increases in Dev were seen in the two patients with most destruction shown by lung biopsy. There were inverse correlations between Dev and both FVC and TLC, but a direct correlation between Vb and transfer factor. 99mTc-DTPA clearance changed concordantly with clinical status and radiographic and respiratory function changes during the first year. If glucose utilization (MRglc) remained in the normal range between the initial and first yearly assessment, the patient improved or remained stable during the second year as shown by clinical status and radiographic and respiratory function measurements. If it rose or remained high, the patient's condition deteriorated

  10. Mergers & Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    This dissertation is a legal dogmatic thesis, the goal of which is to describe and analyze the current state of law in Europe in regard to some relevant selected elements related to mergers and acquisitions, and the adviser’s counsel in this regard. Having regard to the topic of the dissertation...... and fiscal neutrality, group-related issues, holding-structure issues, employees, stock exchange listing issues, and corporate nationality....

  11. On-line acquisition of plant related and environmental parameters (plant monitoring) in gerbera: determining plant responses

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, R.; Slootweg, G.

    2004-01-01

    For on-line plant monitoring equipment to be functional in commercial glasshouse horticulture, relations between sensor readings and plant responses on both the short (days) and long term (weeks) are required. For this reason, systems were installed to monitor rockwool grown gerbera plants on a minute-to-minute basis from July 2002 until April 2003. Data collected included, amongst others, crop transpiration from lysimeter data (2 m2), canopy temperature using infrared sensors, rockwool water...

  12. A critique of response strategies: Measures to induce a paradigmatic shift in response to student writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer, Brenda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores response to student writing in entry-level English modules in an Open and Distance Learning (ODL context at the University of South Africa (UNISA. After an evaluation of the research undertaken by Spencer (1999 and Lephalala and Pienaar (2008, both conducted in this specific teaching context, the argument is put forward that the predominantly formalist orientation of the marking can be described as an attractor (Weideman, 2009, since it seems that the system is attracted into this state and has maintained it over a number of years. There is a need to shift towards a cognitive, reader-based orientation. The author uses the categories defined in Lephalala and Pienaar (2008 to describe feedback styles. The categories are L1 (minimal feedback, L2 (general and non-text-specific feedback and L3 (feedback with a focus on content and organisation. Four amendments are proposed to the existing marking code which will encourage markers to operate in the desired L3 feedback category. This paper argues that these additions to the marking code will address limitations inherent in the marking code. At present, marked scripts contain a jumble of recommendations relating to content/form and global/local issues and there is little indication of the relative importance of an error. The marking code is inherently negative in orientation and promotes a formalist L1 style of response. A qualitative investigation into the reaction to the proposed changes was obtained from 33 marked samples of response to student writing provided by external markers. Compared to the data given in Lephalala and Pienaar (2008, the changes tested in this study were unable to influence the dominant L1 response strategy, but caused a shift away from L2 formulaic responses and an increase in the desired L3 feedback. There is a need for intensive investigation into feedback in this ODL teaching context and into measures to promote L3 feedback.

  13. A CAMAC-based data acquisition system with a Macintosh interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKisson, J.E.; Ely, D.W.; Weisenberger, A.G.; Piercy, R.B.; Haskins, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a commercially available Macintosh-based data acquisition system and its application to a specific measurement. Based on Computer Aided Measurement and Control (CAMAC) and Nuclear Instrumentation Module (NIM) standard modules, the data acquisition system features a hardware and software interface to a Macintosh computer. This system has been used both for laboratory and remote site measurements, and has been found to perform well as both a highly interactive laboratory system and as a very automatable system for long term data acquisition. Ease in configuration allows for flexibility in fast response applications where a data acquisition system is needed in short time. The system software also supports much of the data analysis and presentation of results with a versatile set of histogram display and manipulation tools. In a recent application, the system controlled data acquisition for two germanium detectors used as part of the whole- spacecraft induced activation measurements of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite

  14. Implementation of a new data acquisition and exclusive measurement of the reaction vector pp → ppπ+π- at the time of flight spectrometer COSY-TOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhardt, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    The two-pion production pp ppπ + π - was measured exclusively at T p =793 MeV using the short version of the COSY-TOF spectrometer. In this measurement both the new EMS-based data acquisition system and a delayed pulse technique have been used, which, in addition to particle identification, energy, time of flight, and angle determination provides pi+ identification for pions in the theta lab range from 2 to 28 degrees. The measured total cross section for this reaction is σ=4.1(4) μb at T p =793 MeV. Due to an improved efficiency correction, the earlier measured total cross section has been corrected to σ=1.6 μb at T p =747 MeV. This value agrees nicely with the results from WASA/PROMICE. The data are compared to previous data and theoretical models which have been developed to understand the results from WASA/PROMICE measurements. The measurements have been carried out with transversally polarized proton beam which made it possible to determine analyzing powers for different subsystems of the two pion production reaction. In contrast to predictions we find significant analyzing power values up to A y =0.3. The data in the range of Roper excitation confirm that the dominating π π decay channel is N * →Nσ. (orig.)

  15. Development of a Scale Measuring Discursive Responsible Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Voegtlin Christian

    2012-01-01

    The paper advances the conceptual understanding of responsible leadership and develops an empirical scale of discursive responsible leadership. The concept of responsible leadership presented here draws on deliberative practices and discursive conflict resolution combining the macro view of the business firm as a political actor with the micro view of leadership. Ideal responsible leadership conduct thereby goes beyond the dyadic leader–follower interaction to include all stakeholders. The pa...

  16. Detecting concealed information in less than a second: response latency-based measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; de Houwer, J.; Verschuere, B.; Ben-Shakhar, G.; Meijer, E.

    2011-01-01

    Concealed information can be accurately assessed with physiological measures. To overcome the practical limitations of physiological measures, an assessment using response latencies has been proposed. At first sight, research findings on response latency based concealed information tests seem

  17. Data acquisition systems for uses of multi-counter time analyzer and one-dimensional PSD pulse height analyzer to neutron scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masayoshi; Tasaki, Seiji; Okamoto, Sunao

    1989-01-01

    A data acquisition system having the various modern electronic devices was designed and tested for practical use of neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurements with multiple counters. The system is principally composed of TOF logic units (load-able up to 128 units) with a control unit and a conventional micro-computer. The TOF logic unit (main memory, 2048 ch, 24 bits/ch) demonstrates about 1.7 times higher efficiency for neutron counting rate per channel than the one by a conventional TOF logic unit. Meanwhile, some data-access functions of the TOF logic unit were applied to position sensitive analyzer of one-dimensional neutron PSD for small angle scattering. The analyzer was tested with use of pulse generator. The result shows good linearity. (author)

  18. Measuring Infant Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogartz, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three response rate measures (in a baseline measurement, immediately after acquisition, and at a long-term retention test) of infant memory that are used in experiments involving infants' conditioned kicking. Compares these measures to a new measure, the fraction of kicking rate remaining after the retention interval. Explains the…

  19. Dispersed Sensing Networks in Nano-Engineered Polymer Composites: From Static Strain Measurement to Ultrasonic Wave Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehai Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-sensing capability of composite materials has been the core of intensive research over the years and particularly boosted up by the recent quantum leap in nanotechnology. The capacity of most existing self-sensing approaches is restricted to static strains or low-frequency structural vibration. In this study, a new breed of functionalized epoxy-based composites is developed and fabricated, with a graphene nanoparticle-enriched, dispersed sensing network, whereby to self-perceive broadband elastic disturbance from static strains, through low-frequency vibration to guided waves in an ultrasonic regime. Owing to the dispersed and networked sensing capability, signals can be captured at any desired part of the composites. Experimental validation has demonstrated that the functionalized composites can self-sense strains, outperforming conventional metal foil strain sensors with a significantly enhanced gauge factor and a much broader response bandwidth. Precise and fast self-response of the composites to broadband ultrasonic signals (up to 440 kHz has revealed that the composite structure itself can serve as ultrasound sensors, comparable to piezoceramic sensors in performance, whereas avoiding the use of bulky cables and wires as used in a piezoceramic sensor network. This study has spotlighted promising potentials of the developed approach to functionalize conventional composites with a self-sensing capability of high-sensitivity yet minimized intrusion to original structures.

  20. WTSETUP: Software for Creating and Editing Configuration Files in the Low Speed Wind Tunnel Data Acquisition System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Craig

    1999-01-01

    The Data Acquisition System in the Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory is responsible for the measurement, recording, processing and displaying of wind tunnel test data...

  1. Association between prepulse inhibition of the startle response and latent inhibition of two-way avoidance acquisition: A study with heterogeneous NIH-HS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Ana; Esnal, Aitor; Río-Álamos, Cristóbal; Oliveras, Ignasi; Cañete, Toni; Blázquez, Gloria; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the first evaluation of the associations between responses in two paradigms related to schizophrenia in the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock. NIH-HS rats are a stock of genetically heterogeneous animals that have been derived from eight different inbred strains. A rotational breeding schedule has been followed for more than eighty generations, leading to a high level of genetic recombination that makes the NIH-HS rats a unique tool for studying the genetic basis of (biological, behavioral, disease-related) complex traits. Previous work has dealt with the characterization of coping styles, cognitive and anxiety/fear-related profiles of NIH-HS rats. In the present study we have completed their characterization in two behavioral models, prepulse inhibition (PPI) and latent inhibition (LI) of the two-way active avoidance response, that appear to be related to schizophrenia or to schizophrenia-relevant symptoms. We have found that these rats display PPI for each of the four prepulse intensities tested, allowing their stratification in high, medium and low PPI subgroups. When testing these three subgroups for LI of two-way active avoidance acquisition it has been observed that the LowPPI and MediumPPI subgroups present impaired LI, which, along with the fact that the HighPPI group presents significant LI, allows us to hypothesize that responses in these two paradigms are somehow related and that selection of NIH-HS rats for Low vs HighPPI could make a promising animal model for the study of clusters of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Projective Item Response Model for Test-Independent Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Edward Hak-Sing; Chen, Shyh-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The problem of fitting unidimensional item-response models to potentially multidimensional data has been extensively studied. The focus of this article is on response data that contains a major dimension of interest but that may also contain minor nuisance dimensions. Because fitting a unidimensional model to multidimensional data results in…

  3. Average glandular dose in paired digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis acquisitions in a population based screening program: effects of measuring breast density, air kerma and beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helge Østerås, Bjørn; Skaane, Per; Gullien, Randi; Catrine Trægde Martinsen, Anne

    2018-02-01

    The main purpose was to compare average glandular dose (AGD) for same-compression digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) acquisitions in a population based screening program, with and without breast density stratification, as determined by automatically calculated breast density (Quantra™). Secondary, to compare AGD estimates based on measured breast density, air kerma and half value layer (HVL) to DICOM metadata based estimates. AGD was estimated for 3819 women participating in the screening trial. All received craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique views of each breasts with paired DM and DBT acquisitions. Exposure parameters were extracted from DICOM metadata. Air kerma and HVL were measured for all beam qualities used to acquire the mammograms. Volumetric breast density was estimated using Quantra™. AGD was estimated using the Dance model. AGD reported directly from the DICOM metadata was also assessed. Mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.10 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. Mean DBT/DM AGD ratio was 1.24. For fatty breasts: mean AGD was 1.74 and 2.27 mGy for DM and DBT, respectively. For dense breasts: mean AGD was 1.73 and 1.79 mGy, for DM and DBT, respectively. For breasts of similar thickness, dense breasts had higher AGD for DM and similar AGD for DBT. The DBT/DM dose ratio was substantially lower for dense compared to fatty breasts (1.08 versus 1.33). The average c-factor was 1.16. Using previously published polynomials to estimate glandularity from thickness underestimated the c-factor by 5.9% on average. Mean AGD error between estimates based on measurements (air kerma and HVL) versus DICOM header data was 3.8%, but for one mammography unit as high as 7.9%. Mean error of using the AGD value reported in the DICOM header was 10.7 and 13.3%, respectively. Thus, measurement of breast density, radiation dose and beam quality can substantially affect AGD estimates.

  4. Rapid Response Teams: Is it Time to Reframe the Questions of Rapid Response Team Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra, Gail G; Bindler, Ruth C; Daratha, Kenn B

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of rapid response team (RRT) history in the United States, provide a review of prior RRT effectiveness research, and propose the reframing of four new questions of RRT measurement that are designed to better understand RRTs in the context of contemporary nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. RRTs were adopted in the United States because of their intuitive appeal, and despite a lack of evidence for their effectiveness. Subsequent studies used mortality and cardiac arrest rates to measure whether or not RRTs "work." Few studies have thoroughly examined the effect of RRTs on nurses and on nursing practice. An extensive literature review provided the background. Suppositions and four critical, unanswered questions arising from the literature are suggested. The results of RRT effectiveness, which have focused on patient-oriented outcomes, have been ambiguous, contradictory, and difficult to interpret. Additionally, they have not taken into account the multiple ways in which these teams have impacted nurses and nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. What happens in terms of RRT process and utilization is likely to have a major impact on nurses and nursing care on general medical and surgical wards. What that impact will be depends on what we can learn from measuring with an expanded yardstick, in order to answer the question, "Do RRTs work?" Evidence for the benefits of RRTs depends on proper framing of questions relating to their effectiveness, including the multiple ways RRTs contribute to nursing efficacy. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Autonomic response to exercise as measured by cardio- vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    estimate the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) influence and balance in ... activity in response to exercise, training and overtraining. This ..... However, a lower HR and higher values for time domain HRV indicators were ...

  6. Validation of theoretical models through measured pavement response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    1999-01-01

    mechanics was quite different from the measured stress, the peak theoretical value being only half of the measured value.On an instrumented pavement structure in the Danish Road Testing Machine, deflections were measured at the surface of the pavement under FWD loading. Different analytical models were...... then used to derive the elastic parameters of the pavement layeres, that would produce deflections matching the measured deflections. Stresses and strains were then calculated at the position of the gauges and compared to the measured values. It was found that all analytical models would predict the tensile...

  7. In situ response time measurements of RTD temperature sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, I.M.P.

    1985-01-01

    The loop-current-step-response test provides a mean for determining the time constant of resistence thermometers. The test consist in heating the sensor a few degrees above ambient temperature by causing a step pertubation in the electric current that flows through the sensor leads. The developed mathematical transformation permits to use data collected during the internal heating transient to predict the sensor response to perturbations in fluid temperature. Experimental data obtained show that the time constant determined by method is within 15 percent of true value. The loop-current-step-response test is a remote in situ test, which can be performed with the sensor installed in the process. Consequently it takes account the local heat transfer conditions, and appropriated for nuclear power plants, where sensors are installed in points of difficult access. (author) [pt

  8. Autonomic response to exercise as measured by cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Articles on the effect of training on the ANS as measured by cardiovascular variability indicators show increased variability, decreased variability, and no change in variability. Conclusion. Findings in this review emphasise that standardisation and refinement of these measuring tools are essential to produce results that can ...

  9. Magnitude and phase response measurement of headphones at the eardrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders T.; Hess, Wolfgang; Silzle, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Transfer functions of headphones are measured to verify that they meet certain requirements or to determine what equalization may make them meet an ideal target curve. The present study compares six headphones by physical measurements at the eardrums of six individuals and on a dummy head...

  10. Impulse response measurements with an off-line cross correlator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corran, E.R.; Cummins, J.D.

    1963-11-01

    The impulse responses of simulated systems have been computed by off-line cross-correlation of the system input and output signals. The input test signal consisted of a discrete interval binary code whose autocorrelation was a triangular pulse at zero lag. The main object of the experiments was to study the inaccuracies introduced in ideal, noise free systems by determining the impulse response digitally from sampled versions of the system input and output signals. A second object was to determine the error introduced by adding controlled amounts of uncorrelated noise at the system outputs. The experimental results showed that for signal to noise ratios greater than 10:1 in the mean square sense, the impulse responses may be determined with reasonable accuracy using only one cycle of the binary code. The method lends itself to on-line computation of system impulse responses. The latter could be used to monitor the stability of the system or to determine control parameters in an adaptive control system. (author)

  11. Impulse response measurements with an off-line cross correlator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corran, E R; Cummins, J D [Dynamics Group, Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    The impulse responses of simulated systems have been computed by off-line cross-correlation of the system input and output signals. The input test signal consisted of a discrete interval binary code whose autocorrelation was a triangular pulse at zero lag. The main object of the experiments was to study the inaccuracies introduced in ideal, noise free systems by determining the impulse response digitally from sampled versions of the system input and output signals. A second object was to determine the error introduced by adding controlled amounts of uncorrelated noise at the system outputs. The experimental results showed that for signal to noise ratios greater than 10:1 in the mean square sense, the impulse responses may be determined with reasonable accuracy using only one cycle of the binary code. The method lends itself to on-line computation of system impulse responses. The latter could be used to monitor the stability of the system or to determine control parameters in an adaptive control system. (author)

  12. Measuring the financial impact of demand response for electricity retailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerriegel, Stefan; Neumann, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Due to the integration of intermittent resources of power generation such as wind and solar, the amount of supplied electricity will exhibit unprecedented fluctuations. Electricity retailers can partially meet the challenge of matching demand and volatile supply by shifting power demand according to the fluctuating supply side. The necessary technology infrastructure such as Advanced Metering Infrastructures for this so-called Demand Response (DR) has advanced. However, little is known about the economic dimension and further effort is strongly needed to realistically quantify the financial impact. To succeed in this goal, we derive an optimization problem that minimizes procurement costs of an electricity retailer in order to control Demand Response usage. The evaluation with historic data shows that cost volatility can be reduced by 7.74%; peak costs drop by 14.35%; and expenditures of retailers can be significantly decreased by 3.52%. - Highlights: • Ex post simulation to quantify financial impacts of demand response. • Effects of Demand Response are simulated based on real-world data. • Procurement costs of an average electricity retailer decrease by 3.4%. • Retailers can cut hourly peak expenditures by 12.1%. • Cost volatility is reduced by 12.2%

  13. Teaching Students Personal and Social Responsibility with Measurable Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardaiolo, Frank P.; Neilson, Steve; Daugherty, Timothy K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005 the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) launched a national initiative that championed the importance of a twenty-first century liberal education. What was unique about this initiative was the underlying assumption that educating for personal and social responsibility was "core" for an educated citizenry and should be…

  14. Fitting of transfer functions to frequency response measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moret, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    An algorithm for approximating a given complex frequency response with a rational function of two polynomials with real coefficients is presented, together with its extension to distributed parameter systems, the corresponding error analysis and its application to a real case. (author) 5 figs., 4 refs

  15. ORACL program file for acquisition, storage and analysis of data in radiation measurement and nondestructive measurement of nuclear material, vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Norio; Gotoh, Hiroshi

    1976-09-01

    The file contains 79 programs for radiation measurement and nondestructive measurement of nuclear material written in conversational language ORACL associated with the GAMMA-III system of ORTEC Incorporated. It deals with data transfers between disk/core/MCA/magnetic tape, edition of data in disks, calculation of the peak area, calculation of mean and standard deviation, reference to gamma-ray data files, accounting, calendar, etc. It also has a support system for micro-computer development. Usages of the built-in functions of ORACL are presented. (auth.)

  16. APD Response Time Measurements for Future TOF-E Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, M. J.; Ogasawara, K.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M. I.

    2017-12-01

    In space physics, the ability to detect ions is crucial to understanding plasma distributions in the solar wind. This usually typically requires the determination of the particle's mass, charge, and total energy. Current ion detection schemes are implemented in three sequential parts; an electrostatic analyzer for energy per charge (E/Q) measurements, a time-of-flight (TOF) for mass per charge (M/Q) measurements, and a solid-state detector (SSD) for total energy (E) measurements. Recent work has suggested the use of avalanche photodiode detectors (APD) for a simultaneous TOF and total energy (TOF-E) measurement system, which would replace traditional SSDs, simplify design, and reduce costs. Although TOF based ion spectrometry typically requires timing resolution of systems.

  17. 2017 NAIP Acquisition Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Planned States for 2017 NAIP acquisition and acquisition status layer (updated daily). Updates to the acquisition seasons may be made during the season to...

  18. Online Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Protocol for Measuring Cortical Physiology Associated with Response Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Michael D; Gilbert, Donald L; Huddleston, David A; Pedapati, Ernest V; Horn, Paul S; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Wu, Steve W

    2018-02-08

    We describe the development of a reproducible, child-friendly motor response inhibition task suitable for online Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) characterization of primary motor cortex (M1) excitability and inhibition. Motor response inhibition prevents unwanted actions and is abnormal in several neuropsychiatric conditions. TMS is a non-invasive technology that can quantify M1 excitability and inhibition using single- and paired-pulse protocols and can be precisely timed to study cortical physiology with high temporal resolution. We modified the original Slater-Hammel (S-H) stop signal task to create a "racecar" version with TMS pulses time-locked to intra-trial events. This task is self-paced, with each trial initiating after a button push to move the racecar towards the 800 ms target. GO trials require a finger-lift to stop the racecar just before this target. Interspersed randomly are STOP trials (25%) during which the dynamically adjusted stop signal prompts subjects to prevent finger-lift. For GO trials, TMS pulses were delivered at 650 ms after trial onset; whereas, for STOP trials, the TMS pulses occurred 150 ms after the stop signal. The timings of the TMS pulses were decided based on electroencephalography (EEG) studies showing event-related changes in these time ranges during stop signal tasks. This task was studied in 3 blocks at two study sites (n=38) and we recorded behavioral performance and event-related motor-evoked potentials (MEP). Regression modelling was used to analyze MEP amplitudes using age as a covariate with multiple independent variables (sex, study site, block, TMS pulse condition [single- vs. paired-pulse], trial condition [GO, successful STOP, failed STOP]). The analysis showed that TMS pulse condition (p<0.0001) and its interaction with trial condition (p=0.009) were significant. Future applications for this online S-H/TMS paradigm include the addition of simultaneous EEG acquisition to measure TMS-evoked EEG potentials. A

  19. State and Federal Regulatory measurement responsibilities around medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzl, L.H.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation exposure to man is due chiefly to diagnostic x-ray procedures, in which radiation is intentionally directed toward a patient. Radiation therapy presents a lesser problem because a smaller percentage of the population is subjected to such treatment. Recently, some innovative steps were taken in the State of Illinois to reduce patient exposure in four diagnostic procedures without reducing the benefits derived therefrom. However, if these procedures are to be carried out properly, it is necessary to increase the precision and accuracy of radiation exposure measurements to the order of +-2 percent. The usual accuracy and precision of radiation protection measurements are of the order of +- 20 percent. Thus, should the Illinois radiation protection rules become widely adopted, the national dosimetry network will need to upgrade exposure measurement techniques

  20. Earthquake Ground Motion Measures for Seismic Response Evaluation of Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, In-Kil; Ahn, Seong-Moon; Choun, Young-Sun; Seo, Jeong-Moon

    2007-03-15

    This study used the assessment results of failure criteria - base shear, story drift, top acceleration and top displacement - for a PSC containment building subjected to 30 sets of near-fault ground motions to evaluate the earthquake ground motion intensity measures. Seven intensity measures, peak ground acceleration(PGA), peak ground velocity(PGV), spectral acceleration(Sa), velocity(Sv), spectrum intensity for acceleration(SIa), velocity(SIv) and displacement(SId), were used to represent alternative ground motion. The regression analyses of the failure criteria for a PSC containment building were carried out to evaluate a proper intensity measure by using two regression models and seven ground motion parameters. The regression analysis results demonstrate the correlation coefficients of the failure criteria in terms of the candidate IM. From the results, spectral acceleration(Sa) is estimated as the best parameter for a evaluation of the structural safety for a seismic PSA.

  1. Sensitivity of bronchial responsiveness measurements in young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loland, Lotte; Buchvald, Frederik F; Halkjaer, Liselotte Brydensholt

    2006-01-01

    of 402 infants (median age, 6 weeks). Forced flow-volume measurements were obtained by the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique and were compared with indexes of tidal breathing, measurements of transcutaneous oxygen (Ptco(2)), and auscultation during methacholine challenge testing....... RESULTS: Ptco(2) was the most sensitive parameter to detect increasing airway obstruction during methacholine challenge, followed by forced expiratory volume at 0.5 s (FEV(0.5)). Both were superior to other indexes of forced spirometry as well as tidal breathing indexes and auscultation. Coefficients...

  2. Selective lesion of septal cholinergic neurons in rats impairs acquisition of a delayed matching to position T-maze task by delaying the shift from a response to a place strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Nicholas F; Gibbs, Robert B; Johnson, David A

    2008-12-16

    This study tested the hypothesis that septal cholinergic lesions impair acquisition of a delayed matching to position (DMP) T-maze task in male rats by affecting learning strategy. Rats received either the selective cholinergic immunotoxin, 192 IgG-saporin (SAP) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid directly into the medial septum. Two weeks later, animals were trained to acquire the DMP task. SAP-treated rats took significantly longer to acquire the task than corresponding controls. Both SAP-treated and control rats adopted a persistent turn and utilized a response strategy during early periods of training. By the time rats reached criterion the persistent turn was no longer evident, and all rats had shifted to an allocentric strategy, i.e., were relying on extramaze cues to a significant degree. During the acquisition period, SAP-treated rats spent significantly more days showing a persistent turn and using a response strategy than corresponding controls. The added time spent using a response strategy accounted entirely for the added days required to reach criterion among the SAP-treated rats. This suggests that the principal mechanism by which septal cholinergic lesions impair DMP acquisition in male rats is by increasing the predisposition to use a response vs. a place strategy, thereby affecting the ability to switch from one strategy to another.

  3. Measuring the emotional response to beer and the relative impact of sensory and packaging cues

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya, C.; Pacoud, J.; Ng, May Ling; Fenton, A.; Hort, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    In today’s extremely competitive markets, recent studies have highlighted that using hedonic measurement alone is inadequate for evaluating consumer product experience. Measuring emotional response is suggested to provide a richer insight into consumer responses. The objectives of this study were to: (i) measure consumer emotional responses to beer; (ii) determine if a relationship exists between sensory and emotional attributes of products; and finally (iii) investigate the relative impact o...

  4. Corrective measures and actions in response to defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This guideline presents a number of corrective measures which can be taken when the derived limits in the Code or the relevant action levels are exceeded. Appropriate actions to be taken for external β and γ radiation, airborne contamination, surface contamination and uranium or thorium concentrate spillage are specified

  5. Measurement of Classroom Teaching Quality with Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelcey, Ben; McGinn, Daniel; Hill, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Recent policy has charged schools and districts with maintaining highly qualified teachers and differentiating among teachers in terms of their effectiveness (U.S. Department of Education, 2009). This emphasis has driven the development and implementation of teacher quality measures which are increasingly being used to evaluate teachers with…

  6. Bayesian randomized item response modeling for sensitive measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avetisyan, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    In behavioral, health, and social sciences, any endeavor involving measurement is directed at accurate representation of the latent concept with the manifest observation. However, when sensitive topics, such as substance abuse, tax evasion, or felony, are inquired, substantial distortion of reported

  7. Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility in a Business to Society Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziggers, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    Measuring both customer and societal satisfaction is critical to the process of serving them and outdoing competition. This is also true for agribusiness and the food industry. Predicated on the view that quality is defined as meeting or exceeding customer expectations, the gap approach has

  8. Measurement of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in monocytes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Tomás P

    2011-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the primary function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is to synthesize and assemble membrane and secreted proteins. As the main site of protein folding and posttranslational modification in the cell, the ER operates a highly conserved quality control system to ensure only correctly assembled proteins exit the ER and misfolded and unfolded proteins are retained for disposal. Any disruption in the equilibrium of the ER engages a multifaceted intracellular signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore normal conditions in the cell. A variety of pathological conditions can induce activation of the UPR, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson\\'s disease, metabolic disorders such as atherosclerosis, and conformational disorders such as cystic fibrosis. Conformational disorders are characterized by mutations that modify the final structure of a protein and any cells that express abnormal protein risk functional impairment. The monocyte is an important and long-lived immune cell and acts as a key immunological orchestrator, dictating the intensity and duration of the host immune response. Monocytes expressing misfolded or unfolded protein may exhibit UPR activation and this can compromise the host immune system. Here, we describe in detail methods and protocols for the examination of UPR activation in peripheral blood monocytes. This guide should provide new investigators to the field with a broad understanding of the tools required to investigate the UPR in the monocyte.

  9. Measurement of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in monocytes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Tomas P

    2012-02-01

    In mammalian cells, the primary function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is to synthesize and assemble membrane and secreted proteins. As the main site of protein folding and posttranslational modification in the cell, the ER operates a highly conserved quality control system to ensure only correctly assembled proteins exit the ER and misfolded and unfolded proteins are retained for disposal. Any disruption in the equilibrium of the ER engages a multifaceted intracellular signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore normal conditions in the cell. A variety of pathological conditions can induce activation of the UPR, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson\\'s disease, metabolic disorders such as atherosclerosis, and conformational disorders such as cystic fibrosis. Conformational disorders are characterized by mutations that modify the final structure of a protein and any cells that express abnormal protein risk functional impairment. The monocyte is an important and long-lived immune cell and acts as a key immunological orchestrator, dictating the intensity and duration of the host immune response. Monocytes expressing misfolded or unfolded protein may exhibit UPR activation and this can compromise the host immune system. Here, we describe in detail methods and protocols for the examination of UPR activation in peripheral blood monocytes. This guide should provide new investigators to the field with a broad understanding of the tools required to investigate the UPR in the monocyte.

  10. Measuring the economic performance of socially responsible companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Fernández-Guadaño

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to use different economic variables to establish whether there are differences in economic performance between companies as a result of their inclusion in the sustainability index. This paper presents a one-dimensional exploratory study which compares the socially responsible companies included in the Spanish sustainability index, FTSE4Good Ibex, with the rest of the indices in the IBEX family. Parametric testing was used to study whether there are differences between the two types of companies. The results demonstrate that there are no statistically significant differences in economic performance between the two groups. Morover, it is confirmed that companies with good practices are as profitable as the rest, but it also demonstrates that the economic-financial behaviour is not better as a result of being in the sustainability index. The basic conclusion is that adhering to social and environmental standards does not harm a firm’s competitive position and, therefore, provide support for the development policy of responsible practices so that they become a tool to help improve the resilience of the economy and investor trust.

  11. Impact of instrument response variations on health physics measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armantrout, G.A.

    1984-10-01

    Uncertainties in estimating the potential health impact of a given radiation exposure include instrument measurement error in determining exposure and difficulty in relating this exposure to an effective dose value. Instrument error can be due to design or manufacturing deficiencies, limitations of the sensing element used, and calibration and maintenance of the instrument. This paper evaluates the errors which can be introduced by design deficiencies and limitations of the sensing element for a wide variety of commonly used survey instruments. The results indicate little difference among sensing element choice for general survey work, with variations among specific instrument designs being the major factor. Ion chamber instruments tend to be the best for all around use, while scintillator-based units should not be used where accurate measurements are required. The need to properly calibrate and maintain an instrument appears to be the most important factor in instrument accuracy. 8 references, 6 tables

  12. Detailed comparison between computed and measured FBR core seismic responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forni, M.; Martelli, A.; Melloni, R.; Bonacina, G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed comparison between seismic calculations and measurements performed for various mock-ups consisting of groups of seven and nineteen simplified elements of the Italian PEC fast reactor core. Experimental tests had been performed on shaking tables in air and water (simulating sodium) with excitations increasing up to above Safe Shutdown Earthquake. The PEC core-restraint ring had been simulated in some tests. All the experimental tests have been analysed by use of both the one-dimensional computer program CORALIE and the two-dimensional program CLASH. Comparisons have been made for all the instrumented elements, in both the time and the frequency domains. The good agreement between calculations and measurements has confirmed adequacy of the fluid-structure interaction model used for PEC core seismic design verification

  13. An excess noise measurement system for weak responsivity avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Dimler, Simon J.; Baharuddin, Aina N. A. P.; Green, James E.; David, John P. R.

    2018-06-01

    A system for measuring, with reduced photocurrent, the excess noise associated with the gain in avalanche photodiodes (APDs), using a transimpedance amplifier front-end and based on phase-sensitive detection is described. The system can reliably measure the excess noise power of devices, even when the un-multiplied photocurrent is low (~10 nA). This is more than one order of magnitude better than previously reported systems and represents a significantly better noise signal to noise ratio. This improvement in performance has been achieved by increasing the value of the feedback resistor and reducing the op-amp bandwidth. The ability to characterise APD performance with such low photocurrents enables the use of low power light sources such as light emitting diode rather than lasers to investigate the APD noise performance.

  14. Syntax acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  15. Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John L [Butte, MT; Morrison, William H [Manchester, CT; Christophersen, Jon P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-03

    Real-time battery impedance spectrum is acquired using a one-time record. Fast Summation Transformation (FST) is a parallel method of acquiring a real-time battery impedance spectrum using a one-time record that enables battery diagnostics. An excitation current to a battery is a sum of equal amplitude sine waves of frequencies that are octave harmonics spread over a range of interest. A sample frequency is also octave and harmonically related to all frequencies in the sum. The time profile of this signal has a duration that is a few periods of the lowest frequency. The voltage response of the battery, average deleted, is the impedance of the battery in the time domain. Since the excitation frequencies are known and octave and harmonically related, a simple algorithm, FST, processes the time record by rectifying relative to the sine and cosine of each frequency. Another algorithm yields real and imaginary components for each frequency.

  16. Time response measurements of pressure sensors using pink noise technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Santos, Roberto Carlos dos

    2009-01-01

    This work presents an experimental setup for Pink Noise method application on pressure transmitters' response times. The Pink Noise method consists on injecting artificial pressure noise into the pressure transmitter. The artificial pressure noise is generated using a current-to-pressure (I-to-P) converter, which is driven by a random noise signal generator. The output pressure transmitter noise is then analyzed using conventional Noise Analysis Technique. Noise signals may be interpreted using spectral techniques or empirical time series models. The frequency domain method consists of evaluating the Power Spectral Density (PSD) function. The information needed for time constant estimation can be obtained by fitting an all-pole transfer function to this power spectral density. (author)

  17. Assessing responsiveness of generic and specific health related quality of life measures in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Jeffrey A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responsiveness, or sensitivity to clinical change, is an important consideration in selection of a health-related quality of life (HRQL measure for trials or clinical applications. Many approaches can be used to assess responsiveness, which may affect the interpretation of study results. We compared the relative responsiveness of generic and heart failure specific HRQL instruments, as measured both by common psychometric indices and by external clinical criteria. Methods We analyzed data collected at baseline and 6-weeks in 298 subjects with heart failure on the following HRQL measures: EQ-5D (US, UK, and VAS Scoring, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ (Clinical and Overall Summary Score, and RAND12 (Physical and Mental Component Summaries. Three external indicators of clinical change were used to classify subjects as improved, deteriorated, or unchanged: 6-minute walk test, New York Heart Association (NYHA class, and physician global rating of change. Four responsiveness statistics (T-test, effect size, Guyatt's responsiveness statistic, and standardized response mean were used to evaluate the responsiveness of the select measures. The median rank of each HRQL measure across responsiveness indices and clinical criteria was then determined. Results Average age of subjects was 60 years, 75 percent were male, and had moderate to severe heart failure symptoms. Overall, the KCCQ Summary Scores had the highest relative ranking, irrespective of the responsiveness index or external criterion used. Importantly, we observed that the relative ranking of responsiveness of the generic measures (i.e. EQ-5D, RAND12 was influenced by both the responsive indices and external criterion used. Conclusion The disease specific KCCQ was the most responsive HRQL measure assessing change over a 6-week period, although generic measures provide information for which the KCCQ is not suitable. The responsiveness of generic HRQL measures may

  18. Effect-independent measures of tissue response to fractionated radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Tissue repair factors are measures of sparing from dose fractionation, in the absence of proliferation. A desirable feature of any repair factor is that it be independent of the level of injury induced in the tissue, since otherwise the comparison of tissues on the basis of the factor would not be meaningful. The repair factors F/sub R/ and F/sub rec/ are increasing functions of D/sub 1/, and depend on level of skin reaction after fractionated radiation. By contrast, β/α is effect-independent as a measure of repair capacity in skin, gut, and bone marrow. For late fibrotic reactions in the kidney, there was an increase in β/α with increased levels of injury that was statistically insignificant. The halftime, T/sub 1/2/, for intracellular repair processes in tissues is a measure of repair kinetics. Effect-independence is defend for T/sub 1/2/ as independence from size of dose per fraction. T/sub 1/2/ is independent of fraction size in skin, gut, and spinal cord, and is longer (1.5 hours) in the late-reacting tissues (lung and spinal cord) than in those that react acutely (less than 1 hour), with skin as the exception (1.3 hours). Therefore, early and late-responding normal tissues may be distinguished in terms of both repair capacity and repair kinetics: repair is slower in late-responding tissues, which are also more sensitive to changes in dose fractionation

  19. Effect-independent measures of tissue responses to fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Tissue repair factors measure the sparing that can be achieved from dose fractionation in the absence of proliferation. Four repair factors are analysed in these terms: Fsub(R),Fsub(rec), the ratio of linear-quadratic survival model parameters β/α and the half-time Tsub(1/2) for intracellular repair processes. Theoretically, Fsub(R) and Fsub(rec) are increasing functions of D 1 , and thus depend on level of effect. This is confirmed by analysis of skin reactions after multifractionated radiation. By contrast, β/α is effect-independent as a measure of repair capacity in skin, gut, and bone marrow, tissues for which it is reasonable to assume that survival of identifiable target cells is the primary determinant of the endpoint. For a functional endpoint not clearly connected with the depletion of a specific target-cell population (late fibrotic reactions in the kidney), there was an increase in β/α with increased levels of injury, but this was statistically insignificant. Tsub(1/2) is independent of fraction size in skin, gut, and spinal cord, and is longer (1.5 hours) in the late-reacting tissues (lung and spinal cord) than in those that react acutely (Tsub(1/2) less than 1 hour), with skin as the exception (Tsub(1/2) approx. 1.3 hours). (author)

  20. Studies on climate change problems and response measures in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruqiu, Y. [China National Environmental Protection Agency, Beijing (China)

    1995-06-01

    Climate has substantial influence on the development of human society. At the same time, the global climate is being affected by human activities. Since industrial revolution large amount of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases have been emitted to the atmosphere, causing significant change in its composition. It is recognized that this change might be sufficient to cause change in global climate. Because of the importance of climate change issues, the Chinese government pays great attention to them. As climate change concerns almost all aspects of the social and economic development, in order to coordinate ministries and agencies of the government in their efforts to deal with climate change problems, the Coordinating Group on Climate Change under the Environmental Protection Committee of the State Council was established in February 1990. There are four working groups under the Coordinating Group, working on scientific assessment, impact assessment and response strategies, economic implication and international convention matters of climate change. A number of research and technological development projects related to climate change issues have been organized, including bilateral cooperation projects and projects supported by GEF, UNEP, UNDP, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and other international organizations. (EG) 11 refs.

