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Sample records for respiratory tract illnesses

  1. Illness perception and related behaviour in lower respiratory tract infections-a European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, Patricia M.; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Butler, Chris C.; Coenen, Samuel; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Goossens, Herman; Hood, Kerry; Smith, Richard; de Vries-van Vugt, Saskia F.; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo J M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a common presentation in primary care, but little is known about associated patients' illness perception and related behaviour. Objective. To describe illness perceptions and related behaviour in patients with LRTI visiting their general

  2. Lower respiratory tract illness in young children: predictors of disease and health care utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, B.M. de

    2008-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) is an important health problem in early childhood. More than half of all infants develop LRTI in the first years of life. LRTI is an important risk factor for asthma. At the age of six, 10-15% still has symptoms of LRTI. Most of the children grow over the

  3. Behavioral Effects of Upper Respiratory Tract Illnesses: A Consideration of Possible Underlying Cognitive Mechanisms

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    Andrew P. Smith

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that both experimentally induced upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs and naturally occurring URTIs influence mood and performance. The present study investigated possible cognitive mechanisms underlying the URTI-performance changes. Those who developed a cold (N = 47 had significantly faster, but less accurate, performance than those who remained healthy (N = 54. Illness had no effect on manipulations designed to influence encoding, response organisation (stimulus-response compatilibility or response preparation. Similarly, there was no evidence that different components of working memory were impaired. Overall, the present research confirms that URTIs can have an effect on performance efficiency. Further research is required to identify the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlying these effects.

  4. Illness perception and related behaviour in lower respiratory tract infections—a European study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordijk, Patricia M; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Butler, Chris C; Coenen, Samuel; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Goossens, Herman; Hood, Kerry; Smith, Richard; van Vugt, Saskia F; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo J M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a common presentation in primary care, but little is known about associated patients’ illness perception and related behaviour. Objective. To describe illness perceptions and related behaviour in patients with LRTI visiting their general practitioner (GP) and identify differences between European regions and types of health care system. Methods. Adult patients presenting with acute cough were included. GPs recorded co morbidities and clinical findings. Patients filled out a diary for up to 4 weeks on their symptoms, illness perception and related behaviour. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions between groups and the Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare means. Results. Three thousand one hundred six patients from 12 European countries were included. Eighty-one per cent (n = 2530) of the patients completed the diary. Patients were feeling unwell for a mean of 9 (SD 8) days prior to consulting. More than half experienced impairment of normal or social activities for at least 1 week and were absent from work/school for a mean of 4 (SD 5) days. On average patients felt recovered 2 weeks after visiting their GP, but 21% (n = 539) of the patients did not feel recovered after 4 weeks. Twenty-seven per cent (n = 691) reported feeling anxious or depressed, and 28% (n = 702) re-consulted their GP at some point during the illness episode. Reported illness duration and days absent from work/school differed between countries and regions (North-West versus South-East), but there was little difference in reported illness course and related behaviour between health care systems (direct access versus gate-keeping). Conclusion. Illness course, perception and related behaviour in LRTI differ considerably between countries. These finding should be taken into account when developing International guidelines for LRTI and interventions for setting realistic expectations about illness course

  5. Effects of upper respiratory tract illnesses, ibuprofen and caffeine on reaction time and alertness.

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    Smith, Andrew P; Nutt, David J

    2014-05-01

    Compared with healthy individuals, those with upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs) report reduced alertness and have slower reaction times. It is important to evaluate medication that can remove this behavioural malaise. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a combination of ibuprofen plus caffeine with ibuprofen and caffeine alone, and placebo on malaise associated with URTIs, as measured by psychomotor performance and mood testing. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four medication conditions as follows: 200 mg ibuprofen and 100 mg caffeine; 200 mg ibuprofen; 100 mg caffeine; placebo. A single oral dose was given and testing followed for 3 h. Efficacy variables were based on the volunteers' performance, measured by psychomotor performance and mood. The pre-drug results confirmed that those with an URTI had a more negative mood and impaired performance. Results from the simple reaction time task, at both 55- and 110-min post-dosing, showed that a single-dose of caffeinated products (I200/C100 and CAF100) led to significantly faster reaction times than IBU200 and placebo. These effects were generally confirmed with the other performance tasks. Subjective measures showed that the combination of ibuprofen and caffeine was superior to the other conditions. There were no serious adverse events reported, and study medication was well tolerated. The results from the post-drug assessments suggest that a combination of ibuprofen and caffeine was the optimum treatment for malaise associated with URTIs in that it had significant effects on objective performance and subjective measures.

  6. Upper respiratory tract (image)

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    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  7. Detection of human bocavirus from children and adults with acute respiratory tract illness in Guangzhou, southern China

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    Liu Wen-Kuan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human bocavirus (HBoV is a newly discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI and gastrointestinal illness. Our study is the first to analyze the characteristics of HBoV-positive samples from ARTI patients with a wide age distribution from Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Throat swabs (n=2811 were collected and analyzed from children and adults with ARTI over a 13-month period. The HBoV complete genome from a 60 year-old female patient isolate was also determined. Results HBoV DNA was detected in 65/2811 (2.3% samples, of which 61/1797 were from children (Mycoplasma pneumoniae had the highest frequency of 16.9% (11/65. Upper and lower respiratory tract illness were common symptoms, with 19/65 (29.2% patients diagnosed with pneumonia by chest radiography. All four adult patients had systemic influenza-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome revealed a close relationship with other HBoVs, and a more distant relationship with HBoV2 and HBoV3. Conclusions HBoV was detected from children and adults with ARTI from Guangzhou, southern China. Elderly people were also susceptive to HBoV. A single lineage of HBoV was detected among a wide age distribution of patients with ARTI.

  8. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

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    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  9. Progress in pediatrics in 2011. Choices in endocrinology, gastroenterology, hemato-oncology, infectious diseases, otolaryngology, pharmacotherapy and respiratory tract illnesses

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    Caffarelli Carlo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Main progresses in endocrinology, gastroenterology, hemato-oncology, infectious diseases, otolaryngology, pharmacotherapy, and respiratory tract illnesses selected from articles published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2011 were reviewed. Risk factors for gastroenteritis and appendicitis in developing countries may be useful in improving our understanding of these diseases. Childhood hearing impairment is a world-wide problem which continues to have an high prevalence in newborns. Among the mechanisms of diseases, obese children often have asthma and high hepcidin levels that may reduce serum iron concentrations. In cystic fibrosis, 18q distal deletion has been described as a novel mutation. Hypothyroidism in children with central nervous system infections may increase mortality rates. Infrared tympanic thermometer (IRTT in oral mode for the measurement of body temperature may be useful in fever screening in a busy setup. In newborns, the transmission of CMV infection through breast milk may be prevented through freezing or pasteurization. Recent advances in treatment of constipation, urinary tract infections, leukemia, pain in children with cancer, neonates with sepsis or difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation will likely contribute towards optimizing management of these common disorders. The work of the Family Pediatricians Medicines for Children Research Network aims to develop competence, infrastructure, networking and education for pediatric clinical trials.

  10. To assess the relations between breast feeding and illness in children under two years of age with particular reference to respiratory tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, N.; Zaidi, N.; Khan, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried out to examine the relation between the breast feeding and morbidity as a result of respiratory illness and infection in the children less than two years of age. This is a prospective analysis of 131 children attending the outdoor paediatric department of Federal Government Services Hospital, Islamabad during the month of February 2006. A close ended pretested questionnaire was filled after taking informed consent from patient's parents. Out of total 131 enrolled cases (76 male and 55 female) 62 (47%) were breast fed; 56 (43%) bottle fed; while 13 (10%) had mix feeding. Among 38 children, having past history of respiratory tract infections episodes in last one month, only 04 (10%) were breast fed and remaining 34 (90%) were either bottle fed or had partial breast feeding. Out of 62 breast fed children, only 04 (6%) had recurrent episodes of respiratory tract infections, on the other hand out of 56 bottle fed 32 (57%) had previous history of respiratory illness. In our study there is a significant correlation between breast feeding and reduction in number of Respiratory tact infections episodes. Predominant breast feeding for at leas six months and partial breast feeding for up to one year may reduce the prevalence and subsequent morbidity of respiratory illness and infection in infancy. (author)

  11. Progress in pediatrics in 2013: choices in allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

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    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Dascola, Carlotta Povesi; Mirra, Virginia; Sperli, Francesco; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2014-07-12

    This review will provide new information related to pathophysiology and management of specific diseases that have been addressed by selected articles published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2013, focusing on allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses in children. Recommendations for interpretation of skin prick test to foods in atopic eczema, management of allergic conjunctivitis, hypertension and breastfeeding in women treated with antiepileptic drugs and healthy breakfast have been reported. Epidemiological studies have given emphasis to high incidence of autoimmune disorders in patients with Turner syndrome, increasing prevalence of celiac disease, frequency of hypertension in adolescents, incidence and risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity. Advances in prevention include elucidation of the role of probiotics in reducing occurrence of allergies and feeding intolerance, and events of foetal life that influence later onset of diseases. Mechanistic studies suggested a role for vitamin D deficiency in asthma and type 1 diabetes and for reactivation of Varicella-Zoster virus in aseptic meningitis. Regarding diagnosis, a new mean for the diagnosis of hyperbilirubinaemia in newborns, a score for recognition of impaired nutritional status and growth and criteria for early Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome have been suggested. New therapeutic approaches consist of use of etanercept for reducing insulin dose in type 1 diabetes, probiotics in atopic eczema, and melatonin in viral infections.

  12. Progress in Pediatrics in 2012: choices in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

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    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2013-05-08

    In this review, we summarize the progresses in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses that have been published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2012. The induction of Treg activity by probiotics might be effective for promoting tolerance towards food allergens. Nasal cytology is useful in patients with rhinitis for diagnosing chronic non-allergic non-infectious diseases. Atopic eczema is associated both with an aberrant skin matrix and impaired systemic immune response. Therefore, isolated topical treatment may have suboptimal effect. Diagnostic work-up of exercise-induced anaphylaxis, including exercise challenge test, is necessary to reach a diagnosis. Studies may support a role for nutrition on prevention of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. Clinicians need to early identify adolescent menstrual abnormalities to minimize sequelae, and to promote health information. In Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B investigations include acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa followed by the molecular analysis of RET mutation. Low adherence to gluten-free diet and osteopenia are common problems in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 and celiac disease. In infantile colic, laboratory tests are usually unnecessary and the treatment is based on reassurance. Prevalence of obesity and stunting is elucidated by several studies. Evidences are growing that dietetic measures are needed to prevent obesity in children with acute leukemia. Treatment studies for infectious diseases show promise for probiotics along with standard triple therapy in children with Helicobacter pilori infection, while zinc has no effect on pneumonia. Educational programs about the proper management of the febrile child are warranted. A new hour-specific total serum bilirubin nomogram has been shown to be able to predict newborns without hyperbilirubinemia after 48 to 72 hours of life. Newborns with

  13. Concurrent acute illness and comorbid conditions poorly predict antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infections: a cross-sectional analysis

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    Perencevich Eli N

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate antibiotic use promotes resistance. Antibiotics are generally not indicated for upper respiratory infections (URIs. Our objectives were to describe patterns of URI treatment and to identify patient and provider factors associated with antibiotic use for URIs. Methods This study was a cross-sectional analysis of medical and pharmacy claims data from the Pennsylvania Medicaid fee-for-service program database. We identified Pennsylvania Medicaid recipients with a URI office visit over a one-year period. Our outcome variable was antibiotic use within seven days after the URI visit. Study variables included URI type and presence of concurrent acute illnesses and chronic conditions. We considered the associations of each study variable with antibiotic use in a logistic regression model, stratifying by age group and adjusting for confounders. Results Among 69,936 recipients with URI, 35,786 (51.2% received an antibiotic. In all age groups, acute sinusitis, chronic sinusitis, otitis, URI type and season were associated with antibiotic use. Except for the oldest group, physician specialty and streptococcal pharyngitis were associated with antibiotic use. History of chronic conditions was not associated with antibiotic use in any age group. In all age groups, concurrent acute illnesses and history of chronic conditions had only had fair to poor ability to distinguish patients who received an antibiotic from patients who did not. Conclusion Antibiotic prevalence for URIs was high, indicating that potentially inappropriate antibiotic utilization is occurring. Our data suggest that demographic and clinical factors are associated with antibiotic use, but additional reasons remain unexplained. Insight regarding reasons for antibiotic prescribing is needed to develop interventions to address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.

  14. Upper respiratory tract infections in athletes.

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    Page, Clifton L; Diehl, Jason J

    2007-07-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) represent the most common acute illnesses in the general population and account for the leading acute diagnoses in the outpatient setting. Given the athlete's expectation to return to activity as soon as possible, the sports medicine physician should be able to accurately diagnose and aggressively treat these illnesses. This article discusses the common pathogens, diagnosis, treatment options, and return-to-play decisions for URTIs, with a focus on the common cold, sinusitis, pharyngitis, and infectious mononucleosis in the athlete.

  15. Dosimetry of the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.

    1996-01-01

    A new dosimetric model of the human respiratory tract has been recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, in ICRP Publication 66. This model was intended to update the previous lung model of the Task Group on Lung Dynamics that was adopted by ICRP in Publication 30. With this aim, extensive reviews of the available knowledge were made for anatomy and physiology of the respiratory tract and for deposition, clearance and biological effects of inhaled radionuclides. Finally, expanded dosimetry requirements resulted in a widely different approach from the former model. The main features of the new model are the followings: instead of calculating the average dose to the total mass of blood filled lung, the model takes account of differences in radiosensitivity of the venous respiratory tract tissues. It applies not only to adult workers but also to all members of the population, and provides reference values for children aged 3 months, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, and adults. Deposition modelling of airborne gases and aerosols associates age dependent breathing rates, airway dimensions and physical activity, to particle size, density and chemical form of inhaled material. Clearance results of competition between mechanical transport clearance and absorption to blood. At each step of the calculation, adjustment guidance is provided to account for use of exact values of particle sizes and specific dissolution rates of inhaled material in order to calculate their own parameter of retention in the airways, and to assess accurately doses to the respiratory tract. Possible influence of smoking, of respiratory tract diseases and of eventual exposure to airborne toxicants is also addressed. (author)

  16. Advances in pediatrics in 2014: current practices and challenges in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses.

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    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Cesari, Silvia; Sciorio, Elisa; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2015-10-31

    Major advances in the conduct of pediatric practice have been reported in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2014. This review highlights developments in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses. Investigations endorse a need to better educate guardians and improve nutritional management in food allergy. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates and of bronchiolitis have been improved by position statements of scientific societies. Novel treatments for infant colic and inflammatory bowel diseases have emerged. Studies suggest the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in diagnosing community-acquired pneumonia. Progress in infectious diseases should include the universal varicella vaccination of children. Recommendations on asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome have been highlighted in neonatology. Studies have evidenced that malnutrition remains a common underestimated problem in developing countries, while exposure to cancer risk factors in children is not negligible in Western countries. Advances in our understanding of less common diseases such as cystic fibrosis, plastic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis facilitate diagnosis and management. Researches have led to new therapeutic approaches in patent ductus arteriosus and pediatric malignancies.

  17. Quantitation of respiratory viruses in relation to clinical course in children with acute respiratory tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Rogier R.; Schinkel, Janke; dek, Irene; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Visser, Caroline E.; de Jong, Menno D.; Molenkamp, Richard; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2010-01-01

    Quantitation of respiratory viruses by PCR could potentially aid in clinical interpretation of PCR results. We conducted a study in children admitted with acute respiratory tract infections to study correlations between the clinical course of illness and semiquantitative detection of 14 respiratory

  18. The microbiota of the respiratory tract : Gatekeeper to respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, Wing Ho; De Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A.A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts

  19. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis

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    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  20. Segregation of virulent influenza A(H1N1 variants in the lower respiratory tract of critically ill patients during the 2010-2011 seasonal epidemic.

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    Antonio Piralla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since its appearance in 2009, the pandemic influenza A(H1N1 virus circulated worldwide causing several severe infections. METHODS: Respiratory samples from patients with 2009 influenza A(H1N1 and acute respiratory distress attending 24 intensive care units (ICUs as well as from patients with lower respiratory tract infections not requiring ICU admission and community upper respiratory tract infections in the Lombardy region (10 million inhabitants of Italy during the 2010-2011 winter-spring season, were analyzed. RESULTS: In patients with severe ILI, the viral load was higher in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL with respect to nasal swab (NS, (p<0.001 suggesting a higher virus replication in the lower respiratory tract. Four distinct virus clusters (referred to as cluster A to D circulated simultaneously. Most (72.7%, n = 48 of the 66 patients infected with viruses belonging to cluster A had a severe (n = 26 or moderate ILI (n = 22. Amino acid mutations (V26I, I116M, A186T, D187Y, D222G/N, M257I, S263F, I286L/M, and N473D were observed only in patients with severe ILI. D222G/N variants were detected exclusively in BAL samples. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple virus clusters co-circulated during the 2010-2011 winter-spring season. Severe or moderate ILI were associated with specific 2009 influenza A(H1N1 variants, which replicated preferentially in the lower respiratory tract.

  1. [Upper respiratory tract infections and sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffi El Amari, Emmanuelle

    2010-08-11

    Upper respiratory tract infections are frequent in athletes. Mainly of viral origin, they are treated symptomatically. Infectious mononucleosis is associated with an estimated 2% per hundred risk of splenic rupture, which occurs between day four and twenty one of the illness. Therefore return to play guidelines recommend avoiding, exercice during the first twenty one days. Physical exercise seems to influence the immune system, depending on the intensity and length of it. But the relationship between physical exercise and risk of infections remains controversial: some articles showing an increase in risk, whereas others suggesting a certain degree of protection, in athletes. The actual generally accepted working theory is the J-curve proposed by Nieman. This model remains to be formally proven.

  2. Adenovirus respiratory tract infections in Peru.

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    Julia S Ampuero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness.

  3. Adenovirus respiratory tract infections in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, Julia S; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness.

  4. Adenovirus Respiratory Tract Infections in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, Julia S.; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding human adenovirus (HAdv) circulation in Andean regions of South America. To address this shortcoming, we report the clinical, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdv respiratory tract infection from a large sentinel surveillance study conducted among adults and children in Peru. Methods/Principal Findings Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture. In addition, molecular characterization was performed on 226 randomly selected HAdv samples. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 26,375 participants with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) were enrolled in the study. HAdv infection was identified in 2.5% of cases and represented 6.2% of all viral pathogens. Co-infection with a heterologous virus was found in 15.5% of HAdv cases. HAdv infection was largely confined to children under the age of 15, representing 88.6% of HAdv cases identified. No clinical characteristics were found to significantly distinguish HAdv infection from other respiratory viruses. Geographically, HAdv infections were more common in sites from the arid coastal regions than in the jungle or highland regions. Co-circulation of subgroups B and C was observed each year between 2006 and 2010, but no clear seasonal patterns of transmission were detected. Conclusions/Significance HAdv accounted for a significant fraction of those presenting with ILI and SARI in Peru and tended to affect the younger population disproportionately. Longitudinal studies will help better characterize the clinical course of patients with HAdv in Peru, as well as determine the role of co-infections in the evolution of illness. PMID:23056519

  5. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...

  6. Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters.

    OpenAIRE

    White, M C; Baker, E L

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross sectional study of current male members of two local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive eff...

  7. Development and validation of a Chinese translated questionnaire: A single simultaneous tool for assessing gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tract related illnesses in pre-school children

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    Amy S.Y. Lau, MSc

    2018-04-01

    لحصول على مؤشر صلاحية عملية الاستجابة للبند بمستوى ١.٠٠ لهذه الاستبانة من ٣٠ من المجيبين مما يدل على أن البنود كانت واضحة ومفهومة. الاستنتاجات: أظهرت هذه الدراسة مستوى جيدا من مؤشر الصلاحية في النسخة المترجمة الصينية، مما يدل على أنها أداة صالحة وموثوق بها لاستخدامها في التقييم المتزامن للأمراض ذات الصلة بالجهازين الهضمي والتنفسي في الأطفال الصغار ويمكن تطبيقها على سكان ماليزيا الصينيين والدول الأخرى الناطقة بالصينية. Abstract: Objectives: Children are prone to contagious illnesses that come from peers in nurseries, kindergartens, and day care centres. The administration of probiotics has been reported to decrease the episodes of such illnesses, leading to decreased absences and consumption of antibiotics. With less emphasis on, and preferences for, blood collection from young subjects, quantifiable data are merely obtained from surveys and questionnaires. Malaysia has a population which is 25% ethnic Chinese. We aimed to develop a single tool that enables simultaneous assessments of both gastrointestinal and respiratory tract-related illnesses among young Chinese children. Methods: The English-language validated questionnaires using data about demographics and monthly health records were translated into the Chinese language. Both forward and backward translated versions were validated. Results: The developed demographic and monthly health questionnaires showed an overall item-level content validity index (I-CVI of 0.99 and 0.97, respectively; while the translated Chinese versions showed I-CVI of 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. Item-level of response process validity index of 1.00 for this questionnaire was obtained from 30 respondents

  8. Air pollution and respiratory illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. New ICRP human respiratory tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The new ICRP dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract is based on the premise that the large differences in radiation sensitivity of respiratory tract tissues, and the wide range of doses they receive argue for calculating specific tissue doses rather than average lung doses. The model is also directly applicable to the worldwide population of both workers and the public. The requirement to describe intake, and deposition, clearance and dosimetry in each respiratory tract region, for a wide range of subjects at various levels of exercise necessarily means that the model is more complex than that of ICRP Publication 30. The widespread use of powerful personal computers, and the availability of user-friendly software to implement the model, however, will make it widely and readily accessible when the report is published. (Author)

  10. Patterns of respiratory illness in Sheffield infant school children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunn, J E; Knowelden, J; Handyside, A J

    1967-01-01

    Children were selected for exposure to air pollution within the divergent city of Sheffield. Mean age of children was approx. 5 yr, 4.5 months with range of about 1 yr. Examination included respiratory history, mucopurulent discharge, tonsils, eardrums, FEV/sub 0/ /sub 75/, and FVC. Nasal discharge, history of 3 or more per year, history of colds going to chest, and history of lower respiratory tract illness showed significant variations between lightly and heavily polluted areas. History of frequent cough showed social class correlation. Steadily decreasing FEV with increasing pollution was observed. FVC was lowest in area with highest pollution, but similarly high in other areas. Both parameters were influenced by previous history of respiratory tract disease.

  11. Acute respiratory tract obstruction in children

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Zahoor

    1999-01-01

    35 cases of acute respiratory tract obstruction in paediatric age group who needed surgical intervention in the form of bronchoscopy, tracheostomy or both are reviewed here. All these patients were seen and managed at National Iranian Oil company Hospital Ummeidiya Khouzestan Iran, from April 1985 to April 1988. The results obtained with a review of use of instruments is described. Most of the patients presented with foreign body inhalations, some due to allergic oedema and one case had laryn...

  12. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p infected children required respiratory support. hMPV is present in young.......6%) ARTI episodes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using primers targeting the hMPV N gene and the RSV L gene. Two children were co-infected with hMPV and RSV. They were excluded from statistical analysis. Hospitalization for ARTI caused by hMPV was restricted to very young...

  13. Early-life exposure to indoor air pollution or tobacco smoke and lower respiratory tract illness and wheezing in African infants: a longitudinal birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Aneesa Vanker, FCPaed

    2017-11-01

    Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Discovery Foundation, South African Thoracic Society AstraZeneca Respiratory Fellowship, Medical Research Council South Africa, National Research Foundation South Africa, and CIDRI Clinical Fellowship.

  14. Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M C; Baker, E L

    1988-08-01

    The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross sectional study of current male members of two local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive effect was observed for smoking and duration of employment as a painter. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between years worked as a painter and a decrement in FEV1 equal to about 11 ml for each year worked. This association was larger among painters who had smoked. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was significantly associated with increased use of spray application methods.

  15. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Ga??zka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szo?tys, Edyta; Sm??ka, Wojciech; Gawlik, Rados?aw

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardle...

  16. Validation study of a diary for use in acute lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, L; Little, P; Moore, M; Warner, G; Williamson, [No Value

    2001-01-01

    Background. Despite lower respiratory tract infection (LRTi) being the most common illness treated by doctors, no validated outcome measure to assess symptom duration and severity has been developed for patient self-completion. Methods. As part of a randomized control trial researching management of

  17. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałązka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szołtys, Edyta; Smółka, Wojciech; Gawlik, Radosław

    2016-12-01

    Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardless of the cause they can exclude athletes from the training program and significantly impair their performance. In the present work, the most common upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes taking into account the disciplines in which they most often occur were presented. The focus was laid on symptoms, diagnostic methods and pharmacotherapy. Moreover, preventive procedures which can help reduce the occurrence of upper respiratory tract disease in athletes were presented. Management according to anti-doping rules, criteria for return to training and competition as an important issues of athlete's health were discussed.

  18. Management of upper respiratory tract infections in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) occurs commonly in both children and adults and is a major ... by a watery nasal discharge, which after one to three days becomes .... iron supplementation is remarkably effective in areas where iron.

  19. Main features of the proposed NCRP respiratory tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phalen, R.F.; Fisher, G.L.; Moss, O.R.; Schlesinger, R.B.; Swift, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed NCRP respiratory tract dosimetry model regions include the naso-oro-pharyngo-laryngeal (NOPL), the tracheobronchial (TB), the pulmonary (P), and the lymph nodes (LN). Input aerosol concentrations are derived from a consideration of particle-size-dependent inspirability. Particle deposition in the respiratory tract is modelled using the mechanisms of inertial impaction, sedimentation and diffusion. The rates of absorption of particles, and transport to the blood, have been derived from clearance data from people and laboratory animals. The effect of body growth on particle deposition is considered. Particle clearance rates are assumed to be independent of age. The proposed respiratory tract model differs significantly from the 1966 Task Group Model in that (1) inspirability is considered; (2) new sub-regions of the respiratory tract are considered; (3) absorption of materials by the blood is treated in a more sophisticated fashion; and (4) body size (and thus age) is taken into account. (author)

  20. Pediatric recurrent respiratory tract infections: when and how to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pediatric recurrent respiratory tract infections: when and how to explore the immune system? (About 53 cases). Mohammed El-Azami-El-Idrissi, Mounia Lakhdar-Idrissi, Sanae Chaouki, Samir Atmani, Abdelhak Bouharrou, Moustapha Hida ...

  1. [Study of etiologic factors of infectious diseases of respiratory tract in school-age children during period of remission of a respiratory disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maĭorov, R V; Chereshneva, M V; Chereshnev, V A

    2013-01-01

    Detect features of microflora of upper respiratory tract on the example of flora of palatine tonsils and level of antibodies against intracellular parasites as markers of etiologic factors of respiratory infections in school-age children in remission period. 466 children from frequently and episodically ill groups were examined. Bacteriologic study of smears from the surface of palatine tonsils was carried out in all the children. By using EIA with the corresponding commercial test systems IgG level against Herpes simplex virus, Cytomegalovirus, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Human respiratory syncytial virus was determined in blood sera according to instruction manual. During remission period of infectious process in the structure of microflora of upper respiratory tract in frequently ill children characteristic differences from their episodically ill peers were detected. In children with frequent respiratory infections a higher occurrence of antibodies against intracellular causative agents of these diseases was also detected. In the group of frequently ill, a direct correlation between frequency of infectious diseases of respiratory tract and occurrence of carriage of pathogenic and opportunistic microorgan isms as well as increase of antibodies against Herpesviridae, Cytomegalovirus, C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae was detected. Higher occurrence ofintra- and extra-cellular infectious agents as well as their associations may be considered as one of the reasons of insufficient effectiveness of prophylaxis measures in frequently ill children.

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus in adults with severe acute respiratory illness in a high HIV prevalence setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Jocelyn; Walaza, Sibongile; Pretorius, Marthi; Groome, Michelle; von Gottberg, Anne; Wolter, Nicole; Haffejee, Sumayya; Variava, Ebrahim; Cohen, Adam L; Tempia, Stefano; Kahn, Kathleen; Dawood, Halima; Venter, Marietjie; Cohen, Cheryl; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-10-01

    There are limited data on the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illness in HIV-infected adults or the elderly in Africa. We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalizations in adults in South Africa from 2009 through 2013. Individuals admitted to sentinel surveillance hospitals were investigated by respiratory tract swabs for RSV, using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The incidence of RSV-associated SARI was calculated for the one site with population denominators. Of 7796 participants investigated, 329 (4%) tested positive for RSV. On multivariable analysis, HIV-infected individuals with RSV-associated SARI had greater odds of being in the age groups 18-44 and 45-64 years (odd ratios (OR) 26.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.2-112.1 and OR 11.4; 95% CI 2.6-50.0) compared with those ≥65 years and being female (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.4-5.4). The relative risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated SARI was 12-18 times higher in HIV infected individual compared to that of HIV-uninfected. The incidence of RSV-associated SARI was higher in HIV-infected individuals and those aged 65 years and older. Further studies are warranted to describe the disease association of RSV detected in adults with SARI. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. All rights reserved.

  3. [Antibiotic prescribing in acute respiratory tract infections in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, S; Bjerrum, L; Feja, C; Lallana, M J; Poncel, A; Rabanaque, M J

    2015-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide threat to public health. Acute respiratory tract infections are the main reason for antibiotic prescribing in the Spanish paediatric population. The aim of the study was to describe the frequency of antibiotic prescription and their pattern of use in acute respiratory tract infections diagnosed in children in Primary Care in Aragón (Spain). A study was conducted over a 1-year period on children between 0 and 14 years-old, recording all episodes of acute otitis, acute pharyngotonsillitis, non-specific upper respiratory infection, and acute bronchitis. The proportion of episodes within each diagnosis receiving an antibiotic prescription was calculated, and the prescribing pattern was determined. Half (50%) of the children in Aragón were diagnosed with a respiratory tract infection during the study period. Non-specific upper respiratory infection was the most frequent diagnosis. An antibiotic was prescribed in 75% of pharyngotonsillitis episodes, 72% of otitis, 27% of bronchitis, and 16% of non-specific upper respiratory infections. Broad spectrum antibiotics, mainly amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic, were predominantly prescribed. Antibiotic prescribing in respiratory tract infections in children was generally high, and the choice of antibiotics was probably inappropriate in a high percentage of cases. Therefore an improvement in antibiotic prescribing in children appears to be needed. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of radon-daughter deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberstedt, S.; Vanmarcke, H.

    1996-01-01

    Since some decades it is known, that most of the radiation dose to the lung is due to the inhalation of the short-lived decay products of 222 Rn. Their deposition in the respiratory tract strongly depends on the attachment rate to aerosol-particles present in the indoor air and their plate-out rate to the surfaces, instead of measuring the activity size distribution of the airborne decay products, knowledge on the respiratory tract retention has been incorporated in the design of a measurement system, called bronchial dosemeter, to assess the lung dose directly. The simulation of the deposition characteristics of the short-lived radon daughters in the nasal cavity and the bronchial tree is based on the comparison of the model of the respiratory tract with results from screen penetration theory. A bronchial dosemeter consisting of three sampling heads has been built and calibrated. Additionally, an outline of future activities will be given. (author)

  5. Enabling factors for antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Radzeviciene Jurgute, Ruta; Bjerrum, Lars

    2013-01-01

    . This study aimed to explore experiences of GPs in Lithuania and the Russian Federation with regard to antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infections. By such means it might be possible to reveal external enabling factors that influence antibiotic prescribing in these countries. Method. Five...... for political leadership to encourage clinically grounded antibiotic use; over-the-counter sale of antibiotics; designation of antibiotics as reimbursable medications; supervision by external oversight institutions; lack of guidelines for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections; and pharmaceutical......Abstract Introduction. General practitioners (GPs) write about 80% of all antibiotic prescriptions, the greatest number of them for patients with respiratory tract infections. However, there is a lack of research targeting the influence of external factors on antibiotic prescribing by physicians...

  6. Consultation expectations among patients with respiratory tract infection symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Gitte Bruun; Sørensen, Mette Sejr; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat to public health, and antibiotic prescribing increases. About 90% of antibiotics are prescribed in general practice, mostly for acute respiratory tract infections. It is well known that patient expectations and general practitioners......' misinterpretation of patients' expectations are associated with antibiotic overuse. The aim of this study was to explore Danish patients' expectations when consulting a general practitioner with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection, and to determine predictors for these expectations. METHODS......: A questionnaire survey was conducted in Danish primary care during 2014. Patients aged ≥ 18 years were asked about their expectations to the consultation when consulting with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported antibiotic...

  7. Consultation expectations among patients with respiratory tract infection symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Lauridsen, Gitte; Sejr Sørensen, Mette; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat to public health, and antibiotic prescribing increases. About 90% of antibiotics are prescribed in general practice, mostly for acute respiratory tract infections. It is well known that patient expectations and general practitioners’ misinter......­pretation of patients’ expectations are associated with antibiotic overuse. The aim of this study was to explore Danish patients’ expectations when consulting a general prac­titioner with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection, and to determine predictors for these expectations. Methods: A questionnaire survey...... was conducted in Danish primary care during 2014. Patients aged ≥ 18 years were asked about their expectations to the consultation when consulting with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported antibiotic prescription and patients...

  8. Seasonality of long term wheezing following respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, L.; Steijn, M.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.; Brus, F.; Th Draaisma, J. M.; van Diemen-Steenvoorde, R. A. A. M.; Pekelharing-Berghuis, M.; Kimpen, J. L. L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is well known that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is associated with subsequent wheezing episodes, but the precise natural course of wheezing following RSV LRTI is not known. This study aimed to determine the continuous development of

  9. Seasonality of long term wheezing following respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, L; Steijn, M; van Aalderen, WMC; Brus, F; Draaisma, JMT; Van Diemen-Steenvoorde, RAAM; Pekelharing-Berghuis, M; Kimpen, JLL

    Background: It is well known that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is associated with subsequent wheezing episodes, but the precise natural course of wheezing following RSV LRTI is not known. This study aimed to determine the continuous development of

  10. Lower respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus : current management and new therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazur, Natalie; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Baraldi, Eugenio; Fauroux, Brigitte; Greenough, Anne; Heikkinen, Terho; Manzoni, Paolo; Mejias, Asuncion; Nair, Harish; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Polack, Fernando P.; Ramilo, Octavio; Sharland, Mike; Stein, Renato; Madhi, Shabir A.; Bont, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Evidence-based management guidelines suggest that there is no effective treatment for RSV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and that supportive care, ie, hydration and

  11. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihisa

    1991-01-01

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169 Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198 Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  12. Microbial flora variations in the respiratory tract of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cangemi de Gutierrez

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A stable microbial system in the respiratory tract acts as an important defense mechanism against pathogenic microorganisms. Perturbations in this system may allow pathogens to establish. In an ecological environment such as the respiratory tract, there are many diverse factors that play a role in the establishment of the indigenous flora. In the present work we studied the normal microbial flora of different areas of the respiratory tract of mice and their evolution from the time the mice were born. Our interest was to know which were the dominant groups of microorganisms in each area, which were the first capable of colonizing and which dominated over time to be used as probiotic microorganisms. Our results show that Gram negative facultatively anaerobic bacilli and strict anaerobic microorganisms were the last ones to appear in the bronchia, while aerobic and Gram positive cocci were present in all the areas of the respiratory tract. The number of facultative aerobes and strict anaerobes were similar in the nasal passage, pharynx instilled and trachea, but lower in bronchia. The dominant species were Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus saprophyticcus, followed by S. epidermidis, Lactobacilli and S. cohnii I which were present on every studied days but at different proportions. This paper is the first part of a research topic investigating the protective effect of the indigenous flora against pathogens using the mice as an experimental model.

  13. Dysbiosis of upper respiratory tract microbiota in elderly pneumonia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piters, Wouter A. A. de Steenhuijsen; Huijskens, Elisabeth G. W.; Wyllie, Anne L.; Biesbroek, Giske; van den Bergh, Menno R.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Wang, Xinhui; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Bonten, Marc J.; Rossen, John W. A.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Bogaert, Debby

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. We hypothesize that dysbiosis between regular residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiome, that is balance between commensals and potential pathogens, is involved in pathogen overgrowth and consequently

  14. Tetratrichomonads from the oral cavity and respiratory tract of humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutišová, K.; Kulda, J.; Čepička, I.; Flegr, J.; Koudela, Břetislav; Teras, J.; Tachezy, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2005), s. 1-11 ISSN 0031-1820 Grant - others:Grantová agentura Karlovy univerzity v Praze(CZ) 264/1999 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tetratrichomonas spp. * human respiratory tract * oral cavity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.703, year: 2005

  15. Upper respiratory tract infection, heterologous immunisation and meningococcal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R. J.; Bijlmer, H. A.; Tobi, H.; Dankert, J.; Bouter, L. M.

    1999-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an episode of upper respiratory tract infection or heterologous immunisation is a predisposing factor for the occurrence of meningococcal disease, data from 377 cases of meningococcal disease and their household contacts (n = 1124) were analysed by conditional logistic

  16. Bacterial aetiology in lower respiratory tract infections : Relevance in outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, J.

    2017-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is one of the leading reasons for consulting in primary care. Today, a general practitioner faces the challenge of distinguishing between patients with a mild self-limiting disease to whom antibiotics would do more harm than good and those who would benefit

  17. Cellular and mucosal immune responses in the respiratory tract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the cellular and mucosal responses in the respiratory tract of Nigerian goats vaccinated intranasally with recombinant Mannheimia hemolytica bacterine. Twenty one goats were divided into five groups, five goats each in three vaccinated groups while three goats each ...

  18. Activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum S. Kurz extracts on respiratory tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These fractions were subjected to antibacterial testing against respiratory tract pathogenic bacteria. The n-hexane soluble fraction showed activity against the selected microorganism with highest on Staphylococcus aureus (12mm), Klebsiella pneumonia (11mm) and Salmonella typhi (08mm); ethyl acetate soluble fraction ...

  19. Successful topical respiratory tract immunization of primates against Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukreyev, Alexander; Rollin, Pierre E; Tate, Mallory K; Yang, Lijuan; Zaki, Sherif R; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Murphy, Brian R; Collins, Peter L; Sanchez, Anthony

    2007-06-01

    Ebola virus causes outbreaks of severe viral hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans. The virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted by contact and by the aerosol route. These features make Ebola virus a potential weapon for bioterrorism and biological warfare. Therefore, a vaccine that induces both systemic and local immune responses in the respiratory tract would be highly beneficial. We evaluated a common pediatric respiratory pathogen, human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3), as a vaccine vector against Ebola virus. HPIV3 recombinants expressing the Ebola virus (Zaire species) surface glycoprotein (GP) alone or in combination with the nucleocapsid protein NP or with the cytokine adjuvant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor were administered by the respiratory route to rhesus monkeys--in which HPIV3 infection is mild and asymptomatic--and were evaluated for immunogenicity and protective efficacy against a highly lethal intraperitoneal challenge with Ebola virus. A single immunization with any construct expressing GP was moderately immunogenic against Ebola virus and protected 88% of the animals against severe hemorrhagic fever and death caused by Ebola virus. Two doses were highly immunogenic, and all of the animals survived challenge and were free of signs of disease and of detectable Ebola virus challenge virus. These data illustrate the feasibility of immunization via the respiratory tract against the hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which topical immunization through respiratory tract achieved prevention of a viral hemorrhagic fever infection in a primate model.

  20. Limited Evidence on the Management of Respiratory Tract Infections in Down's Syndrome : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manikam, Logan; Reed, Kate; Venekamp, Roderick P; Hayward, Andrew; Littlejohns, Peter; Schilder, Anne; Lakhanpaul, Monica

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To systematically review the effectiveness of preventative and therapeutic interventions for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in people with Down's syndrome. METHODS: Databases were searched for any published and ongoing studies of respiratory tract diseases in children and adults with

  1. Effectiveness of adenoidectomy in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections: open randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardweg, M.T. van den; Boonacker, C.W.; Rovers, M.M.; Hoes, A.W.; Schilder, A.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of adenoidectomy in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. DESIGN: Open randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 11 general hospitals and two academic centres. PARTICIPANTS: 111 children aged 1-6 with recurrent upper respiratory tract

  2. Significance of Moraxella catarrhalis as a causative organism of lower respiratory tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Ramadan

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that when microbiological and clinical criteria are met, M. catarrhalis when isolated should be considered as a pathogen causing lower respiratory tract infections. M. catarrhalis, lower respiratory tract infections.

  3. Diabetes and Risk of Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, and Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar W.; Mor, Anil

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an update on the risk of several important community-acquired infections seen in patients with diabetes: respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and bacteremia. Respiratory tract infections: Recent epidemiological evidence shows a modest (1.25 to 1.75-fold) risk...... increase for hospitalization with pneumonia associated with diabetes. The increase of risk for tuberculosis is of similar magnitude in highly developed countries, and possibly higher in low-income countries. Poor glycemic control and long diabetes duration predict higher risk for both pneumonia...... and tuberculosis. Limited data is available for diabetes and influenza, yet both influenza and pneumococcal vaccination is recommended in patients with diabetes. Urinary tract infections: The risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis is 1.5 to 2 times increased in diabetes patients, while their risk...

  4. Acute respiratory illnesses in the first 18 months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse M. López Bravo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available To help assess the causes and frequency of acute respiratory illnesses (ARI during the first 18 months of life in Chile, a cohort of 437 children born in good health between May 1991 and April 1992 was followed at an urban health clinic in northern Santiago. Information was obtained from medical checkups performed at the clinic, from emergency health care services, from private physicians, and from interviews with each child's mother when the child was enrolled in the study and when it was 6, 12, and 18 months old. Followup was completed for 379 (87% of the children. ARI accounted for 67% of all 3762 episodes of illness recorded for these children in the 18-month study period, 1384 (55% of the ARI episodes affecting the upper respiratory tract and the remaining 1144 (45% affecting the lower. The overall rate of ARI observed was 33 episodes per 100 child-months of observation. The incidences of upper, lower, and total ARI episodes decreased significantly in the third six months of life. A statistically significant association was found between upper ARI ( > or = 2 episodes and maternal smoking ( > or = 5 cigarettes per day, but no significant associations were found with any of the other risk factors studied. However, lower ARI ( > or = 2 episodes was significantly associated with maternal schooling ( or = 4 episodes was significantly associated with these factors and also with the existence of one or more siblings, birth in a cold season, limited breast-feeding (<4 months, and low socioeconomic status. Significant associations were found between obstructive bronchitis episodes and most of the risk factors studied (gender, siblings, season of birth, duration of breast-feeding, maternal schooling, smoking, use of polluting fuels in the home, and a family history of atopic allergy; similarly, significant associations were found between the occurrence of pneumonia and many risk factors (including siblings, season of birth, duration of breast

  5. Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract in 34 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racklyeft, D J; Love, D N

    2000-08-01

    To investigate associations between the bacteriology and aspects of history, clinical presentation, outcome and pathology of lower respiratory tract disease of 34 horses. Detailed aerobic and anaerobic bacteriological investigations were performed on clinical specimens from horses with pneumonia, lung abscessation and necrotic pneumonia with or without pleurisy in an attempt to identify those bacteria that might contribute to the initiation and progression of infection. Bacteria were cultured from 33 of the 34 horses. In ten cases, only aerobic/facultatively anaerobic isolates were cultured while aerobic/facultatively anaerobic bacteria and obligately anaerobic bacteria were isolated in the other 23 cases. Moderate to large numbers of anaerobic bacteria were isolated only when the estimated duration of illness was at least five days. Bacteria were not cultured from 12 of the pleural fluid samples but were always cultured from pulmonary samples (either transtracheal aspirates from live horses or pulmonary lesions at necropsy). Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus was isolated in the three cases where only one bacterial species was cultured. In the other 30 cases, multiple species were isolated. These included most often and in greatest numbers, Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus, Pasteurellaceae, Escherichia coli, anaerobic cocci, Eubacterium fossor, Bacteroides tectum, Prevotella heparinolytica, Fusobacterium spp, and pigmented members of the genera Prevotella and Porphyromonas. Aerobic/facultatively anaerobic organisms were isolated from 97% of horses, while obligately anaerobic organisms were cultured from 68% of horses. There was no association between the isolation of any specific bacterium and the outcome of disease. However, obligately anaerobic bacteria (such as anaerobic cocci, Bacteroides tectum, P heparinolytica and Fusobacterium spp) and the facultatively anaerobic species Escherichia coli, were recovered more commonly from horses that died or were

  6. Risk factors for lower respiratory tract infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silfeler, I.; Tanidir, I.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Acute respiratory tract infections are divided into two groups as upper and lower respiratory tract infections. These are very common diseases in childhood. In this study, we aimed to determine risk factors for lower respiratory tract in this region. Methodology: Hospital were included in our study. Their examinations, backgrounds, family histories and information about environmental factors were recorded in questionnaire forms. Results: Lack of vaccination, duration of breast feeding, onset age of cow's milk, family history for asthma and food allergy, number of hospitalized people in the same room, number of people who live in same house and smoking around the children were evaluated for the presence of LRTI, and LRTI risks of these factors were respectively observed as 1.69, 1.71, 1.61, 1.69, 1.20, 1.47, 1.56 and 2.63 fold increased. Conclusion: Standardization of clinical diagnosis, accurate and realistic use of antibiotics, correction of nutrition, improvement of socio-economic situation and the elimination of Respiratory Infections. (author)

  7. Effect of exposure to ambient PM2.5 pollution on the risk of respiratory tract diseases: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Xu, Cheng; Ji, Guixiang; Liu, Hui; Shao, Wentao; Zhang, Chunlan; Gu, Aihua; Zhao, Peng

    2017-01-19

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization have designated airborne particulates, including particulates of median aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), as Group 1 carcinogens. It has not been determined, however, whether exposure to ambient PM 2.5 is associated with an increase in respiratory related diseases. This meta-analysis assessed the association between exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and the risk of respiratory tract diseases, using relevant articles extracted from PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase. In results, of the 1,126 articles originally identified, 35 (3.1%) were included in this meta-analysis. PM 2.5 was found to be associated with respiratory tract diseases. After subdivision by age group, respiratory tract disease, and continent, PM 2.5 was strongly associated with respiratory tract diseases in children, in persons with cough, lower respiratory illness, and wheezing, and in individuals from North America, Europe, and Asia. The risk of respiratory tract diseases was greater for exposure to traffic-related than non-traffic-related air pollution. In children, the pooled relative risk (RR) represented significant increases in wheezing (8.2%), cough (7.5%), and lower respiratory illness (15.3%). The pooled RRs in children were 1.091 (95%CI: 1.049, 1.135) for exposure to respiratory tract diseases, especially in children exposed to high concentrations of PM 2.5 .

  8. Do pollution and climate influence respiratory tract infections in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Duarte Passos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To review if pollution and climate changes can influence respiratory tract infections in children. Data source: articles published on the subject in PubMed, SciELO, Bireme, EBSCO and UpTodate were reviewed. The following inclusion criteria were considered: scientific papers between 2002 and 2012, study design, the pediatric population, reference documents such as the CETESB and World Health Organization Summary of the data: We analyzed research that correlated respiratory viruses and climate and/or pollution changes. Respiratory syncytial virus has been the virus related most to changes in climate and humidity. Other "old and new" respiratory viruses such as Human Bocavirus, Metapneumovirus, Parechovirus and Parainfuenza would need to be investigated owing to their clinical importance. Although much has been studied with regard to the relationship between climate change and public health, specific studies about its influence on children's health remain scarce.

  9. Human respiratory syncytial virus load normalized by cell quantification as predictor of acute respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Novo, Miriam; Boga, José A; Álvarez-Argüelles, Marta E; Rojo-Alba, Susana; Fernández, Ana; Menéndez, María J; de Oña, María; Melón, Santiago

    2018-05-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a common cause of respiratory infections. The main objective is to analyze the prediction ability of viral load of HRSV normalized by cell number in respiratory symptoms. A prospective, descriptive, and analytical study was performed. From 7307 respiratory samples processed between December 2014 to April 2016, 1019 HRSV-positive samples, were included in this study. Low respiratory tract infection was present in 729 patients (71.54%). Normalized HRSV load was calculated by quantification of HRSV genome and human β-globin gene and expressed as log10 copies/1000 cells. HRSV mean loads were 4.09 ± 2.08 and 4.82 ± 2.09 log10 copies/1000 cells in the 549 pharyngeal and 470 nasopharyngeal samples, respectively (P respiratory tract infection and 4.22 ± 2.28 log10 copies/1000 cells with upper respiratory tract infection or febrile syndrome (P < 0.05). A possible cut off value to predict LRTI evolution was tentatively established. Normalization of viral load by cell number in the samples is essential to ensure an optimal virological molecular diagnosis avoiding that the quality of samples affects the results. A high viral load can be a useful marker to predict disease progression. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwofie, Theophilus B; Anane, Yaw A; Nkrumah, Bernard; Annan, Augustina; Nguah, Samuel B; Owusu, Michael

    2012-04-10

    Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  11. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwofie Theophilus B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  12. Metagenomic analysis of viral diversity in respiratory samples from patients with respiratory tract infections in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Nada; Al-Nakib, Widad; Mustafa, Abu Salim; Habibi, Nazima

    2018-03-01

    A metagenomic approach based on target independent next-generation sequencing has become a known method for the detection of both known and novel viruses in clinical samples. This study aimed to use the metagenomic sequencing approach to characterize the viral diversity in respiratory samples from patients with respiratory tract infections. We have investigated 86 respiratory samples received from various hospitals in Kuwait between 2015 and 2016 for the diagnosis of respiratory tract infections. A metagenomic approach using the next-generation sequencer to characterize viruses was used. According to the metagenomic analysis, an average of 145, 019 reads were identified, and 2% of these reads were of viral origin. Also, metagenomic analysis of the viral sequences revealed many known respiratory viruses, which were detected in 30.2% of the clinical samples. Also, sequences of non-respiratory viruses were detected in 14% of the clinical samples, while sequences of non-human viruses were detected in 55.8% of the clinical samples. The average genome coverage of the viruses was 12% with the highest genome coverage of 99.2% for respiratory syncytial virus, and the lowest was 1% for torque teno midi virus 2. Our results showed 47.7% agreement between multiplex Real-Time PCR and metagenomics sequencing in the detection of respiratory viruses in the clinical samples. Though there are some difficulties in using this method to clinical samples such as specimen quality, these observations are indicative of the promising utility of the metagenomic sequencing approach for the identification of respiratory viruses in patients with respiratory tract infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The role and regulation of catalase in respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Mia M; Fan, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory tract bacterial pathogens are the etiologic agents of a variety of illnesses. The ability of these bacteria to cause disease is imparted through survival within the host and avoidance of pathogen clearance by the immune system. Respiratory tract pathogens are continually bombarded by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be produced by competing bacteria, normal metabolic function, or host immunological responses. In order to survive and proliferate, bacteria have adapted defense mechanisms to circumvent the effects of ROS. Bacteria employ the use of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalases and catalase-peroxidases, to relieve the effects of the oxidative stressors to which they are continually exposed. The decomposition of ROS has been shown to provide favorable conditions in which respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Legionella pneumophila, and Neisseria meningitidis are able to withstand exposure to highly reactive molecules and yet survive. Bacteria possessing mutations in the catalase gene have a decreased survival rate, yet may be able to compensate for the lack of catalatic activity if peroxidatic activity is present. An incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms by which catalase and catalase-peroxidases are regulated still persists, however, in some bacterial species, a regulatory factor known as OxyR has been shown to either up-regulate or down-regulate catalase gene expression. Yet, more research is still needed to increase the knowledge base in relation to this enzyme class. As with this review, we focus on major respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens in order to elucidate the function and regulation of catalases. The importance of the research could lead to the development of novel treatments against respiratory bacterial infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Clinical studies on flomoxef in respiratory tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegae, H; Yamada, H; Yamaguchi, T; Kuroki, S; Katoh, O

    1987-10-01

    Flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S) is a new oxacephem with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. We used FMOX for treatment of 13 patients with respiratory tract infections including 4 cases of pneumonia, 5 of lung abscess and 4 of exacerbation of the chronic airway diseases. FMOX showed excellent in vitro antimicrobial activities against clinical isolates including 4 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2 strains of Haemophilus influenzae and each one strain of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Clinical responses were excellent in 3 cases, good in 7 and fair or poor in 3. No side effect was observed, but abnormal laboratory findings caused by FMOX administration were found in 2 cases; hypertransaminasemia and eosinophilia. However, neither of them was severe. From the above results, it is considered that FMOX will be useful for treatment of patients with respiratory tract infections.

  15. [Clinical evaluations of flomoxef in respiratory tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikasa, K; Sawaki, M; Ako, H; Narita, N

    1987-10-01

    Flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S), a new antibacterial drug, was administered to 9 cases with respiratory tract infections for a duration of 8 approximately 16 days at a daily dose of 2 g. Diagnosis of these patients were bronchopneumonia 5 cases, chronic bronchitis 3 cases and acute bronchitis 1 case. From transtracheal aspiration several organisms were isolated; Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in 3 cases, Streptococcus pneumoniae in 3 cases, H. influenzae plus Branhamella catarrhalis in 1 case, Streptococcus dysgalactiae plus Neisseria meningitidis in 1 case and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum in 1 case. The clinical efficacy was good in all 9 cases, the efficacy rate was 100%. All the bacteria were eliminated. Side effects were not observed. From these results, it appears that FMOX is a valuable drug in the treatment of respiratory tract infections.

  16. Cow's milk and immune function in the respiratory tract

    OpenAIRE

    Perdijk, Olaf; Splunter, van, Marloes; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.; Brugman, Sylvia; Neerven, van, Joost

    2018-01-01

    During the last decades, the world has witnessed a dramatic increase in allergy prevalence. Epidemiological evidence shows that growing up on a farm is a protective factor, which is partly explained by the consumption of raw cow's milk. Indeed, recent studies show inverse associations between raw cow's milk consumption in early life and asthma, hay fever, and rhinitis. A similar association of raw cow's milk consumption with respiratory tract infections is recently found. In line with these f...

  17. Clearance of insoluble dust from the lower respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, P E; Gibb, F R; Johnson, L

    1964-01-01

    Clearance of tagged heavy metal aerosols (Fe, Hg, Mn, Ba, and U) in female beagles by in vivo counting was assessed. Fecal excretion paralleled lower respiratory tract clearance of Fe. No Fe was found in blood, indicating its biological insolubility. Ultrafiltration tests (an indication of biological solubility) ranked the heavy metals as: Hg, Mn, Fe, and U in order of decreasing solubility. The solubility ratios were remarkably similar to the ratios of inverse biological half-times.

  18. DNA repair capacity in the rat respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.A.; Gubin, J.M.; Johnson, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    A product of alkylating agents and DNA, O 6 -methylguanine, can mispair with thymine, resulting in initiation of a carcinogenic tissue response. O 6 -alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) is an acceptor protein responsible for repairing O 6 -methylguanine. The purpose of our experiments was to characterize AGT activity in vitro in tissue and cell extracts of the respiratory tract, a target tissue for inhaled alkylating agents. Removal of [ 3 H]Methyl from O 6 -methylguanine was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography after incubation of tissue and cell extracts with the [ 3 H]DNA. With the exception of tracheal and bronchial extracts, all tissues and cells analyzed contained AGT activity, which increased in proportion to the amount of protein added to reaction flasks. AGT activity in tracheal and bronchial extracts was only detected at the highest protein concentration used (1.5 mg protein/mL) and ranged from 10-15 fmole/mg protein. AGT activity in the respiratory tract was highest in the lung and a region of the nasal tissue (i.e., ethmoturbinates) and ranged from 45-75 fmole/mg protein. These data suggest that methylated DNA in specific regions of the rat respiratory tract should be readily repaired, albeit to different extents. (author)

  19. Absorption of DTPA from the respiratory tracts of Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, R.E.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) from the nasopharyngeal (NP), tracheobronchial (TB) and pulmonary (P) regions of Beagle dogs was determined because of the current interest in aerosolized DTPA as a method for removal of internally deposited radionuclides. Radiolabeled DTPA was instilled into the NP, TB and P regions of Beagle dogs and its subsequent translocation was followed for 48 hours. Results revealed that 16, 48 and 90% of the instilled DTPA was absorbed into the circulatory system from the NP, TB and P regions, respectively. A comparison was also made between NP absorption of aerosolized DTPA and DTPA instilled into the nasopharynx. Nasopharyngeal absorption of aerosolized DTPA, 23%, was slightly higher than that of instilled DTPA. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid deposited in the respiratory tract remained in the body longer than intravenously injected DTPA. These findings indicate that substantial absorption of DTPA occurs from all regions of the respiratory tract and that DTPA need not be deposited deep within the respiratory tract to produce systemic absorption of DTPA for the removal of internally deposited radioactive isotopes

  20. The pressure gradient in the human respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Michaela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory airways cause resistance to air flow during inhalation and exhalation. The pressure gradient is necessary to transport the air from the mount (or nose to pulmonary alveoli. The knowledge of pressure gradient (i.e. respiratory airways resistance is also needed to solve the question of aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract. The obtained data will be used as boundary conditions for CFD simulations of aerosol transport. Understanding of aerosol transport in the human lungs can help us to determine the health hazard of harmful particles. On the other hand it can be used to set the conditions for transport of medication to the desirable place. This article deals with the description of the mathematical equations defining the pressure gradient and resistance in the bronchial three and describes the geometry used in the calculation.

  1. Burden and Seasonality of Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections among Outpatients in Southern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David; Bodinayake, Champica K; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kurukulasooriya, Ruvini; Hsiang, Jeremy; Nicholson, Bradley; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan; Østbye, Truls; Reller, Megan E; Woods, Christopher W; Tillekeratne, L Gayani

    2017-07-01

    In tropical and subtropical settings, the epidemiology of viral acute respiratory tract infections varies widely between countries. We determined the etiology, seasonality, and clinical presentation of viral acute respiratory tract infections among outpatients in southern Sri Lanka. From March 2013 to January 2015, we enrolled outpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). Nasal/nasopharyngeal samples were tested in duplicate using antigen-based rapid influenza testing and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for respiratory viruses. Monthly proportion positive was calculated for each virus. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify associations between sociodemographic/clinical information and viral detection. Of 571 subjects, most (470, 82.3%) were ≥ 5 years of age and 53.1% were male. A respiratory virus was detected by PCR in 63.6% ( N = 363). Common viral etiologies included influenza (223, 39%), human enterovirus/rhinovirus (HEV/HRV, 14.5%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 4.2%), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV, 3.9%). Both ILI and influenza showed clear seasonal variation, with peaks from March to June each year. RSV and hMPV activity peaked from May to July, whereas HEV/HRV was seen year-round. Patients with respiratory viruses detected were more likely to report pain with breathing (odds ratio [OR] = 2.60, P = 0.003), anorexia (OR = 2.29, P respiratory viruses detected. ILI showed clear seasonal variation in southern Sri Lanka, with most activity during March to June; peak activity was largely due to influenza. Targeted infection prevention activities such as influenza vaccination in January-February may have a large public health impact in this region.

  2. Method of X-ray examination of upper respiratory tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Surenchik, V.I.; Shuster, M.A.; Sal'nikova, Eh.A.

    1982-01-01

    Method of X-ray examination of upper respiratory tracts by radiography both in direct and lateral projection with an introduction of radiocontrast media through tracheostoma is described. The main objective of the invention is to improve accuracy of diagnostics of larynx and trachea cicatrix structures in children. The objective is attained by the examination under general anesthesia; barium sulfate is simultaneously introduced through laryngoscope and tracheostoma, and polypositional radiography is accomplished just in the moment of air introduction under 130-170 mm Hg pressure in the amounts of 60-200 ml

  3. Grepafloxacin Clinical Program for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne C Rodloff

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper evaluates the clinical trial program in lower respiratory tract infections treated with a new fluoroquinolone antibiotic, grepafloxacin. Unlike older quinolones, grepafloxacin has excellent activity against Gram-positive organisms, which include Streptococcus pneumoniae and “atypical” pathogens Legionella species. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Grepafloxacin has a long half-life of 12 to 15 h, which allows once daily dosing. Six studies have been conducted regarding community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections (LRTls, four about community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and two about acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB . In these studies, grepafloxacin demonstrated clinical equivalence with standard therapies. but, in patients with documented infections. grepafloxacin was statistically superior to amoxycillin in both CAP and ABECB. The new fluoroquinolone has a good safety profile, comparable with that of ciprofloxacin. The most common adverse effects of grepafloxacin were nausea and a metallic taste; however, these effects resulted in only a few discontinuations of therapy. With the increasing prevalence of resistance in pathogens isolated from community-acquired LRTIs, grepafloxacin offers a good alternative for monotherapy in these patients.

