WorldWideScience

Sample records for respiratory condition necessitating

  1. Respiratory symptoms necessitating spirometry among soldiers with Iraq/Afghanistan war lung injury.

    Szema, Anthony M; Salihi, Walid; Savary, Khalil; Chen, John J

    2011-09-01

    New-onset asthma rates are higher among US soldiers deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan than stateside, but overall respiratory symptom and spirometry rates among soldiers returning from Iraq/Afghanistan have not yet been addressed. We determined these rates in soldiers deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan versus troops stationed elsewhere. Retrospective review of active-duty soldiers (2004 to 2010) registered at Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northport, New York, with Long Island/New York City zip codes. Subjects were examined by physicians or physicians' assistants. We counted number of spirometries, which required respiratory symptoms, and the provider was required to submit a diagnosis as part of the request process. Twenty-five percent of 7151 troops went to Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 1816) and 75% went elsewhere (n = 5335), with more smokers in the Iraq/Afghanistan group (16.1% vs 3.3%). Rates of symptoms and spirometry were 14.5% and 1.8%, for Iraq/Afghanistan, versus troops deployed elsewhere, respectively (P Afghanistan war lung injury is common and rates of symptoms leading to a diagnosis requiring spirometry are high. (C)2011The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

  2. Tricyclic antidepressant overdose necessitating ICU admission ...

    Tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) overdose necessitating intensive care unit (ICU) admission remains a significant problem in the Western Cape. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the course of life-threatening TCA overdose in our centre to identify potential prognostic indicators. TCA levels >1 000 ng/ml were associated ...

  3. Environment Changes Genetic Effects on Respiratory Conditions and Allergic Phenotypes

    Song, Yong; Schwager, Michelle J; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is disproportionately distributed among different populations, with an increasing trend observed in Western countries. Here we investigated how the environment affected genotype-phenotype association in a genetically homogeneous, but geographically...... separated population. We evaluated 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) corresponding to 8 genes (ADAM33, ALOX5, LT-α, LTC4S, NOS1, ORMDL3, TBXA2R and TNF-α), the lung function and five respiratory/allergic conditions (ever asthma, bronchitis, rhinitis, dermatitis and atopy) in two populations of Inuit......-phenotype associations relating to bronchitis and allergy susceptibility are dependent on the environment and that environmental factors/lifestyles modify genetic predisposition and change the genetic effects on diseases....

  4. Respiratory

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  5. COPD management as a model for all chronic respiratory conditions: report of the 4th Consensus Conference in Respiratory Medicine.

    Nardini, Stefano; De Benedetto, Fernando; Sanguinetti, Claudio M; Bellofiore, Salvatore; Carlone, Stefano; Privitera, Salvatore; Sagliocca, Luciano; Tupputi, Emmanuele; Baccarani, Claudio; Caiffa, Gennaro; Calabrese, Maria Consiglia; Capuozzo, Antonio; Cauchi, Salvatore; Conio, Valentina; Coratella, Giuseppe; Crismancich, Franco; Dal Negro, Roberto W; Dellarole, Franco; Delucchi, Maurizio; Favaretti, Carlo; Forte, Silvia; Gallo, Franca Matilde; Giuliano, Riccardo; Grandi, Marco; Grillo, Antonino; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Guffanti, Enrico; Locicero, Salvatore; Lombardo, Francesco Paolo; Mantero, Marco; Marasso, Roberto; Martino, Laura; Mastroberardino, Michele; Mereu, Carlo; Messina, Roberto; Neri, Margherita; Novelletto, Bruno Franco; Parente, Paolo; Pasquinucci, Sergio; Pistolesi, Massimo; Polverino, Mario; Posca, Agnese; Richeldi, Luca; Roccia, Fernando; Giustini, Ettore Saffi; Salemi, Michelangelo; Santacroce, Salvatore; Schisano, Mario; Schisano, Matteo; Selvi, Eleonora; Silenzi, Andrea; Soverina, Patrizio; Taranto, Claudio; Ugolini, Marta; Visaggi, Piero; Zanasi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) kill 40 million people each year. The management of chronic respiratory NCDs such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is particularly critical in Italy, where they are widespread and represent a heavy burden on healthcare resources. It is thus important to redefine the role and responsibility of respiratory specialists and their scientific societies, together with that of the whole healthcare system, in order to create a sustainable management of COPD, which could become a model for other chronic respiratory conditions. These issues were divided into four main topics (Training, Organization, Responsibilities, and Sustainability) and discussed at a Consensus Conference promoted by the Research Center of the Italian Respiratory Society held in Rome, Italy, 3-4 November 2016. Regarding training, important inadequacies emerged regarding specialist training - both the duration of practical training courses and teaching about chronic diseases like COPD. A better integration between university and teaching hospitals would improve the quality of specialization. A better organizational integration between hospital and specialists/general practitioners (GPs) in the local community is essential to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic pathways for chronic respiratory patients. Improving the care pathways is the joint responsibility of respiratory specialists, GPs, patients and their caregivers, and the healthcare system. The sustainability of the entire system depends on a better organization of the diagnostic-therapeutic pathways, in which also other stakeholders such as pharmacists and pharmaceutical companies can play an important role.

  6. Contraindications to Athletic Participation. Cardiac, Respiratory, and Central Nervous System Conditions.

    Moeller, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses contraindications to athletic participation, examining the cardiac, respiratory, and central nervous system conditions that warrant activity disqualification. Provides guidelines about when it is safe for individuals to participate, and discusses the physician's responsibility. (SM)

  7. The effect of airborne particles and weather conditions on pediatric respiratory infections in Cordoba, Argentine

    Amarillo, Ana C.; Carreras, Hebe A.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of estimated PM 10 on respiratory infections in children from Cordoba, Argentine as well as the influence of weather factors, socio-economic conditions and education. We analyzed upper and lower respiratory infections and applied a time-series analysis with a quasi-Poisson distribution link function. To control for seasonally varying factors we fitted cubic smoothing splines of date. We also examined community-specific parameters and differences in susceptibility by sex. We found a significant association between particles and respiratory infections. This relationship was affected by mean temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind speed. These effects were stronger in fall, winter and spring for upper respiratory infections while for lower respiratory infections the association was significant only during spring. Low socio-economic conditions and low education levels increased the risk of respiratory infections. These findings add useful information to understand the influence of airborne particles on children health in developing countries. - Highlights: ► Few information is available on children respiratory health from developing countries. ► We modeled the association between PM 10 and children's respiratory infections. ► We checked the influence of weather factors, socio-economic conditions, education and sex. ► Temperature, pressure and wind speed modified the effect of particles. ► Low socio-economic conditions and low education levels increased the risk of infections. - The concentration of airborne particles as well as low socio-economic conditions and low education levels are significant risk factors for upper and lower respiratory infections in children from Cordoba, Argentine.

  8. Increased biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis during energetically limited growth and respiratory conditions

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Blank, Lars Mathias; Solem, Christian

    2008-01-01

    (glucose/mannose-specific phosphotransferase system). Amino acid catabolism could be excluded as the source of the additional ATP. Since mutants without a functional H+-ATPase produced less ATP under sugar starvation and respiratory conditions, the additional ATP yield appears to come partly from energy......Lactococcus lactis is known to be capable of respiration under aerobic conditions in the presence of haemin. In the present study the effect of respiration on ATP production during growth on different sugars was examined. With glucose as the sole carbon source, respiratory conditions in L. lactis...... MG1363 resulted in only a minor increase, 21%, in biomass yield. Since ATP production through substrate-level phosphorylation was essentially identical with and without respiration, the increased biomass yield was a result of energy-saving under respiratory conditions estimated to be 0.4 mol of ATP...

  9. Respiratory alkalosis

    Alkalosis - respiratory ... leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma). ... Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using ...