  1. Studies on climate change problems and response measures in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruqiu, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Climate has substantial influence on the development of human society. At the same time, the global climate is being affected by human activities. Since industrial revolution large amount of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases have been emitted to the atmosphere, causing significant change in its composition. It is recognized that this change might be sufficient to cause change in global climate. Because of the importance of climate change issues, the Chinese government pays great attention to them. As climate change concerns almost all aspects of the social and economic development, in order to coordinate ministries and agencies of the government in their efforts to deal with climate change problems, the Coordinating Group on Climate Change under the Environmental Protection Committee of the State Council was established in February 1990. There are four working groups under the Coordinating Group, working on scientific assessment, impact assessment and response strategies, economic implication and international convention matters of climate change. A number of research and technological development projects related to climate change issues have been organized, including bilateral cooperation projects and projects supported by GEF, UNEP, UNDP, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and other international organizations. (EG) 11 refs

  2. Measuring Human Performance within Computer Security Incident Response Teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, Jonathan T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva, Austin Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Avina, Glory Emmanuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forsythe, James C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Human performance has become a pertinen t issue within cyber security. However, this research has been stymied by the limited availability of expert cyber security professionals. This is partly attributable to the ongoing workload faced by cyber security professionals, which is compound ed by the limited number of qualified personnel and turnover of p ersonnel across organizations. Additionally, it is difficult to conduct research, and particularly, openly published research, due to the sensitivity inherent to cyber ope rations at most orga nizations. As an alternative, the current research has focused on data collection during cyb er security training exercises. These events draw individuals with a range of knowledge and experience extending from seasoned professionals to recent college gradu ates to college students. The current paper describes research involving data collection at two separate cyber security exercises. This data collection involved multiple measures which included behavioral performance based on human - machine transactions and questionnaire - based assessments of cyber security experience.

  3. Coping with the Green-Eyed Monster: Conceptualizing and Measuring Communicative Responses to Romantic Jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Laura K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines communicative responses to romantic jealousy. Finds 12 superordinate categories and 67 tactics in communicative responses to jealousy. Develops measures for six types of interactive responses (integrative communication, distributive communication, active distancing, general avoidance/denial, expression of negative affect, and violent…

  4. Validation of a simple response-time measure of listening effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; van Rijn, Hedderik; Başkent, Deniz

    This study compares two response-time measures of listening effort that can be combined with a clinical speech test for a more comprehensive evaluation of total listening experience; verbal response times to auditory stimuli (RTaud) and response times to a visual task (RTsvis) in a dual- task

  5. Neutron response matrix for unfolding NE-213 measurements to 21 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Wehring, B.W.; Johnson, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron response matrix from measured neutron responses of NE-213 in the energy range of 0.2 to 22 MeV is presented. An interpolation scheme was used to construct an 81-column matrix from the data of Verbinski, Burrus, Love, Zobel, and Hill. As a test of the new response matrix, the Cf-252 neutron spectrum was measured and unfolded using the new response matrix and the FORIST unfolding code. The spectrum agrees well with previous measurements at lower energies, while providing new information above 8 MeV

  6. Differential associations between sensory response patterns and language, social, and communication measures in children with autism or other developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Linda R; Patten, Elena; Baranek, Grace T; Poe, Michele; Boyd, Brian A; Freuler, Ashley; Lorenzi, Jill

    2011-12-01

    To examine patterns of sensory responsiveness (i.e., hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and sensory seeking) as factors that may account for variability in social-communicative symptoms of autism and variability in language, social, and communication skill development in children with autism or other developmental disabilities (DDs). Children with autistic disorder (AD; n = 72, mean age = 52.3 months) and other DDs (n = 44, mean age = 48.1 months) participated in a protocol measuring sensory response patterns; social-communicative symptoms of autism; and language, social, and communication skills. Hyporesponsiveness was positively associated with social-communicative symptom severity, with no significant group difference in the association. Hyperresponsiveness was not significantly associated with social-communicative symptom severity. A group difference emerged for sensory seeking and social-communicative symptom severity, with a positive association for the AD group only. For the 2 groups of children combined, hyporesponsiveness was negatively associated with language skills and social adaptive skills. Sensory seeking also was negatively associated with language skills. These associations did not differ between the 2 groups. Aberrant sensory processing may play an important role in the pathogenesis of autism and other DDs as well as in the rate of acquisition of language, social, and communication skills.

  7. Vegetation responses to sagebrush-reduction treatments measured by satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Aaron; Beever, Erik; Merkle, Jerod A.; Chong, Geneva W.

    2018-01-01

    Time series of vegetative indices derived from satellite imagery constitute tools to measure ecological effects of natural and management-induced disturbances to ecosystems. Over the past century, sagebrush-reduction treatments have been applied widely throughout western North America to increase herbaceous vegetation for livestock and wildlife. We used indices from satellite imagery to 1) quantify effects of prescribed-fire, herbicide, and mechanical treatments on vegetative cover, productivity, and phenology, and 2) describe how vegetation changed over time following these treatments. We hypothesized that treatments would increase herbaceous cover and accordingly shift phenologies towards those typical of grass-dominated systems. We expected prescribed burns would lead to the greatest and most-prolonged effects on vegetative cover and phenology, followed by herbicide and mechanical treatments. Treatments appeared to increase herbaceous cover and productivity, which coincided with signs of earlier senescence − signals expected of grass-dominated systems, relative to sagebrush-dominated systems. Spatial heterogeneity for most phenometrics was lower in treated areas relative to controls, which suggested treatment-induced homogenization of vegetative communities. Phenometrics that explain spring migrations of ungulates mostly were unaffected by sagebrush treatments. Fire had the strongest effect on vegetative cover, and yielded the least evidence for sagebrush recovery. Overall, treatment effects were small relative to those reported from field-based studies for reasons most likely related to sagebrush recovery, treatment specification, and untreated patches within mosaicked treatment applications. Treatment effects were also small relative to inter-annual variation in phenology and productivity that was explained by temperature, snowpack, and growing-season precipitation. Our results indicated that cumulative NDVI, late-season phenometrics, and spatial

  8. Measurement of acute response to draught in the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyon, N M; Wyon, D P

    1987-08-01

    In order to assess the sensitivity to draught of 7 different tests, 41 volunteer subjects were exposed experimentally: 18 to 1.0 m/s and 9 to 0.5 m/s in a climate chamber: 14 to an average of 0.67 m/s in an air-conditioned car. All exposures were at 21-22 degrees C. Exposures were for 30 min indoors, 45 min in the car. Break-up Time (BUT) of the pre-corneal film after a blink was observed before and after exposure in the laboratory. There was a significant decrease after exposure to 1.0 m/s (P less than 0.01) but not to 0.5 m/s. The variance of the observed BUT increased after exposure to 0.5 m/s (P less than 0.05). The Norn Lacrimal Dilution test showed increased tear flow after the climate-chamber exposures (P less than 0.05). Self-reported BUT(S) was always several times longer than BUT. There was a significant correlation between these measures (P less than 0.05) before exposure, but not after. BUT(S), like BUT, decreased after exposure to 1.0 m/s (P less than 0.01), but not after 0.05 m/s. However, the variance of BUT(S) did not increase significantly after 0.5 m/s; it decreased significantly after 1.0 m/s (P less than 0.01). A significantly improved mucus ferning pattern was observed after draught exposure (P less than 0.005), presumably due in part to increased lacrimal flow. There was no significant effect of draught on the albumin content of tear samples taken before and after exposure. Lissamine Green staining performed before and after exposure revealed no effect on micro-damage to the conjunctival epithelium.

  9. Response of a BGO detector to photon and neutron sources simulations and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vincke, H H; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Otto, T

    2002-01-01

    In this paper Monte Carlo simulations (FLUKA) and measurements of the response of a BGO detector are reported. %For the measurements different radioactive sources were used to irradiate the BGO crystal. For the measurements three low-energy photon emitters $\\left({}^{60}\\rm{Co},\\right.$ ${}^{54}\\rm{Mn},$ $\\left. {}^{137}\\rm{Cs}\\right)$ were used to irradiate the BGO from various distances and angles. The neutron response was measured with an Am--Be neutron source. Simulations of the experimental irradiations were carried out. Our study can also be considered as a benchmark for FLUKA in terms of its reliability to predict the detector response of a BGO scintillator.

  10. PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT (ACQUISITION) EFFECTS WITHIN SUBJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMSEL, A; MACKINNON, J R; RASHOTTE, M E; SURRIDGE, C T

    1964-03-01

    Acquisition performance of 22 rats in a straight alley runway was examined. The animals were subjected to partial reinforcement when the alley was black (B+/-) and continuous reinforcement when it was white (W+). The results indicated (a) higher terminal performance, for partial as against continuous reinforcement conditions, for starting-time and running-time measures, and (b) lower terminal performance under partial conditions for a goal-entry-time measure. These results confirm within subjects an effect previously demonstrated, in the runway, only in between-groups tests, where one group is run under partial reinforcement and a separate group is run under continuous reinforcement in the presence of the same external stimuli. Differences between the runway situation, employing a discrete-trial procedure and performance measures at three points in the response chain, and the Skinner box situation, used in its free-operant mode with a single performance measure, are discussed in relation to the present findings.

  11. Measuring the mental health care system responsiveness: results of an outpatient survey in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh eForouzan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAs explained by the World Health Organisation (WHO in 2000, the concept of health system responsiveness is one of the core goals of health systems. Since 2000, further efforts have been made to measure health system responsiveness and the factors affecting responsiveness, yet few studies have applied responsiveness concepts to the evaluation of mental health systems. The present study aims to measure responsiveness and its related domains in the mental health care system of Tehran. Utilising the same method used by the WHO for its responsiveness survey, responsiveness for outpatient mental health care was evaluated using a validated Farsi questionnaire. A sample of 500 public mental health service users in Tehran participated and subsequently completed the questionnaire. On average, 47% of participants reported experiencing poor responsiveness. Among responsiveness domains, confidentiality and dignity were the best performing factors while autonomy, access to care and quality of basic amenities were the worst performing. Respondents who reported their social status as low were more likely to experience poor responsiveness overall. Autonomy, quality of basic amenities and clear communication were responsiveness dimensions that performed poorly but were considered to be important by study participants. In summary, the study suggests that measuring responsiveness could provide guidance for further development of mental health care systems to become more patient orientated and provide patients with more respect.

  12. Data acquisition in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, B.

    1993-01-01

    An introduction to the methodics of the measurement data acquisition in nuclear and particle physics for students of physics as well as experimental physicists and engineers in research and industry. The contents are: Obtaining of measurement data, digitizing and triggers, memories and microprocessors, bus systems, communication and networks, and examples for data acquisition systems

  13. 75 FR 14057 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-40; Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... the Civilian Agency Acquisition Council and the Defense Acquisition Regulations Council (Councils) in..., consider all the information in FAPIIS and PPIRS when making a responsibility determination, and notify the... appropriate for the official's consideration; and Enter a non-responsibility determination into FAPIIS. The...

  14. Speed in Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The advantage of speed is often invoked by academics and practitioners as an essential condition during post-acquisition integration, frequently without consideration of the impact earlier decisions have on acquisition speed. In this article, we examine the role speed plays in acquisitions across...... the acquisition process using research organized around characteristics that display complexity with respect to acquisition speed. We incorporate existing research with a process perspective of acquisitions in order to present trade-offs, and consider the influence of both stakeholders and the pre......-deal-completion context on acquisition speed, as well as the organization’s capabilities to facilitating that speed. Observed trade-offs suggest both that acquisition speed often requires longer planning time before an acquisition and that associated decisions require managerial judgement. A framework for improving...

  15. Responsibility as a dimension of HIV prevention normative beliefs: measurement in three drug-using samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M W; Timpson, S C; Williams, M L; Amos, C; McCurdy, S; Bowen, A M; Kilonzo, G P

    2007-03-01

    The concept of responsibility was derived originally from principles of morality, as part of a network of rights, duties and obligations. HIV risk-related studies have suggested that a sense of responsibility for condom use to protect a partner is a potentially important predictor of condom use in drug-using populations. We created a four-item scale measuring Self responsibility to use condoms and Partner's responsibility to use condoms. Data were collected from three drug-using samples: crack smokers, HIV seropositive crack smokers in an intervention study in Houston, Texas, and Tanzanian heroin users in Dar es Salaam. Data indicated that the four responsibility items had high alpha coefficients in each sample, and that there were moderate to high intercorrelations between equivalent self and partner responsibility items. There were significant differences in scale scores between the crack smokers and the HIV positive crack smokers and the Tanzanian samples, but no significant differences between the HIV positive and Tanzanian samples. Comparing within the first crack-smoker sample those who were HIV positive and negative showed significant differences in the direction of higher beliefs in responsibility to use condoms in the HIV positive group. These data suggest that responsibility is measurable, holds similar psychometric properties across three samples differing in culture and HIV serostatus, and that condom use responsibility is conceptualized as a measure of general responsibility rather than as a reciprocal self/partner responsibility.

  16. In-situ measurement of response time of RTDs and pressure transmitters in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Riner, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Response time measurements are performed once every fuel cycle on most safety-related temperature and pressure sensors in a majority of nuclear power plants in the US. This paper provides a review of the methods that are used for these measurements. The methods are referred to as the Loop Current Step Response (LCSR) test, which is used for response time testing of temperature sensors, and noise analysis and power interrupt (PI) tests, which are used for response time testing of pressure, level, and flow transmitters

  17. Bayesian modeling of measurement error in predictor variables using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on handling measurement error in predictor variables using item response theory (IRT). Measurement error is of great important in assessment of theoretical constructs, such as intelligence or the school climate. Measurement error is modeled by treating the predictors as unobserved

  18. On the effects of nonlinearities in room impulse response measurements with exponential sweeps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Markovic, Milos; Mijic, Miomir

    2013-01-01

    In room impulse response measurements, there are some common disturbances that affect the measured results. These disturbances include nonlinearity, noise and time variance. In this paper, the effects of nonlinearities in the measurements with exponential sweep-sine signals are analyzed from diff...

  19. Response distortion in personality measurement: born to deceive, yet capable of providing valid self-assessments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEPHAN DILCHERT

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This introductory article to the special issue of Psychology Science devoted to the subject of “Considering Response Distortion in Personality Measurement for Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology Research and Practice” presents an overview of the issues of response distortion in personality measurement. It also provides a summary of the other articles published as part of this special issue addressing social desirability, impression management, self-presentation, response distortion, and faking in personality measurement in industrial, work, and organizational settings.

  20. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  1. Further optimization studies of experimental dynamic responses measured on the HTGC Dragon reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1968-04-01

    This report considers some measurements made of the dynamics of the HTGC Dragon reactor and the optimization of a mathematical model which represents the reactor, by altering the parameters until a least squares fit between the experimental responses and the mathematical model is obtained. The experimental information was processed in various ways. The experimental response to an impulse, step or periodic sine wave change in reactivity was processed as an impulse, step or periodic sine wave response respectively and compared with a similar response from the model. In other studies the result of a binary cross correlation experiment (effectively an impulse response input) was processed as a frequency response and this experimental frequency response was compared with the frequency response from the mathematical model. It was possible therefore to compare the optimum values of parameters, obtained for different forms of perturbing signal and for different methods of processing and to relate the optima obtained to the problem of parameter estimation. (author)

  2. Calibration-free absolute frequency response measurement of directly modulated lasers based on additional modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shangjian; Zou, Xinhai; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Rongguo; Liu, Yong

    2015-10-15

    A calibration-free electrical method is proposed for measuring the absolute frequency response of directly modulated semiconductor lasers based on additional modulation. The method achieves the electrical domain measurement of the modulation index of directly modulated lasers without the need for correcting the responsivity fluctuation in the photodetection. Moreover, it doubles measuring frequency range by setting a specific frequency relationship between the direct and additional modulation. Both the absolute and relative frequency response of semiconductor lasers are experimentally measured from the electrical spectrum of the twice-modulated optical signal, and the measured results are compared to those obtained with conventional methods to check the consistency. The proposed method provides calibration-free and accurate measurement for high-speed semiconductor lasers with high-resolution electrical spectrum analysis.

  3. Electroantennogram measurement of the olfactory response of Daphnia spp. and its impairment by waterborne copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbeya, Christy K; Csuzdi, Catherine E; Dew, William A; Pyle, Greg G

    2012-08-01

    In this study an electroantennogram (EAG) method was developed for use on live daphniids. The EAG response of Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex to a variety of amino acids was measured. The strongest response measured was elicited by L-arginine and was shown to induce a concentration-dependent response indicating the response is olfactory in nature. Subsequent exposures of D. magna to a low, ecologically-relevant concentration of copper (7.5 μg/L) showed a disruption in EAG function. This study utilizes the development of an EAG method for measuring olfactory acuity of live daphniids and demonstrates that at ecologically-relevant concentrations, the olfactory dysfunction caused by copper can be detected. The EAG technique is a useful tool for investigating the olfactory response of daphniids to odourants at the cellular level and detecting the effects of toxicants on the olfactory acuity of daphniids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Temporal response methods for dynamic measurement of in-process inventory of dissolved nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziri, S.M.; Seefeldt, W.B.

    1977-08-01

    This analysis has demonstrated that a plant's temporal response to perturbation of feed isotope composition can be used to measure the in-process inventory, without suspending plant operations. The main advantages of the temporal response technique over the step-displacement method are (1) it (the temporal response method) obviates the need for large special feed batches, and (2) it obviates the requirement that all the in-process material have a uniform isotopic composition at the beginning of the measurement. The temporal response method holds promise for essentially continuous real-time determination of in-process SNM. However, the temporal response method requires the measurement of the isotopic composition of many samples, and it works best for a stationary random input time series of tracer perturbations. Both of these requirements appear amenable to satisfaction by practical equipment and procedures if the benefits are deemed sufficiently worthwhile

  5. Developing a reduced consumer-led lexicon to measure emotional response to beer

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya, Carolina; Eaton, Curtis; Hewson, Louise; Fernández Vázquezc, Rocío; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Smart, Katherine A.; Hort, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous researchers have recently recommended and utilised consumer-led lexicons to measure emotional response. This study further advances this approach by 1) making the lexicon generation process more efficient by using consumer focus groups as opposed to individual consumer interviews and 2) decreasing the number of responses required from each consumer by reducing the lexicon to categories of similar terms. In response to 10 lager samples which were manipulated in order to control select...

  6. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  7. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  8. Playing at Serial Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); T. Moraitis (Thras)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral biases can result in suboptimal acquisition decisions-with the potential for errors exacerbated in consolidating industries, where consolidators design serial acquisition strategies and fight escalating takeover battles for platform companies that may determine their future

  9. Use of electrochemical sensors for measurement of air pollution: correcting interference response and validating measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Eben S.; Williams, Leah R.; Lewis, David K.; Magoon, Gregory R.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Kaminsky, Michael L.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Jayne, John T.

    2017-09-01

    The environments in which we live, work, and play are subject to enormous variability in air pollutant concentrations. To adequately characterize air quality (AQ), measurements must be fast (real time), scalable, and reliable (with known accuracy, precision, and stability over time). Lower-cost air-quality-sensor technologies offer new opportunities for fast and distributed measurements, but a persistent characterization gap remains when it comes to evaluating sensor performance under realistic environmental sampling conditions. This limits our ability to inform the public about pollution sources and inspire policy makers to address environmental justice issues related to air quality. In this paper, initial results obtained with a recently developed lower-cost air-quality-sensor system are reported. In this project, data were acquired with the ARISense integrated sensor package over a 4.5-month time interval during which the sensor system was co-located with a state-operated (Massachusetts, USA) air quality monitoring station equipped with reference instrumentation measuring the same pollutant species. This paper focuses on validating electrochemical (EC) sensor measurements of CO, NO, NO2, and O3 at an urban neighborhood site with pollutant concentration ranges (parts per billion by volume, ppb; 5 min averages, ±1σ): [CO] = 231 ± 116 ppb (spanning 84-1706 ppb), [NO] = 6.1 ± 11.5 ppb (spanning 0-209 ppb), [NO2] = 11.7 ± 8.3 ppb (spanning 0-71 ppb), and [O3] = 23.2 ± 12.5 ppb (spanning 0-99 ppb). Through the use of high-dimensional model representation (HDMR), we show that interference effects derived from the variable ambient gas concentration mix and changing environmental conditions over three seasons (sensor flow-cell temperature = 23.4 ± 8.5 °C, spanning 4.1 to 45.2 °C; and relative humidity = 50.1 ± 15.3 %, spanning 9.8-79.9 %) can be effectively modeled for the Alphasense CO-B4, NO-B4, NO2-B43F, and Ox-B421 sensors, yielding (5 min average) root

  10. Does response distortion statistically affect the relations between self-report psychopathy measures and external criteria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, A.L.; Lilienfeld, S.O.; Edens, J.F.; Douglas, K.S.; Skeem, J.L.; Verschuere, B.; LoPilato, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Given that psychopathy is associated with narcissism, lack of insight, and pathological lying, the assumption that the validity of self-report psychopathy measures is compromised by response distortion has been widespread. We examined the statistical effects (moderation, suppression) of response

  11. Initial Description of a Quantitative, Cross-Species (Chimpanzee-Human) Social Responsiveness Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrus, Natasha; Faughn, Carley; Shuman, Jeremy; Petersen, Steve E.; Constantino, John N.; Povinelli, Daniel J.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Comparative studies of social responsiveness, an ability that is impaired in autism spectrum disorders, can inform our understanding of both autism and the cognitive architecture of social behavior. Because there is no existing quantitative measure of social responsiveness in chimpanzees, we generated a quantitative, cross-species…

  12. Pilot-model measurements of pilot responses in a lateral-directional control task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Pilot response during an aircraft bank-angle compensatory control task was measured by using an adaptive modeling technique. In the main control loop, which is the bank angle to aileron command loop, the pilot response was the same as that measured previously in single-input, single-output systems. The pilot used a rudder to aileron control coordination that canceled up to 80 percent of the vehicle yawing moment due to aileron deflection.

  13. Controlling response dependence in the measurement of change using the Rasch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, David

    2017-01-01

    The advantages of using person location estimates from the Rasch model over raw scores for the measurement of change using a common test include the linearization of scores and the automatic handling of statistical properties of repeated measurements. However, the application of the model requires that the responses to the items are statistically independent in the sense that the specific responses to the items on the first time of testing do not affect the responses at a second time. This requirement implies that the responses to the items at both times of assessment are governed only by the invariant location parameters of the items at the two times of testing and the location parameters of each person each time. A specific form of dependence that is pertinent when the same items are used is when the observed response to an item at the second time of testing is affected by the response to the same item at the first time, a form of dependence which has been referred to as response dependence. This paper presents the logic of applying the Rasch model to quantify, control and remove the effect of response dependence in the measurement of change when the same items are used on two occasions. The logic is illustrated with four sets of simulation studies with dichotomous items and with a small example of real data. It is shown that the presence of response dependence can reduce the evidence of change, a reduction which may impact interpretations at the individual, research, and policy levels.

  14. Technical Note: Response measurement for select radiation detectors in magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, M., E-mail: michaelreynolds@ualberta.net [Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Fallone, B. G. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Departments of Oncology and Physics, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Rathee, S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division,University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dose response to applied magnetic fields for ion chambers and solid state detectors has been investigated previously for the anticipated use in linear accelerator–magnetic resonance devices. In this investigation, the authors present the measured response of selected radiation detectors when the magnetic field is applied in the same direction as the radiation beam, i.e., a longitudinal magnetic field, to verify previous simulation only data. Methods: The dose response of a PR06C ion chamber, PTW60003 diamond detector, and IBA PFD diode detector is measured in a longitudinal magnetic field. The detectors are irradiated with buildup caps and their long axes either parallel or perpendicular to the incident photon beam. In each case, the magnetic field dose response is reported as the ratio of detector signals with to that without an applied longitudinal magnetic field. The magnetic field dose response for each unique orientation as a function of magnetic field strength was then compared to the previous simulation only studies. Results: The measured dose response of each detector in longitudinal magnetic fields shows no discernable response up to near 0.21 T. This result was expected and matches the previously published simulation only results, showing no appreciable dose response with magnetic field. Conclusions: Low field longitudinal magnetic fields have been shown to have little or no effect on the dose response of the detectors investigated and further lend credibility to previous simulation only studies.

  15. Mergers and Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Frasch, Manfred; Leptin, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are booming a strategy of choice for organizations attempting to maintain a competitive advantage. Previous research on mergers and acquisitions declares that acquirers do not normally benefit from acquisitions. Targets, on the other hand, have a tendency of gaining positive returns in the few days surrounding merger announcements due to several characteristic on the acquisitions deal. The announcement period wealth effect on acquiring firms, however, is as cle...

  16. A compact fast data acquisition and data analysis system for time of flight mass spectrometry. Time and S.I. intensity measurements with a new multistop TDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della-Negra, S.; Le Beyec, Y.

    1987-01-01

    A data acquisition and processing system for time of flight mass spectrometry, based on a PC-AT computer with an additional memory card was developed, and analysis software was written. About 100,000 counts/sec can be analyzed and stored in the memory. In the coincidence mode, 1000 start events with 10 stop events (per sec) on one time digital converter allow 10 spectra to be recorded. Examples of printouts are shown

  17. Use of electrochemical sensors for measurement of air pollution: correcting interference response and validating measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Cross

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The environments in which we live, work, and play are subject to enormous variability in air pollutant concentrations. To adequately characterize air quality (AQ, measurements must be fast (real time, scalable, and reliable (with known accuracy, precision, and stability over time. Lower-cost air-quality-sensor technologies offer new opportunities for fast and distributed measurements, but a persistent characterization gap remains when it comes to evaluating sensor performance under realistic environmental sampling conditions. This limits our ability to inform the public about pollution sources and inspire policy makers to address environmental justice issues related to air quality. In this paper, initial results obtained with a recently developed lower-cost air-quality-sensor system are reported. In this project, data were acquired with the ARISense integrated sensor package over a 4.5-month time interval during which the sensor system was co-located with a state-operated (Massachusetts, USA air quality monitoring station equipped with reference instrumentation measuring the same pollutant species. This paper focuses on validating electrochemical (EC sensor measurements of CO, NO, NO2, and O3 at an urban neighborhood site with pollutant concentration ranges (parts per billion by volume, ppb; 5 min averages, ±1σ: [CO]  =  231 ± 116 ppb (spanning 84–1706 ppb, [NO]  =  6.1 ± 11.5 ppb (spanning 0–209 ppb, [NO2]  =  11.7 ± 8.3 ppb (spanning 0–71 ppb, and [O3]  =  23.2 ± 12.5 ppb (spanning 0–99 ppb. Through the use of high-dimensional model representation (HDMR, we show that interference effects derived from the variable ambient gas concentration mix and changing environmental conditions over three seasons (sensor flow-cell temperature  =  23.4 ± 8.5 °C, spanning 4.1 to 45.2 °C; and relative humidity  =  50.1 ± 15.3 %, spanning 9.8–79.9

  18. Essays on mergers and acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faelten, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    “Essays on Mergers and Acquisitions" tackles some of the most prominent business challenges related to M&A activity. The Introduction examines the reasons why deals fail through well-known case studies; Chapter 1 presents a new index measuring countries M&A maturity worldwide; Chapter 2 focus on the

  19. The failing measurement of attitudes: How semantic determinants of individual survey responses come to replace measures of attitude strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Jan Ketil; Larsen, Kai Rune; Martinsen, Øyvind Lund; Egeland, Thore

    2018-01-12

    The traditional understanding of data from Likert scales is that the quantifications involved result from measures of attitude strength. Applying a recently proposed semantic theory of survey response, we claim that survey responses tap two different sources: a mixture of attitudes plus the semantic structure of the survey. Exploring the degree to which individual responses are influenced by semantics, we hypothesized that in many cases, information about attitude strength is actually filtered out as noise in the commonly used correlation matrix. We developed a procedure to separate the semantic influence from attitude strength in individual response patterns, and compared these results to, respectively, the observed sample correlation matrices and the semantic similarity structures arising from text analysis algorithms. This was done with four datasets, comprising a total of 7,787 subjects and 27,461,502 observed item pair responses. As we argued, attitude strength seemed to account for much information about the individual respondents. However, this information did not seem to carry over into the observed sample correlation matrices, which instead converged around the semantic structures offered by the survey items. This is potentially disturbing for the traditional understanding of what survey data represent. We argue that this approach contributes to a better understanding of the cognitive processes involved in survey responses. In turn, this could help us make better use of the data that such methods provide.

  20. The meteorological data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouharrour, S.; Thomas, P.

    1975-07-01

    The 200 m meteorological tower of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center has been equipped with 45 instruments measuring the meteorological parameters near the ground level. Frequent inquiry of the instruments implies data acquisition with on-line data reduction. This task is fulfilled by some peripheral units controlled by a PDP-8/I. This report presents details of the hardware configuration and a short description of the software configuration of the meteorological data acquisition system. The report also serves as an instruction for maintenance and repair work to be carried out at the system. (orig.) [de

  1. [Prediction of the molecular response to pertubations from single cell measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacle, Françoise; Levine, Raphael D

    2014-12-01

    The response of protein signalization networks to perturbations is analysed from single cell measurements. This experimental approach allows characterizing the fluctuations in protein expression levels from cell to cell. The analysis is based on an information theoretic approach grounded in thermodynamics leading to a quantitative version of Le Chatelier principle which allows to predict the molecular response. Two systems are investigated: human macrophages subjected to lipopolysaccharide challenge, analogous to the immune response against Gram-negative bacteria and the response of the proteins involved in the mTOR signalizing network of GBM cancer cells to changes in partial oxygen pressure. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  2. Accommodation modulates the individual difference between objective and subjective measures of the final convergence step response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, S; Hoormann, J; Jaschinski, W

    2009-03-01

    Measuring vergence eye movements with dichoptic nonius lines (subjectively) usually leads to an overestimation of the vergence state after a step response: a subjective vergence overestimation (SVO). We tried to reduce this SVO by presenting a vergence stimulus that decoupled vergence and accommodation during the step response, i.e. reduced the degree of 'forced vergence'. In a mirror-stereoscope, we estimated convergence step responses with nonius lines presented at 1000 ms after a disparity step-stimulus and compared it to objective recordings (EyeLink II; n = 6). We presented a vertical line, a cross/rectangle stimulus and a difference-of-gaussians (DOG) pattern. For 180 min arc step stimuli, the subjective measures revealed a larger final vergence response than the objective measure; for the vertical line this SVO was 20 min arc, while it was significantly smaller for the DOG (12 min arc). For 60 min arc step-responses, no overestimation was observed. Additionally, we measured accommodation, which changed more for the DOG-pattern compared with the line-stimulus; this relative increase correlated with the corresponding relative change of SVO (r = 0.77). Both findings (i.e. no overestimation for small steps and a weaker one for the DOG-pattern) reflect lesser conflicting demand on accommodation and vergence under 'forced-vergence' viewing; consequently, sensory compensation is reduced and subjective and objective measures of vergence step responses tend to agree.

  3. Can state or response entropy be used as a measure of sleep depth?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, P

    2012-02-03

    SUMMARY: In this prospective observational study we examined the potential of the spectral entropy measures \\'state\\' and \\'response\\' entropy (Entropy monitor), as measures of sleep depth in 12 healthy adult subjects. Both median state and response entropy values varied significantly with sleep stage (p = 0.017 and p = 0.014 respectively; ANOVA). Median state or response entropy did not decrease significantly during the transition from awake to stage I sleep (p > 0.017). State entropy values decreased significantly between sleep stages I and II (p < 0.001). Both state and response entropy values were significantly less (40 and 45 arbitrary units respectively) in stage III (slow wave sleep) vs stage II sleep (p = 0.008). We conclude that state and response entropy values, when expressed as a function of time, may be a useful means of quantifying aspects of sleep.

  4. Response Burden in Official Business Surveys: Measurement and Reduction Practices of National Statistical Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavdaž Mojca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Response burden in business surveys has long been a concern for National Statistical Institutes (NSIs for three types of reasons: political reasons, because response burden is part of the total administrative burden governments impose on businesses; methodological reasons, because an excessive response burden may reduce data quality and increase data-collection costs; and strategic reasons, because it affects relations between the NSIs and the business community. This article investigates NSI practices concerning business response burden measurement and reduction actions based on a survey of 41 NSIs from 39 countries. Most NSIs monitor at least some burden aspects and have implemented some actions to reduce burden, but large differences exist between NSIs’ methodologies for burden measurement and actions taken to reduce burden. Future research should find ways to deal with methodological differences in burden conceptualization, operationalization, and measurement, and provide insights into the effectiveness and efficiency of burden-reduction actions.

  5. Temporal response methods for dynamic measurement of in-process inventory of dissolved nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivi, S.M.; Seefeldt, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    This analysis demonstrated that a plant's temporal response to perturbations of feed isotope composition can be used to measure the in-process inventory, without suspending plant operations. The main advantage of the temporal response technique over the step-displacement method are (1) it obviates the need for large special feed batches and (2) it obviates the requirement that all the in-process material have a uniform isotopic composition at the beginning of the measurement. The temporal response method holds promise for essentially continuous real-time determination of in-process SNM. The main disadvantage or problem with the temporal response method is that it requires the measurement of the isotopic composition of a great many samples to moderately high accuracy. This requirement appears amenable to solution by a modest effort in instrument development

  6. Investigating the Measurement Properties of the Social Responsiveness Scale in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Smith, Isabel M.; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Thompson, Ann; Bennett, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Social Responsiveness Scale in an accelerated longitudinal sample of 4-year-old preschool children with the complementary approaches of categorical confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Measurement models based on the literature and other hypothesized measurement…

  7. A measurement of the response to fast neutrons of several materials dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.T.; Kitching, S.J.; Lewis, T.A.; Playle, T.S.