  4. Clinical requirements in the treatment of today's respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höffken, G

    1993-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are among the most frequent infections in man and lower tract infections account substantially for the overall mortality in hospitals. Regarding the etiology of pneumonias, one has to consider different pathogenic mechanisms, age of the patients, underlying diseases, concomitant medications, symptomatologies, seasonal influences, and clinical conditions, e.g. intensive care environment and mechanical ventilation. To optimize the rational management of respiratory infections, identification of the etiologic agent would be desirable. The decision of how to treat is often based on epidemiologic, clinical, and radiological assessments. Epidemiologic studies have shown a pronounced difference in the etiologic spectrum between community- and hospital-acquired RTIs. In community-acquired pneumonias, pneumococci, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella, Mycoplasma and viruses predominate, whereas in nosocomially acquired pneumonias, Enterobacteriaceae, e.g. Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterobacter as well as Pseudomonas and staphylococci comprise the most frequent isolates. Empirical therapy has to cover all possible etiologic pathogens which most likely cause the infection. In addition, an adequate kinetic profile, e.g. once or twice daily dosing, sufficient pulmonary tissue or fluid penetration, and acceptable tolerance and costs are prerequisites for optimal therapy. Drugs of choice for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia are aminobenzylpenicillins or macrolides. Oral cephalosporins exhibit excellent activity against many bacterial pathogens of typical community-acquired pneumonia, and are active against beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae.

  5. Respiratory tract mortality in cement workers: a proportionate mortality study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The evidence regarding the association between lung cancer and occupational exposure to cement is controversial. This study investigated causes of deaths from cancer of respiratory tract among cement workers. Methods The deaths of the Greek Cement Workers Compensation Scheme were analyzed covering the period 1969-1998. All respiratory, lung, laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer proportionate mortality were calculated for cement production, maintenance, and office workers in the cement industry. Mortality from urinary bladder cancer was used as an indirect indicator of the confounding effect of smoking. Results Mortality from all respiratory cancer was significantly increased in cement production workers (PMR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.33). The proportionate mortality from lung cancer was significantly elevated (PMR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.65 to 2.52). A statistically significant increase in proportionate mortality due to respiratory (PMR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.34). and lung cancer (PMR = 1.67;95% CI = 1.15-2.34) among maintenance workers has been observed. The PMR among the three groups of workers (production, maintenance, office) did differ significantly for lung cancer (p = 0.001), while the PMR for urinary bladder cancer found to be similar among the three groups of cement workers. Conclusion Cement production, and maintenance workers presented increased lung and respiratory cancer proportionate mortality, and this finding probably cannot be explained by the confounding effect of smoking alone. Further research including use of prospective cohort studies is needed in order to establish a causal association between occupational exposure to cement and risk of lung cancer. PMID:22738120

  6. NORMAL NASOPHARYNGEAL MICROFLORA AS A RESERVOIR OF MULTIRESISTANT STRAINS OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minukhin V.V.

    2015-05-01

    according to. The share of K. pneumoniae was within 2.8%. Research of sensitivity of selected strains to antibiotics in vitro showed correlation of indices between microorganisms isolated from the nasopharynx of healthy people and patients with acute respiratory infection. Thus, sensitivity to amoxicillin S.epidermidis, S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes, isolated from the nasopharynx of healthy people was 81,8-84,2%, while low sensitivity to this antibiotic (66,7-83,6 % of isolated strains was found for these microorganisms isolated from ill people. A similar trend was observed for isolated staphylococci and streptococci to clindamycin, doxycycline and ceftazidime. And on the contrary, the high activity of fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone was observed for all microorganisms. I.e., the carriage in the nasopharynx of opportunistic pathogens with acquired antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the development of acute respiratory infections. Conclusion. 1. Facultative anaerobic microflora of nasopharynx of healthy people and patients with acute upper respiratory tract infections include opportunistic microorganisms, such as S.epidermidis, S. aureus, S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes. 2. Bacteria, isolated from the nasopharynx of healthy people and patients with acute upper respiratory tract infections, are characterized by high levels of resistance to antibiotics of therapeutic purposes. There is a correlation between antibioticresistant strains circulating in a healthy population and sensitivity to antibiotics of pathogens of acute respiratory infections. 3. Levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol may be used as drugs of choice for the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections.

  7. Etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children: current state of the issue (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bogdanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lower respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality in children under five years. Verification of the etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections is necessary for definition of treatment and direction of prevention. Respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3 and adenovirus are considered the main reasons of acute lower respiratory tract infections. The importance of different viruses depends on countries, district, seasons and ages of children. Analysis of the results of studies from different regions of the world showed fluctuations in frequency of etiology definition of respiratory viruses from 25 to 90%. Respiratory syncytial virus is the main reason of acute lower respiratory tract infections, especially in the group of children up to 1 year.

  8. Cellular defense of the avian respiratory system: effects of Pasteurella multocida on respiratory burst activity of avian respiratory tract phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, D L; Toth, T E; Pyle, R H; Siegel, P B

    1988-12-01

    The respiratory tract of healthy chickens contain few free-residing phagocytic cells. Intratracheal inoculation with Pasteurella multocida stimulated a significant (P less than 0.05) migration of cells to the lungs and air sacs of White Rock chickens within 2 hours after inoculation. We found the maximal number of avian respiratory tract phagocytes (22.9 +/- 14.0 x 10(6] at 8 hours after inoculation. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells revealed 2 populations on the basis of cell-size and cellular granularity. One of these was similar in size and granularity to those of blood heterophils. Only this population was capable of generating oxidative metabolites in response to phorbol myristate acetate. The ability of the heterophils to produce hydrogen peroxide, measured as the oxidation of intracellularly loaded 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, decreased with time after inoculation. These results suggest that the migration of heterophils, which are capable of high levels of oxidative metabolism, to the lungs and air sacs may be an important defense mechanism of poultry against bacterial infections of the respiratory tract.

  9. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF IBUPROFEN IN THERAPY FOR VIRAL UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Skugarevskaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of use of ibuprofen in cases of viral upper respiratory tract infections (Vuri in children of early childhood has proved its' safety and efficacy. This medical agent has not only terminate fever but also diminished some other symptoms of Vuri.Key words: ibuprofen, viral upper respiratory tract infections, children.

  10. Coxsackievirus A21, Enterovirus 68, and Acute Respiratory Tract Infection, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Zichun; Gonzalez, Richard; Wang, Zhong; Ren, Lili; Xiao, Yan; Li, Jianguo; Li, Yongjun; Vernet, Guy; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Jin, Qi; Wang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    During August 2006–April 2010, in Beijing, China, 2 rare human enterovirus serotypes, coxsackievirus A21 and enterovirus 68, were detected most frequently in human enterovirus–positive adults with acute respiratory tract infections. Thus, during some years, these 2 viruses cause a substantial proportion of enterovirus-associated adult acute respiratory tract infections.

  11. Seasonal variations of respiratory viruses detected from children with respiratory tract infections in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad S. Albogami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ARTIs have a huge impact in health systems in which 20–30% of all hospital admissions and 30–60% of practitioner visits are related to respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence, age distribution, and seasonal variation of respiratory viruses. This study was descriptive retrospective study in which all patients 14 years of age and below who presented with signs and symptoms of ARTIs between January 2013 and December 2014 and had respiratory specimen tested by direct immunofluorescence assays for viruses identification were included in the study. During that period, a total of 4611 patients who presented with ARTIs from January 2013 to December 2014 were investigated, viruses were detected in 1115 (24%. RSV was associated with 97.4% of the total viral pathogens. Viruses were detected throughout all the two years with a peak in winter; Dec (n: 265, Jan (n: 418, Feb (n: 218, and Mar (n: 109. Viral pathogens are very important cause of ARTIs in our region. RSV was the most common virus detected with the highest detection rate in children who are two years old and below. A multi-center surveillance with more sensitive detection methods like PCR may help to provide a comprehensive understanding of virus distribution in our area, which may contribute implant an effective prevention approach for each virus. Keywords: Pediatrics, Infectious diseases, Respiratory infections, Respiratory syncytial virus, Saudi Arabia

  12. Velocity profiles in idealized model of human respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcner, J.; Jedelsky, J.; Lizal, F.; Jicha, M.

    2013-04-01

    This article deals with numerical simulation focused on velocity profiles in idealized model of human upper airways during steady inspiration. Three r gimes of breathing were investigated: Resting condition, Deep breathing and Light activity which correspond to most common regimes used for experiments and simulations. Calculation was validated with experimental data given by Phase Doppler Anemometry performed on the model with same geometry. This comparison was made in multiple points which form one cross-section in trachea near first bifurcation of bronchial tree. Development of velocity profile in trachea during steady inspiration was discussed with respect for common phenomenon formed in trachea and for future research of transport of aerosol particles in human respiratory tract.

  13. Considering Respiratory Tract Infections and Antimicrobial Sensitivity: An Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the sensitivity and resistance of status of antibiotics for respiratory tract infection (RTI. Throat swab culture and sensitivity report of 383 patients revealed sensitivity profiles were observed with amoxycillin (7.9%, penicillin (33.7%, ampicillin (36.6%, co-trimoxazole (46.5%, azithromycin (53.5%, erythromycin (57.4%, cephalexin (69.3%, gentamycin (78.2%, ciprofloxacin (80.2%, cephradine (81.2%, ceftazidime (93.1%, ceftriaxone (93.1%. Sensitivity to cefuroxime was reported 93.1% cases. Resistance was found with amoxycillin (90.1%, ampicillin (64.1%, penicillin (61.4%, co-trimoxazole (43.6%, erythromycin (39.6%, and azithromycin (34.7%. Cefuroxime demonstrates high level of sensitivity than other antibiotics and supports its consideration with patients with upper RTI.

  14. Incense use and respiratory tract carcinomas: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, J.M.; Wang, R.; Koh, W.P.

    2008-01-01

    of cancer and ages 45 to 74 years completed a comprehensive interview regarding living conditions and dietary and lifestyle factors. Through linkage to population-based registries, the cohort was followed through 2005 and cancer occurrence determined. The relative risk for these cancers associated......BACKGROUND: Incense use is an integral part of daily life in large parts of Asia. The burning of incense is a powerful producer of particulate matter and the smoke contains a multitude of well-characterized carcinogens. However, to the authors' knowledge, no convincing association has been reported...... between exposure to incense smoke and the development of cancer. Therefore, the relation between incense use and the risk of respiratory tract carcinomas was analyzed in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1993 and 1998, a population-based cohort of 61,320 Singapore Chinese who were free...

  15. Velocity profiles in idealized model of human respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with numerical simulation focused on velocity profiles in idealized model of human upper airways during steady inspiration. Three r gimes of breathing were investigated: Resting condition, Deep breathing and Light activity which correspond to most common regimes used for experiments and simulations. Calculation was validated with experimental data given by Phase Doppler Anemometry performed on the model with same geometry. This comparison was made in multiple points which form one cross-section in trachea near first bifurcation of bronchial tree. Development of velocity profile in trachea during steady inspiration was discussed with respect for common phenomenon formed in trachea and for future research of transport of aerosol particles in human respiratory tract.

  16. An association between Helicobacter pylori and upper respiratory tract disease: Fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major cause of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers and considerable evidence supports the notion that infection with this bacterium is also associated with gastric malignancy in addition to various other conditions including pulmonary, vascular and autoimmune disorders. Gastric juice infected with H. pylori might play an important role in upper respiratory tract infection. Although direct and/or indirect mechanisms might be involved in the association between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the etiological role of H. pylori in upper respiratory tract disorders has not yet been fully elucidated. Although various studies over the past two decades have suggested a relationship between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the findings are inconsistent. The present overview describes the outcomes of recent investigations into the impact of H. pylori on upper respiratory tract and adjacent lesions. PMID:24587622

  17. Characterisation of antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory tract infections in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Saust, Laura Trolle

    2017-01-01

    Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear...... if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice. Acute respiratory tract infections accounted for 456...... prescription patterns for acute respiratory tract infections by data linkage of clinical indications. The findings confirm that penicillin V is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic agent for treatment of patients with an acute respiratory tract infection in Danish general practice. However, second...

  18. Deposition of cigarette smoke particles in the rat respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.T.; Weber, R.E.; Yeh, H.C.; Lundgren, D.L.; Snipes, M.B.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Male and female rats were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke to determine the fractional deposition. Deposition studies were conducted by placing the rats in plethysmography tubes for respiratory minute volume measurements and exposing them to 14 C-dotriacontane-labeled cigarette smoke at mass concentrations of 202 or 624 mg/m 3 for 25 min. Immediately after the exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the 14 C contents in various tissues and organs were analyzed. Results showed that the GI tract contained 16-31% of the total activity, indicating significant clearance from the large airways and nose to the GI tract during the exposure and during the 10-15 min between cessation of the exposure and the removal of the organs. Total deposition of the inhaled activity was 20.1 ± 1.6% for both exposure concentrations. The intrapulmonary deposition fractions (lung lobes plus airways below the lobar bronchi) were 12.4 ± 0.9% and 15.9 ± 1.4% for high and low concentrations, respectively, suggesting a slight enhancement in upper airway deposition for animals exposed to the higher smoke concentration. (author)

  19. [Treatment of fungal infections of upper respiratory tract and ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowski, Piotr; Kurnatowska, Agnieszka K

    2007-01-01

    Fungi, in comparison with other pathogenic factors, have high pathogenicity. The number of fungal species which are able to infect people is over 500. The upper respiratory tract and ear have permanent contact with external environment which makes their ontocenoses open to continuous exchange of microorganisms of which they consist. In etiology of inflammatory processes 21 species which belonging to 3 genera (Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota) of fungi play important role. Administration of antifungal drugs can be: prophylactic, empiric preemptive and therapeutic. Physicians may prescribe antibiotics (mainly pollens: amphotericin B, natamycin and nystatin) and chemiotherapeutics (mainly azoles and fluorpirymidins, pigments, chlorhexidine and chlorquinaldol). In ENT practice topical and systemic drugs can be administrated. Topical lozenges include amphotericin B, clotrimazole, chlorhexidine or chlorquinaldol and oral gels: nystatin and miconazole. Some of drugs are in the form of suspension/solution, which can be used for inhalation, into the sinus, for swabbing or for lavage: amphotericin B, natamycin, nystatin, clotrimazol, flucytosine, miconazole, fluconazole, vorykonazole, caspofungin. It should be underlined that only a few of dugs can be absorbed from the digestive tract: flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, vorykonazole.

  20. Deposition of cigarette smoke particles in the rat respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B T; Weber, R E; Yeh, H C; Lundgren, D L; Snipes, M B; Mauderly, J L

    1988-12-01

    Male and female rats were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke to determine the fractional deposition. Deposition studies were conducted by placing the rats in plethysmography tubes for respiratory minute volume measurements and exposing them to {sup 14}C-dotriacontane-labeled cigarette smoke at mass concentrations of 202 or 624 mg/m{sup 3} for 25 min. Immediately after the exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the 14{sub C} contents in various tissues and organs were analyzed. Results showed that the GI tract contained 16-31% of the total activity, indicating significant clearance from the large airways and nose to the GI tract during the exposure and during the 10-15 min between cessation of the exposure and the removal of the organs. Total deposition of the inhaled activity was 20.1 {+-} 1.6% for both exposure concentrations. The intrapulmonary deposition fractions (lung lobes plus airways below the lobar bronchi) were 12.4 {+-} 0.9% and 15.9 {+-} 1.4% for high and low concentrations, respectively, suggesting a slight enhancement in upper airway deposition for animals exposed to the higher smoke concentration. (author)

  1. Neutrophilic respiratory tract inflammation and peripheral blood neutrophilia after grain sorghum dust extract challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S G; O'Neill, D P; McGranaghan, S; Olenchock, S A; Rennard, S I

    1995-11-01

    To determine if inhalation of grain sorghum dust in the laboratory would cause neutrophilic upper and lower respiratory tract inflammation in human volunteers, as well as systemic signs of illness. Prospective. University of Nebraska Medical Center. Thirty normal volunteers. Inhalation challenge with 20 mL of a nebulized solution of filter-sterilized grain sorghum dust extract (GSDE). One group received prednisone, 20 mg for 2 days, prior to the challenge. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 24 h after challenge, with samples collected as bronchial and alveolar fractions. Findings included visible signs of airways inflammation, quantified as the bronchitis index. The percentage of bronchial neutrophils was significantly increased in those challenged with GSDE vs the control solution, Hanks' balanced salt solution (40.3 +/- 4.5% vs 14.3 +/- 5.1%, p grain dust extract. To explain the increase in peripheral blood neutrophil counts, the capacity of the peripheral blood neutrophils to migrate in chemotaxis experiments was examined. The results demonstrate an increase in peripheral blood neutrophils and an increase in chemotactic responsiveness. Inhalation challenge with a grain dust extract causes respiratory tract inflammation and a peripheral blood neutrophilia. One reason for this may be an increase in activated peripheral blood neutrophils.

  2. Airway inflammation and upper respiratory tract infection in athletes: is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermon, Stéphane

    2007-01-01

    Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) is regarded as the most common medical condition affecting both highly trained and elite athletes, in particular those participating in endurance events. The causes of these disturbances, also occurring during training, remain unclear. Viruses such as rhinovirus, adenovirus and para-influenza virus are frequently reported as the source of URTI. However, in a few comprehensive laboratory and epidemiological studies which reported at least a 30% incidence of URTI, no identifiable pathogens were either reported or studied. A recent, longitudinal study investigated symptomatology and pathogenic etiology in sedentary controls, recreational and elite athletes. The highest incidence of URTI occurred in elite athletes. However; only 11 out of 37 illness episodes overall had pathogenic origins, and most of the unidentified upper respiratory illnesses were shorter in duration and less severe than infectious ones. This concept of inflammation without infection in athletes is quite new and leads us to consider other explanatory pathophysiological conditions. Increases in airway neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes have been described under resting conditions in endurance sports, swimmers and cross-country skiers. These inflammatory patterns may be due to pollutants or chlorine-related compounds in swimmers. After intense exercise similar airways cellular profiles have been reported, with a high amount of bronchial epithelial cells. This increase in airway inflammatory cells in athletes can result from a hyperventilation-induced increase in airway osmolarity stimulating bronchial epithelial cells to release chemotactic factors. Fortunately, in most cases, these inflammatory cells express rather low level of adhesion molecules, explaining why airway inflammation may appear blunted in athletes despite numerous inflammatory cellular elements. However it can be hypothesized that a transient loss of control of this local inflammation, due

  3. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Warren-Gash, C; Fragaszy, E; Hayward, AC

    2012-01-01

    : Please cite this paper as: Warren-Gash et al. (2012) Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12015. Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary an...

  4. FEATURES OF THE MICROBIOME OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT IN CHILDREN WITH RECURRENT RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shabaldin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the metagenome of the upper respiratory tract in children showed the presence of five major bacterial phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Were revealed population differences in the distribution of weights of the above listed phyla, but subject to the dominance of the Firmicutes. Proved the role of environmental factors and time of year for representation in these biotopes of the phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes. Recurrent respiratory infections, hypertrophy of the tonsils of the lymphoid pharyngeal ring, secretory middle ear infections in children is associated with carriage of Haemophilus (H. parainfluenzae, H. paraphrohaemolyticus, Gemella (G. haemolysans, G. morbillorum, G. sanguinis, Streptococcus (S. pneumoniae, S. pseudopneumoniae, S. intermedius, S. agalactiae. 

  5. Respiratory tract disease from thermosetting resins. Study of an outbreak in rubber tire workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    doPico, G A; Rankin, J; Chosy, L W; Reddan, W G; Barbee, R A; Gee, B; Dickie, H A

    1975-08-01

    An outbreak of upper and lower respiratory tract inflammatory disease and conjunctivitis among synthetic rubber tire workers occurred. The outbreak began after the introduction of a new thermosetting resin, containing resorcinol and a trimere of methylene aminoacetronitrile, into the rubber tire carcass stock formulation. Two hundred ten workers were affected. Characteristically, symptoms improved during periods of sick leave or vacation, recurring upon the workers' return to the plant. Chest radiograms disclosed pneumonic infiltrates in about one fourth of the cases. Pulmonary function studies detected abnormal airways dynamics as well as abnormal diffusing capacity in more than one third of the workers tested. Lung biopsy showed evidence of focal interstitial fibrosis and peribronchiolar and perivascular chronic inflammatory reaction. The illness was ascribed to volatile products released during the manufacture of synthetic rubber tires. The exact chemical nature of these products is unknown.

  6. The effect of using an interactive booklet on childhood respiratory tract infections in consultations: Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttall Jacqueline

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory tract infections in children result in more primary care consultations than any other acute condition, and are the most common reason for prescribing antibiotics (which are largely unnecessary. About a fifth of children consult again for the same illness episode. Providing parents with written information on respiratory tract infections may result in a reduction in re-consultation rates and antibiotic prescribing for these illnesses. Asking clinicians to provide and discuss the information during the consultation may enhance effectiveness. This paper outlines the protocol for a study designed to evaluate the use of a booklet on respiratory tract infections in children within primary care consultations. Methods/Design This will be a cluster randomised controlled trial. General practices will be randomised to provide parents consulting because their child has an acute respiratory tract infection with either an interactive booklet, or usual care. The booklet provides information on the expected duration of their child's illness, the likely benefits of various treatment options, signs and symptoms that should prompt re-consultation, and symptomatic treatment advice. It has been designed for use within the consultation and aims to enhance communication through the use of specific prompts. Clinicians randomised to using the interactive booklet will receive online training in its use. Outcomes will be assessed via a telephone interview with the parent two weeks after first consulting. The primary outcome will be the proportion of children who re-consult for the same illness episode. Secondary outcomes include: antibiotic use, parental satisfaction and enablement, and illness costs. Consultation rates for respiratory tract infections for the subsequent year will be assessed by a review of practice notes. Discussion Previous studies in adults and children have shown that educational interventions can result in reductions

  7. Deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract as a function of age at exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Healy, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A respiratory tract deposition model was developed that would accommodate age 1 month to adulthood as an initial step in calculating radiation dose following inhalation during environmental exposures. The approach to changing respiratory tract and physiological parameters to be applicable to children was to derive an analytical function describing the ratio of the child value to the value for a reference adult with the desired characteristics. A computer program was written to carry out the tracing of airflow through the respiratory tract and deposition in each of the sections for monodispersed particles of known density and diameter. 7 references

  8. The revised International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1992-05-01

    A task group has revised the dosimetric model of the respiratory tract used to calculate annual limits on intake of radionuclides. The revised model can be used to project respiratory tract doses for workers and members of the public from airborne radionuclides and to assess past exposures. Doses calculated for specific extrathoracic and thoracic tissues can be adjusted to account for differences in radiosensitivity and summed to yield two values of dose for the respiratory tract that are applicable to the ICRP tissue weighted dosimetry system

  9. The ICRP task group respiratory tract model - an age-dependent dosimetric model for general application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.R.; Birchall, A.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRP Task Group on Human Respiratory Tract Models for Radiological Protection has developed a revised dosimetric model for the respiratory tract. Papers outlining the model, and describing each aspect of it were presented at the Third International Workshop on Respiratory Tract Dosimetry (Albuquerque 1-3 July 1990), the Proceedings of which were recently published in Radiation Protection Dosimetry Volume 38 Nos 1-3 (1991). Since the model had not changed substantially since the Workshop at Albuquerque, only a summary of the paper presented at Schloss Elmau is included in these Proceedings. (author)

  10. LUDEP 1. 0, a personal computer program to implement the new ICRP respiratory tract model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, N.S.; Birchall, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection has recently approved a new model of the human respiratory tract. This model has been designed to represent realistically the deposition and biokinetic behaviour of inhaled radionuclides, and to calculate doses to the respiratory tract. In order to examine the practical application and radiological implications of the new model, a Personal Computer program has been developed. LUDEP 1.0 is a user-friendly program for the IBM-compatible PC which enables the user to calculate doses to the respiratory tract and to other organs. (author).

  11. Seasonal variations of respiratory viruses detected from children with respiratory tract infections in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albogami, Saad S; Alotaibi, Meshal R; Alsahli, Saud A; Masuadi, Emad; Alshaalan, Mohammad

    ARTIs have a huge impact in health systems in which 20-30% of all hospital admissions and 30-60% of practitioner visits are related to respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence, age distribution, and seasonal variation of respiratory viruses. This study was descriptive retrospective study in which all patients 14 years of age and below who presented with signs and symptoms of ARTIs between January 2013 and December 2014 and had respiratory specimen tested by direct immunofluorescence assays for viruses identification were included in the study. During that period, a total of 4611 patients who presented with ARTIs from January 2013 to December 2014 were investigated, viruses were detected in 1115 (24%). RSV was associated with 97.4% of the total viral pathogens. Viruses were detected throughout all the two years with a peak in winter; Dec (n: 265), Jan (n: 418), Feb (n: 218), and Mar (n: 109). Viral pathogens are very important cause of ARTIs in our region. RSV was the most common virus detected with the highest detection rate in children who are two years old and below. A multi-center surveillance with more sensitive detection methods like PCR may help to provide a comprehensive understanding of virus distribution in our area, which may contribute implant an effective prevention approach for each virus. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Sphingobacterium respiratory tract infection in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Gregorio Fabiola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria that belong to the genus Sphingobacterium are Gram-negative, non-fermentative bacilli, ubiquitous in nature and rarely involved in human infections. The aims of this study were to evaluate the epidemiology of infection by Sphingobacterium in a cohort of patients affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF, the antibiotic susceptibility and the DNA fingerprinting of the isolated strains and to analyze some clinical outcomes of the infected patients. Findings Between January 2006 and June 2008, patients (n = 332 attending the Regional CF Unit in Naples, Italy, were enrolled. Sputum samples were processed for microscopic, cultural, phenotypic identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. DNA fingerprinting was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. A total of 21 strains of Sphingobacterium were isolated from 7 patients (13 of S. spiritovorum, 8 of S. multivorum. S. multivorum isolates were more resistant than those of S. spiritovorum. PFGE profiles were in general heterogeneous, which suggested independent circulation. Conclusions This is the first Italian report about respiratory tract infections by Sphingobacterium in CF patients. In our cohort, these infections were not associated with a deterioration of pulmonary function during the follow-up period. Although the exact role of this microorganism in CF lung disease is unknown and the number of infected patients was small, this study could represent an important starting-point for understanding the epidemiology and the possible pathogenic role of Sphingobacterium in CF patients.

  13. Solution of human respiratory tract model for chronic inhalation intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadar, Minal Y.; Singh, I.S.; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    For the radiation workers of fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication plants, inhalation is one of the major routes of intake of internal contamination. In case of routine monitoring which would result in lung activity above detection limit, it is assumed that intake has occurred at the midpoint of monitoring interval so that underestimation introduced by the unknown time of intake is less than a factor of three. In the plants, chronic intakes of 239 Pu are possible if low levels of 239 Pu activities remain undetected. In ICRP-78, the retention values are given as a function of time for continuous chronic inhalation of 239 Pu at 1.71 Bq/day that would result in Committed Effective Dose (CED) of 20 mSv. Retention values (R) are not given for inhalation intake at any other rate. Therefore, Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) is solved for continuous chronic inhalation at 1 Bq/day rate for type M compounds of 239 Pu to estimate R as a function of time. These values will be useful in estimating intake from lung activity measurements in case of chronic intakes

  14. Violence against women and increases in the risk of diarrheal disease and respiratory tract infections in infancy: a prospective cohort study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asling-Monemi, Kajsa; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Persson, Lars Ake

    2009-10-01

    To explore whether different forms of violence against women were associated with increased incidence rates of diarrhea and respiratory tract infections among infants. A 12-month follow-up study embedded in a food and micronutrient supplementation trial. Rural Bangladesh. Pregnant women and their 3132 live-born children. Maternal exposure to physical, sexual, and emotional violence and level of controlling behavior in the family. Infants' risk of falling ill with diarrheal diseases and respiratory tract infections in relation to mothers' exposure to different forms of violence. Adjusted for household economic conditions, mother's education level, parity, and religion. Fifty percent of the women reported lifetime experience of family violence. Infants of mothers exposed to different forms of family violence had 26% to 37% higher incidence of diarrhea. Any lifetime family violence was positively associated with increased incidence of diarrheal diseases (adjusted rate ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.30) and lower respiratory tract infections (adjusted rate ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.46). Further, all forms of family violence were also independently positively associated with infant illness, and the highest incidence rates were found among the daughters of severely physically abused mothers. Family violence against women was positively associated with an increased risk of falling ill with diarrheal and respiratory tract infections during infancy. The present findings add to increasing evidence of the magnitude of public health consequences of violence against women.

  15. Impact of nasopharyngeal microbiota on the development of respiratory tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, S; Principi, N

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of whether and how respiratory microbiota composition can prime the immune system and provide colonisation resistance, limiting consecutive pathobiont overgrowth and infections, is essential to improving the prevention and therapy of respiratory disorders. Modulation of dysbiotic ecosystems or reconstitution of missing microbes might be a possible measure to reduce respiratory diseases. The aim of this review is to analyse the role of nasopharyngeal microbiota in the development of respiratory tract disease in paediatric-age subjects. PubMed was used to search for all studies published over the last 15 years using the following key words: "microbiota" or "microbioma" and "nasopharyngeal" or "respiratory" or "nasal" and "children" or "paediatric" or "infant". Analysis of the literature showed that respiratory microbiota can regulate health and disease development in the respiratory tract. Like the gut microbiota, the respiratory microbiota is established at birth, and early respiratory microbiota composition determines bacterial succession patterns and respiratory health in children. Protective and dangerous bacteria have been identified, and this can be considered the base for developing new approaches to diseases that respond poorly to traditional interventions. Reconstitution of missing microbes can be achieved by the administration of pre- and probiotics. Modulation of respiratory microbiota by favouring colonisation of the upper respiratory tract by beneficial commensals can interfere with the proliferation and activity of resident pathobionts and is a possible new measure to reduce the risk of disease. However, further studies are needed because a deeper understanding of these and related issues can be transferred to clinical practice.

  16. Prescribing patterns for upper respiratory tract infections in general practice in France and in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosman, S.; Vaillant, M. le; Schellevis, F.; Clerc, P.; Verheij, R.; Pelletier-Fleury, N.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: France and the Netherlands are often presented as two contrasting countries with regard to drug prescriptions and consumption. This study aimed to analyse general practitioners' (GP's) prescription patterns for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). METHODS: Data on diagnoses and

  17. Primary care management of respiratory tract infections in Dutch preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Angelique G S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Schilder, Anne G M; Hoes, Arno W; de Jong, Vanya F G M; Hak, Eelko

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine age-specific antibiotic prescription and referral rates in preschool children diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) in primary care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Research database of the Netherlands University Medical Center Utrecht Primary

  18. [Efficacy and tolerance of fenspiride in adult patients with acute respiratory tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, T; Nawacka, D

    1998-12-01

    Fenspiride is an antiinflammatory drug targeted for the respiratory tract. In our study clinical efficacy and tolerance of drug were evaluated in 392 adult patients with acute respiratory tract infections. According to clinical criteria all observed symptoms were classified as mild, moderate and severe. The most of observed patients were included into moderate symptom score. Cough and nose obturation were dominant symptoms. All noticed changes in the upper respiratory tract were decreased after fenspiride therapy in 7 days trial. In 168 observed patients systemic and in 60 local acting antibiotics were successfully applied. Excellent tolerance of fenspiride was documented in 59% and good tolerance --in 34% of patients. Observed adverse reactions were classified as mild and in 20 patients fenspiride was rejected. Authors suggest that fenspiride therapy is save and successful in patient with acute respiratory tract infection. Good results in patients with bronchitis in decreasing of bronchospasm indicate fenspiride as a good tool in bronchial infection.

  19. Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, N. R.; Nielsen, A. B. S.; Munck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in two countries with different prevalence of antimicrobial resistance: Denmark and Iceland.Design: A cross-sectional study. Settings and subjects. General practitioners (GPs...

  20. Antibiotics for respiratory, ear and urinary tract disorders and consistency among GPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, D.S.Y.; Kuyvenhoven, M.M.; Dijk, L. van; Verheij, T.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To describe specific diagnoses for which systemic antibiotics are prescribed, to assess adherence of antibiotic choice to national guidelines and to assess consistency among general practitioners (GPs) in prescribed volumes of antibiotics for respiratory, ear and urinary tract disorders.

  1. A new sampler for simulating aerosol deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dehong; Zhuo Weihai; Yi Yanling; Chen Bo; Liu Haikuan

    2008-01-01

    For estimation of the deposition fractions of radon progeny in different regions of the respiratory tract, a new sampler consisting of three different configurations of sampling heads was developed. The deposition fractions of aerosols on the wire screens inside the sampling heads were calculated with the fan model of filtration theory. The deposition fractions of aerosols in different regions of the respiratory tract were calculated with the lung dose evaluation program (LUDEP) developed by National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) as references. In general indoor and mine environments, the deviation between the deposition fractions of attached aerosol on the wire screens designed in this study and its reference values in the respiratory tract is less than 5%. It is possible to accurately estimate the deposition fractions of radon progeny in different regions of the respiratory tract through mimic measurements of radon progeny collected with the new sampler. (authors)

  2. A Cross-sectional Surveillance Study of the Frequency and Etiology of Acute Respiratory Illness Among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Anne M; Avadhanula, Vasanthi; Maccato, Maurizio L; Pinell, Phillip M; Bond, Nanette; Santarcangelo, Patricia; Ferlic-Stark, Laura; Munoz, Flor M; Piedra, Pedro A

    2018-05-05

    Other than influenza, little is known about the consequences of viral acute respiratory illness (ARI) on pregnant women and fetuses. Our objectives were to determine the frequency of ARI due to respiratory viruses and the associated clinical outcomes during pregnancy. Pregnant women in their second or third trimester were enrolled if they reported having symptoms of ARI or were healthy within the preceding 2 weeks. Nasopharyngeal secretions were evaluated for respiratory viruses by molecular diagnostic assays. Clinical outcomes were evaluated at enrollment and via a follow-up telephone-based questionnaire 2 weeks later. There were 155 pregnant participants, with 81 ARI cases and 91 healthy controls. Acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRTI) was identified in 29 cases (36%). Human rhinovirus (HRV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and influenza virus accounted for 75% of virus-positive cases of ALRTI. Cases with ALRTI often reported a longer duration of illness, history of allergies, symptoms of wheezing, shortness of breath, or chest pain, and use of prescription medication. Two cases with ALRTI reported decreased fetal movement; a third case with ALRTI was hospitalized. In over one third of ARI cases, participants had symptoms consistent with ALRTI. Infection with HRV, RSV, or influenza virus was commonly detected in patients with ALRTI. Viral ALRTI during pregnancy appears to be common and is associated with significant morbidity.

  3. Ethnic variations in morbidity and mortality from lower respiratory tract infections: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Colin R; Steiner, Markus Fc; Cezard, Genevieve; Bansal, Narinder; Fischbacher, Colin; Douglas, Anne; Bhopal, Raj; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence of substantial ethnic variations in asthma morbidity and the risk of hospitalisation, but the picture in relation to lower respiratory tract infections is unclear. We carried out an observational study to identify ethnic group differences for lower respiratory tract infections. A retrospective, cohort study. Scotland. 4.65 million people on whom information was available from the 2001 census, followed from May 2001 to April 2010. Hospitalisations and deaths (any time following first hospitalisation) from lower respiratory tract infections, adjusted risk ratios and hazard ratios by ethnicity and sex were calculated. We multiplied ratios and confidence intervals by 100, so the reference Scottish White population's risk ratio and hazard ratio was 100. Among men, adjusted risk ratios for lower respiratory tract infection hospitalisation were lower in Other White British (80, 95% confidence interval 73-86) and Chinese (69, 95% confidence interval 56-84) populations and higher in Pakistani groups (152, 95% confidence interval 136-169). In women, results were mostly similar to those in men (e.g. Chinese 68, 95% confidence interval 56-82), although higher adjusted risk ratios were found among women of the Other South Asians group (145, 95% confidence interval 120-175). Survival (adjusted hazard ratio) following lower respiratory tract infection for Pakistani men (54, 95% confidence interval 39-74) and women (31, 95% confidence interval 18-53) was better than the reference population. Substantial differences in the rates of lower respiratory tract infections amongst different ethnic groups in Scotland were found. Pakistani men and women had particularly high rates of lower respiratory tract infection hospitalisation. The reasons behind the high rates of lower respiratory tract infection in the Pakistani community are now required. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  4. Respiratory Tract Infections and Voice Quality in 4-Year-old Children in the STEPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallvik, Emma; Toivonen, Laura; Peltola, Ville; Kaljonen, Anne; Simberg, Susanna

    2018-03-02

    Health-related factors are part of the multifactorial background of dysphonia in children. Respiratory tract infections affect the same systems and structures that are used for voice production. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the number of respiratory tract infections or the viral etiology were significant predictors for a more hoarse voice quality. The participants were 4-year-old children who participated in the multidisciplinary STEPS study (Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children) where they were followed up from pregnancy or birth to 4 years of age. Data were collected through questionnaires and a health diary filled in by the parents. Some of the children were followed up more intensively for respiratory tract infections during the first 2 years of life, and nasal swab samples were taken at the onset of respiratory symptoms. Our participants were 489 of these children who had participated in the follow-up for at least 1 year and for whom data on respiratory tract infections and data on voice quality were available. The number of hospitalizations due to respiratory tract infections was a significant predictor for a more hoarse voice quality. Neither the number of rhinovirus infections nor the number of respiratory syncytial virus infections was statistically significant predictors for a more hoarse voice quality. Based on our results, we would suggest including questions on the presence of respiratory tract infections that have led to hospitalization in the pediatric voice anamnesis. Whether the viral etiology of respiratory tract infections is of importance or not requires further research. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative: Objectives, design and recruitment results of a prospective cohort study investigating infant viral respiratory illness and the development of asthma and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartert, Tina V; Carroll, Kecia; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Woodward, Kimberly; Minton, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    The 'attack rate' of asthma following viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) is about 3-4 fold higher than that of the general population; however, the majority of children who develop viral LRTI during infancy do not develop asthma, and asthma incidence has been observed to continuously decrease with age. Thus, we do not understand how viral LRTI either predispose or serve as a marker of children to develop asthma. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative has been established as a longitudinal prospective investigation of infants and their biological mothers. The primary goals are to investigate both the acute and the long-term health consequences of varying severity and aetiology of clinically significant viral respiratory tract infections on early childhood outcomes. Over four respiratory viral seasons, 2004–2008, term, predominantly non-low weight previously healthy infants and their biological mothers were enrolled during an infant's acute viral respiratory illness.Longitudinal follow up to age 6 years is ongoing [corrected]. This report describes the study objectives, design and recruitment results of the over 650 families enrolled in this longitudinal investigation. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative is additionally unique because it is designed in parallel with a large retrospective birth cohort of over 95,000 mother-infant dyads with similar objectives to investigate the role of respiratory viral infection severity and aetiology in the development of asthma. Future reports from this cohort will help to clarify the complex relationship between infant respiratory viral infection severity, aetiology, atopic predisposition and the subsequent development of early childhood asthma and atopic diseases.

  6. Antibody-secreting cells in respiratory tract tissues in the absence of eosinophils as supportive partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy, Robert E; Surman, Sherri L; Vogel, Peter; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2016-11-01

    Antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in respiratory tract tissues provide a first line of defense against invading pathogens. These cells often secrete IgA that is efficiently transcytosed across epithelial barriers into the airway lumen where pathogens can be blocked at their point of entry. Previous literature has reported that in the bone marrow, eosinophils are required for the maintenance of ASCs, and that eosinophils co-localize with ASCs as nearest neighbors. To determine if these rules similarly apply to the maintenance of ASCs in respiratory tract tissues, we evaluated virus-specific responses 1 month and 4 months following an intranasal virus infection of eosinophil-null (∆dblGATA-1) mice. Results showed that ASCs were fractionally reduced, but were nonetheless observed in respiratory tract tissues in the absence of eosinophils. Virus-specific antibodies were similarly observed in the airways of eosinophil-deficient mice. Respiratory tract ASCs were also present in mice lacking neutrophils (Mcl1 ∆M ). The staining of tissue sections from the upper respiratory tract of wild-type mice following viral infections demonstrated that virus-specific ASCs were most frequently situated adjacent to epithelial cells rather than eosinophils or neutrophils. Taken together, these data emphasize that rules for cell maintenance are not absolute and that ASCs can survive in the respiratory tract without eosinophils or neutrophils as their nearest neighbors. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Dysbiosis of upper respiratory tract microbiota in elderly pneumonia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Wyllie, Anne L; Biesbroek, Giske; van den Bergh, Menno R; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Wang, Xinhui; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Bonten, Marc J; Rossen, John W A; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. We hypothesize that dysbiosis between regular residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiome, that is balance between commensals and potential pathogens, is involved in pathogen overgrowth and consequently disease. We compared oropharyngeal microbiota of elderly pneumonia patients (n=100) with healthy elderly (n=91) by 16S-rRNA-based sequencing and verified our findings in young adult pneumonia patients (n=27) and young healthy adults (n=187). Microbiota profiles differed significantly between elderly pneumonia patients and healthy elderly (PERMANOVA, P<0.0005). Highly similar differences were observed between microbiota profiles of young adult pneumonia patients and their healthy controls. Clustering resulted in 11 (sub)clusters including 95% (386/405) of samples. We observed three microbiota profiles strongly associated with pneumonia (P<0.05) and either dominated by lactobacilli (n=11), Rothia (n=51) or Streptococcus (pseudo)pneumoniae (n=42). In contrast, three other microbiota clusters (in total n=183) were correlated with health (P<0.05) and were all characterized by more diverse profiles containing higher abundances of especially Prevotella melaninogenica, Veillonella and Leptotrichia. For the remaining clusters (n=99), the association with health or disease was less clear. A decision tree model based on the relative abundance of five bacterial community members in URT microbiota showed high specificity of 95% and sensitivity of 84% (89% and 73%, respectively, after cross-validation) for differentiating pneumonia patients from healthy individuals. These results suggest that pneumonia in elderly and young adults is associated with dysbiosis of the URT microbiome with bacterial overgrowth of single species and absence of distinct anaerobic bacteria. Whether the observed microbiome changes are a cause or a consequence of the development of pneumonia or merely coincide with

  8. Human respiratory tract model for radiological protection: A revision of the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    In 1984, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) appointed a task group of Committee 2 to review and revise, as necessary, the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System. The model was originally published in 1966, modified slightly in Publication No. 19, and again in Publication No. 30 (in 1979). The task group concluded that research during the past 20 y suggested certain deficiencies in the ICRP Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory System. Research has also provided sufficient information for a revision of the model. The task group's approach has been to review, in depth, morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract; deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract; clearance of deposited materials; and the nature and specific sites of damage to the respiratory tract caused by inhaled radioactive substances. This review has led to a redefinition of the regions of the respiratory tract for dosimetric purposes. The redefinition has a morphologic and physiological basis and is consistent with observed deposition and clearance of particles and with resultant pathology. Regions, as revised, are the extrathoracic (E-T) region, comprising the nasal and oral regions, the pharynx, larynx, and upper part of the trachea; the fast-clearing thoracic region (T[f]), comprising the remainder of the trachea and bronchi; and the slow-clearing thoracic region (T[s]), comprising the bronchioles, alveoli, and thoracic lymph nodes. A task group report will include models for calculating radiation doses to these regions of the respiratory tract following inhalation of representative alpha-, beta-, and gamma-emitting particulate and gaseous radionuclides. The models may be implemented as a package of computer codes available to a wide range of users

  9. A mixed methods study to understand patient expectations for antibiotics for an upper respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaarslev, Christina; Yee, Melissa; Chan, Georgi; Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie; Khan, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a public health challenge supplemented by inappropriate prescribing, especially for an upper respiratory tract infection in primary care. Patient/carer expectations have been identified as one of the main drivers for inappropriate antibiotics prescribing by primary care physicians. The aim of this study was to understand who is more likely to expect an antibiotic for an upper respiratory tract infection from their doctor and the reasons underlying it. This study used a sequential mixed methods approach: a nationally representative cross sectional survey ( n  = 1509) and four focus groups. The outcome of interest was expectation and demand for an antibiotic from a doctor when presenting with a cold or flu. The study found 19.5 % of survey respondents reported that they would expect the doctor to prescribe antibiotics for a cold or flu. People younger than 65 years of age, those who never attended university and those speaking a language other than English at home were more likely to expect or demand antibiotics for a cold or flu. People who knew that 'antibiotics don't kill viruses' and agreed that 'taking an antibiotic when one is not needed means they won't work in the future' were less likely to expect or demand antibiotics. The main reasons for expecting antibiotics were believing that antibiotics are an effective treatment for a cold or flu and that they shortened the duration and potential deterioration of their illness. The secondary reason centered around the value or return on investment for visiting a doctor when feeling unwell. Our study found that patients do not appear to feel they have a sufficiently strong incentive to consider the impact of their immediate use of antibiotics on antimicrobial resistance. The issue of antibiotic resistance needs to be explained and reframed as a more immediate health issue with dire consequences to ensure the success of future health campaigns.

  10. A mixed methods study to understand patient expectations for antibiotics for an upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gaarslev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance is a public health challenge supplemented by inappropriate prescribing, especially for an upper respiratory tract infection in primary care. Patient/carer expectations have been identified as one of the main drivers for inappropriate antibiotics prescribing by primary care physicians. The aim of this study was to understand who is more likely to expect an antibiotic for an upper respiratory tract infection from their doctor and the reasons underlying it. Methods This study used a sequential mixed methods approach: a nationally representative cross sectional survey (n = 1509 and four focus groups. The outcome of interest was expectation and demand for an antibiotic from a doctor when presenting with a cold or flu. Results The study found 19.5 % of survey respondents reported that they would expect the doctor to prescribe antibiotics for a cold or flu. People younger than 65 years of age, those who never attended university and those speaking a language other than English at home were more likely to expect or demand antibiotics for a cold or flu. People who knew that ‘antibiotics don’t kill viruses’ and agreed that ‘taking an antibiotic when one is not needed means they won’t work in the future’ were less likely to expect or demand antibiotics. The main reasons for expecting antibiotics were believing that antibiotics are an effective treatment for a cold or flu and that they shortened the duration and potential deterioration of their illness. The secondary reason centered around the value or return on investment for visiting a doctor when feeling unwell. Conclusion Our study found that patients do not appear to feel they have a sufficiently strong incentive to consider the impact of their immediate use of antibiotics on antimicrobial resistance. The issue of antibiotic resistance needs to be explained and reframed as a more immediate health issue with dire consequences to ensure the

  11. Procalcitonin Testing to Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Acute Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Mueller, Beat

    2018-03-06

    Is the use of procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic decisions in patients with acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with usual care? Among patients with varying types and severity of acute respiratory infection, using procalcitonin to guide decisions about antibiotics is associated with lower rates of antibiotic exposure, antibiotic-related adverse effects, and mortality.

  12. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren‐Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Warren‐Gash et al. (2012) Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12015. Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low‐quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower–middle‐income setting. There was high‐quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high‐quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low‐income setting. There was moderate‐ to high‐quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. PMID:23043518

  13. Cryptosporidial Infection of Lower Respiratory Tract in a Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharagozlou, M.J.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporial and bacterial co-infection is reported in a budgerigar with clinical manifestations of septicemia and respiratory tract infection. Microscopically large number of round to oval 2-5μm cryptosporidial organisms were found to be lodged on the parabronchial epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. The bacterial colonies were seen around the parabronchial spaces of the lung tissue. It is suggested that the C. baileyi is the most likely cryptosporidium species which caused respiratory cryptosporidiosis in the budgerigar.

  14. Assessment of a new algorithm in the management of acute respiratory tract infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Tabatabaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the practicability of a new algorithm in decreasing the rate of incorrect diagnoses and inappropriate antibiotic usage in pediatric Acute Respiratory Tract Infection (ARTI. Materials and Methods: Children between 1 month to15 years brought to outpatient clinics of a children′s hospital with acute respiratory symptoms were managed according to the steps recommended in the algorithm. Results: Upper Respiratory Tract Infection, Lower Respiratory Tract Infection, and undifferentiated ARTI accounted for 82%, 14.5%, and 3.5% of 1 209 cases, respectively. Antibiotics were prescribed in 33%; for: Common cold, 4.1%; Sinusitis, 85.7%; Otitis media, 96.9%; Pharyngotonsillitis, 63.3%; Croup, 6.5%; Bronchitis, 15.6%; Pertussis-like syndrome, 82.1%; Bronchiolitis, 4.1%; and Pneumonia, 50%. Conclusion: Implementation of the ARTIs algorithm is practicable and can help to reduce diagnostic errors and rate of antibiotic prescription in children with ARTIs.

  15. Respiratory tract toxicity in rats exposed to Mexico City air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, O R; Gross, E A; James, R A; Janszen, D B; Ross, P W; Roberts, K C; Howard, A M; Harkema, J R; Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Morgan, K T

    2001-03-01

    The rat has been used extensively as a health sentinel, indicator, or monitor of environmental health hazards, but this model has not been directly validated against human exposures. Humans in Mexico City show upper respiratory tract lesions and evidence of pulmonary damage related to their environmental inhalation exposure. In this study, male and female F344 rats were exposed (23 hr/day) in Mexico City to local Mexico City air (MCA)* for up to seven weeks. Controls were maintained at the same location under filtered air. Prior to these exposures, several steps were taken. First, the nasal passages of normal male rats shipped from the United States and housed in Mexico City were examined for mycoplasma infection; no evidence of infection was found. In addition, a mobile exposure and monitoring system was assembled and, with an ozone (O3) exposure atmosphere, was tested along with supporting histopathology techniques and analysis of rat nasal and lung tissues. Last, the entire exposure model (equipment and animals) was transported to Mexico City and validated for a three-week period. During the seven-week study there were 18 one-hour intervals during which the average O3 concentration of MCA in the exposure chamber exceeded the US National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 0.120 ppm 03 (hourly average, not to be exceeded more than once per year). This prolonged exposure of healthy F344 rats to MCA containing episodically low to moderate concentrations of 03 (as well as other urban air pollutants) did not induce inflammatory or epithelial lesions in the nasal airways or lung as measured by qualitative histologic techniques or quantitative morphometric techniques. These findings agree with those of previous controlled O3 inhalation studies, but they are in contrast to reports indicating that O3-polluted MCA causes significant nasal mucosal injury in adults and children living in southwestern Mexico City. Taken together, these findings may suggest that human

  16. Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiukui; Dong, Bi Rong; Wu, Taixiang

    2015-02-03

    Probiotics may improve a person's health by regulating their immune function. Some trials have shown that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. Even though the previous version of our review showed benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), several new studies have been published. To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose), compared with placebo, in the prevention of acute URTIs in people of all ages, at risk of acute URTIs. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to July week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Web of Science (1900 to July 2014), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, which includes the China Biological Medicine Database (from 1978 to July 2014), the Chinese Medicine Popular Science Literature Database (from 2000 to July 2014) and the Masters Degree Dissertation of Beijing Union Medical College Database (from 1981 to July 2014). We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials on 31 July 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo to prevent acute URTIs. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials, and extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 RCTs, although we could only extract data to meta-analyse 12 trials, which involved 3720 participants including children, adults (aged around 40 years) and older people. We found that probiotics were better than placebo when measuring the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI (at least one episode: odds ratio (OR) 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37 to 0.76, P value school absence (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.47, very low quality evidence). Probiotics and placebo were similar when measuring the rate ratio of episodes of acute

  17. Influence of Clinical Communication on Parents' Antibiotic Expectations for Children With Respiratory Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Christie; Ingram, Jenny; Lucas, Patricia J; Redmond, Niamh M; Kai, Joe; Hay, Alastair D; Horwood, Jeremy

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand clinicians' and parents' perceptions of communication within consultations for respiratory tract infections (RTI) in children and what influence clinician communication had on parents' understanding of antibiotic treatment. We video recorded 60 primary care consultations for children aged 3 months to 12 years who presented with RTI and cough in 6 primary care practices in England. We then used purposive sampling to select 27 parents and 13 clinicians for semistructured video-elicitation interviews. The videos were used as prompts to investigate participants' understanding and views of communication within the consultations. We analyzed the interview data thematically. While clinicians commonly told parents that antibiotics are not effective against viruses, this did not have much impact on parents' beliefs about the need to consult or on their expectations concerning antibiotics. Parents believed that antibiotics were needed to treat more severe illnesses, a belief that was supported by the way clinicians accompanied viral diagnoses with problem-minimizing language and antibiotic prescriptions with more problem-oriented language. Antibiotic prescriptions tended to confirm parents' beliefs about what indicated illness severity, which often took into account the wider impact on a child's life. While parents understood antimicrobial resistance poorly, most held beliefs that supported reduced antibiotic prescribing. A minority attributed it to resource rationing, however. Clinician communication and prescribing behavior confirm parents' beliefs that antibiotics are needed to treat more severe illnesses. Interventions to reduce antibiotic expectations need to address communication within the consultation, prescribing behavior, and lay beliefs. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  18. The prevalence and preventive measures of the respiratory illness among Malaysian pilgrims in 2013 Hajj season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Suhana; Ayub, Zeti N; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Hasan, Habsah; Harun, Azian; Ismail, Nabilah; Rahman, Zaidah A; Suraiya, Siti; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Aziz, Aniza A

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory illness continues to exert a burden on hajj pilgrims in Makkah. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of respiratory illness and its associated factors among Malaysian hajj pilgrims in 2013 and to describe its preventive measures. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Makkah and Malaysia during the 2013 hajj season. A self-administered proforma on social demographics, previous experience of hajj or umrah, smoking habits, co-morbid illness and practices of preventive measures against respiratory illness were obtained. A total of 468 proforma were analysed. The prevalence of the respiratory illness was 93.4% with a subset of 78.2% fulfilled the criteria for influenza-like illness (ILI). Most of them (77.8%) had a respiratory illness of food supplement. Malaysian hajj pilgrims with previous experience of hajj (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.10-0.56) or umrah (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.07-0.52) and those who have practiced good hand hygiene (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.16-0.79) were found to be significantly associated with lower risk of having respiratory illness. Otherwise, pilgrims who had contact with those with respiratory illness (OR 2.61; 95% CI 1.12-6.09) was associated with higher risk. The prevalence of respiratory illness remains high among Malaysian hajj pilgrims despite having some practices of preventive measures. All preventive measures which include hand hygiene, wearing face masks and influenza vaccination must be practiced together as bundle of care to reduce respiratory illness effectively. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International society of travel medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Associations Between Enteral Colonization With Gram-Negative Bacteria and Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Infections and Colonization of the Respiratory Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jos F; Wittekamp, Bastiaan H J; Plantinga, Nienke L; Spitoni, Cristian; van de Groep, Kirsten; Cremer, Olaf L; Bonten, Marc J M

    2018-02-01

    Enteral and respiratory tract colonization with gram-negative bacteria may lead to subsequent infections in critically ill patients. We aimed to clarify the interdependence between gut and respiratory tract colonization and their associations with intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections in patients receiving selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD). Colonization status of the rectum and respiratory tract was determined using twice-weekly microbiological surveillance in mechanically ventilated subjects receiving SDD between May 2011 and June 2015 in a tertiary medical-surgical ICU in the Netherlands. Acquisition of infections was monitored daily by dedicated observers. Marginal structural models were used to determine the associations between gram-negative rectal colonization and respiratory tract colonization, ICU-acquired gram-negative infection, and ICU-acquired gram-negative bacteremia. Among 2066 ICU admissions, 1157 (56.0%) ever had documented gram-negative carriage in the rectum during ICU stay. Cumulative incidences of ICU-acquired gram-negative infection and bacteremia were 6.0% (n = 124) and 2.1% (n = 44), respectively. Rectal colonization was an independent risk factor for both respiratory tract colonization (cause-specific hazard ratio [CSHR], 2.93 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.02-4.23]) and new gram-negative infection in the ICU (CSHR, 3.04 [95% CI, 1.99-4.65]). Both rectal and respiratory tract colonization were associated with bacteremia (CSHR, 7.37 [95% CI, 3.25-16.68] and 2.56 [95% CI, 1.09-6.03], respectively). Similar associations were observed when Enterobacteriaceae and glucose nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria were analyzed separately. Gram-negative rectal colonization tends to be stronger associated with subsequent ICU-acquired gram-negative infections than gram-negative respiratory tract colonization. Gram-negative rectal colonization seems hardly associated with subsequent ICU-acquired gram-negative respiratory tract

  20. Childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections in Northern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... cause of childhood morbidity and deaths worldwide1, 2. Of the estimated 7.6 ... years of age with community-acquired pneumonia. (CAP) would require ..... mon respiratory pathogens, such as Haemophilus influ- enzae and ...

  1. The role of respiratory tract infections and the microbiome in the development of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Meel, Evelien R; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    respiratory tract infections in the first years of life are associated with an increased risk of wheezing and asthma, while the association with lung function is less clear. Additionally, the gut and airway microbiome might influence the risk of wheezing and asthma. The interaction between respiratory tract...... infections and the microbiome complicates studies of their associations with wheezing, asthma, and lung function. Furthermore, the causality behind these observations is still unclear, and several other factors such as genetic susceptibility and the immune system might be of importance. This review...... is focused on the association of early-life respiratory tract infections and the microbiome with wheezing, asthma, and lung function, it is possible influencing factors and perspectives for future studies....

  2. Examination of respiratory tract in workers occupationally exposed to beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianciara, M.; Swiatkowski, J.

    1989-01-01

    In a group (30) occupationally exposed to beryllium below the Maximum Allowed Concentration, deviations from the norm were found in 13% of chest x rays and impairments of lung ventilatory reserves in 46%. The low intensity and non-specific character of the changes did not allow confirmation of connection with occupational exposure. Radiological examination of the lungs, expanded functional testing of the respiratory system and measurements of blood gases are recommended to identify workers with respiratory changes at an early stage. (UK)

  3. Primary pneumocystis infection in infants hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans Henrik; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Lundgren, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    with 431 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) by using a real-time PCR assay. In 68 episodes in 67 infants, P. jirovecii was identified. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of a positive signal compared with the first quartile of age (7-49 days) was 47.4 (11.0-203), 8.7 (1......Acquisition of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection early in life has been confirmed by serologic studies. However, no evidence of clinical illness correlated with the primary infection has been found in immunocompetent children. We analyzed 458 nasopharyngeal aspirates from 422 patients hospitalized.......9-39.7), and 0.6 (0.1-6.7) for infants in the second (50-112 days), third (113-265 days), and fourth (268-4,430 days) age quartiles, respectively. Infants with an episode of upper RTI (URTI) were 2.0 (1.05-3.82) times more likely to harbor P. jirovecii than infants with a lower RTI. P. jirovecii may manifest...

  4. STUDY ON CAMPHOR-FREE NATURAL TOPICAL MEDICINE FOR UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI are the most common acute illnesses that are often of viral origin. Cough and chest congestion are the common symptoms of this disease. Children are prescribed with drugs that are considered to relive the symptoms of this disease. The topical medications contain vegetable camphor for more than a century that relieve chest congestion and cough caused by URTI. The use of camphor in such products remains questionable especially in children who are more sensitive to its side effects. Herbion “Chest Rub” for children is a camphor-free formulation that contains eucalyptus oil mixture, menthol,turpentine and clove oils and is used to relieve symptoms of URTI.The objective of the present investigationwas to determine the effectiveness of the chest rub inchildren suffering with congestion and cough caused by URTI. The study compared the results of the chest rub applied to a group of infected children with a placebo group. Patients were selected randomly on the basis of the criteria set for the study. The results indicated that the chest rub was quite effective in majority of the cases in relieving the symptoms of URTI as compared to the placebo group.