  10. Effect of brachycephaly and body condition score on respiratory thermoregulation of healthy dogs.

    Davis, Michael S; Cummings, Sabrina L; Payton, Mark E

    2017-11-15

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of brachycephaly and body condition score on respiratory thermoregulation of healthy dogs. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 52 brachycephalic and 53 nonbrachycephalic dogs. PROCEDURES All dogs were exposed to a cool treatment (temperature, 21.8 ± 1.7°C [71.2 ± 3.1°F]; relative humidity, 62.2 ± 9.7%; and ambient enthalpy, 47.7 ± 6.6 kcal/kg) and then a hot treatment (temperature, 32.9 ± 1.7°C [91.2 ± 3.1°F]; relative humidity, 51.9 ± 9.8%; and ambient enthalpy, 74.8 ± 8.7 kcal/kg; heat stress) at least 1 hour later. For each treatment, dogs were allowed to acclimatize to the environment for 15 minutes and then were placed in a sealed whole-body plethysmograph for continuous measurement of the respiratory pattern for 10 minutes. Treatment was discontinued if a dog developed signs of respiratory distress. Respiratory variables and body temperature were compared between the 2 breed types (brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic) and between treatments. RESULTS Body condition score was positively associated with body temperature independent of environmental conditions or breed type and negatively associated with tidal volume. Brachycephalic dogs had a greater increase in respiratory rate in response to heat stress than did nonbrachycephalic dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that brachycephalic dogs had decreased capacity for thermoregulation, compared with nonbrachycephalic dogs, but body condition score was a greater determinant of body temperature than breed type. Nevertheless, both upper airway conformation and body condition score should be considered when evaluating whether an individual dog is capable of tolerating heat stress.

  11. CFD heat transfer simulation of the human upper respiratory tract for oronasal breathing condition

    Kambiz Farahmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries due to inhalation of hot gas are commonly encountered when dealing with fire and combustible material, which is harmful and threatens human life. In the literature, various studies have been conducted to investigate heat and mass transfer characteristics in the human respiratory tract (HRT. This study focuses on assessing the injury taking place in the upper human respiratory tract and identifying acute tissue damage, based on level of exposure. A three-dimensional heat transfer simulation is performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software to study the temperature profile through the upper HRT consisting of the nasal cavity, oral cavity, trachea, and the first two generations of bronchi. The model developed is for the simultaneous oronasal breathing during the inspiration phase with a high volumetric flow rate of 90 liters/minute and the inspired air temperature of 100 degrees Celsius. The geometric model depicting the upper HRT is generated based on the data available and literature cited. The results of the simulation give the temperature distribution along the center and the surface tissue of the respiratory tract. This temperature distribution will help to assess the level of damage induced in the upper respiratory tract and appropriate treatment for the damage. A comparison of nasal breathing, oral breathing, and oronasal breathing is performed. Temperature distribution can be utilized in the design of the respirator systems where inlet temperature is regulated favoring the human body conditions.

  12. Housing conditions affecting interior moisture levels: links to mould growth and children's respiratory health

    Wells, John A. [Crosier Kilgour and Partners Ltd. (Canada)], email: john.w@ckpeng.com; Polyzois, Dimos [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Manitoba (Canada)], email: polyzoi@cc.umanitoba.ca; Polyzoi, Eleoussa [Faculty of Education, University of Winnipeg (Canada)], email: l.polyzoi@uwinnipeg.ca

    2011-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a person's respiratory health is affected by high indoor moisture content in their house. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the link between housing conditions and respiratory health, so that strategies can be implemented to improve the quality of life of children. This study was carried out through the completion of a survey by 3,423 parents in Winnipeg, Canada, the collection of 715 air samples from the residences of 715 parents, and an engineering audit of their homes. This study showed that a strong relationship exists between building moisture content and common home maintenance and that routine maintenance is efficient in significantly reducing the growth of mould which impacts children's respiratory health. This paper provided useful information on the relation between housing conditions and respiratory health problems and the rest of the study will aim at determining which building conditions impact mould growth most.

  13. OMARC: An online multimedia application for training health care providers in the assessment of respiratory conditions.

    Meruvia-Pastor, Oscar; Patra, Pranjal; Andres, Karen; Twomey, Creina; Peña-Castillo, Lourdes

    2016-05-01

    OMARC, a multimedia application designed to support the training of health care providers for the identification of common lung sounds heard in a patient's thorax as part of a health assessment, is described and its positive contribution to user learning is assessed. The main goal of OMARC is to effectively help health-care students become familiar with lung sounds as part of the assessment of respiratory conditions. In addition, the application must be easy to use and accessible to students and practitioners over the internet. OMARC was developed using an online platform to facilitate access to users in remote locations. OMARC's unique contribution as an educational software tool is that it presents a narrative about normal and abnormal lung sounds using interactive multimedia and sample case studies designed by professional health-care providers and educators. Its interface consists of two distinct components: a sounds glossary and a rich multimedia interface which presents clinical case studies and provides access to lung sounds placed on a model of a human torso. OMARC's contents can be extended through the addition of sounds and case studies designed by health-care educators and professionals. To validate OMARC and determine its efficacy in improving learning and capture user perceptions about it, we performed a pilot study with ten nursing students. Participants' performance was measured through an evaluation of their ability to identify several normal and adventitious/abnormal sounds prior and after exposure to OMARC. Results indicate that participants are able to better identify different lung sounds, going from an average of 63% (S.D. 18.3%) in the pre-test evaluation to an average of 90% (S.D. of 11.5%) after practising with OMARC. Furthermore, participants indicated in a user satisfaction questionnaire that they found the application helpful, easy to use and that they would recommend it to other persons in their field. OMARC is an online multimedia

  14. Housing conditions and respiratory health in a Boston public housing community.

    Brugge, D; Rice, P W; Terry, P; Howard, L; Best, J

    2001-01-01

    .3, 53.0), cracks in walls, floors and ceilings (OR = 6.2; CI = 1.8, 22.3) and frequency of renovations (OR = 4.4; CI = 1.1, 17.5); and sneeze with cockroaches (OR = 5.2; CI = 1.1, 24.2), stuffy air (OR = 6.3; CI = 1.5, 26.5), cracks in walls, floors and ceilings (OR = 6.3; CI = 1.7, 23.1), repeated requests for repairs (OR = 5.6; CI = 1.4, 21.5), and construction dust (OR = 15.6; CI = 2.2, 112.3). Housing conditions that affect respiratory health were common in this public housing development. Self-reported rates of respiratory symptoms and asthma were extremely high. Statistical associations between housing conditions and respiratory symptoms in the preceding month were frequently positive and sometimes statistically significant. Engaging community residents strengthened the research process.

  15. Regulatory interventions necessitated by non-conservative operator decisions

    Ojha, D.; Chande, S.K.; Sharma, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Presently, India has 15 nuclear power units in operation and 8 units under construction. Though the safety performance of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in India has been excellent, a few recent events indicate that conservative decision making process can possibly get affected by perceived production goals. In one of the events, a need for some maintenance work arose while reactor start-up was in progress. After it was realized that the maintenance would require considerable time, the proper course of action would have been to shutdown the reactor and add neutron poison to moderator to ensure sufficient sub criticality. This was not done, as it would have delayed the start up of the reactor on completion of maintenance. In another incident, an unintended slow increase in reactor power occurred due to the adjuster rods becoming inoperable on account of blowing-off of fuses in their power supply. Under this condition, the reactor should have been tripped which was not done. Further, the automatic addition of boron poison to the reactor was inhibited. Regulatory review showed that both the incidents were indicative of degradation in safety culture and reflected operator's overriding concern for keeping the units in operation. Appropriate corrective actions were taken to prevent recurrence of such events in the respective units as also in all other operating units of similar type. In the wake of improved production performance operators may develop a tendency to create new operational records and compete with other units. This aspect points out to a need for careful study of events to check the presence of any element of non-conservative decision-making and to identify leading indicators of degradation in safety performance. (author)

  16. Burn Pit Emissions Exposure and Respiratory and Cardiovascular Conditions Among Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry Participants.

    Liu, Jason; Lezama, Nicholas; Gasper, Joseph; Kawata, Jennifer; Morley, Sybil; Helmer, Drew; Ciminera, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how burn pit emissions exposure is associated with the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. We examined the associations between assumed geographic and self-reported burn pit emissions exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes in participants of the Airborne Hazards and Open Burn Pit Registry. We found significant dose-response associations for higher risk of self-reported emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with increased days of deployment within 2 miles of selected burn pits (P-trend = 0.01) and self-reported burn pit smoke exposure (P-trend = 0.0005). We found associations between burn pit emissions exposure and higher incidence of post-deployment self-reported respiratory and cardiovascular conditions, but these findings should be interpreted with caution because the surrogate measurements of burn pit emissions exposure in this analysis may not reflect individual exposure levels.