    1986-07-01

    The response to fast neutrons was measured for three types of materials testing dosemeters: fast neutron dosimetry silicon diodes; beryllia, alumina and calcium fluoride TLDs; graphite walled ionisation chambers. The calibrations were made using a 3MW positive ion accelerator. The arrangement of the target, beam monitor and devices is described, and the measured fast neutron sensitivities are presented. (UK)

  8. Measuring Constructs in Family Science: How Can Item Response Theory Improve Precision and Validity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides family scientists with an understanding of contemporary measurement perspectives and the ways in which item response theory (IRT) can be used to develop measures with desired evidence of precision and validity for research uses. The article offers a nontechnical introduction to some key features of IRT, including its…

  9. Comparison of reliability and responsiveness of patient-reported clinical outcome measures in knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Valerie J; Piva, Sara R; Irrgang, James J; Crossley, Chad; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2012-08-01

    Secondary analysis, pretreatment-posttreatment observational study. To compare the reliability and responsiveness of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Knee Outcome Survey activities of daily living subscale (KOS-ADL), and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The WOMAC is the current standard in patient-reported measures of function in patients with knee OA. The KOS-ADL and LEFS were designed for potential use in patients with knee OA. If the KOS-ADL and LEFS are to be considered viable alternatives to the WOMAC for measuring patient-reported function in individuals with knee OA, they should have measurement properties comparable to the WOMAC. It would also be important to determine whether either of these instruments may be superior to the WOMAC in terms of reliability or responsiveness in this population. Data from 168 subjects with knee OA, who participated in a rehabilitation program, were used in the analyses. Reliability and responsiveness of each outcome measure were estimated at follow-ups of 2, 6, and 12 months. Reliability was estimated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) for subjects who were unchanged in status from baseline at each follow-up time, based on a global rating of change score. To examine responsiveness, the standard error of the measurement, minimal detectable change, minimal clinically important difference, and the Guyatt responsiveness index were calculated for each outcome measure at each follow-up time. All 3 outcome measures demonstrated reasonable reliability and responsiveness to change. Reliability and responsiveness tended to decrease somewhat with increasing follow-up time. There were no substantial differences between outcome measures for reliability or any of the 3 measures of responsiveness at any follow-up time. The results do not indicate that one outcome measure is more reliable or responsive than

  10. 48 CFR 227.7103-2 - Acquisition of technical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of technical... Rights in Technical Data 227.7103-2 Acquisition of technical data. (a) Contracting officers shall work... personnel are responsible for identifying the Government's minimum needs for technical data. Data needs must...

  11. A new solution of measuring thermal response of prestressed concrete bridge girders for structural health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Pengcheng; Borchani, Wassim; Hasni, Hassene; Lajnef, Nizar

    2017-01-01

    This study develops a novel buckling-based mechanism to measure the thermal response of prestressed concrete bridge girders under continuous temperature changes for structural health monitoring. The measuring device consists of a bilaterally constrained beam and a piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride transducer that is attached to the beam. Under thermally induced displacement, the slender beam is buckled. The post-buckling events are deployed to convert the low-rate and low-frequency excitations into localized high-rate motions and, therefore, the attached piezoelectric transducer is triggered to generate electrical signals. Attaching the measuring device to concrete bridge girders, the electrical signals are used to detect the thermal response of concrete bridges. Finite element simulations are conducted to obtain the displacement of prestressed concrete girders under thermal loads. Using the thermal-induced displacement as input, experiments are carried out on a 3D printed measuring device to investigate the buckling response and corresponding electrical signals. A theoretical model is developed based on the nonlinear Euler–Bernoulli beam theory and large deformation assumptions to predict the buckling mode transitions of the beam. Based on the presented theoretical model, the geometry properties of the measuring device can be designed such that its buckling response is effectively controlled. Consequently, the thermally induced displacement can be designed as limit states to detect excessive thermal loads on concrete bridge girders. The proposed solution sufficiently measures the thermal response of concrete bridges. (paper)

  12. Reliability and responsiveness of algometry for measuring pressure pain threshold in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish the intrarater reliability and responsiveness of a clinically available algometer in patients with knee osteoarthritis as well as to determine the minimum-detectable-change and standard error of measurement of testing to facilitate clinical interpretation of temporal changes. [Subjects] Seventy-three patients with knee osteoarthritis were included. [Methods] Pressure pain threshold measured by algometry was evaluated 3 times at 2-min intervals over 2 clinically relevant sites-mediolateral to the medial femoral tubercle (distal) and lateral to the medial malleolus (local)-on the same day. Intrarater reliability was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficients. The minimum-detectable-change and standard error of measurement were calculated. As a measure of responsiveness, the effect size was calculated for the results at baseline and after treatment. [Results] The intrarater reliability was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.93-0.97). The standard error of measurement and minimum-detectable-change were 0.70-0.66 and 1.62-1.53, respectively. The pressure pain threshold over the distal site was inadequately responsive in knee osteoarthritis, but the local site was responsive. The effect size was 0.70. [Conclusion] Algometry is reliable and responsive to assess measures of pressure pain threshold for evaluating pain patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  13. A new solution of measuring thermal response of prestressed concrete bridge girders for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Pengcheng; Borchani, Wassim; Hasni, Hassene; Lajnef, Nizar

    2017-08-01

    This study develops a novel buckling-based mechanism to measure the thermal response of prestressed concrete bridge girders under continuous temperature changes for structural health monitoring. The measuring device consists of a bilaterally constrained beam and a piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride transducer that is attached to the beam. Under thermally induced displacement, the slender beam is buckled. The post-buckling events are deployed to convert the low-rate and low-frequency excitations into localized high-rate motions and, therefore, the attached piezoelectric transducer is triggered to generate electrical signals. Attaching the measuring device to concrete bridge girders, the electrical signals are used to detect the thermal response of concrete bridges. Finite element simulations are conducted to obtain the displacement of prestressed concrete girders under thermal loads. Using the thermal-induced displacement as input, experiments are carried out on a 3D printed measuring device to investigate the buckling response and corresponding electrical signals. A theoretical model is developed based on the nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and large deformation assumptions to predict the buckling mode transitions of the beam. Based on the presented theoretical model, the geometry properties of the measuring device can be designed such that its buckling response is effectively controlled. Consequently, the thermally induced displacement can be designed as limit states to detect excessive thermal loads on concrete bridge girders. The proposed solution sufficiently measures the thermal response of concrete bridges.

  14. Absolute measurement of the responses of small lithium glass scintillators to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, A.W.

    1987-04-01

    The absolute scintillation efficiency and intrinsic resolution of lithium glass scintillators for electron excitation have been determined over a range of electron energies, lithium concentrations and lithium enrichments. Measurements of these response characteristics form part of a study on the possible use of such glasses for the determination of tritium breeding in fusion reactor blanket experiments. The measurements were undertaken to establish a basis for extracting the information relating to tritium production reactions from the background signals induced within the glass scintillators by the neutron/gamma fields of a fusion reactor blanket. Criteria for the selection of glasses most suitable for tritium breeding measurements are discussed in tems of their observed responses

  15. Limitations caused by distortion in room impulse response measurements by swept sine technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojic, Branko; Ciric, Dejan; Markovic, Milos

    2011-01-01

    The significance of a room impulse response implies the requirement that its measurement should have a high level of accuracy in certain applications. One of the common problems in a measurement process is nonlinearity leading to the distortion of a room impulse response. Limitations caused...... domain with or without memory. On the other hand, the distortion in measurements is achieved either by applying the nonlinearity model or by using higher excitation level and a loudspeaker with a highly nonlinear characteristic. The results show that the most of distortion energy is located in the non...

  16. Smart acquisition EELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sader, Kasim; Schaffer, Bernhard; Vaughan, Gareth; Brydson, Rik; Brown, Andy; Bleloch, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a novel acquisition methodology for the recording of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM): 'Smart Acquisition'. Smart Acquisition allows the independent control of probe scanning procedures and the simultaneous acquisition of analytical signals such as EELS. The original motivation for this work arose from the need to control the electron dose experienced by beam-sensitive specimens whilst maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio in the EEL signal for the extraction of useful analytical information (such as energy loss near edge spectral features) from relatively undamaged areas. We have developed a flexible acquisition framework which separates beam position data input, beam positioning, and EELS acquisition. In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on beam-sensitive thin films of amorphous aluminium trifluoride. Smart Acquisition has been used to expose lines to the electron beam, followed by analysis of the structures created by line-integrating EELS acquisitions, and the results are compared to those derived from a standard EELS linescan. High angle annular dark-field images show clear reductions in damage for the Smart Acquisition areas compared to the conventional linescan, and the Smart Acquisition low loss EEL spectra are more representative of the undamaged material than those derived using a conventional linescan. Atomically resolved EELS of all four elements of CaNdTiO show the high resolution capabilities of Smart Acquisition.

  17. Smart acquisition EELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sader, Kasim, E-mail: k.sader@leeds.ac.uk [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Schaffer, Bernhard [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Vaughan, Gareth [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brydson, Rik [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brown, Andy [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Bleloch, Andrew [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We have developed a novel acquisition methodology for the recording of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM): 'Smart Acquisition'. Smart Acquisition allows the independent control of probe scanning procedures and the simultaneous acquisition of analytical signals such as EELS. The original motivation for this work arose from the need to control the electron dose experienced by beam-sensitive specimens whilst maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio in the EEL signal for the extraction of useful analytical information (such as energy loss near edge spectral features) from relatively undamaged areas. We have developed a flexible acquisition framework which separates beam position data input, beam positioning, and EELS acquisition. In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on beam-sensitive thin films of amorphous aluminium trifluoride. Smart Acquisition has been used to expose lines to the electron beam, followed by analysis of the structures created by line-integrating EELS acquisitions, and the results are compared to those derived from a standard EELS linescan. High angle annular dark-field images show clear reductions in damage for the Smart Acquisition areas compared to the conventional linescan, and the Smart Acquisition low loss EEL spectra are more representative of the undamaged material than those derived using a conventional linescan. Atomically resolved EELS of all four elements of CaNdTiO show the high resolution capabilities of Smart Acquisition.

  18. Improving the psychometric properties of dot-probe attention measures using response-based computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Travis C; Britton, Jennifer C

    2018-09-01

    Abnormal threat-related attention in anxiety disorders is most commonly assessed and modified using the dot-probe paradigm; however, poor psychometric properties of reaction-time measures may contribute to inconsistencies across studies. Typically, standard attention measures are derived using average reaction-times obtained in experimentally-defined conditions. However, current approaches based on experimentally-defined conditions are limited. In this study, the psychometric properties of a novel response-based computation approach to analyze dot-probe data are compared to standard measures of attention. 148 adults (19.19 ± 1.42 years, 84 women) completed a standardized dot-probe task including threatening and neutral faces. We generated both standard and response-based measures of attention bias, attentional orientation, and attentional disengagement. We compared overall internal consistency, number of trials necessary to reach internal consistency, test-retest reliability (n = 72), and criterion validity obtained using each approach. Compared to standard attention measures, response-based measures demonstrated uniformly high levels of internal consistency with relatively few trials and varying improvements in test-retest reliability. Additionally, response-based measures demonstrated specific evidence of anxiety-related associations above and beyond both standard attention measures and other confounds. Future studies are necessary to validate this approach in clinical samples. Response-based attention measures demonstrate superior psychometric properties compared to standard attention measures, which may improve the detection of anxiety-related associations and treatment-related changes in clinical samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Instrumentation & Data Acquisition System (D AS) Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Markus Deon

    2015-01-01

    The primary job of an Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (DAS) Engineer is to properly measure physical phenomenon of hardware using appropriate instrumentation and DAS equipment designed to record data during a specified test of the hardware. A DAS system includes a CPU or processor, a data storage device such as a hard drive, a data communication bus such as Universal Serial Bus, software to control the DAS system processes like calibrations, recording of data and processing of data. It also includes signal conditioning amplifiers, and certain sensors for specified measurements. My internship responsibilities have included testing and adjusting Pacific Instruments Model 9355 signal conditioning amplifiers, writing and performing checkout procedures, writing and performing calibration procedures while learning the basics of instrumentation.

  20. Workload Capacity: A Response Time-Based Measure of Automation Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, Yusuke; McCarley, Jason S

    2016-05-01

    An experiment used the workload capacity measure C(t) to quantify the processing efficiency of human-automation teams and identify operators' automation usage strategies in a speeded decision task. Although response accuracy rates and related measures are often used to measure the influence of an automated decision aid on human performance, aids can also influence response speed. Mean response times (RTs), however, conflate the influence of the human operator and the automated aid on team performance and may mask changes in the operator's performance strategy under aided conditions. The present study used a measure of parallel processing efficiency, or workload capacity, derived from empirical RT distributions as a novel gauge of human-automation performance and automation dependence in a speeded task. Participants performed a speeded probabilistic decision task with and without the assistance of an automated aid. RT distributions were used to calculate two variants of a workload capacity measure, COR(t) and CAND(t). Capacity measures gave evidence that a diagnosis from the automated aid speeded human participants' responses, and that participants did not moderate their own decision times in anticipation of diagnoses from the aid. Workload capacity provides a sensitive and informative measure of human-automation performance and operators' automation dependence in speeded tasks. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  1. Combining Blink, Pupil, and Response Time Measures in a Concealed Knowledge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis eSeymour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The response time (RT based Concealed Knowledge Test (CKT has been shown to accurately detect participants’ knowledge of mock-crime related information. Tests based on ocular measures such as pupil size and blink rate have sometimes resulted in poor classification, or lacked detailed classification analyses. The present study examines the fitness of multiple pupil and blink related responses in the CKT paradigm. To maximize classification efficiency, participants’ concealed knowledge was assessed using both individual test measures and combinations of test measures. Results show that individual pupil-size, pupil-slope, and pre-response blink-rate measures produce efficient classifications. Combining pupil and blink measures yielded more accuracy classifications than individual ocular measures. Although RT-based tests proved efficient, combining RT with ocular measures had little incremental benefit. It is argued that covertly assessing ocular measures during RT-based tests may guard against effective countermeasure use in applied settings. A compound classification procedure was used to categorize individual participants and yielded high hit rates and low false-alarm rates without the need for adjustments between test paradigms or subject populations. We conclude that with appropriate test paradigms and classification analyses, ocular measures may prove as effective as other indices, though additional research is needed.

  2. Computed tomography: acquisition process, technology and current state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Javier Espitia Mendoza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography is a noninvasive scan technique widely applied in areas such as medicine, industry, and geology. This technique allows the three-dimensional reconstruction of the internal structure of an object which is lighted with an X-rays source. The reconstruction is formed with two-dimensional cross-sectional images of the object. Each cross-sectional is obtained from measurements of physical phenomena, such as attenuation, dispersion, and diffraction of X-rays, as result of their interaction with the object. In general, measurements acquisition is performed with methods based on any of these phenomena and according to various architectures classified in generations. Furthermore, in response to the need to simulate acquisition systems for CT, software dedicated to this task has been developed. The objective of this research is to determine the current state of CT techniques, for this, a review of methods, different architectures used for the acquisition and some of its applications is presented. Additionally, results of simulations are presented. The main contributions of this work are the detailed description of acquisition methods and the presentation of the possible trends of the technique.

  3. Responsiveness of measures of heartburn improvement in non-erosive reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghard, Ola; Halling, Katarina

    2007-01-01

    Background When measuring treatment effect on symptoms, the treatment success variable should be as responsive as possible. The aim of the study was to investigate the responsiveness of various treatment success variables in patients with symptoms of heartburn. Methods A total of 1640 patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) were treated with proton pump inhibitors for 4 weeks. Treatment success variables were based on a symptom questionnaire (Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale) and on investigator-assessed heartburn, measured at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. The rates of treatment success were compared with patients' perceived change in symptoms, assessed by the Overall Treatment Effect questionnaire. Results Generally, more stringent treatment success criteria (i.e., those demanding the better response) translated into more responsive treatment success variables. For example, the treatment success variable 'no heartburn' at 4 weeks was more responsive than the variable 'at most mild heartburn' at 4 weeks. Treatment success variables based on change from baseline to 4 weeks were, in general, less responsive than those based on the week 4 assessments only. Conclusion In patients with NERD, responsiveness varied among different treatment success definitions, with more demanding definitions (based on the 4-week assessment) giving better responsiveness. PMID:17562006

  4. Full Scale Measurements of the Hydro-Elastic Response of Large Container Ships for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    scale measurements from four container ships of 4,400 TEU, 8,600 TEU, 9,400 TEU and 14,000 TEU Primarily, strains measured near the deck amidships are used. Furthermore, measurements of motions and the encountered sea state are available for one of the ships. The smallest ship is in operation...... frequency with the waves. Together with the relatively high design speed and often pronounced bow flare this makes large container ship more sensitive to slamming and, consequently, the effects of wave-induced hull girder vibrations. From full scale strain measurements of individual, measured hull girder......The overall topic of this thesis is decision support for operation of ships and several aspects are covered herein. However, the main focus is on the wave-induced hydro-elastic response of large container ships and its implications on the structural response. The analyses are based mainly on full...

  5. EX6AFS: A data acquisition system for high-speed dispersive EXAFS measurements implemented using object-oriented programming techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, G.; Lee, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design and implementation of a computerized data-acquisition system for high-speed energy-dispersive EXAFS experiments on the X6A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The acquisition system drives the stepper motors used to move the components of the experimental setup and controls the readout of the EXAFS spectra. The system runs on a Macintosh IIfx computer and is written entirely in the object-oriented language C++. Large segments of the system are implemented by means of commercial class libraries, specifically the MacApp application framework from Apple, the Rogue Wave class library, and the Hierarchical Data Format datafile format library from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications. This reduces the amount of code that must be written and enhances reliability. The system makes use of several advanced features of C++: Multiple inheritance allows the code to be decomposed into independent software components and the use of exception handling allows the system to be much more reliable in the event of unexpected errors. Object-oriented techniques allow the program to be extended easily as new requirements develop. All sections of the program related to a particular concept are located in a small set of source files. The program will also be used as a prototype for future software development plans for the Basic Energy Science Synchrotron Radiation Center Collaborative Access Team beamlines being designed and built at the Advanced Photon Source

  6. Development of a theoretical model for measuring the perceived value of social responsibility of IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia; Lima, Ana Cecilia de Souza; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: rmutarelli@gmail.com, E-mail: aclima@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Social responsibility has been one of the great discussions in institutional management, and that is an important variable in the strategy and performance of the institutions. The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has worked for the development of environmental and social issues, converging mainly to the benefit of the population. The theory that guides the social responsibility practices is always difficult to measure for several reasons. One reason for this difficulty is that social responsibility involves a variety of issues that are converted in rights, obligations and expectations of different audiences that could be internal and external to the organization. In addition, the different understanding of the institutions about social and environmental issues is another source of complexity. Based on the study context including: the topic being researched, the chosen institute and the questions resulting from the research, the aim of this paper is to propose a theoretical model to describe and analyze the social responsibility of IPEN. The main contribution of this study is to develop a model that integrates the dimensions of social responsibility. These dimensions - also called constructs - are composed of indexes and indicators that were previously used in various contexts of empirical research, combined with the theoretical and conceptual review of social responsibility. The construction of the proposed theoretical model was based on the research of various methodologies and various indicators for measuring social responsibility. This model was statistically tested, analyzed, adjusted, and the end result is a consistent model to measure the perceived value of social responsibility of IPEN. This work could also be applied to other institutions. Moreover, it may be improved and become a tool that will serve as a thermometer to measure social and environmental issues, and will support decision making in various management processes. (author)

  7. Using Response Times to Measure Strategic Complexity and the Value of Thinking in Games

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, David; Prowse, Victoria L.

    2017-01-01

    Response times are a simple low-cost indicator of the process of reasoning in strategic games (Rubinstein, 2007; Rubinstein, 2016). We leverage the dynamic nature of response-time data from repeated strategic interactions to measure the strategic complexity of a situation by how long people think on average when they face that situation (where we define situations according to the characteristics of play in the previous round). We find that strategic complexity varies significantly across sit...

  8. Development of a theoretical model for measuring the perceived value of social responsibility of IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia; Lima, Ana Cecilia de Souza; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility has been one of the great discussions in institutional management, and that is an important variable in the strategy and performance of the institutions. The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has worked for the development of environmental and social issues, converging mainly to the benefit of the population. The theory that guides the social responsibility practices is always difficult to measure for several reasons. One reason for this difficulty is that social responsibility involves a variety of issues that are converted in rights, obligations and expectations of different audiences that could be internal and external to the organization. In addition, the different understanding of the institutions about social and environmental issues is another source of complexity. Based on the study context including: the topic being researched, the chosen institute and the questions resulting from the research, the aim of this paper is to propose a theoretical model to describe and analyze the social responsibility of IPEN. The main contribution of this study is to develop a model that integrates the dimensions of social responsibility. These dimensions - also called constructs - are composed of indexes and indicators that were previously used in various contexts of empirical research, combined with the theoretical and conceptual review of social responsibility. The construction of the proposed theoretical model was based on the research of various methodologies and various indicators for measuring social responsibility. This model was statistically tested, analyzed, adjusted, and the end result is a consistent model to measure the perceived value of social responsibility of IPEN. This work could also be applied to other institutions. Moreover, it may be improved and become a tool that will serve as a thermometer to measure social and environmental issues, and will support decision making in various management processes. (author)

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of the acoustic impulse-response of apples as a measure of fruit quality

    OpenAIRE

    Landahl, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The acoustic impulse-response technique is a means to evaluate apple quality. In this work the effect of physiological changes in the fruit on the physical measurements of fruit quality are examined. In the acoustic impulse-response technique the fruit is mechanically excited by an impact force and starts to vibrate at its own natural frequency. The resulting sound waves are then recorded and analysed. It is a fast method and yields a produce-averaged value: the stiffness factor. Experimen...

  10. Dissociations of spatial congruence effects across response measures: an examination of delta plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Roüast, Nora M

    2016-09-01

    Spatial congruence ("Simon") effects on reaction time (RT) and response force (RF) were studied in two experiments requiring speeded choice responses to the color of a stimulus located irrelevantly to the left or right of fixation. In Experiment 1 with unimanual responses, both RT and incorrect-hand RF were sensitive to spatial congruence, and both showed larger Simon effects following a congruent trial than following an incongruent one. RT and incorrect-hand RF were dissociated in distributional (i.e., delta plot) analyses, however. As in previous studies, the Simon effect on RT was largest for the fastest responses and diminished as RT increased (i.e., decreasing delta plot). In contrast, Simon effects on RF did not decrease for slower responses; if anything, they increased slightly. In Experiment 2 participants made bimanual responses, allowing measurement of the spatial congruence effect for each trial. Responses were both faster and more forceful with the spatially congruent hand than with the spatially incongruent one, but neither of these effects decreased for slower responses. Overall, the results demonstrate that at least some motor-level effects of irrelevant spatial location persist for slower responses.

  11. Measurement of the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarifakiogullari Serpil

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress, an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity, is one of the potential biochemical mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We aimed to investigate the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subjects. As a reciprocal measure, we also aimed to determine total peroxide level in the same plasma samples. Methods Twenty-two subjects with biopsy proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurements were done in all participants. The ratio percentage of total peroxide level to total antioxidant response was regarded as oxidative stress index. Results Total antioxidant response of subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was significantly lower than controls (p In subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis score was significantly correlated with total peroxide level, total antioxidant response and oxidative stress index (p 0.05. Conclusion Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with increased oxidant capacity, especially in the presence of liver fibrosis. The novel automated assay is a reliable and easily applicable method for total plasma antioxidant response measurement in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  12. Measurement of the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horoz, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun F; Sabuncu, Tevfik; Aslan, Mehmet; Sarifakiogullari, Serpil; Gunaydin, Necla; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-11-11

    Oxidative stress, an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity, is one of the potential biochemical mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We aimed to investigate the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subjects. As a reciprocal measure, we also aimed to determine total peroxide level in the same plasma samples. Twenty-two subjects with biopsy proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurements were done in all participants. The ratio percentage of total peroxide level to total antioxidant response was regarded as oxidative stress index. Total antioxidant response of subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was significantly lower than controls (p total peroxide level and mean oxidative stress index were higher (all p total peroxide level, total antioxidant response and oxidative stress index (p 0.05). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with increased oxidant capacity, especially in the presence of liver fibrosis. The novel automated assay is a reliable and easily applicable method for total plasma antioxidant response measurement in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  13. A new method for measuring the response time of the high pressure ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhentao; Shen, Yixiong; An, Jigang

    2012-01-01

    Time response is an important performance characteristic for gas-pressurized ionization chambers. To study the time response, it is especially crucial to measure the ion drift time in high pressure ionization chambers. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to study the ion drift time in high pressure ionization chambers. It is carried out with a short-pulsed X-ray source and a high-speed digitizer. The ion drift time in the chamber is then determined from the digitized data. By measuring the ion drift time of a 15 atm xenon testing chamber, the method has been proven to be effective in the time response studies of ionization chambers. - Highlights: ► A method for measuring response time of high pressure ionization chamber is proposed. ► A pulsed X-ray producer and a digital oscilloscope are used in the method. ► The response time of a 15 atm Xenon testing ionization chamber has been measured. ► The method has been proved to be simple, feasible and effective.

  14. Estimations of On-site Directional Wave Spectra from Measured Ship Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2006-01-01

    include an quivalence of energy in the governing equations and, as regards the parametric concept, a frequency dependent spreading of the waves is introduced. The paper includes an extensive analysis of full-scale measurements for which the directional wave spectra are estimated by the two ship response......In general, two main concepts can be applied to estimate the on-site directional wave spectrum on the basis of ship response measurements: 1) a parametric method which assumes the wave spectrum to be composed by parameterised wave spectra, or 2) a non-parametric method where the directional wave...

  15. Measured Polarized Spectral Responsivity of JPSS J1 VIIRS Using the NIST T-SIRCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Jeff; Young, James B.; Moyer, David; Waluschka, Eugene; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-01-01

    Recent pre-launch measurements performed on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) J1 Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Traveling Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Responsivity Calibrations Using Uniform Sources (T-SIRCUS) monochromatic source have provided wavelength dependent polarization sensitivity for select spectral bands and viewing conditions. Measurements were made at a number of input linear polarization states (twelve in total) and initially at thirteen wavelengths across the bandpass (later expanded to seventeen for some cases). Using the source radiance information collected by an external monitor, a spectral responsivity function was constructed for each input linear polarization state. Additionally, an unpolarized spectral responsivity function was derived from these polarized measurements. An investigation of how the centroid, bandwidth, and detector responsivity vary with polarization state was weighted by two model input spectra to simulate both ground measurements as well as expected on-orbit conditions. These measurements will enhance our understanding of VIIRS polarization sensitivity, improve the design for future flight models, and provide valuable data to enhance product quality in the post-launch phase.

  16. Improving measurement of injection drug risk behavior using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulis, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Recent research highlights the multiple steps to preparing and injecting drugs and the resultant viral threats faced by drug users. This research suggests that more sensitive measurement of injection drug HIV risk behavior is required. In addition, growing evidence suggests there are gender differences in injection risk behavior. However, the potential for differential item functioning between genders has not been explored. To explore item response theory as an improved measurement modeling technique that provides empirically justified scaling of injection risk behavior and to examine for potential gender-based differential item functioning. Data is used from three studies in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. A two-parameter item response theory model was used to scale injection risk behavior and logistic regression was used to examine for differential item functioning. Item fit statistics suggest that item response theory can be used to scale injection risk behavior and these models can provide more sensitive estimates of risk behavior. Additionally, gender-based differential item functioning is present in the current data. Improved measurement of injection risk behavior using item response theory should be encouraged as these models provide increased congruence between construct measurement and the complexity of injection-related HIV risk. Suggestions are made to further improve injection risk behavior measurement. Furthermore, results suggest direct comparisons of composite scores between males and females may be misleading and future work should account for differential item functioning before comparing levels of injection risk behavior.

  17. Measuring corporate social responsibility using composite indices: Mission impossible? The case of the electricity utility industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Paredes-Gazquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is a multidimensional concept that is often measured using diverse indicators. Composite indices can aggregate these single indicators into one measurement. This article aims to identify the key challenges in constructing a composite index for measuring corporate social responsibility. The process is illustrated by the construction of a composite index for measuring social outcomes in the electricity utility industry. The sample consisted of seventy-four companies from twenty-three different countries, and one special administrative region operating in the industry in 2011. The findings show that (1 the unavailability of information about corporate social responsibility, (2 the particular characteristics of this information and (3 the weighting of indicators are the main obstacles when constructing the composite index. We highlight than an effective composite index should has a clear objective, a solid theoretical background and a robust structure. In a practical sense, it should be reconsidered how researchers use composite indexes to measure corporate social responsibility, as more transparency and stringency is needed when constructing these tools.

  18. A marine meteorological data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.; Vithayathil, G.

    A marine meteorological data acquisition system has been developed for long term unattended measurements at remote coastal sites, ocean surface platforms and for use on board research vessels. The system has an open and modular configuration...

  19. Application of Time Domain PARET to the measured responses of a building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lager, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the Time Domain PARET (TDP) algorithm to data obtained from the measured responses of a three story reinforced concrete building approximately 465 feet long by 220 feet wide by 40 feet high, with 12 to 18 inch thick walls, is described. The measurements were taken by Agbabian Associates, El Segundo, California. The structure was excited by a device developed at Agbabian that uses a mass sliding down a rod to cut metal disks attached to the rod. The result is a series of impulse forces driving the building at the attachment point of the rod. The responses measured were the accelerations at two locations on the structure. A constraint imposed was that the equipment in the building must remain operating during the time the measurements were made

  20. CSR’s Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility Practice in Islamic Banking: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alamer, Abdullah Rajeh Ali; Salamon, Hussin Bin; Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md.

    2015-01-01

    Academic efforts have started for around one decade to measure corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Islamic Banks (IBs) practices. The authors, in this field, have written based on two thoughts wide and narrow of the CSR in Islamic banking but there still are important gaps that need to fill. The first authors were dependent who established variety indexes and the second group was independent writers who followed benchmark index to measure of CSR in Islamic banking. This work tried to com...

  1. Reliability and responsiveness of algometry for measuring pressure pain threshold in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish the intrarater reliability and responsiveness of a clinically available algometer in patients with knee osteoarthritis as well as to determine the minimum-detectable-change and standard error of measurement of testing to facilitate clinical interpretation of temporal changes. [Subjects] Seventy-three patients with knee osteoarthritis were included. [Methods] Pressure pain threshold measured by algometry was evaluated 3 times at 2-min intervals over 2 cl...

  2. Out-of-Plane Electromechanical Response of Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide Measured by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Christopher J; Ghosh, Rudresh; Koul, Kalhan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Lu, Nanshu; Yu, Edward T

    2017-09-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have recently been theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed to exhibit electromechanical coupling. Specifically, monolayer and few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) have been measured to be piezoelectric within the plane of their atoms. This work demonstrates and quantifies a nonzero out-of-plane electromechanical response of monolayer MoS 2 and discusses its possible origins. A piezoresponse force microscope was used to measure the out-of-plane deformation of monolayer MoS 2 on Au/Si and Al 2 O 3 /Si substrates. Using a vectorial background subtraction technique, we estimate the effective out-of-plane piezoelectric coefficient, d 33 eff , for monolayer MoS 2 to be 1.03 ± 0.22 pm/V when measured on the Au/Si substrate and 1.35 ± 0.24 pm/V when measured on Al 2 O 3 /Si. This is on the same order as the in-plane coefficient d 11 reported for monolayer MoS 2 . Interpreting the out-of-plane response as a flexoelectric response, the effective flexoelectric coefficient, μ eff * , is estimated to be 0.10 nC/m. Analysis has ruled out the possibility of elastic and electrostatic forces contributing to the measured electromechanical response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy detected some contaminants on both MoS 2 and its substrate, but the background subtraction technique is expected to remove major contributions from the unwanted contaminants. These measurements provide evidence that monolayer MoS 2 exhibits an out-of-plane electromechanical response and our analysis offers estimates of the effective piezoelectric and flexoelectric coefficients.

  3. [Instrument to measure adherence in hypertensive patients: contribution of Item Response Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Malvina Thaís Pacheco; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhaes; Vasconcelos, Alexandre Meira de; Andrade, Dalton Francisco de; Silva, Daniele Braz da; Barbetta, Pedro Alberto

    2013-06-01

    To analyze, by means of "Item Response Theory", an instrument to measure adherence to t treatment for hypertension. Analytical study with 406 hypertensive patients with associated complications seen in primary care in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, 2011 using "Item Response Theory". The stages were: dimensionality test, calibrating the items, processing data and creating a scale, analyzed using the gradual response model. A study of the dimensionality of the instrument was conducted by analyzing the polychoric correlation matrix and factor analysis of complete information. Multilog software was used to calibrate items and estimate the scores. Items relating to drug therapy are the most directly related to adherence while those relating to drug-free therapy need to be reworked because they have less psychometric information and low discrimination. The independence of items, the small number of levels in the scale and low explained variance in the adjustment of the models show the main weaknesses of the instrument analyzed. The "Item Response Theory" proved to be a relevant analysis technique because it evaluated respondents for adherence to treatment for hypertension, the level of difficulty of the items and their ability to discriminate between individuals with different levels of adherence, which generates a greater amount of information. The instrument analyzed is limited in measuring adherence to hypertension treatment, by analyzing the "Item Response Theory" of the item, and needs adjustment. The proper formulation of the items is important in order to accurately measure the desired latent trait.

  4. Student Response to Faculty Instruction (SRFI): An Empirically Derived Instrument to Measure Student Evaluations of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitzel, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    The Student Response to Faculty Instruction (SRFI) is an instrument designed to measure the student perspective on courses in higher education. The SRFI was derived from decades of empirical studies of student evaluations of teaching. This article describes the development of the SRFI and its psychometric attributes demonstrated in two pilot study…

  5. Assessing Tuition and Student Aid Strategies: Using Price-Response Measures to Simulate Pricing Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.

    1994-01-01

    A study used price-response measures from recent national studies to assess college and university pricing (tuition and student aid) alternatives in diverse institutional settings. It is concluded that such analyses are feasible. Analysis indicated limits to "Robin Hood" pricing patterns are predominant in private colleges. Consideration…

  6. Measuring Integration of Information and Communication Technology in Education: An Item Response Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeraer, Jef; Van Petegem, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This research describes the development and validation of an instrument to measure integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education. After literature research on definitions of integration of ICT in education, a comparison is made between the classical test theory and the item response modeling approach for the…

  7. WS-020: EPR-First Responders: Cards of response measures for first responders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this working session is that the participants know how to use the cards of response measures for first responders. In a radiological emergency is useful to have cards which contains a list of the steps to be followed as well as the protection instructions and risk evaluation

  8. Responsiveness of the OARSI-OMERACT osteoarthritis pain and function measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, M; Davis, A; Lohmander, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    To assess the responsiveness of the Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP) measure, Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Physical Function Short Form (HOOS-PS), and the Knee Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Physical Function Short Form (KOOS-PS) in a pharmacol...

  9. Public Health Control Measures in Response to Global Pandemics and Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Polly J

    2015-01-01

    These teaching materials provide problem-based exercises exploring the specific powers of governments to implement control measures in response to communicable disease. Topics include global pandemic disease and, in the United States, legal issues in tuberculosis control. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  10. Measurements and simulations of the responses of the cluster Ge detectors to gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Kaoru Y.; Goko, Shinji; Harada, Hideo; Hirose, Kentaro; Kimura, Atsushi; Kin, Tadahiro; Kitatani, Fumito; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Shoji; Toh, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Responses of cluster Ge detectors have been measured with standard γ-ray sources and the 35 Cl(n,γ) 36 Cl reaction in ANNRI at J-PARC/MLF. Experimental results and simulations using the EGS5 code are compared. (author)

  11. The response of salmon populations to geomorphic measurements at three scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.D. Bryant; R.D. Woodsmith

    2009-01-01

    Protocols to assess stream channel response to disturbances often focus on physical aspects ofthe stream at the reach scale without measurements of fish populations. In this study, estimates of juvenile salmon abundance in 511 habitat units within 25 reaches of 12 streams were made over 4 years and juxtaposed with...

  12. Feasibility of measuring memory response to increasing dexmedetomidine sedation in children

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, K. P.; Kelhoffer, E. R.; Prescilla, R.; Mehta, M.; Root, J. C.; Young, V. J.; Robinson, F.; Veselis, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The memory effect of dexmedetomidine has not been prospectively evaluated in children. We evaluated the feasibility of measuring memory and sedation responses in children during dexmedetomidine sedation for non-painful radiological imaging studies. Secondarily, we quantified changes in memory in relation to the onset of sedation.