  5. Respiratory viruses involved in influenza-like illness in a Greek pediatric population during the winter period of the years 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogka, Vasiliki; Kossivakis, Athanasios; Kalliaropoulos, Antonios; Moutousi, Afroditi; Sgouras, Dionyssios; Panagiotopoulos, Takis; Chrousos, George P; Theodoridou, Maria; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki P; Mentis, Andreas F

    2011-10-01

    Viruses are the major cause of pediatric respiratory tract infection and yet many suspected cases of illness remain uncharacterized. This study aimed to determine the distribution of several respiratory viruses in children diagnosed as having influenza-like illness, over the winter period of 2005-2008. Molecular assays including conventional and real time PCR protocols, were employed to screen respiratory specimens, collected by clinicians of the Influenza sentinel system and of outpatient pediatric clinics, for identification of several respiratory viruses. Of 1,272 specimens tested, 814 (64%) were positive for at least one virus and included 387 influenza viruses, 160 rhinoviruses, 155 respiratory syncytial viruses, 95 adenoviruses, 81 bocaviruses, 47 parainfluenza viruses, 44 metapneumoviruses, and 30 coronaviruses. Simultaneous presence of two or three viruses was observed in 173 of the above positive cases, 21% of which included influenza virus and rhinovirus. The majority of positive cases occurred during January and February. Influenza virus predominated in children older than 1 year old, with type B being the dominant type for the first season and subtypes A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 the following two winter seasons, respectively. Respiratory syncytial virus prevailed in children younger than 2 years old, with subtypes A and B alternating from year to year. This is the most comprehensive study of the epidemiology of respiratory viruses in Greece, indicating influenza, rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus as major contributors to influenza-like illness in children. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. [Risk factors for acute respiratory syncytial virus infection of lower respiratory tract in hospitalized infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Liu, Lijuan; Shi, Peng; Jiang, Gaoli; Jia, Pin; Wang, Chuankai; Wang, Libo; Qian, Liling

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the clinical epidemiologic characteristics and analyze risk factors for acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in hospitalized infants with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI). ALRI infants admitted to Children's Hospital of Fudan University from March 1st, 2011 to February 29th, 2012, were enrolled in this study. Patient information included demographic characteristics, feeding history, family status, clinical presentation, accessory examination, treatment and prognosis. According to the etiology of ALRI infants, we compared the seasonal distribution, demographic characteristics, household characteristics and underlying diseases between RSV-positive patients and RSV-negative patients. Univariate and multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors that were associated with risk of RSV infection. Among 1 726 ALRI infants, there were 913 RSV-positive infants (52.9%). The occurrence of RSV infection had a seasonal variation, with a peak in winter (59.1%). The median (P25, P75) age of RSV infants was 64 (21-155) days. The gestational age (GA) and body weight (BW) was (37.5 ± 2.4) weeks and (3.07 ± 0.66) kg, respectively. The male/female ratio among these was 1.9: 1. RSV infection was more popular among infants in the families with smoking members, crowded living conditions, history of atopic mother. Differences of the proportion of patients with underlying disease between RSV-positive and negative groups were statistically significant (59.4% vs. 54.2%, P infection were: GAinfection (OR = 1.351, 95%CI: 1.024-1.783; OR = 1.713, 95%CI: 1.332-2.204). Multivariate logistic regression determined the factors increasing the risk of RSV infection were: underlying CHD (OR = 1.298, 95%CI: 1.002-1.681), mother with atopic diseases (OR = 1.766, 95%CI: 1.237-2.520), autumn or winter infection (OR = 1.481, 95%CI: 1.105-1.985; OR = 1.766, 95%CI: 1.358-2.296). The prevalence of RSV infection was the highest in winter, while

  7. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low-quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower-middle-income setting. There was high-quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high-quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low-income setting. There was moderate- to high-quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Childhood respiratory illness presentation and service utilisation in primary care: a six-year cohort study in Wellington, New Zealand, using natural language processing (NLP) software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Anthony; Darlow, Ben; Macrae, Jayden; Stubbe, Maria; Turner, Nikki; McBain, Lynn

    2017-08-01

    To identify childhood respiratory tract-related illness presentation rates and service utilisation in primary care by interrogating free text and coded data from electronic medical records. Retrospective cohort study. Data interrogation used a natural language processing software inference algorithm. 36 primary care practices in New Zealand. Data analysed from January 2008 to December 2013. The records from 77 582 children enrolled were reviewed over a 6-year period to estimate the presentation of childhood respiratory illness and service utilisation. This cohort represents 268 919 person-years of data and over 650 000 unique consultations. Childhood respiratory illness presentation rate to primary care practice, with description of seasonal and yearly variation. Respiratory conditions constituted 46% of all child-general practitioner consultations with a stable year-on-year pattern of seasonal peaks. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common respiratory category accounting for 21.0% of all childhood consultations, followed by otitis media (12.2%), wheeze-related illness (9.7%), throat infection (7.4%) and lower respiratory tract infection (4.4%). Almost 70% of children presented to their general practitioner with at least one respiratory condition in their first year of life; this reduced to approximately 25% for children aged 10-17. This is the first study to assess the primary care incidence and service utilisation of childhood respiratory illness in a large primary care cohort by interrogating electronic medical record free text. The study identified the very high primary care workload related to childhood respiratory illness, especially during the first 2 years of life. These data can enable more effective planning of health service delivery. The findings and methodology have relevance to many countries, and the use of primary care 'big data' in this way can be applied to other health conditions. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  9. Quality indicators for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory tract infections in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saust, Laura Trolle; Bjerrum, Lars; Arpi, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To develop quality indicators for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory tract infections, tailored to the Danish general practice setting. Design: A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used. Setting: General practice. Subjects: A panel of nine experts, mainly...... general practitioners, was asked to rate the relevance of 64 quality indicators for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory tract infections based on guidelines. Subsequently, a face-to-face meeting was held to resolve misinterpretations and to achieve consensus. Main outcome measures...

  10. [The response of the upper respiratory tract to the impact of atmospheric pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamadiev, R A; Ismagilov, Sh M

    2015-01-01

    The present literature review characterizes the environmental conditions in the Russian Federation in general and the Republic of Tatarstan in particular with special reference to the influence of atmospheric pollution on the development and the clinical picture of the diseases of the respiratory organs including pathology of the upper respiratory tract in the populations of the industrial centres and other environmentally unfriendly areas. The views of the domestic and foreign authors concerning the role of the environmental factors in the clinical picture of the upper respiratory tract disorders are described in detail. The authors emphasize the necessity of the further investigationsinto this problem and the development of the methods for the prevention of diseases of the upper respiratory react.

  11. Radiologic findings of childhood lower respiratory tract infection by influenza virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Taek; Park, Choong Ki; Shin, Hee Jung; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Hahm, Chang Kok; Hern, Ahn You [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    After the RS (respiratory syncytial) virus, the influenza virus is the most common cause of childhood lower respiratory tract infection. We assessed the radiologic findings of childhood lower respiratory tract infection by the influenza virus. A total of 105 pediatric patients (76 males and 29 females; mean age, 2.4 years) with symptoms of respiratory tract infection were examined between March 1997 and April 2000. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained and influenza virus infection was confirmed by direct or indirect immunofluorescent assays. Peribronchial infiltration, hyperinflation, atelectasis, pulmonary consolidation, and hilar lymphadenopathy were evaluated retrospectively at simple chest radiography. Bilateral perihiler peribronchial infiltration was noted in 78.1% of patients (n=82), hyperinflation in 63.8% (n=67), atelectasis in 3.8% (n=4, segmental 50%, lobar 50%), and pulmonary consolidation in 16.2% [n=17; segmental 70.6% (n=12), lobar 29.4% (n=5)]. Hilar lymphadenopathy was noted in one patient in whom there was no pleural effusion, and subglottic airway narrowing in 12 of 14 in whom the croup symptom complex was present. The major radiologic findings of influenza virus infection were bilateral perihilar peribronchial infiltration and hyperinflation. In some patients, upper respiratory tract infection was combined with subgolttic airway narrowing. Atelectasis or pleural effusion was rare.

  12. Antimicrobial use Guidelines for Treatment of Respiratory Tract Disease in Dogs and Cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappin, M. R.; Blondeau, J.; Boothe, D.

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory tract disease can be associated with primary or secondary bacterial infections in dogs and cats and is a common reason for use and potential misuse, improper use, and overuse of antimicrobials. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available...... veterinarians in making antimicrobial treatment choices for use in the management of bacterial respiratory diseases in dogs and cats....

  13. Respiratory tract dose calculation considering physiological parameters from samples of Brazilian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, A.; Lopes, R.; Lourenco, M.; Cardoso, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Human Respiratory Tract Model proposed by the ICRP Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The ICRP 66 presents deposition fraction in the respiratory tract regions considering reference values from Caucasian man. However, in order to obtain a more accurate assessment of intake and dose the ICRP recommends the use of specific information when they are available. The application of parameters from Brazilian population in the deposition and in the clearance model shows significant variations in the deposition fractions and in the fraction of inhaled activity transferred to blood. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the influence in dose calculation to each region of the respiratory tract when physiological parameters from Brazilian population are applied in the model. The purpose of the dosimetric model is to evaluate dose to each tissues of respiratory tract that are potentially risk from inhaled radioactive materials. The committed equivalent dose, H.T., is calculated by the product of the total number of transformations of the radionuclide in tissue source S over a period of fifty years after incorporation and of the energy absorbed per unit mass in the target tissue T, for each radiation emitted per transformation in tissue source S. The dosimetric model of Human Respirator y Tract was implemented in the software Excel for Windows (version 2000) and H.T. was determined in two stages. First it was calculated the number of total transformations, US, considering the fractional deposition of activity in each source tissue and then it was calculated the total energy absorbed per unit mass S.E.E., in the target tissue. It was assumed that the radionuclide emits an alpha particle with average energy of 5.15 MeV. The variation in the fractional deposition in the compartments of the respiratory tract in changing the physiological parameters from Caucasian to Brazilian adult man causes variation in the number of

  14. Carriage of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Children : An Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spuesens, Emiel B. M.; Fraaij, Pieter L. A.; Visser, Eline G.; Hoogenboezem, Theo; Hop, Wim C. J.; van Adrichem, Leon N. A.; Weber, Frank; Moll, Henriette A.; Broekman, Berth; Berger, Marjolein Y.; van Rijsoort-Vos, Tineke; van Belkum, Alex; Schutten, Martin; Pas, Suzan D.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Hartwig, Nico G.; Vink, Cornelis; van Rossum, Annemarie M. C.

    Background: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is thought to be a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. The diagnosis of M. pneumoniae RTIs currently relies on serological methods and/or the detection of bacterial DNA in the upper respiratory tract (URT). It is conceivable, however,

  15. The costs of respiratory illnesses arising from Florida gulf coast Karenia brevis blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Porter; Jin, Di; Polansky, Lara Y; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Fleming, Lora E; Reich, Andrew; Watkins, Sharon M; Ullmann, Steven G; Backer, Lorraine C

    2009-08-01

    Algal blooms of Karenia brevis, a harmful marine algae, occur almost annually off the west coast of Florida. At high concentrations, K. brevis blooms can cause harm through the release of potent toxins, known as brevetoxins, to the atmosphere. Epidemiologic studies suggest that aerosolized brevetoxins are linked to respiratory illnesses in humans. We hypothesized a relationship between K. brevis blooms and respiratory illness visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs) while controlling for environmental factors, disease, and tourism. We sought to use this relationship to estimate the costs of illness associated with aerosolized brevetoxins. We developed a statistical exposure-response model to express hypotheses about the relationship between respiratory illnesses and bloom events. We estimated the model with data on ED visits, K. brevis cell densities, and measures of pollen, pollutants, respiratory disease, and intra-annual population changes. We found that lagged K. brevis cell counts, low air temperatures, influenza outbreaks, high pollen counts, and tourist visits helped explain the number of respiratory-specific ED diagnoses. The capitalized estimated marginal costs of illness for ED respiratory illnesses associated with K. brevis blooms in Sarasota County, Florida, alone ranged from $0.5 to $4 million, depending on bloom severity. Blooms of K. brevis lead to significant economic impacts. The costs of illness of ED visits are a conservative estimate of the total economic impacts. It will become increasingly necessary to understand the scale of the economic losses associated with K. brevis blooms to make rational choices about appropriate mitigation.

  16. OBSTRUCTION OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT DURING THE GENERAL ANESTHESIA AT CHILDRENS AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Djordjevic

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory complications before, during and after applying the generalanesthesia still represent -despicable the introduction of new anesthetics and new musclerelaxants, modern monitoring and treatment - an importanl potential causc ofmorbidilv and mortality. This particularly refers to the pediatric patients having highminulc ventilation with regard to the functional residual capacity coupled with greatoxygen use; it very quickly leads to hypoxemia. Thc causcs of the respiratorycomplications can be various, but in essence they involve venlilation depression.respiratory tract obstruction or an inadequate oxygen supplv. These sales appeareither individually or in any combination. The causcs of thc respiratory tractobstruction ore numerous and various: they can be divided into physiological andpathological.

  17. Influenza A (H10N7 Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M A van den Brand

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7 in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. This epidemic caused high mortality in seals along the north-west coast of Europe and represented a potential risk for human health. To characterize the spectrum of lesions and to identify the target cells and viral distribution, findings in 16 harbor seals spontaneously infected with Seal/H10N7 are described. The seals had respiratory tract inflammation extending from the nasal cavity to bronchi associated with intralesional virus antigen in respiratory epithelial cells. Virus infection was restricted to the respiratory tract. The fatal outcome of the viral infection in seals was most likely caused by secondary bacterial infections. To investigate the pathogenic potential of H10N7 infection for humans, we inoculated the seal virus intratracheally into six ferrets and performed pathological and virological analyses at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. These experimentally inoculated ferrets displayed mild clinical signs, virus excretion from the pharynx and respiratory tract inflammation extending from bronchi to alveoli that was associated with virus antigen expression exclusively in the respiratory epithelium. Virus was isolated only from the respiratory tract. In conclusion, Seal/H10N7 infection in naturally infected harbor seals and experimentally infected ferrets shows that respiratory epithelial cells are the permissive cells for viral replication. Fatal outcome in seals was caused by secondary bacterial pneumonia similar to that in fatal human cases during influenza pandemics. Productive infection of ferrets indicates that seal/H10N7 may possess a zoonotic potential. This outbreak of LPAI from wild birds to seals demonstrates the risk of such occasions for mammals

  18. Quality indicators for diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract infections in general practice:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plejdrup, Malene; Bjerrum, Lars; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente

    Objective: To develop a set of quality indicators focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract infections in general practice.  Material and methods: A modified 2-round Delphi study was conducted from April to July 2008. A panel of 27 experts (13 countries) comprising mainly general...

  19. Direct observation of labelled aerosols deposition into the respiratory tract of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duport, P.

    1977-01-01

    With a new process the deposition of labelled aerosols into the respiratory tract of the rat can be directly observed. A qualitative convergence between the theoretical retention and real retention for a large scale of aerosol dimensions, is found out [fr

  20. CFD heat transfer simulation of the human upper respiratory tract for oronasal breathing condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Farahmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries due to inhalation of hot gas are commonly encountered when dealing with fire and combustible material, which is harmful and threatens human life. In the literature, various studies have been conducted to investigate heat and mass transfer characteristics in the human respiratory tract (HRT. This study focuses on assessing the injury taking place in the upper human respiratory tract and identifying acute tissue damage, based on level of exposure. A three-dimensional heat transfer simulation is performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software to study the temperature profile through the upper HRT consisting of the nasal cavity, oral cavity, trachea, and the first two generations of bronchi. The model developed is for the simultaneous oronasal breathing during the inspiration phase with a high volumetric flow rate of 90 liters/minute and the inspired air temperature of 100 degrees Celsius. The geometric model depicting the upper HRT is generated based on the data available and literature cited. The results of the simulation give the temperature distribution along the center and the surface tissue of the respiratory tract. This temperature distribution will help to assess the level of damage induced in the upper respiratory tract and appropriate treatment for the damage. A comparison of nasal breathing, oral breathing, and oronasal breathing is performed. Temperature distribution can be utilized in the design of the respirator systems where inlet temperature is regulated favoring the human body conditions.

  1. Respiratory tract infections and its preventive measures among hajj pilgrims, 2010: A nested case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Emamian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that measures such as seasonal influenza vaccination, use of face masks and personal prayer carpet have no effect on the incidence of respiratory tract infections. However, washing throat and mouth with salt water can be considered the most effective preventive measures.

  2. Lower respiratory tract infections in the elderly: Prognostic studies in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, J.

    2008-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are among the most common diseases presented in primary care. When the general practitioner (GP) diagnoses an LRTI he or she is confronted with important clinical dilemmas concerning treatment and prognosis. Especially elderly are of importance, as the

  3. Role of patients' and doctors' views on the management of respiratory tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, Huig Jacob van

    2006-01-01

    The vast majority of respiratory tract (RT) symptoms such as cough, sore throat and earache are self-limiting (viral) infections. Despite this self-limiting character, in the Netherlands antibiotics are prescribed in about one out of every three RT episodes. A further rationalisation of antibiotic

  4. Acute bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract in children from low-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, A; Wolf, B.H.M.

    Acute bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and is responsible for 4 million childhood deaths each year. Most of these deaths are caused by pneumonia and occur in the youngest children in the poorest parts of the world. Severe

  5. Viral respiratory tract infections among patients with acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, Hoang Lan; Nga, Tran T. T.; van Doornum, Gerard J.; Groen, Jan; Binh, Tran Q.; Giao, Phan T.; Hung, Le Q.; Nams, Nguyen V.; Kager, P. A.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the proportion of viral respiratory tract infections among acute undifferentiated fevers (AUFs) at primary health facilities in southern Vietnam during 2001-2005, patients with AUF not caused by malaria were enrolled at twelve primary health facilities and a clinic for malaria control

  6. Antibiotic prescriptions for suspected respiratory tract infection in primary care in South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordoba, Gloria; Caballero, Lidia; Sandholdt, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare antibiotic prescribing patterns for primary care patients with respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in four South American countries. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. General practitioners (GPs) from Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay...... uncertainty and country variation requires greater support from the healthcare systems by providing GPs with evidence-based guidelines and tools to apply them....

  7. Predicting nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections by a risk index based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yong; Shan, Xue; Zhao, Jingya; Han, Xuelin; Tian, Shuguang; Chen, Fangyan; Su, Xueting; Sun, Yansong; Huang, Liuyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Wang, Hongyuan; Han, Li

    2017-01-01

    Although belonging to one of the most common type of nosocomial infection, there was currently no simple prediction model for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). This study aims to develop a risk index based system for predicting nosocomial LRTIs based on data from a large point-prevalence

  8. Views on respiratory tract symptoms and antibiotics of Dutch general practitioners, practice staff and patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, H.J. van; Kuyvenhoven, M.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Verheij, T.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore views on respiratory tract symptoms (cough, sore throat and earache) and antibiotics of GPs, practice staff, and patients. METHODS: In a nationwide study, 181 GPs, 204 practice staff members and 1250 patients from 90 practices participated by answering 14 items relating to

  9. Effect of formaldehyde on the upper respiratory tract _ormal flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Formaldehyde is a chemical that is used to fix a tissue after death or removal from the body to prevent autolysis and putrefaction. Exposure to formaldehyde can occur as a result of occupation. Objective: To determine the effect of the formaldehyde on the throat and nasal flora of upper respiratory tract of rabbits ...

  10. Metabolism of model organic pollutants in canine respiratory tract mucosa slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Gerde, P.; Chen, S.T.; Dahl, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    The high incidence of human bronchial tumors has been correlated with the high fractional deposition of inhaled particles in the bronchi. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are frequently bound to airborne particles due to their low vapor pressures. It is thought that tumorigenicity may result from the release and subsequent bioactivation of these particle-associated organic compounds in the respiratory tract. Previous studies at ITRI examined the clearance of organic toxicants from various regions of the canine respiratory tract. Their results indicated that, while clearance of a highly lipophilic PAH such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from the thin alveolar epithelium took only a few minutes, clearance through the thicker epithelium of the conducting airways took hours. Slower, diffusion-limited clearance results in higher concentrations of lipophilic compounds in the epithelium of the bronchi. Hence, the ability of these tissues to metabolize organic compounds to water-soluble metabolites or reactive intermediates may be extremely important in their clearance from the respiratory tract and the potential susceptibility of this region of the respiratory tract to cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability of bronchial mucosa to metabolize a model organic pulmonary carcinogen, BaP, to reactive and nonreactive metabolites and to evaluate the diffusion of the parent compound and metabolites through the bronchial mucosa

  11. Frequent respiratory tract infections in children. The role of environmental and genetic factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruskamp, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTI), presenting as common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute otitis media, bronchitis or pneumonia are a major health problem in children. In this thesis common environmental and host factors, as well as plausible genetic factors were evaluated in a large birth

  12. Acute respiratory tract infections: a potential trigger for the acute coronary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; van Ginkel, Margreet W.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) may be a risk factor for the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ARTI is associated with an increased risk for ACS up to 2 weeks prior to a cardiac event. The mechanism that may underlie this association is unclear. Infections are

  13. The Mechanism of Activated Nitrogen-Containing Metabolites in the Respiratory Tract: Proinflammatory Effect (Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ye. Abaturov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature review presents current data about modulating action of nitrogen monoxide on the inflammatory response and the apoptotic process depending on its concentration. There is demonstrated a dual action of nitric oxide in the respiratory tract — prevention of infection and strengthening the destruction of lung tissue.

  14. Application of the new ICRP respiratory tract model to inhaled plutonium nitrate using experimental biokinetic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchall, A.; Bailey, M.R.; Jarvis, N.S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the new ICRP respiratory tract model with particular reference to inhaled plutonium nitrate. The model is used to determine the absorption rates to blood for plutonium nitrate which when combined with the plutonium excretion functions were used to predict urinary excretion in man. The implications of the new model for radiological protection are discussed. (UK).

  15. Critically Ill Patients With the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Yaseen M; Al-Omari, Awad; Mandourah, Yasser; Al-Hameed, Fahad; Sindi, Anees A; Alraddadi, Basem; Shalhoub, Sarah; Almotairi, Abdullah; Al Khatib, Kasim; Abdulmomen, Ahmed; Qushmaq, Ismael; Mady, Ahmed; Solaiman, Othman; Al-Aithan, Abdulsalam M; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Ragab, Ahmed; Al Mekhlafi, Ghaleb A; Al Harthy, Abdulrahman; Kharaba, Ayman; Ahmadi, Mashael Al; Sadat, Musharaf; Mutairi, Hanan Al; Qasim, Eman Al; Jose, Jesna; Nasim, Maliha; Al-Dawood, Abdulaziz; Merson, Laura; Fowler, Robert; Hayden, Frederick G; Balkhy, Hanan H

    2017-10-01

    To describe patient characteristics, clinical manifestations, disease course including viral replication patterns, and outcomes of critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory infection from the Middle East respiratory syndrome and to compare these features with patients with severe acute respiratory infection due to other etiologies. Retrospective cohort study. Patients admitted to ICUs in 14 Saudi Arabian hospitals. Critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection (n = 330) admitted between September 2012 and October 2015 were compared to consecutive critically ill patients with community-acquired severe acute respiratory infection of non-Middle East respiratory syndrome etiology (non-Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection) (n = 222). None. Although Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection patients were younger than those with non-Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection (median [quartile 1, quartile 3] 58 yr [44, 69] vs 70 [52, 78]; p < 0.001), clinical presentations and comorbidities overlapped substantially. Patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection had more severe hypoxemic respiratory failure (PaO2/FIO2: 106 [66, 160] vs 176 [104, 252]; p < 0.001) and more frequent nonrespiratory organ failure (nonrespiratory Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score: 6 [4, 9] vs 5 [3, 7]; p = 0.002), thus required more frequently invasive mechanical ventilation (85.2% vs 73.0%; p < 0.001), oxygen rescue therapies (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 5.8% vs 0.9%; p = 0.003), vasopressor support (79.4% vs 55.0%; p < 0.001), and renal replacement therapy (48.8% vs 22.1%; p < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, Middle East respiratory syndrome was independently associated with death compared to non-Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory

  16. Hypophosphatemia and duration of respiratory failure and mortality in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federspiel, C K; Itenov, T S; Thormar, K

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia has been associated with prolonged duration of respiratory failure and increased mortality in critically ill patients, but there is very limited evidence supporting the negative effects of low phosphate. We examined the association between hypophosphatemia at ICU...

  17. Cow's Milk and Immune Function in the Respiratory Tract: Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdijk, Olaf; van Splunter, Marloes; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Brugman, Sylvia; van Neerven, R J Joost

    2018-01-01

    During the last decades, the world has witnessed a dramatic increase in allergy prevalence. Epidemiological evidence shows that growing up on a farm is a protective factor, which is partly explained by the consumption of raw cow's milk. Indeed, recent studies show inverse associations between raw cow's milk consumption in early life and asthma, hay fever, and rhinitis. A similar association of raw cow's milk consumption with respiratory tract infections is recently found. In line with these findings, controlled studies in infants with milk components such as lactoferrin, milk fat globule membrane, and colostrum IgG have shown to reduce respiratory infections. However, for ethical reasons, it is not possible to conduct controlled studies with raw cow's milk in infants, so formal proof is lacking to date. Because viral respiratory tract infections and aeroallergen exposure in children may be causally linked to the development of asthma, it is of interest to investigate whether cow's milk components can modulate human immune function in the respiratory tract and via which mechanisms. Inhaled allergens and viruses trigger local immune responses in the upper airways in both nasal and oral lymphoid tissue. The components present in raw cow's milk are able to promote a local microenvironment in which mucosal immune responses are modified and the epithelial barrier is enforced. In addition, such responses may also be triggered in the gut after exposure to allergens and viruses in the nasal cavity that become available in the GI tract after swallowing. However, these immune cells that come into contact with cow's milk components in the gut must recirculate into the blood and home to the (upper and lower) respiratory tract to regulate immune responses locally. Expression of the tissue homing-associated markers α4β7 and CCR9 or CCR10 on lymphocytes can be influenced by vitamin A and vitamin D3, respectively. Since both vitamins are present in milk, we speculate that raw

  18. Cow’s Milk and Immune Function in the Respiratory Tract: Potential Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Perdijk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the world has witnessed a dramatic increase in allergy prevalence. Epidemiological evidence shows that growing up on a farm is a protective factor, which is partly explained by the consumption of raw cow’s milk. Indeed, recent studies show inverse associations between raw cow’s milk consumption in early life and asthma, hay fever, and rhinitis. A similar association of raw cow’s milk consumption with respiratory tract infections is recently found. In line with these findings, controlled studies in infants with milk components such as lactoferrin, milk fat globule membrane, and colostrum IgG have shown to reduce respiratory infections. However, for ethical reasons, it is not possible to conduct controlled studies with raw cow’s milk in infants, so formal proof is lacking to date. Because viral respiratory tract infections and aeroallergen exposure in children may be causally linked to the development of asthma, it is of interest to investigate whether cow’s milk components can modulate human immune function in the respiratory tract and via which mechanisms. Inhaled allergens and viruses trigger local immune responses in the upper airways in both nasal and oral lymphoid tissue. The components present in raw cow’s milk are able to promote a local microenvironment in which mucosal immune responses are modified and the epithelial barrier is enforced. In addition, such responses may also be triggered in the gut after exposure to allergens and viruses in the nasal cavity that become available in the GI tract after swallowing. However, these immune cells that come into contact with cow’s milk components in the gut must recirculate into the blood and home to the (upper and lower respiratory tract to regulate immune responses locally. Expression of the tissue homing-associated markers α4β7 and CCR9 or CCR10 on lymphocytes can be influenced by vitamin A and vitamin D3, respectively. Since both vitamins are present

  19. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and respiratory tract infections in pre-school children – a cross-sectional study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Bielska

    2015-09-01

    The majority of the 3-year-old children who had lower respiratory tract infections required antibiotics and hospitalization. Living in a home where no tobacco rules were established may cause an increase of respiratory tract infections.

  20. Characterization of Candida species isolated from cases of lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, B J; Dey, S; Tamang, M D; Joshy, M E; Shivananda, P G; Brahmadatan, K N

    2006-01-01

    (1) To identify and characterize the Candida species isolates from lower respiratory tract infection. (2) to determine the rate of isolation of Candida species from sputum samples. This study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal from June 2002 to January 2003. A total of 462 sputum samples were collected from patients suspected lower respiratory tract infection. The samples were processed as Gram staining to find out the suitability of the specimen, cultured on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar (SDA) and also on blood agar and chocolate agar to identify the potential lower respiratory tract pathogens. For the identification of Candida, sputum samples were processed for Gram stain, culture, germ tube test, production of chlamydospore, sugar fermentation and assimilation test. For the identification of bacteria, Gram stain, culture, and biochemical tests were performed by standardized procedure. Out of 462 samples, 246 (53.24%) samples grew potential pathogens of lower respiratory tract. Among them Haemophilus influenzae 61(24.79%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae 57 (23.17%) were the predominant bacterial pathogens. Candida species were isolated from 30 samples (12.2%). The majority of Candida species amongst the Candida isolates were Candida albicans 21(70%) followed by Candida tropicalis 4(13.33%). Candida krusei 3(10%), Candida parapsilosis 1(3.33%) and Candida stellatoidea 1(3.33%). The highest rate of isolation of Candida was between the age of 71 and 80. Candida isolation from sputum samples is important as found in the present study in which Candida species were the third most common pathogen isolated from patients with lower respiratory tract infection.

  1. Rhinovirus genome variation during chronic upper and lower respiratory tract infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Tapparel

    Full Text Available Routine screening of lung transplant recipients and hospital patients for respiratory virus infections allowed to identify human rhinovirus (HRV in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, including immunocompromised hosts chronically infected with the same strain over weeks or months. Phylogenetic analysis of 144 HRV-positive samples showed no apparent correlation between a given viral genotype or species and their ability to invade the lower respiratory tract or lead to protracted infection. By contrast, protracted infections were found almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients, thus suggesting that host factors rather than the virus genotype modulate disease outcome, in particular the immune response. Complete genome sequencing of five chronic cases to study rhinovirus genome adaptation showed that the calculated mutation frequency was in the range observed during acute human infections. Analysis of mutation hot spot regions between specimens collected at different times or in different body sites revealed that non-synonymous changes were mostly concentrated in the viral capsid genes VP1, VP2 and VP3, independent of the HRV type. In an immunosuppressed lung transplant recipient infected with the same HRV strain for more than two years, both classical and ultra-deep sequencing of samples collected at different time points in the upper and lower respiratory tracts showed that these virus populations were phylogenetically indistinguishable over the course of infection, except for the last month. Specific signatures were found in the last two lower respiratory tract populations, including changes in the 5'UTR polypyrimidine tract and the VP2 immunogenic site 2. These results highlight for the first time the ability of a given rhinovirus to evolve in the course of a natural infection in immunocompromised patients and complement data obtained from previous experimental inoculation studies in immunocompetent volunteers.

  2. [Uncommon non-fermenting Gram-negative rods as pathogens of lower respiratory tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Emese; Iván, Miklós; Pongrácz, Júlia; Kristóf, Katalin

    2018-01-01

    Glucose non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria are ubiquitous environmental organisms. Most of them are identified as opportunistic, nosocomial pathogens in patients. Uncommon species are identified accurately, mainly due to the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in clinical microbiology practice. Most of these uncommon non-fermenting rods are isolated from lower respiratory tract samples. Their significance in lower respiratory tract infections, such as rules of their testing are not clarified yet. The aim of this study was to review the clinical microbiological features of these bacteria, especially their roles in lower respiratory tract infections and antibiotic treatment options. Lower respiratory tract samples of 3589 patients collected in a four-year period (2013-2016) were analyzed retrospectively at Semmelweis University (Budapest, Hungary). Identification of bacteria was performed by MALDI-TOF MS, the antibiotic susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion method. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was revealed to be the second, whereas Acinetobacter baumannii the third most common non-fermenting rod in lower respiratory tract samples, behind the most common Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total number of uncommon non-fermenting Gram-negative isolates was 742. Twenty-three percent of isolates were Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Beside Chryseobacterium, Rhizobium, Delftia, Elizabethkingia, Ralstonia and Ochrobactrum species, and few other uncommon species were identified among our isolates. The accurate identification of this species is obligatory, while most of them show intrinsic resistance to aminoglycosides. Resistance to ceftazidime, cefepime, piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems was frequently observed also. Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were found to be the most effective antibiotic agents. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(1): 23-30.

  3. [The composition and antimicrobial resistance of isolates from lower respiratory tract and blood in hospitalized patients in respiratory ward: a multicenter national study in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X; Zhuo, C; Xu, Y C; Zhong, N S

    2018-04-12

    Objective: To investigate the species and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients in respiratory ward in China. Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective study based on a national epidemiological network called China Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (CARSS). The non-repetitive strains isolated from lower respiratory tract and blood samples in 91 hospitals from seven geographic regions of CARSS were reviewed. The distribution of specimen type, hospital level (secondary and tertiary hospital), patient age group [geriatric (>65 years old), adult (15 to 65 years old), pediatric (28 days to 14 years old ) and newborn group (≤28 days)] and ward type (respiratory intensive care unit and general respiratory ward) were analyzed for MRSA, PRSP, CREC, CRKP, CRPA, CRAB, ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP. The categorical variables were analyzed by chi-square test using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. P respiratory tract (LRT), 2 649 isolates from blood and 5 017 isolates from other samples (urine and secretions)] from 48 752 inpatients (without illness type information) were enrolled in the study. 90.2% (45 491/50 417) isolates were obtained from 63 tertiary hospitals. According to patients' age, all cases were divided into 4 groups, i. e. geriatric(46.0%, 23 177/50 417), adult(29.9%, 15 092/50 417), pediatric(24.0%, 12 112/50 417) and newborn group(0.0%, 36/50 417). All isolates were obtained from respiratory intensive care unit (6.2%, 3 129/50 417) or general respiratory wards (93.8%, 47 288/50 417). The majority of bacterial pathogens were isolated from lower respiratory and blood culture samples, which accounted for 90.0% of all the samples (45 400/50 417). Sputum accounted for 81.6% (41 131/50 417) of samples, and the leading 4 isolates were K . pneumonia (18.9%, 7 784/41 131), P . aeruginosa (13.6%, 5 580/41 131), A . baumanni (11.3%, 4 644/41 131) and S . pneumonia (11.1%, 4 564/41 131). Blood samples accounted for 5.3% (2

  4. Prevalence and resistance pattern of Moraxella catarrhalis in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh SBU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Safia Bader Uddin Shaikh, Zafar Ahmed, Syed Ali Arsalan, Sana Shafiq Department of Pulmonology, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Introduction: Moraxella catarrhalis previously considered as commensal of upper respiratory tract has gained importance as a pathogen responsible for respiratory tract infections. Its beta-lactamase-producing ability draws even more attention toward its varying patterns of resistance. Methods: This was an observational study conducted to evaluate the prevalence and resistance pattern of M. catarrhalis. Patients aged 20–80 years admitted in the Department of Chest Medicine of Liaquat National Hospital from March 2012 to December 2012 were included in the study. Respiratory samples of sputum, tracheal secretions, and bronchoalveolar lavage were included, and their cultures were followed. Results: Out of 110 respiratory samples, 22 showed positive cultures for M. catarrhalis in which 14 were males and eight were females. Ten samples out of 22 showed resistance to clarithromycin, and 13 samples out of 22 displayed resistance to erythromycin, whereas 13 showed resistance to levofloxacin. Hence, 45% of the cultures showed resistance to macrolides so far and 59% showed resistance to quinolones. Conclusion: Our study shows that in our environment, M. catarrhalis may be resistant to macrolides and quinolones; hence, these should not be recommended as an alternative treatment in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections caused by M. catarrhalis. However, a study of larger sample size should be conducted to determine if the recommendations are required to be changed. Keywords: community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections or pneumonia, M. catarrhalis, antibiotic resistance, gram-negative diplococcic, Pakistan

  5. In vitro sensitivities to antimicrobial drugs of ureaplasmas isolated from the bovine respiratory tract, genital tract and eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishima, M; Hashimoto, K

    1979-09-01

    The sensitivity to 18 antimicrobial drugs was examined for 66 strains of Ureaplasma sp isolated from respiratory tracts of calves suffering from enzootic pneumonia, urinary tracts of bulls and eyes of cows suffering from infectious bovine kerato-conjunctivitis. Furamizole, tiamulin fumarate, erythromycin lactobionate, malidomycin C, doxycycline hydrochloride, kitasamycin tartrate, tylosin tartrate, T-2636C, tetracycline hydrochloride, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, chlortetracycline hydrochloride, oleandomycin phosphate, furazolidone, spiramycin adipate, chloramphenicol and thiophenicol showed strong inhibiting activity on all the test strains. Among them, furamizole, tiamulin fumarate and erythromycin lactobionate were most active. Kanamycin sulphate showed weak activity on all the strains tested. The differences in origin of the test strains did not affect their sensitivity to any of the drugs.

  6. Parental smoking and respiratory tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, J K; Keena, V; Harakeh, Z; Marks, G

    2001-09-01

    The adverse health consequences of exposing children to tobacco smoke have been well documented. Re-calculation of the data available from cohort and cross-sectional studies worldwide shows that between 500-2500 excess hospitalisations and between 1000 to 5000 excess diagnoses per 100 000 young children as result from respiratory infections can be directly attributed to parental smoking. Results of published meta-analyses support these figures, which are probably under-estimated because of the effects of non-differential misclassification bias. These excess infections are a source of preventable morbidity and have a high cost to the community. They also have important long-term consequences because children who have respiratory infections in early life are at an increased risk of developing asthma in later childhood. More effective strategies that prevent smoking in young people before they become parents have the potential to lead to reductions in these high rates of unnecessary morbidity in the next generation of children.

  7. Unravelling the transcriptome profile of the Swine respiratory tract mycoplasmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale.

  8. Unravelling the Transcriptome Profile of the Swine Respiratory Tract Mycoplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The swine respiratory ciliary epithelium is mainly colonized by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. While colonization by M. flocculare is virtually asymptomatic, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis infections may cause respiratory disease. Information regarding transcript structure and gene abundance provides valuable insight into gene function and regulation, which has not yet been analyzed on a genome-wide scale in these Mycoplasma species. In this study, we report the construction of transcriptome maps for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, which represent data for conducting comparative studies on the transcriptional repertory. For each species, three cDNA libraries were generated, yielding averages of 415,265, 695,313 and 93,578 reads for M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis, respectively, with an average read length of 274 bp. The reads mapping showed that 92%, 98% and 96% of the predicted genes were transcribed in the M. hyopneumoniae, M. flocculare and M. hyorhinis genomes, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the majority of the genes are co-expressed, confirming the previously predicted transcription units. Finally, our data defined the RNA populations in detail, with the map transcript boundaries and transcription unit structures on a genome-wide scale. PMID:25333523

  9. Dominant obligate anaerobes revealed in lower respiratory tract infection in horses by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Katayama, Yoshinari; Hariu, Kazuhisa

    2014-04-01

    Obligate anaerobes are important etiological agents in pneumonia or pleuropneumonia in horses, because they are isolated more commonly from ill horses that have died or been euthanized than from those that survive. We performed bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for obligate anaerobes to establish effective antimicrobial therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify 58 obligate anaerobes and compared the results with those from a phenotypic identification kit. The identification results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing were more reliable than those of the commercial kit. We concluded that genera Bacteroides and Prevotella-especially B. fragilis and P. heparinolytica-are dominant anaerobes in lower respiratory tract infection in horses; these organisms were susceptible to metronidazole, imipenem and clindamycin.

  10. Environmental radon and radon daughter dosimetry in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, R.B.

    1979-04-01

    This report describes work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's program to determine safety and costs related to decommissioning nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Individual dose factors for the inhalation of radon and its daughter products are calculated for use in environmental dose assessments. The calculated committed dose equivalent factors for 222 Rn and its daughters are tabulated for lungs, bronchi tract and other organs. An activity median aerodynamic diameter of 0.1 μm was used. The dose to an individual is calculated by multiplying the estimated intake from inhalation for a particular radionuclide by the corresponding dose factor. A working level month-to-dose conversion factor is calculated to be 1 rad/WLM to the epithelial tissue of the T-B region, assuming 100% daughter equilibrium and 10% free 218 Po ions. This value is in reasonable agreement with recently reported values

  11. Respiratory virus detection during hospitalisation for lower respiratory tract infection in children under 2 years in South Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholme, Adrian A; Best, Emma J; Vogel, Alison M; Stewart, Joanna M; Miller, Charissa J; Lennon, Diana R

    2017-06-01

    To describe respiratory virus detection in children under 2 years of age in a population admitted with lower respiratory infection and to assess correlation with measures of severity. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from infants admitted with lower respiratory tract infection (n = 1645) over a 3-year time period were tested by polymerase chain reaction. We collected epidemiological and clinical data on all children. We assessed the correlation of presence of virus with length of hospital stay, intensive care admission and consolidation on chest X-ray. Of the children admitted 34% were Maori, 43% Pacific and 75% lived in areas in the bottom quintile for socio-economic deprivation. A virus was found in 94% of those tested including 30% with multiple viruses. Picornavirus was present in 59% including 34% as the sole virus. Respiratory syncytial virus was found in 39%. Virus co-detection was not associated with length of stay, chest X-ray changes or intensive care unit admission. In this disadvantaged predominately Maori and Pacific population, picornavirus is commonly found as a sole virus, respiratory syncytial virus is frequent but immunisation preventable influenza is infrequent. We did not find that co-detection of viruses was linked to severity. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Aspergillus infection of the respiratory tract after lung transplantation: chest radiographic and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.; Scadeng, M.; Flower, C.D.R.; Dennis, C.; Stewart, S.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of our study was to assess radiographic and CT findings in lung transplant patients with evidence of Aspergillus colonization or infection of the airways and correlate the findings with clinical, laboratory, bronchoalveolar lavage, biopsy and autopsy findings. The records of 189 patients who had undergone lung transplantation were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of Aspergillus colonization or infection of the airways. Aspergillus was demonstrated by culture or microscopy of sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or histologically from lung biopsies or postmortem studies in 44 patients (23 %). Notes and radiographs were available for analysis in 30 patients. In 12 of the 30 patients (40 %) chest radiographs remained normal. In 11 of 18 patients with abnormal radiographs pulmonary abnormalities were attributed to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in the absence of other causes for pulmonary abnormalities (8 patients) or because of histological demonstration of IPA (3 patients). In these 11 patients initial radiographic abnormalities were focal areas of patchy consolidation (8 patients), ill-defined pulmonary nodules (2 patients) or a combination of both (1 patient). In some of the lesions cavitation was demonstrated subsequently. At CT a ''halo'' of decreased density was demonstrated in some of the nodules and lesion morphology and location were shown more precisely. Demonstration of Aspergillus from the respiratory tract after lung transplantation does not necessarily reflect IPA but may represent colonization of the airways or semi-invasive aspergillosis. The findings in patients with IPA did not differ from those described in the literature in other immunocompromised patients, suggesting that surgical disruption of lymphatic drainage and nervous supply or effects of preservation and transport of the transplant lung do not affect the radiographic appearances. (orig.)

  13. The Pattern of Pediatric Respiratory Illnesses Admitted in Ebonyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tract infections along with malaria and diarrheal diseases constitute the major ..... need to be more prepared and pro-active towards preventing, particularly, the acute ... in this study refers to the routinely given vaccines against. Tuberculosis ...

  14. СHILDREN OF MEGAPOLISES WHO FALL ILL FREQUENTLY: ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION PREVENTION AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Torshkhoeva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to prevention and treatment of acute respiratory diseases children of megapolises who fall ill frequently. The authors prove the thesis that children falling ill frequently and residing in mega cities, and not only in Russia, have a similar immune status, according to which not only therapeutic but also preventive immunomodulatory treatment courses must be administered to them.Key words: frequently ill children, bacterial immunomodulation, cytokinic status.

  15. Respiratory Tract Infections and the Role of Biologically Active Polysaccharides in Their Management and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesenak, Milos; Urbancikova, Ingrid; Banovcin, Peter

    2017-07-20

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common form of infections in every age category. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs), a specific form of RTIs, represent a typical and common problem associated with early childhood, causing high indirect and direct costs on the healthcare system. They are usually the consequence of immature immunity in children and high exposure to various respiratory pathogens. Their rational management should aim at excluding other severe chronic diseases associated with increased morbidity (e.g., primary immunodeficiency syndromes, cystic fibrosis, and ciliary dyskinesia) and at supporting maturity of the mucosal immune system. However, RRTIs can also be observed in adults (e.g., during exhausting and stressful periods, chronic inflammatory diseases, secondary immunodeficiencies, or in elite athletes) and require greater attention. Biologically active polysaccharides (e.g., β-glucans) are one of the most studied natural immunomodulators with a pluripotent mode of action and biological activity. According to many studies, they possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infectious activities and therefore could be suggested as an effective part of treating and preventing RTIs. Based on published studies, the application of β-glucans was proven as a possible therapeutic and preventive approach in managing and preventing recurrent respiratory tract infections in children (especially β-glucans from Pleurotus ostreatus ), adults (mostly the studies with yeast-derived β-glucans), and in elite athletes (studies with β-glucans from Pleurotus ostreatus or yeast).

  16. Community Respiratory Viruses as a Cause of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Following Suppressive Chemotherapy in Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahallawy, H.A.; Ibrahim, M.H.; Shalaby, L.; Kandil

    2005-01-01

    Community respiratory viruses are an important cause of respiratory disease in the immunocompromised patients with cancer. To evaluate the occurrence and clinical significance of respiratory virus infections in hospitalized cancer patients at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, during anticancer treatment, we studied cases that developed episodes of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Patients and Methods: Thirty patients with LRTI were studied clinically, radiologically, and microbiologically. Sputum cultures were done and an immunofluorescence search for IgM antibodies of influenza A and B, parainfluenza serotypes 1,2 and 3, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, Legionella pneumophila, Coxiella burnettii, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were performed on serum samples of patients. The main presenting symptom was cough and expectoration. Hematologic malignancy was the underlying disease in 86.6% of cases. Blood cultures were positive in II patients (36.6%) only. Sputum cultures revealed a bacterial pathogen in [3 cases and fungi in 3; whereas viral and atypical bacterial lgM antibodies were detected in 13 and 4 patients; respectively. Influenza virus was the commonest virus detected, being of type B in 4 cases, type A in one case and mixed A and B in another 5 cases; followed by RSV in 5 patients. Taken together, bacteria were identified as a single cause of LRTI in 10 cases, viruses in 6, fungi in 3 and mixed causes in 7. Still, there were 4 undiagnosed cases. This study showed that respiratory viruses are common in LRTI, either as a single cause or mixed with bacterial pathogens. in hospitalized cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Diagnostic tests for respiratory viruses should be incorporated in the routine diagnostic study of patients with hematologic malignancies. Also, it must be emphasized that early CT chest is crucial as a base-line prior to initiation of anti-fungal or anti-viral therapy. In cancer patients with a

  17. [Prevalence and clinical characteristics of coronavirus NL63 infection in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infections in Changsha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Bing; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Han-Chun; Zhao, Xin; Zhong, Li-Li; Zhou, Qiong-Hua; Hou, Yun-De; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and clinical characteristics of human coronavirus NL63 infection in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) in Changsha. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) samples were collected from 1185 hospitalized children with ALRTI at the People's Hospital of Hunan province, between September 2008 and October 2010. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to screen for coronavirus NL63, which is a 255 bp fragment of a part of N gene. All positive amplification products were confirmed by sequencing and compared with those in GenBank. The overall frequency of coronavirus NL63 infection was 0.8%, 6 (60%) out of the coronavirus NL63 positive patients were detected in summer, 2 in autumn, 1 in spring and winter, respectively. The patients were from 2 months to two and a half years old. The clinical diagnosis was bronchopneumonia (60%), bronchiolitis (30%), and acute laryngotracheal bronchitis (10%). Four of the 10 cases had critical illness, 4 cases had underlying diseases, and 7 cases had mixed infection with other viruses. The homogeneity of coronavirus NL63 with those published in the GenBank at nucleotide levels was 97%-100%. Coronavirus NL63 infection exists in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection in Changsha. Coronavirus NL63 infections are common in children under 3 years of age. There is significant difference in the infection rate between the boys and the girls: the boys had higher rate than the girls. The peak of prevalence of the coronavirus NL63 was in summer. A single genetic lineage of coronavirus NL63 was revealed in human subjects in Changsha. Coronavirus NL63 may also be one of the lower respiratory pathogen in China.

  18. Factors influencing parents' decision-making when sending children with respiratory tract infections to nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Fran E; Rooshenas, Leila; Owen-Smith, Amanda; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Hay, Alastair D

    2016-06-01

    Many families rely on formal day care provision, which can be problematic when children are unwell. Attendance in these circumstances may impact on the transmission of infections in both day care and the wider community. Thirty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate how parents make decisions about nursery care when children are unwell. Topics for discussion included: illness attitudes, current practice during childhood illness and potential nursery policy changes that could affect decision-making. A combination of illness perceptions and external factors affected decision-making. Parents: (i) considered the severity of respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms differently, and stated that while most other contagious illnesses required nursery exclusion, coughs/colds did not; (ii) said decisions were not solely based on nursery policy, but on practical challenges such as work absences, financial penalties and alternative care availability; (iii) identified modifiable nursery policy factors that could potentially help parents keep unwell children at home, potentially reducing transmission of infectious illness. Decision-making is a complex interaction between the child's illness, personal circumstance and nursery policy. Improving our understanding of the modifiable aspects of nursery policies and the extent to which these factors affect decision-making could inform the design and implementation of interventions to reduce the transmission of infectious illness and the associated burden on NHS services. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effect of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Wintertime Vitamin D Supplementation on Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Young Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglipay, Mary; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Loeb, Mark B; Thorpe, Kevin; Chen, Yang; Laupacis, Andreas; Mamdani, Muhammad; Macarthur, Colin; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Mazzulli, Tony; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2017-07-18

    Epidemiological studies support a link between low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and a higher risk of viral upper respiratory tract infections. However, whether winter supplementation of vitamin D reduces the risk among children is unknown. To determine whether high-dose vs standard-dose vitamin D supplementation reduces the incidence of wintertime upper respiratory tract infections in young children. A randomized clinical trial was conducted during the winter months between September 13, 2011, and June 30, 2015, among children aged 1 through 5 years enrolled in TARGet Kids!, a multisite primary care practice-based research network in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Three hundred forty-nine participants were randomized to receive 2000 IU/d of vitamin D oral supplementation (high-dose group) vs 354 participants who were randomized to receive 400 IU/d (standard-dose group) for a minimum of 4 months between September and May. The primary outcome was the number of laboratory-confirmed viral upper respiratory tract infections based on parent-collected nasal swabs over the winter months. Secondary outcomes included the number of influenza infections, noninfluenza infections, parent-reported upper respiratory tract illnesses, time to first upper respiratory tract infection, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at study termination. Among 703 participants who were randomized (mean age, 2.7 years, 57.7% boys), 699 (99.4%) completed the trial. The mean number of laboratory-confirmed upper respiratory tract infections per child was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.91-1.19) for the high-dose group and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.90-1.16) for the standard-dose group, for a between-group difference of 0.02 (95% CI, -0.17 to 0.21) per child. There was no statistically significant difference in number of laboratory-confirmed infections between groups (incidence rate ratio [RR], 0.97; 95% CI, 0.80-1.16). There was also no significant difference in the median time to the first laboratory-confirmed infection: 3.95 months

  20. Human bocavirus infection as a cause of severe acute respiratory tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesker, F M; van Kampen, J J A; van der Eijk, A A; van Rossum, A M C; de Hoog, M; Schutten, M; Smits, S L; Bodewes, R; Osterhaus, A D M E; Fraaij, P L A

    2015-10-01

    In 2005 human bocavirus (HBoV) was discovered in respiratory tract samples of children. The role of HBoV as the single causative agent for respiratory tract infections remains unclear. Detection of HBoV in children with respiratory disease is frequently in combination with other viruses or bacteria. We set up an algorithm to study whether HBoV alone can cause severe acute respiratory tract infection (SARI) in children. The algorithm was developed to exclude cases with no other likely cause than HBoV for the need for admission to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with SARI. We searched for other viruses by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in these cases and studied their HBoV viral loads. To benchmark our algorithm, the same was applied to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-positive patients. From our total group of 990 patients who tested positive for a respiratory virus by means of RT-PCR, HBoV and RSV were detected in 178 and 366 children admitted to our hospital. Forty-nine HBoV-positive patients and 72 RSV-positive patients were admitted to the PICU. We found seven single HBoV-infected cases with SARI admitted to PICU (7/49, 14%). They had no other detectable virus by NGS. They had much higher HBoV loads than other patients positive for HBoV. We identified 14 RSV-infected SARI patients with a single RSV infection (14/72, 19%). We conclude that our study provides strong support that HBoV can cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Methaemoglobinaemia and respiratory tract irritation connected with poppers inhalation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Matuszkiewicz, Eryk

    2010-01-01

    "Poppers" is the street name for volatile nitrites offered by online shops and sex-shops for their aphrodisiac and euphoric properties. Although nitrites have been abused since the late 1960s, recently they became popular in Poland. Recreational poppers using was associated with homosexual men at first. Currently they are commonly reported among heterosexual men and regular dicso participants. Advertisements of these substances tempt potential buyers with the promise of a legal narcotic high. Easy access and the sense of safety make these products the reason of acute toxicity. Volatile nitrites relaxes smooth muscle, the consequent intense peripheral vasodilatation produces flushing, a fall in blood pressure, and reflex increase in heart rate. These effects are accompanied by feeling of warmth, euphoria and intensifying of sexual pleasure. Serious poisoning results in severe methaemoglobinaemia, coma, respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and even death. Skin and mucous contact with poppers can produce a crusty lesion at the site. This article presents the case of 44-years old male hospitalized three times in Toxicology Department after history of poppers abusing. Methaemoglobinaemia (26.4%) and tracheobronchial irritation were the main symptoms observed. Patient was given specific therapy with methylene blue.

  2. Inhaled antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infections: focus on ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serisier, D J

    2012-05-01

    The administration of antibiotics by the inhaled route offers an appealing and logical approach to treating infectious respiratory conditions. Studies in the cystic fibrosis (CF) population have established the efficacy of this therapeutic concept and inhaled antibiotic therapy is now one of the pillars of management in CF. There are now a number of new inhaled antibiotic formulations that have shown impressive preliminary evidence for efficacy in CF and are commencing phase III efficacy studies. Translation of this paradigm into the non-CF bronchiectasis population has proven difficult thus far, apparently due to problems with tolerability of inhaled formulations. Inhaled versions of ciprofloxacin have shown good tolerability and microbiological efficacy in preliminary studies, suggesting that effective inhaled antibiotics are finally on the horizon for this previously neglected patient population. The increased use of long-term inhaled antibiotics for a wider range of non-CF indications presents risks to the broader community of greater antimicrobial resistance development that must be carefully weighed against any demonstrated benefits. Copyright 2012 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  3. USE OF IMMUNOMODULATORS IN ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION TREATMENT IN FREQUENTLY ILL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Ivardava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory infections, relapses of ear, nose, throat infections, acute and chronic bronchial infections — these are the most common infantile infections. Regardless the wide range of medications, treatment of recurrent ENT and respiratory infections is not always effective especially in the group of frequently ill children. This article contains analysis of the necessity of immunomodulation therapy of recurrent respiratory infections as a part of complex prophylaxis and treatment of infants.Key words: children, acute respiratory infection, polyoxidonium, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 103–107

  4. Throat swabs in children with respiratory tract infection: associations with clinical presentation and potential targets for point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Hannah V; Hay, Alastair D; Redmond, Niamh M; Turnbull, Sophie L; Christensen, Hannah; Peters, Tim J; Leeming, John P; Lovering, Andrew; Vipond, Barry; Muir, Peter; Blair, Peter S

    2017-08-01

    Diagnostic uncertainty over respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in primary care contributes to over-prescribing of antibiotics and drives antibiotic resistance. If symptoms and signs predict respiratory tract microbiology, they could help clinicians target antibiotics to bacterial infection. This study aimed to determine relationships between symptoms and signs in children presenting to primary care and microbes from throat swabs. Cross-sectional study of children ≥3 months to presenting with acute cough and RTI, with subset follow-up. Associations and area under receiver operating curve (AUROC) statistics sought between clinical presentation and baseline microbe detection. Microbe prevalence compared between baseline (symptomatic) and follow-up (asymptomatic) visits. At baseline, ≥1 bacteria was detected in 1257/2113 (59.5%) children and ≥1 virus in 894/2127 (42%) children. Clinical presentation was not associated with detection of ≥1 bacteria [AUROC 0.54 (95% CI 0.52-0.56)] or ≥1 virus [0.64 (95% CI 0.61-0.66)]. Individually, only respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was associated with clinical presentation [AUROC 0.80 (0.77-0.84)]. Prevalence fell between baseline and follow-up; more so in viruses (68% versus 26%, P clinical presentation cannot distinguish the presence of bacteria or viruses in the upper respiratory tract. However, individual and overall microbe prevalence was greater when children were unwell than when well, providing some evidence that upper respiratory tract microbes may be the cause or consequence of the illness. If causal, selective microbial point-of-care testing could be beneficial. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Quality indicators for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory tract infections in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saust, Laura Trolle; Bjerrum, Lars; Arpi, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To develop quality indicators for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory tract infections, tailored to the Danish general practice setting. Design: A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used. Setting: General practice. Subjects: A panel of nine experts, mainly...... general practitioners, was asked to rate the relevance of 64 quality indicators for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory tract infections based on guidelines. Subsequently, a face-to-face meeting was held to resolve misinterpretations and to achieve consensus. Main outcome measures...... indicators focusing on the diagnostic process and 19 indicators focusing on the decision about antibiotic treatment and choice of antibiotics, respectively. Conclusion: These newly developed quality indicators may be used to strengthen Danish general practitioners’ focus on their management of patients...

  6. Molecular epidemiology of WU polyomavirus in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Teng; Lu, Qing-Bin; Zhang, Shu-Yan; Wo, Ying; Zhuang, Lu; Zhang, Pan-He; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Wei, Wei; Liu, Wei

    2017-05-01

    To explore the molecular epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Washington University polyomavirus (WUPyV) infection in pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infections in China. A laboratory surveillance was performed to recruit pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infections. WUPyV was detected using real-time PCR and complete genome was sequenced for randomly selected positive nasopharyngeal aspirate. Altogether 122 (7.5%) of 1617 children found to be infected with WUPyV and 88 (72.1%) were coinfected with other viruses during 2012-2015. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 14 strains from our study formed two new clusters (Id and IIIc) within the Branch I and Branch III, respectively. WUPyV is persistently circulating in China. Surveillance on WUPyV infection in wider areas and long persistence is warranted.

  7. Antibiotic treatment and the diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae in lower respiratory tract infections in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Jens; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Kilian, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the possible influence of antibiotic treatment on the results of different diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cohort of 159 unselected adult immunocompetent patients...... admitted to Silkeborg County Hospital in Denmark with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections underwent microbiological investigations with fiber-optic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, blood and sputum culture and urine antigen test for type-specific polysaccharide capsular antigens...... was positive in both systems, making a total of 22 patients with documented pneumococcal infection. As a positive culture test was dependent on the absence of antibiotic treatment, whereas a positive urine antigen test depended on antibiotic treatment within 48 hours, the two tests were complementary...

  8. NASAL-Geom, a free upper respiratory tract 3D model reconstruction software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercos-Pita, J. L.; Cal, I. R.; Duque, D.; de Moreta, G. Sanjuán

    2018-02-01

    The tool NASAL-Geom, a free upper respiratory tract 3D model reconstruction software, is here described. As a free software, researchers and professionals are welcome to obtain, analyze, improve and redistribute it, potentially increasing the rate of development, and reducing at the same time ethical conflicts regarding medical applications which cannot be analyzed. Additionally, the tool has been optimized for the specific task of reading upper respiratory tract Computerized Tomography scans, and producing 3D geometries. The reconstruction process is divided into three stages: preprocessing (including Metal Artifact Reduction, noise removal, and feature enhancement), segmentation (where the nasal cavity is identified), and 3D geometry reconstruction. The tool has been automatized (i.e. no human intervention is required) a critical feature to avoid bias in the reconstructed geometries. The applied methodology is discussed, as well as the program robustness and precision.

  9. High Incidence of Recurrent Wheeze in Children With Down Syndrome With and Without Previous Respiratory Syncytial Virus Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, B.; van Furth, A.M.; Weijerman, M.E.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.; Broers, C.J.M.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Bont, L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is associated with the subsequent development of recurrent wheeze. In a recent study, we found a high incidence (9.9%) of hospitalization for RSV-induced LRTI among children with Down syndrome (DS),

  10. Particle deposition and clearance of atmospheric particles in the human respiratory tract during LACE 98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundke, U.; Hänel, G.