  17. Detection of respiratory viruses in shelter dogs maintained under varying environmental conditions

    Francielle Liz Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Three dog shelters in Rio Grande do Sul were investigated for associations between the occurrence of respiratory viruses and shelter environmental conditions. Nasal secretions randomly collected during the cold season were tested via PCR, and this data collection was followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons. In shelter #1 (poor sanitary and nutritional conditions, high animal density and constant contact between dogs, 78% (58/74 of the nasal samples were positive, 35% (26/74 of which were in single infections and 44% (32/74 of which were in coinfections. Shelters #2 and #3 had satisfactory sanitary and nutritional conditions, outdoors exercise areas (#2 and animal clustering by groups (#3. In shelter #2, 9% (3/35 of the samples were positive for Canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV, and 6% (2/35 were positive for Canid herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1. In shelter #3, 9% (7/77 of the samples were positive for Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2, and 1% (1/77 were positive for Canine distemper virus (CDV. The amplicon sequences (CPIV and CDV nucleoprotein gene; CAdV-2 E3 gene; CaHV-1 glycoprotein B gene showed 94-100% nucleotide identity with GenBank sequences. Our results demonstrate that CPIV, CAdV-2 and CDV are common in dog shelters and that their frequencies appear to be related with environmental and nutritional conditions. These results indicate the need for control/prevention measures, including vaccination and environmental management, to minimize these infections and improve dog health.

  18. Asthma and lung cancer, after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases and allergic conditions: a systematic review protocol.

    Denholm, Rachel; Crellin, Elizabeth; Arvind, Ashwini; Quint, Jennifer

    2017-01-16

    Asthma is one of the most frequently diagnosed respiratory diseases in the UK, and commonly co-occurs with other respiratory and allergic diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and atopic dermatitis. Previous studies have shown an increased risk of lung cancer related to asthma, but the evidence is mixed when accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases and allergic conditions. A systematic review of published data that investigate the relationship between asthma and lung cancer, accounting for co-occurring respiratory and allergic diseases, will be conducted to investigate the independent association of asthma with lung cancer. A systematic review will be conducted, and include original reports of cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies of the association of asthma with lung cancer after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases. Articles published up to June 2016 will be included, and their selection will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A standardised data extraction form will be developed and pretested, and descriptive analyses will be used to summarise the available literature. If appropriate, pooled effect estimates of the association between asthma and lung cancer, given adjustment for a specific co-occurring condition will be estimated using random effects models. Potential sources of heterogeneity and between study heterogeneity will also be investigated. The study will be a review of published data and does not require ethical approval. Results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication. International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) number CRD42016043341. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. What Is Respiratory Distress Syndrome?

    ... Home / Respiratory Distress Syndrome Respiratory Distress Syndrome Also known as What Is Respiratory ... This condition is called apnea (AP-ne-ah). Respiratory Distress Syndrome Complications Depending on the severity of ...

  20. Emergency room visits for respiratory conditions in children increased after Guagua Pichincha volcanic eruptions in April 2000 in Quito, Ecuador Observational Study: Time Series Analysis

    Jagai Jyotsna S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study documented elevated rates of emergency room (ER visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections and asthma-related conditions in the children of Quito, Ecuador associated with the eruption of Guagua Pichincha in April of 2000. Methods We abstracted 5169 (43% females ER records with primary respiratory conditions treated from January 1 – December 27, 2000 and examined the change in pediatric ER visits for respiratory conditions before, during, and after exposure events of April, 2000. We applied a Poisson regression model adapted to time series of cases for three non-overlapping disease categories: acute upper respiratory infection (AURI, acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI, and asthma-related conditions in boys and girls for three age groups: 0–4, 5–9, and 10–15 years. Results At the main pediatric medical facility, the Baca Ortiz Pediatric Hospital, the rate of emergency room (ER visits due to respiratory conditions substantially increased in the three weeks after eruption (RR = 2.22, 95%CI = [1.95, 2.52] and RR = 1.72 95%CI = [1.49, 1.97] for lower and upper respiratory tract infections respectively. The largest impact of eruptions on respiratory distress was observed in children younger than 5 years (RR = 2.21, 95%CI = [1.79, 2.73] and RR = 2.16 95%CI = [1.67, 2.76] in boys and girls respectively. The rate of asthma and asthma-related diagnosis doubled during the period of volcano fumarolic activity (RR = 1.97, 95%CI = [1.19, 3.24]. Overall, 28 days of volcanic activity and ash releases resulted in 345 (95%CI = [241, 460] additional ER visits due to respiratory conditions. Conclusion The study has demonstrated strong relationship between ash exposure and respiratory effects in children.

  1. Emergency room visits for respiratory conditions in children increased after Guagua Pichincha volcanic eruptions in April 2000 in Quito, Ecuador observational study: time series analysis.

    Naumova, Elena N; Yepes, Hugo; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Sempértegui, Fernando; Khurana, Gauri; Jagai, Jyotsna S; Játiva, Edgar; Estrella, Bertha

    2007-07-24

    This study documented elevated rates of emergency room (ER) visits for acute upper and lower respiratory infections and asthma-related conditions in the children of Quito, Ecuador associated with the eruption of Guagua Pichincha in April of 2000. We abstracted 5169 (43% females) ER records with primary respiratory conditions treated from January 1-December 27, 2000 and examined the change in pediatric ER visits for respiratory conditions before, during, and after exposure events of April, 2000. We applied a Poisson regression model adapted to time series of cases for three non-overlapping disease categories: acute upper respiratory infection (AURI), acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), and asthma-related conditions in boys and girls for three age groups: 0-4, 5-9, and 10-15 years. At the main pediatric medical facility, the Baca Ortiz Pediatric Hospital, the rate of emergency room (ER) visits due to respiratory conditions substantially increased in the three weeks after eruption (RR = 2.22, 95%CI = [1.95, 2.52] and RR = 1.72 95%CI = [1.49, 1.97] for lower and upper respiratory tract infections respectively. The largest impact of eruptions on respiratory distress was observed in children younger than 5 years (RR = 2.21, 95%CI = [1.79, 2.73] and RR = 2.16 95%CI = [1.67, 2.76] in boys and girls respectively). The rate of asthma and asthma-related diagnosis doubled during the period of volcano fumarolic activity (RR = 1.97, 95%CI = [1.19, 3.24]). Overall, 28 days of volcanic activity and ash releases resulted in 345 (95%CI = [241, 460]) additional ER visits due to respiratory conditions. The study has demonstrated strong relationship between ash exposure and respiratory effects in children.

  2. Effective deployment of technology-supported management of chronic respiratory conditions: a call for stakeholder engagement.

    Costello, Richard W; Dima, Alexandra L; Ryan, Dermot; McIvor, R Andrew; Boycott, Kay; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David; Blakey, John D

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare systems are under increasing strain, predominantly due to chronic non-communicable diseases. Connected healthcare technologies are becoming ever more capable and their components cheaper. These innovations could facilitate both self-management and more efficient use of healthcare resources for common respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, newer technologies can only facilitate major changes in practice, and cannot accomplish them in isolation. There are now large numbers of devices and software offerings available. However, the potential of such technologies is not being realised due to limited engagement with the public, clinicians and providers, and a relative paucity of evidence describing elements of best practice in this complex and evolving environment. Indeed, there are clear examples of wasted resources and potential harm. We therefore call on interested parties to work collaboratively to begin to realize the potential benefits and reduce the risks of connected technologies through change in practice. We highlight key areas where such partnership can facilitate the effective and safe use of technology in chronic respiratory care: developing data standards and fostering inter-operability, making collaborative testing facilities available at scale for small to medium enterprises, developing and promoting new adaptive trial designs, developing robust health economic models, agreeing expedited approval pathways, and detailed planning of dissemination to use. The increasing capability and availability of connected technologies in respiratory care offers great opportunities and significant risks. A co-ordinated collaborative approach is needed to realize these benefits at scale. Using newer technologies to revolutionize practice relies on widespread engagement and cannot be delivered by a minority of interested specialists. Failure to engage risks a costly and inefficient chapter in respiratory care.