  13. Artifact Interpretation of Spectral Response Measurements on Two-Terminal Multijunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Si, F.T.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Multijunction solar cells promise higher power-conversion efficiency than the single-junction. With respect to two-terminal devices, an accurate measurement of the spectral response requires a delicate adjustment of the light- and voltage-biasing; otherwise it can result in artifacts in the data and

  14. The match/mismatch of visuo-spatial cues between acquisition and retrieval contexts influences the expression of response vs. place memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Raphaelle; Kelche, Christian; Lecourtier, Lucas; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2012-05-01

    Animals can perform goal-directed tasks by using response cues or place cues. The underlying memory systems are occasionally presented as competing. Using the double-H maze test (Pol-Bodetto et al.), we trained rats for response learning and, 24 h later, tested their memory in a 60-s probe trial using a new start place. A modest shift of the start place (translation: 60-cm to the left) provided a high misleading potential, whereas a marked shift (180° rotation; shift to the opposite) provided a low misleading potential. We analyzed each rat's first arm choice (to assess response vs. place memory retrieval) and its subsequent search for the former platform location (to assess the persistence in place memory or the shift from response to place memory). After the translation, response memory-based behavior was found in more than 90% rats (24/26). After the rotation, place memory-based behavior was observed in 50% rats, the others showing response memory or failing. Rats starting to use response cues were nevertheless able to subsequently shift to place ones. A posteriori behavioral analyses showed more and longer stops in rats starting their probe trial on the basis of place (vs. response) cues. These observations qualify the idea of competing memory systems for responses and places and are compatible with that of a cooperation between both systems according to principles of match/mismatch computation (at the start of a probe trial) and of error-driven adjustment (during the ongoing probe trial). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impulse response measurement in the HgCdTe avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand; Pal, Ravinder

    2018-04-01

    HgCdTe based mid-wave infrared focal plane arrays (MWIR FPAs) are being developed for high resolution imaging and range determination of distant camouflaged targets. Effect of bandgap grading on the response time in the n+/ν/p+ HgCdTe electron avalanche photodiode (e-APD) is evaluated using impulse response measurement. Gain normalized dark current density of 2 × 10-9 A/cm2 at low reverse bias for passive mode and 2 × 10-4 A/cm2 at -8 V for active mode is measured in the fabricated APD device, yielding high gain bandwidth product of 2.4 THZ at the maximum gain. Diffusion of carriers is minimized to achieve transit time limited impulse response by introducing composition grading in the HgCdTe epilayer. The noise equivalent photon performance less than one is achievable in the FPA that is suitable for active cum passive imaging applications.

  16. Measuring Consumer Reactions to Sponsoring Partnerships Based upon Emotional and Attitudinal Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis Christensen, Sverre

    2004-01-01

    Consumers' reactions from being exposed to sponsorships has primarily been measured and docu-mented applying cognitive information processing models to the phenomenon. In the paper it is argued that such effects are probably better modelled applying models of peripheral information processing...... in consumer reactions towards sponsored objects of different natures as well as towards potential sponsoring organisations. For instance, the charitable institutions measured in the study elicit larger negative emotional re-sponses than positive responses, corresponding to a negative Net Emotional Response...... to the net scores and to the full evaluations on the attitude and emotion batteries and it seems as if the latter approach will be richer in explanatory power for a potential sponsor....

  17. Measurement and simulation of neutron response function of organic liquid scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohil, M.; Banerjee, K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T.K.; Mukherjee, G.; Meena, J.K.; Pandey, R.; Pai, H.; Ghosh, T.K.; Dey, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandit, D.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, S.R.; Bandhopadhyay, T.

    2012-01-01

    Response functions of monoenergetic neutrons at various energies, corresponding to a measured neutron energy spectrum have been extracted. The experimental response functions for neutron energies in the range of ∼2-20 MeV have been compared with the respective GEANT4 predictions. It has been found that, there is some discrepancy between the experimental and the GEANT4 simulated neutron response functions at lower pulse height regions, which increases with the increase of neutron energy. This might be due to the incompleteness of the physics processes used in the present GEANT4 simulations. In particular, higher order reaction processes which become more significant at higher energies should be properly taken into account in the calculation of response function.

  18. Measurement of detector neutron energy response using time-of-flight techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janee, H.S.

    1973-09-01

    The feasibility of using time-of-flight techniques at the EG and G/AEC linear accelerator for measuring the neutron response of relatively sensitive detectors over the energy range 0.5 to 14 MeV has been demonstrated. The measurement technique is described in detail as are the results of neutron spectrum measurements from beryllium and uranium photoneutron targets. The sensitivity of a fluor photomultiplier LASL detector with a 2- by 1-inch NE-111 scintillator was determined with the two targets, and agreement in the region of overlap was very good. (U.S.)

  19. Comparing the responsiveness of functional outcome assessment measures for trauma registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Owen D; Gabbe, Belinda J; Sutherland, Ann M; Wolfe, Rory; Forbes, Andrew B; Cameron, Peter A

    2011-07-01

    Measuring long-term disability and functional outcomes after major trauma is not standardized across trauma registries. An ideal measure would be responsive to change but not have significant ceiling effects. The aim of this study was to compare the responsiveness of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), GOS-Extended (GOSE), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and modified FIM in major trauma patients, with and without significant head injuries. Patients admitted to two adult Level I trauma centers in Victoria, Australia, who survived to discharge from hospital, were aged 15 years to 80 years with a blunt mechanism of injury, and had an estimated Injury Severity Score >15 on admission, were recruited for this prospective study. The instruments were administered at baseline (hospital discharge) and by telephone interview 6 months after injury. Measures of responsiveness, including effect sizes, were calculated. Bootstrapping techniques, and floor and ceiling effects, were used to compare the measures. Two hundred forty-three patients participated, of which 234 patients (96%) completed the study. The GOSE and GOS were the most responsive instruments in this major trauma population with effect sizes of 5.3 and 4.4, respectively. The GOSE had the lowest ceiling effect (17%). The GOSE was the instrument with greatest responsiveness and the lowest ceiling effect in a major trauma population with and without significant head injuries and is recommended for use by trauma registries for monitoring functional outcomes and benchmarking care. The results of this study do not support the use of the modified FIM for this purpose.

  20. A signal detection-item response theory model for evaluating neuropsychological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L; Brown, Gregory G; Gur, Ruben C; Moore, Tyler M; Patt, Virginie M; Risbrough, Victoria B; Baker, Dewleen G

    2018-02-05

    Models from signal detection theory are commonly used to score neuropsychological test data, especially tests of recognition memory. Here we show that certain item response theory models can be formulated as signal detection theory models, thus linking two complementary but distinct methodologies. We then use the approach to evaluate the validity (construct representation) of commonly used research measures, demonstrate the impact of conditional error on neuropsychological outcomes, and evaluate measurement bias. Signal detection-item response theory (SD-IRT) models were fitted to recognition memory data for words, faces, and objects. The sample consisted of U.S. Infantry Marines and Navy Corpsmen participating in the Marine Resiliency Study. Data comprised item responses to the Penn Face Memory Test (PFMT; N = 1,338), Penn Word Memory Test (PWMT; N = 1,331), and Visual Object Learning Test (VOLT; N = 1,249), and self-report of past head injury with loss of consciousness. SD-IRT models adequately fitted recognition memory item data across all modalities. Error varied systematically with ability estimates, and distributions of residuals from the regression of memory discrimination onto self-report of past head injury were positively skewed towards regions of larger measurement error. Analyses of differential item functioning revealed little evidence of systematic bias by level of education. SD-IRT models benefit from the measurement rigor of item response theory-which permits the modeling of item difficulty and examinee ability-and from signal detection theory-which provides an interpretive framework encompassing the experimentally validated constructs of memory discrimination and response bias. We used this approach to validate the construct representation of commonly used research measures and to demonstrate how nonoptimized item parameters can lead to erroneous conclusions when interpreting neuropsychological test data. Future work might include the

  1. Acquisition Research Program Homepage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Includes an image of the main page on this date and compressed file containing additional web pages. Established in 2003, Naval Postgraduate School’s (NPS) Acquisition Research Program provides leadership in innovation, creative problem solving and an ongoing dialogue, contributing to the evolution of Department of Defense acquisition strategies.

  2. Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility in Gambling Industry: Multi-Items Stakeholder Based Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ming Luo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Macau gambling companies included Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR information in their annual reports and websites as a marketing tool. Responsible Gambling (RG had been a recurring issue in Macau’s chief executive report since 2007 and in many of the major gambling operators’ annual report. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement scale on CSR activities in Macau. Items on the measurement scale were based on qualitative research with data collected from employees in Macau’s gambling industry and academic literature. First and Second Order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were used to verify the reliability and validity of the measurement scale. The results of this study were satisfactory and were supported by empirical evidence. This study provided recommendations to gambling stakeholders, including practitioners, government officers, customers and shareholders, and implications to promote CSR practice in Macau gambling industry.

  3. Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette

    Introduction to the study of mergers and acquisitions. This book provides an understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, how and why they occur, and also the broader implications for organizations. It presents issues including motives and planning, partner selection, integration......, employee experiences and communication. Mergers and acquisitions remain one of the most common forms of growth, yet they present considerable challenges for the companies and management involved. The effects on stakeholders, including shareholders, managers and employees, must be considered as well...... by editorial commentaries and reflects the important organizational and behavioural aspects which have often been ignored in the past. By providing this in-depth understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, the reader understands not only how and why mergers and acquisitions occur, but also...

  4. Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirstea, C.D.; Buda, S.I.; Constantin, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with a multi parametric acquisition system developed for a four input Analog to Digital Converter working in CAMAC Standard. The acquisition software is built in MS Visual C++ on a standard PC with a USB interface. It has a visual interface which permits Start/Stop of the acquisition, setting the type of acquisition (True/Live time), the time and various menus for primary data acquisition. The spectrum is dynamically visualized with a moving cursor indicating the content and position. The microcontroller PIC16C765 is used for data transfer from ADC to PC; The microcontroller and the software create an embedded system which emulates the CAMAC protocol programming the 4 input ADC for operating modes ('zero suppression', 'addressed' and 'sequential') and handling the data transfers from ADC to its internal memory. From its memory the data is transferred into the PC by the USB interface. The work is in progress. (authors)

  5. Data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirstea, D.C.; Buda, S.I.; Constantin, F.

    2005-01-01

    The topic of this paper deals with a multi parametric acquisition system developed around a four input Analog to Digital Converter working in CAMAC Standard. The acquisition software is built in MS Visual C++ on a standard PC with a USB interface. It has a visual interface which permits Start/Stop of the acquisition, setting the type of acquisition (True/Live time), the time and various menus for primary data acquisition. The spectrum is dynamically visualized with a moving cursor indicating the content and position. The microcontroller PIC16C765 is used for data transfer from ADC to PC; The microcontroller and the software create an embedded system which emulates the CAMAC protocol programming, the 4 input ADC for operating modes ('zero suppression', 'addressed' and 'sequential') and handling the data transfers from ADC to its internal memory. From its memory the data is transferred into the PC by the USB interface. The work is in progress. (authors)

  6. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    A small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology. (author) 10 refs

  7. Quantifying Human Response: Linking metrological and psychometric characterisations of Man as a Measurement Instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendrill, L R; Fisher, William P Jr

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of how to characterise human response is essential to improved person-centred care and other situations where human factors are crucial. Challenges to introducing classical metrological concepts such as measurement uncertainty and traceability when characterising Man as a Measurement Instrument include the failure of many statistical tools when applied to ordinal measurement scales and a lack of metrological references in, for instance, healthcare. The present work attempts to link metrological and psychometric (Rasch) characterisation of Man as a Measurement Instrument in a study of elementary tasks, such as counting dots, where one knows independently the expected value because the measurement object (collection of dots) is prepared in advance. The analysis is compared and contrasted with recent approaches to this problem by others, for instance using signal error fidelity

  8. Differential item functioning magnitude and impact measures from item response theory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Marjorie; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2016-01-01

    Measures of magnitude and impact of differential item functioning (DIF) at the item and scale level, respectively are presented and reviewed in this paper. Most measures are based on item response theory models. Magnitude refers to item level effect sizes, whereas impact refers to differences between groups at the scale score level. Reviewed are magnitude measures based on group differences in the expected item scores and impact measures based on differences in the expected scale scores. The similarities among these indices are demonstrated. Various software packages are described that provide magnitude and impact measures, and new software presented that computes all of the available statistics conveniently in one program with explanations of their relationships to one another.

  9. Can Emergency Physicians Perform Common Carotid Doppler Flow Measurements to Assess Volume Responsiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolz, Lori A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Common carotid flow measurements may be clinically useful to determine volume responsiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of emergency physicians (EP to obtain sonographic images and measurements of the common carotid artery velocity time integral (VTi for potential use in assessing volume responsiveness in the clinical setting. Methods: In this prospective observational study, we showed a five-minute instructional video demonstrating a technique to obtain common carotid ultrasound images and measure the common carotid VTi to emergency medicine (EM residents. Participants were then asked to image the common carotid artery and obtain VTi measurements. Expert sonographers observed participants imaging in real time and recorded their performance on nine performance measures. An expert sonographer graded image quality. Participants were timed and answered questions regarding ease of examination and their confidence in obtaining the images. Results: A total of 30 EM residents participated in this study and each performed the examination twice. Average time required to complete one examination was 2.9 minutes (95% CI [2.4-3.4 min]. Participants successfully completed all performance measures greater than 75% of the time, with the exception of obtaining measurements during systole, which was completed in 65% of examinations. Median resident overall confidence in accurately performing carotid VTi measurements was 3 (on a scale of 1 [not confident] to 5 [confident]. Conclusion: EM residents at our institution learned the technique for obtaining common carotid artery Doppler flow measurements after viewing a brief instructional video. When assessed at performing this examination, they completed several performance measures with greater than 75% success. No differences were found between novice and experienced groups. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:255–259.

  10. Ionizing radiation: effects upon acquisition and performance of behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Laercia Abreu

    1999-03-01

    The present study, using rats as subjects, attempted to assess the effects of multiple exposures to gamma radiation upon behavior in two procedures of a multiple schedule of repeated acquisition and performance. With an experimental chamber containing three levers displaced horizontally, left (l), center (c) and right (r), different levels of complexity were programmed for procedures A and B. In both procedures a new sequence of three responses was programmed for each session (lcr, lrc, clr, crl, rlc) for the acquisition component, whereas for the performance component the same sequence was maintained throughout the sessions. The completion of three sequences (nine responses) was followed by reinforcement and incorrect responses were followed by time-out without correction procedures. In procedure A the sequences consisted of one response in each lever (for example, crl→crl→crl→reinforcement) while in procedure B a sequence consisted of three response in the same lever, with the following three responses having to occur in a different lever (for example, ccc→rrr→lll→reinforcement). Six subjects were trained in each procedure. Base line data showed, by means of error percentage, that procedure B regardless of being more complex represented a lower difficulty level than procedure A: subjects in procedure B displayed, in general, a lower number of errors per session. After training in these procedures of repeated acquisition and performance, the subjects were exposed to doses of ionizing radiation of 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.0 Gy, with an interval of 45 days between exposures. With measurements of response rate and obtained reinforcers, the data showed a dose-response relation, with higher doses producing lower rates of responses and reinforcers. Percentage of errors was higher after doses of 6.0 and 8.0 Gy in the performance component, while changes in error patterns occurred in the acquisition component. The effects of radiation was more evident and orderly

  11. Measurement of AC losses in superconducting tapes by reproduction of thermometric dynamic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligneris, Benoit des; Aubin, Marcel; Cave, Julian

    2003-04-15

    We have developed a dynamic response thermometric method for the measurement of AC losses in high T{sub c} superconductors. This method is based on the comparison of a temperature response caused by a known dissipation in the sample with that produced by the AC losses. By passing a DC current and measuring the DC voltage and corresponding temperature response the sample can be used as its own power dissipation reference. The advantages of this method are the short measurement duration time and the possibility to vary many experimental conditions: for example, AC and DC transport currents and AC, DC and rotating applied magnetic fields. In this article we present the basic method using variable short pulses of constant DC current for calibration and similarly of constant amplitude AC current to create the losses. The losses are obtained by numerical modelling and comparison of the thermometric dynamic response in the two above conditions. Finally, we present some experimental results for a Bi2223 superconducting tape at 50 Hz and 77 K.

  12. Evaluation of response function of moderating-type neutron detector and application to environmental neutron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Nakamura, Takashi; Iwai, Satoshi; Katsuki, Shinji; Kamata, Masashi.

    1983-08-01

    The energy-dependent response function of a multi-cylinder moderating-type BF 3 counter, so-called Bonner counter, was calculated by the time-dependent multi-group Monte Carlo code, TMMCR. The calculated response function was evaluated experimentally for neutron energy below about 50 keV down to epithermal energy by the time-of-flight method combining with a large lead pile at the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo and also above 50 keV by using the monoenergetic neutron standard field a t the Electrotechnical Laboratory. The time delay in the polyethylene moderator of the Bonner counter due to multiple collisions with hydrogen was analyzed by the TMMCR code and used for the time-spectrum analysis of the time-of-flight measurement. The response function obtained by these two experiments showed good agreement with the calculated results. This Bonner counter having a response function evaluated from thermal to MeV energy range was used for spectrometry and dosimetry of environmental neutrons around some nuclear facilities. The neutron spectra and dose measured in the environment around a 252 Cf fission source, fast neutron source reactor and electron synchrotron were all in good agreement with the calculated results and the measured results with other neutron detectors. (author)

  13. The relationship between temporal variation of hypoxia, polarographic measurements and predictions of tumour response to radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma-Dasu, Iuliana; Dasu, Alexandru; Karlsson, Mikael

    2004-10-01

    The polarographic oxygen sensor is one of the most used devices for in vivo measurements of oxygen and many other measurement techniques for measuring tumour hypoxia are correlated with electrode measurements. Little is known however about the relationship between electrode measurements and the real tissue oxygenation. This paper investigates the influence of the temporal change of the hypoxic pattern on the electrode measurements and the tumour response. Electrode measurements and tumour response were simulated using a computer program that allows both the calculation of the tissue oxygenation with respect to the two types of hypoxia that might arise in tumours and the virtual insertion of the electrode into the tissue. It was therefore possible to control the amount of each type of hypoxia in order to investigate their influence on the measurement results. Tissues with several vascular architectures ranging from well oxygenated to poorly oxygenated were taken into consideration as might be seen in practice. The influence of the electrode measurements on the treatment outcome was estimated by calculating the tumour control probability for the tumours characterized either by the real or by the measured tumour oxygenation. We have simulated electrode oxygen measurements in different types of tissues, covering a wide range of tumour oxygenations. The results of the simulations showed that the measured distribution depends on the details of the vascular network and not on the type of hypoxia. We have also simulated the effects of the temporal change of the acute hypoxic pattern due to the opening and the closure of different blood vessels during a full fractionated treatment. The results of this simulation suggested that the temporal variation of the hypoxic pattern does not lead to significantly different results for the electrode measurements or the predicted tumour control probabilities. In conclusion, it was found that the averaging effect of the electrode leads

  14. Development of an integrated data acquisition and handling system based on digital time series analysis for the measurement of plasma fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghayspoor, R.; Roth, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The nonlinear characteristics of data obtained by many plasma diagnostic systems requires the power of modern computers for on-line data processing and reduction. The objective of this work is to develop an integrated data acquisition and handling system based on digital time series analysis techniques. These techniques make it possible to investigate the nature of plasma fluctuations and the physical processes which give rise to them. The approach is to digitize the data, and to generate various spectra by means of Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT). Of particular interest is the computer generated auto-power spectrum, cross-power spectrum, phase spectrum, and squared coherency spectrum. Software programs based on those developed by Jae. Y. Hong at the University of Texas are utilized for these spectra. The LeCroy 3500-SA signal analyzer and VAX 11/780 are used as the data handling and reduction system in this work. In this report, the software required to link these two systems are described

  15. Multi-modal intelligent seizure acquisition (MISA) system--a new approach towards seizure detection based on full body motion measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sandor; Wolf, Peter; Terney, Daniella; Sams, Thomas; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2009-01-01

    Many epilepsy patients cannot call for help during a seizure, because they are unconscious or because of the affection of their motor system or speech function. This can lead to injuries, medical complications and at worst death. An alarm system setting off at seizure onset could help to avoid hazards. Today no reliable alarm systems are available. A Multi-modal Intelligent Seizure Acquisition (MISA) system based on full body motion data seems as a good approach towards detection of epileptic seizures. The system is the first to provide a full body description for epilepsy applications. Three test subjects were used for this pilot project. Each subject simulated 15 seizures and in addition performed some predefined normal activities, during a 4-hour monitoring with electromyography (EMG), accelerometer, magnetometer and gyroscope (AMG), electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG) and audio and video recording. The results showed that a non-subject specific MISA system developed on data from the modalities: accelerometer (ACM), gyroscope and EMG is able to detect 98% of the simulated seizures and at the same time mistakes only 4 of the normal movements for seizures. If the system is individualized (subject specific) it is able to detect all simulated seizures with a maximum of 1 false positive. Based on the results from the simulated seizures and normal movements the MISA system seems to be a promising approach to seizure detection.

  16. Measuring localized nonlinear components in a circular accelerator with a nonlinear tune response matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Franchetti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for measuring the nonlinear errors in a circular accelerator by taking advantage of the feed-down effect of high order multipoles when the closed orbit is globally deformed. We devise a nonlinear tune response matrix in which the response to a closed orbit deformation is obtained in terms of change of machine tune and correlated with the strength of the local multipoles. A numerical example and a proof of principle experiment to validate the theoretical methods are presented and discussed.

  17. Standard reference for instrument response function in fluorescence lifetime measurements in visible and near infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chib, Rahul; Shah, Sunil; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Fudala, Rafal; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Zelent, Bogumil; Corradini, Maria G; Ludescher, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Allura red (AR) fluorophore, a common dye in the food industry, displays a broad emission spectrum in water (visible-to-near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum) and has a remarkably short fluorescence lifetime of about 10 ps. This short lifetime does not depend on the emission (observation) wavelength. We examined time responses of AR fluorescence across emission wavelengths from 550 nm to 750 nm and found that it is an ideal candidate for impulse response functions in fluorescence lifetime measurements. (technical note)

  18. High Response Dew Point Measurement System for a Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Philip Z.

    1996-01-01

    A new high response on-line measurement system has been developed to continuously display and record the air stream dew point in the NASA Lewis 10 x 10 supersonic wind tunnel. Previous instruments suffered from such problems as very slow response, erratic readings, and high susceptibility to contamination. The system operates over the entire pressure level range of the 10 x 10 SWT, from less than 2 psia to 45 psia, without the need for a vacuum pump to provide sample flow. The system speeds up tunnel testing, provides large savings in tunnel power costs and provides the dew point input for the data-reduction subroutines which calculate test section conditions.

  19. Effect of hip braces on brake response time: Repeated measures designed study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammerer, Dietmar; Waidmann, Cornelia; Huber, Dennis G; Krismer, Martin; Haid, Christian; Liebensteiner, Michael C

    2017-08-01

    The question whether or not a patient with a hip brace should drive a car is of obvious importance because the advice given to patients to resume driving is often anecdotal as few scientific data are available on this specific subject. To assess driving ability (brake response time) with commonly used hip braces. Repeated measures design. Brake response time was assessed under six conditions: (1) without a brace (control), (2) with a typical postoperative hip brace with adjustable range of motion and the settings: unrestricted, (3) flexion limited to 70°, (4) extension blocked at 20° hip flexion, (5) both flexion and extension limited (20°/70°) and (6) an elastic hip bandage. Brake response time was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator as used in previous studies. The participants were a convenience sample of able-bodied participants. A total of 70 participants (35 women and 35 men) participated in our study. Mean age was 31.1 (standard deviation: 10.6; range: 21.7-66.4) years. A significant within-subject effect for brake response time was found ( p = 0.009), but subsequent post hoc analyses revealed no significant differences between control and the other settings. Based on our findings, it does not seem mandatory to recommend driving abstinence for patients wearing a hip orthosis. We suggest that our results be interpreted with caution, because (1) an underlying pathological hip condition needs to be considered, (2) the ability to drive a car safely is multifactorial and brake response time is only one component thereof and (3) brake response time measurements were performed only with healthy participants. Clinical relevance Hip braces are used in the context of joint-preserving and prosthetic surgery of the hip. Therefore, clinicians are confronted with the question whether to allow driving a car with the respective hip brace or not. Our data suggest that hip braces do not impair brake response time.

  20. Using Auditory Steady-State Responses for Measuring Hearing Protector Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Valentin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present methods of measuring the attenuation of hearing protection devices (HPDs have limitations. Objective measurements such as field microphone in real-ear do not assess bone-conducted sound. Psychophysical measurements such as real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT are biased due to the low frequency masking effects from test subjects’ physiological noise and the variability of measurements based on subjective responses. An auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs procedure is explored as a technique which might overcome these limitations. Subjects and Methods: Pure tone stimuli (500 and 1000 Hz, amplitude modulated at 40 Hz, are presented to 10 normal-hearing adults through headphones at three levels in 10 dB steps. Two conditions were assessed: unoccluded ear canal and occluded ear canal. ASSR amplitude data as a function of the stimulation level are linearized using least-square regressions. The “physiological attenuation” is then calculated as the average difference between the two measurements. The technical feasibility of measuring earplug attenuation is demonstrated for the group average attenuation across subjects. Results: No significant statistical difference is found between the average REAT attenuation and the average ASSR-based attenuation. Conclusion: Feasibility is not yet demonstrated for individual subjects since differences between the estimates occurred for some subjects.

  1. A generalized measurement model to quantify health: the multi-attribute preference response model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, Paul F M

    2013-01-01

    After 40 years of deriving metric values for health status or health-related quality of life, the effective quantification of subjective health outcomes is still a challenge. Here, two of the best measurement tools, the discrete choice and the Rasch model, are combined to create a new model for deriving health values. First, existing techniques to value health states are briefly discussed followed by a reflection on the recent revival of interest in patients' experience with regard to their possible role in health measurement. Subsequently, three basic principles for valid health measurement are reviewed, namely unidimensionality, interval level, and invariance. In the main section, the basic operation of measurement is then discussed in the framework of probabilistic discrete choice analysis (random utility model) and the psychometric Rasch model. It is then shown how combining the main features of these two models yields an integrated measurement model, called the multi-attribute preference response (MAPR) model, which is introduced here. This new model transforms subjective individual rank data into a metric scale using responses from patients who have experienced certain health states. Its measurement mechanism largely prevents biases such as adaptation and coping. Several extensions of the MAPR model are presented. The MAPR model can be applied to a wide range of research problems. If extended with the self-selection of relevant health domains for the individual patient, this model will be more valid than existing valuation techniques.

  2. Triangles in ROC space: History and theory of "nonparametric" measures of sensitivity and response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, N A; Creelman, C D

    1996-06-01

    Can accuracy and response bias in two-stimulus, two-response recognition or detection experiments be measured nonparametrically? Pollack and Norman (1964) answered this question affirmatively for sensitivity, Hodos (1970) for bias: Both proposed measures based on triangular areas in receiver-operating characteristic space. Their papers, and especially a paper by Grier (1971) that provided computing formulas for the measures, continue to be heavily cited in a wide range of content areas. In our sample of articles, most authors described triangle-based measures as making fewer assumptions than measures associated with detection theory. However, we show that statistics based on products or ratios of right triangle areas, including a recently proposed bias index and a not-yetproposed but apparently plausible sensitivity index, are consistent with a decision process based on logistic distributions. Even the Pollack and Norman measure, which is based on non-right triangles, is approximately logistic for low values of sensitivity. Simple geometric models for sensitivity and bias are not nonparametric, even if their implications are not acknowledged in the defining publications.

  3. Agricultural Soil Spectral Response and Properties Assessment: Effects of Measurement Protocol and Data Mining Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Gholizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil spectroscopy has shown to be a fast, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, non-destructive, reproducible and repeatable analytical technique. Soil components, as well as types of instruments, protocols, sampling methods, sample preparation, spectral acquisition techniques and analytical algorithms have a combined influence on the final performance. Therefore, it is important to characterize these differences and to introduce an effective approach in order to minimize the technical factors that alter reflectance spectra and consequent prediction. To quantify this alteration, a joint project between Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS and Tel-Aviv University (TAU was conducted to estimate Cox, pH-H2O, pH-KCl and selected forms of Fe and Mn. Two different soil spectral measurement protocols and two data mining techniques were used to examine seventy-eight soil samples from five agricultural areas in different parts of the Czech Republic. Spectral measurements at both laboratories were made using different ASD spectroradiometers. The CULS protocol was based on employing a contact probe (CP spectral measurement scheme, while the TAU protocol was carried out using a CP measurement method, accompanied with the internal soil standard (ISS procedure. Two spectral datasets, acquired from different protocols, were both analyzed using partial least square regression (PLSR technique as well as the PARACUDA II®, a new data mining engine for optimizing PLSR models. The results showed that spectra based on the CULS setup (non-ISS demonstrated significantly higher albedo intensity and reflectance values relative to the TAU setup with ISS. However, the majority of statistics using the TAU protocol was not noticeably better than the CULS spectra. The paper also highlighted that under both measurement protocols, the PARACUDA II® engine proved to be a powerful tool for providing better results than PLSR. Such initiative is not only a way to

  4. The acquisition of conditioned responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A

    2011-04-01

    This report analyzes the acquisition of conditioned responses in rats trained in a magazine approach paradigm. Following the suggestion by Gallistel, Fairhurst, and Balsam (2004), Weibull functions were fitted to the trial-by-trial response rates of individual rats. These showed that the emergence of responding was often delayed, after which the response rate would increase relatively gradually across trials. The fit of the Weibull function to the behavioral data of each rat was equaled by that of a cumulative exponential function incorporating a response threshold. Thus, the growth in conditioning strength on each trial can be modeled by the derivative of the exponential--a difference term of the form used in many models of associative learning (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972). Further analyses, comparing the acquisition of responding with a continuously reinforced stimulus (CRf) and a partially reinforced stimulus (PRf), provided further evidence in support of the difference term. In conclusion, the results are consistent with conventional models that describe learning as the growth of associative strength, incremented on each trial by an error-correction process.

  5. Well logging. Acquisition and applications; Diagraphies. Acquisition et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, O.; Serra, L.

    2001-07-01

    This reference book on wire-line and LWD well logging covers all geophysical methods of underground survey in a synthetic, visual and dynamical way. It treats of: the physical principle of well logging measurements, the different types of existing probes, the factors that can influence the measurements, and the applications of these measurements. The following well-logging methods are reviewed: resistivity; electromagnetic wave propagation; magnetic susceptibility and magnetic field; spontaneous potential; nuclear logging: natural gamma radioactivity, density logging, photoelectric index, neutron emission probes, hydrogen index or neutron porosity, neutron induced gamma spectroscopy, neutron relaxation time, NMR; acoustic measurements: sonic logging, seismic profiles; texture, structure and stratigraphy data acquisition; borehole diameter measurement; temperature measurement; wire sampling methods; place and role of well-logging in petroleum exploration; well-logging programs. (J.S.)

  6. A comparison of irradiance responsivity and thermodynamic temperature measurement between PTB and NIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.; Yuan, Z.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison between PTB and NIM in the field of absolute spectral-band radiometry and thermodynamic temperature measurement. For the comparison a NIM made interference filter radiometer with a centre wavelength of 633 nm was taken to PTB. The filter radiometer was calibrated at NIM and PTB with respect to spectral irradiance responsivity. For the integral value in the band-pass range an agreement of 0.1% was observed in both calibrations. In a next step, the 633 nm filter radiometer was used to measure the temperature of a high-temperature blackbody in comparison to an 800 nm filter radiometer of PTB in the temperature range between 1400 K and 2750 K. The thermodynamic temperature measured by the two filter radiometers agreed to within 0.2 K to 0.5 K with an estimated measurement uncertainty ranging between 0.1 K and 0.4 K (k=1)

  7. Measurement strategies for the Dutch Nuclear Emergency Response System of the National Poisons Control Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostrum, I.E.A.; Joore, J.C.A.; Meulenbelt, J.; Savelkoul, T.J.F.

    1997-04-01

    The measurement strategy applicable to Public Health in case of a Nuclear Emergency affecting the Netherlands is presented. Within the framework of the Dutch Nuclear Emergency Response System (NPK, abbreviated in Dutch) the National Poisons Control Centre of the RIVM/AZU has an advisory obligation towards the Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports (WVS). This role comprises advice to relevant ministries, coordination of the measurement strategies and advice on persons to be reviewed, i.e. physical, biological and clinical dosimetry. The choice of dosimetric methods and measurements to be achieved in case of a larger scale nuclear emergency in the Netherlands is discussed. An actual plan of handling is presented for this measurement plan. Intervention levels defined in NPK 1991 serve as guidelines for successive actions to be performed by regional health services. 8 figs., 6 tabs., 81 refs

  8. Time response measurements of Rosemount Pressure Transmitters (model 3154) of Angra-1 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Justino, Marcelo C.; Silva, Marcos C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the Response of time five Rosemount model 3154N pressure transmitter from the Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. The tests were performed using the Hydraulic Ramp and Pressure Step Generator from the Sensor Response Time Measurement laboratory of CEN - Nuclear Engineering Center of IPEN. For each transmitter, damping was adjusted so that the time constant was less than or equal to 500 ms. This value has been determined so that the total value of the protection chain response time does not exceed the established maximum value of 2 seconds. For each transmitter ten tests were performed, obtaining mean values of time constant of 499.7 ms, 464.1 ms, 473.8 ms, 484.7 ms and 511.5 ms, with mean deviations 0.85%, 0.24%, 0.97%, 1.26% and 0.64% respectively. (author)

  9. Response of the mesopause airglow to solar activity inferred from measurements at Zvenigorod, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pertsev

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based spectrographical observations of infrared emissions of the mesopause region have been made at Zvenigorod Observatory (56 N, 37 E, located near Moscow, Russia, for 670 nights of 2000–2006. The characteristics of the hydroxyl and molecular oxygen (865 nm airglow, heights of which correspond to 87 and 94 km, are analyzed for finding their response to solar activity. The measured data exhibit a response to the F10.7 solar radio flux change, which is 30%–40%/100 sfu in intensities of the emissions and about 4.5 K/100 sfu in hydroxyl temperature. Seasonal variations of the airglow response to solar activity are observed. In winter it is more significant than in summer. Mechanisms that may provide an explanation of the solar influence on intensities of the emissions and temperature are considered. Radiative processes not involving atmospheric dynamics appear insufficient to explain the observed effect.

  10. Response of the mesopause airglow to solar activity inferred from measurements at Zvenigorod, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pertsev

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based spectrographical observations of infrared emissions of the mesopause region have been made at Zvenigorod Observatory (56 N, 37 E, located near Moscow, Russia, for 670 nights of 2000–2006. The characteristics of the hydroxyl and molecular oxygen (865 nm airglow, heights of which correspond to 87 and 94 km, are analyzed for finding their response to solar activity. The measured data exhibit a response to the F10.7 solar radio flux change, which is 30%–40%/100 sfu in intensities of the emissions and about 4.5 K/100 sfu in hydroxyl temperature. Seasonal variations of the airglow response to solar activity are observed. In winter it is more significant than in summer. Mechanisms that may provide an explanation of the solar influence on intensities of the emissions and temperature are considered. Radiative processes not involving atmospheric dynamics appear insufficient to explain the observed effect.