    2003-04-01

    During the LACE 98footnote{Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment, (Germany) 1998} experiment microphysical, chemical and optical properties of atmospheric particles were measured by several groups. (Bundke et al.). The particle deposition and clearance of the particles in the human respiratory tract was calculated using the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) deposition and clearance model (ICRP 1994). Particle growth as function of relative humidity outside the body was calculated from measurement data using the model introduced by Bundke et al.. Particle growth inside the body was added using a non-equilibrium particle growth model. As a result of the calculations, time series of the total dry particle mass and -size distribution were obtained for all compartments of the human respiratory tract defined by ICRP 1994. The combined ICRP deposition and clearance model was initialized for different probationers like man, woman, children of different ages and several circumstances like light work, sitting, sleeping etc. Keeping the conditions observed during LACE 98 constant a approximation of the aerosol burdens of the different compartments was calculated up to 4 years of exposure and compared to the results from Snipes et al. for the "Phoenix" and "Philadelphia" aerosol. References: footnotesize{ Bundke, U. et al.,it{Aerosol Optical Properties during the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment (LACE 98)} ,10.1029/2000JD000188, JGR, 2002 ICRP,it{Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection, Bd. ICRP Publication 66}, Annals of the ICRP, 24,1-3, Elsevier Science, Ocford, 1994 Snipes et al. ,it{The 1994 ICRP66 Human Respiratory Tract Model as a Tool for predicting Lung Burdens from Exposure to Environmental Aerosols}, Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg., 12, 547-553,1997}

  11. Macrolide overuse for treatment of respiratory tract infections in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerskov, Mette; Therkildsen, Julie Maria; Cordoba, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    High consumption of macrolides has been linked to increased macrolide resistance in the common pathogens of respiratory tract infections (RTIs). According to Danish recommendations, penicillin is the first-choice treatment for RTIs and macrolides should only be prescribed when a patient is allergic...... to penicillin or for treatment of mycoplasma pneumonias. The aim of the present study was to explore the prescription of macrolides for different RTIs to patients without penicillin allergy in general practice in Denmark....

  12. Probiotics for respiratory tract infections in children attending day care centers − a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Hojsak, Iva

    2018-01-01

    Probiotics have been suggested to have a preventive effect on respiratory tract infections (RTIs), but limited evidence exist on strain-specific effects. The main aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate strain-specific probiotic effects on RTIs in children attending day care...... RCTs investigating specific probiotic strains or their combinations in prevention of RTIs are needed. (Table presented)...

  13. Chlamydiae in febrile children with respiratory tract symptoms and age-matched controls, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bühl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Chlamydiales order are obligate intracellular pathogens causing acute and chronic infectious diseases. Chlamydiaceae are established agents of community- and zoonotically acquired respiratory tract infections, and emerging pathogens among the Chlamydia-related bacteria have been implicated in airway infections. The role of both in airway infections in Africa is underexplored. We performed a case -control study on the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related emerging pathogens in children with febrile respiratory tract infections in West Africa, Ghana. Using a pan-Chlamydiales broad-range real-time PCR, we detected chlamydial DNA in 11 (1.9% of 572 hospitalized febrile children with respiratory tract symptoms and in 24 (4.3% of 560 asymptomatic age-matched controls (p 0.03. Chlamydiaceae were found to be common among both symptomatic and healthy Ghanaian children, with Chlamydia pneumoniae being the most prevalent species. Parachlamydiaceae were detected in two children without symptoms but not in the symptomatic group. We identified neither Chlamydia psittaci nor Simkania negevensis but a member of a new chlamydial family that shared 90.2% sequence identity with the 16S rRNA gene of the zoonotic pathogen Chlamydia pecorum. In addition, we found a new Chlamydia-related species that belonged to a novel family sharing 91.3% 16S rRNA sequence identity with Candidatus Syngnamydia venezia. The prevalence and spectrum of chlamydial species differed from previous results obtained from children of other geographic regions and our study indicates that both, Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related bacteria, are not clearly linked to clinical symptoms in Ghanaian children. Keywords: Children, Chlamydia, Chlamydia-related bacteria, febrile respiratory tract infection, Ghana

  14. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2010-11-15

    Dampness and mold have been shown in qualitative reviews to be associated with a variety of adverse respiratory health effects, including respiratory tract infections. Several published meta-analyses have provided quantitative summaries for some of these associations, but not for respiratory infections. Demonstrating a causal relationship between dampness-related agents, which are preventable exposures, and respiratory tract infections would suggest important new public health strategies. We report the results of quantitative meta-analyses of published studies that examined the association of dampness or mold in homes with respiratory infections and bronchitis. For primary studies meeting eligibility criteria, we transformed reported odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) to the log scale. Both fixed and random effects models were applied to the log ORs and their variances. Most studies contained multiple estimated ORs. Models accounted for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed. One set of analyses was performed with all eligible studies, and another set restricted to studies that controlled for age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Subgroups of studies were assessed to explore heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. The resulting summary estimates of ORs from random effects models based on all studies ranged from 1.38 to 1.50, with 95% CIs excluding the null in all cases. Use of different analysis models and restricting analyses based on control of multiple confounding variables changed findings only slightly. ORs (95% CIs) from random effects models using studies adjusting for major confounding variables were, for bronchitis, 1.45 (1.32-1.59); for respiratory infections, 1.44 (1.31-1.59); for respiratory infections excluding nonspecific upper respiratory infections, 1.50 (1.32-1.70), and for respiratory infections in children or infants, 1.48 (1.33-1.65). Little effect of publication

  15. USE OF A NEW FORM OF IBUPROFEN IN CHILDREN WITH FEVER AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Lokshina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study clinical efficacy, tolerance and safety of a new pelleted ibuprofen form for children in treatment of fever in patients with acute respiratory tract infection. Patients and methods: children aged from 6 to 12 years old with clinical manifestation of respiratory tract infections and requiring antipyretic treatment were included into the study. Children (n = 50 were administered ibuprofen at a single dose of 5–10 mg/kg of body weight, not more than 3–4 times per day. The efficacy assessment included time needed for temperature decrease (assessment was performed in 15, 30 and 60 minutes and duration of the antipyretic effect (assessment in 6, 8 and 12 hours. Rapidity of analgesic effect in children with ear ache, headache and myalgias was performed in 15, 30, 60 minutes and 6, 8 and 12 hours after the drug intake. Results: antipyretic effect of pelleted ibuprofen for children begins in 15 minutes after its intake. Stable temperature decrease during the first 6 hours was observed in 58% of children (the mean temperature was 37,1 ± 0,3 and maintained up for 12 hours. Relief of pain intensity was established in 62,1% of patients during the first 3 hours, and in 37,9% the pain syndrome was arrested completely. Conclusions: the new pelleted form of ibuprofen for children was proved to have high clinical efficacy and safety in treatment of fever in children with acute respiratory tract infections.

  16. Inhalation of uranium nanoparticles: respiratory tract deposition and translocation to secondary target organs in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitot, Fabrice; Lestaevel, Philippe; Tourlonias, Elie; Mazzucco, Charline; Jacquinot, Sébastien; Dhieux, Bernadette; Delissen, Olivia; Tournier, Benjamin B; Gensdarmes, François; Beaunier, Patricia; Dublineau, Isabelle

    2013-03-13

    Uranium nanoparticles (fuel cycle and during remediation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Explosions and fires in nuclear reactors and the use of ammunition containing depleted uranium can also produce such aerosols. The risk of accidental inhalation of uranium nanoparticles by nuclear workers, military personnel or civilian populations must therefore be taken into account. In order to address this issue, the absorption rate of inhaled uranium nanoparticles needs to be characterised experimentally. For this purpose, rats were exposed to an aerosol containing 10⁷ particles of uranium per cm³ (CMD=38 nm) for 1h in a nose-only inhalation exposure system. Uranium concentrations deposited in the respiratory tract, blood, brain, skeleton and kidneys were determined by ICP-MS. Twenty-seven percent of the inhaled mass of uranium nanoparticles was deposited in the respiratory tract. One-fifth of UO₂ nanoparticles were rapidly cleared from lung (T(½)=2.4 h) and translocated to extrathoracic organs. However, the majority of the particles were cleared slowly (T(½)=141.5 d). Future long-term experimental studies concerning uranium nanoparticles should focus on the potential lung toxicity of the large fraction of particles cleared slowly from the respiratory tract after inhalation exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Homeopathic medicinal products for preventing and treating acute respiratory tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Kate; van Driel, Mieke L; Buffington, Benjamin J; McGuire, Treasure M; King, David

    2018-04-09

    Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are common and may lead to complications. Most children experience between three and six ARTIs each year. Although these infections are self limiting, the symptoms can be distressing. Many treatments are used to control symptoms and shorten the duration of illness. They often have minimal benefit and may lead to adverse effects. Oral homeopathic medicinal products could play a role in the treatment of ARTIs for children if evidence for effectiveness is established. To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral homeopathic medicinal products compared with placebo or conventional therapy to prevent and treat acute respiratory tract infections in children. We searched CENTRAL (2017, Issue 11), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1946 to 27 November 2017), Embase (2010 to 27 November 2017), CINAHL (1981 to 27 November 2017), AMED (1985 to December 2014), CAMbase (searched 29 March 2018), British Homeopathic Library (searched 26 June 2013 - no longer operating). We also searched the WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers (29 March 2018), checked references, and contacted study authors to identify additional studies. Double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or double-blind cluster-RCTs comparing oral homeopathy medicinal products with identical placebo or self selected conventional treatments to prevent or treat ARTIs in children aged 0 to 16 years. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included eight RCTs of 1562 children receiving oral homeopathic medicinal products or a control treatment (placebo or conventional treatment) for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). Four treatment studies examined the effect on recovery from URTIs, and four studies investigated the effect on preventing URTIs after one to three months of treatment and followed up for the remainder of the year. Two treatment and two prevention studies

  18. Treatment of 31 Cases of Infant Respiratory Tract Infection by Health-care Tuina plus Medicated Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; WU Xue-fei

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-one cases of infant respiratory tract infection were treated by no-pain health-care Tuina plus medicated bath. Since the therapeutic effects were satisfactory, so parents and infants are willing to accept.

  19. Promising approaches for the treatment and prevention of viral respiratory illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Megremis, Spyridon; Kitsioulis, Nikolaos A; Vangelatou, Olympia; West, Peter; Xepapadaki, Paraskevi

    2017-10-01

    Viral respiratory tract infections are the most common human ailments, leading to enormous health and economic burden. Hundreds of viral species and subtypes have been associated with these conditions, with influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and rhinoviruses being the most frequent and with the highest burden. When considering prevention or treatment of viral respiratory tract infections, potential targets include the causative pathogens themselves but also the immune response, disease transmission, or even just the symptoms. Strategies targeting all these aspects are developing concurrently, and several novel and promising approaches are emerging. In this perspective we overview the entire range of options and highlight some of the most promising approaches, including new antiviral agents, symptomatic or immunomodulatory drugs, the re-emergence of natural remedies, and vaccines and public health policies toward prevention. Wide-scale prevention through immunization appears to be within reach for respiratory syncytial virus and promising for influenza virus, whereas additional effort is needed in regard to rhinovirus, as well as other respiratory tract viruses. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors influencing the development of otitis media among Sicilian children affected by upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martines, Francesco; Salvago, Pietro; Ferrara, Sergio; Messina, Giuseppe; Mucia, Marianna; Plescia, Fulvio; Sireci, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infection is a nonspecific term used to describe an acute infection involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx. Upper respiratory tract infections in children are often associated with Eustachian tube dysfunction and complicated by otitis media, an inflammatory process within the middle ear. Environmental, epidemiologic and familial risk factors for otitis media (such as sex, socioeconomic and educational factors, smoke exposure, allergy or duration of breastfeeding) have been previously reported, but actually no data about their diffusion among Sicilian children with upper respiratory tract infections are available. To investigate the main risk factors for otitis media and their prevalence in Sicilian children with and without upper respiratory tract infections. A case-control study of 204 children with upper respiratory tract infections who developed otitis media during a 3 weeks monitoring period and 204 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Seventeen epidemiologically relevant features were inventoried by means of standardized questionnaires and skin tests were performed. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to examine the association between risk factors and occurrence of otitis media. Otitis media resulted strongly associated to large families, low parental educational attainment, schooling within the third years of life (potitis media in the presence of asthma, cough, laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, snoring and apnea (potitis media in children exposed to smoke respectively of 166% and 277% (potitis media are common childhood diseases strongly associated with low parental educational attainment (p=0.0001), exposure to smoke (p=0.0001), indoor exposure to mold (p=0.0001), laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (p=0.0002) and the lack of breast-feeding (p=0.0014); an increased risk of otitis media recurrences was observed in the presence of allergy, persistent cough and runny nose (p=0

  1. Developing a multi-component immune model for evaluating the risk of respiratory illness in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Maree; Pyne, David B; Elkington, Lisa J; Hall, Sharron T; Attia, John R; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Wood, Lisa G; Callister, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory identification of the underlying risk of respiratory illness in athletes has proved problematic. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical data, combined with immune responses to standardised exercise protocols and genetic cytokine polymorphism status, could identify the risk of respiratory illness (symptoms) in a cohort of highly-trained athletes. Male endurance athletes (n=16; VO2max 66.5 ± 5.1 mL.kg-1.min-1) underwent a clinical evaluation of known risk factors by a physician and comprehensive laboratory analysis of immune responses both at rest and after two cycling ergometer tests: 60 min at 65% VO2max (LONG); and 6 x 3 min intervals at 90% VO2max (INTENSE). Blood tests were performed to determine Epstein Barr virus (EBV) status and DNA was genotyped for a panel of cytokine gene polymorphisms. Saliva was collected for measurement of IgA and detection of EBV DNA. Athletes were then followed for 9 months for self-reported episodes of respiratory illness, with confirmation of the underlying cause by a sports physician. There were no associations with risk of respiratory illness identified for any parameter assessed in the clinical evaluations. The laboratory parameters associated with an increased risk of respiratory illnesses in highly-trained athletes were cytokine gene polymorphisms for the high expression of IL-6 and IFN-ɣ; expression of EBV-DNA in saliva; and low levels of salivary IgA concentration. A genetic risk score was developed for the cumulative number of minor alleles for the cytokines evaluated. Athletes prone to recurrent respiratory illness were more likely to have immune disturbances that allow viral reactivation, and a genetic predisposition to pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to intense exercise. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Exercise and Immunology. All rights reserved.

  2. Respiratory Tract Infections in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Individuals are Linked with Serum Surfactant Protein-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawed, S.; Parveen, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To find out the rate of respiratory tract infections in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals and their relation with surfactant protein D. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from September 2011 to April 2012, and comprised subjects of both genders between ages of 30 and 60 years. The subjects were divided into four groups: diabetic obese, non-diabetic obese, diabetic non-obese, and non-diabetic-non-obese. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information about respiratory tract infections. Serum surfactant protein D levels were analysed using human surfactant protein D enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16. Results: Of the 90 subjects, there were 20(22.2 percent) diabetic obese, 30(33.3 percent) non-diabetic obese, 10(11.1 percent) diabetic non-obese, and 30(33.3 percent) non-diabetic-non-obese. The overall mean age was 36.6±103 years. Among the diabetic obese, 15(75 percent) had respiratory tract infections which was higher than the other study groups, and patients having respiratory tract infections had lower surfactant protein D levels than those who did not have infections (p=0.01). Conclusion: Diabetic obese subjects had greater rate of recurrent respiratory tract infections and had lower concentration of serum surfactant protein D compared to subjects without respiratory tract infections. (author)

  3. β2-Adrenergic receptor promoter haplotype influences the severity of acute viral respiratory tract infection during infancy: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingsheng; Larkin, Emma K; Reiss, Sara S; Carroll, Kecia N; Summar, Marshall L; Minton, Patricia A; Woodward, Kimberly B; Liu, Zhouwen; Islam, Jessica Y; Hartert, Tina V; Moore, Paul E

    2015-09-14

    Despite the significant interest in β2-Adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) polymorphisms related to asthma, whether ADRB2 genetic variants are similarly associated with acute respiratory tract infections have not been studied. We hypothesized that genetic variants in ADRB2 associated with a response to asthma therapy during an asthma exacerbation were also associated with severity of acute respiratory tract infections. To test this hypothesis, we genotyped 5 common polymorphisms in the promoter region and coding block of the ADRB2 gene (loci -2387, -2274, -1343, +46, and +79) from 374 Caucasian and African American term infants who were enrolled at the time of acute respiratory illness over four respiratory viral seasons. Severity of respiratory tract infections was measured using a bronchiolitis severity score (BSS; range = 0-12, clinically significant difference = 0.5) with a higher score indicating more severe disease. We assigned the promoter, coding and combined promoter and coding haplotypes to the unphased genotype data. The associations between each of these five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as the haplotypes and infant BSS were analyzed using nonparametric univariate analysis and multivariable proportional odds model separately in Caucasians and African Americans. There was no significant association between infant BSS and each of the SNPs in both Caucasians and African Americans. However, promoter haplotype CCA was associated with a decreased BSS in African Americans in a dose dependent manner. The median (interquartile range) BSS of infants with no copies of the CCA haplotype, one copy, and two copies of the CCA haplotype were 5.5 (2.0, 8.0), 4.0 (1.0, 7.5), and 3.0 (1.0, 4.0), respectively. This dose dependent relationship persisted after adjusting for infant age, gender, daycare exposure, secondhand smoke exposure, prior history of breastfeeding, siblings at home, and enrollment season (adjusted odds ratio: 0.59, 95% confidence

  4. Cadherin-related Family Member 3 Genetics and Rhinovirus C Respiratory Illnesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Coleman, Amaziah T; Evans, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Background Experimental evidence suggests that CDHR3 is a receptor for rhinovirus-C (RV-C), and a missense variant in this gene (rs6967330) is associated with childhood asthma with severe exacerbations. Objective To determine whether rs6967330 influences RV-C infections and illnesses in early...... childhood. Methods We studied associations between rs6967330 and respiratory infections and illnesses in the COPSAC2010 and COAST birth cohorts, where respiratory infections were monitored prospectively for the first 3 years of life. Nasal samples were collected during acute infections in both cohorts...

  5. Survey on the radiation exposure of the respiratory tract by inhalation of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poretti, G.

    1987-01-01

    During the last twenty years, work carried out on radiation exposure of the respiratory tract due to the inhaled, naturally occurring nuclides radon, thoron and short-lived daughters has become increasingly important, because the doses received in the respiratory tract, due mainly to the effect of α rays, reach values among the general population which are comparable to or even higher than the average exposures per year of a population undergoing X-ray diagnostic examinations. A brief introduction to the physical characteristics of the natural radiation nuclides reaching the bronchi and lungs with the inhaled air (Rn-220 - thoron and short lived daughters), and the deposition and clearance of the nuclides (often linked to aerosols), is followed by a discussion of the anatomical/physiological characteristics of the ''lung models'', thanks to which it is possible to calculate the energy quantities (i.e. doses) deposited by the α rays in the epithelium of the lungs and bronchi. In addition the retention mechanisms of the radionuclides (as free ions or as aerosols) are briefly described, and finally the calculations to determine the quantity of radioactivity remaining on the walls of the respiratory tract are given. The construction of dosimetric models requires relatively precise knowledge of the thickness of the mucus layers and of the distribution of the nuclides in the mucus, the ciliary movement, the depth in the tissue of the radiation-sensitive cells etc. On the basis of local doses it is then possible to calculate approximately the regional doses for bronchi, lungs and other organs (via blood, accessible by the nuclides before excretion) for the short lived daughters of Rn-222 and Rn-220. Determination of the mean effective dose equivalent requires, amongst other things, knowledge of the concentration of the nuclides in the inhaled air and the mean respiratory frequency of the members of a population. (orig./HSI)

  6. The Clinical and Economic Impact of Probiotics Consumption on Respiratory Tract Infections: Projections for Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lenoir-Wijnkoop

    Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence supporting the use of probiotics, which are defined as "live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host", as a preventive measure against respiratory tract infections (RTI. Two recent meta-analyses showed probiotic consumption (daily intake of 107 to 1010 CFU in any form for up to 3 months significantly reduced RTI duration, frequency, antibiotic use and work absenteeism.The aim of this study was to assess the impact of probiotic use in terms of number of RTI episodes and days averted, and the number of antibiotic prescriptions and missed workdays averted, in the general population of Canada. In addition, the corresponding economic impact from both a healthcare payer and a productivity perspective was estimated.A microsimulation model was developed to reproduce the Canadian population (sample rate of 1/1000 = 35 540 individuals employing age and gender. RTI incidence was taken from FluWatch consultation rates for influenza-like illness (2013-14 and StatCan all-cause consultations statistics. The model was calibrated on a 2.1% RTI annual incidence in the general population (5.2 million RTI days and included known risk factors (smoking status, shared living conditions and vaccination status. RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions and work absenteeism were obtained from the literature.The results indicate that probiotic use saved 573 000-2.3 million RTI-days, according to the YHEC-Cochrane scenarios respectively. These reductions were associated with an avoidance of 52 000-84 000 antibiotic courses and 330 000-500 000 sick-leave days. A projection of corresponding costs reductions amounted to Can$1.3-8.9 million from the healthcare payer perspective and Can$61.2-99.7 million when adding productivity losses.The analysis shows that the potential of probiotics to reduce RTI-related events may have a substantial clinical and economic impact in Canada.

  7. Use and feasibility of delayed prescribing for respiratory tract infections: A questionnaire survey

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    Lindbæk Morten

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed prescribing of antibiotics for respiratory tract infections (RTIs lowers the amount of antibiotics consumed. Several national treatment guidelines on RTIs recommend the strategy. When advocating treatment innovations, the feasibility and credibility of the innovation must be taken into account. The objective of this study was to explore GPs use and patients uptake of wait-and-see prescriptions for RTIs, and to investigate the feasibility of the strategy from GPs' and patients' perspectives. Methods Questionnaire survey among Norwegian GPs issuing and patients receiving a wait-and-see-prescription for RTIs. Patients reported symptoms, confidence and antibiotics consumption, GPs reported diagnoses, reason for issuing a wait-and-see-prescription and their opinion about the method. Results 304 response pairs from consultations with 49 GPs were received. The patient response rate was 80%. The most common diagnosis for the GPs to issue a wait-and-see prescription was sinusitis (33% and otitis (21%. 46% of the patients reported to consume the antibiotics. When adjusted for other factors, the diagnosis did not predict antibiotic consumption, but both being 16 years or more (p = 0,006 and reporting to have a fever (p = 0,012 doubled the odds of antibiotic consumption, while feeling very ill more than quadrupled the odds (p = 0,002. In 210 cases (69%, the GP found delayed prescribing a very reasonable strategy, and 270 patients (89% would prefer to receive a wait-and-see prescription in a similar situation in the future. The GPs found delayed prescribing very reasonable most frequently in cases of sinusitis (79%, p = 0,007 and least frequently in cases of lower RTIs (49%, p = 0,002. Conclusion Most patients and GPs are satisfied with the delayed prescribing strategy. The patients' age, symptoms and malaise are more important than the diagnosis in predicting antibiotic consumption. The GP's view of the method as a reasonable

  8. The Clinical and Economic Impact of Probiotics Consumption on Respiratory Tract Infections: Projections for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlier, Laetitia; Roy, Denis; Reid, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is accumulating evidence supporting the use of probiotics, which are defined as “live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host”, as a preventive measure against respiratory tract infections (RTI). Two recent meta-analyses showed probiotic consumption (daily intake of 107 to 1010 CFU in any form for up to 3 months) significantly reduced RTI duration, frequency, antibiotic use and work absenteeism. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the impact of probiotic use in terms of number of RTI episodes and days averted, and the number of antibiotic prescriptions and missed workdays averted, in the general population of Canada. In addition, the corresponding economic impact from both a healthcare payer and a productivity perspective was estimated. Methods A microsimulation model was developed to reproduce the Canadian population (sample rate of 1/1000 = 35 540 individuals) employing age and gender. RTI incidence was taken from FluWatch consultation rates for influenza-like illness (2013–14) and StatCan all-cause consultations statistics. The model was calibrated on a 2.1% RTI annual incidence in the general population (5.2 million RTI days) and included known risk factors (smoking status, shared living conditions and vaccination status). RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions and work absenteeism were obtained from the literature. Results The results indicate that probiotic use saved 573 000–2.3 million RTI-days, according to the YHEC–Cochrane scenarios respectively. These reductions were associated with an avoidance of 52 000–84 000 antibiotic courses and 330 000–500 000 sick-leave days. A projection of corresponding costs reductions amounted to Can$1.3–8.9 million from the healthcare payer perspective and Can$61.2–99.7 million when adding productivity losses. Conclusion The analysis shows that the potential of probiotics to reduce RTI-related events may have a substantial

  9. Differential expression of the MERS-coronavirus receptor in the upper respiratory tract of humans and dromedary camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widagdo, W; Raj, V Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Kolijn, Kimberley; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Bosch, Berend J; Bensaid, Albert; Segalés, Joaquim; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P; van den Brand, Judith M A; Haagmans, Bart L

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor - dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) - is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels but not

  10. RSV-induced bronchiolitis but not upper respiratory tract infection is accompanied by an increased nasal IL-18 response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benten, Inesz J.; van Drunen, Cornelis M.; Koopman, Laurens P.; Kleinjan, Alex; van Middelkoop, Barbara C.; de Waal, Leon; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Neijens, Herman J.; Fokkens, Wytske J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential differences in the local nasal immune response between bronchiolitis and upper respiratory tract infection induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Nasal brush samples were obtained from 14 infants with RSV bronchiolitis and from 8 infants with

  11. Fungal contamination of the respiratory tract and associated respiratory impairment among sawmill workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Adhikari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wood processing workers are exposed to wood-associated microbiological contaminants, including fungi. Our aim was to study the potential association between sputum fungus and adverse respiratory effects in such workers. In a group of sawmill workers, we administered a respiratory questionnaire, performed lung function testing and quantified the proportions of leukocytes in spontaneously expectorated sputum samples. We identified fungal species by DNA sequencing. Of 54 sawmill workers, 19 yielded fungal positive sputum samples (mean age 42.5±10.4 years and 35 were negative for fungus (mean age 36.9±5.2 years. The fungus was identified as Candida sp. in all samples. Those with fungal-positive sputum, compared to others, reported more cough (26% versus 63% and haemoptysis (6% versus 37% (both p<0.05, manifested reduced forced midexpiratory flow rates (FEF25–75% (82.3±4.5 versus 69.2±9.9% predicted, p<0.001, and had higher sputum eosinophil counts (median 9.25 versus 3.25%, p<0.01. Reduction of FEF25–75% was associated both with fungus detection in sputum (−12.7%, 95% CI−8.5– −16.9% and sputum eosinophils (−2.1% per 1% increase in eosinophils, 95% CI −1.5– −2.8% (both p<0.001. In sawmill workers, Candida sp. detectable in sputum was associated with respiratory symptoms, sputum eosinophilia and reduced FEF25–75%.

  12. Suspicion of respiratory tract infection with multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: epidemiology and risk factors from a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renk, Hanna; Stoll, Lenja; Neunhoeffer, Felix; Hölzl, Florian; Kumpf, Matthias; Hofbeck, Michael; Hartl, Dominik

    2017-02-21

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections are a serious concern for children admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Tracheal colonization with MDR Enterobacteriaceae predisposes to respiratory infection, but underlying risk factors are poorly understood. This study aims to determine the incidence of children with suspected infection during mechanical ventilation and analyses risk factors for the finding of MDR Enterobacteriaceae in tracheal aspirates. A retrospective single-centre analysis of Enterobacteriaceae isolates from the lower respiratory tract of ventilated PICU patients from 2005 to 2014 was performed. Resistance status was determined and clinical records were reviewed for potential risk factors. A classification and regression tree (CRT) to predict risk factors for infection with MDR Enterobacteriaceae was employed. The model was validated by simple and multivariable logistic regression. One hundred sixty-seven Enterobacteriaceae isolates in 123 children were identified. The most frequent isolates were Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and E.coli. Among these, 116 (69%) isolates were susceptible and 51 (31%) were MDR. In the CRT analysis, antibiotic exposure for ≥ 7 days and presence of gastrointestinal comorbidity were the most relevant predictors for an MDR isolate. Antibiotic exposure for ≥ 7 days was confirmed as a significant risk factor for infection with MDR Enterobacteriaceae by a multivariable logistic regression model. This study shows that critically-ill children with tracheal Enterobacteriaceae infection are at risk of carrying MDR isolates. Prior use of antibiotics for ≥ 7 days significantly increased the risk of finding MDR organisms in ventilated PICU patients with suspected infection. Our results imply that early identification of patients at risk, rapid microbiological diagnostics and tailored antibiotic therapy are essential to improve management of critically ill children infected with

  13. Effect of the Changes of Respiratory Tract Model on the Uranium Bioassay Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Taeeun; Noh, Siwan; Kim, Meeryeong; Lee, Jaiki [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongil; Kim, Jang Lyul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The HRTM, however, was revised based on the recent experimental data in OIR (Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides) draft report of ICRP. The changes of respiratory tract model are predicted to directly affect bioassay data like retention and excretion functions. Lung retention function is especially important to internal exposure assessment for workers related to fuel manufacturing because the place could be contaminated by uranium. In addition, faecel samples are recommended to be used for in-vitro bioassay of uranium because of very slow excretion via urine. More reliable assessments for the workers in fuel manufacturing could be achieved by recalculation of bioassay data for uranium and the comparing study using original and revised HRTM. In this study, therefore, the lung retention and faecal excretion functions for inhalation of UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were recalculated using revised HRTM and the results were compared with those of original HRTM. In this study the lung retention and faecal excretion functions for inhalation of UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were calculated based on original and revised HRTM. The results show that the revised HRTM increases lung retention and uptakes to alimentary tract which cause the more faecal excretion. The results in this study confirm the effect of the changes of respiratory tract model on the uranium bioassay data although the more study is needed to apply to practical fields.

  14. A study of the barrier function of the upper respiratory tract covering epithelium in the event of combined respiratory tract injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Z.; Kolev, K.; Dermendzhiev, Kh.; Nikolova, M.; Kantardzhiev, V.

    1976-01-01

    Functional and morphologic impairment of upper respiratory tract mucous membranes after chronic exposure to the three major occupational noxious agents in ore mining - radon-222, silica dust, and respirable dust - has been studied experimentally. Over a 6-month period, rats were given daily treatments, with the agents applied either individually or in combination. Radon-222 (at 1 x 10 -10 Ci/l, corresponding to the maximum permissible concentrotion in uranium mine atmospheres) and respirable dust (dispersed silicogen at 100 mg/m 3 ) were administered four hours daily in toxicological chambers. Monodisperse silica dust was given by tracheal tube, at 50 mg in 1 ml of saline per rat. At the end of the treatment period, the barrier function of the respiratory epithelium was tested, and found to have been affected, by measuring beta radioactivity in blood following introduction into -the animal's nasopharynx of a 32 P-labelled staphylococcus culture. The most severe degree if impairment was found to result from simultaneous exposure to radon and respirable dust. Any of ti'e agents given individually caused a similar degree of impairment. Intratracheal administration of silicic acid anhydride appeared to have no deleterious consequences. The evidence for functional impairment was supported by histologic findings, indicating Jevelopment of ulcerous bronchitis, metaplasia of cylindrical epithelium, etc., after both individual and combined radon exposure. (A.B.)

  15. The development of lavage procedures for the upper and lower respiratory tract of the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Grainne; Quinn, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    New techniques for routine bronchopulmonary lavage (BPL) and nasal flushing in the anaesthetized cat which are safe, reproducible and simple to use have been developed. Five adult mixed-breed cats from a specific pathogen-free colony were selected, fasted overnight and weighed. The feeding tube was passed through the endotracheal tube and down the trachea until it became wedged in the bronchus. Nasal flushing was then immediately carried out after the BPL with the endotracheal tube in position. Radiological and fluoroscopic examinations were carried out to determine the position of the feeding tube in the lung. Lateral and dorsoventral views of the thorax of each cat were taken. These examinations identified the tube most frequently in the caudal lobe of the lung. The lavage techniques described provide a definite procedure for investigating the cellular and humoral mechanisms operating in the upper and lower respiratory tract of the cat. These methods can be used to sample directly the cellular and humoral constituents contributing to defence mechanisms in the feline respiratory tract and to monitor the local changes accompanying respiratory disease

  16. The peculiarities of food allergies in accordance with the level of injury of respiratory tract in children of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Borisova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the course of food allergy in accordance with the level of respiratory tract injury in children of Eastern Siberia. Design of the research. We have examined 70 children aged 2–16, who have food sensibilization. We divided them into 2 groups: group I (n=32 with diseases of the upper and middle respiratory tract; and group II (n=38 with diseases of the lower respiratory tract. Methods. Allergological medical history, clinical laboratory examination and immunological examination, including the determination of IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE in blood serum. In cases where causal allergens were found, elimination diets were recommended. Results. Onset of upper respiratory tract injury in group I was more often registered in children aged 0–1; in group II, it was in the 3–7 age group. Isolated food sensibilization was more often marked in group I as compared to group II. Atopic mechanisms of respiratory tract injuries were more often registered in group II children. In the course of the elimination diet, we marked positive dynamics in 100% of group I and in 75% of group II. Conclusion. The most frequent allergens that cause respiratory forms of food allergy are hen eggs, cow milk, nutritive cereals, vegetables and fruit. Indices of a humoral link of immunity in the examined patients were more often registered as normal or their level is increased. Timely etiotropic therapy in the majority of cases allows for a stabilization of allergic inflammation.

  17. The peculiarities of food allergies in accordance with the level of injury of respiratory tract in children of Eastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Irina V; Smirnova, Svetlana V

    2013-01-01

    To determine the course of food allergy in accordance with the level of respiratory tract injury in children of Eastern Siberia. We have examined 70 children aged 2-16 , who have food sensibilization. We divided them into 2 groups: group I (n = 32) with diseases of the upper and middle respiratory tract; and group II (n = 38) with diseases of the lower respiratory tract. Allergological medical history, clinical laboratory examination and immunological examination, including the determination of IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE in blood serum. In cases where causal allergens were found, elimination diets were recommended. Onset of upper respiratory tract injury in group I was more often registered in children aged 0-1; in group II, it was in the 3-7 age group. Isolated food sensibilization was more often marked in group I as compared to group II. Atopic mechanisms of respiratory tract injuries were more often registered in group II children. In the course of the elimination diet, we marked positive dynamics in 100% of group I and in 75% of group II. The most frequent allergens that cause respiratory forms of food allergy are hen eggs, cow milk, nutritive cereals, vegetables and fruit. Indices of a humoral link of immunity in the examined patients were more often registered as normal or their level is increased. Timely etiotropic therapy in the majority of cases allows for a stabilization of allergic inflammation.

  18. [Status of acute upper respiratory infection, influenza-like illness, and influenza vaccination coverage among community residents in Jinan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Song, Shaoxia; Wang, Wei; Geng, Xingyi; Liu, Wen; Han, Debiao; Liu, Ti; Wu, Julong; Li, Zhong; Wang, Xianjun; Bi, Zhenqiang

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the status of acute upper respiratory infection and influenza-like illness (ILI) among community residents in Jinan in 2015, and to make a understand of the patient's medical treatment behavior and influenza vaccination coverage status in 2014. Balloting method and convenient sampling method were used to launch a household survey. The residents who had been in Jinan for more than 3 months were selected, to investigate the residents' attack ratio of acute upper respiratory and influenza-like from Jan. 8 to Feb. 7, 2015. Totally, 1 300 persons from 410 families were involved in this survey which recovered 1 241 valid questionnaires with the efficiency of 95.5%. Based on the national age-urban demographic statistics in 2010, the attack rates of acute respiratory infections, influenza-like illness were estimated by the direct standardization method, and the influenza vaccination rates were also calculated in this study. χ(2)-test method was used to compare the different status of incidence and vaccination among residents with different features. The attack rate of acute upper respiratory infection and influenza-like illness in Jinan from January 8, 2015 to February 7, 2015 were 30.2% (375 cases), and 6.1% (76 cases), respectively, with a standardized rate of 29.1% and 5.4%. 5.3% (66 cases) of the residents have vaccinated with the influenza vaccine inoculation, with an adjusted rate of 3.8%. The attack rate difference of acute upper respiratory tract infections was statistically significant between each age group (χ(2)=17.121, P= 0.002). The 0-4 age group had a highest attack rate (45.4%) of acute respiratory infection, while the 15-24 age group got the lowest (26.5%). 38.9% (146 cases) of patients went for a treatment in hospital. Among them, 37.7% (55 cases) of them selected the county level hospitals for treatment, 37.7% (55 cases) selected the community level hospitals, and 24.6% (36 cases) selected the individual clinic. Significant differences of

  19. The effectiveness of systematic perioperative oral hygiene in reduction of postoperative respiratory tract infections after elective thoracic surgery in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Larsen, Palle; Håkonsen, Sasja Jul

    2016-01-01

    to increase patients' risk for nosocomial respiratory tract infection. OBJECTIVES: To identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of systematic perioperative oral hygiene in the reduction of postoperative respiratory airway infections in adult patients undergoing...... elective thoracic surgery. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients over the age of 18 years who had been admitted for elective thoracic surgery, regardless of gender, ethnicity, diagnosis severity, co-morbidity or previous treatment.Perioperative systematic oral hygiene (such as mechanical removal of dental biofilm......% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-0.78) for respiratory tract infections RR 0.48 (95%CI: 0.36-0.65) and for deep surgical site infections RR 0.48 (95%CI 0.27-0.84). CONCLUSIONS: Systematic perioperative oral hygiene reduces postoperative nosocomial, lower respiratory tract infections and surgical site infections...

  20. [Genotypes of rhinoviruses in children and adults patients with acute respiratory tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkan, Eda; Kırdar, Sevin; Ceylan, Emel; Yenigün, Ayşe; Kurt Ömürlü, İmran

    2017-10-01

    Rhinovirus (RV) is one of the most frequent causative agent of acute respiratory tract infections in the world. The virus may cause a mild cold, as well as more serious clinical symptoms in patients with immune system deficiency or comorbidities. Rhinoviruses have been identified by molecular methods under three types: RV-A, RV-B and RV-C. In most of the cases, it was reported that RV-A and RV-C were related with lower respiratory tract infections and asthma exacerbations, while RV-B was rarely reported in lower respiratory tract infections. The main objective of this study was to investigate RV species by sequence analysis in nasopharyngeal samples in pediatric and adult patients who were admitted to hospital with acute respiratory tract infections and to establish the relationship between species and age, gender and clinical diagnosis of the patients. Secondly, it was planned to emphasize the efficiency of the sequence analysis method in the determination of RV species. One hundred twenty seven patients (children and adults) who were followed up with acute respiratory tract infections in our university hospital were evaluated between January 2014 and January 2016. Viral loads were determined by quantitative real-time PCR in RV positive patients detected by a commercial kit in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Thirty-one samples whose viral loads could not be determined were excluded from the study. The remaining 96 samples (50 children and 46 adults) were retested by conventional PCR using the target of VP4/VP2 gene region. A total of 65 samples (32 adults and 33 children) with the bands (549 bp) corresponding to the VP4/VP2 gene regions after the conventional PCR were analyzed by DNA sequencing. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbour-joining method. After sequence analysis it was determined that 28 (43.07%) were RV-A, 7 (10.76%) were RV-B and 28 (43.07%) were RV-C; and moreover one of each enterovirus (EV) species EV-D68 (1.53%) and EV-C (1

  1. Patterns Of Antimicrobial Use For Respiratory Tract Infections In Elderly Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, H.M.; Rasheedy, D.; Mahmoud, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Elderly patients are prone to respiratory tract infections (RTIs) both; acute bronchitis and pneumonia. A large proportion of the antibiotics prescribed are unlikely to provide clinical benefit to patients. There is an increased need to decrease excess antibiotic use in elderly to minimize antibiotic resistance. Objective: To describe patterns of antimicrobial use for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) among elderly Patients and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on one hundred elderly patients, aged > 60 years, both males and females to describe patterns of antimicrobial use for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) among elderly patients. RTIs, categorized as acute bronchitis, and pneumonia, were studied for appropriateness of antimicrobial use, type of antibiotics used, and factors associated with their use. We rated antibiotic use as appropriate (when an effective drug was used), inappropriate (when a more effective drug was indicated), or unjustified (when use of any antimicrobial was not indicated). Results: Of 100 patients with RTI, overall treatment was appropriate in 79% of episodes, inappropriate in 9%, and unjustified in 12%. For acute bronchitis, treatment was appropriate in 85% and unjustified in 15% of cases. For pneumonia, treatment was appropriate in 55% of episodes. Among the most commonly used antimicrobials, B.Lactam + macrolides their use were unjustified in 41% of cases. There were statistical significant differences in the patterns of antibiotic use when stratified by age, gender, and co- morbid conditions including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusion: Antimicrobials are unjustifiably used for 12% of RTIs and 15% of cases of acute bronchitis, thus suggesting a need for programs to improve antibiotic prescribing at hospitals.

  2. "Hospital at home" for neuromuscular disease patients with respiratory tract infection: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, Andrea; Savoia, Francesca; Pipitone, Emanuela; Nordio, Beatrice; Gallina, Giulia; Paladini, Luciana; Concas, Alessandra; Arcaro, Giovanna; Gallan, Federico; Pegoraro, Elena

    2013-12-01

    The "hospital-at-home" model may provide adequate care without an adverse effect on clinical outcome, and is generally well received by users. Our objective was to compare hospital-at-home and in-patient hospital care for neuromuscular disease (NMD) patients with respiratory tract infections. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial in a university teaching hospital offering secondary care service to a population of approximately 500,000. We recruited selected NMD patients with respiratory tract infection for whom hospital admission had been recommended after medical assessment. Hospital-at-home was provided as an alternative to in-patient admission. The main outcome measures were need for hospitalization, treatment failure, time to recovery, death during the first 3 months following exacerbation, and cost of patient care. Among 59 consecutive NMD patients eligible for the study, 53 met the criteria for hospital-at-home. Twenty-six subjects were randomized to home care and 27 to hospital care. No significant differences were found in treatment failure (8/26 vs 13/27, P = .19), time to recovery (8.9 ± 4.6 vs 9 ± 8.9 d, P = .21), or mortality at 3 months (3/26 vs 4/27 deaths, P = .42) between the groups. Hospital-at-home failure was independently correlated with type of NMD (P = .004) with an odds ratio of failure of 17.3 (95% CI 2.1 to infinity) for subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The total and daily direct cost of patient healthcare was significantly lower for the subjects who were successfully treated at home, compared to the hospitalized individuals. Hospital-at-home is an effective alternative to hospital admission for selected NMD patients with respiratory tract infections.

  3. Drug resistance in community-acquired respiratory tract infections: role for an emerging antibacterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Aguilar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lorenzo Aguilar1, María-José Giménez1, José Barberán21Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University Complutense, Madrid; 2Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Central de la Defensa Gomez Ulla, Madrid, SpainAbstract: The nasopharynx is the ecological niche where evolution towards resistance occurs in respiratory tract isolates. Dynamics of different bacterial populations in antibiotic-free multibacterial niches are the baseline that antibiotic treatments can alter by shifting the competitive balance in favor of resistant populations. For this reason, antibiotic resistance is increasingly being considered to be an ecological problem. Traditionally, resistance has implied the need for development of new antibiotics for which basic efficacy and safety data are required prior to licensing. Antibiotic development is mainly focused on demonstrating clinical efficacy and setting susceptibility breakpoints for efficacy prediction. However, additional information on pharmacodynamic data predicting absence of selection of resistance and of resistant subpopulations, and specific surveillance on resistance to core antibiotics (to detect emerging resistances and its link with antibiotic consumption in the community are valuable data in defining the role of a new antibiotic, not only from the perspective of its therapeutic potential but also from the ecologic perspective (countering resistances to core antibiotics in the community. The documented information on cefditoren gleaned from published studies in recent years is an example of the role for an emerging oral antibacterial facing current antibiotic resistance in community-acquired respiratory tract infections.Keywords: respiratory tract infection, antibiotic resistance, cefditoren, community

  4. Characteristics of respiratory tract disease in horses inoculated with equine rhinitis A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Méndez, Andrés; Hewson, Joanne; Shewen, Patricia; Nagy, Eva; Viel, Laurent

    2014-02-01

    To develop a method for experimental induction of equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) infection in equids and to determine the clinical characteristics of such infection. 8 ponies (age, 8 to 12 months) seronegative for antibodies against ERAV. PROCEDURES-Nebulization was used to administer ERAV (strain ERAV/ON/05; n = 4 ponies) or cell culture medium (control ponies; 4) into airways of ponies; 4 previously ERAV-inoculated ponies were reinoculated 1 year later. Physical examinations and pulmonary function testing were performed at various times for 21 days after ERAV or mock inoculation. Various types of samples were obtained for virus isolation, blood samples were obtained for serologic testing, and clinical scores were determined for various variables. ERAV-inoculated ponies developed respiratory tract disease characterized by pyrexia, nasal discharge, adventitious lung sounds, and enlarged mandibular lymph nodes. Additionally, these animals had purulent mucus in lower airways up to the last evaluation time 21 days after inoculation (detected endoscopically). The virus was isolated from various samples obtained from lower and upper airways of ERAV-inoculated ponies up to 7 days after exposure; this time corresponded with an increase in serum titers of neutralizing antibodies against ERAV. None of the ponies developed clinical signs of disease after reinoculation 1 year later. Results of this study indicated ERAV induced respiratory tract disease in seronegative ponies. However, ponies with neutralizing antibodies against ERAV did not develop clinical signs of disease when reinoculated with the virus. Therefore, immunization of ponies against ERAV could prevent respiratory tract disease attributable to that virus in such animals.

  5. Comparison of old and new ICRP models for respiratory tract dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the historical development and application of respiratory tract dosimetry models by the International Commission for Radiological Protection, ICRP, for health protection from inhaled radioactive aerosols. Three different models are discussed, those that were included in ICRP recommendations published in 1960 and 1979, and the new ICRP Publication 66. Basic features of these models are compared and contrasted. These features include model structure, sites and frequencies of particle deposition, processes and rates of clearance of the deposited material from the respiratory tract, and consideration of the parameters involved in these processes and how various factors can influence these parameters. All three models lead to the calculation of absorbed radiation doses with differing degrees of regional and local specificity. These calculations are achieved using different tools ranging from quick hand calculations to sophisticated computerized modeling approaches. A side-by-side review of these models indicates several important trends in respiratory tract dosimetry models, the most obvious of which is the increased complexity of each new model over the past 30+ years. These increases reflect both the increasing size of the knowledge base derived from studies in laboratory animals and in human subjects and the need for models more broadly applicable for both occupational and environmental exposures. It is likely that future research will be directed to those key aspects of the new model having the largest uncertainties. The detailed design of the new model and its associated software provide excellent means of identifying useful research areas and using the resulting new information in organized and productive ways

  6. Indoor aerosol modeling for assessment of exposure and respiratory tract deposited dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Tareq; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Löndahl, Jakob; Lazaridis, Mihalis; Hänninen, Otto

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the major environmental problems that influence people's health. Exposure to harmful particulate matter (PM) occurs both outdoors and indoors, but while people spend most of their time indoors, the indoor exposures tend to dominate. Moreover, higher PM concentrations due to indoor sources and tightness of indoor environments may substantially add to the outdoor originating exposures. Empirical and real-time assessment of human exposure is often impossible; therefore, indoor aerosol modeling (IAM) can be used as a superior method in exposure and health effects studies. This paper presents a simple approach in combining available aerosol-based modeling techniques to evaluate the real-time exposure and respiratory tract deposited dose based on particle size. Our simple approach consists of outdoor aerosol data base, IAM simulations, time-activity pattern data-base, physical-chemical properties of inhaled aerosols, and semi-empirical deposition fraction of aerosols in the respiratory tract. These modeling techniques allow the characterization of regional deposited dose in any metric: particle mass, particle number, and surface area. The first part of this presentation reviews recent advances in simple mass-balance based modeling methods that are needed in analyzing the health relevance of indoor exposures. The second part illustrates the use of IAM in the calculations of exposure and deposited dose. Contrary to previous methods, the approach presented is a real-time approach and it goes beyond the exposure assessment to provide the required information for the health risk assessment, which is the respiratory tract deposited dose. This simplified approach is foreseen to support epidemiological studies focusing on exposures originating from both indoor and outdoor sources.

  7. Silent gastro-esophageal reflux in children presenting with recurrent lower respiratory tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.J.; Bharathi Dasan, J.; Kumar, R.; Chanderashekher, N.; Tripathi, M.; Kabra, S.K.; Malhotra, A.; Kumar, A.; Menon, S.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Paediatric respiratory tract infections are one of the most common reasons for physician visits and hospitalisation, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The socioeconomic impact of these recurrent infections is staggering. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has long been associated with pulmonary symptoms and diseases. Aims: The present retrospective analysis was undertaken to find out the incidence of GER in children suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract infections without any typical gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of GER. Materials and Methods: A total of 297 children with a mean age of 2.7 years and range 9-months to 8 years were evaluated. All studies were performed using a dose of 100-200 micro Curie (3.7-7.4MBq) of Tc99m-sulphur colloid, which was administered via a nasogastric tube into the stomach in younger children. Adequate intragastric volume was ensured by instilling water of 50-ml volume for children less than 6 months and 100-ml volume for children between 6-12 months of age. The nasogastric tube was removed with the patient held in erect position and a small volume of water was pushed to avoid any contamination. In older children the isotope was administered in a capsule and was swallowed with 150-300 ml of water. Results: Of the total 297 children, 111(37%) children had GER on scintigraphy. Conclusion: There is a high incidence of silent GER in children suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. Scintiscanning can be used as a screening modality in these children

  8. Quality indicators for treatment of respiratory tract infections? An assessment by Danish general practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Bjerrum, Lars; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2008, a set of 41 quality indicators for antibiotic treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in general practice were developed in an international setting as part of the European project HAPPY AUDIT. Objectives: To investigate Danish general practitioners' (GPs') assessment...... of a set of internationally developed quality indicators and to explore if there is an association between the GPs' assessment of the indicators and their practice characteristics as well as their antibiotic prescription pattern. Methods: A total of 102 Danish GPs were invited to assess the 41 quality...

  9. Cow’s Milk and Immune Function in the Respiratory Tract: Potential Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Olaf Perdijk; Marloes van Splunter; Huub F. J. Savelkoul; Sylvia Brugman; R. J. Joost van Neerven; R. J. Joost van Neerven

    2018-01-01

    During the last decades, the world has witnessed a dramatic increase in allergy prevalence. Epidemiological evidence shows that growing up on a farm is a protective factor, which is partly explained by the consumption of raw cow’s milk. Indeed, recent studies show inverse associations between raw cow’s milk consumption in early life and asthma, hay fever, and rhinitis. A similar association of raw cow’s milk consumption with respiratory tract infections is recently found. In line with these f...

  10. Simulation of The ICRP-30 Dosimetric Model for the Respiratory Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaddui, T.; Atia, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    Matlab was used to write a simulation program (ACID1) to simulate the ICRP-30 dosimetric model for the respiratory tract. The program (a new version of the one presented at the sixth Arab conference held in Cairo 2002) calculates a series of dosimetric quantities for the reference man as a result of the inhalation of any radionuclide. The program also plots the variation of activity with time for all organs and provided with a graphical user interface to make it friendly user. The results obtained by this program was compared with similar results obtained by other source and found to be very close. (Authors)

  11. Compliance with Recommendations on Outpatient Antibiotic Prescribing for Respiratory Tract Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; Bjerrum, Lars; Feja, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate antibiotic use in primary care, such as in Respiratory Tract Infections (RTIs), is an important cause of bacterial resistance. This study aimed at describing the current pattern of outpatient antibiotic use in acute RTIs in Spain and evaluating adherence to national recommendations......%), whereas low rates were found in acute bronchitis (50%) and non-specific upper RTIs (24%) episodes. A high prescription of broad-spectrum agents and antibiotics not recommended as first choice was observed. In accordance with Spanish guidelines, there exists a potential over-prescribing of antibiotics...

  12. [Different species of human rhinovirus infection in children with acute respiratory tract infections in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ming-hui; Zhao, Lin-qing; Qian, Yuan; Zhu, Ru-nan; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang; Sun, Yu; Tian, Run

    2013-12-01

    To understand the clinical characteristics of different groups human rhinovirus (HRV)-A, B and C infection in children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in Beijing. Respiratory tract specimens (n = 1412) collected from children with ARI during Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2012 were tested for HRV by using semi-nested PCR. Gene fragments of VP4/VP2 capsid protein amplified from HRV positive specimens were sequenced for HRV genotype confirmation. Then epidemiological characteristics of these HRV-positive cases were analyzed. Among these 1412 specimens tested, 103 (7.3%) were HRV positive, including 54 (52.4%) positive for HRV-A, 14 (13.6%) for HRV-B, 35 (34.0%) for HRV-C determined by sequence analysis. The positive rates of HRV-A, B and C (2.5%, 16/638; 0.3%, 2/638 and 1.3%, 8/638) in children with acute upper respiratory tract infections (URI) were lower than those (5.8%, 36/623; 1.8%, 11/623 and 3.9%, 24/623) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRI) (P = 0.003, 0.011, 0.003). In children with LRI, the positive rates of HRV-A, C were similar to each other (P = 0.112), and both were higher than that of HRV-B (P = 0.000, P = 0.026). The severity of ARI among children positive for different groups HRV showed no significant difference evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis H test (Hc = 0.044, P > 0.05), as well as that between children co-infected with HRV and other viruses and those infected with HRV only evaluated by Wilcoxon rank sum test (Zc = 0.872, P > 0.05). HRV is one of important pathogens for children with ARI, especially LRI in Beijing. The positive rates of HRV-A and HRV-C are similar to each other, and both are higher than that of HRV-B. No significant difference was shown among children with different HRV genotypes by evaluation of the severity of ARI, and co-infections of HRV with other viruses do not significantly increase the severity of ARI.

  13. Comparison of the respiratory tract models of ICRP and US EPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao

    2000-01-01

    An index for the integral characterization of risk is necessary for improving risk management, comparing the effects of various practices on the environment and keeping risk as low as reasonably achievable while allowing economic development. Public health risk has been used as an index to compare and combine the risks from the presence of a variety of contaminants. In 1994, International Commission on Radiological Protection published the Publication 66 'Human Respiratory Tract Model for Radiological Protection'. Meanwhile US EPA published 'Methods for Derivation of Inhalation Reference Concentrations and Application of Inhalation Dosimetry'. Basically the concept of Reference Concentration (RfC) is similar to that of DAC used in radiation protection. Both of them are derived from the deposited amount of interested contaminants in the respiratory tract. In an attempt to assess the public health risk by combining the ICRP model and the deposited amount corresponding to values of RfC, the main application, especially the fractional deposition, of the respiratory tract model of US EPA is compared with the new respiratory tract model of ICRP. For normal nose breather, when the AMADs of monodisperse aerosol are 0.5 η m, 1 η m, 2 η m, 3 η m, 5 η m, 7 η m and 10 η m, minute volume is 1.2m 3 /h (20L/mim), the corresponding total fractional depositions calculated by the model of the US EPA are 0.33, 0.50, 0.72, 0.85, 0.95, 0.97 and 0.93. With the same condition, the total fractional deposition calculated by the ICRP model is 0.35, 0.51, 0.70, 0.78, 0.82, 0.81 and 0.77. For polydisperse aerosol with default values of ICRP for occupational and environmental exposures, the fractional depositions calculated by US EPA model are 0.82 and 0.50 while that by ICRP are 0.82 and 0.47. In conclusion, (1) The ICRP model is more accurate than the US EPA model and has a wider application. (2) For monodisperse aerosol, when the AMAD of aerosol is less than 3 η m there is no

  14. The potential of methylxanthine-based therapies in pediatric respiratory tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Franco, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are the most known methylxanthines as they are present in coffee, tea and/or chocolate. In the last decades, a huge experimental effort has been devoted to get insight into the variety of actions that these compounds exert in humans. From such knowledge it is known that methylxanthines have a great potential in prevention, therapy and/or management of a variety of diseases. The benefits of methylxanthine-based therapies in the apnea of prematurity and their translational potential in pediatric affections of the respiratory tract are here presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of cattle and goats in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    A microbiological study of the mycoplasma flora in the respiratory tracts of cattle and goats in selected regions of Tanzania is described. In the examination of cattle, mycoplasmas were isolated from 60 (17.8%) of the 338 examined lung samples, 8 (47.1%) of the 17 lymph nodes, 4 (13.3%) of the 30...... from samples originating from Dodoma, Iringa, Mbeya, Morogoro and Shinyanga regions where outbreaks of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia had been reported. In the examination of goats, mycoplasmas were isolated from 54 (34.0%) of the 159 examined lung samples, 41 (18.1%) of the 226 nasal swabs and 4...

  16. Anaerobic bacteria in upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections: microbiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Anaerobes are the predominant components of oropharyngeal mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin of upper respiratory tract and head and neck. This review summarizes the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology and antimicrobials therapy of these infections. These include acute and chronic otitis media, mastoiditis and sinusitis, pharyngo-tonsillitis, peritonsillar, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses, suppurative thyroiditis, cervical lymphadenitis, parotitis, siliadenitis, and deep neck infections including Lemierre Syndrome. The recovery from these infections depends on prompt and proper medical and when indicated also surgical management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of Ureaplasma Respiratory Tract Colonization in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Pathogenesis: Current Concepts and Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscardi, Rose Marie; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory tract colonization with the genital mycoplasma species Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum in preterm infants is a significant risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Recent studies of the ureaplasmal genome, animal infection models, and human infants have provided a better understanding of specific virulence factors, pathogen-host interactions, and variability in genetic susceptibility that contribute to chronic infection, inflammation, and altered lung development. This review provides an update on the current evidence supporting a causal role of ureaplasma infection in BPD pathogenesis. The current status of antibiotic trials to prevent BPD in Ureaplasma-infected preterm infants is also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of Ureaplasma Respiratory Tract Colonization in BPD Pathogenesis: Current Concepts and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscardi, Rose Marie; Kallapur, Suhas G.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Respiratory tract colonization with the genital mycoplasma species Ureaplasma parvum and U. urealyticum in preterm infants is a significant risk factor for BPD. Recent studies of the ureaplasmal genome, animal infection models, and human infants have provided a better understanding of specific virulence factors, pathogen-host interactions, and variability in genetic susceptibility that contribute to chronic infection, inflammation, and altered lung development. This review will provide an update on the current evidence supporting a causal role of Ureaplasma infection in BPD pathogenesis. The current status of antibiotic trials to prevent BPD in Ureaplasma-infected preterm infants is also reviewed. PMID:26593075

  19. Outcome of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus related acute lower respiratory tract infection among hospitalized newborns: a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Serdar; Erdeve, Omer; Cakir, Ufuk; Akduman, Hasan; Zenciroglu, Aysegul; Akcakus, Mustafa; Tunc, Turan; Gokmen, Zeynel; Ates, Can; Atasay, Begum; Arsan, Saadet

    2016-01-01

    To determine the incidence and outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) including morbidity, nosocomial infection and mortality among newborn infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). A multicenter, prospective study was conducted in newborns who were hospitalized with community acquired or nosocomial RSV infection in 44 NICUs throughout Turkey. Newborns with ALRI were screened for RSV infection by Respi-Strip®-test. Main outcome measures were the incidence of RSV-associated admissions in the NICUs and morbidity, mortality and epidemics results related to these admissions. The incidence of RSV infection was 1.24% (n: 250) and RSV infection constituted 19.6% of all ALRI hospitalizations, 226 newborns (90.4%) had community-acquired whereas 24 (9.6%) patients had nosocomial RSV infection in the NICUs. Of the 250 newborns, 171 (68.4%) were full-term infants, 183 (73.2%) had a BW >2500 g. RSV-related mortality rate was 1.2%. Four NICUs reported seven outbreaks on different months, which could be eliminated by palivizumab prophylaxis in one NICU. RSV-associated ALRI both in preterm and term infants accounts an important percent of hospitalizations in the season, and may threat other high-risk patients in the NICU.

  20. Insights into the respiratory tract microbiota of patients with cystic fibrosis during early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keravec, Marlene; Mounier, Jerome; Prestat , Emmanuel; Vallet, Sophie; Jansson, Janet K.; Bergaud , Gaetaqn; Rosec, Silvain; Gourious, Stephanie; Rault, Gilles; Coton, Emmanuel; Barbier, George; Hery-Arnaud, Geneveieve

    2015-08-09

    Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantly more prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.