  3. The effect of a smoking ban on hospitalization rates for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Katherine Gaudreau

    Full Text Available This is the first study to have examined the effect of smoking bans on hospitalizations in the Atlantic Canadian socio-economic, cultural and climatic context. On June 1, 2003 Prince Edward Island (PEI enacted a province-wide smoking ban in public places and workplaces. Changes in hospital admission rates for cardiovascular (acute myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke and respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma conditions were examined before and after the smoking ban.Crude annual and monthly admission rates for the above conditions were calculated from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2008 in all PEI acute care hospitals. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series models were used to test for changes in mean and trend of monthly admission rates for study conditions, control conditions and a control province after the comprehensive smoking ban. Age- and sex-based analyses were completed.The mean rate of acute myocardial infarctions was reduced by 5.92 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.04 immediately after the smoking ban. The trend of monthly angina admissions in men was reduced by -0.44 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.01 in the 67 months after the smoking ban. All other cardiovascular and respiratory admission changes were non-significant.A comprehensive smoking ban in PEI reduced the overall mean number of acute myocardial infarction admissions and the trend of angina hospital admissions.

  4. Developing a universal model of reading necessitates cracking the orthographic code.

    Davis, Colin J

    2012-10-01

    I argue, contra Frost, that when prime lexicality and target density are considered, it is not clear that there are fundamental differences between form priming effects in Semitic and European languages. Furthermore, identifying and naming printed words in these languages raises common theoretical problems. Solving these problems and developing a universal model of reading necessitates "cracking" the orthographic input code.

  5. Air conditioning systems as non-infectious health hazards inducing acute respiratory symptoms.

    Gerber, Alexander; Fischer, Axel; Willig, Karl-Heinz; Groneberg, David A

    2006-04-01

    Chronic and acute exposure to toxic aerosols belongs to frequent causes of airway diseases. However, asthma attacks due to long-distance inhalative exposure to organic solvents, transmitted via an air condition system, have not been reported so far. The present case illustrates the possibility of air conditioning systems as non-infectious health hazards in occupational medicine. So far, only infectious diseases such as legionella pneumophila pneumonia have commonly been associated to air-conditioning exposures but physicians should be alert to the potential of transmission of toxic volatile substances via air conditioning systems. In view of the events of the 11th of September 2001 with a growing danger of large building terrorism which may even use air conditioning systems to transmit toxins, facility management security staff should be alerted to possible non-infectious toxic health hazards arising from air-conditioning systems.

  6. Respiratory alkalosis and primary hypocapnia in Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials in high-ambient-temperature conditions.

    Steiss, Janet E; Wright, James C

    2008-10-01

    To determine whether Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials develop respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia primarily in conditions of high ambient temperatures. 16 Labrador Retrievers. At each of 5 field trials, 5 to 10 dogs were monitored during a test (retrieval of birds over a variable distance on land [1,076 to 2,200 m]; 36 assessments); ambient temperatures ranged from 2.2 degrees to 29.4 degrees C. For each dog, rectal temperature was measured and a venous blood sample was collected in a heparinized syringe within 5 minutes of test completion. Blood samples were analyzed on site for Hct; pH; sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, bicarbonate, and total CO2 concentrations; and values of PvO2 and PvCO2. Scatterplots of each variable versus ambient temperature were reviewed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature ( 21 degrees C) on each variable. Compared with findings at ambient temperatures 21 degrees C; rectal temperature did not differ. Two dogs developed signs of heat stress in 1 test at an ambient temperature of 29 degrees C; their rectal temperatures were higher and PvCO2 values were lower than findings in other dogs. When running distances frequently encountered at field trials, healthy Labrador Retrievers developed hyperthermia regardless of ambient temperature. Dogs developed respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia at ambient temperatures > 21 degrees C.

  7. Effect of daily temperature range on respiratory health in Argentina and its modification by impaired socio-economic conditions and PM_1_0 exposures

    Carreras, Hebe; Zanobetti, Antonella; Koutrakis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations regarding temperature influence on human health have focused on mortality rather than morbidity. In addition, most information comes from developed countries despite the increasing evidence that climate change will have devastating impacts on disadvantaged populations living in developing countries. In the present study, we assessed the impact of daily temperature range on upper and lower respiratory infections in Cordoba, Argentina, and explored the effect modification of socio-economic factors and influence of airborne particles We found that temperature range is a strong risk factor for admissions due to both upper and lower respiratory infections, particularly in elderly individuals, and that these effects are more pronounced in sub-populations with low education level or in poor living conditions. These results indicate that socio-economic factors are strong modifiers of the association between temperature variability and respiratory morbidity, thus they should be considered in risk assessments. - Highlights: • Daily temperature range is a strong risk factor for respiratory infections. • Low education level and poor living conditions are strong modifiers of this relationship. • In Cordoba city higher risk for respiratory infections were observed during summertime. - Daily temperature range is a strong risk factor for respiratory infections, particularly for populations with low educational level or poor living conditions.

  8. Cardiac and respiratory responses of rainbow trout, bluegills and brown bullhead catfish during rapid hypoxia and recovery under normoxic conditions

    Marvin, Jr, D E; Burton, D T

    1973-01-01

    Heart rate, ventilation rate and routine oxygen consumption were measured in Salmo gairdneri, Lepomis macrochirus and Ictalurus nebulosus during rapid hypoxic stress and recovery under normoxic conditions. Cardiac and respiratory responses during hypoxia were similar to those reported in the literature for teleost fish. Immediate increases in heart rate and ventilation rate occurred in all three species after stress. When the mean heart rate for each species at 1 hr post-stress was compared with its pre-stress rate, differences in recovery patterns were found in all species. During recovery from hypoxia, rapid increases in oxygen consumption, above pre-stress levels, occurred in S. gairdneri and L. macrochirus. No significant differences between pre-stress and post-stress values were found in I. nebulosus.

  9. Influence of outdoor games on functional condition of the respiratory system at girls of the younger school age

    Оlena Potapova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study influence of outdoor games on functional condition of the respiratory system of girls of the younger school age in the groups of 6–8 and 9–10 years old. Material & Methods: the problem of functional condition of external breath at girls of the younger school age (in the age groups of 6–8 and 9–10 years old, who were divided into the control group (CG in number of 32persons (CS No. 58 and the experimental (EG in number of 29 persons (OTEC No. 109 of Zaporozhe, is considered. Results: it is defined that the studied girls of both groups at the beginning of the research had mainly below average and average levels of functional condition of the system of external breath. Conclusions: the effective impact of outdoor games on functional condition of the whole organism in general and on the system of external breath, in particular, at girls of the experimental group in comparison with the studied girls of the same age of the control group is proved experimentally. Application of the large number of various outdoor games allowed diversifying the program of training at physical education classes emotionally and physically, than promoted the activation of functions of the whole organism of girls of the younger school age.

  10. 38 CFR 4.96 - Special provisions regarding evaluation of respiratory conditions.

    2010-07-01

    ... results of different PFT's (FEV-1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second), FVC (Forced Vital Capacity... protective provisions of Pub. L. 90-493 apply the former evaluations pertaining to pulmonary tuberculosis are...-6845. (1) Pulmonary function tests (PFT's) are required to evaluate these conditions except: (i) When...

  11. The Effectiveness of Singing or Playing a Wind Instrument in Improving Respiratory Function in Patients with Long-Term Neurological Conditions: A Systematic Review.

    Ang, Kexin; Maddocks, Matthew; Xu, Huiying; Higginson, Irene J

    2017-03-01

    Many long-term neurological conditions adversely affect respiratory function. Singing and playing wind instruments are relatively inexpensive interventions with potential for improving respiratory function; however, synthesis of current evidence is needed to inform research and clinical use of music in respiratory care. To critically appraise, analyze, and synthesize published evidence on the effectiveness of singing or playing a wind instrument to improve respiratory function in people with long-term neurological conditions. Systematic review of published randomized controlled trials and observational studies examining singing or playing wind instruments to improve respiratory function in individuals with long-term neurological conditions. Articles meeting specified inclusion criteria were identified through a search of the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, CAIRSS for Music, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and AMED databases as early as 1806 through March 2015. Information on study design, clinical populations, interventions, and outcome measures was extracted and summarized using an electronic standardized coding form. Methodological quality was assessed and summarized across studies descriptively. From screening 584 references, 68 full texts were reviewed and five studies included. These concerned 109 participants. The studies were deemed of low quality, due to evidence of bias, in part due to intervention complexity. No adverse effects were reported. Overall, there was a trend toward improved respiratory function, but only one study on Parkinson's disease had significant between-group differences. The positive trend in respiratory function in people with long-term neurological conditions following singing or wind instrument therapy is of interest, and warrants further investigation. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Efficiency of mass roentgenofluorographic examination of respiratory system under existing conditions