  11. Time response measurements of Rosemount Pressure Transmitters (model 3154) of Angra-1 power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Pereira, Iraci Martinez [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Justino, Marcelo C.; Silva, Marcos C., E-mail: rcsantos@ipen.br, E-mail: justino@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper shows the Response of time five Rosemount model 3154N pressure transmitter from the Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. The tests were performed using the Hydraulic Ramp and Pressure Step Generator from the Sensor Response Time Measurement laboratory of CEN - Nuclear Engineering Center of IPEN. For each transmitter, damping was adjusted so that the time constant was less than or equal to 500 ms. This value has been determined so that the total value of the protection chain response time does not exceed the established maximum value of 2 seconds. For each transmitter ten tests were performed, obtaining mean values of time constant of 499.7 ms, 464.1 ms, 473.8 ms, 484.7 ms and 511.5 ms, with mean deviations 0.85%, 0.24%, 0.97%, 1.26% and 0.64% respectively. (author)

  12. Measurements and evaluation of building response to ground motion at various stages of construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    Architectural elements contribute significantly to the total seismic response of high-rise frame buildings. Although the characteristics of ground motion have considerable effect on the response of buildings, architectural elements increase the stiffness of the total system and reduce its period. The measurements also showed that partition influence is reduced over a period of time, as indicated by the lengthening of periods. At low levels of motion where the partitions contribute lateral stiffness to the system, they carry a proportional amount of the total lateral load and add sizable energy-absorbing capacity to the system. However, when the partitions are removed, the load formerly carried by the partitions is again transferred to the structural system. Because of the different response mode shapes of the models, the interstory drift at the first floor for the same roof displacement can vary significantly among models. In the models studied, the building without partitions at the first floor had the largest interstory drift

  13. French bank mergers and acquisitions performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Ben Said

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we empirically investigate the impact of mergers and acquisitions on French bank performance. Performance is measured by potential gains in efficiency and value creation. We first analyzed efficiency using the data envelopment analysis (DEA under input oriented with variable returns to scale to obtain the efficiency scores. Second, we analyzed the impact on French bank value creation following mergers-acquisitions operations of a set of control variables (model 1 and explicative variables measuring strategic similarities between bidders and targets (model 2. The sample studied is composed of French bank mergers-acquisitions happening between 1996 and 2006 and implying one of the 14 greatest French banking groups. Empirical result showed that mergers and acquisitions have been traduced by an improvement in the overall efficiency by 17.82% and a shareholder value reduction by 5.14%

  14. Response Time Measurements of the NIF DANTE XRD-31 X-Ray Diodes (Pre-print)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellinen, Don; Griffin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The XRD-31 is a fast, windowless X-ray vacuum photodiode developed by EG and G. It is currently the primary fast X-ray detector used to diagnose the X-rays on NIF and OMEGA on the multichannel DANTE spectrometer. The XRD-31 has a dynamic range of less than 1e-12 amps to more than 10 amps. A technique is described to measure the impulse response of the diodes to a 150 fs pulse of 200 nm laser light and a method to calculate the 'risetime' for a square pulse and compare it with the computed electron transit time from the photocathode to the anode. Measured response time for 5 XRD-31s assembled in early 2004 was 149.7 ps +-2.75 ps

  15. Cup anemometer response to the wind turbulence-measurement of the horizontal wind variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some dynamic characteristics of an opto-electronic cup anemometer model in relation to its response to the wind turbulence. It is based on experimental data of the natural wind turbulence measured both by an ultrasonic anemometer and two samples of the mentioned cup anemometer. The distance constants of the latter devices measured in a wind tunnel are in good agreement with those determined by the spectral analysis method proposed in this study. In addition, the study shows that the linear compensation of the cup anemometer response, beyond the cutoff frequency, is limited to a given frequency, characteristic of the device. Beyond this frequency, the compensation effectiveness relies mainly on the wind characteristics, particularly the direction variability and the horizontal turbulence intensity. Finally, this study demonstrates the potential of fast cup anemometers to measure some turbulence parameters (like wind variance with errors of the magnitude as those deriving from the mean speed measurements. This result proves that fast cup anemometers can be used to assess some turbulence parameters, especially for long-term measurements in severe climate conditions (icing, snowing or sandy storm weathers.

  16. Electro-Optical Data Acquisition and Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electro-Optical Data Acquisition and Tracking System (EDATS) dynamically tracks and measures target signatures. It consists of an instrumentation van integrated...

  17. Scintillator-CCD camera system light output response to dosimetry parameters for proton beam range measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daftari, Inder K., E-mail: idaftari@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, 1600 Divisadero Street, Suite H1031, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Castaneda, Carlos M.; Essert, Timothy [Crocker Nuclear Laboratory,1 Shields Avenue, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Phillips, Theodore L.; Mishra, Kavita K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, 1600 Divisadero Street, Suite H1031, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)

    2012-09-11

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the luminescence light output response in a plastic scintillator irradiated by a 67.5 MeV proton beam using various dosimetry parameters. The relationship of the visible scintillator light with the beam current or dose rate, aperture size and the thickness of water in the water-column was studied. The images captured on a CCD camera system were used to determine optimal dosimetry parameters for measuring the range of a clinical proton beam. The method was developed as a simple quality assurance tool to measure the range of the proton beam and compare it to (a) measurements using two segmented ionization chambers and water column between them, and (b) with an ionization chamber (IC-18) measurements in water. We used a block of plastic scintillator that measured 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 3} to record visible light generated by a 67.5 MeV proton beam. A high-definition digital video camera Moticam 2300 connected to a PC via USB 2.0 communication channel was used to record images of scintillation luminescence. The brightness of the visible light was measured while changing beam current and aperture size. The results were analyzed to obtain the range and were compared with the Bragg peak measurements with an ionization chamber. The luminescence light from the scintillator increased linearly with the increase of proton beam current. The light output also increased linearly with aperture size. The relationship between the proton range in the scintillator and the thickness of the water column showed good linearity with a precision of 0.33 mm (SD) in proton range measurement. For the 67.5 MeV proton beam utilized, the optimal parameters for scintillator light output response were found to be 15 nA (16 Gy/min) and an aperture size of 15 mm with image integration time of 100 ms. The Bragg peak depth brightness distribution was compared with the depth dose distribution from ionization chamber measurements

  18. One-health approach as counter-measure against "autoimmune" responses in biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsaers, Inge

    2015-03-01

    This Swine flu pandemic of 2009 and the potential Avian flu threat of 2011-2012 have revived a most challenging debate on protection against infectious diseases. The response to the Swine flu pandemic has been ambivalent, both on the societal (political) and the scientific level. While some scientists warned against potential massive loss of human lives and urged for immediate and large-scale vaccination, others accused them of unnecessary scaremongering, arguing that the pandemic would not be that severe. The lab-created virulent Avian flu virus - which has been created in order to 'fight' a potential Avian flu pandemic - sparked a fierce debate on the dual-use risks of such a pre-emptive strategy. This article involves an analysis of the medical-political response to these recent viral threats using Peter Sloterdijk's immunological framework as diagnostic tool. In his trilogy Spheres Sloterdijk uses immunological concepts to analyse and assess the contemporary biopolitical situation. It shows how drawing a parallel between the functioning of the biological immune system and "immune responses" on socio-political level enables to assess and reconceptualise biosecurity. It demonstrates that ideas such as "nature is the biggest terrorist" - as advanced by many virologists - sometimes result in exaggerated "immunisation responses". This strong defensive attitude sometimes brings about collateral damage. In other words, fierce biosecurity measures sometimes risk developing into "autoimmune" responses that actually destruct the body politic they are meant to protect. By drawing on recent insights in the functioning of the biological immune system it is shown how a One-Health approach that incorporates a broader and nuanced "immunological" repertoire could act as counter-measure against "autoimmune" responses in biosecurity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibira, Gabriel, E-mail: cibira@lm.uniza.sk; Koščová, Marcela, E-mail: mkoscova@lm.uniza.sk

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic five-parameter model is proposed using Matlab{sup ®} and Simulink. • The model acquisits input sparse data matrix from stigmatic measurement. • Computer simulations lead to continuous I–V and P–V characteristics. • Extrapolated I–V and P–V characteristics are in hand. • The model allows us to predict photovoltaics exploitation in different conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I–V and P–V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I–V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model.

  20. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibira, Gabriel; Koščová, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic five-parameter model is proposed using Matlab ® and Simulink. • The model acquisits input sparse data matrix from stigmatic measurement. • Computer simulations lead to continuous I–V and P–V characteristics. • Extrapolated I–V and P–V characteristics are in hand. • The model allows us to predict photovoltaics exploitation in different conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I–V and P–V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I–V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model

  1. A Data-Driven Response Virtual Sensor Technique with Partial Vibration Measurements Using Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan-Bin; He, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Si-Da; Yue, Zhen-Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of dynamic responses plays an important role in structural health monitoring, damage detection and other fields of research. However, in aerospace engineering, the physical sensors are limited in the operational conditions of spacecraft, due to the severe environment in outer space. This paper proposes a virtual sensor model with partial vibration measurements using a convolutional neural network. The transmissibility function is employed as prior knowledge. A four-layer neural network with two convolutional layers, one fully connected layer, and an output layer is proposed as the predicting model. Numerical examples of two different structural dynamic systems demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach. The excellence of the novel technique is further indicated using a simply supported beam experiment comparing to a modal-model-based virtual sensor, which uses modal parameters, such as mode shapes, for estimating the responses of the faulty sensors. The results show that the presented data-driven response virtual sensor technique can predict structural response with high accuracy. PMID:29231868

  2. A Data-Driven Response Virtual Sensor Technique with Partial Vibration Measurements Using Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan-Bin; He, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Si-Da; Yue, Zhen-Jiang

    2017-12-12

    Measurement of dynamic responses plays an important role in structural health monitoring, damage detection and other fields of research. However, in aerospace engineering, the physical sensors are limited in the operational conditions of spacecraft, due to the severe environment in outer space. This paper proposes a virtual sensor model with partial vibration measurements using a convolutional neural network. The transmissibility function is employed as prior knowledge. A four-layer neural network with two convolutional layers, one fully connected layer, and an output layer is proposed as the predicting model. Numerical examples of two different structural dynamic systems demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach. The excellence of the novel technique is further indicated using a simply supported beam experiment comparing to a modal-model-based virtual sensor, which uses modal parameters, such as mode shapes, for estimating the responses of the faulty sensors. The results show that the presented data-driven response virtual sensor technique can predict structural response with high accuracy.

  3. Measurement of the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Horoz, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun F; Sabuncu, Tevfik; Aslan, Mehmet; Sarifakiogullari, Serpil; Gunaydin, Necla; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Oxidative stress, an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity, is one of the potential biochemical mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We aimed to investigate the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subjects. As a reciprocal measure, we also aimed to determine total peroxide level in the same plasma samples. Methods Twenty-two subjects with biopsy proven nonalco...

  4. Determination of Intrinsic Magnetic Response from Local Measurements of Fringing Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Bo; Millis, Andrew J.; Pardo, Enric; Subedi, Pradeep; Kent, Andrew D.; Yeshurun, Yosi; Sarachik, Myriam P.

    2014-01-01

    Micron-sized Hall bars and micro-SQUIDs are now used routinely to measure the local static and dynamic magnetic response with micron-scale spatial resolution. While this provides a powerful new tool, determining the intrinsic magnetization presents new challenges, as it requires correcting for demagnetization fields that vary widely with position on a sample. In this paper we develop a method to correct for the demagnetization effect at local points of a rectangular prism shaped sample using ...

  5. Developing an effective approach to measure emotional response to the sensory properties of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Emotion research in sensory and consumer science has gathered significant momentum over recent years and the development of effective emotion measurement methods is a priority in this rapidly growing area.\\ud \\ud The aim of this research was to advance the use of consumer-led emotion lexicons by using focus groups to increase the efficiency of lexicon generation and by decreasing the number of consumer response categories. In parallel, the ability of the newly generated reduced lexicon to dis...

  6. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  7. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  8. Energy Response and Longitudinal Shower Profiles Measured in CMS HCAL and Comparison With Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Ladygin, Vladimir; Mescheryakov, G; Moissenz, P; Petrosian, A; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Ulyanov, A; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, V; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Onengüt, G; Ozkurt, Halil; Polatoz, A; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Esendemir, Akif; Gamsizkan, Halil; Güler, M; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Dindar, Kamile; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Senchishin, V; Hauptman, John M; Abdullin, Salavat; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Los, Serguei; O'Dell, Vivian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Machado, Emanuel; Rohlf, James; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumus, Kazim; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Bodek, Arie; De Barbaro, Pawel; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T

    2007-01-01

    The response of the CMS combined electromagnetic and hadron calorimeter to beams of pions with momenta in the range 5-300 GeV/c has been measured in the H2 test beam at CERN. The raw response with the electromagnetic compartment calibrated to electrons and the hadron compartment calibrated to 300 GeV pions may be represented by sigma = (1.2) sqrt{E} oplus (0.095) E. The fraction of energy visible in the calorimeter ranges from 0.72 at 5 GeV to 0.95 at 300 GeV, indicating a substantial nonlinearity. The intrinsic electron to hadron ratios are fit as a function of energy and found to be in the range 1.3-2.7 for the electromagnetic compartment and 1.4-1.8 for the hadronic compartment. The fits are used to correct the non-linearity of the e pi response to 5% over the entire measured range resulting in a substantially improved resolution at low energy. Longitudinal shower profile have been measured in detail and compared to Geant4 models, LHEP-3.7 and QGSP-2.8. At energies below 30 GeV, the data, LHEP and QGSP are...

  9. The collection and analysis of transient test data using the mobile instrumentation data acquisition system (MIDAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncapher, W.L.; Arviso, M.

    1995-01-01

    Packages designed to transport radioactive materials are required to survive exposure to environments defined in Code of Federal Regulations. Cask designers can investigate package designs through structural and thermal testing of full-scale packages, components, or representative models. The acquisition of reliable response data from instrumentation measurement devices is an essential part of this testing activity. Sandia National Laboratories, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), has developed the Mobile Instrumentation Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) dedicated to the collection and processing of structural and thermal data from regulatory tests

  10. Full information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesse, Stephen; Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Somnath, Suhas

    2017-04-04

    Apparatus and methods are described for scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy based on acquisition of full probe response. The full probe response contains valuable information about the probe-sample interaction that is lost in traditional scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy methods. The full probe response is analyzed post data acquisition using fast Fourier transform and adaptive filtering, as well as multivariate analysis. The full response data is further compressed to retain only statistically significant components before being permanently stored.

  11. The Acquisition of Particles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    process of language acquisition on the basis of linguistic evidence the child is exposed to. ..... particle verbs are recognized in language processing differs from the way morphologically ..... In Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 11.

  12. High speed data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.S.

    1997-07-01

    A general introduction to high speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E78 1) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab

  13. Ultra-wide frequency response measurement of an optical system with a DC photo-detector

    KAUST Repository

    Kuntz, Katanya B.; Wheatley, Trevor A.; Song, Hongbin; Webb, James G.; Mabrok, Mohamed; Huntington, Elanor H.; Yonezawa, Hidehiro

    2017-01-01

    Precise knowledge of an optical device's frequency response is crucial for it to be useful in most applications. Traditional methods for determining the frequency response of an optical system (e.g. optical cavity or waveguide modulator) usually rely on calibrated broadband photo-detectors or complicated RF mixdown operations. As the bandwidths of these devices continue to increase, there is a growing need for a characterization method that does not have bandwidth limitations, or require a previously calibrated device. We demonstrate a new calibration technique on an optical system (consisting of an optical cavity and a high-speed waveguide modulator) that is free from limitations imposed by detector bandwidth, and does not require a calibrated photo-detector or modulator. We use a low-frequency (DC) photo-detector to monitor the cavity's optical response as a function of modulation frequency, which is also used to determine the modulator's frequency response. Knowledge of the frequency-dependent modulation depth allows us to more precisely determine the cavity's characteristics (free spectral range and linewidth). The precision and repeatability of our technique is demonstrated by measuring the different resonant frequencies of orthogonal polarization cavity modes caused by the presence of a non-linear crystal. Once the modulator has been characterized using this simple method, the frequency response of any passive optical element can be determined to a fine resolution (e.g. kilohertz) over several gigahertz.

  14. Ultra-wide frequency response measurement of an optical system with a DC photo-detector

    KAUST Repository

    Kuntz, Katanya B.

    2017-01-09

    Precise knowledge of an optical device\\'s frequency response is crucial for it to be useful in most applications. Traditional methods for determining the frequency response of an optical system (e.g. optical cavity or waveguide modulator) usually rely on calibrated broadband photo-detectors or complicated RF mixdown operations. As the bandwidths of these devices continue to increase, there is a growing need for a characterization method that does not have bandwidth limitations, or require a previously calibrated device. We demonstrate a new calibration technique on an optical system (consisting of an optical cavity and a high-speed waveguide modulator) that is free from limitations imposed by detector bandwidth, and does not require a calibrated photo-detector or modulator. We use a low-frequency (DC) photo-detector to monitor the cavity\\'s optical response as a function of modulation frequency, which is also used to determine the modulator\\'s frequency response. Knowledge of the frequency-dependent modulation depth allows us to more precisely determine the cavity\\'s characteristics (free spectral range and linewidth). The precision and repeatability of our technique is demonstrated by measuring the different resonant frequencies of orthogonal polarization cavity modes caused by the presence of a non-linear crystal. Once the modulator has been characterized using this simple method, the frequency response of any passive optical element can be determined to a fine resolution (e.g. kilohertz) over several gigahertz.

  15. Robust Measurement via A Fused Latent and Graphical Item Response Theory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunxiao; Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Jingchen; Ying, Zhiliang

    2018-03-12

    Item response theory (IRT) plays an important role in psychological and educational measurement. Unlike the classical testing theory, IRT models aggregate the item level information, yielding more accurate measurements. Most IRT models assume local independence, an assumption not likely to be satisfied in practice, especially when the number of items is large. Results in the literature and simulation studies in this paper reveal that misspecifying the local independence assumption may result in inaccurate measurements and differential item functioning. To provide more robust measurements, we propose an integrated approach by adding a graphical component to a multidimensional IRT model that can offset the effect of unknown local dependence. The new model contains a confirmatory latent variable component, which measures the targeted latent traits, and a graphical component, which captures the local dependence. An efficient proximal algorithm is proposed for the parameter estimation and structure learning of the local dependence. This approach can substantially improve the measurement, given no prior information on the local dependence structure. The model can be applied to measure both a unidimensional latent trait and multidimensional latent traits.

  16. Acquisition and extinction in autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakade, Sham; Dayan, Peter

    2002-07-01

    C. R. Gallistel and J. Gibbon (2000) presented quantitative data on the speed with which animals acquire behavioral responses during autoshaping, together with a statistical model of learning intended to account for them. Although this model captures the form of the dependencies among critical variables, its detailed predictions are substantially at variance with the data. In the present article, further key data on the speed of acquisition are used to motivate an alternative model of learning, in which animals can be interpreted as paying different amounts of attention to stimuli according to estimates of their differential reliabilities as predictors.

  17. Measurement of tokamak error fields using plasma response and its applicability to ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E.J.; Buttery, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Garofalo, A.M.; La Haye, R.J.; Schaffer, M.J.; Casper, T.A.; Gribov, Y.; Hanson, J.M.; Reimerdes, H.; Volpe, F.A.

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear response of a low-beta tokamak plasma to non-axisymmetric fields offers an alternative to direct measurement of the non-axisymmetric part of the vacuum magnetic fields, often termed ‘error fields’. Possible approaches are discussed for determination of error fields and the required current in non-axisymmetric correction coils, with an emphasis on two relatively new methods: measurement of the torque balance on a saturated magnetic island, and measurement of the braking of plasma rotation in the absence of an island. The former is well suited to ohmically heated discharges, while the latter is more appropriate for discharges with a modest amount of neutral beam heating to drive rotation. Both can potentially provide continuous measurements during a discharge, subject to the limitation of a minimum averaging time. The applicability of these methods to ITER is discussed, and an estimate is made of their uncertainties in light of the specifications of ITER's diagnostic systems. The use of plasma response-based techniques in normal ITER operational scenarios may allow identification of the error field contributions by individual central solenoid coils, but identification of the individual contributions by the outer poloidal field coils or other sources is less likely to be feasible. (paper)

  18. MINERvA neutrino detector response measured with test beam data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Araujo Del Castillo, C.; Bagby, L.; Bellantoni, L.; Bergan, W.F.; Bodek, A.; Bradford, R.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Butkevich, A.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A.; Carneiro, M.F.; Christy, M.E.; Chvojka, J.; Motta, H. da; Devan, J.

    2015-01-01

    The MINERvA collaboration operated a scaled-down replica of thesolid scintillator tracking and sampling calorimeter regions of the MINERvA detector in a hadron test beam at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility. This paper reports measurements with samples of protons, pions, and electrons from 0.35 to 2.0 GeV/c momentum. The calorimetric response to protons, pions, and electrons is obtained from these data. A measurement of the parameter in Birks' law and an estimate of the tracking efficiency are extracted from the proton sample. Overall the data are well described by a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation of the detector and particle interactions with agreements better than 4% for the calorimetric response, though some features of the data are not precisely modeled. These measurements are used to tune the MINERvA detector simulation and evaluate systematic uncertainties in support of the MINERvA neutrino cross-section measurement program

  19. MINERvA neutrino detector response measured with test beam data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, L. [Department of Physics, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Altinok, O. [Physics Department, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Araujo Del Castillo, C. [Sección Física, Departamento de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Apartado 1761, Lima (Peru); Bagby, L.; Bellantoni, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Bergan, W.F. [Department of Physics, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Bodek, A.; Bradford, R. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Bravar, A. [University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Budd, H. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Butkevich, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Martinez Caicedo, D.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Carneiro, M.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil); Christy, M.E. [Hampton University, Department of Physics, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Chvojka, J. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Motta, H. da [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil); Devan, J. [Department of Physics, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); and others

    2015-07-21

    The MINERvA collaboration operated a scaled-down replica of thesolid scintillator tracking and sampling calorimeter regions of the MINERvA detector in a hadron test beam at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility. This paper reports measurements with samples of protons, pions, and electrons from 0.35 to 2.0 GeV/c momentum. The calorimetric response to protons, pions, and electrons is obtained from these data. A measurement of the parameter in Birks' law and an estimate of the tracking efficiency are extracted from the proton sample. Overall the data are well described by a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation of the detector and particle interactions with agreements better than 4% for the calorimetric response, though some features of the data are not precisely modeled. These measurements are used to tune the MINERvA detector simulation and evaluate systematic uncertainties in support of the MINERvA neutrino cross-section measurement program.

  20. Measuring organizational effectiveness in information and communication technology companies using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trierweiller, Andréa Cristina; Peixe, Blênio César Severo; Tezza, Rafael; Pereira, Vera Lúcia Duarte do Valle; Pacheco, Waldemar; Bornia, Antonio Cezar; de Andrade, Dalton Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to measure the effectiveness of the organizations Information and Communication Technology (ICT) from the point of view of the manager, using Item Response Theory (IRT). There is a need to verify the effectiveness of these organizations which are normally associated to complex, dynamic, and competitive environments. In academic literature, there is disagreement surrounding the concept of organizational effectiveness and its measurement. A construct was elaborated based on dimensions of effectiveness towards the construction of the items of the questionnaire which submitted to specialists for evaluation. It demonstrated itself to be viable in measuring organizational effectiveness of ICT companies under the point of view of a manager through using Two-Parameter Logistic Model (2PLM) of the IRT. This modeling permits us to evaluate the quality and property of each item placed within a single scale: items and respondents, which is not possible when using other similar tools.

  1. An Introduction to Item Response Theory for Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tam H.; Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Miyong T.

    2015-01-01

    The growing emphasis on patient-centered care has accelerated the demand for high-quality data from patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. Traditionally, the development and validation of these measures has been guided by classical test theory. However, item response theory (IRT), an alternate measurement framework, offers promise for addressing practical measurement problems found in health-related research that have been difficult to solve through classical methods. This paper introduces foundational concepts in IRT, as well as commonly used models and their assumptions. Existing data on a combined sample (n = 636) of Korean American and Vietnamese American adults who responded to the High Blood Pressure Health Literacy Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 are used to exemplify typical applications of IRT. These examples illustrate how IRT can be used to improve the development, refinement, and evaluation of PRO measures. Greater use of methods based on this framework can increase the accuracy and efficiency with which PROs are measured. PMID:24403095

  2. Flat-field response and geometric distortion measurements of optical streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.S.; Drake, R.P.; Jones, B.A.; Wiedwald, J.D.

    1987-08-01

    To accurately measure pulse amplitude, shape, and relative time histories of optical signals with an optical streak camera, it is necessary to correct each recorded image for spatially-dependent gain nonuniformity and geometric distortion. Gain nonuniformities arise from sensitivity variations in the streak-tube photocathode, phosphor screen, image-intensifier tube, and image recording system. These nonuniformities may be severe, and have been observed to be on the order of 100% for some LLNL optical streak cameras. Geometric distortion due to optical couplings, electron-optics, and sweep nonlinearity not only affects pulse position and timing measurements, but affects pulse amplitude and shape measurements as well. By using a 1.053-μm, long-pulse, high-power laser to generate a spatially and temporally uniform source as input to the streak camera, the combined effects of flat-field response and geometric distortion can be measured under the normal dynamic operation of cameras with S-1 photocathodes. Additionally, by using the same laser system to generate a train of short pulses that can be spatially modulated at the input of the streak camera, we can effectively create a two-dimensional grid of equally-spaced pulses. This allows a dynamic measurement of the geometric distortion of the streak camera. We will discuss the techniques involved in performing these calibrations, will present some of the measured results for LLNL optical streak cameras, and will discuss software methods to correct for these effects. 6 refs., 6 figs

  3. Accuracy and reproducibility of bending stiffness measurements by mechanical response tissue analysis in artificial human ulnas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patricia A; Ellerbrock, Emily R; Bowman, Lyn; Loucks, Anne B

    2014-11-07

    Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone strength, but no FDA-approved medical device measures bone strength. Bone strength is strongly associated with bone stiffness, but no FDA-approved medical device measures bone stiffness either. Mechanical Response Tissue Analysis (MRTA) is a non-significant risk, non-invasive, radiation-free, vibration analysis technique for making immediate, direct functional measurements of the bending stiffness of long bones in humans in vivo. MRTA has been used for research purposes for more than 20 years, but little has been published about its accuracy. To begin to investigate its accuracy, we compared MRTA measurements of bending stiffness in 39 artificial human ulna bones to measurements made by Quasistatic Mechanical Testing (QMT). In the process, we also quantified the reproducibility (i.e., precision and repeatability) of both methods. MRTA precision (1.0±1.0%) and repeatability (3.1 ± 3.1%) were not as high as those of QMT (0.2 ± 0.2% and 1.3+1.7%, respectively; both pstiffness was indistinguishable from the identity line (p=0.44) and paired measurements by the two methods agreed within a 95% confidence interval of ± 5%. If such accuracy can be achieved on real human ulnas in situ, and if the ulna is representative of the appendicular skeleton, MRTA may prove clinically useful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increases in extracellular zinc in the amygdala in acquisition and recall of fear experience and their roles in response to fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, A; Tamano, H; Imano, S; Oku, N

    2010-07-14

    The amygdala is enriched with histochemically reactive zinc, which is dynamically coupled with neuronal activity and co-released with glutamate. The dynamics of the zinc in the amygdala was analyzed in rats, which were subjected to inescapable stress, to understand the role of the zinc in emotional behavior. In the communication box, two rats were subjected to foot shock stress and anxiety stress experiencing emotional responses of foot-shocked rat under amygdalar perfusion. Extracellular zinc was increased by foot shock stress, while decreased by anxiety stress, suggesting that the differential changes in extracellular zinc are associated with emotional behavior. In rats conditioned with foot shock, furthermore, extracellular zinc was increased again in the recall of fear (foot shock) in the same box without foot shock. When this recall was performed under perfusion with CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator, to examine the role of the increase in extracellular zinc, the time of freezing behavior was more increased, suggesting that zinc released in the lateral amygdala during the recall of fear participates in freezing behavior. To examine the role of the increase in extracellular zinc during fear conditioning, fear conditioning was also performed under perfusion with CaEDTA. The time of freezing behavior was more increased in the contextual recall, suggesting that zinc released in the lateral nucleus during fear conditioning also participates in freezing behavior in the recall. In brain slice experiment, CaEDTA enhanced presynaptic activity (exocytosis) in the lateral nucleus after activation of the entorhinal cortex. The present paper demonstrates that zinc released in the lateral amygdala may participate in emotional behavior in response to fear. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of response time and detection of degradation in pressure sensor/sensing-line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, M.E.; Miller, L.F.; Kerlin, T.W.; Ragan, G.; March-Leuba, J.; Thie, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A team evaluated several methods for remote measurement of the response time and detection of degradation (blockage or air in lines) of pressure sensor/sensing line systems typical of nuclear power plants. A method was developed for obtaining the response time of force-balance pressure transmitters by briefly interrupting the power supply to the transmitter. The data thus generated are then analyzed in conjunction with a model to predict transmitter response to an actual pressure perturbation. The research team also evaluated a pressure perturbation method for determining the asymptotic delay time of a pressure-sensing line and found that this method yields accurate results for essentially unblocked sensing lines. However, these pressure perturbation tests are not recommended for use in nuclear power plants because they are difficult to implement on-line. A third method for remote measurement applied noise analysis method that yielded accurate estimates of asymptotic delay times for blockage or air in sensing lines. Even though noise analysis methods worked well in the laboratory, it is recommended that further evaluation be performed in operating nuclear plants. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of response time and detection of degradation in pressure sensor/sensing line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, M.E.; Miller, L.F.; Thie, J.A.; Kerlin, T.W.; Ragan, G.E.; March-Leuba, J.

    1985-09-01

    A team evaluated several methods for remote measurement of the response time and detection of degradation (blockage or air in lines) of pressure sensor/sensing line systems typical of nuclear power plants. A method was developed for obtaining the response time of force-balance pressure transmitters by briefly interrupting the power supply to the transmitter. The data thus generated are then analyzed in conjunction with a model to predict transmitter response to an actual pressure perturbation. The research team also evaluated a pressure perturbation method for determining the asymptotic delay time of a pressure-sensing line and found that this method yields accurate results for essentially unblocked sensing lines. However, these pressure perturbation tests are not recommended for use in nuclear power plants because they are difficult to implement on-line. A third method for remote measurement applied noise analysis methods that yielded accurate estimates of asymptotic delay times for blockage or air in sensing lines. Even though noise analysis methods worked well in the laboratory, it is recommended that further evaluation be performed in operating nuclear plants

  7. PET measured evoked cerebral blood flow responses in an awake monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlmutter, J.S.; Lich, L.L.; Margenau, W.; Buchholz, S.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a method to measure task-related regional cerebral blood flow (BF) responses in an awake, trained monkey using positron emission tomography (PET) and H215O. We trained an animal with operant conditioning using only positive reinforcement to climb unassisted into a modified primate chair that was then positioned in the PET scanner. A special headholder and acrylic skull cap permitted precise placement and accurate repositioning. We measured BF qualitatively with bolus injection of H215O and 40-s scan. Each session included scans at rest interposed with scans during vibration of a forepaw. Regional responses were identified using subtraction image analysis. After global normalization, a resting image was subtracted on a pixel-by-pixel basis from a comparable image collected during vibration. The region of peak response occurred in contralateral sensorimotor cortex with a mean magnitude of 11.6% (+/- 3.2%) of the global mean value for 10 separate experiments, significantly greater than the mean qualitative BF change (0.4 +/- 3.6%; p less than 0.00001) in the same region for seven rest-rest pairs. This newly developed technique forms the basis for a wide variety of experiments

  8. Rapid response and wide range neutronic power measuring systems for fast pulsed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji; Iida, Toshiyuki; Wakayama, Naoaki.

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes our investigation on design principles of the rapid, stable and wide range neutronic power measuring system for fast pulsed reactors. The picoammeter, the logarithmic amplifier, the reactivity meter and the neutron current chamber are the items of investigation. In order to get a rapid response, the method of compensation for the stray capacitance of the feedback circuits and the capacitance of signal cables is applied to the picoammeter, the logarithmic amplifier and the reactivity meter with consideration for the stability margin of a whole detecting system. The response of an ionization current chamber and the method for compensating the ion component of the chamber output to get optimum responses high pass filters are investigated. Statistical fluctuations of the current chamber output are also considered in those works. The optimum thickness of the surrounding moderator of the neutron detector is also discussed from the viewpoint of the pulse shape deformation and the neutron sensitivity increase. The experimental results are reported, which were observed in the pulse operations of the one shot fast pulsed reactor ''YAYOI'' and the one shot TRIGA ''NSRR'' with the measuring systems using those principles. (auth.)

  9. Measurement and control of bias in patient reported outcomes using multidimensional item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N Maritza; Bolt, Daniel M; Deng, Sien; Li, Chenxi

    2016-05-26

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures play a key role in the advancement of patient-centered care research. The accuracy of inferences, relevance of predictions, and the true nature of the associations made with PRO data depend on the validity of these measures. Errors inherent to self-report measures can seriously bias the estimation of constructs assessed by the scale. A well-documented disadvantage of self-report measures is their sensitivity to response style (RS) effects such as the respondent's tendency to select the extremes of a rating scale. Although the biasing effect of extreme responding on constructs measured by self-reported tools has been widely acknowledged and studied across disciplines, little attention has been given to the development and systematic application of methodologies to assess and control for this effect in PRO measures. We review the methodological approaches that have been proposed to study extreme RS effects (ERS). We applied a multidimensional item response theory model to simultaneously estimate and correct for the impact of ERS on trait estimation in a PRO instrument. Model estimates were used to study the biasing effects of ERS on sum scores for individuals with the same amount of the targeted trait but different levels of ERS. We evaluated the effect of joint estimation of multiple scales and ERS on trait estimates and demonstrated the biasing effects of ERS on these trait estimates when used as explanatory variables. A four-dimensional model accounting for ERS bias provided a better fit to the response data. Increasing levels of ERS showed bias in total scores as a function of trait estimates. The effect of ERS was greater when the pattern of extreme responding was the same across multiple scales modeled jointly. The estimated item category intercepts provided evidence of content independent category selection. Uncorrected trait estimates used as explanatory variables in prediction models showed downward bias. A

  10. Studies towards the data acquisition of the PANDA experiment and measurement of a new upper limit of the production cross section of p anti p→hc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Milan Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The PANDA experiment will be one of the main future FAIR experiments located at Darmstadt, Germany. It has a challenging concept of a new type of Data Acquisition (DAQ) including the full online reconstruction and filtering as well as a high precision synchronization mechanism. The new concept is needed due to a high data rate of 200 GB/s, which has to be reduced by three orders of magnitude before storing. In this thesis the prototype trigger-less DAQ, a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based system is presented. As a scalable system, it includes first parts of the final DAQ. Thus it is the first system allowing studies of the full DAQ-chain, including the synchronization mechanism. Furthermore, the functionalities during an in-beam environment test of the prototype of the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter were investigated. This test showed that the PTDAQ can be used as a DAQ in prototype tests. In addition to hardware and firmware development, simulations of benchmark channels are crucial to extract filtering possibilities. Therefore the knowledge of the production cross section is necessary. In the framework of this thesis a new upper limit of the production cross section σ(p anti p→h c ) was extracted. h c is one of the most unknown charmonium states, and it is not possible to produce pure h c in one of the other ''charm factories'' directly. For this purpose, the branching ratio of the decay B(h c →p anti p)<5.6.10 -5 rate at 90% C.L. was determined. For this, data from the BES III experiment located at the BEPCII accelerator in Beijing, China was used. h c was produced in the decay of the ψ(2S) charmonium resonance, which itself was produced in e + e - collisions. A data set of (447.9±2.8).10 6 ψ(2S)-events was used for this analysis. The new upper limit of the cross section σ(p anti p→h c )<32 nb rate at 90% C.L. was calculated by using the method of detailed balance. Furthermore, the lower limit of the integrated

  11. A Real-Time FPGA based Algorithm for the combination of Beam Loss Acquisition Methods used for Measurement Dynamic Range expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, M; Alsdorf, M; Dehning, B; Vigano, W

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the Beam Loss Monitoring Dual Polarity (BLEDP) module under development at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is to measure and digitise with high precision the current produced by several types of beam loss detectors. The BLEDP module consists of eight analogue channels each with a fully differential integrator and an accompanying 16 bit ADC at the output of each analogue integrator. The on-board FPGA device controls the integral periods, instructs the ADC devices to perform measurements at the end of each period and collects the measurements. In the next stage it combines the number of charge and discharge cycles accounted in the last interval together with the cycle fractions observed using the ADC samples to produce a digitised high precision value of the charges collected. This paper describes briefly the principle of the fully differential integrator and focuses on the algorithm employed to process the digital data.