  1. The significance of Candida in the human respiratory tract: our evolving understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Kathryn M; Huffnagle, Gary B; Dickson, Robert P

    2017-04-01

    Candida is an opportunistic pathogen and the most commonly isolated fungal genus in humans. Though Candida is often detected in respiratory specimens from humans with and without lung disease, its significance remains undetermined. While historically considered a commensal organism with low virulence potential, the status of Candida as an innocent bystander has recently been called into question by both clinical observations and animal experimentation. We here review what is currently known and yet to be determined about the clinical, microbiological and pathophysiological significance of the detection of Candida spp. in the human respiratory tract. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Viral etiologies of influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infections in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Yingyong, Thitipong; Praphasiri, Prabda; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A

    2018-07-01

    Information on the burden, characteristics and seasonality of non-influenza respiratory viruses is limited in tropical countries. Describe the epidemiology of selected non-influenza respiratory viruses in Thailand between June 2010 and May 2014 using a sentinel surveillance platform established for influenza. Patients with influenza-like illness (ILI; history of fever or documented temperature ≥38°C, cough, not requiring hospitalization) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI; history of fever or documented temperature ≥38°C, cough, onset respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), metapneumovirus (MPV), parainfluenza viruses (PIV) 1-3, and adenoviruses by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR. We screened 15 369 persons with acute respiratory infections and enrolled 8106 cases of ILI (5069 cases respiratory viruses tested, while for SARI cases respiratory viruses, particularly seasonality, although adjustments to case definitions may be required. © 2018 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Predicting mortality among hospitalized children with respiratory illness in Western Kenya, 2009-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon O Emukule

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pediatric respiratory disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. We evaluated a modified respiratory index of severity in children (mRISC scoring system as a standard tool to identify children at greater risk of death from respiratory illness in Kenya. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from children <5 years old who were hospitalized with respiratory illness at Siaya District Hospital from 2009-2012. We used a multivariable logistic regression model to identify patient characteristics predictive for in-hospital mortality. Model discrimination was evaluated using the concordance statistic. Using bootstrap samples, we re-estimated the coefficients and the optimism of the model. The mRISC score for each child was developed by adding up the points assigned to each factor associated with mortality based on the coefficients in the multivariable model. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 3,581 children hospitalized with respiratory illness; including 218 (6% who died. Low weight-for-age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.3-3.2], very low weight-for-age (aOR = 3.8; 95% CI 2.7-5.4, caretaker-reported history of unconsciousness (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.6-3.4, inability to drink or breastfeed (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.8, chest wall in-drawing (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-3.1, and being not fully conscious on physical exam (aOR = 8.0; 95% CI 5.1-12.6 were independently associated with mortality. The positive predictive value for mortality increased with increasing mRISC scores. CONCLUSIONS: A modified RISC scoring system based on a set of easily measurable clinical features at admission was able to identify children at greater risk of death from respiratory illness in Kenya.

  4. Viruses as Sole Causative Agents of Severe Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesker, Fleur M; van Kampen, Jeroen J A; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; de Hoog, Matthijs; Koopmans, Marion P G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fraaij, Pieter L A

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A viruses are known to cause severe acute respiratory tract infections (SARIs) in children. For other viruses like human rhinoviruses (HRVs) this is less well established. Viral or bacterial co-infections are often considered essential for severe manifestations of these virus infections. The study aims at identifying viruses that may cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections, at identifying disease characteristics associated with these single virus infections, and at identifying a possible correlation between viral loads and disease severities. Between April 2007 and March 2012, we identified children (acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) (controls). Data were extracted from the clinical and laboratory databases of our tertiary care paediatric hospital. Patient specimens were tested for fifteen respiratory viruses with real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays and we selected patients with a single virus infection only. Typical bacterial co-infections were considered unlikely to have contributed to the PICU or MC admission based on C-reactive protein-levels or bacteriological test results if performed. We identified 44 patients admitted to PICU with SARI and 40 patients admitted to MC with ARTI. Twelve viruses were associated with SARI, ten of which were also associated with ARTI in the absence of typical bacterial and viral co-infections, with RSV and HRV being the most frequent causes. Viral loads were not different between PICU-SARI patients and MC-ARTI patients. Both SARI and ARTI may be caused by single viral pathogens in previously healthy children as well as in children with a medical history. No relationship between viral load and disease severity was identified.

  5. Factors Associated with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Adriana; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; Yu, Qilu; Cohen, Rachel A; Almeida, Volia C; Amaral, Fabiana R; Freimanis, Laura; Harris, Donald Robert; Smith, Christiana; Siberry, George

    2018-06-01

    To identify factors that predispose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) to higher incidence of severe infections, hospitalization, and death in the first 6-24 months of life compared with HEUs with and without lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first 6 months of life. Nested case-control study of 107 LRTI+ infants enrolled in the International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Perinatal and Longitudinal Study in Latin American Countries (LILAC) studies with and 140 LRTI- in the first 6 months, matched by date and place of birth. Infants and mothers had plasma antibodies measured against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (PIV) 1, 2, 3, influenza, and pneumococcus 1, 5, 6B, and 14. Compared with LRTI-, mothers of LRTI+ HEUs had lower years of education, lower CD4 + cells, and higher HIV plasma viral load at delivery, but similar use of antiretrovirals and cotrimoxazole and other sociodemographic characteristics. LRTI+ and LRTI- HEUs had similar demographic and hematological characteristics and antibody concentrations against respiratory pathogens at birth. At 6 months, the rates of seroconversions to respiratory pathogens and antibody responses to tetanus vaccine were also similar. However, antibody concentrations to RSV were significantly higher in LRTI+ compared with LRTI- HEUs and marginally higher to PIV1. Maternal factors associated with advanced HIV disease, but unrelated to the use of antiretrovirals, cotrimoxazole, or the level of maternal antibodies against respiratory pathogens, contribute to the increased risk of LRTI in HEUs. In HEUs, antiretroviral and cotrimoxazole use, exposure to respiratory pathogens and humoral immune responses were not associated with the incidence of LRTI.

  6. Effect of influenza-like illness and other wintertime respiratory illnesses on worker productivity: The child and household influenza-illness and employee function (CHIEF) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Liisa A; Rousculp, Matthew D; Johnston, Stephen S; Mahadevia, Parthiv J; Nichol, Kristin L

    2010-07-12

    Acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), comprising influenza-like illness (ILI) and other wintertime respiratory illnesses (ORI), impose substantial health and economic burdens on the United States. Little is known about the impact of ILI among household members (HHM), particularly children, on employees' productivity. To quantify the impact of employee and HHM-ILI and ARI on employee productivity, a prospective, observational cohort study was conducted among employees from three large US companies. Employees who had at least one child living at home (N=2013) completed a monthly survey during the 2007-2008 influenza season, reporting the number of days missed from work and hours of presenteeism due to: (1) personal ILI, (2) HHM-ILI, and (3) personal and HHM-ARI. Employee ILI ranged from 4.8% (April) to 13.5% (February). Employees reporting ILI reported more absences than employees not reporting ILI (72% vs 30%, respectively; Pemployees surveyed had at least one child with an ILI; these employees missed more days of work due to HHM illness than employees without an ARI-ill child (0.9 days vs 0.3 days, respectively; PEmployees with ILI were less productive, on average, for 4.8h each day that they worked while sick, 2.5h of which was attributable to ILI. HHM illnesses accounted for 17.7% (1389/7868 days) of employee absenteeism, over half of which was due to HHM-ARI. ILI causes a significant amount of employee absence. Household members, particularly children, comprise a sizable proportion of general illness and injury-related employee absences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perioperative respiratory adverse events in children with active upper respiratory tract infection who received general anesthesia through an orotracheal tube and inhalation agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kang, Young Ran; Jeong, Seung Ho; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2013-01-01

    Background Active upper respiratory tract infection (URI), orotracheal intubation and use of inhalation anesthetics are known risk factors for perioperative respiratory adverse events (RAE). This study investigated the risk factors of perioperative RAE in children with these risk factors. Methods The records of 159 children who underwent general anesthesia with an orotracheal tube and inhalation were reviewed. These patients also had at least one of the following URI symptoms on the day of su...

  8. Procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy and hospitalization in patients with lower respiratory tract infections: a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial

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    Henzen Christoph

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower respiratory tract infections like acute bronchitis, exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia are often unnecessarily treated with antibiotics, mainly because of physicians' difficulties to distinguish viral from bacterial cause and to estimate disease-severity. The goal of this trial is to compare medical outcomes, use of antibiotics and hospital resources in a strategy based on enforced evidence-based guidelines versus procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Methods and design: We describe a prospective randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with an open intervention. We aim to randomize over a fixed recruitment period of 18 months a minimal number of 1002 patients from 6 hospitals in Switzerland. Patients must be >18 years of age with a lower respiratory tract infections Discussion: Use of and prolonged exposure to antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infections is high. The proposed trial investigates whether procalcitonin-guidance may safely reduce antibiotic consumption along with reductions in hospitalization costs and antibiotic resistance. It will additionally generate insights for improved prognostic assessment of patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Trial registration: ISRCTN95122877

  9. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Debby; den Bakker, Michael A; Leijten, Lonneke M E; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Munster, Vincent J; de Wit, Emmie; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2010-04-01

    Influenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by virus histochemistry of three human and three avian influenza viruses in human nasal septum, conchae, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. We found that the human influenza viruses-two seasonal influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1 virus-attached abundantly to ciliated epithelial cells and goblet cells throughout the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, the avian influenza viruses, including the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, attached only rarely to epithelial cells or goblet cells. Both human and avian viruses attached occasionally to cells of the submucosal glands. The pattern of virus attachment was similar among the different sites of the human upper respiratory tract for each virus tested. We conclude that influenza viruses that are transmitted efficiently among humans attach abundantly to human upper respiratory tract, whereas inefficiently transmitted influenza viruses attach rarely. These results suggest that the ability of an influenza virus to attach to human upper respiratory tract is a critical factor for efficient transmission in the human population.

  10. Associations between pathogens in the upper respiratory tract of young children: interplay between viruses and bacteria.

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    Menno R van den Bergh

    Full Text Available High rates of potentially pathogenic bacteria and respiratory viruses can be detected in the upper respiratory tract of healthy children. Investigating presence of and associations between these pathogens in healthy individuals is still a rather unexplored field of research, but may have implications for interpreting findings during disease.We selected 986 nasopharyngeal samples from 433 6- to 24-month-old healthy children that had participated in a randomized controlled trial. We determined the presence of 20 common respiratory viruses using real-time PCR. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus were identified by conventional culture methods. Information on risk factors was obtained by questionnaires. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses followed by partial correlation analysis to identify the overall pattern of associations. S. pneumoniae colonization was positively associated with the presence of H. influenzae (adjusted odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.18-2.16, M. catarrhalis (1.78, 1.29-2.47, human rhinoviruses (1.63, 1.19-2.22 and enteroviruses (1.97, 1.26-3.10, and negatively associated with S. aureus presence (0.59, 0.35-0.98. H. influenzae was positively associated with human rhinoviruses (1.63, 1.22-2.18 and respiratory syncytial viruses (2.78, 1.06-7.28. M. catarrhalis colonization was positively associated with coronaviruses (1.99, 1.01-3.93 and adenoviruses (3.69, 1.29-10.56, and negatively with S. aureus carriage (0.42, 0.25-0.69. We observed a strong positive association between S. aureus and influenza viruses (4.87, 1.59-14.89. In addition, human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses were positively correlated (2.40, 1.66-3.47, as were enteroviruses and human bocavirus, WU polyomavirus, parainfluenza viruses, and human parechovirus. A negative association was observed between human rhinoviruses and coronaviruses.Our data revealed high viral and

  11. Prevalence and emerging resistance of Moraxella catarrhalis in lower respiratory tract infections in Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, F.E.; Ahuja, K.R.; Kumar, H

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Moraxella catarrhalis in sputum cultures from patients with lower respiratory tract infection and their antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. Methods: The study comprised sputum specimens of 776 patients at various branches of Dr Essa's Diagnostic Lab, Karachi. The specimens were cultured on blood, chocolate, and eosin methylene blue agars between October 2010 and October 2011. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and anti-biograms were determined by the Kirby-Bauer Agar Disc Diffusion Method. Results: Moraxella catarrhalis was isolated from 39 (5.02%) sputa of which 18 (46.15%) belonged to males. The bimodal age prevalence was 238 (30.7%) in age group 20-29 years, and 180 (23.1%) in 70 years and above. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone were most effective (100%). Very high resistance was seen with amikacin (92.3%), cefixime (92.3%), fosfomycin (84.6%), cefuroxime (84.6%), erythromycin and amoxicillin (76.9%), cotrimoxazole (90%) and doxycycline (76.9%). Conclusions: The incidence of Moraxella catarrhalis in sputum encourages routine culture and sensitivity of sputa from patients suffering from lower respiratory tract infection, especially the elderly and immunocompromised, for tailored drug prescription. (author)

  12. Glycomic analysis of human respiratory tract tissues and correlation with influenza virus infection.

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    Trevenan Walther

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in influenza infection of the human respiratory tract is binding of the virus to sialic (Sia acid terminated receptors. The binding of different strains of virus for the receptor is determined by the α linkage of the sialic acid to galactose and the adjacent glycan structure. In this study the N- and O-glycan composition of the human lung, bronchus and nasopharynx was characterized by mass spectrometry. Analysis showed that there was a wide spectrum of both Sia α2-3 and α2-6 glycans in the lung and bronchus. This glycan structural data was then utilized in combination with binding data from 4 of the published glycan arrays to assess whether these current glycan arrays were able to predict replication of human, avian and swine viruses in human ex vivo respiratory tract tissues. The most comprehensive array from the Consortium for Functional Glycomics contained the greatest diversity of sialylated glycans, but was not predictive of productive replication in the bronchus and lung. Our findings indicate that more comprehensive but focused arrays need to be developed to investigate influenza virus binding in an assessment of newly emerging influenza viruses.

  13. Radionuclide detection of gastroesophageal reflux in children suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, A.K.; Gopinath, P.G.; Sharma, S.K.; Prasad, A.K.; Arora, N.K.; Tiwari, D.C.; Gupta, K.; Chetty, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radionuclide gastro-esophageal scintigraphy was performed on 25 control and 183 children suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract inspection. Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) of varying grades was observed in 135 patients. The severity of clinical symptoms in the patients was found to be directly related to the severity of reflux observed in the radionuclide study. In some patients an attempt was also made to quantitate GER by calculating the gastro-esophageal reflex index. The results of the scintigraphic study were correlated with the results of the other commonly used and more conventional barium swallow and fluoroscopy study. Gastro-esophageal scintigraphy was found to be much superior in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in detecting GER. It was also possible to objectively evaluate and monitor response to treatment following conservative or corrective surgical therapy using the radionuclide technique. The results of the study demonstrated a remarkably high incidence of GER in the patients. Whether GER is the cause of recurrent lower respiratory tract infection or not is difficult to establish firmly. But within the perview of the study the association seems to be very strong and cannot be easily ignored. (author). 26 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Incidence, etiology, and symptomatology of upper respiratory illness in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Luke; Brown, Wendy J; Pyne, David B; Nissen, Michael D; Sloots, Theo P; McCormack, Joseph G; Locke, A Simon; Fricker, Peter A

    2007-04-01

    Upper respiratory illness (URI) is the most common medical condition affecting elite athletes. The aims of this study were to identify and evaluate the incidence, pathogenic etiology, and symptomatology of acute URI during a 5-month training and competition period. Thirty-two elite and 31 recreationally competitive triathletes and cyclists, and 20 sedentary controls (age range 18.0-34.1 yr) participated in a prospective surveillance study. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were collected from subjects presenting with two or more defined upper respiratory symptoms. Swabs were analyzed using microscopy, culture, and PCR testing for typical and atypical respiratory pathogens. The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-44) was used to assess symptomatology and functional impairment. Thirty-seven URI episodes were reported in 28 subjects. Incidence rate ratios for illness were higher in both the control subjects (1.93, 95% CI: 0.72-5.18) and elite athletes (4.50, 1.91-10.59) than in the recreationally competitive athletes. Infectious agents were identified in only 11 (two control, three recreationally competitive, and six elite) out of 37 illness episodes. Rhinovirus was the most common respiratory pathogen isolated. Symptom and functional impairment severity scores were higher in subjects with an infectious pathogen episode, particularly on illness days 3-4. The results confirm a higher rate of URI among elite athletes than recreationally competitive athletes during this training and competition season. However, because pathogens were isolated in fewer than 30% of URI cases, further study is required to uncover the causes of unidentified but symptomatic URI in athletes. Despite the common perception that all URI are infections, physicians should consider both infectious and noninfectious causes when athletes present with symptoms.

  15. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1-4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A-F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011-2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12-24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV-Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV-bocavirus / bocavirus-influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12-24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis.

  16. Application of morphological and physiological parameters representative of a Brazilian population sample in the respiratory tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Reis, A. A.; Cardoso, J. C. S.; Lourenco, M. C.

    2007-01-01

    The human respiratory tract model (HRTM) adopted by ICRP in its Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. It is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends, for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition, the use of parameters from a local population wherever such information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence of using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of the ICRP Publication 66 model. (authors)

  17. Risk factors and features of recurrent bacterial complications of upper respiratory tract viral infections in children

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    Karpenko A.V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for recurrent bacterial complications of the upper respiratory tract viral infection (URTI in children, as well as the clinical and immunological features of the course of such complications. We enrolled 214 children aged 3-18 years with URTIs complicated with acute otitis media or acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Frequency of bacterial complications of URI in 128 children was low (group I and in 86 children it met the criteria of recurrent course (group II. In addition to the standard examination, lysozyme levels in the oropharyngeal secretion were determined three times during the disease. It was found that children of group II were characterized by an early debut of respiratory morbidity (at the age of 6.00 (4.00, 12.00 months against 13.00 (4.50, 16.00 months in children of group I (p<0,0001, as well as a longer duration of catarrhal and intoxication syndromes in similar forms of the disease. The most significant risk factors for the formation of the recurring complication pattern were maternal smoking (OR=2.73, 95% CI [1.34, 5.48], along with gastroenterological pathology and frequent URTI in the mother and a shortened period of breastfeeding. In children with recurrent bacterial complications of URTI, there was an impaired local resistance of the upper respiratory tract mucous membranes (as a decrease in the concentrations of lysozyme in all periods of the disease, which persisted after recovery.

  18. CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 2MONTHS TO 5 YEARS

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    Amitoj Singh Chhina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Acute respiratory infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under - five children in developing countries. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the various risk factors, clinical profile and outcome of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI in children aged 2 month to 5 years. OBJECTIVE : clinical features, laborato ry assessment and morbidity and mortality pattern associated with acute lower respiratory tract infections in children aged 2 months to 5 years. METHODS: 100 ALRI cases fulfilling WHO criteria for pneumonia, in the age group of 2 month to 5 years were evaluated for clinical profile as per a predesigned proforma in a rural medical college. RESULTS : Of cases 61% were infants and remaining 39%12 - 60 months age group, males outnumbered females with sex ratio of 1.3;1. Elevated total leukocyte counts for age were observed in only 22% of cases, of these 3% were having pneumonia, 9% severe pneumonia and 10% very severe pneumonia. Significant association was found between leukocytosis and ALRI severity (p= 0.0001 Positive blood culture was obtained in 8% of cases and was significantly associated with ALRI severity (p=. 0.027. Among the ALRI cases, 84% required oxygen supplementation at any time during the hospital stay and 8% required mechanical ventilation. The mortality rate was 1%; with 99% of cases recovering and getting discharged uneventfully. CONCLUSION : Among the clinical variables, the signs and symptoms of ALRI as per the WHO ARI Control Programme were found in almost all cases. Regarding the laboratory profile, leukocytosis and blood culture positivity w ere observed in a small percentage, but significant association with ALRI severity was observed for both. Thus, clinical signs, and not invasive blood tests are a better diagnostic tools, though the latter may provide additional therapeutic and prognostic information in severe disease

  19. Medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children (≤12 years in Kampala city, Uganda

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    Moses Ocan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicines are commonly accessed and used for management of illness in children without a prescription. This potentially increases the risk of unwanted treatment outcomes. We investigated medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections among children (≤12 years in households in Nakawa division, Kampala city. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 390 randomly selected children. Data on use of medicines in children (≤12 years during recent episode of acute upper respiratory tract infection was collected from their care takers using an interviewer administered questionnaire. A recall period of two weeks (14 days was used in during data collection. Results The prevalence of giving children non-prescription antimicrobial medicines was 44.8% (38.3-52.2. The most common disease symptoms that the children reportedly had included flu, 84.9% (331/390, cough, 83.1% (324/390, and undefined fever, 69.7% (272/390. Medicines commonly given to children included, paracetamol 53.1% (207/390, Coartem 29.7% (116/390, cough linctus 20.8% (81/390, amoxicillin 18.9% (74/390, Co-trimoxazole 18.5% (72/390, and diphenhydramine 15.4% (60/390. The major sources of medicines given to the children was hospital/clinic, 57.26% (223/390. Most of the children, 81% were given more than one medicine at a time. The majority, 62.3% (243/390 of the care takers who gave the children medicine during the recent illness were not aware of any medicine (s that should not be given to children. The predictors of non-prescription use of antimicrobial medicines in managing symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children included, medicines obtained from drug shop (PR: 1.45, CI: 1.14-1.85, medicines at home (PR: 1.8, CI: 0.83-1.198 and type of medicine (antimalarial (PR: 2.8, CI: 1.17-6.68. Conclusion Children are commonly given multiple medicines during episodes of acute upper respiratory

  20. Medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children (≤12 years) in Kampala city, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocan, Moses; Aono, Mary; Bukirwa, Clare; Luyinda, Emmanuel; Ochwo, Cathy; Nsambu, Elastus; Namugonza, Stella; Makoba, Joseph; Kandaruku, Enock; Muyende, Hannington; Nakawunde, Aida

    2017-09-21

    Medicines are commonly accessed and used for management of illness in children without a prescription. This potentially increases the risk of unwanted treatment outcomes. We investigated medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections among children (≤12 years) in households in Nakawa division, Kampala city. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 390 randomly selected children. Data on use of medicines in children (≤12 years) during recent episode of acute upper respiratory tract infection was collected from their care takers using an interviewer administered questionnaire. A recall period of two weeks (14 days) was used in during data collection. The prevalence of giving children non-prescription antimicrobial medicines was 44.8% (38.3-52.2). The most common disease symptoms that the children reportedly had included flu, 84.9% (331/390), cough, 83.1% (324/390), and undefined fever, 69.7% (272/390). Medicines commonly given to children included, paracetamol 53.1% (207/390), Coartem 29.7% (116/390), cough linctus 20.8% (81/390), amoxicillin 18.9% (74/390), Co-trimoxazole 18.5% (72/390), and diphenhydramine 15.4% (60/390). The major sources of medicines given to the children was hospital/clinic, 57.26% (223/390). Most of the children, 81% were given more than one medicine at a time. The majority, 62.3% (243/390) of the care takers who gave the children medicine during the recent illness were not aware of any medicine (s) that should not be given to children. The predictors of non-prescription use of antimicrobial medicines in managing symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children included, medicines obtained from drug shop (PR: 1.45, CI: 1.14-1.85), medicines at home (PR: 1.8, CI: 0.83-1.198) and type of medicine (antimalarial) (PR: 2.8, CI: 1.17-6.68). Children are commonly given multiple medicines during episodes of acute upper respiratory tract infections with most antimicrobial

  1. Adenovirus infection in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections in Beijing, China, 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyan; Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Ren, Lili; Li, Jianguo; Xie, Zhengde; Xu, Baoping; Yang, Yan; Qian, Suyun; Wang, Jianwei; Shen, Kunling

    2015-10-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdV) play a significant role in pediatric respiratory tract infections. To date, over 60 types of HAdV have been identified. Here, HAdV types are characterized in children in the Beijing area with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) and the clinical features and laboratory findings of hospitalized HAdV-infected cases are described. Respiratory specimens were collected from pediatric patients with ALRTIs in the emergency department or from those admitted to Beijing Children's Hospital between March 2007 and December 2012. Infections with common respiratory viruses were determined by PCR or RT-PCR. HAdV positive samples were further typed by PCR and sequencing. Among 3356 patients with ALRTIs, 194 (5.8 %) were found to have HAdV infection. HAdV infection was primarily confined to children (88.35 %) less than 5 years of age. A total of 11 different types of HAdV were detected throughout the study period, with HAdV-B7 (49.0 %) and HAdV-B3 (26.3 %) as the most prevalent types, followed by HAdV-C2 (7.7 %) and HAdVC1 (4.6 %). Newly emerging and re-emergent types or variants, HAdV-B55 (n = 5), HAdV-C57 (n = 3), and HAdV-B14p1 (n = 1), were identified. Results also included the reported first case of co-infection with HAdV-C2 and HAdV-C57. Clinical entities of patients with single HAdV infection (n = 49) were similar to those with mixed HAdV/respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections (n = 41). Patients with HAdV-B7 infection had longer duration of fever and higher serum levels of muscle enzymes than HAdV-B3-infected patients. During the study period, HAdV-B7 and HAdV-B3 were the predominant types identified in pediatric ALRTIs. HAdV-B7 infection tends to have more severe clinical consequences. The presence of newly emerging types or variants and co-infection with different types of HAdV highlights the need for constant and close surveillance of HAdV infection.

  2. Protection against avian metapneumovirus subtype C in turkeys immunized via the respiratory tract with inactivated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ra Mi; Khatri, Mahesh; Sharma, Jagdev M

    2011-01-10

    Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes a severe upper respiratory tract (URT) infection in turkeys. Turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with inactivated aMPV/C adjuvanted with synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (Poly IC). Immunized turkeys had elevated numbers of mucosal IgA+ cells in the URT and increased levels of virus-specific IgG and IgA in the lachrymal fluid and IgG in the serum. After 7 or 21 days post immunization, turkeys were challenged oculonasally with pathogenic aMPV/C. Immunized groups were protected against respiratory lesions induced by the challenge virus. Further, the viral copy number of the challenge virus in the URT were significantly lower in the immunized turkeys than in the unimmunized turkeys (P<0.05). These results showed that inactivated aMPV/C administered by the respiratory route induced protective immunity against pathogenic virus challenge. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. HAEMOGLOBIN LEVEL AS A RISK FACTOR FOR LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

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    Harishchandra Venkata Yanamandala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI is an inflammation of the airways, pulmonary tissue below the larynx level. Children who are below 5 years of age suffer about 5-6 episodes of LRTI per year on an average. 1,2 The largest cause of death in children worldwide is pneumonia. If the haemoglobin level is below 11 g/dL 3 , then the child is considered as anaemic. In children, LRTIs associated with anaemia occur more commonly than in adults. Pneumonia kills about an estimated 1.1 million children under the age of 5 years old worldwide. It is more prevalent in South East Asia and Africa. 3,4,5 Anaemia is a condition in which the number of RBCs is very low to meet the body’s physiologic needs. The most common cause of anaemia is deficiency of iron. In both developing and developed countries, anaemia is a common health problem. This study is a prospective study, which was conducted to assess the low haemoglobin level as a risk factor for developing LRTI in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study, which was conducted in 75 children who attended the outpatient unit of Department of Paediatrics, Gitam Institute of Medical Sciences and Research. It was conducted during the period between December 2015 to December 2016. By the symptoms and signs, pneumonia was diagnosed. Exclusion Criteria- Children who had congenital malformations of chest wall, severe systemic illness and protein malfunction. All children’s height and weight were recorded to assess the nutritional status. RESULTS C-Reactive Protein Estimation (CRP was more than 6 mg/L in 34 (45.3% patients in the study group, 11 (14.7% in the control group. Mantoux test was positive for 17 (22.6% among study group and none in the control group. Pneumonia as per radiological evidence was present in 49 (65.3% and hyperinflation of lungs in 26 (34.7% among the study group. X-ray reports were normal in 8 cases (10.7%. Age was not found to be a significant factor, which

  4. Application of morphological and physiological parameters representative of a sample Brazilian population in the human respiratory tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, A.A.; Cardoso, J.C.S.; Lourenco, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) proposed in ICRP Publication 66 account for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. These changing characteristics can influence the rates and the sites of deposition. Concerning the respiratory physiological parameters the breathing characteristics influence the volume, the inhalation rate of air and the portion that enters through the nose and the mouth. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. The HRTM model uses morphological and physiological parameters from the Caucasian man to establish deposition fractions in the respiratory tract regions. lt is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition the use of parameters from a local population when information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence in using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of ICRP Publication 66. The morphological and physiological data were obtained from the literature. The software EXCEL for Windows (version 2000) was used in order to implement the deposition model and also to allow the changes in parameters of interest. Initially, the implemented model was checked using the parameters defined in ICRP and the results of the fraction deposition in the respiratory tract compartments were compared. Finally, morphological and physiological parameters from Brazilian adult male were applied and the fractional deposition calculated. The respiratory values at different levels of activity for ages varying from

  5. Genetic associations with viral respiratory illnesses and asthma control in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loisel, D A; Du, G; Ahluwalia, T S

    2016-01-01

    of asthma control phenotypes was performed in 2128 children in the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC). Significant associations in RhinoGen were further validated using virus-induced wheezing illness and asthma phenotypes in an independent sample of 122 children enrolled...... in the Childhood Origins of Asthma (COAST) birth cohort study. RESULTS: A significant excess of P values smaller than 0.05 was observed in the analysis of the 10 RhinoGen phenotypes. Polymorphisms in 12 genes were significantly associated with variation in the four phenotypes showing a significant enrichment...... differences in childhood viral respiratory illnesses and virus-induced exacerbations of asthma. Defining mechanisms of these associations may provide insight into the pathogenesis of viral respiratory infections and virus-induced exacerbations of asthma....

  6. New insights on the biology of swine respiratory tract mycoplasmas from a comparative genome analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma flocculare and Mycoplasma hyorhinis live in swine respiratory tracts. M. flocculare, a commensal bacterium, is genetically closely related to M. hyopneumoniae, the causative agent of enzootic porcine pneumonia. M. hyorhinis is also pathogenic, causing polyserositis and arthritis. In this work, we present the genome sequences of M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae strain 7422, and we compare these genomes with the genomes of other M. hyoponeumoniae strain and to the a M. hyorhinis genome. These analyses were performed to identify possible characteristics that may help to explain the different behaviors of these species in swine respiratory tracts. Results The overall genome organization of three species was analyzed, revealing that the ORF clusters (OCs) differ considerably and that inversions and rearrangements are common. Although M. flocculare and M. hyopneumoniae display a high degree of similarity with respect to the gene content, only some genomic regions display considerable synteny. Genes encoding proteins that may be involved in host-cell adhesion in M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display differences in genomic structure and organization. Some genes encoding adhesins of the P97 family are absent in M. flocculare and some contain sequence differences or lack of domains that are considered to be important for adhesion to host cells. The phylogenetic relationship of the three species was confirmed by a phylogenomic approach. The set of genes involved in metabolism, especially in the uptake of precursors for nucleic acids synthesis and nucleotide metabolism, display some differences in copy number and the presence/absence in the three species. Conclusions The comparative analyses of three mycoplasma species that inhabit the swine respiratory tract facilitated the identification of some characteristics that may be related to their different behaviors. M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare display many differences

  7. Patient presentation and physician management of upper respiratory tract infections: a retrospective review of over 5 million primary clinic consultations in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Kenny; Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan; Lam, Augustine; Chan, Christy Ka Yan; Griffiths, Sian; Butler, Chris

    2014-05-13

    Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) has a significant healthcare burden worldwide. Considerable resources are consumed through health care consultations and prescribed treatment, despite evidence for little or no effect on recovery. Patterns of consultations and care including use of symptomatic medications and antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections are poorly described. We performed a retrospective review of computerized clinical data on patients presenting to all public primary care clinics in Hong Kong with symptoms of respiratory tract infections. International Classification of Primary care (ICPC)codes used to identify patients included otitis media (H71), streptococcal pharyngitis (R72), acute URTI (R74), acute sinusitis (R75), acute tonsillitis (R76), acute laryngitis (R77), and influenza (R80). Sociodemographic variables such as gender, age, chronic illness status, attendance date, type and duration of drug prescribed were also collected. Of the 5,529,755 primary care consultations for respiratory symptoms from 2005 to 2010, 98% resulted in a prescription. Prescription patterns of symptomatic medication were largely similar across the 5 years. In 2010 the mean number of drugs prescribed per consultation was 3.2, of which the commonly prescribed medication were sedating antihistamines (79.9%), analgesia (58.9%), throat lozenges (40.4%) and expectorant cough syrup (33.8%). During the study period, there was an overall decline in antibiotic prescription (8.1% to 5.1%). However, in consultations where the given diagnosis was otitis media (H71), streptococcal pharyngitis (R72), acute sinusitis (R75) or acute laryngitis (R76), over 90% resulted in antibiotic prescription. There was a decline in overall antibiotic prescription over the study period. However, the use of antibiotics was high in some conditions e.g. otitis media and acute laryngitis a. Multiple symptomatic medications were given for upper respiratory tract infections. Further

  8. The preventive effect on respiratory tract infections of Oscillococcinum®. A cost-effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo GL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio L Colombo,1,2 Sergio Di Matteo,2 Chiara Martinotti,2 Martina Oselin,2 Giacomo M Bruno,2 Gianfranco M Beghi3 1Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2S.A.V.E. Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche S.r.l., Health Economics & Outcomes Research, Milan, Italy; 3Unit of Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Hospital of Casorate Primo, Pavia, Italy Background: Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K (Oscillococcinum® is used to treat and prevent seasonal colds and airway inflammatory affections, improve symptom control, and reduce the frequency of respiratory tract infection (RTI episodes. The objective of this controlled observational study is to investigate, from the Italian National Health Service (NHS point of view, the role of Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K in preventing RTIs and estimate the annual average cost per patient due to visits and medicines in a real-world setting, investigating whether this method of treatment can bring savings for the NHS.Methods: Data from a single center from 2002 to 2011 were used. The analysis examined 455 patients who suffered from respiratory diseases. Of the total number of patients, 246 were treated with Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K while 209 were not treated (Control group. All the data concerning RTI episodes, pharmacological treatments, and pneumological visits were extracted from the database.Results: It was found that, regardless of the diagnosis, the frequency of RTI episodes was always lower in patients treated with Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K; the difference between the numbers of events occurring was statistically significant in every class of patients (p<0.001. The costs that the NHS had to incur were significantly lower in the classes of patients treated (p<0.001.Discussion: The results indicate that Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K has a preventive effect on the onset of RTI episodes. The analysis

  9. Management of lower respiratory tract infection in outpatient settings: Focus on clarithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Mahashur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI is a broad terminology which includes acute bronchitis, pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/chronic bronchitis (AECB, and acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis. Acute LRTIs (ALRTIs are one of the common clinical problems in community and hospital settings. Management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and AECB may pose challenges because of diagnostic difficulty in differentiating infections caused by typical and atypical microorganisms and rising rates of antimicrobial resistance. Beta-lactam antibiotics, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones are routinely prescribed medicines for the management of ALRTIs. Macrolides are time-tested and effective agents for the treatment of LRTIs. Clarithromycin, a macrolide, offers several benefits in the management of ALRTIs. In this article, we discuss the management approach of LRTIs with focus on clarithromycin in the management of mild-to-moderate LRTIs (CAP and AECB, i.e., in outpatient settings.

  10. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN CRYOSURGERY ENDOSCOPIC TREATMENT OF TUMORS OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sokolov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the history of the development of the cryosurgery method from antiquity to the present day, materials of the clinical use of cryosurgery for endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of tumors of respiratory tract at the present stage, features of modern equipment for cryosurgery. Also the article presents the first clinical experience of using cryorecanalization in stenosing tumors of the tracheobronchial tree inRussiawith the help of the medical device of the latest generation ERBECRYO 2. Three clinical examples of cryorecanalization are given. Preliminary results of clinical studies show that, in comparison with cryosurgery on older devices, cryorecanalization using the latest generation of m edical eq uipment and a new cryosondond model is an effective method of recanalization to restore airway patency, which can be used in combination with electrodestruction, argon-plasma And laser coagulation.

  11. Relationship between cystic fibrosis respiratory tract bacterial communities and age, genotype, antibiotics and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Lemon, Katherine P; Martin, Thomas R; Allgaier, Martin; Kembel, Steven W; Knapp, Alixandra A; Lory, Stephen; Brodie, Eoin L; Lynch, Susan V; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Green, Jessica L; Maurer, Brian A; Kolter, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Polymicrobial bronchopulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) cause progressive lung damage and death. Although the arrival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa often heralds a more rapid rate of pulmonary decline, there is significant inter-individual variation in the rate of decline, the causes of which remain poorly understood. By coupling culture-independent methods with ecological analyses, we discovered correlations between bacterial community profiles and clinical disease markers in respiratory tracts of 45 children with CF. Bacterial community complexity was inversely correlated with patient age, presence of P. aeruginosa and antibiotic exposure, and was related to CF genotype. Strikingly, bacterial communities lacking P. aeruginosa were much more similar to each other than were those containing P. aeruginosa, regardless of antibiotic exposure. This suggests that community composition might be a better predictor of disease progression than the presence of P. aeruginosa alone and deserves further study.

  12. Infant Respiratory Tract Infections or Wheeze and Maternal Vitamin D in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nikolas; Søndergaard, Jens; Fisker, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in young children and can be associated with wheeze. Vitamin D can have a protective role against RTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane library was performed. Titles...... and abstracts were evaluated and selected articles were reviewed by two authors. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on RTIs or wheeze in children of 5 years of age or younger. Observational studies on the association between...... serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) during pregnancy, or at birth, and RTIs and/or wheeze were included. The protocol was registered on PROSPERO (Registration No. CRD42015019183). RESULTS: Of four RCTs, one showed a protective effect of a high daily dose (2,000IU) of vitamin D during pregnancy...

  13. Aetiology and prediction of pneumonia in lower respiratory tract infection in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anette; Nexoe, Joergen; Bistrup, Lene A

    2007-01-01

    of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. METHOD: A total of 364 adults diagnosed with community-acquired LRTI by their GP were studied with chest radiography, vital signs, biochemical markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP] and leukocyte count), and microbiological examinations......BACKGROUND: Knowledge of predominant pathogens and their association with outcome are of importance for the management of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). As antibiotic therapy is indicated in pneumonia and not in acute bronchitis, a predictor of pneumonia is needed. AIM: To describe......; this emphasises the importance of coverage of S. pneumoniae when treatment is indicated. CRP should not be introduced for diagnosis of radiographic pneumonia in general practice before its use has been investigated in prospective, controlled intervention trials using CRP-guided treatment algorithms....

  14. Experimental determination of the absorption rate of unattached radon progeny from respiratory tract to blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterweck, G.; Schuler, Ch.; Vessl, G.; Mueller, R.; Marsh, J.W.; Thrift, S.; Birchall, A.

    2002-01-01

    An exposure methodology was developed for the determination of the absorption rate of unattached radon progeny deposited in the human respiratory tract to blood. Twenty-one volunteers were exposed in a radon chamber during well-controlled aerosol and radon progeny conditions, with predominantly unattached radon daughters. Special efforts were made to restrict the dose to the volunteers to an absolute maximum of 0.08 mSv. Measurements of radon gas and radon progeny in blood samples of these volunteers indicated absorption half times of 20 min to 60 min. Former determinations, mainly performed with much larger aerosol particles of diameters between 100 nm and 1000 nm, implied absorption half times around 10 h. This indicates that the absorption of radon decay products from ciliated airways into blood is dependent upon particle size and particle composition. (author)

  15. Practical application of the new ICRP Human Respiratory Tract Model (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, M.R.; Guilmette, R.A.; Jarvis, N.S.; Roy, M

    1998-07-01

    The ICRP Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) has been applied to calculate general-purpose dose coefficients using default values of parameters relating to the material and the subjects. The ICRP Task Group on Internal Dosimetry is developing a 'Technical Document' giving guidance on application of the HRTM in situations where using specific information can improve dose assessment. It will include an analysis of the sensitivity of doses and bioassay quantities, lung retention and excretion rates, to relevant parameter values. Guidance will be given on characterising and sampling radioactive aerosols and on determining absorption rates. Examples will be given illustrating application of the HRTM in a wide range of situations. This paper provides a selective summary of the document at its current stage of development, with emphasis on determining absorption rates. (author)

  16. Food allergy is associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections during childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Woicka-Kolejwa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : To find out whether children with food allergy have an increased risk of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections and of asthma. Aim: To describe the clinical profile of children diagnosed with food allergy referred to the Allergy Clinic. Material and methods : We conducted a retrospective study to assess the patients’ demographic, anthropometric and clinical data. The analysis included data of all children by the age of 10 years (registered with the Allergy Clinic between 2012 and 2013 in whom IgE mediated food allergy had been diagnosed during 18 months of observation. Results : We included 280 children into the analysis. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (rRTI, asthma and gastrointestinal (GI symptoms were observed in 153 (54.6%, 96 (34.3%, 39 (13.9%, respectively, with a significant increasing trend across age-subgroups. In children from 1 to 2 years old, sensitization to -lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.03–14.87. In older children sensitization to allergens other than milk or egg decreases the risk of rRTI (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.62; sensitization to egg decreased the risk of asthma diagnosis (OR = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01–0.75. We did not identify food allergens which change the risk of GI symptoms in children. This finding was consistent throughout all age-subgroups. Conclusions : Sensitization to -lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI in children under 2 years of age nearly four times. The presence of sensitization to food allergens above 3 years of age did not increase the risk of developing clinical presentation of food allergy other than atopic dermatitis.

  17. Are the Saudi parents aware of antibiotic role in upper respiratory tract infections in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz S. Alrafiaah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI is considered to be the most common reason for children’s visits to emergency departments or outpatient clinics. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics are currently major public health problems worldwide. This study aimed to assess Saudi parents’ knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP regarding the use of antibiotics in URTIs in children.This cross-sectional study was conducted in Saudi Arabia using a previously validated questionnaire, which was distributed using Twitter. A total of 385 individuals completed the questionnaire. For the majority of the participants (77%, physicians were the primary source of information regarding the use of antibiotics. Forty-four percent of parents agreed that most URTIs are caused by viruses, and 81% were aware that inappropriate use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistance. Fever was the primary symptom (27% that led parents to ask for prescriptions for antibiotics. Although women had a higher attitude score (p = 0.01, there was no difference between genders regarding knowledge and practice. Older participants (41 years or more had a lower attitude score (p = 0.02. Furthermore, participants with five children or more had lower attitude and practice scores (p = 0.006, 0.04, respectively. Participants who lived in large cities had greater knowledge compared to the inhabitants of small cities (p = 0.01. In conclusion, the findings of this study demonstrated that most of the participants were educated but lacked knowledge regarding antibiotic use in URTIs in children. This lack of knowledge led to inappropriate attitude and practice. Thus, launching public educational campaigns and encouraging physicians to educate parents regarding the proper use of antibiotics are recommended. Keywords: Upper respiratory tract infections, Parents, Children, Antibiotic, Saudi Arabia

  18. Deposition of biomass combustion aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löndahl, Jakob; Pagels, Joakim; Boman, Christoffer; Swietlicki, Erik; Massling, Andreas; Rissler, Jenny; Blomberg, Anders; Bohgard, Mats; Sandström, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Smoke from biomass combustion has been identified as a major environmental risk factor associated with adverse health effects globally. Deposition of the smoke particles in the lungs is a crucial factor for toxicological effects, but has not previously been studied experimentally. We investigated the size-dependent respiratory-tract deposition of aerosol particles from wood combustion in humans. Two combustion conditions were studied in a wood pellet burner: efficient ("complete") combustion and low-temperature (incomplete) combustion simulating "wood smoke." The size-dependent deposition fraction of 15-to 680-nm particles was measured for 10 healthy subjects with a novel setup. Both aerosols were extensively characterized with regard to chemical and physical particle properties. The deposition was additionally estimated with the ICRP model, modified for the determined aerosol properties, in order to validate the experiments and allow a generalization of the results. The measured total deposited fraction of particles from both efficient combustion and low-temperature combustion was 0.21-0.24 by number, surface, and mass. The deposition behavior can be explained by the size distributions of the particles and by their ability to grow by water uptake in the lungs, where the relative humidity is close to saturation. The experiments were in basic agreement with the model calculations. Our findings illustrate: (1) that particles from biomass combustion obtain a size in the respiratory tract at which the deposition probability is close to its minimum, (2) that particle water absorption has substantial impact on deposition, and (3) that deposition is markedly influenced by individual factors.

  19. Morphologic observations on respiratory tracts of chickens after hatchery infectious bronchitis vaccination and formaldehyde fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, A M; Soñez, M C; Plano, C M; von Lawzewitsch, I

    2000-01-01

    The histologic changes in the respiratory tracts of chickens were evaluated after hatchery fumigation with 40% formaldehyde vapors and vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus with live attenuated vaccine (Massachusetts serotype). One-day-old chickens were housed in four isolation units in controlled environmental conditions, fed and watered ad libitum, and separated into four groups: 1) fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group); 2) nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV group); 3) fumigated and nonvaccinated birds (FNV group); and 4) control group (C group). All birds were tested to be free from Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. After necropsy on the first, eighth, and twenty-sixth days after birth, samples from tracheal upper portion and lungs were conventionally processed for light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Tissue response was monitored by microscopic examination of trachea and lung. On the first day of observation, fumigated and vaccinated birds (FV group) showed extensively damaged tracheal epithelium with exfoliated areas and some active glands with electrodense granules, and in the lung, the primary bronchi epithelium had disorganized cilia and abundant lymphocytes, with emphysematous areas in tertiary bronchus. On day 8 after vaccination, cubical and cylindrical tracheal cell proliferation was observed, and on day 26, ciliated columnar epithelium was almost regenerated with heterophil corion infiltration, and hyaline cartilage nodules appeared in parabronchi. The nonfumigated and vaccinated birds (NFV) revealed less injury on the epithelial surface and a more rapid response to epithelial regeneration than the in only fumigated animals (FNV). The control group did not show remarkable morphologic changes. Postvaccinal and fumigation effects on the upper respiratory tract were temporary, whereas in lungs, increased emphysema, cartilage nodules in the interchange zone, and general lymphocyte infiltration had caused

  20. Comparison of PCR, culture, and serological tests for diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory tract infection in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J. W.; Zaat, S. A.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P. M.; Spanjaard, L.; Rijntjes, J.; van Waveren, G.; Jensen, J. S.; Angulo, A. F.; Dankert, J.

    1999-01-01

    For diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection we compared two rapid tests, PCR and the immunoglobulin M immunofluorescence assay (IgM IFA), with culture and the complement fixation test (CFT), in a prospective study among 92 children with respiratory tract infection and 74 controls. Based on

  1. College Students, Shared Decision Making, and the Appropriate Use of Antibiotics for Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyer, Kristina; Hulton, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review examines shared decision making to promote the appropriate use of antibiotics for college students with respiratory tract infections. Participants/Methods: CINAL, Cochrane, PubMed, EBSCO, and PsycNET were searched in October 2014 using the following criteria: English language, human subjects, peer-reviewed, shared…

  2. The use of household cleaning products during pregnancy and lower respiratory tract infections and wheezing during early life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, L.; Zock, J.P.; Carsin, A.E.; Fernández-Somoano, A.; Esplugues, A.; Santa-Marina, L.; Tardón, A.; Ballester, F.; Basterrechea, M.; Sunyer, J.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of household use of cleaning products during pregnancy on infant wheezing and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). In four prospective Spanish birth cohorts (n = 2,292), pregnant women reported the use of household cleaning products. When infants were 12-18 months old,

  3. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of NAD-dependent Pasteurellaceae from the respiratory tract of pigs and their possible pathogenetic importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielstein, P.; Wuthe, H.H.; Angen, Øystein

    2001-01-01

    . In the present study, 107 of these NAD-dependent isolates from the porcine respiratory tract, primarily from lungs with pathological changes, were investigated. On the basis of phenotypic criteria, such as haemolysis, urease, catalase, and indole formation as well as other fermentative activities, 50...

  4. Study of the pattern of lower respiratory tract infection within the first year in renal transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Affara

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Lower respiratory tract infection is a serious complication after renal transplantation. Bacterial and mixed bacterial infections are the most common etiologies, proper diagnosis using all tools of diagnosis especially bronchoscopy and quantitative culture can help in diagnosis and prevent the overuse of antibiotics.

  5. HEAT AND MOISTURE EXCHANGE CAPACITY OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT AND THE EFFECT OF TRACHEOTOMY BREATHING ON ENDOTRACHEAL CLIMATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, Renske J.; Muller, Sara H.; Vincent, Andrew; Hilgers, Frans J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the heat and moisture exchange (HME) capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods. We plotted the subglottic temperature and humidity measurements

  6. Effects of vitamin A and [beta]-carotene on respiratory tract carcinogenesis in hamsters : in vivo and in vitro studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, A.P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Summary
    Respiratory tract cancer is the leading cause of death by cancer in 'Western' countries. The greater part of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Furthermore, environmental air pollution and occupational exposure contribute to the high incidence of lung

  7. Tailored interventions to improve antibiotic use for lower respiratory tract infections in hospitals: a cluster-randomized, controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, J.A.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Trap-Liefers, J.; Akkermans, R.P.; Kullberg, B.J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on the most effective approach to increase the quality of antibiotic use for lower respiratory tract infections at hospitals. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred six patients with community-acquired pneumonia or an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  8. Impact of amoxicillin therapy on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Van Heirstraeten, Liesbet; Coenen, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of amoxicillin treatment on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: Patients were prescribed amoxicillin 1 g, three times daily (n = 52) or placebo (n = 50) ...

  9. Human and avian influenza viruses target different cells in the lower respiratory tract of humans and other mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A.J. van Riel (Debby); V.J. Munster (Vincent); E. de Wit (Emmie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractViral attachment to the host cell is critical for tissue and species specificity of virus infections. Recently, pattern of viral attachment (PVA) in human respiratory tract was determined for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of subtype H5N1. However, PVA of human influenza viruses

  10. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A.J. van Riel (Debby); M.A. den Bakker (Michael); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); S. Chutinimitkul (Salin); V.J. Munster (Vincent); E. de Wit (Emmie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by

  11. Heat and moisture exchange capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, R.J.; Muller, S.H.; Vincent, A.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the heat and moisture exchange (HME) capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods. We plotted the subglottic temperature and humidity measurements

  12. Cohort profile: China respiratory illness surveillance among pregnant women (CRISP), 2015–2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lin; Tan, Yayun; Sheng, Falin; Song, Ying; Zhang, Ran; Danielle Iuliano, A; Thompson, Mark G; Greene, Carolyn M; Zhang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Purpose We established the China Respiratory Illness Surveillance among Pregnant women (CRISP) to conduct active surveillance for influenza-associated respiratory illness during pregnancy in China from 2015 to 2018. Among annual cohorts of pregnant women, we assess the incidence of acute respiratory illness (ARI), influenza-like illness (ILI), laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection and the seroconversion proportion during the winter influenza season. We also plan to examine the effect of influenza virus infection on adverse pregnancy, delivery and infant health outcomes with cumulative data from the three annual cohorts. Participants Cohort nurses enrol pregnant women in different trimesters of pregnancy from prenatal care facilities in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, eastern China. Pregnant women who plan to deliver in the study facilities are eligible. Pregnant women who are seeking care for anything other than routine prenatal care, such as confirmation of low progesterone and threatened miscarriage, are excluded. At enrolment, study nurses collect baseline information on demographics, education-level attained, underlying medical conditions, seasonal influenza vaccination receipt, risk factors for influenza infection, gravidity and parity and contact information. For each participant, cohort nurses conduct twice weekly follow-up contacts, one phone call and one WeChat message (free instant messaging), from the time of enrolment until delivery or termination of pregnancy. During follow-up, study nurses ask about symptoms, timing and characteristics of ARI, healthcare-seeking behaviour and medications taken for participants reporting respiratory illness since the last contact. In addition, we collect combined nasal and throat swabs for identified ARI to test for influenza viruses. We collect paired sera before and after the influenza season. Active respiratory illness surveillance and seroinfection data during pregnancy of participants are linked to their

  13. Cohort profile: China respiratory illness surveillance among pregnant women (CRISP), 2015-2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liling; Zhou, Suizan; Zhang, Zhongwei; Wang, Yan; Bao, Lin; Tan, Yayun; Sheng, Falin; Song, Ying; Zhang, Ran; Danielle Iuliano, A; Thompson, Mark G; Greene, Carolyn M; Zhang, Jun

    2018-04-28

    We established the China Respiratory Illness Surveillance among Pregnant women (CRISP) to conduct active surveillance for influenza-associated respiratory illness during pregnancy in China from 2015 to 2018. Among annual cohorts of pregnant women, we assess the incidence of acute respiratory illness (ARI), influenza-like illness (ILI), laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection and the seroconversion proportion during the winter influenza season. We also plan to examine the effect of influenza virus infection on adverse pregnancy, delivery and infant health outcomes with cumulative data from the three annual cohorts. Cohort nurses enrol pregnant women in different trimesters of pregnancy from prenatal care facilities in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, eastern China. Pregnant women who plan to deliver in the study facilities are eligible. Pregnant women who are seeking care for anything other than routine prenatal care, such as confirmation of low progesterone and threatened miscarriage, are excluded. At enrolment, study nurses collect baseline information on demographics, education-level attained, underlying medical conditions, seasonal influenza vaccination receipt, risk factors for influenza infection, gravidity and parity and contact information. For each participant, cohort nurses conduct twice weekly follow-up contacts, one phone call and one WeChat message (free instant messaging), from the time of enrolment until delivery or termination of pregnancy. During follow-up, study nurses ask about symptoms, timing and characteristics of ARI, healthcare-seeking behaviour and medications taken for participants reporting respiratory illness since the last contact. In addition, we collect combined nasal and throat swabs for identified ARI to test for influenza viruses. We collect paired sera before and after the influenza season. Active respiratory illness surveillance and seroinfection data during pregnancy of participants are linked to their medical record and the

  14. Characterisation of antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory tract infections in Danish general practice: a retrospective registry based cohort study.

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    Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Saust, Laura Trolle; Bjerrum, Lars

    2017-05-19

    Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice. Acute respiratory tract infections accounted for 456,532 antibiotic prescriptions issued between July 2012 and June 2013. Pneumonia was the most common indication with 178,354 prescriptions (39%), followed by acute tonsillitis (21%) and acute otitis media (19%). In total, penicillin V accounted for 58% of all prescriptions, followed by macrolides (18%) and amoxicillin (15%). The use of second-line agents increased with age for all indications, and comprised more than 40% of the prescriptions in patients aged >75 years. Women were more often prescribed antibiotics regardless of clinical indication. This is the first Danish study to characterise antibiotic prescription patterns for acute respiratory tract infections by data linkage of clinical indications. The findings confirm that penicillin V is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic agent for treatment of patients with an acute respiratory tract infection in Danish general practice. However, second-line agents like macrolides and amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid are overused. Strategies to improve the quality of antibiotic prescribing especially for pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute rhinosinusitis are warranted. TRACKING THE OVERUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS: Better adherence to guidelines for prescribing antibiotics for different respiratory tract infections are warranted in Danish general practice. The over-use of antibiotics, particularly so

  15. Impacts of upper respiratory tract disease on olfactory behavior of the Mojave desert tortoise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Jennifer; Van Zerr, Vanessa E.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Ken E.; Lamberski, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) caused by Mycoplasma agassizii is considered a threat to desert tortoise populations that should be addressed as part of the recovery of the species. Clinical signs can be intermittent and include serous or mucoid nasal discharge and respiratory difficulty when nares are occluded. This nasal congestion may result in a loss of the olfactory sense. Turtles are known to use olfaction to identify food items, predators, and conspecifics; therefore, it is likely that URTD affects not only their physical well-being but also their behavior and ability to perform necessary functions in the wild. To determine more specifically the impact nasal discharge might have on free-ranging tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), we compared the responses of tortoises with and without nasal discharge and both positive and negative for M. agassizii antibodies to a visually hidden olfactory food stimulus and an empty control. We found that nasal discharge did reduce sense of smell and hence the ability to locate food. Our study also showed that moderate chronic nasal discharge in the absence of other clinical signs did not affect appetite in desert tortoises.

  16. The respiratory tract deposition model proposed by the ICRP Task Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Briant, J.K.; Stahlhofen, W.; Rudolf, G.; Gehr, P.

    1990-11-01

    The Task Group has developed a new model of the deposition of inhaled aerosols in each anatomical region of the respiratory tract. The model is used to evaluate the fraction of airborne activity that is deposited in respiratory regions having distinct retention characteristics and clearance pathways: the anterior nares, the extrathoracic airways of the naso- and oropharynx and larynx, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolated airways of the lung. Drawn from experimental data on total and regional deposition in human subjects, the model is based on extrapolation of these data by means of a detailed theoretical model of aerosol transport and deposition within the lung. The Task Group model applies to all practical conditions, and for aerosol particles and vapors from atomic size up to very coarse aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 100 μm. The model is designed to predict regional deposition in different subjects, including adults of either sex, children of various ages, and infants, and also to account for anatomical differences among Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects. The Task Group model represents aerosol inhalability and regional deposition in different subjects by algebraic expressions of aerosol size, breathing rates, standard lung volumes, and scaling factors for airway dimensions. 35 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Treatment of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Primary Care: A Randomized Study Using Aromatic Herbs

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    Eran Ben-Arye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a prospective randomized double-blind controlled trial whose aim was to investigate the clinical effects of aromatic essential oils in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. The trial was conducted in six primary care clinics in northern Israel. A spray containing aromatic essential oils of five plants (Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Origanum syriacum, and Rosmarinus officinalisas applied 5 times a day for 3 days and compared with a placebo spray. The main outcome measure was patient assessment of the change in severity of the most debilitating symptom (sore throat, hoarseness or cough. Sixty patients participated in the study (26 in the study group and 34 in the control group. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that 20 minutes following the spray use, participants in the study group reported a greater improvement in symptom severity compared to participants in the placebo group (=.019. There was no difference in symptom severity between the two groups after 3 days of treatment (=.042. In conclusion, spray application of five aromatic plants reported in this study brings about significant and immediate improvement in symptoms of upper respiratory ailment. This effect is not significant after 3 days of treatment.

  18. Healthcare-seeking behaviors for acute respiratory illness in two communities of Java, Indonesia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praptiningsih, Catharina Y; Lafond, Kathryn E; Wahyuningrum, Yunita; Storms, Aaron D; Mangiri, Amalya; Iuliano, Angela D; Samaan, Gina; Titaley, Christiana R; Yelda, Fitra; Kreslake, Jennifer; Storey, Douglas; Uyeki, Timothy M

    2016-06-01

    Understanding healthcare-seeking patterns for respiratory illness can help improve estimations of disease burden and inform public health interventions to control acute respiratory disease in Indonesia. The objectives of this study were to describe healthcare-seeking behaviors for respiratory illnesses in one rural and one urban community in Western Java, and to explore the factors that affect care seeking. From February 8, 2012 to March 1, 2012, a survey was conducted in 2520 households in the East Jakarta and Bogor districts to identify reported recent respiratory illnesses, as well as all hospitalizations from the previous 12-month period. We found that 4% (10% of those less than 5years) of people had respiratory disease resulting in a visit to a healthcare provider in the past 2weeks; these episodes were most commonly treated at government (33%) or private (44%) clinics. Forty-five people (0.4% of those surveyed) had respiratory hospitalizations in the past year, and just over half of these (24/45, 53%) occurred at a public hospital. Public health programs targeting respiratory disease in this region should account for care at private hospitals and clinics, as well as illnesses that are treated at home, in order to capture the true burden of illness in these communities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Anti-virus effect of traditional Chinese medicine Yi-Fu-Qing granule on acute respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anyuan; Xie, Yanying; Qi, Fanghua; Li, Jie; Wang, Peng; Xu, Shulan; Zhao, Lin

    2009-08-01

    Yi-Fu-Qing granule is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infections. The present study sought to investigate the anti-virus effects of Yi-Fu-Qing granule on acute respiratory infections with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human adenoviruses type 3 (Ad3). The cytotoxicity of Yi-Fu-Qing granule was evaluated by the neutral red assay on HeLa cells. The antiviral effect of Yi-Fu-Qing granule was tested by observing the cytopathogenic effect (CPE) with a compound mixture of Isatis leaf as the positive control drug. The results indicated that the highest non-toxicity concentration of Yi-Fu-Qing granule on Hela cells was 1:100. The CPE reduction assay showed that Yi-Fu-Qing granule inhibited RSV and Ad3 replication at a concentration of 1:100. Thus, Yi-Fu-Qing granule may have a significant antivirus effect on acute respiratory tract infections with RSV and Ad3 infections and this could prove useful for further antivirus research on acute respiratory tract infections.