    Khomenko, A.G.; Ginzburg, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Ministry of public health of the USSR specifying the main problems of tuberculosis prevention in changing epidemic situation recommends concentration of the attention to conducting roentgenofluorographic examination of population with card account for active early disclosure of tuberculosis in paties. From 1972 to 1978 more than 90% of population were roentgenofluorographically examined. Experience of conducting these examinations in 8 experimental bases differing by geographic, social-economic and sanitary-epidemic conditions is described in detail

  13. Air pollution and emergency department visits for cardiac and respiratory conditions: a multi-city time-series analysis

    Rowe Brian H

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively few studies have been conducted of the association between air pollution and emergency department (ED visits, and most of these have been based on a small number of visits, for a limited number of health conditions and pollutants, and only daily measures of exposure and response. Methods A time-series analysis was conducted on nearly 400,000 ED visits to 14 hospitals in seven Canadian cities during the 1990s and early 2000s. Associations were examined between carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5, and visits for angina/myocardial infarction, heart failure, dysrhythmia/conduction disturbance, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and respiratory infections. Daily and 3-hourly visit counts were modeled as quasi-Poisson and analyses controlled for effects of temporal cycles, weather, day of week and holidays. Results 24-hour average concentrations of CO and NO2 lag 0 days exhibited the most consistent associations with cardiac conditions (2.1% (95% CI, 0.0–4.2% and 2.6% (95% CI, 0.2–5.0% increase in visits for myocardial infarction/angina per 0.7 ppm CO and 18.4 ppb NO2 respectively; 3.8% (95% CI, 0.7–6.9% and 4.7% (95% CI, 1.2–8.4% increase in visits for heart failure. Ozone (lag 2 days was most consistently associated with respiratory visits (3.2% (95% CI, 0.3–6.2%, and 3.7% (95% CI, -0.5–7.9% increases in asthma and COPD visits respectively per 18.4 ppb. Associations tended to be of greater magnitude during the warm season (April – September. In particular, the associations of PM10 and PM2.5with asthma visits were respectively nearly three- and over fourfold larger vs. all year analyses (14.4% increase in visits, 95% CI, 0.2–30.7, per 20.6 μg/m3 PM10 and 7.6% increase in visits, 95% CI, 5.1–10.1, per 8.2 μg/m3 PM2.5. No consistent associations were observed between three hour average pollutant

  14. Respiratory acidosis

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  15. Concurrent acute illness and comorbid conditions poorly predict antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infections: a cross-sectional analysis

    Perencevich Eli N

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate antibiotic use promotes resistance. Antibiotics are generally not indicated for upper respiratory infections (URIs. Our objectives were to describe patterns of URI treatment and to identify patient and provider factors associated with antibiotic use for URIs. Methods This study was a cross-sectional analysis of medical and pharmacy claims data from the Pennsylvania Medicaid fee-for-service program database. We identified Pennsylvania Medicaid recipients with a URI office visit over a one-year period. Our outcome variable was antibiotic use within seven days after the URI visit. Study variables included URI type and presence of concurrent acute illnesses and chronic conditions. We considered the associations of each study variable with antibiotic use in a logistic regression model, stratifying by age group and adjusting for confounders. Results Among 69,936 recipients with URI, 35,786 (51.2% received an antibiotic. In all age groups, acute sinusitis, chronic sinusitis, otitis, URI type and season were associated with antibiotic use. Except for the oldest group, physician specialty and streptococcal pharyngitis were associated with antibiotic use. History of chronic conditions was not associated with antibiotic use in any age group. In all age groups, concurrent acute illnesses and history of chronic conditions had only had fair to poor ability to distinguish patients who received an antibiotic from patients who did not. Conclusion Antibiotic prevalence for URIs was high, indicating that potentially inappropriate antibiotic utilization is occurring. Our data suggest that demographic and clinical factors are associated with antibiotic use, but additional reasons remain unexplained. Insight regarding reasons for antibiotic prescribing is needed to develop interventions to address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.

  16. Evaluation of the Survivability of Microorganisms Deposited on Filtering Respiratory Protective Devices under Varying Conditions of Humidity

    Katarzyna Majchrzycka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosols are common biological factors in work environments, which require routine use of filtering respiratory protective devices (FRPDs. Currently, no studies link humidity changes in the filter materials of such devices, during use, with microorganism survivability. Our aim was to determine the microclimate inside FRPDs, by simulating breathing, and to evaluate microorganism survivability under varying humidity conditions. Breathing was simulated using commercial filtering facepiece respirators in a model system. Polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven fabrics with moisture contents of 40%, 80%, and 200%, were used for assessment of microorganisms survivability. A modified AATCC 100-2004 method was used to measure the survivability of ATCC and NCAIM microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. During simulation relative humidity under the facepiece increased after 7 min of usage to 84%–92% and temperature increased to 29–30 °C. S. aureus survived the best on filter materials with 40%–200% moisture content. A decrease in survivability was observed for E. coli and C. albicans when mass humidity decreased. We found that B. subtilis and A. niger proliferated for 48–72 h of incubation and then died regardless of the moisture content. In conclusion, our tests showed that the survivability of microorganisms on filter materials depends on the amount of accumulated moisture and microorganism type.

  17. Evaluation of the Survivability of Microorganisms Deposited on Filtering Respiratory Protective Devices under Varying Conditions of Humidity.

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Skóra, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-04

    Bioaerosols are common biological factors in work environments, which require routine use of filtering respiratory protective devices (FRPDs). Currently, no studies link humidity changes in the filter materials of such devices, during use, with microorganism survivability. Our aim was to determine the microclimate inside FRPDs, by simulating breathing, and to evaluate microorganism survivability under varying humidity conditions. Breathing was simulated using commercial filtering facepiece respirators in a model system. Polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven fabrics with moisture contents of 40%, 80%, and 200%, were used for assessment of microorganisms survivability. A modified AATCC 100-2004 method was used to measure the survivability of ATCC and NCAIM microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. During simulation relative humidity under the facepiece increased after 7 min of usage to 84%-92% and temperature increased to 29-30 °C. S. aureus survived the best on filter materials with 40%-200% moisture content. A decrease in survivability was observed for E. coli and C. albicans when mass humidity decreased. We found that B. subtilis and A. niger proliferated for 48-72 h of incubation and then died regardless of the moisture content. In conclusion, our tests showed that the survivability of microorganisms on filter materials depends on the amount of accumulated moisture and microorganism type.

  18. Risk Factors related to hemorrhage necessitating renal artery embolization after percutaneous nephrostomy

    Byon, Jung Hee; Han, Young Min; Jin, Gong Yong; Song, Ji Soo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate risk factors related to severe bleeding necessitating renal artery embolization (RAE) after percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN). 36 patients who underwent RAE from January 2005 to June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, 10 patients underwent embolization because of severe bleeding after PCN (bleeding group). From 1762 patients who underwent PCN in the same period, we selected 21 patients who underwent PCN without bleeding after the procedure (non-bleeding group). We investigated possible related risk factors, such as the presence of underlying diseases, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), platelet count, puncture site, procedure time, size of the kidney, distance from skin to renal cortex, maximum caliber of the indwelling catheter, parenchymal thickness, and grade of hydronephrosis. We used Fisher's exact test and independent t test for data analyses. We classified hydronephrosis as either 'mild hydronephrosis,' or 'moderate or severe hydronephrosis.' The frequency of mild hydronephrosis was 80.0% (8/10) in the bleeding group and 33.3% (7/21) in the non-bleeding group (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence of underlying diseases. Similarly, other risk factors (PT, aPTT, platelet count, procedure time, distance from skin to renal cortex, maximum caliber of the indwelling catheter, kidney size, and parenhcymal thickness) also did not differ significantly between the two groups. Mild hydronephrosis is a risk factor for severe bleeding necessitating RAE after PCN. Therefore, when performing PCN, careful attention should be paid to patients with mild hydronephrosis

  19. Risk Factors related to hemorrhage necessitating renal artery embolization after percutaneous nephrostomy

    Byon, Jung Hee; Han, Young Min; Jin, Gong Yong; Song, Ji Soo [Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To investigate risk factors related to severe bleeding necessitating renal artery embolization (RAE) after percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN). 36 patients who underwent RAE from January 2005 to June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, 10 patients underwent embolization because of severe bleeding after PCN (bleeding group). From 1762 patients who underwent PCN in the same period, we selected 21 patients who underwent PCN without bleeding after the procedure (non-bleeding group). We investigated possible related risk factors, such as the presence of underlying diseases, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), platelet count, puncture site, procedure time, size of the kidney, distance from skin to renal cortex, maximum caliber of the indwelling catheter, parenchymal thickness, and grade of hydronephrosis. We used Fisher's exact test and independent t test for data analyses. We classified hydronephrosis as either 'mild hydronephrosis,' or 'moderate or severe hydronephrosis.' The frequency of mild hydronephrosis was 80.0% (8/10) in the bleeding group and 33.3% (7/21) in the non-bleeding group (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence of underlying diseases. Similarly, other risk factors (PT, aPTT, platelet count, procedure time, distance from skin to renal cortex, maximum caliber of the indwelling catheter, kidney size, and parenhcymal thickness) also did not differ significantly between the two groups. Mild hydronephrosis is a risk factor for severe bleeding necessitating RAE after PCN. Therefore, when performing PCN, careful attention should be paid to patients with mild hydronephrosis.