  12. Data acquisition for sensor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, H Rosemary

    1997-01-01

    'Data acquisition' is concerned with taking one or more analogue signals and converting them to digital form with sufficient accu­ racy and speed to be ready for processing by a computer. The increasing use of computers makes this an expanding field, and it is important that the conversion process is done correctly because information lost at this stage can never be regained, no matter how good the computation. The old saying - garbage in, garbage out - is very relevant to data acquisition, and so every part of the book contains a discussion of errors: where do they come from, how large are they, and what can be done to reduce them? The book aims to treat the data acquisition process in depth with less detailed chapters on the fundamental principles of measure­ ment, sensors and signal conditioning. There is also a chapter on software packages, which are becoming increasingly popular. This is such a rapidly changing topic that any review of available pro­ grams is bound to be out of date before the book re...

  13. Brachial cuff measurements of blood pressure during passive leg raising for fluid responsiveness prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhal, K; Ehrmann, S; Benzekri-Lefèvre, D; Runge, I; Legras, A; Dequin, P-F; Mercier, E; Wolff, M; Régnier, B; Boulain, T

    2012-05-01

    The passive leg raising maneuver (PLR) for fluid responsiveness testing relies on cardiac output (CO) measurements or invasive measurements of arterial pressure (AP) whereas the initial hemodynamic management during shock is often based solely on brachial cuff measurements. We assessed PLR-induced changes in noninvasive oscillometric readings to predict fluid responsiveness. Multicentre interventional study. In ICU sedated patients with circulatory failure, AP (invasive and noninvasive readings) and CO measurements were performed before, during PLR (trunk supine, not modified) and after 500-mL volume expansion. Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were determined for fluid responsiveness (>10% volume expansion-induced increase in CO) prediction. In 112 patients (19% with arrhythmia), changes in noninvasive systolic AP during PLR (noninvasiveΔ(PLR)SAP) only predicted fluid responsiveness (cutoff 17%, n=21, positive likelihood ratio [LR] of 26 [18-38]), not unresponsiveness. If PLR-induced change in central venous pressure (CVP) was at least of 2 mm Hg (n=60), suggesting that PLR succeeded in altering cardiac preload, noninvasiveΔ(PLR)SAP performance was good: AUC of 0.94 [0.85-0.98], positive and negative LRs of 5.7 [4.6-6.8] and 0.07 [0.009-0.5], respectively, for a cutoff of 9%. Of note, invasive AP-derived indices did not outperform noninvasiveΔ(PLR)SAP. Regardless of CVP (i.e., during "blind PLR"), noninvasiveΔ(PLR)SAP more than 17% reliably identified fluid responders. During "CVP-guided PLR", in case of sufficient change in CVP, noninvasiveΔ(PLR)SAP performed better (cutoff of 9%). These findings, in sedated patients who had already undergone volume expansion and/or catecholamines, have to be verified during the early phase of circulatory failure (before an arterial line and/or a CO measuring device is placed). Copyright © 2012 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. AcquisitionFootprintAttenuationDrivenbySeismicAttributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuellar-Urbano Mayra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition footprint, one of the major problems that PEMEX faces in seismic imaging, is noise highly correlated to the geometric array of sources and receivers used for onshore and offshore seismic acquisitions. It prevails in spite of measures taken during acquisition and data processing. This pattern, throughout the image, is easily confused with geological features and misguides seismic attribute computation. In this work, we use seismic data from PEMEX Exploración y Producción to show the conditioning process for removing random and coherent noise using linear filters. Geometric attributes used in a workflow were computed for obtaining an acquisition footprint noise model and adaptively subtract it from the seismic data.

  15. Field Measurement-Based System Identification and Dynamic Response Prediction of a Unique MIT Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Young-Jin; Trocha, Peter; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-07-01

    Tall buildings are ubiquitous in major cities and house the homes and workplaces of many individuals. However, relatively few studies have been carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings based on field measurements. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of the Green Building, a unique 21-story tall structure located on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA), was characterized and modeled as a simplified lumped-mass beam model (SLMM), using data from a network of accelerometers. The accelerometer network was used to record structural responses due to ambient vibrations, blast loading, and the October 16th 2012 earthquake near Hollis Center (ME, USA). Spectral and signal coherence analysis of the collected data was used to identify natural frequencies, modes, foundation rocking behavior, and structural asymmetries. A relation between foundation rocking and structural natural frequencies was also found. Natural frequencies and structural acceleration from the field measurements were compared with those predicted by the SLMM which was updated by inverse solving based on advanced multiobjective optimization methods using the measured structural responses and found to have good agreement.

  16. Field Measurement-Based System Identification and Dynamic Response Prediction of a Unique MIT Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jin Cha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tall buildings are ubiquitous in major cities and house the homes and workplaces of many individuals. However, relatively few studies have been carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings based on field measurements. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of the Green Building, a unique 21-story tall structure located on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA, was characterized and modeled as a simplified lumped-mass beam model (SLMM, using data from a network of accelerometers. The accelerometer network was used to record structural responses due to ambient vibrations, blast loading, and the October 16th 2012 earthquake near Hollis Center (ME, USA. Spectral and signal coherence analysis of the collected data was used to identify natural frequencies, modes, foundation rocking behavior, and structural asymmetries. A relation between foundation rocking and structural natural frequencies was also found. Natural frequencies and structural acceleration from the field measurements were compared with those predicted by the SLMM which was updated by inverse solving based on advanced multiobjective optimization methods using the measured structural responses and found to have good agreement.

  17. The casualty chain inventory: a new scale for measuring peritraumatic responses: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandvik Leiv

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peritraumatic psychological- and sensory impressions in victims of civilian accidents are only partly understood. This study scrutinizes the level and duration of perceived psychological threat at scene of injury as well as in hospital (the casualty chain measured by the Casualty Chain Inventory (CCI. The purpose of the study was to assess and validate the CCI, and to examine the correlations between the new instrument and stress responses measured by the Impact of Event Scale (IES and the Post-traumatic Stress Scale-10 (PTSS-10 Methods Three hundred and fifteen injured, conscious, hospitalised patients were assessed with a self-report questionnaire. The CCI consists of eight items including sensory impressions and well-known psychological responses to trauma. Results The internal consistency of the CCI was solid (Cronbach's alpha: .83-.85. A factor analysis revealed two components, "perception" and "dissociation". The instrument correlates significantly with the Impact of Event Scale (r = 0.47 - 0.54 and the Posttraumatic Stress Scale-10 (r = 0.32 - 0.50. The explained variance is high both at the scene of injury (61% and in the hospital (65%. Dissociation and perception either used as a two-factor solution or as a sum score measured in the hospital, gave the strongest prediction for later psychological distress. Conclusions The CCI appears to be a useful screening instrument for, at an early state, identifying patients hospitalized after a physical incident at risk for subsequent psychological distress.

  18. Accounting for response misclassification and covariate measurement error improves power and reduces bias in epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dunlei; Branscum, Adam J; Stamey, James D

    2010-07-01

    To quantify the impact of ignoring misclassification of a response variable and measurement error in a covariate on statistical power, and to develop software for sample size and power analysis that accounts for these flaws in epidemiologic data. A Monte Carlo simulation-based procedure is developed to illustrate the differences in design requirements and inferences between analytic methods that properly account for misclassification and measurement error to those that do not in regression models for cross-sectional and cohort data. We found that failure to account for these flaws in epidemiologic data can lead to a substantial reduction in statistical power, over 25% in some cases. The proposed method substantially reduced bias by up to a ten-fold margin compared to naive estimates obtained by ignoring misclassification and mismeasurement. We recommend as routine practice that researchers account for errors in measurement of both response and covariate data when determining sample size, performing power calculations, or analyzing data from epidemiological studies. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure: An item response theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Yiyun; Sellbom, Martin; Xu, Jing

    2018-05-01

    There is cumulative evidence for the cross-cultural validity of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM; Patrick, 2010) among non-Western populations. Recent studies using correlational and regression analyses show promising construct validity of the TriPM in Chinese samples. However, little is known about the efficiency of items in TriPM in assessing the proposed latent traits. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese TriPM at the item level using item response theory analyses. It also examined the measurement invariance of the TriPM between the Chinese and the U.S. student samples by applying differential item functioning analyses under the item response theory framework. The results supported the unidimensional nature of the Disinhibition and Meanness scales. Both scales had a greater level of precision in the respective underlying constructs at the positive ends. The two scales, however, had several items that were weakly associated with their respective latent traits in the Chinese student sample. Boldness, on the other hand, was found to be multidimensional, and reflected a more normally distributed range of variation. The examination of measurement bias via differential item functioning analyses revealed that a number of items of the TriPM were not equivalent across the Chinese and the U.S. Some modification and adaptation of items might be considered for improving the precision of the TriPM for Chinese participants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Field Measurement-Based System Identification and Dynamic Response Prediction of a Unique MIT Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Young-Jin; Trocha, Peter; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-01-01

    Tall buildings are ubiquitous in major cities and house the homes and workplaces of many individuals. However, relatively few studies have been carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings based on field measurements. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of the Green Building, a unique 21-story tall structure located on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA), was characterized and modeled as a simplified lumped-mass beam model (SLMM), using data from a network of accelerometers. The accelerometer network was used to record structural responses due to ambient vibrations, blast loading, and the October 16th 2012 earthquake near Hollis Center (ME, USA). Spectral and signal coherence analysis of the collected data was used to identify natural frequencies, modes, foundation rocking behavior, and structural asymmetries. A relation between foundation rocking and structural natural frequencies was also found. Natural frequencies and structural acceleration from the field measurements were compared with those predicted by the SLMM which was updated by inverse solving based on advanced multiobjective optimization methods using the measured structural responses and found to have good agreement. PMID:27376303

  1. Vasomotor response of the human face: laser-Doppler measurements during mild hypo- and hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, W; Cabanac, M

    1993-04-01

    The skin of the face is reputed not to vasoconstrict in response to cold stress because the face skin temperature remains steady during hypothermia. The purpose of the present work was to measure the vasomotor response of the human face to whole-body hypothermia, and to compare it with hyperthermia. Six male subjects were immersed in cold and in warm water to obtain the two conditions. Skin blood flow, evaporation, and skin temperature (Tsk) were recorded in three loci of the face, the forehead, the infra orbital area, and the cheek. Tympanic (Tty) and oesophageal (Toes) temperatures were also recorded during the different thermal states. Normothermic measurements served as control. Blood flow was recorded with a laser-Doppler flowmeter, evaporation measured with an evaporimeter. Face Tsk remained stable between normo-, hypo-, and hyperthermia. Facial blood flow, however, did not follow the same pattern. The facial blood flow remained at minimal vasoconstricted level when the subjects' condition was changed from normo- to hypothermia. When the condition changed from hypo- to hyperthermia a 3 to 9-fold increase in the blood flow was recorded. From these results it was concluded that a vasoconstriction seems to be the general vasomotor state in the face during normothermia.

  2. Measures of total stress-induced blood pressure responses are associated with vascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, Pietro; Seccia, Teresa; Vulpis, Vito; Schirosi, Gabriella; Serio, Gabriella; Battista, Loredana; Pirrelli, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The role of cardiovascular reactivity to study hypertension, and the assessment methods, are still controversial. We aimed to verify the association of hypertension and vascular damage with several measures of cardiovascular response. We studied 40 patients with normal-high (132 +/- 1/87 +/- 1 mm Hg) blood pressure (Group 1) and 80 untreated hypertensive subjects. Postischemic forearm vascular resistance (mFVR) served to differentiate hypertensive subjects (142 +/- 2/92 +/- 1 mm Hg v 143 +/- 2/94 +/- 2 mm Hg, P = NS) with a lower (Group 2) and higher (Group 3) hemodynamic index of vascular damage (4.8 +/- .05 v 6.3 +/- .09, P blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow, and vascular resistance. Reactivity measures included: a) change from baseline, b) residualized score, c) cumulative change from baseline and residualized score, and d) total reactivity as area-under-the-curve (AUC), including changes occurring during baseline and recovery phases. The AUC of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mFVR progressively increased in the groups (P AUC of SBP, DBP, and forearm blood flow and resistance demonstrated the highest (P AUC of SBP (beta = 0.634) and forearm blood flow (beta = -0.337) were predictive (P blood pressure stress response, as AUC, including baseline and recovery phases, was significantly better associated with hypertension and vascular damage than the other reactivity measures studied.

  3. Inferring convective responses to El Niño with atmospheric electricity measurements at Shetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R G; Pascoe, K; Joshi, M

    2011-01-01

    Pacific ocean temperature anomalies associated with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modulate atmospheric convection and hence thunderstorm electrification. The generated current flows globally via the atmospheric electric circuit, which can be monitored anywhere on Earth. Atmospheric electricity measurements made at Shetland (in Scotland) display a mean global circuit response to ENSO that is characterized by strengthening during ‘El Niño’ conditions, and weakening during ‘La Niña’ conditions. Examining the hourly varying response indicates that a potential gradient (PG) increase around noon UT is likely to be associated with a change in atmospheric convection and resultant lightning activity over equatorial Africa and Eastern Asia. A secondary increase in PG just after midnight UT can be attributed to more shower clouds in the central Pacific ocean during an ‘El Niño’.

  4. Measurement and deconvolution of detector response time for short HPM pulses: Part 1, Microwave diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, P.R.

    1987-06-01

    A technique is described for measuring and deconvolving response times of microwave diode detection systems in order to generate corrected input signals typical of an infinite detection rate. The method has been applied to cases of 2.86 GHz ultra-short HPM pulse detection where pulse rise time is comparable to that of the detector; whereas, the duration of a few nanoseconds is significantly longer. Results are specified in terms of the enhancement of equivalent deconvolved input voltages for given observed voltages. The convolution integral imposes the constraint of linear detector response to input power levels. This is physically equivalent to the conservation of integrated pulse energy in the deconvolution process. The applicable dynamic range of a microwave diode is therefore limited to a smaller signal region as determined by its calibration

  5. Organic scintillators response function modeling for Monte Carlo simulation of Time-of-Flight measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carasco, C., E-mail: cedric.carasco@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-15

    In neutron Time-of-Flight (TOF) measurements performed with fast organic scintillation detectors, both pulse arrival time and amplitude are relevant. Monte Carlo simulation can be used to calculate the time-energy dependant neutron flux at the detector position. To convert the flux into a pulse height spectrum, one must calculate the detector response function for mono-energetic neutrons. MCNP can be used to design TOF systems, but standard MCNP versions cannot reliably calculate the energy deposited by fast neutrons in the detector since multiple scattering effects must be taken into account in an analog way, the individual recoil particles energy deposit being summed with the appropriate scintillation efficiency. In this paper, the energy response function of 2 Double-Prime Multiplication-Sign 2 Double-Prime and 5 Double-Prime Multiplication-Sign 5 Double-Prime liquid scintillation BC-501 A (Bicron) detectors to fast neutrons ranging from 20 keV to 5.0 MeV is computed with GEANT4 to be coupled with MCNPX through the 'MCNP Output Data Analysis' software developed under ROOT (). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GEANT4 has been used to model organic scintillators response to neutrons up to 5 MeV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The response of 2 Double-Prime Multiplication-Sign 2 Double-Prime and 5 Double-Prime Multiplication-Sign 5 Double-Prime BC501A detectors has been parameterized with simple functions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parameterization will allow the modeling of neutron Time of Flight measurements with MCNP using tools based on CERN's ROOT.

  6. Measurement and evaluation of high-rise building response to ground motion generated by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the structural response research program being conducted for ERDA, the response behavior of high-rise buildings in Las Vegas, Nevada, due to ground motion caused by underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has been measured for the past 12 years. Results obtained include variation in dynamic response properties as a function of amplitude of motion, influence of nonstructural partitions in the building response, and comparison of calculated and measured response. These data for three reinforced concrete high-rise buildings, all designed as moment-resisting space frames are presented

  7. Quantitative sensory testing measures individual pain responses in emergency department patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy KJ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kevin J Duffy, Katharyn L Flickinger, Jeffrey T Kristan, Melissa J Repine, Alexandro Gianforcaro, Rebecca B Hasley, Saad Feroz, Jessica M Rupp, Jumana Al-Baghli, Maria L Pacella, Brian P Suffoletto, Clifton W Callaway Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Background: Refining and individualizing treatment of acute pain in the emergency department (ED is a high priority, given that painful complaints are the most common reasons for ED visits. Few tools exist to objectively measure pain perception in the ED setting. We speculated that variation in perception of fixed painful stimuli would explain individual variation in reported pain and response to treatment among ED patients. Materials and methods: In three studies, we 1 describe performance characteristics of brief quantitative sensory testing (QST in 50 healthy volunteers, 2 test effects of 10 mg oxycodone versus placebo on QST measures in 18 healthy volunteers, and 3 measure interindividual differences in nociception and treatment responses in 198 ED patients with a painful complaint during ED treatment. QST measures adapted for use in the ED included pressure sensation threshold, pressure pain threshold (PPT, pressure pain response (PPR, and cold pain tolerance (CPT tests. Results: First, all QST measures had high inter-rater reliability and test–retest reproducibility. Second, 10 mg oxycodone reduced PPR, increased PPT, and prolonged CPT. Third, baseline PPT and PPR revealed hyperalgesia in 31 (16% ED subjects relative to healthy volunteers. In 173 (88% ED subjects who completed repeat testing 30 minutes after pain treatment, PPT increased and PPR decreased (Cohen’s dz 0.10–0.19. Verbal pain scores (0–10 for the ED complaint decreased by 2.2 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.9, 2.6 (Cohen’s dz 0.97 but did not covary with the changes in PPT and PPR (r=0.05–0.13. Treatment effects were greatest in ED subjects

  8. A Reliable Measure of Information Security Awareness and the Identification of Bias in Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata McCormac

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Human Aspects of Information Security Questionnaire (HAIS-Q is designed to measure Information Security Awareness. More specifically, the tool measures an individual’s knowledge, attitude, and self-reported behaviour relating to information security in the workplace. This paper reports on the reliability of the HAIS-Q, including test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The paper also assesses the reliability of three preliminary over-claiming items, designed specifically to complement the HAIS-Q, and identify those individuals who provide socially desirable responses. A total of 197 working Australians completed two iterations of the HAIS-Q and the over-claiming items, approximately 4 weeks apart. Results of the analysis showed that the HAIS-Q was externally reliable and internally consistent. Therefore, the HAIS-Q can be used to reliably measure information security awareness. Reliability testing on the preliminary over-claiming items was not as robust and further development is required and recommended. The implications of these findings mean that organisations can confidently use the HAIS-Q to not only measure the current state of employee information security awareness within their organisation, but they can also measure the effectiveness and impacts of training interventions, information security awareness programs and campaigns. The influence of cultural changes and the effect of security incidents can also be assessed.

  9. Post-Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how...... serial acquirers realize IT-based value, we develop three propositions on the sequential effects on post-acquisition IT integration in acquisition programs. Their combined explanation is that serial acquirers must have a growth-by-acquisition strategy that includes the capability to improve...... IT integration capabilities, to sustain high alignment across acquisitions and to maintain a scalable IT infrastructure with a flat or decreasing cost structure. We begin the process of validating the three propositions by investigating a longitudinal case study of a growth-by-acquisition program....

  10. SU-E-QI-12: Morphometry Based Measurements of the Structural Response to Whole Brain Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, D; Castillo, R; Castillo, E; Guerrero, T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although state of the art radiation therapy techniques for treating intracranial malignancies have eliminated acute brain injury, cognitive impairment occurs in 50–90% of patients who survive >6mo post irradiation. Quantitative characterization of therapy response is needed to facilitate therapeutic strategies to minimize radiation induced cognitive impairment [1]. Deformation based morphometry techniques [2, 3] are presented as a quantitative imaging biomarker of therapy response in patients receiving whole brain radiation for treating medulloblastoma. Methods: Post-irradiation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets were retrospectively analyzed in N=15 patients, >60 MR image datasets. As seen in Fig 1(a), volume changes at multiple time points post-irradiation were quantitatively measured in the cerebrum and ventricles with respect to pre-irradiation MRI. A high resolution image Template, was registered to the pre-irradiation MRI of each patient to create a brain atlas for the cerebrum, cerebellum, and ventricles. Skull stripped images for each patient were registered to the initial pre-treatment scan. Average volume changes in the labeled regions were measured using the determinant of the displacement field Jacobian. Results: Longitudinal measurements, Fig 1(b-c), show a negative correlation p=.06, of the cerebral volume change with the time interval from irradiation. A corresponding positive correlation, p=.01, between ventricular volume change and time interval from irradiation is seen. One sample t-test for correlations were computed using a Spearman method. An average decrease in cerebral volume, p=.08, and increase in ventricular volume, p<.001, was observed. The radiation dose was seen directly proportional to the induced volume changes in the cerebrum, r=−.44, p<.001, Fig 1(d). Conclusion: Results indicate that morphometric monitoring of brain tissue volume changes may potentially be used to quantitatively assess toxicity and response to

  11. SU-E-QI-12: Morphometry Based Measurements of the Structural Response to Whole Brain Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, D; Castillo, R; Castillo, E; Guerrero, T [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Although state of the art radiation therapy techniques for treating intracranial malignancies have eliminated acute brain injury, cognitive impairment occurs in 50–90% of patients who survive >6mo post irradiation. Quantitative characterization of therapy response is needed to facilitate therapeutic strategies to minimize radiation induced cognitive impairment [1]. Deformation based morphometry techniques [2, 3] are presented as a quantitative imaging biomarker of therapy response in patients receiving whole brain radiation for treating medulloblastoma. Methods: Post-irradiation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets were retrospectively analyzed in N=15 patients, >60 MR image datasets. As seen in Fig 1(a), volume changes at multiple time points post-irradiation were quantitatively measured in the cerebrum and ventricles with respect to pre-irradiation MRI. A high resolution image Template, was registered to the pre-irradiation MRI of each patient to create a brain atlas for the cerebrum, cerebellum, and ventricles. Skull stripped images for each patient were registered to the initial pre-treatment scan. Average volume changes in the labeled regions were measured using the determinant of the displacement field Jacobian. Results: Longitudinal measurements, Fig 1(b-c), show a negative correlation p=.06, of the cerebral volume change with the time interval from irradiation. A corresponding positive correlation, p=.01, between ventricular volume change and time interval from irradiation is seen. One sample t-test for correlations were computed using a Spearman method. An average decrease in cerebral volume, p=.08, and increase in ventricular volume, p<.001, was observed. The radiation dose was seen directly proportional to the induced volume changes in the cerebrum, r=−.44, p<.001, Fig 1(d). Conclusion: Results indicate that morphometric monitoring of brain tissue volume changes may potentially be used to quantitatively assess toxicity and response to

  12. A Review of Sea State Estimation Procedures Based on Measured Vessel Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2016-01-01

    for shipboard SSE using measured vessel responses, resembling the concept of traditional wave rider buoys. Moreover, newly developed ideas for shipboard sea state estimation are introduced. The presented material is all based on the author’s personal experience, developed within extensive work on the subject......The operation of ships requires careful monitoring of therelated costs while, at the same time, ensuring a high level of safety. A ship’s performance with respect to safety and fuel efficiency may be compromised by the encountered waves. Consequently, it is important to estimate the surrounding...

  13. Ordinance on the body responsible for taking measures in case of increased radioactivity (OROIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    This Ordinance, based on atomic energy legislation, public safety, military organisation and the defense council, replaced a previous ordinance of 1966 on alert in case of increased radioactivity. It sets up the body responsible for this work and describes the tasks to be performed in case of an occurrence which could create hazards for the population due to increased radioactivity. If a Swiss nuclear installation creates such a hazard, the 1982 Ordinance on emergency measures in the neighbourhood of nuclear installations also applies. The Ordinance entered into force on 1 May 1987 (NEA) [fr

  14. Measurement of erythema and tanning responses in human skin using a tri-stimulus colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, J C; Whitmore, C G

    1988-01-01

    A 'Minolta Tri-Stimulus Colorimeter II' was evaluated for obtaining objective measurements of early changes in erythema and tanning. The meter showed a subtle, continuous transition between the primary erythematous response and the delayed tanning of skin which was below the visual threshold for detection. Thereafter, the a* (redness) value of the meter showed a significant linear correlation with the dermatologist's perception of erythema while the b* (yellow) value showed a significant correlation with the perception of tanning. This capability of the tri-stimulus colorimeter to simultaneously evaluate the hue and saturation of skin color affords an improved opportunity to quantitate the transition from erythema to tanning without subjective bias.

  15. Identification of Scattering Mechanisms from Measured Impulse Response Signatures of Several Conducting Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    conducting sphere 35 compared to inverse transform of exact solution. 4-5. Measured impulse response of a conducting 2:1 right 37 circular cylinder with...frequency domain. This is equivalent to multiplication in the time domain by the inverse transform of w(n), which is shown in Figure 3-1 for N=15. The...equivalent pulse width from 0.066 T for the rectangular window to 0.10 T for the Hanning window. The inverse transform of the Hanning window is shown

  16. Dynamic response of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors analyzed by S-parameters measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethoux, J.-M. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, C.N.R.S. U.M.R. 8520, BP 60069, F-59652, Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Happy, H. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, C.N.R.S. U.M.R. 8520, BP 60069, F-59652, Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)]. E-mail: henri.happy@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Dambrine, G. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, C.N.R.S. U.M.R. 8520, BP 60069, F-59652, Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Derycke, V. [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire, SPEC, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay F-91191, Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Goffman, M. [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire, SPEC, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay F-91191, Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Bourgoin, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire, SPEC, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay F-91191, Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-12-15

    Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CN-FET) with a metallic back gate have been fabricated. By assembling a number of CNs in parallel, driving currents in the mA range have been obtained. The dynamic response of the CN-FETs has been investigated through S-parameters measurements. A current gain (|H {sub 21}|{sup 2}) cut-off frequency (f {sub t}) of 8 GHz, and a maximum stable gain (MSG) value of 10 dB at 1 GHz have been obtained. The extraction of an equivalent circuit is proposed.

  17. Dynamic response of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors analyzed by S-parameters measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethoux, J.-M.; Happy, H.; Dambrine, G.; Derycke, V.; Goffman, M.; Bourgoin, J.-P.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CN-FET) with a metallic back gate have been fabricated. By assembling a number of CNs in parallel, driving currents in the mA range have been obtained. The dynamic response of the CN-FETs has been investigated through S-parameters measurements. A current gain (|H 21 | 2 ) cut-off frequency (f t ) of 8 GHz, and a maximum stable gain (MSG) value of 10 dB at 1 GHz have been obtained. The extraction of an equivalent circuit is proposed

  18. Feasibility of measuring memory response to increasing dexmedetomidine sedation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, K P; Kelhoffer, E R; Prescilla, R; Mehta, M; Root, J C; Young, V J; Robinson, F; Veselis, R A

    2017-02-01

    The memory effect of dexmedetomidine has not been prospectively evaluated in children. We evaluated the feasibility of measuring memory and sedation responses in children during dexmedetomidine sedation for non-painful radiological imaging studies. Secondarily, we quantified changes in memory in relation to the onset of sedation. A 10 min bolus of dexmedetomidine (2 mcg kg -1 ) was given to children as they named simple line drawings every five s. The absence of sedation was identified as any verbal response, regardless of correctness. After recovery, recognition memory was tested with correct Yes/No recognitions (50% novel pictures) and was matched to sedation responses during the bolus period (subsequent memory paradigm). Of 64 accruals, 30 children (mean [SD]6.1 (1.2) yr, eight male) received dexmedetomidine and completed all study tasks. Individual responses were able to be modelled successfully in the 30 children completing all the study tasks, demonstrating feasibility of this approach. Children had 50% probability of verbal response at five min 40 s after infusion start, whereas 50% probability of subsequent recognition memory occurred sooner at four min five s. Quantifying memory and sedation effects during dexmedetomidine infusion in verbal children was possible and demonstrated that memory function was present until shortly before verbal unresponsiveness occurred. This is the first study to investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine on memory in children. NCT 02354378. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Rad Chem data acquisition chassis users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Shiva Laser at LLL requires many forms of diagnostics to measure and analyze fusion experiments. This manual describes the operation of a Micro-Processor controlled data acquisition system designed at LLL to measure Neutron Activation during fusion experiments on the Shiva Laser

  20. Test of PPV and kVp magnitudes using a non invasive voltage test aiming an improvement on the measurement acquisition; Testes das grandezas PPV e kVp utilizando um medidor de tensao nao invasivo visando um aperfeicoamento na aquisicao de medidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Rodrigo F. de; Dias, Daniel M.; Franciscatto, Priscila C.; Correa, Eduardo de L.; Vivolo, Vitor; Potiens, Maria da Penha A., E-mail: rodrigoifusp@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: dmdias@ipen.b, E-mail: pfranciscatto@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: edu1905@gmail.co, E-mail: vivolo@ipen.b, E-mail: mppalbu@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work the measurements of PPV (Practical Peak Voltage) and kVp (Peak Voltage) were studied obtained by use of voltage non invasive, under different conditions, viewing an improvement on the acquisition measurements at the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, for the implantation of the radiation quality required for the required calibrations for X radiation instruments

  1. Dynamic response of thermal neutron measurements in electrochemically produced cold fusion subject to pulsed current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, Jose; Converti, Jose; Mayer, Roberto; Guido, German; Florido, Pablo; Patino, Nestor; Sobehart, Leonardo; Gomez, Silvia; Larreteguy, Axel

    1988-01-01

    The present work shows the results of measurements performed on electrolytic cells using a high efficiency (22%) neutron detection system in combination with a procedure involving a non-stationary current through the cell's circuit. Cold fusion was produced in electrolytic cells containing LiH dissolved in heavy water with a palladium cathode. The dynamic response to low frequency current pulses was measured. Characteristic patterns showing one or two bumps were obtained in a repeatable fashion. These patterns are strongly dependent on the previous charging history of the cathode. The technique employed seems to be very convenient as a research tool for a systematic study of the different variables governing the phenomenon. (Author)

  2. Microeconomics. Harnessing naturally occurring data to measure the response of spending to income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Michael; Kariv, Shachar; Shapiro, Matthew D; Silverman, Dan; Tadelis, Steven

    2014-07-11

    This paper presents a new data infrastructure for measuring economic activity. The infrastructure records transactions and account balances, yielding measurements with scope and accuracy that have little precedent in economics. The data are drawn from a diverse population that overrepresents males and younger adults but contains large numbers of underrepresented groups. The data infrastructure permits evaluation of a benchmark theory in economics that predicts that individuals should use a combination of cash management, saving, and borrowing to make the timing of income irrelevant for the timing of spending. As in previous studies and in contrast to the predictions of the theory, there is a response of spending to the arrival of anticipated income. The data also show, however, that this apparent excess sensitivity of spending results largely from the coincident timing of regular income and regular spending. The remaining excess sensitivity is concentrated among individuals with less liquidity. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Preliminary Validation of a New Measure of Negative Response Bias: The Temporal Memory Sequence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedish, Omer; Kivilis, Naama; Hoofien, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Temporal Memory Sequence Test (TMST) is a new measure of negative response bias (NRB) that was developed to enrich the forced-choice paradigm. The TMST does not resemble the common structure of forced-choice tests and is presented as a temporal recall memory test. The validation sample consisted of 81 participants: 21 healthy control participants, 20 coached simulators, and 40 patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). The TMST had high reliability and significantly high positive correlations with the Test of Memory Malingering and Word Memory Test effort scales. Moreover, the TMST effort scales exhibited high negative correlations with the Glasgow Coma Scale, thus validating the previously reported association between probable malingering and mild traumatic brain injury. A suggested cutoff score yielded acceptable classification rates in the ABI group as well as in the simulator and control groups. The TMST appears to be a promising measure of NRB detection, with respectable rates of reliability and construct and criterion validity.

  4. Atmospheric correction for JPSS-2 VIIRS response versus scan angle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Jeffrey; Moeller, Chris; Oudrari, Hassan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2017-09-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System 2 (JPSS-2) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) includes one spectral band centered in a strong atmospheric absorption region. As much of the pre-launch calibration is performed under laboratory ambient conditions, accurately accounting for the absorption, and thereby ensuring the transfer of the sensor calibration to on-orbit operations, is necessary to generate science quality data products. This work is focused on the response versus scan angle (RVS) measurements, which characterize the relative scan angle dependent reflectance of the JPSS-2 VIIRS instrument optics. The spectral band of interest, centered around 1378 nm, is within a spectral region strongly effected by water vapor absorption. The methodology used to model the absolute humidity and the atmospheric transmittance under the laboratory conditions is detailed. The application of this transmittance to the RVS determination is then described including an uncertainty estimate; a comparison to the pre-launch measurements from earlier sensor builds is also performed.

  5. Seismic data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.; Nadre, V.N.; Rao, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Details of seismic data acquisition systems developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay are reported. The seismic signals acquired belong to different signal bandwidths in the band from 0.02 Hz to 250 Hz. All these acquisition systems are built around a unique technique of recording multichannel data on to a single track of an audio tape and in digital form. Techniques of how these signals in different bands of frequencies were acquired and recorded are described. Method of detecting seismic signals and its performance is also discussed. Seismic signals acquired in different set-ups are illustrated. Time indexing systems for different set-ups and multichannel waveform display systems which form essential part of the data acquisition systems are also discussed. (author). 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. Zenith: A Radiosonde Detector for Rapid-Response Ionizing Atmospheric Radiation Measurements During Solar Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, A. C. R.; Ryden, K. A.; Hands, A. D. P.; Dyer, C.; Burnett, C.; Gibbs, M.

    2018-03-01

    Solar energetic particle events create radiation risks for aircraft, notably single-event effects in microelectronics along with increased dose to crew and passengers. In response to this, some airlines modify their flight routes after automatic alerts are issued. At present these alerts are based on proton flux measurements from instruments onboard satellites, so it is important that contemporary atmospheric radiation measurements are made and compared. This paper presents the development of a rapid-response system built around the use of radiosondes equipped with a radiation detector, Zenith, which can be launched from a Met Office weather station after significant solar proton level alerts are issued. Zenith is a compact, battery-powered solid-state radiation monitor designed to be connected to a Vaisala RS-92 radiosonde, which transmits all data to a ground station as it ascends to an altitude of 33 km. Zenith can also be operated as a stand-alone detector when connected to a laptop, providing real-time count rates. It can also be adapted for use on unmanned aerial vehicles. Zenith has been flown on the Met Office Civil Contingency Aircraft, taken to the European Organization for Nuclear Research-EU high energy Reference Field facility for calibration and launched on a meteorological balloon at the Met Office's weather station in Camborne, Cornwall, UK. During this sounding, Zenith measured the Pfotzer-Regener maximum to be at an altitude of 18-20 km where the count rate was measured to be 1.15 c s-1 cm-2 compared to 0.02 c s-1 cm-2 at ground level.

  7. Measurement of the total antioxidant response in preeclampsia with a novel automated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harma, Mehmet; Harma, Muge; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-01-10

    Preeclampsia is one of the most serious complications of pregnancy. Free radical damage has been implicated in the pathophysiology of this condition. In this study, we aimed to measure the antioxidant capacity in plasma samples from normotensive and preeclamptic pregnant women to evaluate their antioxidant status using a more recently developed automated measurement method. Our study group contained 42 women, 24 of whom had preeclampsia, while 18 had normotensive pregnancies. We measured the total plasma antioxidant capacity for all patients, as well as the levels of four major individual plasma antioxidant components; albumin, uric acid, ascorbic acid and bilirubin, and as a reciprocal measure, their total plasma peroxide levels. Statistically significant differences (determined using Student's t-test) were noted between the normotensive and the preeclamptic groups for their total antioxidant responses and their vitamin C levels (1.31 +/- 0.12 mmol versus 1.06 +/- 0.41 mmol Trolox eq./L; 30.2 +/- 17.83 micromol/L versus 18.1 +/- 11.37 micromol/L, respectively), which were both considerably reduced in the preeclamptic patients. In contrast, the total plasma peroxide levels were significantly elevated in this group (49.8 +/- 14.3 micromol/L versus 38.8 +/- 9.6 micromol/L). We found a decreased total antioxidant response in preeclamptic patients using a simple, rapid and reliable automated colorimetric assay, which may suitable for use in any routine clinical biochemistry laboratory, and considerably facilitates the assessment of this useful clinical parameter. We suggest that this novel method may be used as a routine test to evaluate and follow up of the levels of oxidative stress in preeclampsia.