  20. The myocardium functional reserve indicators in junior children with recurrent acute upper respiratory tract infection

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    L.S. Ovcharenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The problem of early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases in children is relevant throughout the world and in Ukraine, as in childhood the health and quality of life of an adult are formed. The psychoemotional stress in junior children as well as increasingly complicating school curriculum, information overload with electronic gadgets, increased frequency of colds in children cause physical inactivity. In addition, infectious agents have a toxic effect on the myocardium, altering its functional state. All these together adversely affect the formation and development of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of children. The aim was to study the functional reserve of the myocardium in junior children, depending on the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Materials and methods. The study examined 1109 children aged 6 to 9 years old. The URTI incidence was analyzed depending on the age. In the study, the children were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of the children with URTI — 210. Group 2 involved the children with occasional URTI — 899. Results. Among 210 surveyed children with upper respiratory infections 171 schoolboys (81.4 % had reduced functional reserve of the myocardium, which is consistent with findings from other studies. In children aged 7 and 9 years old, the number of reduced functional reserve of the myocardium varies from 70 to 82 % in seven-year children, among the schoolboys aged 6 and 8 years old the incidence of reduced functional reserve of the myocardium increased from 83 to 100 % in six-year children. Conclusions. Children with URTI have a reduced functional reserve of the myocardium. Children with episodic URTI have higher rates of functional reserve of the myocardium, therefore reducing the incidence of URTI will lead to the improvement of the myocardium functional state.

  1. [Etiological analysis and establishment of a discriminant model for lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y S; Lin, X H; Li, H R; Hua, Z D; Lin, M Q; Huang, W S; Yu, T; Lyu, H Y; Mao, W P; Liang, Y Q; Peng, X R; Chen, S J; Zheng, H; Lian, S Q; Hu, X L; Yao, X Q

    2017-12-12

    Objective: To analyze the pathogens of lower respiratory tract infection(LRTI) including bacterial, viral and mixed infection, and to establish a discriminant model based on clinical features in order to predict the pathogens. Methods: A total of 243 hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections were enrolled in Fujian Provincial Hospital from April 2012 to September 2015. The clinical data and airway (sputum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage) samples were collected. Microbes were identified by traditional culture (for bacteria), loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) and gene sequencing (for bacteria and atypical pathogen), or Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR)for viruses. Finally, a discriminant model was established by using the discriminant analysis methods to help to predict bacterial, viral and mixed infections. Results: Pathogens were detected in 53.9% (131/243) of the 243 cases.Bacteria accounted for 23.5%(57/243, of which 17 cases with the virus, 1 case with Mycoplasma pneumoniae and virus), mainly Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Klebsiella Pneumonia. Atypical pathogens for 4.9% (12/243, of which 3 cases with the virus, 1 case of bacteria and viruses), all were mycoplasma pneumonia. Viruses for 34.6% (84/243, of which 17 cases of bacteria, 3 cases with Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 1 case with Mycoplasma pneumoniae and bacteria) of the cases, mainly Influenza A virus and Human Cytomegalovirus, and other virus like adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, human boca virus were also detected fewly. Seven parameters including mental status, using antibiotics prior to admission, complications, abnormal breath sounds, neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) score, pneumonia severity index (PSI) score and CRUB-65 score were enrolled after univariate analysis, and discriminant analysis was used to establish the discriminant model by applying the identified pathogens as the

  2. Immunostimulation with oral vaccines for prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections

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    Robert Szamborski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory system is susceptible to unfavourable effects of biological and non-biological factors. In the protection against infectious agents, the immune system plays a crucial role thanks to close cooperation of specific (acquired and non-specific (natural, innate immune mechanisms. A non-specific response actively supports specific response mechanisms. This enables effective protection of our body against infections, both at the stage when pathogens reach the organism and after their penetration into tissues. A stimulation with microbial antigens leads to the activation of specific immunity mechanisms: humoral and cell-mediated responses. In the humoral response, specific immunoglobulins of various classes are involved to protect from recurrent infections. The knowledge of immunity development enables immune system stimulation with pharmaceutical products. The most common immunostimulants are non-specific and specific bacterial vaccines. The main goal of vaccines is the protection of healthy individuals against infections. Conventional prophylactic vaccines are immunogenic products. They contain a combination of extracts of various bacteria, usually ones that are aetiological factors of upper respiratory tract infections. Non-specific vaccines are administered to provoke a specific immune response towards antigens contained in the vaccine. They are bacterial immunostimulants acting mainly by stimulation and mobilisation of host defensive mechanisms. They improve antibacterial serum properties by increasing the level of natural antibodies. If needed, these reactions should be easily stimulated by a pathogen present in nature and should effectively neutralize or limit the disease. In patients who have been treated with a non-specific vaccine, decreased numbers of episodes of respiratory tract infections as well lower antibiotic intake were noted.

  3. ROLE OF ENTEROSORPTION IN COMPREHENSIVE THERAPY FOR ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASES COMBINED DAMAGE TO WITH GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.B. Belan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of acute respiratory infections remains high in childhood. It is impossible to identify etiology most accurately in each particular case. However, according to multiple studies, viruses, their associations with each other and bacteria prevail as causative agents. In addition, it is quite often that a respiratory infection, especially in minor children, is combined with a condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Apart from symptomatic and antiviral therapies in these cases, as the authors of this article demonstrated, it is advisable to use enterosorbents. This tactics results in a decreased level of intoxication, lower intensity and duration of diarrheal syndrome, i.e. more speedy recovery.Key words: acute respiratory infections, condition of gastro tract, intoxication, diarrheal syndrome, treatment, enterosorbents, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:88-90

  4. [Relationship between viral load of human bocavirus and clinical characteristics in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Bing; Zhong, Li-Li; Xie, Le-Yun; Xiao, Ni-Guang

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human bocavirus (HBoV) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection and to explore the relationship between the viral load of HBoV and the clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. A total of 1 554 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children who were hospitalized due to acute lower respiratory tract infection between March 2011 and March 2014 were collected. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect 12 RNA and 2 DNA viruses, adenovirus (ADV) and HBoV, and to measure the viral load of HBoV in HBoV-positive children. A comprehensive analysis was performed with reference to clinical symptoms and indicators. In the 1 554 specimens, 1 212 (77.99%) were positive for viruses, and 275 (17.70%) were HBoV-positive. In HBoV-positive cases, 94.9% were aged infection, and 230 (83.64%) had mixed infection. There was no significant difference in viral load between children with single infection and mixed infection (P>0.05). The patients with fever had a significantly higher viral load than those without fever (Pacute lower respiratory tract infection (P>0.05). HBoV is one of the important pathogens of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. Children with a higher viral load of HBoV are more likely to experience symptoms such as fever and wheezing. However, the severity of disease and mixed infection are not significantly related to viral load.

  5. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children

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    Jaroslaw Szydłowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Human Papillomavirus (HPV is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP in children is connected with HPV infection transmitted vertically from mother to child during the passage of the foetus through an infected birth canal. [b]objective. [/b]The aim of this study was to establish the level of Human Papillomaviruses carrier state in upper respiratory tract mucosa in healthy pre-school children, and to identify potential risk factors for HPV infection. [b]materials and method[/b]. After obtaining consent from their parents, 97 pre-school children were examined – 51 girls and 46 boys between the ages of 3 – 5 years; average age – 4 years and 5 months. 68 children were urban dwellers and 29 came from a rural environment. A questionnaire with detailed history was taken including parents’ and child`s personal data, as well as perinatal risk factors in pregnancy. Socio-demographic information was also obtained, including the standard of living, and chosen environmental factors. Routine ENT examination was performed. Exfoliated oral squamous cells were collected from swabs and analysed for the presence of DNA papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction. [b]results.[/b] The presence of HPV in the respiratory tract in children was detected in 19.6% cases. ‘High oncogenic potential’ HPVs, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, were not observed in squamous cell mucosa of the respiratory tract in the children. No significant differences were observed between the HPV carrier state in urban and rural inhabitants.

  6. Intravenous moxifloxacin in routine hospital treatment of respiratory tract infections in China: results of a multicenter, noninterventional study

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    Chen R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Rongchang Chen1, Wenjiang Ma2, Xuezhong Yu3, Xinmin Liu4, Jihong Zhu5, Hong Liang6, Xiaomei Wu7, Tao Guo81State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, China; 2Respiratory Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Zhejiang University, China; 3Emergency Department, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, China; 4Geriatric Department, Peking University First Hospital, China; 5Emergency Department, Peking University People's Hospital, China; 6Respiratory Department, Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, China; 7Respiratory Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, China; 8Hematology Department, Wuhan Union Hospital, ChinaObjective: To investigate the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of moxifloxacin (MXF (intravenous [IV] or sequential therapy [IV followed by oral] under daily treatment conditions in a large number of patients with respiratory tract infections.Design: Patients with a diagnosis of respiratory tract infection should be treated with MXF IV and/or tablets 400 mg once daily for a duration at the physician's discretion. For each patient, the physician documented data at an initial visit and at the end of therapy (EOT visit and/or, in the case of sequential therapy, an interim visit when the patient switched to oral treatment.Results: A total of 1953 patients treated with MXF were documented and were valid for an effectiveness and safety evaluation. An improvement was observed in 98.1% (n = 1911/1949 of patients treated with MXF. Recovery was documented in 89.9% (n = 1754/1951 of the patients. At the EOT visit, severity of infection was assessed to be "relieved" or at least "improved" in 96.5% (n = 1873/1940 of the patients. Physicians assessed overall effectiveness as "good" or "very good" in 93.3% (n = 1822/1953 of all patients. The physicians' overall tolerability rating was "very good" or "good" in 93.5% (n

  7. Hypercapnic respiratory acidosis: a protective or harmful strategy for critically ill newborn foals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengust, Modest

    2012-10-01

    This paper reviews both the beneficial and adverse effects of permissive hypercapnic respiratory acidosis in critically ill newborn foals. It has been shown that partial carbon dioxide pressure (PCO2) above the traditional safe range (hypercapnia), has beneficial effects on the physiology of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous system in neonates. In human neonatal critical care medicine permissive hypercapnic acidosis is generally well-tolerated by patients and is more beneficial to their wellbeing than normal carbon dioxide (CO2) pressure or normocapnia. Even though adverse effects of hypercapnia have been reported, especially in patients with central nervous system pathology and/or chronic infection, critical care clinicians often artificially increase PCO2 to take advantage of its positive effects on compromised neonate tissues. This is referred to as therapeutic hypercapnia. Hypercapnic respiratory acidosis is common in critically ill newborn foals and has traditionally been considered as not beneficial. A search of online scientific databases was conducted to survey the literature on the effects of hypercapnia in neonates, with emphasis on newborn foals. The dynamic status of safety levels of PCO2 and data on the effectiveness of different carbon dioxide levels are not available for newborn foals and should be scientifically determined. Presently, permissive hypercapnia should be implemented or tolerated cautiously in compromised newborn foals and its use should be based on relevant data from adult horses and other species.

  8. Impact of influenza vaccination on respiratory illness rates in children attending private boarding schools in England, 2013-2014: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousseau, N; Green, H K; Andrews, N; Pryse, R; Baguelin, M; Sunderland, A; Ellis, J; Pebody, R

    2015-12-01

    Several private boarding schools in England have established universal influenza vaccination programmes for their pupils. We evaluated the impact of these programmes on the burden of respiratory illnesses in boarders. Between November 2013 and May 2014, age-specific respiratory disease incidence rates in boarders were compared between schools offering and not offering influenza vaccine to healthy boarders. We adjusted for age, sex, school size and week using negative binomial regression. Forty-three schools comprising 14 776 boarders participated. Almost all boarders (99%) were aged 11-17 years. Nineteen (44%) schools vaccinated healthy boarders against influenza, with a mean uptake of 48·5% (range 14·2-88·5%). Over the study period, 1468 respiratory illnesses were reported in boarders (5·66/1000 boarder-weeks); of these, 33 were influenza-like illnesses (ILIs, 0·26/1000 boarder-weeks) in vaccinating schools and 95 were ILIs (0·74/1000 boarder-weeks) in non-vaccinating schools. The impact of vaccinating healthy boarders was a 54% reduction in ILI in all boarders [rate ratio (RR) 0·46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·28-0·76]. Disease rates were also reduced for upper respiratory tract infections (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·61-0·85) and chest infections (RR 0·18, 95% CI 0·09-0·36). These findings demonstrate a significant impact of influenza vaccination on ILI and other clinical endpoints in secondary-school boarders. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of influenza vaccination in non-boarding secondary-school settings.

  9. Community-level characteristics and environmental factors of child respiratory illnesses in Southern Arizona

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    Nathan Lothrop

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower respiratory illnesses (LRIs and asthma are common diseases in children 0.05. Conclusions Our study revealed complex, multi-factorial associations between predictors and outcomes. Findings indicate that many rural areas with lower SES have distinct factors for childhood respiratory diseases that require further investigation. County-wide differences in maternal characteristics or agricultural land uses (not tested here may also play a role in Pima County residence protecting against hospitalizations, when compared to Maricopa County. By better understanding this and other relationships, more focused public health interventions at the community level could be developed to reduce and better control these diseases in children <5 years, who are more physiologically vulnerable.

  10. Physician behaviour for antimicrobial prescribing for paediatric upper respiratory tract infections: a survey in general practice in Trinidad, West Indies

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    Ramdhanie Joseph

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs are among the most frequent reasons for physician office visits in paediatrics. Despite their predominant viral aetiology, URTIs continue to be treated with antimicrobials. We explored general practitioners' (GPs prescribing behaviour for antimicrobials in children (≤ 16 years with URTIs in Trinidad, using the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as a reference. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 92 consenting GPs from the 109 contacted in Central and East Trinidad, between January to June 2003. Using a pilot-tested questionnaire, GPs identified the 5 most frequent URTIs they see in office and reported on their antimicrobial prescribing practices for these URTIs to trained research students. Results The 5 most frequent URTIs presenting in children in general practice, are the common cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis and acute otitis media (AOM in rank order. GPs prescribe at least 25 different antibiotics for these URTIs with significant associations for amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefaclor, cefuroxime, erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin (p 30 years were more likely to prescribe antibiotics for the common cold (p = 0.014. Severity (95.7% and duration of illness (82.5% influenced doctors' prescribing and over prescribing in general practice was attributed to parent demands (75% and concern for secondary bacterial infections (70%. Physicians do not request laboratory investigations primarily because they are unnecessary (86% and the waiting time for results is too long (51%. Conclusions Antibiotics are over prescribed for paediatric URTIs in Trinidad and amoxicillin with co-amoxiclav were preferentially prescribed. Except for AOM, GPs' prescribing varied from the CDC guidelines for drug and duration. Physicians recognise antibiotics are overused and consider parents expecting antibiotics and a concern for secondary

  11. Oral Astragalus (Huang qi) for preventing frequent episodes of acute respiratory tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guobin; Chen, Xiankun; Liu, Zhuangzhu; Yang, Lihong; Zhang, La; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Wen, Zehuai; Guo, Xinfeng; Qin, Xindong; Liang, Jueyao; Liu, Xusheng

    2016-12-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are common in children and can involve both upper and lower airways. Many children experience frequent ARTI episodes or recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) in early life, which creates challenges for paediatricians, primary care physicians, parents and carers of children.In China, Astragalus (Huang qi), alone or in combination with other herbs, is used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners in the form of a water extract, to reduce the risk of ARTIs; it is believed to stimulate the immune system. Better understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of Astragalus may provide insights into ARTI prevention, and consequently reduced antibiotic use. To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral Astragalus for preventing frequent episodes of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in children in community settings. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 12, 2015), MEDLINE (Ovid) (1946 to 31 December 2015), Embase (Elsevier) (1974 to 31 December 2015), AMED (Ovid) (1985 to 31 December 2015), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979 to 31 December 2015) and Chinese Scientific Journals full text database (CQVIP) (1989 to 31 December 2015), China Biology Medicine disc (CBM 1976 to 31 December 2015) and Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform (WanFang) (1998 to 31 December 2015). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral Astragalus as a sole Chinese herbal preparation with placebo to prevent frequent episodes of ARTIs in children. We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures for this review. We assessed search results to identify relevant studies. We planned to extract data using standardised forms. Disagreements were to be resolved through discussion. Risk of bias was to be assessed using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We planned to use mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) for continuous data and risk

  12. The role of respiratory tract infections and the microbiome in the development of asthma: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meel, Evelien R; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Bønnelykke, Klaus; de Jongste, Johan C; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2017-10-01

    Asthma is a common disease in childhood, and might predispose for chronic obstructive respiratory morbidity in adolescence and adulthood. Various early-life risk factors might influence the risk of wheezing, asthma, and lower lung function in childhood. Cohort studies demonstrated that lower respiratory tract infections in the first years of life are associated with an increased risk of wheezing and asthma, while the association with lung function is less clear. Additionally, the gut and airway microbiome might influence the risk of wheezing and asthma. The interaction between respiratory tract infections and the microbiome complicates studies of their associations with wheezing, asthma, and lung function. Furthermore, the causality behind these observations is still unclear, and several other factors such as genetic susceptibility and the immune system might be of importance. This review is focused on the association of early-life respiratory tract infections and the microbiome with wheezing, asthma, and lung function, it is possible influencing factors and perspectives for future studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Immunostimulation using bacterial antigens – mechanism ofaction and clinical practice inviral respiratory tract infections

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    Wojciech Feleszko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent respiratory tract infections constitute a significant problem in the practice of a general practitioner and paediatrician. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains, which has been growing for years, prompts the search for alternative ways of combating pathogens. One of them is the usage of preparations based on cell lysis of various bacterial strains. Bacterial lysates have been available in Europe for many years. In preclinical trials, they are characterised by the capability of reducing infections caused by bacteria and viruses that are not the components of the preparations. A range of clinical trials have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing the frequency of seasonal respiratory tract infections and antibiotic use. Moreover, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease gain an additional advantage in the form of the reduction of the risk of hospitalization due to disease exacerbations and a positive influence on the survival curve. The action of bacterial lysates is based on oral immunostimulation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which results in increased antibody production. Moreover, they activate a range of mucosal mechanisms of non-specific immunity, mainly by enhancing the activity of TLR-dependent mechanisms. The efficacy of this group of drugs has been confirmed in a range of clinical trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Recent studies also indicate their immunoregulatory potential, suggesting that they might be used in the future in preventing allergies, asthma and autoimmune diseases. To conclude, physicians (paediatricians, laryngologists, pulmonologists should consider reducing the use of antibiotics in their daily practice. Instead, they should offer preparations that promote the immune system, thus controlling infections in a better way.

  14. Pressing Issues of Rational Antibiotic Therapy for Inflammatory Diseases of the Lower Respiratory Tract in Pediatric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.N. Okhotnikova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years, high incidence of acute lower respiratory tract infections of bacterial origin, primarily pneumonia and bronchitis, treatment of which under the spread of antibiotic resistance is often a difficult task, cause alarm. Bronchitis — one of the most common respiratory diseases in childhood after acute respiratory viral infections. Application of antibiotics for acute bronchitis in children is not recommended, but they are prescribed for severe intoxication and prolonged hyperthermia (over 3 days, especially in infants, children with poor premorbid background and high risk of pneumonia. Antibiotic therapy is considered as the only science-based treatment of pneumonia. Taking into account the broad spectrum of modern antibiotics, monotherapy is most suitable. If it is necessary to extend their effect, combination of amoxicillin/clavulanate with macrolides, to which all the major respiratory pathogens are sensitive, is preferred.

  15. BACTERIAL PROFILE, ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY AND RESISTANCE OF LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN UPPER EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Agmy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI account for a considerable proportion of morbidity and antibiotic use. We aimed to identify the causative bacteria, antibiotic sensitivity and resistance of hospitalized adult patients due to LRTI in Upper Egypt. METHODS: A multicentre prospective study was performed at 3 University Hospitals for 3 years. Samples included sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL for staining and culture, and serum for serology. Samples were cultured on 3 bacteriological media (Nutrient, Chocolate ,MacConkey's agars.Colonies were identified via MicroScan WalkAway-96. Pneumoslide IgM kit was used for detection of atypical pathogens via indirect immunofluorescent assay. RESULTS: The predominant isolates in 360 patients with CAP were S.pneumoniae (36%, C. pneumoniae (18%, and M. pneumoniae (12%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, macrolides, and cefepime. A higher of resistance was recorded for doxycycline, cephalosporins, and β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors. The predominant isolates in 318 patients with HAP were, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA (23%, K. pneumoniae (14%, and polymicrobial in 12%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. Very high resistance was recorded for β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors and cephalosporins. The predominant organisms in 376 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (AECOPD were H. influnzae (30%, S. pneumoniae (25%, and M. catarrhalis(18%. A higher sensitivity was recorded for moxifloxacin, macrolides and cefepime. A higher rate of resistance was recorded for aminoglycosides and cephalosporins CONCLUSIONS: The most predominant bacteria for CAP in Upper Egypt are S. pneumoniae and atypical organisms, while that for HAP are MRSA and Gram negative bacteria. For acute exacerbation of COPD,H.influnzae was the commonest organism. Respiratory quinolones

  16. A linear, time-varying simulation of the respiratory tract system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, O.

    1992-11-01

    These results show that regional deposition efficiencies of inhaled particles are highly dependent on the level of physical activity in all the spectrum of thermodynamic and aerodynamic aerosol particle sizes; also it was shown that for particles in the aerodynamic size range, the values of regional deposition efficiencies at the inner regions of the lung are highly dependent on age. In addition, the shape of regional deposition efficiency curves as a function of particle size have a similar behavior for all ages; thus, any variation of the airway geometry and respiratory physiological parameters such as tidal volumes and breathing frequencies due to age difference do not cause a change in the fundamental mechanisms of deposition. Thus, for all the cases of physical activity and age dependency, the deposition of ultrafine aerosol particles is highly enhanced by diffusive processes in all regions of the respiratory tract, and for very large aerosol size particles this behavior is repeated again due to impaction and sedimentation mechanisms. Although the results presented at this work, are the result of computer simulations based on different sources of experimental data, the structure of the computer simulation code BIODEP is flexible enough to the acquisition of any kind of new experimental information in terms of biokinetic analysis and regional deposition parameters. In addition, since the design of BIODEP was intended for easy access to the users, then with exception of the subroutine DIVPAG, at this moment, the modular design of BIODEP using FORTRAN 77 allows the implementation of all the subroutines of BIODEP to be used in a interactive mode with any microcomputer.

  17. Infants with recurrent lower respiratory tract symptoms – who benefits of extensive investigations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kotaniemi-Syrjänen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on lung function and exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FeNO in infants with recurrent lower respiratory tract symptoms. In 2000–2003, 201 recurrently symptomatic infants were referred to a tertiary center for further investigation. As part of the clinical investigation, whole-body plethysmography, tidal FeNO measurements, and skin prick tests were performed. In addition, 77 (38% of the children underwent bronchoscopy. Increased work of breathing in clinical examination (in 22%, and abnormal chest radiograph (in 30%, were associated with decreased airway conductance (sGaw z-score –1.65 (p<0.001 and p = 0.048, respectively and hyperinflation of the lungs (FRC z-score 1.65(p = 0.004 and p = 0.038, respectively. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS was associated with FeNO 40 ppb (p = 0.009. Increased work of breathing, sGaw z-score –1.65, and FRC z-score 1.65, were associated with low FeNO (p = 0.002, p = 0.005, p = 0.026, respectively. A definitive diagnosis was made in 184 (92% children; asthma was diagnosed in 149 (74%, infection in 23 (11%, and a structural abnormality in 12 (6%. Abnormal findings in clinical examination predicted the diagnosis of asthma or a structural abnormality in 96% of cases, whereas in children with underlying respiratory infection or no definitive diagnosis, clinical examination was normal in 92% (p<0.001. In conclusion, clinical findings of bronchial obstruction predict well lung function and the diagnosis of asthma in recurrently symptomatic infants. FeNO is affected by ETS exposure, clinical state of the child, and the used methods, and the information obtained should be interpreted with care.

  18. Mucosal immunity and upper respiratory tract symptoms in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, Johanna K; Schumann, Moritz; Häkkinen, Keijo; Mero, Antti A

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a 12-week endurance-training intervention on salivary proteins and upper respiratory tract symptoms (URS) in 25 young men. Saliva samples of 25 recreational male endurance runners (age 34.6 years, body mass index = 23.8 kg·m(-2), peak aerobic capacity = 47.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were collected before (PRE) and after (POST) the training intervention, in a fasting state, as well as both before and after a maximal incremental treadmill run. The training consisted of both continuous and interval training sessions, 4-6 times per week based on the polarized training approach. Participants filled in Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 and were retrospectively divided into 2 groups according to whether they reported URS (URS group, n = 13) or not (HEALTHY group, n = 12). Basal salivary immunoglobulin A (sa-sIgA) levels were significantly higher (+70%, p < 0.05) in the HEALTHY group both at PRE and POST whereas no significant differences were observed in salivary immunoglobulin M, salivary immunoglobulin G, lysozyme, or salivary α-amylase activity (sAA). Sa-sIgA concentration at PRE significantly correlated with the number of sick-days (R = -0.755, p < 0.001) in all subjects. The incremental treadmill run acutely increased sAA significantly (p < 0.05) at PRE (200%) and POST (166%) in the HEALTHY group but not in the URS group. This study demonstrated that subjects, who experienced URS during the 12 weeks of progressive endurance training intervention, had significantly lower basal sa-sIgA levels both before and after the experimental endurance training period. In addition to sa-sIgA, acute sAA response to exercise might be a possible determinant of susceptibility to URS in endurance runners.

  19. The development and validation of a multidimensional sum-scaling questionnaire to measure patient-reported outcomes in acute respiratory tract infections in primary care: the Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Questionnaire: ARTIQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, R.; Thorsen, H.; Siersma, V.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcomes are seldom validated measures in clinical trials of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in primary care. We developed and validated a patient-reported outcome sum-scaling measure to assess the severity and functional impacts of ARTIs. METHODS: Qualitative...... interviews and field testing among adults with an ARTI were conducted to ascertain a high degree of face and content validity of the questionnaire. Subsequently, a draft version of the Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Questionnaire (ARTIQ) was statistically validated by using the partial credit Rasch model......, sum-scaling questionnaire with high face and content validity and adequate psychometric properties for assessing severity and functional impacts from ARTIs in adults is available to clinical trials and audits in primary care....

  20. Prevalence of human rhinovirus in children admitted to hospital with acute lower respiratory tract infections in Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Sai-Zhen; Xiao, Ni-Guang; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Xie, Guang-Cheng; Zhong, Li-Li; Wang, Juan; Huang, Han; Zhang, Bing; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a causative agent of acute respiratory tract infections. This study analyzed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of three HRV groups (HRV-A, -B, and -C) among 1,165 children aged 14 years or younger who were hospitalized with acute lower respiratory tract infection in China. PCR or reverse transcription-PCR was performed to detect 14 respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from September 2007 to August 2008 in Changsha, China. HRV was detected in 202 (17.3%) of the 1,165 children; 25.3% of the HRV-positive children were 13-36 months of age (χ(2)  = 22.803, P = 0.000). HRV was detected year round and peaked between September and December. Fifty-three percent of the HRV-positive samples were also positive for other respiratory viruses; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most common secondary virus. Phylogenetic analysis using the VP4/VP2 region grouped the HRV-positive strains as follows: 101 HRV-A (50.0%), 21 HRV-B (10.4%), and 80 HRV-C (39.6%). HRV-A infections occurred predominantly in spring and autumn, and the peak prevalence of HRV-C was in early winter and late autumn. HRV-B infections were less common in spring (χ(2)  = 31.914, P = 0.000). No significant difference in clinical severity or presentation was found between patients with HRV single infection and HRV co-detections. Furthermore, the clinical characterizations did not differ among the three HRV species. These results suggest that HRV-C is an important viral agent along with HRV-A and HRV-B and that among hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection in China, the three HRV genotypes have similar clinical characteristics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Study of multiparameter respiratory pattern complexity in surgical critically ill patients during weaning trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maglaveras Nikos K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Separation from mechanical ventilation is a difficult task, whereas conventional predictive indices have not been proven accurate enough, so far. A few studies have explored changes of breathing pattern variability for weaning outcome prediction, with conflicting results. In this study, we tried to assess respiratory complexity during weaning trials, using different non-linear methods derived from theory of complex systems, in a cohort of surgical critically ill patients. Results Thirty two patients were enrolled in the study. There were 22 who passed and 10 who failed a weaning trial. Tidal volume and mean inspiratory flow were analyzed for 10 minutes during two phases: 1. pressure support (PS ventilation (15-20 cm H2O and 2. weaning trials with PS: 5 cm H2O. Sample entropy (SampEn, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA exponent, fractal dimension (FD and largest lyapunov exponents (LLE of the two respiratory parameters were computed in all patients and during the two phases of PS. Weaning failure patients exhibited significantly decreased respiratory pattern complexity, reflected in reduced sample entropy and lyapunov exponents and increased DFA exponents of respiratory flow time series, compared to weaning success subjects (p 0.1, SampEn and LLE predicted better weaning outcome compared with RSBI, P0.1 and RSBI* P0.1 (conventional model, R2 = 0.874 vs 0.643, p Conclusions We suggest that complexity analysis of respiratory signals can assess inherent breathing pattern dynamics and has increased prognostic impact upon weaning outcome in surgical patients.

  2. Plasma cytokines eotaxin, MIP-1α, MCP-4, and vascular endothelial growth factor in acute lower respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relster, Mette Marie; Holm, Anette; Pedersen, Court

    2017-01-01

    ), monocyte chemoattractant protein 4 (MCP-4), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 40 patients hospitalized with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). The cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of several inflammatory respiratory diseases, indicating a potential as markers for LRTI....... Patients were stratified according to etiology and severity of LRTI, based on baseline C-reactive protein and CURB-65 scores. Using a multiplex immunoassay of plasma, levels of eotaxin and MCP-4 were shown to increase from baseline until day 6 after admission to hospital. The four cytokines were unable...

  3. Severe respiratory illness associated with a novel coronavirus--Saudi Arabia and Qatar, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    CDC is working closely with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners to better understand the public health risk presented by a recently detected, novel coronavirus. This virus has been identified in two patients, both previously healthy adults who suffered severe respiratory illness. The first patient, a man aged 60 years from Saudi Arabia, was hospitalized in June 2012 and died; the second patient, a man aged 49 years from Qatar with onset of symptoms in September 2012 was transported to the United Kingdom for intensive care. He remains hospitalized on life support with both pulmonary and renal failure. Person-to-person or health-care-associated transmission has not been identified to date. Interim case definitions based on acute respiratory illness and travel history were issued by WHO on September 29 and include criteria for "patient under investigation," "probable case," and "confirmed case". This information is current as of October 4. Updates on the investigation and the WHO case definition are available at http://www.who.int/csr/don/en/index.html.

  4. Infrared Hollow Optical Fiber Probe for Localized Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Respiratory Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Takashi; Shibayama, Kyosuke; Iida, Takeru; Matsuura, Yuji

    2018-03-27

    A real-time gas monitoring system based on optical absorption spectroscopy is proposed for localized carbon dioxide (CO₂) measurement in respiratory tracts. In this system, a small gas cell is attached to the end of a hollow optical fiber that delivers mid-infrared light with small transmission loss. The diameters of the fiber and the gas cell are smaller than 1.2 mm so that the probe can be inserted into a working channel of common bronchoscopes. The dimensions of the gas cell are designed based on absorption spectra of CO₂ standard gases in the 4.2 μm wavelength region, which are measured using a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. A miniature gas cell that is comprised of a stainless-steel tube with slots for gas inlet and a micro-mirror is fabricated. A compact probing system with a quantum cascade laser (QCL) light source is built using a gas cell with a hollow optical fiber for monitoring CO₂ concentration. Experimental results using human breaths show the feasibility of the system for in-situ measurement of localized CO₂ concentration in human airways.

  5. Respiratory tract tumors in Syrian hamsters following inhalation of Pu--ZrO2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Smith, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    Inhalation of radionuclide-bearing particles remains one of the most intensely pursued problems concerning the nuclear industry. This route of entry is generally accepted as the most probable, in case of human exposure, with ingestion being the other prominent source of concern. Many laboratory investigations, such as those reported here, continue to evaluate the possible consequences that may present health problems to the public domain. Syrian hamsters of both sexes received either inhaled (INH) PuO 2 /ZrO 2 particles, intravenous (IV) PuO 2 /ZrO 2 microspheres, a combination of INH PuO 2 /ZrO 2 particles and injected PuO 2 /ZrO 2 microspheres, or no radionuclides (controls). The INH particles and IV microspheres were tagged with γ-emitting 57 Co to facilitate whole body counting and establishment of retention curves. Total lung burdens ranged from 8 nCi to 143 nCi. Significant numbers of primary lung tumors (5 to 50% per group) were induced in those animals that received INH exposures. Additional α radiation administered via Pu-laden IV microspheres had little or no effect on tumor production or nonneoplastic, degenerative changes in the respiratory tract

  6. Characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Colonizing Upper Respiratory Tract of Healthy Preschool Children in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Korona-Glowniak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistant and invasive pneumococci may spread temporally and locally in day care centers (DCCs. We examined 267 children attending four DCCs located in the same city and 70 children staying at home in three seasons (autumn, winter, and spring to determine prevalence, serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance patterns, and transmission of pneumococcal strains colonizing upper respiratory tract of healthy children without antipneumococcal vaccination. By pheno- and genotyping, we determined clonality of pneumococci, including drug-resistant strains. The average carriage of pneumococci in three seasons was 38.2%. 73.4% and 80.4% of the isolates belonged to serotypes present in 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine, respectively. Among the pneumococcal strains, 33.3% were susceptible to all antimicrobial tested and 39.2% had decreased susceptibility to penicillin. Multidrug resistance was common (35.7%; 97.5% of drug-resistant isolates represented serotypes included to 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine. According to BOX-PCR, clonality definitely was observed only in case of serotype 14. Multivariate analysis determined DCC attendance as strongly related to pneumococcal colonization in all three seasons, but important seasonal differences were demonstrated. In children attending DCCs, we observed dynamic turnover of pneumococcal strains, especially penicillin nonsusceptible and multidrug resistant, which were mostly distributed among serotypes included to available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

  7. Connections between voice ergonomic risk factors and voice symptoms, voice handicap, and respiratory tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena M; Hakala, Suvi J; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the connections between voice ergonomic risk factors found in classrooms and voice-related problems in teachers. Voice ergonomic assessment was performed in 39 classrooms in 14 elementary schools by means of a Voice Ergonomic Assessment in Work Environment--Handbook and Checklist. The voice ergonomic risk factors assessed included working culture, noise, indoor air quality, working posture, stress, and access to a sound amplifier. Teachers from the above-mentioned classrooms reported their voice symptoms, respiratory tract diseases, and completed a Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The more voice ergonomic risk factors found in the classroom the higher were the teachers' total scores on voice symptoms and VHI. Stress was the factor that correlated most strongly with voice symptoms. Poor indoor air quality increased the occurrence of laryngitis. Voice ergonomics were poor in the classrooms studied and voice ergonomic risk factors affected the voice. It is important to convey information on voice ergonomics to education administrators and those responsible for school planning and taking care of school buildings. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of profiling report on antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fozi K

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI is a common encounter in primary care and mostly viral in origin. Despite frequent reminders to primary care providers on judicious use of antibiotics for URTI, the practice is still rampant. Methods: As part of quality improvement initiative, an intervention was designed by distributing a profiling report on individual prescriber’s performance in comparison to colleagues on usage of antibiotic for URTI. The data were generated from electronic health record in three public primary care clinics in Malaysia and emailing monthly throughout 2011 to all providers. Results: There were 22,328 consultations for URTI in 2010 and 22,756 in 2011 with the incidence rates of URTI among overall consultations of 15.7% and 15.9% respectively. 60 doctors and medical assistants had performed consultations during the 2 year period. Following the intervention in 2011, the prescription rate of antibiotic for URTI is significantly reduced from 33.5% in 2010 to 23.3 % in 2011. Before intervention, individual prescription rate varies from 9.7% to 88.9% and reduced to 4.3% to 50.5% after intervention. Conclusion: Profiling report is a potential method of changing antibiotic prescribing habit among public primary care providers in Malaysia especially if the baseline adherence was poor and higher variation of prescribing rate.

  9. Infrared Hollow Optical Fiber Probe for Localized Carbon Dioxide Measurement in Respiratory Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Katagiri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A real-time gas monitoring system based on optical absorption spectroscopy is proposed for localized carbon dioxide (CO2 measurement in respiratory tracts. In this system, a small gas cell is attached to the end of a hollow optical fiber that delivers mid-infrared light with small transmission loss. The diameters of the fiber and the gas cell are smaller than 1.2 mm so that the probe can be inserted into a working channel of common bronchoscopes. The dimensions of the gas cell are designed based on absorption spectra of CO2 standard gases in the 4.2 μm wavelength region, which are measured using a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. A miniature gas cell that is comprised of a stainless-steel tube with slots for gas inlet and a micro-mirror is fabricated. A compact probing system with a quantum cascade laser (QCL light source is built using a gas cell with a hollow optical fiber for monitoring CO2 concentration. Experimental results using human breaths show the feasibility of the system for in-situ measurement of localized CO2 concentration in human airways.

  10. [Detection and Analysis of Human Parainfluenza Virus Infection in Hospitalized Adults with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Qiao; Liu, Xue-Wei; Zhou, Tao; Pei, Xiao-Fang

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence and gene characteristics of different groups of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection in hospitalized adults with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI). RT-PCR was used to detect HPIV hemagglutinin (HA) DNA,which was extracted from sputum samples of 1 039 adult patients with ARI from March,2014 to June,2016. The HA gene amplified from randomly selected positive samples were sequenced to analyze the homology and variation. 10.6% (110/1 039) of these samples were positive for HPIV,including 8 cases of HPIV-1,22 cases of HPIV-2,46 cases of HPIV-3 and 34 cases of HPIV-4. Detectable rate varied among different groups of HPIV according to seasons of the year and ages of patients. No significant differences were found between the positive samples and the reference sequences. Compared with different reference strains of different regions,the genetic distance of nucleotide is the smallest between the strains tested in this study and the reference strains of other provinces and cities in China. In Chengdu region,HPIV virus is highly detected in ARI,all subtypes were detected with HPIV-3 being the main subtype.

  11. Deposition of particles and iodine to outdoor surfaces and in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Dry deposition of particles depends strongly on particle size, and is also influenced by the geometry of the surface and weather parameters. Precipitation scavenging is also influenced to some degree by particle size, but hygroscopic properties of soluble particles are also likely to enhance deposition in precipitation. Similar comments apply in the respiratory tract, where particle size and solubility may influence the extent and site of deposition: the site is important for insoluble particles at least since it determines retention time in the body. Thus measurement of particle size and investigation of solubility would be valuable in interpreting deposition inhalation and air concentration observations. Iodine has several chemical forms in the air. It is valuable to sample in such a way that different forms are partitioned, although there is some uncertainty in their identification. The rate of deposition to vegetation depends strongly on the chemical form of the iodine, but the vapour forms of iodine that occur in the atmosphere may all be retained efficiently on inhalation

  12. The Use of Bipolar Electrocautery Tonsillectomy in Patients with Pediatric Respiratory Tract Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Kocatürk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study offers a comparative analysis of the intraoperative and postoperative clinical results of bipolar electrocautery tonsillectomy and conventional tonsillectomy techniques in children with respiratory tract obstruction because of tonsillar hypertrophy. Material and Method: Results in 31 children who underwent bipolar electrocautery tonsillectomy were compared with those in 45 children who had conventional cold dissection tonsillectomy. Postoperative pain scores were measured in the early postoperative period by the %u201CModified Hannalah Scale%u201D and in the late postoperative period by the %u201CVisual Analog Score.%u201D Intraoperative blood loss, operation time, duration of oral intake, intake of painkillers, recovery time, and postoperative pain scores of the two groups are also compared.Result: Children who underwent bipolar electrocautery tonsillectomy group had significantly less scores in pain throughout their recovery period, intraoperative blood loss, operation time, duration of oral intake, intake of painkiller, recovery time, and postoperative pain than those who had conventional tonsillectomy. Discussion: Bipolar electrocautery tonsillectomy is as effective and safe as conventional tonsillectomy to relieve obstructive sleep apnea in pediatric patients. Bipolar electrocautery tonsillectomy reduces postoperative pain, improves the quality of life and shortens the recovery time. Therefore, this procedure is more tolerable in children than conventional tonsillectomy.

  13. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Robert; Halwachs, Bettina; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Klymiuk, Ingeborg; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Hoenigl, Martin; Prattes, Jürgen; Valentin, Thomas; Heidrich, Katharina; Buzina, Walter; Salzer, Helmut J. F.; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Prüller, Florian; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Meinitzer, Andreas; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Högenauer, Christoph; Quehenberger, Franz; Kashofer, Karl; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT) secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy), ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.). Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing) for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera) and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73%) (pCandida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients) did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis. PMID:27206014

  14. Characterisation of Candida within the Mycobiome/Microbiome of the Lower Respiratory Tract of ICU Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Krause

    Full Text Available Whether the presence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract (LRT secretions is a marker of underlying disease, intensive care unit (ICU treatment and antibiotic therapy or contributes to poor clinical outcome is unclear. We investigated healthy controls, patients with proposed risk factors for Candida growth in LRT (antibiotic therapy, ICU treatment with and without antibiotic therapy, ICU patients with pneumonia and antibiotic therapy and candidemic patients (for comparison of truly invasive and colonizing Candida spp.. Fungal patterns were determined by conventional culture based microbiology combined with molecular approaches (next generation sequencing, multilocus sequence typing for description of fungal and concommitant bacterial microbiota in LRT, and host and fungal biomarkes were investigated. Admission to and treatment on ICUs shifted LRT fungal microbiota to Candida spp. dominated fungal profiles but antibiotic therapy did not. Compared to controls, Candida was part of fungal microbiota in LRT of ICU patients without pneumonia with and without antibiotic therapy (63% and 50% of total fungal genera and of ICU patients with pneumonia with antibiotic therapy (73% (p<0.05. No case of invasive candidiasis originating from Candida in the LRT was detected. There was no common bacterial microbiota profile associated or dissociated with Candida spp. in LRT. Colonizing and invasive Candida strains (from candidemic patients did not match to certain clades withdrawing the presence of a particular pathogenic and invasive clade. The presence of Candida spp. in the LRT rather reflected rapidly occurring LRT dysbiosis driven by ICU related factors than was associated with invasive candidiasis.

  15. Helichrysum arenarium subsp. arenarium: phenolic composition and antibacterial activity against lower respiratory tract pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinaru, Adina C; Silion, Mihaela; Trifan, Adriana; Miron, Anca; Aprotosoaie, Ana C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic content and antibacterial activity of the methanol extract from Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench subsp. arenarium inflorescences against lower respiratory tract pathogens (standard strains and clinical isolates). The extract was characterised by a total phenolic content of 160.17 mg/g. Several caffeic acid conjugates (chlorogenic acid and dicaffeoylquinic acids) and flavonoids (apigenin, naringenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and naringenin-O-hexosides) were identified as major constituents by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was more susceptible to Helichrysum extract than Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] = 0.62  and 1.25 mg/mL, respectively). The extract exhibited similar antibacterial effects against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates (MIC = 2.5 mg/mL) displaying a higher activity against ampicillin-resistant Moraxella catarrhalis isolate (MIC = 0.15 mg/mL). The combination with ciprofloxacin exhibited additivity against both standard strains (fractional inhibitory concentration [FIC] index = 0.75 and 0.73) and S. aureus isolates (FIC index = 0.62) and synergy against S. pneumoniae isolates (FIC index = 0.5).

  16. Study on doctor shopping behavior: insight from patients with upper respiratory tract infection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Jye; Lin, Shu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Based on the actual medical records of ambulatory care visits, this study analyzed patients' healthcare seeking behavior and doctor shopping behavior (DSB), and investigated the underlying factors and the impact on the depletion of the healthcare resources for health policy makers to build a better health delivery system. Among a cohort comprised of 200,000 patients randomly chosen from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan in 2004, only the patients seeking ambulatory care visits for upper respiratory tract infection (URI) were analyzed. Among the 45,951 URI patients, 2875 of them exhibited DSB (prevalence 6.3%). The DSB showed a reverse U-shaped relationship with the patient age (the highest DSB in age 18-34 years). The episodes of the URI had a negative impact on the DSB. The odds ratios of gender and the frequency of consultation versus DSB were 1.10 and 4.72, respectively, and the depletion of days of medication and repeat prescription increased with doctor shopping. Health education to raise DSB awareness is necessary, especially for female's age 18-34 years. Implementing a proper referral system with efficient data exchange, setting up control parameters in the IC cards, and strengthening the integrated care plan could reduce the unnecessary waste of the healthcare resources.

  17. Illness Severity and Work Productivity Loss Among Working Adults With Medically Attended Acute Respiratory Illnesses: US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Joshua G; Cheng, Caroline; Malosh, Ryan E; VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Flannery, Brendan; Zimmerman, Richard K; Gaglani, Manjusha; Jackson, Michael L; King, Jennifer P; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Benoit, Joyce; Robertson, Anne; Thaker, Swathi N; Monto, Arnold S; Ohmit, Suzanne E

    2016-02-15

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality, with considerable economic costs, including lost work productivity. Influenza vaccines may reduce the economic burden through primary prevention of influenza and reduction in illness severity. We examined illness severity and work productivity loss among working adults with medically attended acute respiratory illnesses and compared outcomes for subjects with and without laboratory-confirmed influenza and by influenza vaccination status among subjects with influenza during the 2012-2013 influenza season. Illnesses laboratory-confirmed as influenza (ie, cases) were subjectively assessed as more severe than illnesses not caused by influenza (ie, noncases) based on multiple measures, including current health status at study enrollment (≤7 days from illness onset) and current activity and sleep quality status relative to usual. Influenza cases reported missing 45% more work hours (20.5 vs 15.0; P productivity as impeded to a greater degree (6.0 vs 5.4; P productivity loss were noted for vaccinated subjects. Influenza illnesses were more severe and resulted in more missed work hours and productivity loss than illnesses not confirmed as influenza. Modest reductions in illness severity for vaccinated cases were observed. These findings highlight the burden of influenza illnesses and illustrate the importance of laboratory confirmation of influenza outcomes in evaluations of vaccine effectiveness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  19. The possibility of evaluation on inflammatory change at respiratory tract in chronic bronchial asthma using 67Ga scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka; Kawakami, Kenji; Kikuchi, Ichiro; Shimada, Takao.

    1997-01-01

    67 Ga scintigraphy was performed in 17 patients with chronic bronchial asthma to grasp the inflammatory change of respiratory tract. On 67 Ga scintigraphy, abnormal accumulations were detected on lung fields in 6 cases (35.3%) of 17 cases. In 5 cases of these 6 cases, the defect areas which were pointed out on 81m Kr ventilation scintigraphy were matched to the abnormal accumulation areas which were pointed out on 67 Ga scintigraphy. In dynamics, the abnormal accumulation areas which were pointed out on 67 Ga scintigraphy were matched to the defect areas which had been at all times pointed out on 81m Kr ventilation scintigraphy. 67 Ga scintigraphy was expected to be one of index to grasp the inflammatory change of respiratory tract in patients with chronic bronchial asthma. (author)

  20. Measurement of the deposited activity of the short-lived radon progeny in the human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezzu, G.; Butterweck-Dempewolf, G.; Schuler, C.

    1998-01-01

    Volunteers were exposed in the radon chamber at Paul Scherrer Institut to an atmosphere enriched with highly unattached radon progeny. The deposited radon progeny activity in the respiratory tract of the volunteers was determined using a low level in-vivo counter. The detector arrangement and its calibration for the measurement of deposited radon progeny activity is described and the results for a mouth and a nose breathing volunteer are presented. For the nose breathing volunteer 55% of the deposited radon progeny activity was located in the head and the remaining 45% in the chest whereas for the mouth breathing volunteer 25% was located in the head and the remaining 75% in the chest. A mean clearance half-life for the deposited radon progeny from the respiratory tract of (2±1) h was obtained from the analyses of the temporal behaviour of the deposited radon progeny activity in the head. (orig.)

  1. Quality indicators for diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract infections in general practice: a modified Delphi study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Bjerrum, Lars; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente

    2010-01-01

    was achieved in both Delphi rounds. A total of 41 of the proposed 59 quality indicators attained consensus. None of the quality indicators focusing on the diagnostic process achieved consensus. Consensus was attained for 14 quality indicators focusing on the decision regarding antibiotic treatment and for 27...... quality indicators focusing on the choice of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: This study resulted in a final set of 41 quality indicators concerning respiratory tract infections in general practice. These quality indicators may be used to strengthen general practitioners' focus on their management of patients......OBJECTIVE: To develop a set of quality indicators focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract infections in general practice. DESIGN: A modified 2-round Delphi study. SETTING: General practice. SUBJECTS: A panel of 27 experts (13 countries) comprising mainly general practitioners...

  2. In utero exposure to 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of childhood asthma, wheeze, and respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Haixia; Xun, Pengcheng; Pike, Katharine C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of the associations between in utero 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) exposure and risk of childhood asthma, wheeze, and respiratory tract infections are inconsistent and inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess associations between 25(OH)D levels in cord blood or maternal......)D is inversely associated with the risk of asthma and wheeze during childhood. These findings are in keeping with the results of 2 recently published randomized clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy....... venous blood and risk of offspring's asthma, wheeze, and respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Data were derived from PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, references from relevant articles, and de novo results from published studies until December 2015. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted among 16...

  3. A diverse group of previously unrecognized human rhinoviruses are common causes of respiratory illnesses in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Ming Lee

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Human rhinoviruses (HRVs are the most prevalent human pathogens, and consist of 101 serotypes that are classified into groups A and B according to sequence variations. HRV infections cause a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe lower respiratory symptoms. Defining the role of specific strains in various HRV illnesses has been difficult because traditional serology, which requires viral culture and neutralization tests using 101 serotype-specific antisera, is insensitive and laborious.To directly type HRVs in nasal secretions of infants with frequent respiratory illnesses, we developed a sensitive molecular typing assay based on phylogenetic comparisons of a 260-bp variable sequence in the 5' noncoding region with homologous sequences of the 101 known serotypes. Nasal samples from 26 infants were first tested with a multiplex PCR assay for respiratory viruses, and HRV was the most common virus found (108 of 181 samples. Typing was completed for 101 samples and 103 HRVs were identified. Surprisingly, 54 (52.4% HRVs did not match any of the known serotypes and had 12-35% nucleotide divergence from the nearest reference HRVs. Of these novel viruses, 9 strains (17 HRVs segregated from HRVA, HRVB and human enterovirus into a distinct genetic group ("C". None of these new strains could be cultured in traditional cell lines.By molecular analysis, over 50% of HRV detected in sick infants were previously unrecognized strains, including 9 strains that may represent a new HRV group. These findings indicate that the number of HRV strains is considerably larger than the 101 serotypes identified with traditional diagnostic techniques, and provide evidence of a new HRV group.

  4. Canadian Acute Respiratory Illness and Flu Scale (CARIFS) for clinical detection of influenza in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jason B; Prasad, Priya A; Coffin, Susan E; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Mistry, Rakesh D

    2014-10-01

    Validated clinical scales, such as the Canadian Acute Respiratory Illness and Flu Scale (CARIFS), have not been used to differentiate influenza (FLU) from other respiratory viruses. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an influenza-like infection from 2008 to 2010. Subjects were children aged 0 to 19 years who had a venipuncture and respiratory virus polymerase chain reaction. Demographics and CARIFS items were assessed during the ED visit; comparisons were made between FLU and non-FLU subjects. The 203 subjects had median age 30.5 months; 61.6% were male. Comorbid conditions (51.2%) were common. FLU was identified in 26.6%, and were older than non-FLU patients (69.7 vs 47.9 months, P = .02). Demographic, household factors, and mean CARIFS score did not differ between FLU (33.7), and non-FLU (32.0) (mean difference 1.6, 95% CI: -2.0 to 5.2) groups. CARIFS cannot discriminate between FLU and non-FLU infection in ED children with influenza-like infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Revision of clinical case definitions: influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasmieh, Saba; Mounts, Anthony Wayne; Alexander, Burmaa; Besselaar, Terry; Briand, Sylvie; Brown, Caroline; Clark, Seth; Dueger, Erica; Gross, Diane; Hauge, Siri; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Jorgensen, Pernille; Katz, Mark A; Mafi, Ali; Malik, Mamunur; McCarron, Margaret; Meerhoff, Tamara; Mori, Yuichiro; Mott, Joshua; Olivera, Maria Teresa da Costa; Ortiz, Justin R; Palekar, Rakhee; Rebelo-de-Andrade, Helena; Soetens, Loes; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Zhang, Wenqing; Vandemaele, Katelijn

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The formulation of accurate clinical case definitions is an integral part of an effective process of public health surveillance. Although such definitions should, ideally, be based on a standardized and fixed collection of defining criteria, they often require revision to reflect new knowledge of the condition involved and improvements in diagnostic testing. Optimal case definitions also need to have a balance of sensitivity and specificity that reflects their intended use. After the 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a technical consultation on global influenza surveillance. This prompted improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of the case definition for influenza – i.e. a respiratory disease that lacks uniquely defining symptomology. The revision process not only modified the definition of influenza-like illness, to include a simplified list of the criteria shown to be most predictive of influenza infection, but also clarified the language used for the definition, to enhance interpretability. To capture severe cases of influenza that required hospitalization, a new case definition was also developed for severe acute respiratory infection in all age groups. The new definitions have been found to capture more cases without compromising specificity. Despite the challenge still posed in the clinical separation of influenza from other respiratory infections, the global use of the new WHO case definitions should help determine global trends in the characteristics and transmission of influenza viruses and the associated disease burden. PMID:29403115

  6. Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy and risk of lower respiratory tract infections, wheezing, and asthma in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Romieu, Isabelle; Guerra, Stefano; Ballester, Ferrán; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesús; Tardón, Adonina; Rodriguez Delhi, Cristina; Arranz, Leonor; Torrent, Maties; Espada, Mercedes; Basterrechea, Mikel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Adequate vitamin D status in mothers during pregnancy may influence the health status of the child later in life. We assessed whether maternal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations in pregnancy are associated with risk of lower respiratory tract infections, wheezing, and asthma in the offspring. Data were obtained from 1724 children of the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project, a population-based birth cohort study. Maternal circulating 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in pregnancy (mean gestational age = 12.6 [SD = 2.5] weeks). When the child was age 1 year, parents were asked if their child had a physician-confirmed history of lower respiratory tract infections or a history of wheezing. The questions about wheezing were repeated annually thereafter. Asthma was defined as parental report of doctor diagnosis of asthma or receiving treatment at the age of 4-6 years or wheezing since the age of 4 years. The median maternal circulating 25(OH)D concentration in pregnancy was 29.5 ng/mL (interquartile range, 22.5-37.1 ng/mL). After multivariable adjustment, there was a trend for an independent association between higher levels of maternal circulating 25(OH)D levels in pregnancy and decreased odds of lower respiratory tract infections in offspring (for cohort- and season-specific quartile Q4 vs. Q1, odds ratio = 0.67 [95% confidence interval = 0.50-0.90]; test for trend, P = 0.016). We found no association between 25(OH)D levels in pregnancy and risk of wheezing at age 1 year or 4 years, or asthma at age 4-6 years. Higher maternal circulating 25(OH)D concentrations in pregnancy were independently associated with lower risk of lower respiratory tract infections in offspring in the first year of life but not with wheezing or asthma in childhood.

  7. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Adrian R; Jolliffe, David A; Hooper, Richard L; Greenberg, Lauren; Aloia, John F; Bergman, Peter; Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Esposito, Susanna; Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Ginde, Adit A; Goodall, Emma C; Grant, Cameron C; Griffiths, Christopher J; Janssens, Wim; Laaksi, Ilkka; Manaseki-Holland, Semira; Mauger, David; Murdoch, David R; Neale, Rachel; Rees, Judy R; Simpson, Steve; Stelmach, Iwona; Kumar, Geeta Trilok; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-02-15

    Objectives  To assess the overall effect of vitamin D supplementation on risk of acute respiratory tract infection, and to identify factors modifying this effect. Design  Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) from randomised controlled trials. Data sources  Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number registry from inception to December 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection  Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trials of supplementation with vitamin D 3 or vitamin D 2 of any duration were eligible for inclusion if they had been approved by a research ethics committee and if data on incidence of acute respiratory tract infection were collected prospectively and prespecified as an efficacy outcome. Results  25 eligible randomised controlled trials (total 11 321 participants, aged 0 to 95 years) were identified. IPD were obtained for 10 933 (96.6%) participants. Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute respiratory tract infection among all participants (adjusted odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.96; P for heterogeneity acute respiratory tract infection overall. Patients who were very vitamin D deficient and those not receiving bolus doses experienced the most benefit. Systematic review registration  PROSPERO CRD42014013953. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Hospital Outcomes of Adult Respiratory Tract Infections with Extended-Spectrum B-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Klebsiella Pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Li-Cher; Nor Izran Hanim bt Abdul Samad,; Rosdara Masayuni bt Mohd Sani,; Raman, Sree; Thayaparan, Tarmizi; Kumar, Shalini

    2007-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae ranks high as a cause of adult pneumonia requiring hospitalization in Malaysia. To study whether extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL) producing K. pneumoniae was linked to hospital outcomes, we retrospectively studied 441 cases of adult respiratory tract infections with microbial proven K. pneumoniae from an urban-based university teaching hospital between 2003 and 2004. 47 (10.6%) cases had ESBL. Requirement for ventilation and median length of hospital stay, were great...

  9. Association between respiratory tract diseases and secondhand smoke exposure among never smoking flight attendants: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murawski Judith

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about long-term adverse health consequences experienced by flight attendants exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS during the time smoking was allowed on airplanes. We undertook this study to evaluate the association between accumulated flight time in smoky airplane cabins and respiratory tract diseases in a cohort of never smoking flight attendants. Methods We conducted a mailed survey in a cohort of flight attendants. Of 15,000 mailed questionnaires, 2053 (14% were completed and returned. We excluded respondents with a personal history of smoking (n = 748 and non smokers with a history of respiratory tract diseases before the age of 18 years (n = 298. The remaining 1007 respondents form the study sample. Results The overall study sample was predominantly white (86% and female (89%, with a mean age of 54 years. Overall, 69.7% of the respondents were diagnosed with at least one respiratory tract disease. Among these respondents, 43.4% reported a diagnosis of sinusitis, 40.3% allergies, 30.8% bronchitis, 23.2% middle ear infections, 13.6% asthma, 13.4% hay fever, 12.5% pneumonia, and 2.0% chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. More hours in a smoky cabin were observed to be significantly associated with sinusitis (OR = 1.21; p = 0.024, middle ear infections (OR = 1.30; p = 0.006, and asthma (OR = 1.26; p = 0.042. Conclusion We observed a significant association between hours of smoky cabin exposure and self-reported reported sinusitis, middle ear infections, and asthma. Our findings suggest a dose-response between duration of SHS exposure and diseases of the respiratory tract. Our findings add additional evidence to the growing body of knowledge supporting the need for widespread implementation of clean indoor air policies to decrease the risk of adverse health consequences experienced by never smokers exposed to SHS.

  10. Seasonal behavior of radon decay products in indoor air and resulting radiation dose to human respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.A. Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of radiation hazard of indoor radon is largely due to the radon progenies, which are inhaled and deposited in the human respiratory tract. It is essential to evaluate aerodynamic characteristics of the radon progenies, which are either attached or unattached to aerosol particles, because the dose is strongly dependent on the location of deposition in respiratory tract and hence on the aerodynamic characteristics of the aerosol particles. This paper presents the seasonal behavior of radon decay products in indoor air under domestic conditions at Nagoya University, Japan. A low pressure cascade impactor as an instrument for classifying aerosol sizes and imaging plate as a radiation detector have been employed to characterize the activity size distribution of short-lived radon decay products. In parallel, radon and its progenies concentrations were measured. Taking into account the progeny characteristics, the inhalation dose in the different seasons was also estimated based on a lung dose model with the structure that is related to the ICRP66 respiratory tract model. The result evident that, the highest dose 0.22 mSvy−1 was observed during the winter where the highest value of equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon (EEC and lowest value of the activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD were found in this season; whereas, the dose in spring appeared to be lowest 0.02 mSvy−1.

  11. Radon and daughters in cigarette smoke measured with SSNTD and corresponding committed equivalent dose to respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Flata, K.