  20. DYNAMIC CHANGES IN THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT MICROFLORA OF THE BLACK SEA AND PACIFIC BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS IN NOOGENIC HABITAT: POSSIBLE INFLUENCE OF ENVIROMENTAL CONDITIONS.

    T. Tserodze; D. Jgenti; M. Mgeladze; I. Gambashidze; N. Chkheidze; E. Jaiani; E. Didebulidze; N. Janelidze; R. Goradze; M. Tediashvili.

    2018-01-01

    Infectious diseases of upper respiratory tract (URT) represent serious problem for marine mammals adapted to noogenic conditions. Anthropogenic contamination of pool water is considered as an important source of potentially harmful bacteria. The changes in climatic conditions, nutrition and stress of animals living in an artificial environment can result in bacterial overgrowth and disease development with possible spread in the community. Treatment of already advanced disease is complicated ...

  1. Managing respiratory problems in athletes.

    Hull, James H; Ansley, Les; Robson-Ansley, Paula; Parsons, Jonathan P

    2012-08-01

    Respiratory problems are common in athletes of all abilities and can significantly impact upon their health and performance. In this article, we provide an overview of respiratory physiology in athletes. We also discuss the assessment and management of common clinical respiratory conditions as they pertain to athletes, including airways disease, respiratory tract infection and pneumothorax. We focus on providing a pragmatic approach and highlight important caveats for the physician treating respiratory conditions in this highly specific population.

  2. Effect of extracorporeal CO2 removal on right ventricular and hemodynamic parameters in a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Cherpanath, Thomas G. V.; Landburg, Pearl P.; Lagrand, Wim K.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2016-01-01

    We present a female patient with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) necessitating intubation and mechanical ventilation on the intensive care unit (ICU). High ventilatory pressures were needed because of hypoxia and severe hypercapnia with respiratory acidosis, resulting in right

  3. Effect of extracorporeal CO2 removal on right ventricular and hemodynamic parameters in a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Cherpanath, Thomas G. V.; Landburg, Pearl P.; Lagrand, Wim K.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    We present a female patient with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) necessitating intubation and mechanical ventilation on the intensive care unit (ICU). High ventilatory pressures were needed because of hypoxia and severe hypercapnia with respiratory acidosis, resulting in right

  4. Activity of the Respiratory Chain Enzymes of Blood Leucocytes’ Mitochondria Under the Conditions of Toxic Hepatitis Induced Against the Background Alimentary Deprivation of Protein

    O.N. Voloshchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Full functioning of the leucocytes’ energy supply system is one of the essential factors for the immune surveillance system effective work. The pivotal enzymes of the leucocytes’ energy biotransformation system are NADH-ubiquitin reductase, a marker of the Complex I of respiratory chain activity, and succinate dehydrogenase, key enzyme of the Complex II of respiratory chain. The aim of research – to study the NADH-ubiquitin reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity of the blood leucocytes’ mitochondria under the conditions of toxic hepatitis induced against the background alimentary deprivation of protein. It is shown, that under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis a reduction of the NADH-ubiquitin reductase enzymatic activity is observed on the background activation of the succinate-dependent way of the mitochondrial oxidation. Conclusion was made that alimentary deprivation or protein is a factor, aggravating the misbalance of the energy biotransformation system in the leucocytes of rats with toxic hepatitis. Established activity changes of the leucocytes’ mitochondria respiratory chain key enzymes may be considered as one of the mechanisms, directed on the maintenance of leucocytes energy supply on a level, sufficient for their functioning. Research results may be used for the biochemical rationale of the therapeutic approaches to the elimination and correction of the leucocytes’ energy metabolism disturbances consequences under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis, aggravated by the alimentary protein deprivation.

  5. SU-E-T-163: Evaluation of Dose Distributions Recalculated with Per-Field Measurement Data Under the Condition of Respiratory Motion During IMRT for Liver Cancer

    Song, J; Yoon, M; Nam, T; Ahn, S; Chung, W [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun-kun, Chonnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The dose distributions within the real volumes of tumor targets and critical organs during internal target volume-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (ITV-IMRT) for liver cancer were recalculated by applying the effects of actual respiratory organ motion, and the dosimetric features were analyzed through comparison with gating IMRT (Gate-IMRT) plan results. Methods: The 4DCT data for 10 patients who had been treated with Gate-IMRT for liver cancer were selected to create ITV-IMRT plans. The ITV was created using MIM software, and a moving phantom was used to simulate respiratory motion. The period and range of respiratory motion were recorded in all patients from 4DCT-generated movie data, and the same period and range were applied when operating the dynamic phantom to realize coincident respiratory conditions in each patient. The doses were recalculated with a 3 dose-volume histogram (3DVH) program based on the per-field data measured with a MapCHECK2 2-dimensional diode detector array and compared with the DVHs calculated for the Gate-IMRT plan. Results: Although a sufficient prescription dose covered the PTV during ITV-IMRT delivery, the dose homogeneity in the PTV was inferior to that with the Gate-IMRT plan. We confirmed that there were higher doses to the organs-at-risk (OARs) with ITV-IMRT, as expected when using an enlarged field, but the increased dose to the spinal cord was not significant and the increased doses to the liver and kidney could be considered as minor when the reinforced constraints were applied during IMRT plan optimization. Conclusion: Because Gate-IMRT cannot always be considered an ideal method with which to correct the respiratory motional effect, given the dosimetric variations in the gating system application and the increased treatment time, a prior analysis for optimal IMRT method selection should be performed while considering the patient's respiratory condition and IMRT plan results.

  6. ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

    ... Also known as What Is ARDS, or acute respiratory distress syndrome, is a lung condition that leads ... treat ARDS. Other Names Acute lung injury Adult respiratory distress syndrome Increased-permeability pulmonary edema Noncardiac pulmonary ...

  7. Error signals as powerful stimuli for the operant conditioning-like process of the fictive respiratory output in a brainstem-spinal cord preparation from rats.

    Formenti, Alessandro; Zocchi, Luciano

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory neuromuscular activity needs to adapt to physiologic and pathologic conditions. We studied the conditioning effects of sensory fiber (putative Ia and II type from neuromuscular spindles) stimulation on the fictive respiratory output to the diaphragm, recorded from C4 phrenic ventral root, of in-vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations from rats. The respiratory burst frequency in these preparations decreased gradually (from 0.26±0.02 to 0.09±0.003 bursts(-1)±SEM) as the age of the donor rats increased from zero to 4 days. The frequency greatly increased when the pH of the bath was lowered, and was significantly reduced by amiloride. C4 low threshold, sensory fiber stimulation, mimicking a stretched muscle, induced a short-term facilitation of the phrenic output increasing burst amplitude and frequency. When the same stimulus was applied contingently on the motor bursts, in an operant conditioning paradigm (a 500ms pulse train with a delay of 700ms from the beginning of the burst) a strong and persistent (>1h) increase in burst frequency was observed (from 0.10±0.007 to 0.20±0.018 bursts(-1)). Conversely, with random stimulation burst frequency increased only slightly and declined again within minutes to control levels after stopping stimulation. A forward model is assumed to interpret the data, and the notion of error signal, i.e. the sensory fiber activation indicating an unexpected stretched muscle, is re-considered in terms of the reward/punishment value. The signal, gaining hedonic value, is reviewed as a powerful unconditioned stimulus suitable in establishing a long-term operant conditioning-like process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure from Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Secondary to Leptospirosis

    Shannon M. Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, characterized by hypoxemic respiratory failure, is associated with a mortality of 30–50% and is precipitated by both direct and indirect pulmonary insults. Treatment is largely supportive, consisting of lung protective ventilation and thereby necessitating Intensive Care Unit (ICU admission. The most common precipitant is community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, but other putative pathogens include viruses and fungi. On rare occasions, ARDS can be secondary to tropical disease. Accordingly, a history should include travel to endemic regions. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease most common in the tropics and typically associated with mild pulmonary complications. We describe a case of a 25-year-old male with undiagnosed leptospirosis, presenting with fever and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, returning from a Costa Rican holiday. There was no other organ failure. He was intubated and received lung protective ventilation. His condition improved after ampicillin and penicillin G were added empirically. This case illustrates the rare complication of ARDS from leptospirosis, the importance of taking a travel history, and the need for empiric therapy because of diagnostic delay.