  8. The GRIFFIN data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnsworthy, A.B., E-mail: garns@triumf.ca [Physical Sciences Division, TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Pearson, C.J.; Bishop, D.; Shaw, B.; Smith, J.K.; Bowry, M. [Physical Sciences Division, TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Bildstein, V. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Rd E, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Hackman, G. [Physical Sciences Division, TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Garrett, P.E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Rd E, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Linn, Y. [Physical Sciences Division, TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Martin, J.-P. [Department of Physics, Université de Montréal, 2900 Boulevard Edouard-Montpetit, Montréal, QC, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada); Mills, W.J. [Physical Sciences Division, TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Svensson, C.E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Rd E, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2017-05-01

    Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei, GRIFFIN, is a new experimental facility for radioactive decay studies at the TRIUMF-ISAC laboratory. This article describes the details of the custom designed GRIFFIN digital data acquisition system. The features of the system that will enable high-precision half-life and branching ratio measurements with levels of uncertainty better than 0.05% are described. The system has demonstrated the ability to effectively collect signals from High-purity germanium crystals at counting rates up to 50 kHz while maintaining good energy resolution, detection efficiency and spectral quality.

  9. Profiling vocabulary acquisition in Irish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ciara; Fletcher, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Investigations into early vocabulary development, including the timing of the acquisition of nouns, verbs and closed-class words, have produced conflicting results, both within and across languages. Studying vocabulary development in Irish can contribute to this area, as it has potentially informative features such as a VSO word order, and semantically rich prepositions. This study used a parent report adapted for Irish, to measure vocabulary development longitudinally for children aged between 1,04 and 3,04. The findings indicated that the children learned closed-class words at relatively smaller vocabulary sizes compared to children acquiring other languages, and had a strong preference for nouns.

  10. Essays on mergers and acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Faelten, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    “Essays on Mergers and Acquisitions" tackles some of the most prominent business challenges related to M&A activity. The Introduction examines the reasons why deals fail through well-known case studies; Chapter 1 presents a new index measuring countries M&A maturity worldwide; Chapter 2 focus on the importance of corporate governance when conducting deals in unknown territories; whilst Chapter 3 and 4 conduct research on companies’ decision to tap capital markets and their subsequent M&A acti...

  11. LEGS data acquisition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVine, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The data acquisition facility for the LEGS medium energy photonuclear beam line is composed of an auxiliary crate controller (ACC) acting as a front-end processor, loosely coupled to a time-sharing host computer based on a UNIX-like environment. The ACC services all real-time demands in the CAMAC crate: it responds to LAMs generated by data acquisition modules, to keyboard commands, and it refreshes the graphics display at frequent intervals. The host processor is needed only for printing histograms and recording event buffers on magnetic tape. The host also provides the environment for software development. The CAMAC crate is interfaced by a VERSAbus CAMAC branch driver

  12. Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Øhrgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    of temporary agency workers. Following an analytic induction approach, theoretically grounded in the re-source-based view of the firm, we identify the complimentary and supplementary roles consultants can assume in acquisition IT integration. Through case studies of three acquirers, we investigate how...... the acquirers appropriate the use of agency workers as part of its acquisition strategy. For the investigated acquirers, assigning roles to agency workers is contingent on balancing the needs of knowledge induction and knowledge retention, as well as experience richness and in-depth under-standing. Composition...

  13. A fast response miniature probe for wet steam flow field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosdas, Ilias; Mansour, Michel; Abhari, Reza S; Kalfas, Anestis I

    2016-01-01

    Modern steam turbines require operational flexibility due to renewable energies’ increasing share of the electrical grid. Additionally, the continuous increase in energy demand necessitates efficient design of the steam turbines as well as power output augmentation. The long turbine rotor blades at the machines’ last stages are prone to mechanical vibrations and as a consequence time-resolved experimental data under wet steam conditions are essential for the development of large-scale low-pressure steam turbines. This paper presents a novel fast response miniature heated probe for unsteady wet steam flow field measurements. The probe has a tip diameter of 2.5 mm, and a miniature heater cartridge ensures uncontaminated pressure taps from condensed water. The probe is capable of providing the unsteady flow angles, total and static pressure as well as the flow Mach number. The operating principle and calibration procedure are described in the current work and a detailed uncertainty analysis demonstrates the capability of the new probe to perform accurate flow field measurements under wet steam conditions. In order to exclude any data possibly corrupted by droplets’ impact or evaporation from the heating process, a filtering algorithm was developed and implemented in the post-processing phase of the measured data. In the last part of this paper the probe is used in an experimental steam turbine test facility and measurements are conducted at the inlet and exit of the last stage with an average wetness mass fraction of 8.0%. (paper)

  14. The relationship between elastomer opacity, colorimeter beam size, and measured colorimetric response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, E H; Johnston, W M; Hesse, N S

    1991-01-01

    The effect of opacity on the colorimetric responses of large-area and small-area colorimeters was determined using an elastomer intended for maxillofacial prosthetics use and containing various pigments at different concentrations. Opacity was determined by calculating the contrast ratio of 2-mm-thick specimens against black and white backings, using Kubelka-Munk analyses to correct for thickness and backing color variations. The measure of comparison of the two colorimeters was the relative difference in tristimulus reflectance, with the tristimulus reflectance of the large-area colorimeter as the basis of the relative difference. A significant quadratic relationship was found between contrast ratio and the relative difference in tristimulus reflectance. This relationship may be used to describe opacity without the need to make optical observations or measurements of a thin layer of material on contrasting backings. The small-area colorimeter produced color parameters that are a measure of the combined effects of both color and opacity. The importance of beam size considerations of optical measuring devices for translucent natural and prosthetic materials was emphasized.

  15. Measurement of the viscoelastic compliance of the eustachian tube using a modified forced-response test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiali, Samir N; Federspiel, William J; Swarts, J Douglas; Doyle, William J

    2002-01-01

    Eustachian tube compliance (ETC) was suggested to be an important determinate of function. Previous attempts to quantify ETC used summary measures that are not clearly related to the physical properties of the system. Here, we present a new method for measuring ETC that conforms more closely to the engineering definition of compliance. The forced response test was modified to include oscillations in applied flow after the forced tubal opening. Pressure and flow were recorded during the standard and modified test in 12 anesthetized cynomolgus monkeys. The resulting pressure-flow, hysteresis loops were compared with those predicted by a simple fluid-structure model of the Eustachian tube with linear-elastic or viscoelastic properties. The tubal compliance index (TCI) and a viscoelastic compliance (C(v)) were calculated from these data for each monkey. The behavior of a viscoelastic, but not a linear elastic model accurately reproduced the experimental data for the monkey. The TCI and C(v) were linearly related, but the shared variance in these measures was only 63%. This new method for measuring ETC captures all information contained in the traditional TCI, but also provides information regarding the contribution of wall viscosity to Eustachian tube mechanics.

  16. Harmonizing Measures of Cognitive Performance Across International Surveys of Aging Using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kitty S; Gross, Alden L; Pezzin, Liliana E; Brandt, Jason; Kasper, Judith D

    2015-12-01

    To harmonize measures of cognitive performance using item response theory (IRT) across two international aging studies. Data for persons ≥65 years from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 9,471) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, N = 5,444). Cognitive performance measures varied (HRS fielded 25, ELSA 13); 9 were in common. Measurement precision was examined for IRT scores based on (a) common items, (b) common items adjusted for differential item functioning (DIF), and (c) DIF-adjusted all items. Three common items (day of date, immediate word recall, and delayed word recall) demonstrated DIF by survey. Adding survey-specific items improved precision but mainly for HRS respondents at lower cognitive levels. IRT offers a feasible strategy for harmonizing cognitive performance measures across other surveys and for other multi-item constructs of interest in studies of aging. Practical implications depend on sample distribution and the difficulty mix of in-common and survey-specific items. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Flat-field response and geometric distortion measurements of optical streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.S.; Drake, R.P.; Jones, B.A.; Wiedwald, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    To accurately measure pulse amplitude, shape, and relative time histories of optical signals with an optical streak camera, it is necessary to correct each recorded image for spatially-dependent gain nonuniformity and geometric distortion. Gain nonuniformities arise from sensitivity variations in the streak-tube photocathode, phosphor screen, image-intensifier tube, and image recording system. By using a 1.053-μm, long-pulse, high-power laser to generate a spatially and temporally uniform source as input to the streak camera, the combined effects of flat-field response and geometric distortion can be measured under the normal dynamic operation of cameras with S-1 photocathodes. Additionally, by using the same laser system to generate a train of short pulses that can be spatially modulated at the input of the streak camera, the authors can create a two-dimensional grid of equally-spaced pulses. This allows a dynamic measurement of the geometric distortion of the streak camera. The author discusses the techniques involved in performing these calibrations, present some of the measured results for LLNL optical streak cameras, and will discuss software methods to correct for these effects

  18. Assessment of treatment response in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using advanced magnetic resonance imaging measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Steven C.; Heba, Elhamy; Bettencourt, Ricki; Lin, Grace Y.; Valasek, Mark A.; Lunde, Ottar; Hamilton, Gavin; Sirlin, Claude B.; Loomba, Rohit

    2017-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging derived measures of liver fat and volume are emerging as accurate, non-invasive imaging biomarkers in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Little is known about these measures in relation to histology longitudinally. Aims This study examines this relationship between MRI-derived proton-density fat-fraction (PDFF), total liver volume (TLV), total liver fat index (TLFI), vs. histology in a NASH trial. Methods This is a secondary analysis of a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 50 patients with biopsy-proven NASH randomized to oral ezetimibe 10mg daily (n=25) vs. placebo (n=25). Baseline and post-treatment anthropometrics, biochemical profiling, MRI, and biopsies were obtained. Results Baseline mean PDFF correlated strongly with TLFI (Spearman’s ρ=0.94, n=45, PMRI-PDFF vs. TLV indicates that 10% reduction in MRI-PDFF predicts 257 mL reduction in TLV. Conclusions MRI-PDFF and TLV strongly correlated with TLFI. Decreases in steatosis were associated with an improvement in hepatomegaly. Lower values of these measures reflect lower histologic-steatosis grades. MRI-derived measures of liver fat and volume may be used as dynamic and more responsive imaging biomarkers in a NASH trial than histology. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01766713. PMID:28116801

  19. Instrument response measurements of ion mobility spectrometers in situ: maintaining optimal system performance of fielded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Eric; Griffin, Todd M.; Popkie, Norm, Jr.; Eagan, Michael A.; McAtee, Robert F.; Vrazel, Danet; McKinly, Jim

    2005-05-01

    Ion Mobility Spectroscopy (IMS) is the most widespread detection technique in use by the military for the detection of chemical warfare agents, explosives, and other threat agents. Moreover, its role in homeland security and force protection has expanded due, in part, to its good sensitivity, low power, lightweight, and reasonable cost. With the increased use of IMS systems as continuous monitors, it becomes necessary to develop tools and methodologies to ensure optimal performance over a wide range of conditions and extended periods of time. Namely, instrument calibration is needed to ensure proper sensitivity and to correct for matrix or environmental effects. We have developed methodologies to deal with the semi-quantitative nature of IMS and allow us to generate response curves that allow a gauge of instrument performance and maintenance requirements. This instrumentation communicates to the IMS systems via a software interface that was developed in-house. The software measures system response, logs information to a database, and generates the response curves. This paper will discuss the instrumentation, software, data collected, and initial results from fielded systems.

  20. Response of Moxon-Rae type gamma detectors for neutron capture cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, K.V.K.; Lal, B.; Jhingan, M.L.

    1974-01-01

    A detector devised by Moxon and Rae for the absolute measurement of (n,γ) cross sections is briefly described. This detector is supposed to have an efficiency per MeV of γ-ray energy independent of the energy of the γ-rays. Such a detector consists of an electron converter placed before a thin plastic scintillator which detects the electron emitted by interaction of the γ-ray in the converter. The performance of this type of detector depends on the thickness and composition of the converter. Detailed Monte-Carlo calculations of the response for γ-ray energies from 0.2 to 12 MeV has been carried out for elements ranging from C to Bi and for a mixture of elements as well as for a mixture of an element plus compound, to find out the suitable material and thickness of the converter. Among the elements studied for the converter, Ni, Mo and Sn have a uniform response over the photon energy range 1-12 MeV. Out of these elements Mo has a low neutron capture cross section in the energy range 1-1000 keV and is thus to be preferred. A mixture of C + Bi 2 O 3 in the weight ratio 11.6 : 88.4 gives a uniform response over the photon energy range 1-12 MeV. (K.B.)

  1. Understanding energy consumption behaviors in order to adapt demand response measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassileva, Iana; Wallin, Fredrik; Dahlquist, Erik [Malardalen University (Sweden)], email: iana.vassileva@mdh.se, email: fredrik.wallin@mdh.se, email: erik.dahlquist@mdh.se

    2011-07-01

    When new price strategies and other demand-response measures are being established, it is important that amounts of electricity consumed and the potential for consumer participation be given serious consideration. It is important to encourage consumers to use less electricity if sustainable use of energy is to be achieved. Demand-response is a key component of the smart grids concept. So it is vital to get a comprehensive understanding of how different processes and factors influence the end use of energy. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of questionnaire responses from 2000 households in Vaxjo, Sweden. It sheds new light on the energy consumption behaviors of Swedish householders. Since 2008 Vaxjo householder customers have been able to check their own daily electricity consumption and get advice and tips, via a website provided by the local energy company, on how to lower the use of electricity. At the present time, of those responding to the questionnaire, this website is visited more frequently by people who live in houses than in apartments.

  2. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  3. Attitudes and behavioral response toward key tobacco control measures from the FCTC among Chinese urban residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fuzhong

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese National People's Congress ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC on 27 August 2005, signaling China's commitment to implement tobacco control policies and legislation consistent with the treaty. This study was designed to examine attitudes towards four WHO FCTC measures among Chinese urban residents. Methods In a cross-sectional design study, survey data were collected from two Chinese urban cities involving a sample of 3,003 residents aged 15 years or older. Through a face-to-face interview, respondents were asked about attitudes toward four tobacco control measures developed by the WHO FCTC. Data on the four dependent measures were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Using descriptive statistics, potential change in smoking behavior that smokers might make in response to increasing cigarette prices is also reported. Results 81.8% of the respondents in the study sample supported banning smoking in public places, 68.8% favored increasing the cigarette tax, 85.1% supported health warnings on cigarette packages, and 85.7% favored banning tobacco advertising. The likelihood to support these measures was associated with gender, educational level, and personal income. Smokers were less likely to support these measures than non-smokers, with decreased support expressed by daily smokers compared to occasional smokers, and heavy smokers compared to light smokers. The proportion of switching to cheaper cigarette brands, decreasing smoking, and quitting smoking altogether with increased cigarette prices were 29.1%, 30.90% and 40.0% for occasional smokers, respectively; and 30.8%, 32.7% and 36.5% for daily smokers, respectively. Conclusion Results from this study indicate strong public support in key WHO FCTC measures and that increases in cigarette price may reduce tobacco consumption among Chinese urban residents. Findings from this study have implications with respect to

  4. Attitudes and behavioral response toward key tobacco control measures from the FCTC among Chinese urban residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Wu, Yanwei; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M; Dai, Di; Li, Fuzhong; Wu, Junqing; Xiang, Haiqing

    2007-09-18

    The Chinese National People's Congress ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) on 27 August 2005, signaling China's commitment to implement tobacco control policies and legislation consistent with the treaty. This study was designed to examine attitudes towards four WHO FCTC measures among Chinese urban residents. In a cross-sectional design study, survey data were collected from two Chinese urban cities involving a sample of 3,003 residents aged 15 years or older. Through a face-to-face interview, respondents were asked about attitudes toward four tobacco control measures developed by the WHO FCTC. Data on the four dependent measures were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Using descriptive statistics, potential change in smoking behavior that smokers might make in response to increasing cigarette prices is also reported. 81.8% of the respondents in the study sample supported banning smoking in public places, 68.8% favored increasing the cigarette tax, 85.1% supported health warnings on cigarette packages, and 85.7% favored banning tobacco advertising. The likelihood to support these measures was associated with gender, educational level, and personal income. Smokers were less likely to support these measures than non-smokers, with decreased support expressed by daily smokers compared to occasional smokers, and heavy smokers compared to light smokers. The proportion of switching to cheaper cigarette brands, decreasing smoking, and quitting smoking altogether with increased cigarette prices were 29.1%, 30.90% and 40.0% for occasional smokers, respectively; and 30.8%, 32.7% and 36.5% for daily smokers, respectively. Results from this study indicate strong public support in key WHO FCTC measures and that increases in cigarette price may reduce tobacco consumption among Chinese urban residents. Findings from this study have implications with respect to policymaking and legislation for tobacco control in China.

  5. Count me in: response to sexual orientation measures among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. Yet, health and aging surveys rarely include sexual orientation measures and when they do, they often exclude older adults from being asked about sexual orientation. This is the first population-based study to assess item nonresponse to sexual orientation measures by age and change over time. We compare response rates and examine time trends in response patterns using adjusted logistic regressions. Among adults aged 65 and older, the nonresponse rate on sexual orientation is lower than income. While older adults show higher nonresponse rates on sexual orientation than younger adults, the nonresponse rates have significantly decreased over time. By 2010, only 1.23% of older adults responded don't know/not sure, with 1.55% refusing to answer sexual orientation questions. Decisions to not ask sexual orientation among older adults must be reconsidered, given documented health disparities and rapidly changing social trends in the understanding of diverse sexualities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Correlation between hedonic liking and facial expression measurement using dynamic affective response representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Ruicong; Wan, Jingwei; Zhang, Dezheng; Li, Weiping

    2018-06-01

    Emotional reactions towards products play an essential role in consumers' decision making, and are more important than rational evaluation of sensory attributes. It is crucial to understand consumers' emotion, and the relationship between sensory properties, human liking and choice. There are many inconsistencies between Asian and Western consumers in the usage of hedonic scale, as well as the intensity of facial reactions, due to different culture and consuming habits. However, very few studies discussed the facial responses characteristics of Asian consumers during food consumption. In this paper, explicit liking measurement (hedonic scale) and implicit emotional measurement (facial expressions) were evaluated to judge the consumers' emotions elicited by five types of juices. The contributions of this study included: (1) Constructed the relationship model between hedonic liking and facial expressions analyzed by face reading technology. Negative emotions "sadness", "anger", and "disgust" showed noticeable high negative correlation tendency to hedonic scores. The "liking" hedonic scores could be characterized by positive emotion "happiness". (2) Several emotional intensity based parameters, especially dynamic parameter, were extracted to describe the facial characteristic in sensory evaluation procedure. Both amplitude information and frequency information were involved in the dynamic parameters to remain more information of the emotional responses signals. From the comparison of four types of emotional descriptive parameters, the maximum parameter and dynamic parameter were suggested to be utilized for representing emotional state and intensities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The iso-response method: measuring neuronal stimulus integration with closed-loop experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollisch, Tim; Herz, Andreas V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the nervous system, neurons integrate high-dimensional input streams and transform them into an output of their own. This integration of incoming signals involves filtering processes and complex non-linear operations. The shapes of these filters and non-linearities determine the computational features of single neurons and their functional roles within larger networks. A detailed characterization of signal integration is thus a central ingredient to understanding information processing in neural circuits. Conventional methods for measuring single-neuron response properties, such as reverse correlation, however, are often limited by the implicit assumption that stimulus integration occurs in a linear fashion. Here, we review a conceptual and experimental alternative that is based on exploring the space of those sensory stimuli that result in the same neural output. As demonstrated by recent results in the auditory and visual system, such iso-response stimuli can be used to identify the non-linearities relevant for stimulus integration, disentangle consecutive neural processing steps, and determine their characteristics with unprecedented precision. Automated closed-loop experiments are crucial for this advance, allowing rapid search strategies for identifying iso-response stimuli during experiments. Prime targets for the method are feed-forward neural signaling chains in sensory systems, but the method has also been successfully applied to feedback systems. Depending on the specific question, “iso-response” may refer to a predefined firing rate, single-spike probability, first-spike latency, or other output measures. Examples from different studies show that substantial progress in understanding neural dynamics and coding can be achieved once rapid online data analysis and stimulus generation, adaptive sampling, and computational modeling are tightly integrated into experiments. PMID:23267315

  8. Enhancing effects of contingency instructions on fear acquisition and extinction in anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duits, Puck; Richter, Jan; Baas, Johanna M P; Engelhard, Iris M; Limberg-Thiesen, Anke; Heitland, Ivo; Hamm, Alfons O; Cath, Danielle C

    2017-05-01

    Explicit instructions regarding stimulus-threat associations increase acquisition and extinction of fear in healthy participants. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of contingency instructions on fear acquisition and extinction in patients with anxiety disorders. Patients with various anxiety disorders (N = 104) and healthy comparison participants (N = 93) participated in a differential fear conditioning task (within-subjects design). Approximately halfway through the acquisition phase, participants were instructed about the stimulus-threat association, and approximately halfway through the extinction phase, participants were informed that the unconditioned stimulus (US) would no longer be administered. Outcome measures were: fear-potentiated startle, skin conductance, fearfulness ratings, and US expectancy ratings. Patients demonstrated overall increased physiological and subjective fear responses during acquisition and extinction phases, relative to the comparison group. There were no major differences in fear acquisition and extinction between patients with different anxiety disorders. During acquisition, instructions led to increased discrimination of fear responses between a danger cue (conditioned stimulus [CS]+) and safety cue (CS-) in both patients and comparison participants. Moreover, instructions strengthened extinction of fear responses in the patient and comparison group. Patients and healthy comparison participants are better able to discriminate between danger and safety cues when they have been explicitly informed about cues that announce a threat situation. Considering the analogies between fear extinction procedures and exposure therapy, this suggests that specific instructions on stimulus-threat associations during exposure therapy might improve short-term treatment efficacy. The question remains for future studies whether instructions have a positive effect on extinction learning in the longer term. (PsycINFO Database Record (c

  9. Effects of constraints to acquisition of information resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on the Effects of Constraints to Acquisition of Information Resources in Academic Libraries in Southwest Nigeria: a study of UNILAG and KDL main libraries. Library acquisition is defined as the department of a library responsible for the selection and pur chase of materials or resources for the library. Survey ...

  10. Comparison between CT volume measurement and histopathological assessment of response to neoadjuvant therapy in rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerri, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.pomerri@unipd.it [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, via Gattamelata 64, 35128 Padua (Italy); Department of Medicine, University of Padua, via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padua (Italy); Pucciarelli, Salvatore, E-mail: puc@unipd.it [Department of Oncological and Surgical Sciences, University of Padua, via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padua (Italy); Gennaro, Gisella, E-mail: gisella.gennaro@pd.infn.it [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, via Gattamelata 64, 35128 Padua (Italy); Maretto, Isacco, E-mail: isac77@gmail.com [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, via Gattamelata 64, 35128 Padua (Italy); Nitti, Donato, E-mail: donato.nitti@unipd.it [Department of Oncological and Surgical Sciences, University of Padua, via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padua (Italy); Muzzio, Pier Carlo, E-mail: pcmuzzio@unipd.it [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, via Gattamelata 64, 35128 Padua (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare volume measurements on computed tomography (CT) images with histopathological assessments of chemoradiotherapy (CRT)-induced tumor regression in locally advanced rectal cancer (RC). Methods: In 25 patients (13 males, 12 females; median age, 63 years; age range, 44–79 years) with locally advanced RC treated with preoperative CRT and surgery, two radiologists measured tumor volume on CT images before and after CRT. CT-based tumor volumetry and the modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECISTs) were compared with T and N downstaging after CRT, and with the tumor regression grade (TRG). Results: Tumor volumes were significantly smaller on CT images after CRT. The tumors regressed in 52% (13/25), 36% (9/25) and 40% (10/25) of patients, based on T downstaging, TRG and mRECIST findings, respectively. In terms of T downstaging, the pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes of responders and non-responders to the treatment differed statistically, while their tumor volume reduction rates and volume reductions according to the 65% mRECIST threshold did not. In terms of N downstaging and TRG, the differences between the responders’ and the non-responders’ pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes, tumor volume reduction rates, and mRECIST thresholds were never statistically significant. Conclusion: Measuring tumor size on CT images is of limited value in predicting the histopathological response to preoperative CRT in RC patients, so it may be unwise to select surgical treatment strategies based on CT volumetry.

  11. New data acquisition system for AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfenninger, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A new data acquisition system based on a VME front-end computer, a Sun workstation and a PC has been installed. It is used for the acquisition of mainly AMS data, their graphical display, and storage of the data in a Oracle database. The measurement of magazines of 25 sample each is fully automated. Several data parameters such as transmission are regularly checked. In case of problems the operator is informed by optical and/or acoustical signals. Screens are updated automatically after every measurement cycle. (author) 1 fig.

  12. ACQUISITIONS LIST, MAY 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS ACQUISITIONS LIST IS A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF EDUCATION. OVER 300 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED FOR DOCUMENTS DATING MAINLY FROM 1960 TO 1966. BOOKS, JOURNALS, REPORT MATERIALS, AND UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS ARE LISTED UNDER THE FOLLOWING HEADINGS--(1) ACHIEVEMENT, (2) ADOLESCENCE, (3) CHILD DEVELOPMENT, (4)…

  13. MAST data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibaev, S.; Counsell, G.; Cunningham, G.; Manhood, S.J.; Thomas-Davies, N.; Waterhouse, J.

    2006-01-01

    The data acquisition system of the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) presently collects up to 400 MB of data in about 3000 data items per shot, and subsequent fast growth is expected. Since the start of MAST operations (in 1999) the system has changed dramatically. Though we continue to use legacy CAMAC hardware, newer VME, PCI, and PXI based sub-systems collect most of the data now. All legacy software has been redesigned and new software has been developed. Last year a major system improvement was made-replacement of the message distribution system. The new message system provides easy connection of any sub-system independently of its platform and serves as a framework for many new applications. A new data acquisition controller provides full control of common sub-systems, central error logging, and data acquisition alarms for the MAST plant. A number of new sub-systems using Linux and Windows OSs on VME, PCI, and PXI platforms have been developed. A new PXI unit has been designed as a base sub-system accommodating any type of data acquisition and control devices. Several web applications for the real-time MAST monitoring and data presentation have been developed

  14. Data acquisition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Testing neutron generators and major subassemblies has undergone a transition in the past few years. Digital information is now used for storage and analysis. The key to the change is the availability of a high-speed digitizer system. The status of the Sandia Laboratory data acquisition and handling system as applied to this area is surveyed. 1 figure

  15. Surviving mergers & acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Diane L

    2002-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are never easy to implement. The health care landscape is a minefield of failed mergers and uneasy alliances generating great turmoil and pain. But some mergers have been successful, creating health systems that benefit the communities they serve. Five prominent leaders offer their advice on minimizing the difficulties of M&As.

  16. General image acquisition parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, J.M.; Lopez, F.M.; Langevin, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The general parameters are of primordial importance to achieve image quality in terms of spatial resolution and contrast. They also play a role in the acquisition time for each sequence. We describe them separately, before associating them in a decision tree gathering the various options that are possible for diagnosis

  17. Decentralized Blended Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of blending and deblending is reviewed, making use of traditional and dispersed source arrays. The network concept of distributed blended acquisition is introduced. A million-trace robot system is proposed, illustrating that decentralization may bring about a revolution in the way we

  18. MPS Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiseman, S.E.; Miller, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the data acquisition system used with the multiparticle spectrometer facility at Brookhaven. Detailed information is provided on that part of the system which connects the detectors to the data handler; namely, the detector electronics, device controller, and device port optical isolator

  19. [Acquisition of arithmetic knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on contemporary research on the number counting and arithmetical competencies that emerge during infancy, the preschool years, and the elementary school. I provide a brief overview of the evolution of children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic knowledge, the acquisition and use of counting and how they solve simple arithmetic problems (e.g. 4 + 3).

  20. Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Barry; Harrington, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A distinction is drawn between representational and processing models of second-language acquisition. The first approach is derived primarily from linguistics, the second from psychology. Both fields, it is argued, need to collaborate more fully, overcoming disciplinary narrowness in order to achieve more fruitful research. (GLR)

  1. Evaluation of the intraocular pressure measured with the ocular response analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuehi, Kelechi C; Almubrad, Turki M

    2010-07-01

    Comparison of the magnitude and repeatability of the intraocular pressure (IOP) measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) to that measured with the Goldmann tonometer. Two sets of IOP measurements were made, for 89 eyes of eighty-nine subjects, approximately 1-week apart. Goldmann tonometry was performed subsequent to non-contact tonometry, in which the order of measurement was randomized between the ORA and the Topcon CT80 non-contact tonometer (CT80). Each method was assessed twice for intrasession repeatability. The limits of agreement between each non-contact pressure and that measured with the Goldmann tonometer were assessed once per session. The level of statistical significance was 0.05. The mean differences between the ORA-corneal compensated, Goldmann-correlated, and CT80-IOP (ORA-IOPcc; ORA-IOPg and CT80-IOP) versus the Goldmann IOP were -0.3 +/- 2.7 mmHg (mean +/- SD), -0.3 +/- 2.2 mmHg and -0.3 +/- 2.1 mmHg, respectively for session 1 and 0.3 +/- 3.0 mmHg, 0.2 +/- 2.2 mmHg, and -0.5 +/- 2.2 mmHg, respectively, for session 2. The repeatability coefficients were +/- 5.3 mmHg, +/- 4.2 mmHg, +/- 2.5 mmHg, and +/- 1.9 mmHg, respectively for ORA-IOPcc, ORA-IOPg, CT80-IOP, and Goldmann IOP in session 1 and +/- 3.8 mmHg, +/- 3.6 mmHg, +/- 1.6 mmHg, and +/- 1.9 mmHg, respectively for session 2. The repeatability indices for the ORA were poorer than those with the Goldmann tonometer and the CT80 in both sessions. However, the average IOP measured with the ORA did not vary significantly from those measured with the other two tonometers in either session. The ORA provides valid, repeatable measures of IOP.

  2. Optimization of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU Placement in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA-Based Power System for Better State-Estimation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoaib Shahriar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Present-day power systems are mostly equipped with conventional meters and intended for the installation of highly accurate phasor measurement units (PMUs to ensure better protection, monitoring and control of the network. PMU is a deliberate choice due to its unique capacity in providing accurate phasor readings of bus voltages and currents. However, due to the high expense and a requirement for communication facilities, the installation of a limited number of PMUs in a network is common practice. This paper presents an optimal approach to selecting the locations of PMUs to be installed with the objective of ensuring maximum accuracy of the state estimation (SE. The optimization technique ensures that the critical locations of the system will be covered by PMU meters which lower the negative impact of bad data on state-estimation performance. One of the well-known intelligent optimization techniques, the genetic algorithm (GA, is used to search for the optimal set of PMUs. The proposed technique is compared with a heuristic approach of PMU placement. The weighted least square (WLS, with a modified Jacobian to deal with the phasor quantities, is used to compute the estimation accuracy. IEEE 30-bus and 118-bus systems are used to demonstrate the suggested technique.

  3. Responsive upper limb and cognitive fatigue measures during light precision work: an 8-hour simulated micro-pipetting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Marcus; Wells, Richard P

    2017-07-01

    Many contemporary occupations are characterised by long periods of low loads. These lower force levels, which are relevant to the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, are usually not the focus of fatigue studies. In studies that did measure fatigue in light manual or precision work, within and between measurement responses were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to identify fatigue measures that were responsive at lower force levels (fatigue measures, reflecting both neuromuscular and cognitive mechanisms, was measured during a light precision micro-pipetting task performed by 11 participants. Nine measures were found to be significantly responsive over the 8-h period, including: ratings of perceived fatigue, postural tremor, blink frequency and critical flicker fusion frequency threshold. Common field measures, specifically electromyography RMS amplitude and maximum voluntary contractions, did not lead to extraordinary time effects. Practitioner summary: The findings provide insight towards the responsiveness of a complementary set of field usable fatigue measures at low work intensities Although commonly used measures did not reveal significant increases in fatigue, nine alternative measures were significantly responsive over the 8-h period.

  4. Nasal Lipopolysaccharide Challenge and Cytokine Measurement Reflects Innate Mucosal Immune Responsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep Dhariwal

    Full Text Available Practical methods of monitoring innate immune mucosal responsiveness are lacking. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a component of the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria and a potent activator of Toll-like receptor (TLR-4. To measure LPS responsiveness of the nasal mucosa, we administered LPS as a nasal spray and quantified chemokine and cytokine levels in mucosal lining fluid (MLF.We performed a 5-way cross-over, single blind, placebo-controlled study in 15 healthy non-atopic subjects (n = 14 per protocol. Doses of ultrapure LPS (1, 10, 30 or 100μg/100μl or placebo were administered by a single nasal spray to each nostril. Using the recently developed method of nasosorption with synthetic adsorptive matrices (SAM, a series of samples were taken. A panel of seven cytokines/chemokines were measured by multiplex immunoassay in MLF. mRNA for intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 was quantified from nasal epithelial curettage samples taken before and after challenge.Topical nasal LPS was well tolerated, causing no symptoms and no visible changes to the nasal mucosa. LPS induced dose-related increases in MLF levels of IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL8 (IL-8 and CCL3 (MIP-1α (AUC at 0.5 to 10h, compared to placebo, p<0.05 at 30 and 100μg LPS. At 100μg LPS, IL-10, IFN-α and TNF-α were also increased (p<0.05. Dose-related changes in mucosal ICAM-1 mRNA were also seen after challenge, and neutrophils appeared to peak in MLF at 8h. However, 2 subjects with high baseline cytokine levels showed prominent cytokine and chemokine responses to relatively low LPS doses (10μg and 30μg LPS.Topical nasal LPS causes dose-dependent increases in cytokines, chemokines, mRNA and cells. However, responsiveness can show unpredictable variations, possibly because baseline innate tone is affected by environmental factors. We believe that this new technique will have wide application in the study of the innate immune responses of the respiratory mucosa.Ultrapure LPS was used

  5. Project Ancient Acoustics Part 1 of 4 : a method for accurate impulse response measurements in large open air theatres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, C.C.J.M.; Hoekstra, N.; Nicolai, B.; Wenmaekers, R.H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Selecting an appropriate method for measuring ‘normal’ indoor concert hall acoustics is always a trade-off between time, stimulus type, number of measurements and measurement quality. For ISO 3382 room acoustic parameters to be derived accurately from impulse responses, this tradeoff aims at a

  6. Biotech Business Lessons for Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    repudiates what func- tional personnel hold dear—that their hurdles are vital to some moral or ethical responsibility to protect or safeguard...94 Strategic Studies Quarterly ♦ Summer 2016 Biotech Business Lessons for Defense Acquisition Col David L. Peeler Jr., USAF Abstract The desire to...examples and lessons from private business sectors would serve DOD interests well. ✵ ✵ ✵ ✵ ✵ Acquisition reform! No other two words so stress or trouble

  7. Linking Tree Growth Response to Measured Microclimate - A Field Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. T.; Hoylman, Z. H.; Looker, N. T.; Jencso, K. G.; Hu, J.

    2015-12-01

    The general relationship between climate and tree growth is a well established and important tenet shaping both paleo and future perspectives of forest ecosystem growth dynamics. Across much of the American west, water limits growth via physiological mechanisms that tie regional and local climatic conditions to forest productivity in a relatively predictable way, and these growth responses are clearly evident in tree ring records. However, within the annual cycle of a forest landscape, water availability varies across both time and space, and interacts with other potentially growth limiting factors such as temperature, light, and nutrients. In addition, tree growth responses may lag climate drivers and may vary in terms of where in a tree carbon is allocated. As such, determining when and where water actually limits forest growth in real time can be a significant challenge. Despite these challenges, we present data suggestive of real-time growth limitation driven by soil moisture supply and atmospheric water demand reflected in high frequency field measurements of stem radii and cell structure across ecological gradients. The experiment was conducted at the Lubrecht Experimental Forest in western Montana where, over two years, we observed intra-annual growth rates of four dominant conifer species: Douglas fir, Ponderosa Pine, Engelmann Spruce and Western Larch using point dendrometers and microcores. In all four species studied, compensatory use of stored water (inferred from stem water deficit) appears to exhibit a threshold relationship with a critical balance point between water supply and demand. The occurrence of this point in time coincided with a decrease in stem growth rates, and the while the timing varied up to one month across topographic and elevational gradients, the onset date of growth limitation was a reliable predictor of overall annual growth. Our findings support previous model-based observations of nonlinearity in the relationship between

  8. Different Response of Sap Flow at Different Measurement Depths after Thinning in a Japanese Cypress Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C. W.; Gomi, T.; Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Sakashita, W.; Sun, X.