    2003-01-01

    Uranium ( 238 U) and Thorium ( 232 Th) contents were measured inside various tobacco samples by using a method based on determining detection efficiencies of the CR-39 and LR-115 II solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) for the emitted alpha particles. Alpha and beta activities per unit volume, due to radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn) and their decay products, were evaluated inside cigarette smokes of tobacco samples studied. Annual committed equivalent doses due to short-lived radon decay products from the inhalation of various cigarette smokes were determined in the thoracic and extrathoracic regions of the respiratory tract. Three types of cigarettes made in Morocco of black tobacco show higher annual committed equivalent doses in the extrathoracic and thoracic regions of the respiratory tract than the other studied cigarettes (except one type of cigarettes made in France of yellow tobacco); their corresponding annual committed equivalent dose ratios are larger than 1.8. Measured annual committed equivalent doses ranged from 1.8x10 -9 to 1.10x10 -3 Sv yr -1 in the extrathoracic region and from 1.3x10 -10 to 7.6x10 -6 Sv yr -1 in the thoracic region of the respiratory tract for a smoker consuming 20 cigarettes a day

  12. Characteristics of patients with influenza-like illness, severe acture respiratory illness, and laboratory-confirmed influenza at a major children's hospital in Angola, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Yolanda; Oliveira, Erika; Vasconcelos, Jocelyne; Cohen, Adam L; Francisco, Moises

    2012-12-15

    There are no published data on influenza trends in Angola, where pneumonia is a leading cause of death among young children. This study aims to describe the seasonal trends, types, and subtypes of influenza virus recovered from patients with respiratory illness who were admitted to the major children's hospital in Angola from May 2009 through April 2011. Nasal and oral swabs were collected from patients seen in the outpatient clinic with influenza-like illness (ILI) or hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and tested for influenza virus by polymerase chain reaction assays. Of 691 samples collected, 334 (48%) were from case patients with ILI, and 357 (52%) were from case patients with SARI. Most (86%) of these children were Angola.

  13. Predictors of bronchodilator responsiveness in infants with wheezing associated respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerojanawong, J; Prapphal, N

    1994-07-01

    The responsiveness to bronchodilator is variable in infants with wheezing associated respiratory illness (WARI). Factors for prediction of the response will lead to more rational use of the bronchodilator in these infants. We examined the possible predictive factors in 44 children under 2 years of age who had their first episode of WARI. All of them were treated with 0.15 mg/kg of nebulized salbutamol. Thirty patients (68%) with decreasing clinical score > or = 3 after treatment were considered as the responders while the remainder (14 infants) were non responders. By using Chi-square test, Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney U test to compare the data of the 2 groups, the significant factors for the responders were older than 6 months and history of previous LRI (p < 0.01). The significant factors for the non-responders included concurrent diarrhea, patchy pulmonary infiltration and positive RSV in the nasopharyngeal secretion (p < 0.01). These results suggested effective bronchodilator therapy in infants older than 6 months or having a history of previous LRI. Those who had acute RSV infection or patchy infiltration in chest X-ray and associated diarrhea were less likely to respond.

  14. Procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment of respiratory tract infections in a primary care setting: are we there yet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, R.; Jensen, J.U.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical signs of infection do not allow for correct identification of bacterial and viral aetiology in acute respiratory infections. A valid tool to assist the clinician in identifying patients who will benefit from antibiotic therapy, as well as patients with a potentially serious infection, co...... are likely to benefit from antibiotic treatment and to rule out serious infections, and comments on further research to determine a future role for procalcitonin in primary care......Clinical signs of infection do not allow for correct identification of bacterial and viral aetiology in acute respiratory infections. A valid tool to assist the clinician in identifying patients who will benefit from antibiotic therapy, as well as patients with a potentially serious infection......, could greatly improve patient care and limit excessive antibiotic prescriptions. Procalcitonin is a new marker of suspected bacterial infection that has shown promise in guiding antibiotic therapy in acute respiratory tract infections in hospitals without compromising patient safety. Procalcitonin...

  15. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates and childhood respiratory tract infections and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Mireia; Casas, Maribel; Morales, Eva; Valvi, Damaskini; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Luque, Noelia; Rubio, Soledad; Monfort, Núria; Ventura, Rosa; Martínez, David; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-02-01

    There is growing concern that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, which are widely used in consumer products, might affect susceptibility to infections and the development of allergy and asthma in children, but there are currently very few prospective studies. We sought to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to BPA and phthalates increases the risk of respiratory and allergic outcomes in children at various ages from birth to 7 years. We measured BPA and metabolites of high-molecular-weight phthalates, 4 di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites (Σ4DEHP) and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and 3 low-molecular-weight phthalate (LMWP) metabolites (Σ3LMWP) in urine samples collected during the first and third trimesters in pregnant women participating in the Infancia y Medio Ambiente-Sabadell birth cohort study. The occurrence of chest infections, bronchitis, wheeze, and eczema in children was assessed at ages 6 and 14 months and 4 and 7 years through questionnaires given to the mothers. Atopy (specific IgE measurement) and asthma (questionnaire) were assessed at ages 4 and 7 years, respectively. The relative risks (RRs) of wheeze (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40; P = .02), chest infections (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.00-1.32; P = .05), and bronchitis (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.37; P = .04) at any age increased for each doubling in concentration of maternal urinary BPA. Σ4DEHP metabolites were associated with the same outcomes (wheeze: RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.04-1.50, P = .02; chest infections: RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.97-1.35; P = .11; bronchitis: RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.43; P = .04). MBzP was associated with higher risk of wheeze (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.00-1.33; P = .05). The risk of asthma at age 7 years was also increased with increasing prenatal BPA, Σ4DEHP, and MBzP exposure. There were no other exposure-outcome associations. Prenatal exposure to BPA and high-molecular-weight phthalates might increase the risk of asthma symptoms and respiratory tract

  16. Upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota in horses: bacterial communities associated with health and mild asthma (inflammatory airway disease) and effects of dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Stephanie L; Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Alexander, Trevor; Léguillette, Renaud

    2017-08-23

    The microbial composition of the equine respiratory tract, and differences due to mild equine asthma (also called Inflammatory Airway Disease (IAD)) have not been reported. The primary treatment for control of IAD in horses are corticosteroids. The objectives were to characterize the upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota associated with respiratory health and IAD, and to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on these bacterial communities using high throughput sequencing. The respiratory microbiota of horses was dominated by four major phyla, Proteobacteria (43.85%), Actinobacteria (21.63%), Firmicutes (16.82%), and Bacteroidetes (13.24%). Fifty genera had a relative abundance > 0.1%, with Sphingomonas and Pantoea being the most abundant. The upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota differed in healthy horses, with a decrease in richness in the lower airways, and 2 OTUs that differed in abundance. There was a separation between bacterial communities in the lower respiratory tract of healthy and IAD horses; 6 OTUs in the tracheal community had different abundance with disease status, with Streptococcus being increased in IAD horses. Treatment with dexamethasone had an effect on the lower respiratory tract microbiota of both heathy and IAD horses, with 8 OTUs increasing in abundance (including Streptococcus) and 1 OTU decreasing. The lower respiratory tract microbiota differed between healthy and IAD horses. Further research on the role of Streptococcus in IAD is warranted. Dexamethasone treatment affected the lower respiratory tract microbiota, which suggests that control of bacterial overgrowth in IAD horses treated with dexamethasone could be part of the treatment strategy.

  17. [Respiratory infections caused by Aspergillus spp. in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Lerma, F; Olaechea Astigarraga, P; Palomar Martínez, M; Rodríguez Carvajal, M; Machado Casas, J F; Jiménez Quintana, M M; Esteve Urbano, F; Ballesteros Herráez, J C; Zavala Zegarra, E

    2015-04-01

    The presence of respiratory fungal infection in the critically ill patient is associated with high morbidity and mortality. To assess the incidence of respiratory infection caused by Aspergillus spp. independently of the origin of infection in patients admitted to Spanish ICUs, as well as to describe the rates, characteristics, outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with this type of infection. An observational, retrospective, open-label and multicenter study was carried out in a cohort of patients with respiratory infection caused by Aspergillus spp. admitted to Spanish ICUs between 2006 and 2012 (months of April, May and June), and included in the ENVIN-HELICS registry (108,244 patients and 825,797 days of ICU stay). Variables independently related to in-hospital mortality were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 267 patients from 79 of the 198 participating ICUs were included (2.46 cases per 1000 ICU patients and 3.23 episodes per 10,000 days of ICU stay). From a clinical point of view, infections were classified as ventilator-associated pneumonia in 93 cases (34.8%), pneumonia unrelated to mechanical ventilation in 120 cases (44.9%), and tracheobronchitis in 54 cases (20.2%). The study population included older patients (mean 64.8±17.1 years), with a high severity level (APACHE II score 22.03±7.7), clinical diseases (64.8%) and prolonged hospital stay before the identification of Aspergillus spp. (median 11 days), transferred to the ICU mainly from hospital wards (58.1%) and with high ICU (57.3%) and hospital (59.6%) mortality rates, exhibiting important differences depending on the type of infection involved. Independent mortality risk factors were previous admission to a hospital ward (OR=7.08, 95%CI: 3.18-15.76), a history of immunosuppression (OR=2.52, 95%CI: 1.24-5.13) and severe sepsis or septic shock (OR=8.91, 95%CI: 4.24-18.76). Respiratory infections caused by Aspergillus spp. in critically ill patients admitted to

  18. Comparisons of calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles based on the NCRP/ITRI model and the new ICRP66 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Phalen, R.F. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Chang, I. [Lovelace Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in the United States and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been independently reviewing and revising respiratory tract dosimetry models for inhaled radioactive aerosols. The newly proposed NCRP respiratory tract dosimetry model represents a significant change in philosophy from the old ICRP Task Group model. The proposed NCRP model describes respiratory tract deposition, clearance, and dosimetry for radioactive substances inhaled by workers and the general public and is expected to be published soon. In support of the NCRP proposed model, ITRI staff members have been developing computer software. Although this software is still incomplete, the deposition portion has been completed and can be used to calculate inhaled particle deposition within the respiratory tract for particle sizes as small as radon and radon progeny ({approximately} 1 nm) to particles larger than 100 {mu}m. Recently, ICRP published their new dosimetric model for the respiratory tract, ICRP66. Based on ICRP66, the National Radiological Protection Board of the UK developed PC-based software, LUDEP, for calculating particle deposition and internal doses. The purpose of this report is to compare the calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles using the NCRP/ITRI model and the ICRP66 model, under the same particle size distribution and breathing conditions. In summary, the general trends of the deposition curves for the two models were similar.

  19. Comparisons of calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles based on the NCRP/ITRI model and the new ICRP66 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Phalen, R.F.; Chang, I.

    1995-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in the United States and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been independently reviewing and revising respiratory tract dosimetry models for inhaled radioactive aerosols. The newly proposed NCRP respiratory tract dosimetry model represents a significant change in philosophy from the old ICRP Task Group model. The proposed NCRP model describes respiratory tract deposition, clearance, and dosimetry for radioactive substances inhaled by workers and the general public and is expected to be published soon. In support of the NCRP proposed model, ITRI staff members have been developing computer software. Although this software is still incomplete, the deposition portion has been completed and can be used to calculate inhaled particle deposition within the respiratory tract for particle sizes as small as radon and radon progeny (∼ 1 nm) to particles larger than 100 μm. Recently, ICRP published their new dosimetric model for the respiratory tract, ICRP66. Based on ICRP66, the National Radiological Protection Board of the UK developed PC-based software, LUDEP, for calculating particle deposition and internal doses. The purpose of this report is to compare the calculated respiratory tract deposition of particles using the NCRP/ITRI model and the ICRP66 model, under the same particle size distribution and breathing conditions. In summary, the general trends of the deposition curves for the two models were similar

  20. Respiratory tract infection is the major cause of the ambulatory visits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lue KoHuang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As children represent the future, ensuring that they receive proper health care should be a primary concern of our societies. Epidemiological research underpins the importance of effective child health care strategies, and highlights the need for accurate data collection; such surveys are currently lacking in Taiwan. In our descriptive studies, we compared the differences of the ten most common diseases in the year 2000 and 2009 among Taiwanese children. Methods Data for a total of 174,651 and 142,200 visits under eighteen years old were collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in year 2000 and 2009. A maximum of three outpatient diagnostic codes (the International Classification of Disease [ICD], ninth revision could be listed for every visit. Data were categorized according to the principal diagnoses, age and different specialties of physicians. Results Respiratory tract infection was the most common disease (58.21% to 44.77%. Teeth (4.90% to 5.16% and eye (2.52% to 3.15% problems were the also in the list of top ten diseases. In year 2009, the rate of allergic rhinitis was 2.87% in 7-18 years old group. Pediatricians were the first option for consultation, followed by ear, nose and throat specialists and family physicians. However, for the school age children group, the role of pediatricians with regards to children's health care showed a decrease in its importance. Conclusions The amount of information relevant to child health care is rapidly expanding. The ten most common diseases of the present analysis may serve as baseline data for future evaluations of the changes of type of diseases among children.

  1. Scintigraphic Evaluation of Esophageal Motility and Gastroesophageal Reflux in Patients Presenting with Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalachandran, Jaykanth; Simon, Shelley; Elangoven, Indirani; Jain, Avani; Sivathapandi, Thangalakshmi

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of Study: The purpose is to evaluate the findings and utility of esophageal transit scintigraphy (ETS) and gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy (GES) in patients presenting with upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms suspected to be due to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients aged between 19 and 60 years underwent nasopharyngolaryngoscopy (NPL), ETS, and GES. Correlation between GER, esophageal motility, and NPL was evaluated. Inclusion criteria include patients with recurrent URT symptoms such as chronic dry cough/hoarseness of voice and itching/foreign body sensation in throat. Those with typical gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of GER, URT symptoms relieved by antibiotics, surgical intervention in abdomen, cardiac/hepatobiliary diseases, etc. were excluded from the study. Results: Significant correlation was found between GER and NPL in 28/30 patients. More the grade of reflux, more severe was the NPL findings. Two patients with Grade II reflux had normal NPL suggesting structural inflammatory changes due to acidic pH of refluxate which have not yet manifested or symptoms could be due to nonacid refluxate. Incidence of esophageal motility disorder was statistically significant in patients with GER disease (GERD). Patients who had symptoms, but no demonstrable GER showed delayed ET in supine position suggesting the presence of esophageal motility disorder even before GERD. Conclusion: GES demonstrated GER in patients presenting with URT symptoms without typical GI symptoms. ETS showed coexistence of esophageal motility disorder in most patients presenting with URT symptoms even without an associated reflux disease. We hypothesize that primary abnormal esophageal motility leads to delayed esophageal clearance and consequently to URT symptoms. Addition of ETS to GES is easily feasible with no significant additional cost, time, or radiation burden. PMID:29430111

  2. Impact of immunosuppression on incidence, aetiology and outcome of ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Anne-Sophie; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Povoa, Pedro; Salluh, Jorge; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Thille, Arnaud W; Diaz Santos, Emilio; Vedes, Elisa; Lobo, Suzana Margareth; Mégarbane, Bruno; Molero Silvero, Esperanza; Coelho, Luis; Argaud, Laurent; Sanchez Iniesta, Rafael; Labreuche, Julien; Rouzé, Anahita; Nseir, Saad

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this planned analysis of the prospective multinational TAVeM database was to determine the incidence, aetiology and impact on outcome of ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTI) in immunocompromised patients.All patients receiving mechanical ventilation for >48 h were included. Immunocompromised patients (n=663) were compared with non-immunocompromised patients (n=2297).The incidence of VA-LRTI was significantly lower among immunocompromised than among non-immunocompromised patients (16.6% versus 24.2%; sub-hazard ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.53-0.80; p<0.0001). Similar results were found regarding ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (7.3% versus 11.6%; sub-hazard ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.84; p=0.002) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (9.3% versus 12.7%; sub-hazard ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.54-0.95; p=0.019). Among patients with VA-LRTI, the rates of multidrug-resistant bacteria (72% versus 59%; p=0.011) and intensive care unit mortality were significantly higher among immunocompromised than among non-immunocompromised patients (54% versus 30%; OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.78-4.02; p<0.0001). In patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, mortality rates were higher among immunocompromised than among non-immunocompromised patients (64% versus 34%; p<0.001).Incidence of VA-LRTI was significantly lower among immunocompromised patients, but it was associated with a significantly higher mortality rate. Multidrug-resistant pathogens were more frequently found in immunocompromised patients with VA-LRTI. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  3. Prevalence of allergy and upper respiratory tract symptoms in runners of the London marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson-Ansley, Paula; Howatson, Glyn; Tallent, Jamie; Mitcheson, Kelly; Walshe, Ian; Toms, Chris; DU Toit, George; Smith, Matt; Ansley, Les

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of self-reported upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms in athletes has been traditionally associated with opportunistic infection during the temporal suppression of immune function after prolonged exercise. There is little evidence for this, and a competing noninfectious hypothesis has been proposed, whereby the exercise-induced immune system modulations favor the development of atopy and allergic disease, which manifests as URT symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the association between allergy and URT symptoms in runners after an endurance running event. Two hundred eight runners from the 2010 London Marathon completed the validated Allergy Questionnaire for Athletes (AQUA) and had serum analyzed for total and specific immunoglobulin E response to common inhalant allergens. Participants who completed the marathon and nonrunning controls who lived in the same household were asked to complete a diary on URT symptoms. Forty percent of runners had allergy as defined by both a positive AQUA and elevated specific immunoglobulin E. Forty-seven percent of runners experienced URT symptoms after the marathon. A positive AQUA was a significant predictor of postmarathon URT symptoms in runners. Only 19% of nonrunning controls reported symptoms. The prevalence of allergy in recreational marathon runners was similar to that in elite athletes and higher than that in the general population. There was a strong association between a positive AQUA and URT symptoms. The low proportion of households in which both runners and nonrunners were symptomatic suggests that the nature of symptoms may be allergic or inflammatory based rather than infectious. Allergy is a treatable condition, and its potential effect on performance and health may be avoided by accurate clinical diagnosis and management. Both athletes' and coaches' awareness of the potential implications of poorly managed allergy needs to be raised.

  4. Clinical Characteristic and Outcome of Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystle Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (ALRTI is the leading cause of deaths in children under 5 years of age worldwide, and has high morbidity and mortality in children with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD. The objective of this study was to obtain the incidence, clinical characteristic, and outcome of ALRTI children with CHD. Methods: A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted from January 2007–December 2011 to medical record of child patients with ALRTI and CHD in the Department of Child Health of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung. The diagnosis of CHD was determined by echocardiography. The collected data was analyzed and presented in percentage shown in tables. Results : From 3,897 children who had ALRTI, there were 149 children with CHD (3.8%, with 11.4% of whom founded with recurrent episodes. This happened often in girls than boys with quite similar ratio of 1.37: 1.The majority of children (80% was under 1 year old of age, 72.5% with malnutrition, and 24.8% with severe malnutrition. Clinical symptoms mostly found were difficulty of breathing (98%, fever (85.2%, cough (75.2%, and runny nose (63.1%. The most common types of CHD were Patent Ductus Arteriosus (47.6%, followed by Ventricular Septal Defect (47%. Bronchopneumonia (86.6% was the common type of ALRTI. The length of stay was mostly less than 10 days (70.5%. From all the children 43.7% had complications, and 6.7% died. Conclusions: The ALRTI in children with CHD is not common and has good outcome. The majority for CHD lesions are Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Ventricular Septal Defect while for ALRTI is Bronchopneumonia.

  5. Four country healthcare-associated infection prevalence survey: pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2010-03-01

    In 2006, the Hospital Infection Society was funded by the respective health services in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland to conduct a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Here, we report the prevalence of pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infection other than pneumonia (LRTIOP) in these four countries. The prevalence of all HCAIs was 7.59% (5743 out of 75 694). Nine hundred (15.7%) of these infections were pneumonia, and 402 (7.0%) were LRTIOP. The prevalence of both infections was higher for males than for females, and increased threefold from those aged <35 to those aged >85 years (P<0.001). At the time of the survey or in the preceding seven days, 23.7% and 18.2% of patients with pneumonia and LRTIOP, respectively, were mechanically ventilated compared to 5.2% of patients in the whole study population. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was the cause of pneumonia and LRTIOP in 7.6% and 18.1% of patients, respectively (P<0.001). More patients with LRTIOP (4.2%) had concurrent diarrhoea due to Clostridium difficile compared to patients with pneumonia (2.4%), but this did not reach statistical significance. Other HCAIs were present in 137 (15.2%) of patients with pneumonia and 66 (16.4%) of those with LRTIOP. The results suggest that reducing instrumentation, such as mechanical ventilation where possible, should help reduce infection. The higher prevalence of MRSA as a cause of LRTIOP suggests a lack of specificity in identifying the microbial cause and the association with C. difficile emphasises the need for better use of antibiotics.

  6. Prevention and treatment of diarrhoea with Saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, L-S; Hou, P; Wang, Z-J; Liu, F-R; Chen, N; Shu, L-H; Zhang, H; Han, X-H; Han, X-X; Cai, X-X; Shang, Y-X; Vandenplas, Y

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Saccharomyces boulardii prevents and treats diarrhoea and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) in children. A total of 333 hospitalised children with acute lower respiratory tract infection were enrolled in a 2-phase open randomised controlled trial. During the 1st phase, all children received intravenous antibiotics (AB). They were randomly allocated to group A (S. boulardii 500 mg/day + AB, n=167) or group B (AB alone, n=166) and followed for 2 weeks. Diarrhoea was defined as ≥3 loose/watery stools/day during at least 2 days, occurring during treatment and/or up to 2 weeks after AB therapy had stopped. AAD was considered when diarrhoea was caused by Clostridium difficile or when stool cultures remained negative. In the 2nd phase of the study, group B patients who developed diarrhoea were randomly allocated to two sub-groups: group B1 (S. boulardii + oral rehydration solution (ORS)) and group B2 (ORS alone). Data from 283 patients were available for analysis. Diarrhoea prevalence was lower in group A than in group B (11/139 (7.9%) vs. 42/144 (29.2%); relative risk (RR): 0.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.5). S. boulardii reduced the risk of AAD (6/139 (4.3%) vs. 28/144 (19.4%); RR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.1-0.5). When group B patients developed diarrhoea (n=42), S. boulardii treatment during 5 days (group B1) resulted in lower stool frequency (Pboulardii were observed. S. boulardii appeared to be effective in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea and AAD in children treated with intravenous antibiotics.

  7. Streptococcus himalayensis sp. nov., isolated from the respiratory tract of Marmota himalayana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lina; Lu, Shan; Lai, Xin-He; Hu, Shoukui; Chen, Cuixia; Zhang, Gui; Yang, Jing; Jin, Dong; Wang, Yi; Lan, Ruiting; Lu, Gang; Xie, Yingping; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Five strains of Gram-positive-staining, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped, chain-forming organisms isolated separately from the respiratory tracts of five Marmota himalayana animals in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China were subjected to phenotypic and molecular taxonomic analyses. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that these singular organisms represent a new member of the genus Streptococcus, being phylogenetically closest to Streptococcus marmotae DSM 101995T (98.4 % similarity). The groEL, sodA and rpoB sequence analysis showed interspecies similarity values between HTS2T and Streptococcus. marmotae DSM 101995T, its closest phylogenetic relative based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, of 98.2, 78.8 and 93.7 %, respectively. A whole-genome phylogenetic tree built from 82 core genes of genomes from 16 species of the genus Streptococcus validated that HTS2T forms a distinct subline and exhibits specific phylogenetic affinity with S. marmotae. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization of HTS2T showed an estimated DNA reassociation value of 40.5 % with Streptococcus. marmotae DSM 101995T. On the basis of their phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic findings, it is proposed that the five isolates be classified as representatives of a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, Streptococcus himalayensis sp. nov. The type strain is HTS2T (=DSM 101997T=CGMCC 1.15533T). The genome of Streptococcus himalayensis sp. nov. strain HTS2T contains 2195 genes with a size of 2 275 471 bp and a mean DNA G+C content of 41.3 mol%.

  8. Impact on respiratory tract infections of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesati Laura

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and public health importance of pneumococcal infections justifies the implementation of measures capable of reducing their incidence and severity, and explains why the recently marketed heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7 has been widely studied by pediatricians. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of PCV-7 administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age on respiratory tract infections in very young children. Methods A total of 1,571 healthy infants (910 males aged 75–105 days (median 82 days were enrolled in this prospective cohort trial to receive a hexavalent vaccine (DTaP/IPV/HBV/Hib and PCV-7 (n = 819 or the hexavalent vaccine alone (n = 752 at 3, 5 and 11 months of age. Morbidity was recorded for the 24 months following the second dose by monthly telephone interviews conducted by investigators blinded to the study treatment assignment using standardised questionnaires. During these interviews, the caregivers and the children's pediatricians were questioned about illnesses and the use of antibiotics since the previous telephone call. All of the data were analysed using SAS Windows v.12. Results Among the 1,555 subjects (98.9% who completed the study, analysis of the data by the periods of follow-up demonstrated that radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP was significantly less frequent in the PCV-7 group during the follow-up as a whole and during the last period of follow-up. Moreover, there were statistically significant between-group differences in the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM in each half-year period of follow-up except the first, with significantly lower number of episodes in children receiving PCV-7 than in controls. Furthermore, the antibiotic prescription data showed that the probability of receiving an antibiotic course was significantly lower in the PCV-7 group than in the control group. Conclusion Our findings show the effectiveness of the simplified

  9. Reduced nasal IL-10 and enhanced TNFalpha responses during rhinovirus and RSV-induced upper respiratory tract infection in atopic and non-atopic infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benten, I. J.; van Drunen, C. M.; Koevoet, J. L. M.; Koopman, L. P.; Hop, W. C. J.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Neijens, H. J.; Fokkens, W. J.

    2005-01-01

    Rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are the most prevalent inducers of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in infants and may stimulate immune maturation. To estimate the amount of immune stimulation, nasal immune responses were examined during rhinovirus and RSV-induced URTI in

  10. Effect of Antimicrobial Consumption and Production Type on Antibacterial Resistance in the Bovine Respiratory and Digestive Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudewijn Catry

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial use and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the digestive and respiratory tract in three different production systems of food producing animals. A longitudinal study was set up in 25 Belgian bovine herds (10 dairy, 10 beef, and 5 veal herds for a 2 year monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities in E. coli and Pasteurellaceae retrieved from the rectum and the nasal cavity, respectively. During the first year of observation, the antimicrobial use was prospectively recorded on 15 of these farms (5 of each production type and transformed into the treatment incidences according to the (animal defined daily dose (TIADD and (actually used daily dose (TIUDD. Antimicrobial resistance rates of 4,174 E. coli (all herds and 474 Pasteurellaceae (beef and veal herds only isolates for 12 antimicrobial agents demonstrated large differences between intensively reared veal calves (abundant and inconstant and more extensively reared dairy and beef cattle (sparse and relatively stable. Using linear mixed effect models, a strong relation was found between antimicrobial treatment incidences and resistance profiles of 1,639 E. coli strains (p<0.0001 and 309 Pasteurellaceae (p≤0.012. These results indicate that a high antimicrobial selection pressure, here found to be represented by low dosages of oral prophylactic and therapeutic group medication, converts not only the commensal microbiota from the digestive tract but also the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract into reservoirs of multi-resistance.

  11. Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) sinus tumors are associated with coinfections by potentially pathogenic bacteria in the upper respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Karen A; Rouse, Natalie M; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Griffin, Karen A; Killion, Halcyon J; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Edwards, William H; Quackenbush, Sandra L; Miller, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) sinus tumors are hyperplastic to neoplastic, predominantly stromal masses of the paranasal sinuses that expand the sinus lining and obstruct the sinus cavities. Obstruction of the sinus cavities and disruption of normal sinus lining anatomy may interfere with clearance of bacterial pathogens from the upper respiratory tract. To examine this possibility, we explored whether the presence of sinus tumor features (tumor score) affected the likelihood of detecting potentially pathogenic bacteria from upper respiratory sinus lining tissues in bighorn sheep. We developed or used existing PCR assays for the detection of leukotoxigenic Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in sinus lining tissues collected from 97 bighorn sheep in Colorado, US from 2009 to 2012. With the use of logistic regression analyses we found that tumor score was a good predictor of the probability of detecting potentially pathogenic bacteria in sinus lining tissues; we were more likely to detect potentially pathogenic bacteria from samples with high tumor scores. These findings add to our understanding of possible mechanisms for the maintenance and shedding of bacterial agents from the upper respiratory tracts of bighorn sheep.

  12. Clinical risk factors for life-threatening lower respiratory tract infections in children: a retrospective study in an urban city in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Anna Marie; Rani, Fairuz; Lee, Rachel Jiun Yi; Zaki, Rafdzah; Westerhout, Caroline; Sam, I-Ching; Lum, Lucy Chai See; de Bruyne, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in low income countries. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors of life-threatening LRTIs in hospitalised children in Malaysia. This retrospective study included children aged less than 18 years admitted for LRTIs over 13 months in a tertiary referral centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Neonates, children with asthma and those with either no or a normal chest radiograph were excluded. Life-threatening infection was defined as that needing non-invasive ventilation or admission to the paediatric intensive care unit. Routine blood investigations and nasopharyngeal secretion results (bacterial and viral) were obtained. Chest radiographs were reviewed by a designated radiologist. Environmental data (rainfall, particulate matter ≤ 10 µm [PM10] and air pollution index [API]) was obtained from the respective government departments. Three hundred and ninety-one episodes of LRTIs were included. Viruses were implicated in 48.5% of LRTIs, with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) being detected in 44% of viral LRTIs. Forty-six (11.8%) children had life-threatening disease and the overall mortality rate was 1.3% (5 children). RSV was detected in 26% of children with life-threatening LRTIs. In multivariate logistic regression, chronic lung disease, presenting history of apnoea and signs of hypoxia, was associated with life threatening LRTIs. Increased LRTI admissions were associated with low rainfall but not PM10 nor API. Of those on follow-up, 39% had persistent respiratory symptoms. One in nine children admitted with LRTI had a life-threatening LRTI. The aetiology was viral in almost half of admitted children. RSV was detected in a quarter of children with life-threatening LRTIs. Children who present with LRTIs and either have chronic lung disease, presenting history of apnoea or signs of hypoxia, should be observed carefully as the risk of deterioration to life

  13. Clinical score and arterial oxygen saturation in children with wheezing associated respiratory illness (WARI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritippayawan, S; Deerojanawong, J; Prapphal, N

    2000-10-01

    To determine the correlation between clinical score (based on respiratory rate, chest wall retractions, air entry, wheezing, consciousness and audible wheezing) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2: measured by pulse oximetry) as well as the most appropriate total score for predicting hypoxemia (SaO2 WARI). 70 children (1 month-5 years old) hospitalized in the Department of Pediatrics, Chulalongkorn Hospital with the diagnosis of WARI from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996 were studied. Half of them were diagnosed to have acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) with wheezing while the remainder had reactive airway disease (RAD). Cross sectional, analytical study. In each group of patients, the clinical score and SaO2 were assessed by the same pediatrician throughout the study. The correlation between the clinical signs and SaO2 as well as the cut off point of total score for predicting hypoxemia were analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of that total score in predicting hypoxemia were also calculated. In both groups of patients (acute LRI with wheezing and RAD group), the clinical signs correlated with SaO2 were wheezing (rs = -0.67 and -0.47 respectively) and chest wall retractions (rs = -0.57 and -0.59 respectively). Total score was also correlated with SaO2 (rs = -0.68 and -0.5 respectively). The cut off point of total score in predicting hypoxemia was 4 providing 80 per cent sensitivity in both groups with accuracy 74.3 per cent and 80 per cent respectively. This clinical score may be used to assess the severity of hypoxemia in WARI patients. Wheezing, chest wall retractions and total score correlated well with SaO2. The total score > 4 was most appropriate in predicting hypoxemia in both children with RAD and wheezing associated with LRI.

  14. Acute respiratory symptoms and general illness during the first year of life: a population-based birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Larsen, Karina

    2008-01-01

    . Determinants for respiratory symptoms were increasing age, winter season, household size, size of residence, day-care attendance, and having siblings aged 1-3 years attending a day nursery. In conclusion, the present study provides detailed data on the occurrence of disease symptoms during the first year......Respiratory symptoms are common in infancy. Most illnesses occurring among children are dealt with by parents and do not require medical attention. Nevertheless, few studies have prospectively and on a community-basis assessed the amount of respiratory symptoms and general illness in normal infants...... out by multiple logistic regression analysis. On average, children had general symptoms for 3.5 months during their first year of life, nasal discharge being most frequent followed by cough. Frequency of all symptoms increased steeply after 6 months of age. Each child had on average 6.3 episodes...

  15. The cost of lower respiratory tract infections hospital admissions in the Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Banerji

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Inuit infants who reside in the Nunavut (NU regions of Arctic Canada have extremely high rates of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs associated with significant health expenditures, but the costs in other regions of Arctic Canada have not been documented. Objective . This prospective surveillance compares, across most of Arctic Canada, the rates and costs associated with LRTI admissions in infants less than 1 year of age, and the days of hospitalization and costs adjusted per live birth. Design . This was a hospital-based surveillance of LRTI admissions of infants less than 1 year of age, residing in Northwest Territories (NT, the 3 regions of Nunavut (NU; [Kitikmeot (KT, Kivalliq (KQ and Qikiqtani (QI] and Nunavik (NK from 1 January 2009 to 30 June 2010. Costs were obtained from the territorial or regional governments and hospitals, and included transportation, hospital stay, physician fees and accommodation costs. The rates of LRTI hospitalizations, days of hospitalization and associated costs were calculated per live birth in each of the 5 regions. Results . There were 513 LRTI admissions during the study period. For NT, KT, KQ, QI and NK, the rates of LRTI hospitalization per 100 live births were 38, 389, 230, 202 and 445, respectively. The total days of LRTI admission per live birth were 0.25, 3.3, 2.6, 1.7 and 3 for the above regions. The average cost per live birth for LRTI admission for these regions was $1,412, $22,375, $14,608, $8,254 and $10,333. The total cost for LRTI was $1,498,232 in NT, $15,662,968 in NU and $3,874,881 in NK. Medical transportation contributed to a significant proportion of the costs. Conclusion . LRTI admission rates in NU and Nunavik are much higher than that in NT and remain among the highest rates globally. The costs of these admissions are exceptionally high due to the combination of very high rates of admission, very expensive medical evacuations and prolonged hospitalizations

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Therapy in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner C. Albrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 14 randomized controlled studies to date, a procalcitonin (PCT-based algorithm has been proven to markedly reduce the use of antibiotics along with an unimpaired high safety and low complication rates in patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs. However, compliance with the algorithm and safety out of controlled study conditions has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Methods: We performed a prospective international multicenter observational post-study surveillance of consecutive adults with community-acquired LRTI in 14 centers (Switzerland (n = 10, France (n = 3 and the United States (n = 1. Results: Between September 2009 and November 2010, 1,759 patients were enrolled (median age 71; female sex 44.4%. 1,520 (86.4% patients had a final diagnosis of LRTI (community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, 53.7%; acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD, 17.1%; and acute bronchitis, 14.4%. Compliance with the PCT-guided therapy (overall 68.2% was highest in patients with bronchitis (81.0% vs. AECOPD, 70.1%; CAP, 63.7%; p < 0.001, outpatients (86.1% vs. inpatients, 65.9%; p < 0.001 and algorithm-experienced centers (82.5% vs. algorithm-naive, 60.1%; p < 0.001 and showed significant geographical differences. The initial decision about the antibiotic therapy was based on PCT value in 72.4%. In another 8.6% of patients, antibiotics were administered despite low PCT values but according to predefined criteria. Thus, the algorithm was followed in 81.0% of patients. In a multivariable Cox hazard ratio model, longer antibiotic therapy duration was associated with algorithm-non-compliance, country, hospitalization, CAP vs. bronchitis, renal failure and algorithm-naïvety of the study center. In a multivariable logistic regression complications (death, empyema, ICU treatment, mechanical ventilation, relapse, and antibiotic-associated side effects were significantly associated with increasing CURB65-Score, CAP

  17. Fungi-Induced Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Allergic Diseases: One Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Barac

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Aspergillus can cause different allergic diseases including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS. ABPA is allergic pulmonary disease against Aspergillus antigens. AFRS is a type of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS presented as hypersensitivity reactions to the fungal presence in sinuses. The aim of the present study was to clarify if ABPA and AFRS could be considered as a common disease entity.Methodology: The prospective cohort study included 75 patients with ABPA. Patients were divided into two groups and compared with each other: (i patients with CT confirmation of rhinosinusitis and presence of fungi in sinuses (ABPA+AFRS group and (ii patients without CT or without mycological evidence of AFRS (ABPA group.Results: Findings of this study were: (i AFRS was confirmed in 80% of patients with ABPA; (ii all ABPA+AFRS patients had allergic mucin while fungal hyphae were present in 60% sinonasal aspirate; (iii ABPA+AFRS patients had more often complicated CRS with (nasal polyps NP (p < 0.001 and more severe forms of CRS; (iv culture of sinonasal aspirate revealed fungal presence in 97% patients with ABPA+AFRS; (v patients with ABPA+AFRS had more common positive skin prick test (SPT for A. fumigatus (p = 0.037, while patients without AFRS had more common positive SPT for Alternaria alternata and Penicillium notatum (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively; (vi 67% of ABPA patients had Aspergillus induced AFRS; (vii larger number of fungi was isolated from the air-samples obtained from homes of patients with ABPA+AFRS than from the homes of patients without AFRS, while the most predominant species were A. fumigatus and A. niger isolated from almost 50% of the air-samples.Conclusion: The pathogenesis of ABPA and AFRS is similar, and AFRS can be considered as the upper airway counterpart of ABPA. Fungi-induced upper and lower respiratory tract allergic diseases present common entity. Next studies

  18. Seroepidemiology of upper respiratory tract disease in the desert tortoise of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary B.; Berry, Kristin H.; Schumacher, Isabella M.; Nagy, Kenneth A.; Christopher, Mary M.; Klein, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    Several factors have combined with an upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) to produce declines on some population numbers of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) in the western USA. This study was designed to determine the seroepidemiology of URTD in a population of wild adult tortoises at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area (DTNA) study site in Kern County (California, USA). Prior to initiation of the study, there was a dramatic decline in the number of individuals in this population. At each individual time point, samples were obtained from 12 to 20 tortoises with radiotransmitters during winter, spring, summer, and fall from 1992 through 1995. During the course of the study, 35 animals were sampled at one or more times. Only 10 animals were available for consistent monitoring throughout the 4 yr period. Specific antibody (Ab) levels to Mycoplasma agassizii were determined for individual tortoises by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Specific Ab levels were not influenced by the gender of the tortoise. Levels of Ab and distribution of ELISA+, ELISA– and suspect animals were not consistently affected by season within a single year or for a season among the study years. Significantly more tortoises presented with clinical signs in 1992 and 1995. The profile of ELISA+ animals with clinical signs shifted from 5% (1992) to 42% (1995). In 1992, 52% of tortoises lacked clinical signs and were ELISA–. In 1995, this category accounted for only 19% of tortoises. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that URTD was present in this population as evidenced by the presence of ELISA+ individual animals, and that the infectious agent is still present as evidenced by seroconversion of previously ELISA– animals during the course of the study. There is evidence to suggest that animals may remain ELISA+ without showing overt disease, a clinical pattern consistent with the chronic nature of most mycoplasmal infections. Further, there are

  19. The sensitivity and the specifity of rapid antigen test in streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurol, Yesim; Akan, Hulya; Izbirak, Guldal; Tekkanat, Zuhal Tazegun; Gunduz, Tehlile Silem; Hayran, Osman; Yilmaz, Gulden

    2010-06-01

    It is aimed to detect the sensitivity and specificity of rapid antigen detection of group A beta hemolytic streptococci from throat specimen compared with throat culture. The other goal of the study is to help in giving clinical decisions in upper respiratory tract infections according to the age group, by detection of sensitivity and positive predictive values of the rapid tests and throat cultures. Rapid antigen detection and throat culture results for group A beta hemolytic streptococci from outpatients attending to our university hospital between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008 were evaluated retrospectively. Throat samples were obtained by swabs from the throat and transported in the Stuart medium and Quickvue Strep A [Quidel, San Diego, USA] cassette test was applied and for culture, specimen was inoculated on 5% blood sheep agar and identified according to bacitracin and trimethoprim-sulphametaxazole susceptibility from beta hemolytic colonies. During the dates between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008, from 453 patients both rapid antigen detection and throat culture were evaluated. Rapid antigen detection sensitivity and specificity were found to be 64.6% and 96.79%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 80.95% whereas negative predictive value was 92.82%. Kappa index was 0.91. When the results were evaluated according to the age groups, the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of rapid antigen detection in children were 70%, 90.3% and in adults 59.4%, 70.4%. When bacterial infection is concerned to prevent unnecessary antibiotic use, rapid streptococcal antigen test (RSAT) is a reliable method to begin immediate treatment. To get the maximum sensitivity of RSAT, the specimen collection technique used and education of the health care workers is important. While giving clinical decision, it must be taken into consideration that the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of the RSAT is quite

  20. Consumer knowledge and perceptions about antibiotics and upper respiratory tract infections in a community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Ian; Hollingworth, Samantha; Pudmenzky, Alex; Rossato, Laurence; Syed, Shahzad; Kairuz, Therése

    2015-12-01

    Overuse of antibiotics is a global concern and the World Health Organisation (WHO) has warned of relapsing to an era with no effective antibiotics. In Australia, various national consumer campaigns had been running since 2000, and the concern was prioritised in 2011, when the need for a national approach to address antibiotic resistance was identified. The aim of this study was to explore consumer attitudes and knowledge about (upper respiratory tract) infections, colds and flu, and antibiotics, and to identify factors contributing to antibiotic misuse which could be addressed by tailored patient counselling. A community pharmacy in an area of Brisbane, Australia. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was distributed among pharmacy consumers. Perceptions of, and knowledge about antibiotics were measured using a 5-point Likert-type scale of agreement/disagreement. The proportion of self-diagnosers and non self-diagnosers who agreed/disagreed with the attitude statement, "I know that I need antibiotics before I visit my doctor"; and the proportion of mistaken and non-mistaken who agreed/disagreed with the statement, "I will get better faster if I take antibiotics when I have a cold or flu". Over a third of the 252 participants believed that they would recover faster by taking antibiotics when suffering from a cold or flu, and nearly one-fifth felt that antibiotics would cure viral infections. More females (62.2 vs. 43.9 %) self-diagnosed (p = 0.002) although more males (42.1 vs. 30.8 %) were mistaken about the efficacy of antibiotics for treating colds and flus. Mistaken respondents were more likely than non-mistaken respondents to self-diagnose (p = 0.01). This study confirms a lack of knowledge among consumers about the efficacy of antibiotics in treating viral infections despite education campaigns. The findings strongly suggest there is a need for pharmacists and other health care professionals to elicit consumer beliefs and understanding about antibiotics

  1. Expression of urease by Haemophilus influenzae during human respiratory tract infection and role in survival in an acid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a common cause of otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infection in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Prior studies have shown that H. influenzae expresses abundant urease during growth in the middle ear of the chinchilla and in pooled human sputum, suggesting that expression of urease is important for colonization and infection in the hostile environments of the middle ear and in the airways in adults. Virtually nothing else is known about the urease of H. influenzae, which was characterized in the present study. Results Analysis by reverse transcriptase PCR revealed that the ure gene cluster is expressed as a single transcript. Knockout mutants of a urease structural gene (ureC) and of the entire ure operon demonstrated no detectable urease activity indicating that this operon is the only one encoding an active urease. The ure operon is present in all strains tested, including clinical isolates from otitis media and COPD. Urease activity decreased as nitrogen availability increased. To test the hypothesis that urease is expressed during human infection, purified recombinant urease C was used in ELISA with pre acquisition and post infection serum from adults with COPD who experienced infections caused by H. influenzae. A total of 28% of patients developed new antibodies following infection indicating that H. influenzae expresses urease during airway infection. Bacterial viability assays performed at varying pH indicate that urease mediates survival of H. influenzae in an acid environment. Conclusions The H. influenzae genome contains a single urease operon that mediates urease expression and that is present in all clinical isolates tested. Nitrogen availability is a determinant of urease expression. H. influenzae expresses urease during human respiratory tract infection and urease is a target of the human antibody response. Expression of urease enhances viability in an acid

  2. Probiotics and vitamin C for the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaiova, I; Muchová, J; Nagyová, Z; Wang, D; Li, J V; Országhová, Z; Michael, D R; Plummer, S F; Ďuračková, Z

    2015-03-01

    This pilot study investigates the efficacy of a probiotic consortium (Lab4) in combination with vitamin C on the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool facilities. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study with children aged 3-6 years, 57 received 1.25 × 10(10) colony-forming units of Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL21 (NCIMB 30156), Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL60 (NCIMB 30157), Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL20 (NCIMB 30153) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CUL34 (NCIMB 30172) plus 50 mg vitamin C or a placebo daily for 6 months. Significant reductions in the incidence rate of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI; 33%, P=0.002), the number of days with URTI symptoms (mean difference: -21.0, 95% confidence interval (CI):-35.9, -6.0, P=0.006) and the incidence rate of absence from preschool (30%, P=0.007) were observed in the active group compared with the placebo. The number of days of use of antibiotics, painkillers, cough medicine or nasal sprays was lower in the active group and reached significance for use of cough medicine (mean difference: -6.6, 95% CI: -12.9, -0.3, P=0.040). No significant differences were observed in the incidence rate ratio or duration of lower respiratory tract infection or in the levels of plasma cytokines, salivary immunoglobulin A or urinary metabolites. Supplementation with a probiotic/vitamin C combination may be beneficial in the prevention and management of URTIs.

  3. Analysis of risk factors for acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) of Toddlers in Ingin Jaya community health centre of Aceh Besar district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, Faradilla; Hayati, Risna; Marniati

    2017-09-01

    Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) is a disease in developing countries 25% that caused the death of children under five. In Aceh province disease is always on the list of 10 biggest disease each year which amounted to 47.258 cases. In Ingin Jaya Community Health Centre cases of acute respiratory tract infections in infants in 2014 were 112 cases, while in 2015 an increase of as many as 123 cases. Objective: To analyze the risk factors of acute respiratory diseases in health centers of Toddlers Ingin Jaya, Aceh Besar district. Analytical research the design of case control, case-control comparison of 1: 1 ie the sample of 60 cases and 60 control, retrieval of data taken from the register space IMCI Health Center. The study was conducted in 2016. Results: Factor toddler age (OR=11.811), gender (OR=3.512), birth weight (OR=8.805), immunization status (OR=4.846), exclusive breastfeeding (OR=2.529). Conclusions and Recommendations: Toddlers aged>2 years has the opportunity 11.811 times of acute respiratory tract infections. Male Toddler has a chance 3.512 times of acute respiratory tract infections. Toddlers are born with a normal weight does not have a chance of 8.805 times of acute respiratory tract infections. Toddlers who do not get complete immunization has the opportunity 4.846 times of acute respiratory tract infections. Toddlers who did not receive exclusive breastfeeding has 2,529 times greater chance of respiratory tract infections. Health workers and the Aceh Provincial Health Office can provide information through health education each month for each work area of health centers, or create a billboard on the causes of the ispa in infants.

  4. Qualitative interview study of parents' perspectives, concerns and experiences of the management of lower respiratory tract infections in children in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halls, Amy; Van't Hoff, Catherine; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo; Leydon, Geraldine M

    2017-09-15

    To explore parents' perspectives, concerns and experiences of the management of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children in primary care. Qualitative semistructured interview study. UK primary care. 23 parents of children aged 6 months to 10 years presenting with LRTI in primary care. Thematic analysis of semistructured interviews (either in person or by telephone) conducted with parents to explore their experiences and views on their children being prescribed antibiotics for LRTI. Four major themes were identified and these are perspectives on: (1) infection, (2) antibiotic use, (3) the general practitioner (GP) appointment and (4) decision making around prescribing. Symptomatic relief was a key concern: the most troublesome symptoms were cough, breathing difficulty, fever and malaise. Many parents were reluctant to use self-care medication, tended to support antibiotic use and believed they are effective for symptoms, illness duration and for preventing complications. However, parental expectations varied from a desire for reassurance and advice to an explicit preference for an antibiotic prescription. These preferences were shaped by: (1) the age of the child, with younger children perceived as more vulnerable because of their greater difficulty in communicating, and concerns about rapid deterioration; (2) the perceived severity of the illness; and (3) disruption to daily routine. When there was disagreement with the GP, parents described feeling dismissed, and they were critical of inconsistent prescribing when they reconsult. When agreement between the parent and the doctor featured, parents described a feeling of relief and legitimation for consulting, feeling reassured that the illness did indeed warrant a doctor's attention. Symptomatic relief is a major concern for parents. Careful exploration of expectations, and eliciting worries about key symptoms and impact on daily life will be needed to help parents understand when a no antibiotic

  5. Clinical and microbiological evaluation of travel-associated respiratory tract infections in travelers returning from countries affected by pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Boutolleau, David; Grandsire, Eric; Kofman, Tomek; Deback, Claire; Aït-Arkoub, Zaïna; Bricaire, François; Agut, Henri; Caumes, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Although acute respiratory tract infections (RTI) have been recognized as a significant cause of illness in returning travelers, few studies have specifically evaluated the etiologies of RTI in this population. This prospective investigation evaluated travelers returning from countries with endemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009, and who were seen in our department at the onset of the outbreak (April-July 2009). Patients were included if they presented with signs of RTI that occurred during travel or less than 7 days after return from overseas travel. Patients were evaluated for microbial agents with RespiFinder plus assay, and throat culture according to clinical presentation. A total of 113 travelers (M/F ratio 1.2:1; mean age 39 y) were included. They were mainly tourists (n = 50; 44.2%) mostly returning from North America (n = 65; 58%) and Mexico (n = 21; 18.5%). The median duration of travel was 23 days (range 2-540 d). The median lag time between return and onset of illness was 0.2 days (range 10 d prior to 7 d after). The main clinical presentation of RTI was influenza-like illness (n = 76; 67.3%). Among the 99 microbiologically evaluated patients, a pathogen was found by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or throat culture in 65 patients (65.6%). The main etiological agents were influenza A(H1N1) 2009 (18%), influenza viruses (14%), and rhinovirus (20%). A univariate analysis was unable to show variables associated with influenza A(H1N1) 2009, whereas rhinorrhea was associated with viruses other than influenza (p = 0.04). Despite the A(H1N1) 2009 influenza pandemic, rhinovirus and other influenza viruses were also frequent causes of RTI in overseas travelers. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR and nasopharyngeal swab cultures are useful diagnostic tools for evaluating travelers with RTI. © 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  6. The influence of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonization on the clinical outcome of the respiratory tract infections in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraitiene, Sigita; Alasevicius, Tomas; Staceviciene, Indre; Vaiciuniene, Daiva; Kacergius, Tomas; Usonis, Vytautas

    2015-09-30

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPn) is an important pathogen causing a variety of clinical manifestations. The effects of SPn nasopharyngeal colonization on respiratory tract infections are poorly studied. We evaluated the association of SPn colonization with features of respiratory tract infections. Children under the age of 6 years who visited a primary care physician because of respiratory tract infections were enrolled in the study. History was taken, children were clinically assessed by the physician, and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained and cultured for SPn. Positive samples were serotyped. Associations of SPn colonization with clinical signs and symptoms, recovery duration, absence from day care centre, frequencies of specific diagnoses, and treatment with antimicrobials were evaluated. In total 900 children were enrolled. The prevalence of SPn colonization was 40.8 % (n = 367). There were minor differences between male and female subjects (199 of 492, 40.4 % vs 168 of 408, 41.2 %, p = 0.825). Children with and without siblings had similar colonization rates (145 of 334, 43.4 % vs 219 of 562, 39.0 %, p = 0.187). Clinical signs and symptoms were not associated with SPn colonization. Children colonized with SPn had longer recovery duration compared to non-colonized children (114 of 367, 31.1 % vs 98 of 533, 18.4 %, p vs 94 of 284, 33.1 %, p = 0.001). Pneumonia, sinusitis, and acute otitis media were more frequently diagnosed in children colonized with SPn. Children attending day care centres had significantly higher prevalence of SPn colonization (270 of 367, 44.4 % vs 338 of 533, 33.1 %, p = 0.001). Children with pneumonia, sinusitis and acute otitis media were more frequently treated with antimicrobials than children with other diagnoses. SPn nasopharyngeal colonization has a negative impact on the course of respiratory tract infection, likely because of SPn being the cause of the disease or a complicating factor. It is also associated

  7. Present-day potentialities of endoscopic diagnostics and treatment of early cancer in respiratory and digestive tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Karpova, E. S.

    1999-12-01

    The paper presents the latest potentialities of the endoscopic fluorescent diagnostics as well as endoscopic electric-, laser surgery and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the early cancer in the respiratory and digestive tracts. We present in detail indication and factors determining the application of the endoscopic resection of the tumor. The advantages of the combination application of PDT, electro-, Nd:YAG laser surgery and brachitherapy are stressed. The near and remote results of endoscopic treatment of the early cancer in larynx (37), lung (109), esophagus (39) and stomach (58) are shown.

  8. Use of air sampling data from uranium mills to estimate respiratory tract deposition rates for inhaled yellowcake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium aerosols generated during normal yellowcake packaging operations were sampled at four uranium mills. Samplers located in the packaging area were operated before, during and after drums of dried yellowcake were filled and sealed. Mediar aerosol concentrations ranged from 0.04 μg U/l to 0.34 μg U/1 during the routine packaging operations at the four mills. The aerosols were heterogeneous and included a broad range of particle sizes. Both the concentrations and particle size distributions varied with time. Aerosol characteristics could often be related to individual packaging steps. Sampling of yellowcake by hand from a filled open drum to measure the yellowcake moisture content need not pose a unique hazard to the operator. The combined results show that appreciable amounts of airborne uranium would be expected to deposit in the nasopharyngeal compartment of the respiratory tract if inhaled by a worker not wearing respiratory protection

  9. SIgA response and incidence of upper respiratory tract infections during intensified training in youth basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, H; Aoki, M S; Freitas, C G; Arruda, Afs; Drago, G; Moreira, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of an intensified training phase followed by a tapering phase on the salivary immunoglobulin A concentration and on the upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms in young male basketball players. The session rating of perceived exertion method was used to quantify the internal training load, and the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 questionnaire was used to assess URTI symptoms. The Yo-Yo IR1 test and saliva collection were carried out at the beginning of the study (T1), after the intensified phase (T2), and after tapering (T3). A higher internal training load was observed for the intensified phase compared with the tapering phase (t=19.10; ptraining load followed by a tapering period negatively affects the mucosal immune function with no significant change in severity of URTI in young basketball players.

  10. Clinical features of human metapneumovirus genotypes in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection in Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Sai-Zhen; Xiao, Ni-Guang; Zhong, Li-Li; Yu, Tian; Zhang, Bing; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-11-01

    To explore the epidemiological and clinical features of different human metapneumovirus (hMPV) genotypes in hospitalized children. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or PCR was employed to screen for both hMPV and other common respiratory viruses in 2613 nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens collected from children with lower respiratory tract infections from September 2007 to February 2011 (a period of 3.5 years). The demographics and clinical presentations of patients infected with different genotypes of hMPV were compared. A total of 135 samples were positive for hMPV (positive detection rate: 5.2%). Co-infection with other viruses was observed in 45.9% (62/135) of cases, and human bocavirus was the most common additional respiratory virus. The most common symptoms included cough, fever, and wheezing. The M gene was sequenced for 135 isolates; of these, genotype A was identified in 72.6% (98/135) of patients, and genotype B was identified in 27.4% (37/135) of patients. The predominant genotype of hMPV changed over the 3.5-year study period from genotype A2b to A2b or B1 and then to predominantly B1. Most of clinical features were similar between patients infected with different hMPV genotypes. These results suggested that hMPV is an important viral pathogen in pediatric patients with acute lower respiratory tract infection in Changsha. The hMPV subtypes A2b and B1 were found to co-circulate. The different hMPV genotypes exhibit similar clinical characteristics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The development and validation of a multidimensional sum-scaling questionnaire to measure patient-reported outcomes in acute respiratory tract infections in primary care: the acute respiratory tract infection questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Thorsen, Hanne; Siersma, Volkert; Brodersen, John

    2013-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes are seldom validated measures in clinical trials of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in primary care. We developed and validated a patient-reported outcome sum-scaling measure to assess the severity and functional impacts of ARTIs. Qualitative interviews and field testing among adults with an ARTI were conducted to ascertain a high degree of face and content validity of the questionnaire. Subsequently, a draft version of the Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Questionnaire (ARTIQ) was statistically validated by using the partial credit Rasch model to test dimensionality, objectivity, and reliability of items. Test of known groups' validity was conducted by comparing participants with and without an ARTI. The final version of the ARTIQ consisted of 38 items covering five dimensions (Physical-upper, Physical-lower, Psychological, Sleep, and Medicine) and five single items. All final dimensions were confirmed to fit the Rasch model, thus enabling sum-scaling of responses. The ARTIQ scores in participants with an ARTI were significantly higher than in those without ARTI (known groups' validity). A self-administered, multidimensional, sum-scaling questionnaire with high face and content validity and adequate psychometric properties for assessing severity and functional impacts from ARTIs in adults is available to clinical trials and audits in primary care. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Principles of etiopathogenetic therapy for acute respiratory viral infections in frequently ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kharitonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the impact of incorporation of cycloferon into a therapy regimen on the efficiency of treatment for acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in frequently ill children. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 117 children divided into three groups according to the therapy regimen. Thus, symptomatic and local antiviral therapies (interferon nasal ointment and viferon suppositories were prescribed to all the children; furthermore, Group 1 (control used antibiotic therapy; Group 2 (Comparison Group 1 took antibiotics and cycloferon (tablets, and Group 3 (Comparison Group 2 had Cycloferon. Results: At the beginning of treatment, there was a reduction in interferon-a and interferon-y values with preserved serum interferon levels, suggesting the diminished compensatory responses ensuring antiviral protection. Analysis of the immune status revealed that virtually half of the children exhibited activation of compensatory mechanisms (stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ production and an increase in NST test activity, one third displayed a disturbance (decreases in CD4+, CDlfrf, IgA, and NST test activity. After treatment, interferonogenesis was recovered in the majority (86,7% of the patients taking Cycloferon, in 74,1% of those who had a treatment regimen containing cycloferon and antibiotics, and only in 47,1 % of those who received antibiotics. Comparison of the immunological indicators during therapy with antibiotics alone or in combination with cycloferon demonstrated a more noticeable and balanced response to the latter: the normalized CD4+ and CD8+ values in the patients on antibiotic therapy was 8,9 and 5,8%, respectively, and 11,1 % in those who received antibiotics and cycloferon. Conclusion. Incorporation of cycloferon into ARVI treatment regimens for frequently ill patients has the positive effect on immunological indicators, which shows itself as recovery of initially diminished interferonogenesis

  13. Enterovirus genotypes among patients with severe acute respiratory illness, influenza-like illness, and asymptomatic individuals in South Africa, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellferscee, Orienka; Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Variava, Ebrahim; Dawood, Halima; Wolter, Nicole; Madhi, Shabir A.; du Plessis, Mignon; Cohen, Cheryl; Treurnicht, Florette K.