  9. Minor interference of cross-reactive carbohydrates with the diagnosis of respiratory allergy in standard clinical conditions

    Vidal, Carmen; Sanmartín, Carolina; Armisén, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    associated with age, rural residence, alcohol consumption or smoking. Only 58 patients (5.6%) showed CCD-sIgE levels =0.35 kU(A)/l. CCD-induced inhibition of pollen-sIgE or mite-sIgE in patients with respective positive SPT was minimal or absent in most cases. Conclusions: In this population of predominantly...... mite-allergic patients, CCD sensitization is relatively rare and CCD-sIgE levels are low. Thus, CCDs do not represent a major obstacle for the diagnosis of respiratory allergy in a specialized setting. Hymenoptera stings are associated with CCD sensitization....

  10. What to eat in a warming world: do increased temperatures necessitate hazardous duty pay?

    Hall, L. Embere; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary climate change affects nearly all biomes, causing shifts in animal distributions and resource availability. Changes in resource selection may allow individuals to offset climatic stress, thereby providing a mechanism for persistence amidst warming conditions. Whereas the role of predation risk in food choice has been studied broadly, the extent to which individuals respond to thermoregulatory risk by changing resource preferences is unclear. We addressed whether individuals compensated for temperature-related reductions in foraging time by altering forage preferences, using the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as a model species. We tested two hypotheses: (1) food-quality hypothesis—individuals exposed to temperature extremes should select higher-quality vegetation in return for accepting a physiologically riskier feeding situation; and (2) food-availability hypothesis—individuals exposed to temperature extremes should prioritize foraging quickly, thereby decreasing selection for higher-quality food. We quantified the composition and quality (% moisture, % nitrogen, and fiber content) of available and harvested vegetation, and deployed a network of temperature sensors to measure in situ conditions for 30 individuals, during July–Sept., 2015. Individuals exposed to more extreme daytime temperatures showed increased selection for high-nitrogen and for low-fiber vegetation, demonstrating strong support for the food-quality hypothesis. By contrast, pikas that experienced warmer conditions did not reduce selection for any of the three vegetation-quality metrics, as predicted by the food-availability hypothesis. By shifting resource-selection patterns, temperature-limited animals may be able to proximately buffer some of the negative effects associated with rapidly warming environments, provided that sufficient resources remain on the landscape.

  11. A refined characterisation of the NeoHepatocyte phenotype necessitates a reappraisal of the transdifferentiation hypothesis.

    Riquelme, Paloma; Wundt, Judith; Hutchinson, James A; Brulport, Marc; Jun, Yu; Sotnikova, Anna; Girreser, Ulrich; Braun, Felix; Gövert, Felix; Soria, Bernat; Nüssler, Andreas; Clement, Bernd; Hengstler, Jan G; Fändrich, Fred

    2009-03-01

    Under certain culture conditions human peripheral blood monocytes may be induced to express phenotypic markers of non-haematopoietic lineages, including hepatocyte-defining traits. One such example, the NeoHepatocyte, was previously shown to express a broad panel of hepatocyte-like marker antigens and metabolic activities, both in vitro and following engraftment in the liver of immunodeficient mice. In this report, a refined description of NeoHepatocytes, with regard to their expression of xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes, morphology, hepatocyte marker expression and cell surface phenotype, is presented in comparison with human macrophages in defined states of activation. Contrary to prior assertions, it would seem more likely that NeoHepatocytes express particular hepatocyte-defining genes during a normal programme of macrophage differentiation rather than undergoing a process of transdifferentiation to become hepatocyte-like cells.

  12. Respiratory Failure

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  13. Respiratory system

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  14. Dynamic Regression Model for Evaluating the Association Between Atmospheric Conditions and Deaths due to Respiratory Diseases in São Paulo, Brazil

    Ana Carla dos Santos Gomes

    Full Text Available Abstract The article reports the modeling of mortality due to respiratory diseases emanating from atmospheric conditions, capturing significant associations and verifying the ability of stochastic modeling to predict deaths arising from the relationship between weather conditions and air pollution. The statistical methods used in the analysis were cross-correlation and pre-whitening, in addition to dynamic regression modeling combining the dynamics of time series and the effect of explanatory variables. The results show there are significant associations between mortality and sulfur dioxide, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and autoregressive structure. The cross-correlations captured significant lags between atmospheric variables and deaths, of two months for SO2 and relative humidity, eleven months for PM10, seven months for O3, and eight months for air temperature and the cross-correlation without lag with NO2. With CO variables, precipitation and atmospheric pressure, cross-correlations were not detected. Stochastic modeling showed that deaths due to respiratory diseases can be predicted from the combination of meteorological and air pollution variables, especially considering the existing trend and seasonality.

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Factors Necessitating Commercial Banks and Manufacturing Firms’ Involvement in Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria

    Abiola Idowu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the factors necessitating commercial banks and manufacturing firms’ involvement in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in Nigeria comparatively. The research took place in Lagos State in South-west geo-political zone in Nigeria. The survey research design was used in this research. Moreover, the purposive sampling was used in selecting five commercial banks and five manufacturing firms. Primary data were gathered with the aid of questionnaire from 216 respondents out of 250 selected respondents from bank and 205 respondents out of 250 selected respondents from manufacturing firms. Fifty copies of the questionnaires were distributed to each company. All respondents selected were involved in CSR activities of their companies. Factors necessitating companies’ involvement in CSR were examined with Analysis of Variance. The research reveals that t-test value is -0.39 and p-value is 0.8, which shows that there is no significant difference between factors necessitating of the commercial banks and manufacturing firms’ involvement in CSR. The research recommends that corporate organizations should give attention to CSR initiatives as these lead to improvement of customers loyalty, improvement of the positive image of the organization, improved relationship with local communities,   and enhances shareholders values as well as improved relations with public authorities amongst others.

  16. Influence of Low-Temperature Plasma Treatment on The Liquid Filtration Efficiency of Melt-Blown PP Nonwovens in The Conditions of Simulated Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment

    Majchrzycka Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Filtering nonwovens produced with melt-blown technology are one of the most basic materials used in the construction of respiratory protective equipment (RPE against harmful aerosols, including bio- and nanoaerosols. The improvement of their filtering properties can be achieved by the development of quasi-permanent electric charge on the fibres. Usually corona discharge method is utilized for this purpose. In the presented study, it was assumed that the low-temperature plasma treatment could be applied as an alternative method for the manufacturing of conventional electret nonwovens for the RPE construction. Low temperature plasma treatment of polypropylene nonwovens was carried out with various process gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen or air in a wide range of process parameters (gas flow velocity, time of treatment and power supplied to the reactor electrodes. After the modification, nonwovens were evaluated in terms of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist. The stability of the modification results was tested after 12 months of storage and after conditioning at elevated temperature and relative humidity conditions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and ATR-IR spectroscopy were used to assess changes in surface topography and chemical composition of the fibres. The modification of melt-blown nonwovens with nitrogen, oxygen and air plasma did not result in a satisfactory improvement of the filtration efficiency. In case of argon plasma treatment, up to 82% increase of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist was observed in relation to untreated samples. This effect was stable after 12 months of storage in normal conditions and after thermal conditioning in (70 ± 3°C for 24 h. The use of low-temperature plasma treatment was proven to be a promising improvement direction of filtering properties of nonwovens used for the protection of respiratory tract against harmful aerosols.