    2017-12-01

    Thinning experiments in forests can alter light conditions and further affect growth rate and transpiration of the remained trees. Previous studies suggested transpiration was increased one year after thinning experiment due to improved canopy light condition. On the other hand, the anatomical and morphological responses to thinning are not react immediately because of the tree adaptation to the new surrounding conditions. It has been hypothesized that lower crown is connected to the inner part of sapwood and need more years to adapt new light conditions after thinning. However, our knowledge for the relationship between tree crown development and water movement inside the trunk after several years from thinning experiment was still limited due to lack of long-term field measurement after thinning. Therefore, in this study, we aim to examine the interannual variability of water movement inside the trunk accompanied the development of tree crown after thinning experiment. To do that, we applied sap flow measurement and terrestrial LiDAR survey from 2011 to 2017 in a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantation in Japan, where 50% strip thinning experiment was conducted in the end of 2011. Consequently, we found sap flow densities at different measurement depths were not always increased year by year and those may relate to the crown development after thinning.

  9. Measurements and simulations of the BLM response to a radiation field inside the CERF target area

    CERN Document Server

    Lebbos, E; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Ferrari, A; Kramer, D; Nordt, A; Roeed, K; Roesler, S; Sapinski, M; Vlachoudis, V

    2010-01-01

    The CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility is installed in one of the secondary beam lines (H6) of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), in the North Experimental Area at CERN. This facility is used as a reference for testing, inter-comparing and calibrating passive and active instruments. In May 2009, the SPS provided a mixed hadron beam (protons, pions and kaons) during a few days, in order to perform several measurements with different devices such as the Radiation Protection Monitor used for residual dose rates due to Induced Radioactivity in the LHC (PMI), the Secondary Emission Monitor used for high beam losses (SEM), the Radiation Monitor for electronics (RadMon), and the Beam Loss Monitor for the LHC (BLM). This report focuses on the measurements of the BLM response during this year’s operation at CERF. The measurements evaluate the sensitivity of the BLM signal to the particle energy spectrum, with special attention to the contribution coming from thermal neutrons. For this purpose, meas...

  10. Inferring bread doneness with air-pulse/ultrasonic ranging measurements of the loaf elastic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, Loren Elbert

    This research marks the discovery of a method by which bread doneness may be determined based on the elastic properties of the loaf as it bakes. The purpose of the study was to determine if changes in bread characteristics could be determined by non-contact methods during baking, as the basis for improved control of the baking process. Current control of the baking process is based on temperature and dwell time, which are determined by experience to produce a produce which is approximately ``done.'' There is no direct measurement of the property of interest, doneness. An ultrasonic measurement system was developed to measure the response of the loaf to an external stimulus. ``Doneness,'' as reflected in the internal elastic consistency of the bakery product, is assessed in less than 1/2 second, and requires no closer approach to the moving bakery product than about 2 inches. The system is designed to be compatible with strapped bread pans in a standard traveling-tray commercial oven.

  11. Sliding into happiness: A new tool for measuring affective responses to words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, Amy Beth; Shore, David I.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Imbault, Constance L.; Kuperman, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Reliable measurement of affective responses is critical for research into human emotion. Affective evaluation of words is most commonly gauged on multiple dimensions—including valence (positivity) and arousal—using a rating scale. Despite its popularity, this scale is open to criticism: it generates ordinal data that is often misinterpreted as interval, it does not provide the fine resolution that is essential by recent theoretical accounts of emotion, and its extremes may not be properly calibrated. In five experiments, we introduce a new slider tool for affective evaluation of words on a continuous, well-calibrated and high-resolution scale. In Experiment 1, participants were shown a word and asked to move a manikin representing themselves closer to or farther away from the word. The manikin’s distance from the word strongly correlated with the word’s valence. In Experiment 2, individual differences in shyness and sociability elicited reliable differences in distance from the words. Experiment 3 validated the results of Experiments 1 and 2 using a demographically more diverse population of responders. Finally, Experiment 4 (along with Experiment 2) suggested that task demand is not a potential cause for scale recalibration. In Experiment 5, men and women placed a manikin closer or farther from words that showed sex differences in valence, highlighting the sensitivity of this measure to group differences. These findings shed a new light on interactions among affect, language, and individual differences, and demonstrate the utility of a new tool for measuring word affect. PMID:28252996

  12. Dynamic pressure probe response tests for robust measurements in periodic flows close to probe resonating frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhun Şahin, Fatma; Schiffmann, Jürg

    2018-02-01

    A single-hole probe was designed to measure steady and periodic flows with high fluctuation amplitudes and with minimal flow intrusion. Because of its high aspect ratio, estimations showed that the probe resonates at a frequency two orders of magnitude lower than the fast response sensor cut-off frequencies. The high fluctuation amplitudes cause a non-linear behavior of the probe and available models are neither adequate for a quantitative estimation of the resonating frequencies nor for predicting the system damping. Instead, a non-linear data correction procedure based on individual transfer functions defined for each harmonic contribution is introduced for pneumatic probes that allows to extend their operating range beyond the resonating frequencies and linear dynamics. This data correction procedure was assessed on a miniature single-hole probe of 0.35 mm inner diameter which was designed to measure flow speed and direction. For the reliable use of such a probe in periodic flows, its frequency response was reproduced with a siren disk, which allows exciting the probe up to 10 kHz with peak-to-peak amplitudes ranging between 20%-170% of the absolute mean pressure. The effect of the probe interior design on the phase lag and amplitude distortion in periodic flow measurements was investigated on probes with similar inner diameters and different lengths or similar aspect ratios (L/D) and different total interior volumes. The results suggest that while the tube length consistently sets the resonance frequency, the internal total volume affects the non-linear dynamic response in terms of varying gain functions. A detailed analysis of the introduced calibration methodology shows that the goodness of the reconstructed data compared to the reference data is above 75% for fundamental frequencies up to twice the probe resonance frequency. The results clearly suggest that the introduced procedure is adequate to capture non-linear pneumatic probe dynamics and to

  13. Response competition and response inhibition during different choice-discrimination tasks: evidence from ERP measured inside MRI scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rosa, Javier J; Inuggi, Alberto; Blasi, Valeria; Cursi, Marco; Annovazzi, Pietro; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Leocani, Letizia

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the neural correlates underlying response inhibition and conflict detection processes using ERPs and source localization analyses simultaneously acquired during fMRI scanning. ERPs were elicited by a simple reaction time task (SRT), a Go/NoGo task, and a Stroop-like task (CST). The cognitive conflict was thus manipulated in order to probe the degree to which information processing is shared across cognitive systems. We proposed to dissociate inhibition and interference conflict effects on brain activity by using identical Stroop-like congruent/incongruent stimuli in all three task contexts and while varying the response required. NoGo-incongruent trials showed a larger N2 and enhanced activations of rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and pre-supplementary motor area, whereas Go-congruent trials showed a larger P3 and increased parietal activations. Congruent and incongruent conditions of the CST task also elicited similar N2, P3 and late negativity (LN) ERPs, though CST-incongruent trials revealed a larger LN and enhanced prefrontal and ACC activations. Considering the stimulus probability and experimental manipulation of our study, current findings suggest that NoGo N2 and frontal NoGo P3 appear to be more associated to response inhibition rather than a specific conflict monitoring, whereas occipito-parietal P3 of Go and CST conditions may be more linked to a planned response competition between the prepared and required response. LN, however, appears to be related to higher level conflict monitoring associated with response choice-discrimination but not when the presence of cognitive conflict is associated with response inhibition. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Impact of acquisition channels on customer equity, The

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Julian; Yoo, Shijin; Hanssens, Dominique M.

    2003-01-01

    Customer equity (CE henceforth) is a powerful new paradigm to evaluate the firm's value and to optimally allocate marketing resources. This paper is focused on the relationship between customer acquisition and CE. The authors attempt to answer the following four questions: 1) how should customer acquisition channels be categorized to make them meaningful to managers and academics?; 2) how do we measure the effects of different acquisition channels on the firm's performance?; 3) how do we dise...

  15. Non-invasive measurements of exhaled NO and CO associated with methacholine responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameredes Bill T

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO in exhaled breath are considered obtainable biomarkers of physiologic mechanisms. Therefore, obtaining their measures simply, non-invasively, and repeatedly, is of interest, and was the purpose of the current study. Methods Expired NO (ENO and CO (ECO were measured non-invasively using a gas micro-analyzer on several strains of mice (C57Bl6, IL-10-/-, A/J, MKK3-/-, JNK1-/-, NOS-2-/- and NOS-3-/- with and without allergic airway inflammation (AI induced by ovalbumin systemic sensitization and aerosol challenge, compared using independent-sample t-tests between groups, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA within groups over time of inflammation induction. ENO and ECO were also measured in C57Bl6 and IL-10-/- mice, ages 8–58 weeks old, the relationship of which was determined by regression analysis. S-methionyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC, and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP were used to inhibit neuronal/constitutive NOS-1 and heme-oxygenase, respectively, and alter NO and CO production, respectively, as assessed by paired t-tests. Methacholine-associated airway responses (AR were measured by the enhanced pause method, with comparisons by repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc testing. Results ENO was significantly elevated in naïve IL-10-/- (9–14 ppb and NOS-2-/- (16 ppb mice as compared to others (average: 5–8 ppb, whereas ECO was significantly higher in naïve A/J, NOS-3-/- (3–4 ppm, and MKK3-/- (4–5 ppm mice, as compared to others (average: 2.5 ppm. As compared to C57Bl6 mice, AR of IL-10-/-, JNK1-/-, NOS-2-/-, and NOS-3-/- mice were decreased, whereas they were greater for A/J and MKK3-/- mice. SMTC significantly decreased ENO by ~30%, but did not change AR in NOS-2-/- mice. SnPP reduced ECO in C57Bl6 and IL-10-/- mice, and increased AR in NOS-2-/- mice. ENO decreased as a function of age in IL-10-/- mice, remaining unchanged in C57Bl6 mice. Conclusion These results are

  16. LabVIEW-based control and data acquisition system for cathodoluminescence experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, J; Schauer, P

    2011-11-01

    Computer automation of cathodoluminescence (CL) experiments using equipment developed in our laboratory is described. The equipment provides various experiments for CL efficiency, CL spectra, and CL time response studies. The automation was realized utilizing the graphical programming environment LabVIEW. The developed application software with procedures for equipment control and data acquisition during various CL experiments is presented. As the measured CL data are distorted by technical limitations of the equipment, such as equipment spectral sensitivity and time response, data correction algorithms were incorporated into the procedures. Some examples of measured data corrections are presented. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  17. Measuring the Contractile Response of Isolated Tissue Using an Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Díaz-Martín

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Isometric or isotonic transducers have traditionally been used to study the contractile/relaxation effects of drugs on isolated tissues. However, these mechanical sensors are expensive and delicate, and they are associated with certain disadvantages when performing experiments in the laboratory. In this paper, a method that uses an image sensor to measure the contractile effect of drugs on blood vessel rings and other luminal organs is presented. The new method is based on an image-processing algorithm, and it provides a fast, easy and non-expensive way to analyze the effects of such drugs. In our tests, we have obtained dose-response curves from rat aorta rings that are equivalent to those achieved with classical mechanic sensors.

  18. Dynamic response of infrastructure to environmentally induced loads analysis, measurements, testing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Manolis, George

    2017-01-01

    This book provides state of the art coverage of important current issues in the analysis, measurement, and monitoring of the dynamic response of infrastructure to environmental loads, including those induced by earthquake motion and differential soil settlement. The coverage is in five parts that address numerical methods in structural dynamics, soil–structure interaction analysis, instrumentation and structural health monitoring, hybrid experimental mechanics, and structural health monitoring for bridges. Examples that give an impression of the scope of the topics discussed include the seismic analysis of bridges, soft computing in earthquake engineering, use of hybrid methods for soil–structure interaction analysis, effects of local site conditions on the inelastic dynamic analysis of bridges, embedded models in wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring, recent developments in seismic simulation methods, and seismic performance assessment and retrofit of structures. Throughout, the empha...

  19. Accelerometer-measured dose-response for physical activity, sedentary time, and mortality in US adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Charles E; Keadle, S. K.; Troiano, Richard P

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity is recommended to maintain and improve health, but the mortality benefits of light activity and risk for sedentary time remain uncertain. Objectives: Using accelerometer-based measures, we 1) described the mortality dose-response...... for sedentary time and light-and moderateto-vigorous-intensity activity using restricted cubic splines, and 2) estimated the mortality benefits associated with replacing sedentary time with physical activity, accounting for total activity. Design: US adults (n = 4840) from NHANES (2003-2006) wore...... an accelerometer for #7 d and were followed prospectively for mortality. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for mortality associations with time spent sedentary and in light-and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity. Splines were used to graphically present...

  20. Breeding for plant adaptations and agricultural measures in response to climatic changes in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the production of different cultivated plant species is of great importance for both human and animals, as well as for industrial processing. In the light of global climate changing and searching for renewable sources of energy, this task becomes even more important. Scientists from different areas of research, are actively involved in solving this complex task. Climate changes represent a big challenge not only for agricultural practices, but also for the process of shaping agricultural strategies. Recent studies indicate that climate changes can not be stopped. Constantly growing problems brought by global climate changes could be, to a larger extent, overcome by breeding programs, along with application of adequate agrotechnical measures. Thus, development of new varieties and hybrids with improved performances in response to more frequent and unfavorable environmental conditions, is of prime importance in breeding centers.

  1. MO-FG-303-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION and BEST IN PHYSICS (THERAPY): Automating LINAC QA: Design and Testing of An Image Acquisition and Processing System Utilizing a Combination of Radioluminescent Phosphors, Embedded X-Ray Markers and Optical Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C; Naczynski, D; Yu, S; Xing, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The recent development of phosphors to visualize radiation beams from linear accelerators (LINAC) offers a unique opportunity for evaluating radiation fields within the context of the treatment space. The purpose of this study was to establish an automated, self-calibrating prototype system for performing quality assurance (QA) measurements. Methods: A thin layer of Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb phosphor and fiducial markers were embedded on several planar faces of a custom-designed phantom. The phantom was arbitrarily placed near iso-center on the couch of a LINAC equipped with on-board megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) imagers. A plan consisting of several beams and integrated image acquisitions was delivered. Images of the phantom were collected throughout the delivery. Salient features, such as fiducials, crosshairs and beam edges were then extracted from these images used to calibrate the system, adjust for variations in phantom placement, and perform measurements. Beam edges were visualized by imaging the light generated by the phosphor on the phantom enabling direct comparison with the light field and laser locations. Registration of MV, kV and optical image data was performed using the embedded fiducial markers, enabling comparison of imaging center locations. Measurements specified by TG-142 were calculated and compared with those obtained from a commercially available QA system. Results: The system was able to automatically extract the location of the fiducials, lasers, light field and radiation field from the acquired images regardless of phantom positioning. It was also able to automatically identify the locations of fiducial markers on kV and MV images. All collected measurements were within TG-142 guidelines. The difference between the prototype and commercially available system were less than 0.2 mm. Conclusion: The prototype system demonstrated the capability of accurately and autonomously evaluating various TG-142 parameters independent of operator

  2. Reliability measures in item response theory: manifest versus latent correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanzi, Elasma; Molenberghs, Geert; Alonso, Ariel; Verbeke, Geert; De Boeck, Paul

    2015-02-01

    For item response theory (IRT) models, which belong to the class of generalized linear or non-linear mixed models, reliability at the scale of observed scores (i.e., manifest correlation) is more difficult to calculate than latent correlation based reliability, but usually of greater scientific interest. This is not least because it cannot be calculated explicitly when the logit link is used in conjunction with normal random effects. As such, approximations such as Fisher's information coefficient, Cronbach's α, or the latent correlation are calculated, allegedly because it is easy to do so. Cronbach's α has well-known and serious drawbacks, Fisher's information is not meaningful under certain circumstances, and there is an important but often overlooked difference between latent and manifest correlations. Here, manifest correlation refers to correlation between observed scores, while latent correlation refers to correlation between scores at the latent (e.g., logit or probit) scale. Thus, using one in place of the other can lead to erroneous conclusions. Taylor series based reliability measures, which are based on manifest correlation functions, are derived and a careful comparison of reliability measures based on latent correlations, Fisher's information, and exact reliability is carried out. The latent correlations are virtually always considerably higher than their manifest counterparts, Fisher's information measure shows no coherent behaviour (it is even negative in some cases), while the newly introduced Taylor series based approximations reflect the exact reliability very closely. Comparisons among the various types of correlations, for various IRT models, are made using algebraic expressions, Monte Carlo simulations, and data analysis. Given the light computational burden and the performance of Taylor series based reliability measures, their use is recommended. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  3. A measure of treatment response: patient and physician satisfaction with traditional NSAIDs for osteoarthritis control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephanie D; Everett, Sharlette V; Taylor, Thomas N; Watson, Douglas J; Taylor-Stokes, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The clinical response to traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (tNSAIDs) varies substantially. The objective of this study was to describe physicians’ and patients’ perceptions of response to tNSAIDs as measured by satisfaction with control of patients’ osteoarthritis (OA). Patients and methods A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2009 in Germany, Spain, and the UK. Linked physician and patient questionnaires collected data on OA management, degree of pain and disability, and satisfaction with OA control. Results The study included 363 treating physicians and 713 patients receiving tNSAIDs. Patient mean (standard deviation) age was 65.5 (11.0) years (range 36–94 years); 60% were women; 86% were white; and one-quarter were obese. Dissatisfaction with control of patients’ OA was expressed by physicians or their patients, or both, for 51% of patients, including 208 patients (31%) with mild OA and 478 patients (60%) with moderate or severe OA. Overall, 37% of patients reported dissatisfaction and 34% had a physician who reported dissatisfaction. Patient and physician assessments were the same in 70% of cases; Cohen’s κ coefficient was 0.34 (95% confidence interval 0.26–0.41), indicating fair agreement. Of those reporting dissatisfaction, most physicians (79%) and patients (64%) believed that the current control was the best that could be achieved. The most common reasons for which physicians reported dissatisfaction were inadequate response (56%), side effects (11.1%), and poor tolerance (7.8%). Conclusion One-half of patients or their treating physicians were dissatisfied with the control of OA provided by tNSAID therapy; moreover, most believed it was the best control that could be achieved. PMID:27790025

  4. Fabrication Procedures and Birefringence Measurements for Designing Magnetically Responsive Lanthanide Ion Chelating Phospholipid Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabettini, Stéphane; Baumgartner, Mirjam E; Fischer, Peter; Windhab, Erich J; Liebi, Marianne; Kuster, Simon

    2018-01-03

    Bicelles are tunable disk-like polymolecular assemblies formed from a large variety of lipid mixtures. Applications range from membrane protein structural studies by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to nanotechnological developments including the formation of optically active and magnetically switchable gels. Such technologies require high control of the assembly size, magnetic response and thermal resistance. Mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and its lanthanide ion (Ln 3+ ) chelating phospholipid conjugate, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylene triaminepentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA), assemble into highly magnetically responsive assemblies such as DMPC/DMPE-DTPA/Ln 3+ (molar ratio 4:1:1) bicelles. Introduction of cholesterol (Chol-OH) and steroid derivatives in the bilayer results in another set of assemblies offering unique physico-chemical properties. For a given lipid composition, the magnetic alignability is proportional to the bicelle size. The complexation of Ln 3+ results in unprecedented magnetic responses in terms of both magnitude and alignment direction. The thermo-reversible collapse of the disk-like structures into vesicles upon heating allows tailoring of the assemblies' dimensions by extrusion through membrane filters with defined pore sizes. The magnetically alignable bicelles are regenerated by cooling to 5 °C, resulting in assembly dimensions defined by the vesicle precursors. Herein, this fabrication procedure is explained and the magnetic alignability of the assemblies is quantified by birefringence measurements under a 5.5 T magnetic field. The birefringence signal, originating from the phospholipid bilayer, further enables monitoring of polymolecular changes occurring in the bilayer. This simple technique is complementary to NMR experiments that are commonly employed to characterize bicelles.

  5. Combined Characterization of the Time Response of Impression Materials via Traditional and FTIR Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Derchi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the temporal response of four dental impression materials, namely three siloxanes (Imprint 4, Flexitime, Aquasil and one polyether (Impregum. The null hypothesis was that the nominal working times are confirmed by instrumental laboratory tests. We also aimed to identify alternative techniques with strong physical-chemical background for the assessment of temporal response. Traditional characterization was carried out by shark fin test device and durometer at both ambient and body temperature. Additionally, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was performed at room temperature. From shark fin height and Shore hardness versus time the working time and the setting time of the materials were evaluated, respectively. These were in reasonable agreement with the nominal values, except for Impregum, which showed longer working time. Spectroscopy confirmed the different character of the two types of materials, and provided for Imprint 4 and Aquasil an independent evaluation of both evolution times, consistent with the results of the other techniques. Shark fin test and durometer measurements showed deviations in setting time, low sensitivity to temperature for Flexitime, and longer working time at higher temperature for Impregum. Deviations of working time appear in operating conditions from what specified by the manufacturers. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy can provide insight in the correlation between material properties and their composition and structure.

  6. Effectiveness of the Comalli Stroop Test as a measure of negative response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentsen, Timothy J; Boone, Kyle Brauer; Lo, Tracy T Y; Goldberg, Hope E; Cottingham, Maria E; Victor, Tara L; Ziegler, Elizabeth; Zeller, Michelle A

    2013-01-01

    Practice guidelines recommend the use of multiple performance validity tests (PVTs) to detect noncredible performance during neuropsychological evaluations, and PVTs embedded in standard cognitive tests achieve this goal most efficiently. The present study examined the utility of the Comalli version of the Stroop Test as a measure of response bias in a large sample of "real world" noncredible patients (n = 129) as compared with credible neuropsychology clinic patients (n=233). The credible group performed significantly better than the noncredible group on all trials, but particularly on word-reading (Stroop A) and color-naming (Stroop B); cut-scores for Stroop A and Stroop B trials were associated with moderate sensitivity (49-53%) as compared to the low sensitivity found for the color interference trial (29%). Some types of diagnoses (including learning disability, severe traumatic brain injury, psychosis, and depression), very advanced age (⩾80), and lowered IQ were associated with increased rates of false positive identifications, suggesting the need for some adjustments to cut-offs in these subgroups. Despite some previous reports of an inverted Stroop effect (i.e., color-naming worse than color interference) in noncredible subjects, individual Stroop word reading and color naming trials were much more effective in identifying response bias.

  7. Carbon dioxide test as an additional clinical measure of treatment response in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valença Alexandre M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine if a treatment with a dose of clonazepam - 2 mg/day, for 6 weeks, blocks spontaneous panic attacks and the ones induced by the inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide (CO2 in panic disorder (PD patients. The CO2 challenge-test may be a useful addition tool for measuring the pharmacological response during the initial phase (6 weeks in the treatment of PD. METHOD: Eighteen PD patients drug free for a week participated in a carbon dioxide challenge test. Fourteen had a panic attack and were openly treated for a 6-week period with clonazepam. At the end of the 6-week period they were submitted again to the CO2 challenge test. RESULTS: After 6 weeks of treatment with clonazepam, 12 of 14 PD patients (85.7% did not have a panic attack after the CO2 challenge test. Just 2 of 14 patients (14.3% had a panic attack after the CO2 challenge test. Ten of 14 (71.4% PD patients had panic free status after clonazepam treatment. The 2 patients who had a panic attack in the sixth week, after the CO2 test, did not have panic free status after the treatment with clonazepam. CONCLUSION: The CO2-test may be a valid tool for testing and predicting the drug response.

  8. The thermoluminescence response of Ge-doped flat fibre for proton beam measurements: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M F; Fadzil, M S Ahmad; Noor, N Mohd; Abdul Rahman, W N Wan; Tominaga, T; Geso, M; Akasaka, H; Bradley, D A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the thermoluminescence (TL) response of fabricated 2.3 mol% and 6.0 mol% germanium (Ge) doped flat optical fibres to proton irradiation. The fundamental dosimetric characteristics of the fibres have been investigated including dose linearity, reproducibility and fading. The thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used as a reference dosimeter to allow the relative response of the fibres. The results show that Ge-doped flat fibres offer excellent dose linearity over the dose range from 1 Gy up to 10 Gy with correlation of determination (R 2 ) of 0.99. The fibres also demonstrated good reproducibility within the standard deviation (SD) of 0.86% to 6.41%. After 96 days post-irradiation, TLD-100 chips gave rise to the least loss in TL signal at around 18% followed by fabricated 2.3 mol% Ge-doped flat fibres about 24%. This preliminary study has demonstrated that the proposed fabricated Ge-doped flat fibre offers a promising potential for use in proton beam measurements. (paper)

  9. Correlation of track irregularities and vehicle responses based on measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karis, Tomas; Berg, Mats; Stichel, Sebastian; Li, Martin; Thomas, Dirk; Dirks, Babette

    2018-06-01

    Track geometry quality and dynamic vehicle response are closely related, but do not always correspond with each other in terms of maximum values and standard deviations. This can often be seen to give poor results in analyses with correlation coefficients or regression analysis. Measured data from both the EU project DynoTRAIN and the Swedish Green Train (Gröna Tåget) research programme is used in this paper to evaluate track-vehicle response for three vehicles. A single degree of freedom model is used as an inspiration to divide track-vehicle interaction into three parts, which are analysed in terms of correlation. One part, the vertical axle box acceleration divided by vehicle speed squared (?) and the second spatial derivative of the vertical track irregularities (?), is shown to be the weak link with lower correlation coefficients than the other parts. Future efforts should therefore be directed towards investigating the relation between axle box accelerations and track irregularity second derivatives.

  10. Coding response to a case-mix measurement system based on multiple diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyra, Colin

    2004-08-01

    To examine the hospital coding response to a payment model using a case-mix measurement system based on multiple diagnoses and the resulting impact on a hospital cost model. Financial, clinical, and supplementary data for all Ontario short stay hospitals from years 1997 to 2002. Disaggregated trends in hospital case-mix growth are examined for five years following the adoption of an inpatient classification system making extensive use of combinations of secondary diagnoses. Hospital case mix is decomposed into base and complexity components. The longitudinal effects of coding variation on a standard hospital payment model are examined in terms of payment accuracy and impact on adjustment factors. Introduction of the refined case-mix system provided incentives for hospitals to increase reporting of secondary diagnoses and resulted in growth in highest complexity cases that were not matched by increased resource use over time. Despite a pronounced coding response on the part of hospitals, the increase in measured complexity and case mix did not reduce the unexplained variation in hospital unit cost nor did it reduce the reliance on the teaching adjustment factor, a potential proxy for case mix. The main implication was changes in the size and distribution of predicted hospital operating costs. Jurisdictions introducing extensive refinements to standard diagnostic related group (DRG)-type payment systems should consider the effects of induced changes to hospital coding practices. Assessing model performance should include analysis of the robustness of classification systems to hospital-level variation in coding practices. Unanticipated coding effects imply that case-mix models hypothesized to perform well ex ante may not meet expectations ex post.

  11. Coding Response to a Case-Mix Measurement System Based on Multiple Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyra, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Objective To examine the hospital coding response to a payment model using a case-mix measurement system based on multiple diagnoses and the resulting impact on a hospital cost model. Data Sources Financial, clinical, and supplementary data for all Ontario short stay hospitals from years 1997 to 2002. Study Design Disaggregated trends in hospital case-mix growth are examined for five years following the adoption of an inpatient classification system making extensive use of combinations of secondary diagnoses. Hospital case mix is decomposed into base and complexity components. The longitudinal effects of coding variation on a standard hospital payment model are examined in terms of payment accuracy and impact on adjustment factors. Principal Findings Introduction of the refined case-mix system provided incentives for hospitals to increase reporting of secondary diagnoses and resulted in growth in highest complexity cases that were not matched by increased resource use over time. Despite a pronounced coding response on the part of hospitals, the increase in measured complexity and case mix did not reduce the unexplained variation in hospital unit cost nor did it reduce the reliance on the teaching adjustment factor, a potential proxy for case mix. The main implication was changes in the size and distribution of predicted hospital operating costs. Conclusions Jurisdictions introducing extensive refinements to standard diagnostic related group (DRG)-type payment systems should consider the effects of induced changes to hospital coding practices. Assessing model performance should include analysis of the robustness of classification systems to hospital-level variation in coding practices. Unanticipated coding effects imply that case-mix models hypothesized to perform well ex ante may not meet expectations ex post. PMID:15230940

  12. Data acquisition system for nuclear reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Akash; Tiwari, Railesha; Tiwari, S.S.; Panday, Lokesh; Suri, Nitin; Chouksey, Abhsek; Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Dwivedi, Tarun; Agrawal, Ashish; Pandey, Pranav Kumar; Sharma, Brijnandan; Bhatia, Chirag

    2004-01-01

    We have designed an online real time data acquisition system for nuclear reactor environment monitoring. Data acquisition system has eight channels of analog signals and one channel of pulsed input signal from detectors like GM Tube, or any other similar input. Connectivity between the data acquisition system and environmental parameters monitoring computer is made through a wireless data communication link of 151 MHz/100 mW RF power and 10 km maximum communication range for remote data telemetry. Sensors used are gamma ionizing radiation sensor made from CsI:Tl scintillator, atmospheric pressure sensor with +/-0.1 mbar precision, temperature sensor with +/-l milli degree Celsius precision, relative humidity with +/-0.1RH precision, pulse counts with +/-1 count in 0-10000 Hz count rate measurement precision and +/-1 count is accumulated count measurement precision. The entire data acquisition system and wireless telemetry system is 9 V battery powered and the device is to be fitted on a wireless controlled mobile robot for scanning the nuclear reactor zone from remote. Wireless video camera has been planned for integration into the existing system on a later date for moving the robotics environmental data acquisition system beyond human vision reach. System development cost is Rs.25 Lacs and has been developed for Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India and Indian Defense use. (author)

  13. An Ultralow Power Fast-Response Nano-TCD CH4 sensor for UAV Airborne Measurements, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this project, KWJ proposes to develop a low power, fast response, lightweight miniature CH4 measurement system based on KWJ nano-TCD sensor for airborne...

  14. Monitoring kinetic and frequency-domain properties of eyelid responses in mice with magnetic distance measurement technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.L. den Ouden; G. Perry; S.M. Highstein; C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); S.K.E. Koekkoek (Bas)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractClassical eye-blink conditioning in mutant mice can be used to study the molecular mechanisms underlying associative learning. To measure the kinetic and frequency domain properties of conditioned (tone - periorbital shock procedure) and unconditioned eyelid responses

  15. Gamma-ray response of NE-213 measured between 2 and 11.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Wehring, B.W.; Starr, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the capability to discriminate between neutrons and gamma rays, NE-213 scintillators are useful as both fast-neutron and gamma-ray spectrometers. However, measured NE-213 Compton-recoil spectra require unfolding to yield gamma-ray energy spectra which entails a detailed knowledge of the gamma-ray response of the NE-213 detector system. Absolute measurements of the gamma-ray response of an NE-213 scintillator in the energy range of 2 to 11.5 MeV were made. The measurements were made using the University of Illinois superconducting electron microtron equipped with a gamma-ray monochromator. The response measurements will be used to construct a gamma-ray response matrix for NE-213 to be used with the FORIST unfolding code

  16. Evaluation of an Anti-rPA IgG ELISA for Measuring the Antibody Response in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, S

    2004-01-01

    A recombinant protective antigen (rPA)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure the serological response of female A/J mice after inoculation with the new rPA-based anthrax vaccine...

  17. Rapid measurement of auditory filter shape in mice using the auditory brainstem response and notched noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, Ioan A; Lauer, Amanda M

    2013-04-01

    The notched noise method is an effective procedure for measuring frequency resolution and auditory filter shapes in both human and animal models of hearing. Briefly, auditory filter shape and bandwidth estimates are derived from masked thresholds for tones presented in noise containing widening spectral notches. As the spectral notch widens, increasingly less of the noise falls within the auditory filter and the tone becomes more detectible until the notch width exceeds the filter bandwidth. Behavioral procedures have been used for the derivation of notched noise auditory filter shapes in mice; however, the time and effort needed to train and test animals on these tasks renders a constraint on the widespread application of this testing method. As an alternative procedure, we combined relatively non-invasive auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements and the notched noise method to estimate auditory filters in normal-hearing mice at center frequencies of 8, 11.2, and 16 kHz. A complete set of simultaneous masked thresholds for a particular tone frequency were obtained in about an hour. ABR-derived filter bandwidths broadened with increasing frequency, consistent with previous studies. The ABR notched noise procedure provides a fast alternative to estimating frequency selectivity in mice that is well-suited to high through-put or time-sensitive screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between potentiometric measurements, sensorial analysis, and some substances responsible for aroma degradation of white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Ferreira, A C; Oliveira, Carla; Hogg, T; Guedes de Pinho, P

    2003-07-30

    Oxidative degradation of white wines can be described sensorially as developing from a loss at positive aroma characteristics, through the development of negative aromas to a linel stage of chromatic alterations. This work attempts to relate the oxidation "status" evaluate by potentiometric titrations, with sensorial degradation and the levels of substances responsible for "off-flavors", such as methional and phenylacetaldehyde. The potentiometric titration employed measures the most powerful antioxidants of white wines (e.g., those which more rapidly consume oxygen). Considering that aromatic precedes chromatic degradation, resistance to oxidation (ROX) constitutes a useful indicator of resistance to oxidation. Sensorial degradation (ID), potentiometric measures, and volatiles were determined both in samples submitted to a "forced aging" protocol and normal aged white wines. High correlation values were observed between ROX and the ID, in both sets (r > 0.87). ID is better explained by ROX values than by the indicated wine age or by the "degree of browning" (Abs = 420 nm). It was also observed that in samples with ROX values higher than 10, the concentration of methional and phenylacetaldehyde were above their respective odor threshold. Finally, it was observed that there is a relationship between oxygen consumption and the respective ROX. Although these results seem very promising, they needed to be further complemented in order to estimate the shelf life of a white wine using potentiometric titrations.

  19. Comparison of the Thermal Response of Two Calorimetric Cells Dedicated to Nuclear Heating Measurements during Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, J.; Reynard, C.; De-Vita, C.; Carette, M.; Muraglia, M.; Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Guimbal, P.; Villard, J-F.

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear heating is a key parameter which contributes to the thermal design and the quality of in-pile experiments performed in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs) for the study of nuclear materials and fuels under irradiation. Nuclear heating is typically measured in MTRs by radiometric calorimeters. However this kind of sensor has to be suited and improved in perspective of the new experimental conditions inside the channels of Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). In this paper, we study the responses of two non adiabatic differential calorimeter cells having the same geometric design, but different dimensions. These experimental works are carried out during a preliminary out-of-pile calibration operating procedure of these sensors which consists in simulating the sample heating by Joule effect. The influence of the imposed electrical power and of the forced cooling flow is determined on the sensor calibration curves. A more sensitive sensor leads to a quadratic calibration curve. This behavior difference of the two calorimetric configurations is explained by means of temperature and heat flux measurements performed with a new instrumented jacket. (authors)

  20. Guinea pig complement potently measures vibriocidal activity of human antibodies in response to cholera vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Whun; Jeong, Soyoung; Ahn, Ki Bum; Yang, Jae Seung; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The vibriocidal assay using guinea pig complement is widely used for the evaluation of immune responses to cholera vaccines in human clinical trials. However, it is unclear why guinea pig complement has been used over human complement in the measurement of vibriocidal activity of human sera and there have not been comparison studies for the use of guinea pig complement over those from other species. Therefore, we comparatively investigated the effects of complements derived from human, guinea pig, rabbit, and sheep on vibriocidal activity. Complements from guinea pig, rabbit, and human showed concentration-dependent vibriocidal activity in the presence of quality control serum antibodies. Of these complements, guinea pig complement was the most sensitive and effective over a wide concentration range. When the vibriocidal activity of complements was measured in the absence of serum antibodies, human, sheep, and guinea pig complements showed vibriocidal activity up to 40-fold, 20-fold, and 1-fold dilution, respectively. For human pre- and post-vaccination sera, the most potent vibriocidal activity was observed when guinea pig complement was used. In addition, the highest fold-increases between pre- and post- vaccinated sera were obtained with guinea pig complement. Furthermore, human complement contained a higher amount of V. cholerae- and its lipopolysaccharide-specific antibodies than guinea pig complement. Collectively, these results suggest that guinea pig complements are suitable for vibriocidal assays due to their high sensitivity and effectiveness to human sera.