    2017-01-01

    Enteroviruses can cause outbreaks of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and EV-A, -B, -C, and -D species have different pathogenic profiles and circulation patterns. We aimed to characterize and determine the prevalence of enterovirus genotypes among South African patients with respiratory illness and controls during June 2012 to July 2014. Syndromic SARI and influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance was performed at two sentinel sites. At each site nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal specimens were collected from SARI and ILI patients as well as controls. Specimens were tested for enterovirus by real-time PCR. Positive specimenswere further genotyped by sequencing a region of theVP1 gene. The prevalence of enterovirus was 5.8% (87/1494), 3.4% (103/3079), and 3.4% (46/1367) among SARI, ILI, and controls, respectively (SARI/controls, P=0.002 and ILI/control, P = 0.973). Among the 101/236 (42.8%) enterovirus-positive specimens that could be genotyped, we observed a high diversity of circulating enterovirus genotypes (a total of 33 genotypes) from all four human enterovirus species with high prevalence of Enterovirus-B (60.4%; 61/101) and Enterovirus-A (21.8%; 22/101) compared to Enterovirus-C (10.9%; 11/101) and Enterovirus-D (6.9%; 7/101) (P = 0.477). Of the enterovirus genotypes identified, Echovirus 30 (9.9%, 10/101), Coxsackie virus B5 (7.9%, 8/101) and Enterovirus-D68 (6.9%, 7/101) were most prevalent. There was no difference in disease severity (SARI or ILI compared to controls) between the different enterovirus species (P = 0.167).We observed a high number of enterovirus genotypes in patients with respiratory illness and in controls from South Africa with no disease association of EV species with disease severity. PMID:28574589

  14. CREST biorepository for translational studies on malignant mesothelioma, lung cancer and other respiratory tract diseases: Informatics infrastructure and standardized annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Bennati, Luca; Canessa, Pier Aldo; Casanova, Georgia; Lando, Cecilia; Leoncini, Giacomo; Marroni, Paola; Parodi, Barbara; Simonassi, Claudio; Bonassi, Stefano

    2012-03-01

    Advances in molecular epidemiology and translational research have led to the need for biospecimen collection. The Cancer of the Respiratory Tract (CREST) biorepository is concerned with pleural malignant mesothelioma (MM) and lung cancer (LC). The biorepository staff has collected demographic and epidemiological data directly from consenting subjects using a structured questionnaire, in agreement with The Public Population Project in Genomics (P(3)G). Clinical and follow-up data were collected. Sample data were also recorded. The architecture is based on a database designed with Microsoft Access. Data standardization was carried out to conform with established conventions or procedures. As from January 31, 2011, the overall number of recruited subjects was 1,857 (454 LC, 245 MM, 130 other cancers and 1,028 controls). Due to its infrastructure, CREST was able to join international projects, sharing samples and/or data with other research groups in the field. The data management system allows CREST to be involved, through a minimum data set, in the national project for the construction of the Italian network of Oncologic BioBanks (RIBBO), and in the infrastructure of a pan-European biobank network (BBMRI). The CREST biorepository is a valuable tool for translational studies on respiratory tract diseases, because of its simple and efficient infrastructure.

  15. Effect of Poultry Litter Treatment(R) (PLT(R)) on the development of respiratory tract lesions in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzich, M; Quarles, C; Goodwin, M A; Brown, J

    1998-01-01

    In previous studies, Poultry Litter Treatment(R) (PLT(R)) was shown to reduce atmospheric ammonia levels and ascites death rates, and produce higher profit value in broiler chickens. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of PLT(R) on atmospheric ammonia levels, the development of respiratory tract lesions, and body weight gains in broiler chickens. Data were collected from chicks that were raised in containment conditions that resembled commercial settings. Atmospheric ammonia levels, gross thoracic air sac lesion scores, and the numbers and magnitudes of histopathologic tracheal mucosal injuries were significantly (P = 0.001) reduced in chickens that were raised on PLT(R)-treated litter than in their untreated-litter control counterparts. In addition, mean body weights and lung:body weight ratios were significantly (P broilers that were raised on treated litter. The reductions in respiratory tract lesions among broilers raised on PLT(R)-treated litter were attributed to reductions in atmospheric ammonia levels.

  16. Simulation of the respiratory model of tract of Publication 66 of the ICRP and their use in biological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, A.

    2001-01-01

    The International Commission Radiological Protection, ICRP in its publications 67, 68, 69 and 71 provides the loss of systematic activity of the radioactive materials by the routes of excretion and recirculation, as well as effective dose by incorporation unit coefficient, using the model of respiratory tract proposed by the ICRP, in its Publication 66, but it does not provide information on as these models in biological analysis are used. There are some specific studies for inhalation of uranium compounds made by Bertelli and collaborators using the new model of the lung. In this work it have been done a simulation of the model of respiratory tract of ICRP 66 of such form that it can be used in-vitro and in-vivo biological analysis. In order to verify the simulation were used systemic models for adult of planuin, lead, uranium, bismuth and their respective descendants and the comparison with the coefficients of dose provided by the ICRP. Finally, it shows the estimation of the temporary distribution of activity in devices and the excrete of these radionuclides and in addition the model for gases and steam in the conditions is verified that the ICRP proposes

  17. Relative magnitudes of the effects of electrostatic image and thermo-phoretic forces on particles in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board's Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation has recommended research into the deposition, in the lung, of charged particles in the size range 0.005-1 μm. In vivo measurements of the temperature distribution in the respiratory tract have been used to estimate the temperature gradients in the generations up to the segmental bronchus. These gradients define the thermo-phoretic velocities, which oppose deposition during inhalation and assist it during exhalation. The thermo-phoretic forces are effective over a longer range than those due to the electrostatic image of a single charge; and, at distances greater than a few microns from the airway wall, the thermo-phoretic velocities of 0.02 and 0.1 μn particles are greater than those due to electrostatic drift. It is concluded that models describing the effects of electric charge on the deposition of particles with diameters of order 0.1 μm need to take account of the thermal conditions in the respiratory tract. (authors)

  18. Extracellular DNA is essential for maintaining Bordetella biofilm integrity on abiotic surfaces and in the upper respiratory tract of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt S Conover

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria form complex and highly elaborate surface adherent communities known as biofilms which are held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. We have previously shown that by adopting a biofilm mode of existence in vivo, the gram negative bacterial pathogens Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis are able to efficiently colonize and persist in the mammalian respiratory tract. In general, the bacterial biofilm matrix includes polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA. In this report, we investigated the function of DNA in Bordetella biofilm development. We show that DNA is a significant component of Bordetella biofilm matrix. Addition of DNase I at the initiation of biofilm growth inhibited biofilm formation. Treatment of pre-established mature biofilms formed under both static and flow conditions with DNase I led to a disruption of the biofilm biomass. We next investigated whether eDNA played a role in biofilms formed in the mouse respiratory tract. DNase I treatment of nasal biofilms caused considerable dissolution of the biofilm biomass. In conclusion, these results suggest that eDNA is a crucial structural matrix component of both in vitro and in vivo formed Bordetella biofilms. This is the first evidence for the ability of DNase I to disrupt bacterial biofilms formed on host organs.

  19. Gastroesophageal reflux in children suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract infection: experience in a referral centre in northern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, A.K.; Gopinath, P.G.; Tiwari, D.C.; Gupta, K.; Sharma, S.K.; Prasad, A.K.; Arora, N.K.; Chetty, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radionuclide gastroesophageal scintigraphy was performed on twentyfive control and one hundred and eightythree children suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract infection. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) of varying grades was observed in 135 patients. The severity of clinical symptoms in these patients was found to be directly related to the severity of reflux observed in the radionuclide study. In some patients an attempt was also made to quantitate GER by calculating the Gastrosophageal Reflux Index. The results of the scintigraphic study were correlated with the results of the other commonly used and more convetional barium swallow and fluoroscopy study. Gastrosophageal scintigraphy was found to be much superior in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in detecting GER. It was also possible to objectively evaluate and monitor response to treatment following conservative or corrective surgical therapy using the radionuclide technique. The results of the present study demonstrated a remarkably high incidence of GER in the patient population studied. Whether GER is the cause of recurrent lower respiratory tract infection or not is difficult to establish firmly. But within the perview of this study the association seems to be very strong and cannot be easily ignored. (author). 26 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Heat and moisture exchange capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheenstra, Renske J; Muller, Sara H; Vincent, Andrew; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the heat and moisture exchange (HME) capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate in patients with head and neck cancer. We plotted the subglottic temperature and humidity measurements in 10 patients with head and neck cancer with a temporary precautionary tracheotomy during successive 10-minute periods of nose, mouth, and tracheotomy breathing in a randomized sequence. End-inspiratory temperatures of nose, mouth, and tracheotomy breathing were 31.1, 31.3, and 28.3°C, respectively. End-inspiratory humidity measurements of nose, mouth, and tracheotomy breathing were 29.3, 28.6, and 21.1 mgH₂O/L, respectively. There was a trend toward lower end-inspiratory humidity in patients with radiotherapy or with large surgery-induced oropharyngeal mucosal defects, whereas temperatures were similar. This study gives objective information about the HME capacity of the upper respiratory tract in patients with head and neck cancer with precautionary tracheotomy, and thus provides target values for HMEs for laryngectomized and tracheotomized patients. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011.

  1. Diagnostic Imaging of the Lower Respiratory Tract in Neonatal Foals: Radiography and Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascola, Kara M; Joslyn, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis and monitoring of lower respiratory disease in neonatal foals. Radiography is most widely available to equine practitioners and is the primary modality that has been used for the characterization of respiratory disease in foals. Computed tomography imaging, although still limited in availability to the general practitioner, offers advantages over radiography and has been used diagnostically in neonatal foals with respiratory disease. Recognition of appropriate imaging protocols and patient-associated artifacts is critical for accurate image interpretation regardless of the modality used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The cost of community-managed viral respiratory illnesses in a cohort of healthy preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Kelly M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs during childhood are often caused by respiratory viruses, result in significant morbidity, and have associated costs for families and society. Despite their ubiquity, there is a lack of interdisciplinary epidemiologic and economic research that has collected primary impact data, particularly associated with indirect costs, from families during ARIs in children. Methods We conducted a 12-month cohort study in 234 preschool children with impact diary recording and PCR testing of nose-throat swabs for viruses during an ARI. We used applied values to estimate a virus-specific mean cost of ARIs. Results Impact diaries were available for 72% (523/725 of community-managed illnesses between January 2003 and January 2004. The mean cost of ARIs was AU$309 (95% confidence interval $263 to $354. Influenza illnesses had a mean cost of $904, compared with RSV, $304, the next most expensive single-virus illness, although confidence intervals overlapped. Mean carer time away from usual activity per day was two hours for influenza ARIs and between 30 and 45 minutes for all other ARI categories. Conclusion From a societal perspective, community-managed ARIs are a significant cost burden on families and society. The point estimate of the mean cost of community-managed influenza illnesses in healthy preschool aged children is three times greater than those illnesses caused by RSV and other respiratory viruses. Indirect costs, particularly carer time away from usual activity, are the key cost drivers for ARIs in children. The use of parent-collected specimens may enhance ARI surveillance and reduce any potential Hawthorne effect caused by compliance with study procedures. These findings reinforce the need for further integrated epidemiologic and economic research of ARIs in children to allow for comprehensive cost-effectiveness assessments of preventive and therapeutic options.

  3. Longitudinal study of respiratory function and symptoms in a non-smoking group of long-term officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Miyamoto, Naomi; Kotaki, Kenji; Yano, Yudai; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2013-08-17

    Air pollution is known to be a leading cause of respiratory symptoms. Many cross-sectional studies reported that air pollution caused respiratory disease in Japanese individuals in the 1960s. Japan has laws regulating air pollution levels and providing compensation for victims of pollution-related respiratory disease. However, long-term changes in respiratory function and symptoms in individuals who were exposed to air pollution in the 1960s have not been well studied. This study aimed to investigate longitudinal respiratory function and symptoms in older, non-smoking, long-term officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness. The study included 563 officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness living in Kurashiki, Okayama who were aged ≥ 65 years in 2009. Data were retrospectively collected from yearly respiratory symptom questionnaires and spirometry examinations conducted from 2000 to 2009. Respiratory function declined significantly from 2000 to 2009 (p pollutants around 1970 resulted in a decrease in respiratory function and an increase in respiratory symptoms in the study population. From 2000 to 2009, the mean annual changes in respiratory function were within the normal range, even though the severity of dyspnea worsened. The changes in respiratory function and symptoms over the study period were probably due to aging. The laws governing air pollution levels and providing compensation for officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness in Japan may be effective for respiratory disease cause by pollution.

  4. Self-collected mid-turbinate swabs for the detection of respiratory viruses in adults with acute respiratory illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E Larios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gold standard for respiratory virus testing is a nasopharyngeal (NP swab, which is collected by a healthcare worker. Midturbinate (MT swabs are an alternative due to their ease of collection and possible self-collection by patients. The objective of this study was to compare the respiratory virus isolation of flocked MT swabs compared to flocked NP swabs. METHODS: Beginning in October 2008, healthy adults aged 18 to 69 years were recruited into a cohort and followed up for symptoms of influenza. They were asked to have NP and MT swabs taken as soon as possible after the onset of a fever or two or more respiratory symptoms with an acute onset. The swabs were tested for viral respiratory infections using Seeplex® RV12 multiplex PCR detection kit. Seventy six pairs of simultaneous NP and MT swabs were collected from 38 symptomatic subjects. Twenty nine (38% of these pairs were positive by either NP or MT swabs or both. Sixty nine (91% of the pair results were concordant. Two samples (3% for hCV OC43/HKU1 and 1 sample (1% for rhinovirus A/B were positive by NP but negative by MT. One sample each for hCV 229E/NL63, hCV OC43/HKU1, respiratory syncytial virus A, and influenza B were positive by MT but negative by NP. CONCLUSIONS: Flocked MT swabs are sensitive for the diagnosis of multiple respiratory viruses. Given the ease of MT collection and similar results between the two swabs, it is likely that MT swabs should be the preferred method of respiratory cell collection for outpatient studies. In light of this data, larger studies should be performed to ensure that this still holds true and data should also be collected on the patient preference of collection methods.

  5. Respiratory-Gated Proton Beam Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Adjacent to the Gastrointestinal Tract without Fiducial Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miu Mizuhata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of proton beam therapy (PBT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has been reported, but insertion of fiducial markers in the liver is usually required. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of respiratory-gated PBT without fiducial markers for HCC located within 2 cm of the gastrointestinal tract. From March 2011 to December 2015 at our institution, 40 patients were evaluated (median age, 72 years; range, 38–87 years. All patients underwent PBT at a dose of 60 to 80 cobalt gray equivalents (CGE in 20 to 38 fractions. The median follow-up period was 19.9 months (range, 1.2–72.3 months. The median tumor size was 36.5 mm (range, 11–124 mm. Kaplan–Meier estimates of the 2-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local tumor control rates were 76%, 60%, and 94%, respectively. One patient (2.5% developed a grade 3 gastric ulcer and one (2.5% developed grade 3 ascites retention; none of the remaining patients developed grade >3 toxicities (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events ver. 4.0.. This study indicates that PBT without fiducial markers achieves good local control without severe treatment-related toxicity of the gastrointestinal tract for HCC located within 2 cm of the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Diagnostic Value of Nasopharyngeal Aspirates in Children with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Zhen Lu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: NPAs are less invasive diagnostic respiratory specimens, a negative NPA result is helpful in “rule out” lower airway infection; however, a positive result does not reliably “rule in” the presence of pathogens.

  7. Risk Factors for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Under-five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    [3] They contributed 67 million disability adjusted life years in the ... health sector resources and long-term empiric treatment of ..... women of child bearing ages in order to limit the risks of .... Acute respiratory infection and pneumonia in India:.

  8. [Detection of respiratory tract diseases among rural population during the team-work mass screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, E Z; Galkin, V B; Stepanova, G Ia

    1990-01-01

    A screening complex for the examination of the rural population has been worked out to detect bronchopulmonary pathology and form groups of risk for respiratory diseases. The complex of methods included compulsory questionnaires and ++fluoro-functional examination, spirometry if indicated and bacterial tests. Out of 1, 131 persons examined, 328 were found to have respiratory diseases. Chronic non-specific respiratory diseases were detected in 103 subjects, including 62 of them having obstructive bronchitis. A risk group developing chronic non-specific respiratory diseases, including 202 persons with disturbed ventilation activity of the lungs, post-tuberculous inadequate changes and other pathology. Pulmonary tuberculosis was registered in 7 subjects. The given data indicate the necessity of a complex examination of the population.

  9. Elementary School-Based Influenza Vaccination: Evaluating Impact on Respiratory Illness Absenteeism and Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Sonia A.; Irving, Stephanie A.; Meece, Jennifer K.; Belongia, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness in schools have assessed all-cause absenteeism rather than laboratory-confirmed influenza. We conducted an observational pilot study to identify absences due to respiratory illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza in schools with and without school-based vaccination. Methods A local public health agency initiated school-based influenza vaccination in two Wisconsin elementary schools during October 2010 (exposed schools); two nearby schools served as a comparison group (non-exposed schools). Absences due to fever or cough illness were monitored for 12 weeks. During the 4 weeks of peak influenza activity, parents of absent children with fever/cough illness were contacted and offered influenza testing. Results Parental consent for sharing absenteeism data was obtained for 937 (57%) of 1,640 students. Fifty-two percent and 28%, respectively, of all students in exposed and non-exposed schools were vaccinated. Absences due to fever or cough illness were significantly lower in the exposed schools during seven of 12 surveillance weeks. Twenty-seven percent of students at exposed schools and 39% at unexposed schools had one or more days of absence due to fever/cough illness (pabsenteeism due to fever or cough illness, but not absenteeism for other reasons. Although nonspecific, absence due to fever or cough illness may be a useful surrogate endpoint in school-based studies if identification of laboratory confirmed influenza is not feasible. PMID:23991071

  10. Respiratory tract pathology and cytokine imbalance in clinically healthy children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Devlin, R B; Miller, F J

    2000-11-01

    Chronic exposure of children to a complex mixture of air pollutants leads to recurrent episodes of upper and lower respiratory tract injury. An altered nasal mucociliary apparatus leaves the distal acinar airways more vulnerable to reactive gases and particulate matter (PM). The heterogeneity of structure in the human lung can impart significant variability in the distribution of ozone dose and particle deposition; this, in turn, influences the extent of epithelial injury and repair in chronically exposed children. Cytokines are low-molecular-weight proteins that act as intercellular mediators of inflammatory reactions, including lung injury of various etiologies. Cytokines are involved in generating inflammatory responses that contribute to injury at the lung epithelial and endothelial barriers. Mexico City is a 20-million-person megacity with severe air pollution problems. Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) atmosphere is characterized by a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, PM, and aldehydes. There is radiological evidence that significant lower respiratory tract damage is taking place in clinically healthy children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants while growing up in SWMMC. We hypothesize that there is an imbalanced and dysregulated cytokine network in SWMMC children with overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and cytokines involved in lung tissue repair and fibrosis. The nature of the sustained imbalance among the different cytokines ultimately determines the final lung histopathology, which would include subchronic inflammation, emphysema, and fibrosis. Cytokines likely would reach the systemic circulation and produce systemic effects. Individuals with an underlying respiratory or cardiovascular disease are less able to maintain equilibrium of the precarious cytokine networks.

  11. Effect of timing of tracheostomy on changes in bacterial colonisation of the lower respiratory tract in burned children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipový, B; Brychta, P; Rihová, H; Suchanek, I; Hanslianová, M; Cvanová, M; Chaloupková, Z; Gregorova, N; Hufová, I

    2013-03-01

    The study aims to evaluate the impact of early and late tracheostomy on microbiological changes in the airways in severely burned children. Early tracheostomy is sometimes performed within 3 days after the start of mechanical ventilation regular microbiological surveillance of the respiratory tract was done in all patients. From each sputum, tracheobronchial aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), a microscopic slide was made and the material was seeded in a culture medium. The standard culture media used for the growth of respiratory pathogens are blood agar, McConkey agar, VL agar and chocolate agar. The obtained values were statistically analysed. In the observed period, a total of 68 children underwent mechanical ventilation in our department. A total of 31 (45.59%) children had undergone surgical tracheostomy (18 patients with early tracheostomy and 13 patients with late tracheostomy). The most common bacterium isolated from the lower respiratory tract in patients with early and late tracheostomy was Acinetobacter baumannii (31.53% resp. 44.30% of all bacterial strains). In patients with early tracheostomy, the ratio of G+/G- during the 6-7th day of mechanical ventilation was 1.29:1 and during the 8-10th day, 1:1.43. In patients with late tracheostomy the G+/G- ratio was 1:2.25 and during the 8-10th day, 1:2.25. There was not any statistically significant deviation in the G+/G- ratio in patients with early and late tracheostomy in any of the monitored periods. The main reasons for performing early tracheostomy are: extent, localisation and depth of the burn. Difficult weaning in an uncooperative patient, failure of extubation with subsequent reintubation and other complications may be an indication for late tracheostomy. The study confirms that the use of appropriately indicated early tracheostomy provides a microbiological benefit for burned children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Family Practitioners' Advice about Taking Time Off Work for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections: A Prospective Study in Twelve European Primary Care Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Nocun, Marek; Butler, Christopher C; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo; Hood, Kerenza; Fleten, Nils; Kowalczyk, Anna; Melbye, Hasse

    2016-01-01

    Acute cough and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are one of the most important causes of lost working hours. to explore variation and predictors in family practitioners (FPs) advice to patients with LRTIs about taking time off work in different European countries. Prospective observational study in primary care networks in 12 countries, with multilevel mixed-effects binomial logistic regression. 324 FPs recruited 1616 employed adults who presented to primary care with LRTIs. The proportion of patients advised to take time off work varied from 7.6% in the Netherlands to 89.2% in Slovakia, and of these, 88.2% overall were advised to stay off work for seven days or less. None of Finnish or Dutch patients were advised to take more than 7 days off, in contrast to 35.5% of Polish and 27.0% of Slovak patients. The strongest predictors of FPs' advice about time off work were: patient symptoms interfering with normal activities (OR 4.43; Pwork, which is not explained by differences in patients' reported illness duration, but might be explained by differences in regulations around certification and sick pay. Evidence based guidance for advising patients about taking time off work for this common condition is needed.

  13. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African children, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Jocelyn; Cohen, Cheryl; Pretorius, Marthi; Groome, Michelle; von Gottberg, Anne; Wolter, Nicole; Walaza, Sibongile; Haffejee, Sumayya; Chhagan, Meera; Naby, Fathima; Cohen, Adam L; Tempia, Stefano; Kahn, Kathleen; Dawood, Halima; Venter, Marietjie; Madhi, Shabir A

    2013-12-15

    There are limited data on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among children in settings with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) hospitalizations among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in South Africa. Children aged infection among HIV-infected and uninfected children were examined. The relative risk of hospitalization in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children was calculated in 1 site with population denominators. Of 4489 participants, 4293 (96%) were tested for RSV, of whom 1157 (27%) tested positive. With adjustment for age, HIV-infected children had a 3-5-fold increased risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated ALRTI (2010 relative risk, 5.6; [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.5-6.4]; 2011 relative risk, 3.1 [95% CI, 2.6-3.6]). On multivariable analysis, HIV-infected children with RSV-associated ALRTI had higher odds of death (adjusted odds ratio. 31.1; 95% CI, 5.4-179.8) and hospitalization for >5 days (adjusted odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.5-10.6) than HIV-uninfected children. HIV-infected children have a higher risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated ALRTI and a poorer outcome than HIV-uninfected children. These children should be targeted for interventions aimed at preventing severe RSV disease.

  14. Perioperative respiratory adverse events in children with active upper respiratory tract infection who received general anesthesia through an orotracheal tube and inhalation agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kang, Young Ran; Jeong, Seung Ho; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2013-08-01

    Active upper respiratory tract infection (URI), orotracheal intubation and use of inhalation anesthetics are known risk factors for perioperative respiratory adverse events (RAE). This study investigated the risk factors of perioperative RAE in children with these risk factors. The records of 159 children who underwent general anesthesia with an orotracheal tube and inhalation were reviewed. These patients also had at least one of the following URI symptoms on the day of surgery: clear or green nasal secretion, dry or moist cough, nasal congestion, or fever. RAE such as laryngospasm, bronchospasm, oxygen desaturation and sustained cough were collected before induction, during intubation, during extubation, after extubation and in the postanesthesia care unit. Forty-five patients had RAE. The patients with RAE were younger than those without RAE. There were more passive smokers and a greater number of intubation attempts in patients with RAE than in those without RAE. The type of surgery and type of inhalation agents were not different between patients with and without RAE. Passive smoking was the only independent risk factor for RAE. In children with an active URI using orotracheal tube and inhalation anesthetics, passive smoking is an important risk factor for RAE.

  15. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of Dutch Mycoplasma synoviae field isolates originating from joint lesions and the respiratory tract of commercial poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, W J M; Mevius, D J; Veldman, K T; Feberwee, A

    2008-08-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 17 Dutch Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from commercial poultry to enrofloxacin, difloxacin, doxycycline, tylosin and tilmicosin was examined. Three isolates originated from joint lesions and 14 were from the respiratory tract. The type strain M. synoviae WVU 1853 was included as a control strain. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested quantitatively using the broth microdilution test. Based on initial and final minimum inhibitory concentration values, all tested isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, tylosin and tilmicosin. Two isolates from the respiratory tract were resistant to enrofloxacin and showed intermediate resistance to difloxacin.

  16. Human bocavirus isolated from children with acute respiratory tract infections in Korea, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jong Gyun; Choi, Seong Yeol; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) was first recognized in respiratory samples in 2005. The clinical importance of HBoV infection remains unclear. This report describes the clinical features and molecular phylogeny of HBoV isolates in children with acute respiratory infections. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from 1,528 children with acute respiratory infections between 2010 and 2011. Respiratory samples were screened for HBoV by multiplex PCR. A phylogenetic analysis of the HBoV VP1/VP2 gene was also undertaken. HBoV was detected in 187 (12.2%) of the 1,528 patients with a peak incidence of infection observed in patients aged 12-24 months. Coinfection with other respiratory viruses was observed in 107 (57.2%) of the HBoV-positive children. The peak of HBoV activity occurred during the month of June in both 2010 and 2011. A higher previous history of wheezing (P = 0.016), a higher frequency of chest retraction (P respiratory symptom score (P = 0.002), and a longer duration of hospital stay (P = 0.021) were observed in HBoV-positive children compared with the HBoV-negative group. Phylogenetic analysis showed all 187 HBoV-positive isolates were identified as HBoV 1, indicating minimal sequence variations among the isolates. A single lineage of HBoV 1 was found to have circulated in children with acute respiratory infections between 2010 and 2011 and was associated with several clinical characteristics including age, seasonality, and clinical severity with retraction, wheezing, and longer hospitalization. The clinical relevance of the minimal sequence variations of HBoV remains to be determined. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. CT-assisted versus silicone rubber cast morphometry of the lower respiratory tract in healthy amazons (genus Amazona) and grey parrots (genus Psittacus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krautwald-Junghanns, M.E.; Valerius, K.P.; Duncker, H.R.; Sohn, H.G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the normal respiratory tract of grey parrots and amazons by using two different methods. The lower respiratory tract of five amazons and four grey parrots, all healthy, were investigated applying computerised tomography (CT). Volumes and densities of the body, the body cavities, the normal lungs, and the airsacs in the living animals were defined as reference values of healthy birds to give a basis for future CT-diagnosis of respiratory diseases and their precise locations in parrots. In a parallel study, the lung and air sac volumes of six amazons and two grey parrots were measured using silicone rubber casts produced after the method described byH.-R. Duncker. Values for identical respiratory structures gained by these different methods were compared

  18. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  19. Absence of respiratory inflammatory reaction of elemental sulfur using the California Pesticide Illness Database and a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Smith, Jodi L; Last, Jerold A

    2005-01-01

    Elemental sulfur, a natural substance, is used as a fungicide. Elemental sulfur is the most heavily used agricultural chemical in California. In 2003, annual sulfur usage in California was about 34% of the total weight of pesticide active ingredient used in production agriculture. Even though sulfur is mostly used in dust form, the respiratory health effects of elemental sulfur are not well documented. The purpose of this paper is to address the possible respiratory effect of elemental sulfur using the California Pesticide Illness Database and laboratory experiments with mice. We analyzed the California Pesticide Illness Database between 1991 and 2001. Among 127 reports of definite, probable, and possible illness involving sulfur, 21 cases (16%) were identified as respiratory related. A mouse model was used to examine whether there was an inflammatory or fibrotic response to elemental sulfur. Dust solutions were injected intratracheally into ovalbumin sensitized mice and lung damage was evaluated. Lung inflammatory response was analyzed via total lavage cell counts and differentials, and airway collagen content was analyzed histologically and biochemically. No significant differences from controls were seen in animals exposed to sulfur particles. The findings suggest that acute exposure of elemental sulfur itself may not cause an inflammatory reaction. However, further studies are needed to understand the possible health effects of chronic sulfur exposure and environmental weathering of sulfur dust.

  20. Water extract of Pueraria lobata Ohwi has anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng-Jih Lin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV infects all age groups and causes bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome with a significant mortality rate. To date, only ribavirin has been used to manage HRSV infection. However, ribavirin is expensive with an only modest effect. Furthermore, ribavirin has several side effects, which means it has limited clinical benefit. Pueraria lobata Ohwi (P. lobata is a common ingredient of Ge-Gen-Tang (Kakkon-to and Sheng-Ma-Ge-Gen-Tang (Shoma-kakkon-to, which are prescriptions of Chinese traditional medicine proven to have antiviral activity against HRSV. Therefore, it was hypothesized that P. lobata might be effective against HRSV. To find a cost-effective therapeutic modality, both human upper (HEp-2 and lower (A549 respiratory tract cell lines were used to test the hypothesis that P. lobata could inhibit HRSV-induced plaque formation. Results showed that the water extract of P. lobata was effective (p < 0.0001 against HRSV-induced plaque formation. P. lobata was more effective when given prior to viral inoculation (p < 0.0001 by inhibiting viral attachment (p < 0.0001 and penetration (p < 0.0001. However, supplementation with P. lobata could not stimulate interferon secretion after HRSV infection. In conclusion, P. lobata has antiviral activity against HRSV-induced plaque formation in airway mucosa mainly by inhibiting viral attachment and internalization. Further identification of effective constituents could contribute to the prevention of HRSV infection.

  1. Clinical characteristics and viral load of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus in children hospitaled for acute lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Li; Li, Yu-Ning; Tang, Yi-Jie; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Han-Chun; Yang, Xue-Mei; Li, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Jun; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two common viral pathogens in acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI). However, the association of viral load with clinical characteristics is not well-defined in ALRTI. To explore the correlation between viral load and clinical characteristics of RSV and HMPV in children hospitalized for ALRTI in Lanzhou, China. Three hundred and eighty-seven children hospitalized for ALRTI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were sampled from each children. Real-time PCR was used to screen RSV, HMPV, and twelve additional respiratory viruses. Bronchiolitis was the leading diagnoses both in RSV and HMPV positive patients. A significantly greater frequency of wheezing (52% vs. 33.52%, P = 0.000) was noted in RSV positive and negative patients. The RSV viral load was significant higher in children aged infections (P = 0.000). No difference was found in the clinical features of HMPV positive and negative patients. The HMPV viral load had no correlation with any clinical characteristics. The incidences of severe disease were similar between single infection and coinfection for the two viruses (RSV, P = 0.221; HMPV, P = 0.764) and there has no statistical significance between severity and viral load (P = 0.166 and P = 0.721). Bronchiolitis is the most common disease caused by RSV and HMPV. High viral load or co-infection may be associated with some symptoms but neither has a significant impact on disease severity for the two viruses. J. Med. Virol. 89:589-597, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus in children ≤2 years of age hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections in the Russian Federation: a prospective, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Tatochenko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Tatochenko1, Vasily Uchaikin2, Aleksandr Gorelov3, Konstantin Gudkov4, Andrew Campbell5, Gregory Schulz5, Rebecca Prahl5, Gerard Notario51Scientific Centre of Children’s Health, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Lomonosovskiy Prospect, Moscow, Russia; 2Russian State Medical University of Roszdrav, Moscow, Russia; 3Central Scientific Research Institution of Epidemiology, Moscow, Russia; 4Abbott Laboratories LLC, Khimki, Moscow, Russia; 5Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USABackground: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections among infants and young children, and is responsible for an estimated four million deaths per year globally. A monthly injection of palivizumab has been used for prophylaxis of serious RSV infections among high-risk children in 71 countries since 1998 and approval for use in the Russian Federation was obtained in February 2010. A recommendation for RSV prophylaxis in the Russian Federation would require knowledge of the prevalence and seasonality of RSV in that country.Methods: In a prospective, multicenter, epidemiological study of the prevalence, seasonality, and peak occurrence of RSV infection, children aged ≤2 years hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infections in three regions of the Russian Federation, from September 2008 through April 2009, were screened and tested for RSV using rapid immunochromatography of nasopharyngeal lavage. For subjects who were tested positive, hospitalization data were collected.Results: Of 519 children aged ≤2 years enrolled from September 11, 2008 through April 26, 2009, 197 tested positive for RSV (38.0%, 95% CI: 33.8, 42.3. The onset of the 2008–2009 RSV season in the Russian Federation occurred in late October 2008, similar to what is observed in other northern temperate zones. Peak activity occurred in early April 2009, when 62% of children enrolled tested positive for RSV.Conclusion: The prevalence

  3. Data on respiratory variables in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Georgopoulos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data show respiratory variables in 108 critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+ after at least 36 h on passive mechanical ventilation. PAV+ was continued for 48 h until the patients met pre-defined criteria either for switching to controlled modes or for breathing without ventilator assistance. Data during passive mechanical ventilation and during PAV+ are reported. Data are acquired from the whole population, as well as from patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome. The reported variables are tidal volume, driving pressure (ΔP, the difference between static end-inspiratory plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory airway pressure, respiratory system compliance and resistance, and arterial blood gasses. The data are supplemental to our original research article, which described individual ΔP in these patients and examined how it related to ΔP when the same patients were ventilated with passive mechanical ventilation using the currently accepted lung-protective strategy “Driving pressure during assisted mechanical ventilation. Is it controlled by patient brain?” [1]. Keywords: Tidal volume, Compliance, Driving pressure

  4. Prevalence of respiratory tract infections, allergies and assessment of humoral immunity within the Malopolska region's cohort of 11- year old children born with extremely low birth weight in comparison with to their term born peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Magdalena; Klimek, Małgorzata; Durlak, Wojciech; Kotula, Monika; Tomasik, Tomasz; Kwinta, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Children born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) have more respiratory tract complications during childhood. Little is known about respiratory and allergy problems in ELBW children at the threshold of adolescence. A follow-up study was conducted at the age of 11 among ELBW children (n=65) and age-matched controls (n=36). The primary outcomes in the study were the occurrence of respiratory and allergy problems and the rate of hospitalization due to respiratory complications at the age of 11 years, assessed with a questionnaire. Secondary outcome variables were serum levels of immunoglobulin classes. ELBW children had more respiratory tract infections (31 vs.11%, p = 0.03), but less allergies (3 vs. 22%, p allergies at the age of 11 years compared with children born at term. Lower respiratory tract problems decrease in ELBW children with age. Respiratory tract infections are not connected with deficiency in humoral immunity.

  5. Effect of exposure to ambient PM2.5 pollution on the risk of respiratory tract diseases: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Xu, Cheng; Ji, Guixiang; Liu, Hui; Shao, Wentao; Zhang, Chunlan; Gu, Aihua; Zhao, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization have designated airborne particulates, including particulates of median aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), as Group 1 carcinogens. It has not been determined, however, whether exposure to ambient PM2.5 is associated with an increase in respiratory related diseases. This meta-analysis assessed the association between exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and the risk of respiratory tract disease...

  6. Risk factors of respiratory syncytial virus infection among pediatric influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infections in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yukai; Hua, Jun; Wang, Dan; Chen, Liling; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Hong; Tian, Jianmei; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Genming

    2018-03-01

    The characteristics and risk factors of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among children has not yet been fully understood. To address the characteristics of RSV-associated illness and risk factors of RSV infection among children under 5 years of age in Suzhou, China. From April 2011 to March 2014, we conducted a prospective surveillance among children in Suzhou, China. Nasal or throat swabs were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and inpatients with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI). RSV was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and direct fluorescent antibody assay for children with ILI and SARI, respectively. Multivariable logistic-regression models were constructed to explore risk factors and symptoms of RSV infection. Of 3267 ILI and 1838 SARI children enrolled in the study, 192 (5.9%) and 287 (15.6%) tested positive for RSV, respectively. Among ILI patients, children with RSV infections visited clinics more often (P = 0.005) and had longer duration of fever (P = 0.032) than those without RSV infection. All RSV-positive children had an increased risk of having cough (OR = 2.9), rhinorrhea (OR = 1.6), breathing difficulty (OR = 3.4), wheezing (OR = 3.3), and irritability (OR = 2.7). Children aged respiratory infections (OR = 1.3) were more likely to get infected by RSV. Children with SARI had higher positive rate of RSV than those with ILI. Cough, rhinorrhea, and wheezing were the most common symptoms in RSV infection. Children aged respiratory infections were the potential risk factors for RSV infection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Ibuprofen, paracetamol, and steam for patients with respiratory tract infections in primary care: pragmatic randomised factorial trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; Moore, Michael; Kelly, Joanne; Williamson, Ian; Leydon, Geraldine; McDermott, Lisa; Mullee, Mark; Stuart, Beth

    2013-10-25

    To assess strategies for advice on analgesia and steam inhalation for respiratory tract infections. Open pragmatic parallel group factorial randomised controlled trial. Primary care in United Kingdom. Patients aged ≥ 3 with acute respiratory tract infections. 889 patients were randomised with computer generated random numbers in pre-prepared sealed numbered envelopes to components of advice or comparator advice: advice on analgesia (take paracetamol, ibuprofen, or both), dosing of analgesia (take as required v regularly), and steam inhalation (no inhalation v steam inhalation). Primary: mean symptom severity on days 2-4; symptoms rated 0 (no problem) to 7 (as bad as it can be). Secondary: temperature, antibiotic use, reconsultations. Neither advice on dosing nor on steam inhalation was significantly associated with changes in outcomes. Compared with paracetamol, symptom severity was little different with ibuprofen (adjusted difference 0.04, 95% confidence interval -0.11 to 0.19) or the combination of ibuprofen and paracetamol (0.11, -0.04 to 0.26). There was no evidence for selective benefit with ibuprofen among most subgroups defined before analysis (presence of otalgia; previous duration of symptoms; temperature >37.5 °C; severe symptoms), but there was evidence of reduced symptoms severity benefit in the subgroup with chest infections (ibuprofen -0.40, -0.78 to -0.01; combination -0.47; -0.84 to -0.10), equivalent to almost one in two symptoms rated as a slight rather than a moderately bad problem. Children might also benefit from treatment with ibuprofen (ibuprofen: -0.47, -0.76 to -0.18; combination: -0.04, -0.31 to 0.23). Reconsultations with new/unresolved symptoms or complications were documented in 12% of those advised to take paracetamol, 20% of those advised to take ibuprofen (adjusted risk ratio 1.67, 1.12 to 2.38), and 17% of those advised to take the combination (1.49, 0.98 to 2.18). Mild thermal injury with steam was documented for four patients

  8. The role of neutrophils in the upper and lower respiratory tract during influenza virus infection of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reading Patrick C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophils have been shown to play a role in host defence against highly virulent and mouse-adapted strains of influenza virus, however it is not clear if an effective neutrophil response is an important factor moderating disease severity during infection with other virus strains. In this study, we have examined the role of neutrophils during infection of mice with influenza virus strain HKx31, a virus strain of the H3N2 subtype and of moderate virulence for mice, to determine the role of neutrophils in the early phase of infection and in clearance of influenza virus from the respiratory tract during the later phase of infection. Methods The anti-Gr-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb RB6-8C5 was used to (i identify neutrophils in the upper (nasal tissues and lower (lung respiratory tract of uninfected and influenza virus-infected mice, and (ii deplete neutrophils prior to and during influenza virus infection of mice. Results Neutrophils were rapidly recruited to the upper and lower airways following influenza virus infection. We demonstrated that use of mAb RB6-8C5 to deplete C57BL/6 (B6 mice of neutrophils is complicated by the ability of this mAb to bind directly to virus-specific CD8+ T cells. Thus, we investigated the role of neutrophils in both the early and later phases of infection using CD8+ T cell-deficient B6.TAP-/- mice. Infection of B6.TAP-/- mice with a low dose of influenza virus did not induce clinical disease in control animals, however RB6-8C5 treatment led to profound weight loss, severe clinical disease and enhanced virus replication throughout the respiratory tract. Conclusion Neutrophils play a critical role in limiting influenza virus replication during the early and later phases of infection. Furthermore, a virus strain of moderate virulence can induce severe clinical disease in the absence of an effective neutrophil response.

  9. Coordinated Research Project: Relationship between recurrent lower respiratory tract infection, bronchial asthma and gastroesophageal reflux in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, P.; Bernal, P.; Birkenfeld, B.; Boonyaprapa, S.; Chen, S.; Ciofetta, G.; Ellman, A.; Fatima, S.; Kavasakal, L.; Rondain, J.E.; Padhy, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux may cause or contribute to different respiratory problems such as bronchial asthma (BA), recurrent lower respiratory tract infection (rLRTI), among others. There is no clear cut explanation of mechanisms responsible for the respiratory symptoms in children with recurrent GER, and how beneficial GER treatment could be in the management of this children. The aim of this prospective coordinate research project was to evaluated the presence of GER, esophageal transit (ET) abnormalities and lung aspiration (LA) in children with recurrent respiratory symptoms. So far we had evaluated 309 children; 173 boys and 136 girls, between 15 days and 15 years old of age. Under standard and protocolized procedures all children underwent gastroesophageal scintigraphic study. Esophageal transit scintigraphy (ETS) was performed in 127 and LA scintigraphy in 205. The scintigraphic study was positive for GER in 160/309 (51.8%) of the total group. We found an abnormal ETS in 13.4% and a LA scintigraphy positive for aspiration of gastric content in 3.9% of the studied patients. According to clinical features, 75% of asthmatic children with persistent symptoms had GER and 30.7% of children with rLRTI. Follow-up studies were performed in 85 children after treatment of GER and there was a normalization of the scintigraphic study, associated with clinical improvement in 69.4% of them. These results show that GER prevalence in children with BA and rLRTI is higher than the reported normal prevalence in infancy, specially in the group of asthmatic patients. In our group, we do not find a significant presence of ET abnormalities neither LA of gastric content. The diagnosis and treatment of GER is mandatory in children with rLRTI or persistent BA. In asthmatic patients the recognition of gastric abnormalities is highly relevant for therapeutic problems when GER is in a sub-clinical stage

  10. Respiratory Viruses in Invasively Ventilated Critically Ill Patients-A Prospective Multicenter Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Someren Gréve, Frank; Juffermans, Nicole P; Bos, Lieuwe D J; Binnekade, Jan M; Braber, Annemarije; Cremer, Olaf L; de Jonge, Evert; Molenkamp, Richard; Ong, David S Y; Rebers, Sjoerd P H; Spoelstra-de Man, Angelique M E; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F; Spronk, Peter E; Verheul, Kirsten D; de Waard, Monique C; de Wilde, Rob B P; Winters, Tineke; de Jong, Menno D; Schultz, Marcus J

    2018-01-01

    The presence of respiratory viruses and the association with outcomes were assessed in invasively ventilated ICU patients, stratified by admission diagnosis. Prospective observational study. Five ICUs in the Netherlands. Between September 1, 2013, and April 30, 2014, 1,407 acutely admitted and invasively ventilated patients were included. None. Nasopharyngeal swabs and tracheobronchial aspirates were collected upon intubation and tested for 14 respiratory viruses. Out of 1,407 patients, 156 were admitted because of a severe acute respiratory infection and 1,251 for other reasons (non-severe acute respiratory infection). Respiratory viruses were detected in 28.8% of severe acute respiratory infection patients and 17.0% in non-severe acute respiratory infection (p < 0.001). In one third, viruses were exclusively detected in tracheobronchial aspirates. Rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus were more prevalent in severe acute respiratory infection patients (9.6% and 2.6% vs 4.5 and 0.2%; p = 0.006 and p < 0.001). In both groups, there were no associations between the presence of viruses and the number of ICU-free days at day 28, crude mortality, and mortality in multivariate regression analyses. Respiratory viruses are frequently detected in acutely admitted and invasively ventilated patients. Rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus are more frequently found in severe acute respiratory infection patients. Detection of respiratory viruses is not associated with worse clinically relevant outcomes in the studied cohort of patients.

  11. Recurrent, protracted and persistent lower respiratory tract infection : A neglected clinical entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Lilly M; de Groot, Ronald

    Community-acquired pneumonia is a potentially life-threatening disease affecting children worldwide. Recurrent pneumonia episodes can lead to the development of chronic respiratory morbidity. Chronic wet cough, a common pediatric complaint, is defined as a wet cough indicating excessive airway mucus

  12. Recurrent, protracted and persistent lower respiratory tract infection: A neglected clinical entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Groot, R. de

    2015-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is a potentially life-threatening disease affecting children worldwide. Recurrent pneumonia episodes can lead to the development of chronic respiratory morbidity. Chronic wet cough, a common pediatric complaint, is defined as a wet cough indicating excessive airway mucus

  13. Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Sager, Ramon; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Stolz, Daiana; Tamm, Michael; Bouadma, Lila; Luyt, Charles E; Wolff, Michel; Chastre, Jean; Tubach, Florence; Kristoffersen, Kristina B; Burkhardt, Olaf; Welte, Tobias; Schroeder, Stefan; Nobre, Vandack; Wei, Long; Bucher, Heiner C; Bhatnagar, Neera; Annane, Djillali; Reinhart, Konrad; Branche, Angela; Damas, Pierre; Nijsten, Maarten W N; de Lange, Dylan W; Deliberato, Rodrigo O; Lima, Stella Ss; Maravić-Stojković, Vera; Verduri, Alessia; Cao, Bin; Shehabi, Yahya; Beishuizen, Albertus; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik S; Corti, Caspar; van Oers, Jos A; Falsey, Ann R; de Jong, Evelien; Oliveira, Carolina F; Beghe, Bianca; Briel, Matthias; Mueller, Beat

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) comprise of a large and heterogeneous group of infections including bacterial, viral, and other aetiologies. In recent years, procalcitonin (PCT), a blood marker for bacterial infections, has emerged as a promising tool to improve decisions about

  14. Frequency of viral etiology in symptomatic adult upper respiratory tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cirlene da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Results presented in this report suggest that respiratory viral infections are largely under diagnosed in immunocompetent adults. Although the majority of young adult infections are not life-threatening they may impose a significant burden, especially in developing countries since these individuals represent a large fraction of the working force.

  15. Practical implementation of a multiplex PCR for acute respiratory tract infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruteke, Paul; Glas, Afina S.; Dierdorp, Mirjam; Vreede, Willem B.; Pilon, Jan-Willem; Bruisten, Sylvia M.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular testing for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) has documented value but limited implementation due to questions that typically slow the acceptance of new tests. This study sought to address these questions and achieve implementation. Rhinovirus was added to a nested multiplex PCR (M-PCR),

  16. Effect of aerial ammonia on porcine infection of the respiratory tract with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Bækbo, P.; Nielsen, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the experimental study was to examine whether aerial ammonia alone could predispose the respiratory system of pigs to infection with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida type A. Two groups of 5 pigs each were continuously exposed to 50 ppm ammonia and less than 5 ppm ammonia...

  17. Application of the physiological and morphological parameters of the brazilian population sample to the mathematical model of the human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Arlene Alves dos

    2005-01-01

    The Human Respiratory Tract Model proposed by the ICRP Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. Concerning the respiratory physiological parameters the breathing characteristics influence the volume, the inhalation rate of air and the portion that enters through the nose and the mouth. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. The model uses morphological and physiological parameters from the Caucasian man to establish deposition fractions in the respiratory tract regions. It is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends, for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition, the use of parameters from a local population when information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence in using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of the ICRP Publication 66. The morphological and physiological data were obtained from the literature. The software EXCEL for Windows (version 2000) was used in order to implement the deposition model and also to allow the changes in parameters of interest. Initially, the implemented model was checked using the parameters defined by the ICRP and the results of the fraction deposition in the respiratory tract compartments were compared. Finally, morphological and physiological parameters from Brazilian adult male were applied and the fractional deposition calculated. The results suggest a significant variation in fractional deposition when Brazilian parameters are applied in the model. (author)

  18. Acupuncture therapy for fever induced by viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in military medical service: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, SeungWon; Shin, KyoungHo; Jung, WooSang; Moon, SangKwan; Cho, KiHo

    2014-12-01

    We report the cases of eight military patients with fever (≥38°C) induced by viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) who requested treatment with acupuncture in the military medical service room. All patients were treated immediately after diagnosis with classical acupuncture (GV14, GB20, TE8 points) and a new type of acupuncture, equilibrium acupuncture (Feibing and Ganmao points). After one treatment session (20 min), reduction of body temperature was confirmed in all patients. Accompanying symptoms such as headache, myalgia and nasal obstruction also showed a tendency to decrease. Within 3 days of treatment, six of the eight patients had recovered from the URTI. No adverse effects of acupuncture treatment were reported. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Role of lymphotoxin and homeostatic chemokines in the development and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Carragher, Damian; Randall, Troy D

    2007-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs are strategically placed to recruit locally activated antigen presenting cells (APCs) as well as naïve, recirculating T and B cells. The structure of secondary lymphoid organs - separated B and T zones, populations of specialized stromal cells, high endothelial venules and lymphatic vessles - has also evolved to maximize encounters between APCs and lymphocytes and to facilitate the expansion and differentiation of antigen-stimulated T and B cells. Many of the general mechanisms that govern the development and organization of secondary lymphoid organs have been identified over the last decade. However, the specific cellular and molecular interactions involved in the development and organization of each secondary lymphoid organ are slightly different and probably reflect the cell types available at that time and location. Here we review the mechanisms involved in the development, organization and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract, including Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and inducible Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT).

  20. Doxycycline in the treatment of respiratory tract infections. Results of a pan-European multi-centre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, M

    1975-01-01

    In the winter of 1973-4, general practitioners from seven European countries took part in a multi-centre trial of doxycycline in the treatment of infections of the respiratory tract. The carefully designed protocol was observed by all participants. A total of 1,747 patients were admitted to the trial; their ages ranged from 6 years to over 80. The commonest diagnoses (50%) were acute bronchitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. On the recommended dosage of 200 mg doxycycline on the first day, followed by 100 mg daily thereafter (though 200 mg could be continued daily in severe cases), 87% of patients achieved good or very good results. Both subjective (pain) and objective (sputum volume and viscosity, temperature, cough) measures showed rapid improvement, usually by the third to fifth days. Side-effects were minimal and mainly gastrointestinal and caused only 4 patients to discontinue treatment. Overall, doxycycline proved its effectiveness and rapidity of action.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe: the VetPath study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anno; Thomas, Valérie; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Maher, Kirsty; Morrissey, Ian; Butty, Pascal; Klein, Ulrich; Marion, Hervé; Rigaut, Delphine; Vallé, Michel

    2014-08-06

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased antimicrobial non-treated cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 1001 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 11 countries during 2002-2006. Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MICs of 16 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. P. multocida (231) and M. haemolytica (138) isolates were all susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to florfenicol and spectinomycin was 0.4% and 3.5% in P. multocida, respectively, and absent in M. haemolytica isolates. Tetracycline resistance was 5.7% and 14.6% for P. multocida and M. haemolytica. In pigs, 230 P. multocida, 220 A. pleuropneumoniae and 182 S. suis isolates were recovered. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <1%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance was 3-6% and tetracycline resistance varied from 14.7% in A. pleuropneumoniae to 81.8% in S. suis. In conclusion, low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from cattle and pigs. Since for approximately half of the antibiotics in this panel no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available, setting of the missing veterinary breakpoints is important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of pediatric obesity on hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract infections in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yusuke; Nochioka, Kotaro; Testa, Marcia A

    2018-04-01

    Obesity is the most common public health problem and is a clinically complicating risk factor among hospitalized children. The impact of pediatric obesity on the severity and morbidity of lower respiratory tract infections remains unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of bronchitis and pneumonia among children aged 2-20 years using hospital discharge records. The data were obtained from the Kid's Inpatient Database in 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012, and were weighted to estimate the number of hospitalizations in the United States. We used the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code (278.0×) to classify whether the patient was obese or not. We investigated the associations between pediatric obesity and use of mechanical ventilation using multivariable logistic regression model. In addition, we ascertained the relationships between pediatric obesity, comorbid blood stream infections, mean healthcare cost, and length of hospital stay. We estimated a total of 133 602 hospitalizations with pneumonia and bronchitis among children aged between 2 and 20 years. Obesity was significantly associated with use of mechanical ventilation (adjusted OR 2.90, 95% CI 2.15-3.90), comorbid bacteremia or septicemia (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.03-2.44), elevated healthcare costs (adjusted difference $383, 95%CI $276-$476), and prolonged length of hospital stay (difference 0.32 days, 95%CI 0.23-0.40 days), after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics using multivariable logistic regression models. Pediatric obesity is an independent risk factor for severity and morbidity among pediatric patients with lower respiratory tract infections. These findings suggest the importance of obesity prevention for pediatric populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Nosocomial infection/colonization of the respiratory tract caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in an Internal Medicine ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Coronas, J; Cabezas Fernández, T; Alvarez-Ossorio García de Soria, R; Rogado González, M C; Delgado Fernández, M; Díez García, F

    2002-10-01

    To present the epidemiology of the outbreak and the description of patients with infection or colonization of the respiratory tract caused by A. baumannii in an Internal Medicine ward. 20 consecutively patients hospitalized in the Internal Medicine ward were studied during 18 months with isolation of multiresistant A. baumanni in respiratory tract specimens with or without clinical signs of infection. Starting on an index case, that was a patient coming from other hospital with diagnosis of nosocomial Acinetobacter pneumonia, we detected 20 patients. The age of the patients ranged from 48 to 95 years, with a mean of 71.4 years. Eighty percent were males. The clinical features were similar: advanced age, with chronic diseases (35 percent diabetics, 45 percent with chronic lung diseases), and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics agents, fundamentally third generation cephalosporin (70 percent), clarithromycin (55 percent) and quinolones (30 percent). 75 percent of patients were in the same ward. Eight (40 percent) of the patients with chronic lung diseases were subjects with COPD, two with asthma and chronic glucocorticoids treatment, and one with a sleep apnea. In four cases the isolation was considered a colonization. The mean stay was 26.15 days, and the mortality 40 percent. The nosocomial infection caused by Acinetobacter baumannii is responsible of a high morbi-mortality between the patients hospitalized in an Internal Medicine ward, and produce an increase in length of stay. It is necessary a combination of control measures to prevent the transmission in the hospital and the outbreak of new multiresistant strains.

  4. A cross-sectional study to assess the long-term health status of patients with lower respiratory tract infections, including Q-fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A.S.G. van; Loenhout, J.A.F. van; Peters, J.B.; Rietveld, A.; Paget, W.J.; Akkermans, R.P.; Olde Loohuis, A.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Velden, J. van der

    2015-01-01

    Patients with a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) might be at risk for long-term impaired health status. We assessed whether LRTI patients without Q fever are equally at risk for developing long-term symptoms compared to LRTI patients with Q fever. The study was a cross-sectional cohort

  5. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by two polymerase chain reactions and role of M. pneumoniae in acute respiratory tract infections in pediatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ieven, M; Ursi, D; Van Bever, H; Quint, W; Niesters, H G; Goossens, H

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and viruses in acute respiratory tract infections in children were studied during the winter of 1992-1993 in Antwerp, Belgium. M. pneumoniae was diagnosed in nasopharyngeal aspirates by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For this, amplification of a fragment of the PI

  6. The associations of humorous coping styles, affective states, job demands and job control with the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, S.; De Goede, M.P.M.; Van Doornen, L.J.P.; Van de Schoot, R.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: There is some evidence that job demands and job resources such as job control and humorous coping may contribute to the risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a model including these variables as well as job-related

  7. Cost effectiveness of amoxicillin for lower respiratory tract infections in primary care : An economic evaluation accounting for the cost of antimicrobial resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppong, Raymond; Smith, Richard D.; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo; Butler, Christopher C.; Goossens, Herman; Coenen, Samuel; Moore, Michael; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a major disease burden and are often treated with antibiotics. Typically, studies evaluating the use of antibiotics focus on immediate costs of care, and do not account for the wider implications of antimicrobial resistance. Aim This study

  8. Qualitative interview study of parents' perspectives, concerns and experiences of the management of lower respiratory tract infections in children in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halls, Amy; Van'T Hoff, Catherine; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo; Leydon, Geraldine M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore parents' perspectives, concerns and experiences of the management of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children in primary care. Design Qualitative semistructured interview study. Setting UK primary care. Participants 23 parents of children aged 6 months to 10 years

  9. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of Dutch Mycoplasma synoviae field isolates originating from joint lesions and the respiratory tract of commercial poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, W.J.M.; Mevius, D.J.; Veldman, K.T.; Feberwee, A.

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 17 Dutch Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from commercial poultry to enrofloxacin, difloxacin, doxycycline, tylosin and tilmicosin was examined. Three isolates originated from joint lesions and 14 were from the respiratory tract. The type strain M. synoviae WVU 1853 was

  10. Can the Pelargonium sidoides root extract EPs® 7630 prevent asthma attacks during viral infections of the upper respiratory tract in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Fulya; Yaman, Melih

    2013-01-15

    Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by airway inflammation. Viral infection initiates an immune inflammatory response that may produce asthma attacks. There is no effective preventing therapy for asthma attack during upper respiratory tract viral infections. To investigate the efficacy of 5 days of Pelargonium sidoides therapy for preventing asthma attack during upper respiratory tract viral infections. Sixty one asthmatic children with upper respiratory tract viral infection were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomized to receive Pelargonium sidoides daily for 5 days (n=30) or not (n=31). Before and after treatment, they all were examined and symptom scores were determined. Following five days treatment, children were evaluated whether or not they had an asthma attack. Treatment with Pelargonium sidoides was not associated with a statistically significant differences in fever and muscle aches (p>0.05, Chi-square test). There were significant differences in cough frequency and nasal congestion between the groups (pasthma attack between the groups (pasthma attack. Our study shows that Pelargonium sidoides may prevent asthma attacks during upper respiratory tract viral infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and demand for antibiotics in patients with upper respiratory tract infections is hardly different in female versus male patients as seen in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Kathrine; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Siersma, Volkert

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics is a major public health concern. General practitioners (GPs) prescribe most antibiotics, often for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), and have in general been shown to prescribe antibiotics more often to women. No studies have examined...

  12. The role of procalcitonin as a guide for the diagnosis, prognosis, and decision of antibiotic therapy for lower respiratory tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Abd El-Azeem

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: Serum PCT level could be used as a novel marker of lower respiratory tract bacterial infections for diagnosis, prognosis and follow up of therapy. This reduces side-effects of an unnecessary antibiotic use, lowers costs, and in the long-term, leads to diminishing drug resistance.

  13. Effects of influenza plus pneumococcal conjugate vaccination versus influenza vaccination alone in preventing respiratory tract infections in children : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Angelique G S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Hoes, Arno W; van Loon, Anton M; Hak, Eelko

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of influenza vaccination with or without heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comprising 579 children age 18 to 72 months with

  14. Impact of positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures on adverse outcomes following hospitalized pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Benfield, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) without positive chest X-ray findings and blood cultures. We investigated the prognostic impact of a pulmonary infiltrate and bacteraemia on the clinical course of hospitalized...

  15. Enterovirus genotypes among patients with severe acute respiratory illness, influenza-like illness, and asymptomatic individuals in South Africa, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellferscee, Orienka; Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Variava, Ebrahim; Dawood, Halima; Wolter, Nicole; Madhi, Shabir A; du Plessis, Mignon; Cohen, Cheryl; Treurnicht, Florette K

    2017-10-01

    Enteroviruses can cause outbreaks of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and EV-A, -B, -C, and -D species have different pathogenic profiles and circulation patterns. We aimed to characterize and determine the prevalence of enterovirus genotypes among South African patients with respiratory illness and controls during June 2012 to July 2014. Syndromic SARI and influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance was performed at two sentinel sites. At each site nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal specimens were collected from SARI and ILI patients as well as controls. Specimens were tested for enterovirus by real-time PCR. Positive specimens were further genotyped by sequencing a region of the VP1 gene. The prevalence of enterovirus was 5.8% (87/1494), 3.4% (103/3079), and 3.4% (46/1367) among SARI, ILI, and controls, respectively (SARI/controls, P = 0.002 and ILI/control, P = 0.973). Among the 101/236 (42.8%) enterovirus-positive specimens that could be genotyped, we observed a high diversity of circulating enterovirus genotypes (a total of 33 genotypes) from all four human enterovirus species with high prevalence of Enterovirus-B (60.4%; 61/101) and Enterovirus-A (21.8%; 22/101) compared to Enterovirus-C (10.9%; 11/101) and Enterovirus-D (6.9%; 7/101) (P = 0.477). Of the enterovirus genotypes identified, Echovirus 30 (9.9%, 10/101), Coxsackie virus B5 (7.9%, 8/101) and Enterovirus-D68 (6.9%, 7/101) were most prevalent. There was no difference in disease severity (SARI or ILI compared to controls) between the different enterovirus species (P = 0.167). We observed a high number of enterovirus genotypes in patients with respiratory illness and in controls from South Africa with no disease association of EV species with disease severity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The use of household cleaning products during pregnancy and lower respiratory tract infections and wheezing during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Zock, Jan Paul; Carsin, Anne Elie; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Esplugues, Ana; Santa-Mari