  17. Drought Water Rationing Necessitates an Equitable and Multidimensional Approach: Evidence from California

    Ponce de Leon Barido, D.; Fildier, B.; Cucchi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2011 many areas across California have experienced their driest years on record, with conditions barely improving since then. Reservoirs and snowpack water content have recorded some of the lowest measurements ever, with users (individuals, towns and cities) using groundwater to buffer the potentially devastating effects of the drought. Among other strategies, rationing has been one of they key interventions that the state has adopted to better manage its water resources. April 1st 2015 marked the first day in California's history when mandatory water reductions were instated statewide. By executive order, Governor Brown directed the State Water Resources Control Board to impose a 25% reduction on California's 400 local water supply agencies, which serve 90% of California residents. Since then, local agencies have been responsible for allocating restrictions to reduce water consumption and monitor compliance. A variety of research organizations and media outlets have begun exploring the equity considerations of the drought, but their analyses are often one-dimensional (water consumption per capita). Here we explore the multi-dimensional dynamics of rationing and drought in California using Census and California Water Resources Board data for over 300 communities in the state. We use data mining, parallel coordinates, and a nearest neighbors clustering algorithm to explore relationships between rationing and community spatial distribution, weather, drought related climate variables, economic sector employment, race, localized income inequality, household size, and income. The data suggests that there are nine distinct rationing groups across the state, that rationing was performed without taking into account the localized effects of the drought (hard hit communities rationing as much as less affected communities), that severely drought affected low-income communities (using SPI and SPEI 3 year indices) were asked to ration as much (and sometimes more) than

  18. Condiciones ambientales riesgosas para las infecciones respiratorias agudas en escolares de primaria Risky environmental conditions for acute respiratory infections in primary school students

    Alina Mezquía Valera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el deterioro de las condiciones ambientales contribuye de forma importante a los procesos de la enfermedad, porque expone a la población urbana a enfermedades y riesgos muy bien identificados y conocidos. Objetivos: identificar las condiciones ambientales riesgosas en los hogares, las escuelas y sus entornos para la prevalencia de las infecciones respiratorias en educandos, en el curso escolar 2006-2007. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en los educandos de 1ro. a 6to. grado del universo de las escuelas primarias del consejo popular Cayo Hueso, del municipio Centro Habana. Se aplicó a las madres un cuestionario con preguntas al respecto, y se realizó la evaluación de las condiciones ambientales de las escuelas y sus entornos, según las orientaciones de guías preelaboradas. Resultados: la prevalencia de infecciones respiratorias agudas fueron obtenidas de los educandos que asisten a las escuelas "Pedro Carbó Serviá", "Salvador Cisneros Betancourt", "Fernández Roig" y "República de Bolivia", y coincidió con que son las que tienen más factores de riesgo del ambiente y/o las que tienen mayores frecuencias de educandos con condiciones ambientales riesgosas de sus hogares, escuelas o entorno.Introduction: deterioration of environmental conditions contributes in a very important way to disease processes because of to expose to urban population to diseases and risks very well identified and well known. Objective: to identify the risky environmental conditions at homes, schools and its surroundings for prevalence of respiratory infections in the students during 2006-1007 courses. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in students from 1st to sixth degrees from the universe of primary schools of "Cayo Hueso" popular council of the Centro Habana municipality. In mothers a questionnaire was distributed with related questions and the environmental conditions of schools and its

  19. Resistance development of cystic fibrosis respiratory pathogens when exposed to fosfomycin and tobramycin alone and in combination under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    McCaughey, Gerard; Diamond, Paul; Elborn, J Stuart; McKevitt, Matt; Tunney, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    Although antibiotics from different classes are frequently prescribed in combination to prevent the development of resistance amongst Cystic Fibrosis (CF) respiratory pathogens, there is a lack of data as to the efficacy of this approach. We have previously shown that a 4:1 (w/w) combination of fosfomycin and tobramycin (F:T) has excellent activity against CF pathogens with increased activity under physiologically relevant anaerobic conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether F:T could delay or prevent the onset of resistance compared to either fosfomycin or tobramycin alone under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The frequency of spontaneous mutants arising following exposure to fosfomycin, tobramycin and F:T was determined for clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA isolates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of fosfomycin, tobramycin and F:T on the induction of resistance was also investigated, with the stability of resistance and fitness cost associated with resistance assessed if it developed. P. aeruginosa and MRSA isolates had a lower frequency of spontaneous mutants to F:T compared to fosfomycin and tobramycin under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. There was a maximum two-fold increase in F:T MICs when P. aeruginosa and MRSA isolates were passaged in sub-inhibitory F:T for 12 days. In contrast, sequential resistance to fosfomycin and tobramycin developed quickly (n = 3 days for both) after passage in sub-inhibitory concentrations. Once developed, both fosfomycin and tobramycin resistance was stable and not associated with a biological fitness cost to either P. aeruginosa or MRSA isolates. The results of this study suggest that F:T may prevent the development of resistance compared to fosfomycin or tobramycin alone under aerobic and physiologically relevant anaerobic conditions. F:T may be a potential treatment option in CF patients chronically colonised by MRSA and/or P

  20. Respiratory mechanics

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  1. Rimozione Urbana: La Necessità di una Nuova Direzione di Attività di Pubblica Amministrazione

    Eneida Criscuolo Gabriel Bueno Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro si propone di discutere la legitimità delle decisioni amministrative nel democratico Stato di diritto; il discorso e la democrazia sono correlati nel mondo contemporaneo, mostrando la necessità di discussione pubblica in attività amministrativa, in tale contesto, con il passare dell'atto amministrativo, la razionalità degli decisioni amministrativa dovrebbe essere dimostrata attraverso del processo amministrativo come mezzo di discussione in una prospettiva democratica. Pacifico che il discorso è un mezzo attraverso il quale la democrazia può avvenire, ma devono osservare qui: senza partecipazione sociale, senza coscienza politica, il discorso porta a una democrazia apparente. Questo articolo discute la relazione tra democrazia, discorso e attività amministrativa in processi di rimozione urbana, indagando gli aspette che riguardano, a fini de equilibrio nel rapporto tra stato e cittadino. Questo lavoro ha origine de una ricerca de 2232 documenti, utilizzando la tecnica di analisi di contenuto.

  2. Correction to: Palivizumab Prophylaxis Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children with Immunocompromised Conditions or Down Syndrome: A Multicenter, Post-Marketing Surveillance in Japan.

    Kashiwagi, Tomoko; Okada, Yukiko; Nomoto, Ken

    2018-06-01

    "Newborns, infants, or young children aged 24 months and under who have Down syndrome, and children ≤ 24 months of age without a current hs-CHD if they had experienced persistent respiratory symptoms or regular outpatient treatment due to a respiratory tract infection in previous RSV seasons were also eligible for the study."

  3. Evaluation of respiratory pattern during respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    Dobashi, Suguru; Mori, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory cycle is not strictly regular, and generally varies in amplitude and period from one cycle to the next. We evaluated the characteristics of respiratory patterns acquired during respiratory gating treatment in more than 300 patients. A total 331 patients treated with respiratory-gated carbon-ion beam therapy were selected from a group of patients with thoracic and abdominal conditions. Respiratory data were acquired for a total of 3,171 fractions using an external respiratory sensing monitor and evaluated for respiratory cycle, duty cycle, magnitude of baseline drift, and intrafractional/interfractional peak inhalation/exhalation positional variation. Results for the treated anatomical sites and patient positioning were compared. Mean ± SD respiratory cycle averaged over all patients was 4.1 ± 1.3 s. Mean ± SD duty cycle averaged over all patients was 36.5 ± 7.3 %. Two types of baseline drift were seen, the first decremental and the second incremental. For respiratory peak variation, the mean intrafractional variation in peak-inhalation position relative to the amplitude in the first respiratory cycle (15.5 ± 9.3 %) was significantly larger than that in exhalation (7.5 ± 4.6 %). Interfractional variations in inhalation (17.2 ± 18.5 %) were also significantly greater than those in exhalation (9.4 ± 10.0 %). Statistically significant differences were observed between patients in the supine position and those in the prone position in mean respiratory cycle, duty cycle, and intra-/interfractional variations. We quantified the characteristics of the respiratory curve based on a large number of respiratory data obtained during treatment. These results might be useful in improving the accuracy of respiratory-gated treatment.

  4. Respiratory syncytial viral infections in young children : risk assessment and prevention

    E. Rietveld (Edwin)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractRespiratory syncytial virus is the main cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. Although almost all children are infected before the age of two years, less than 2% develop severe disease necessitating hospitalisation. Risk factors for severe RSV

  5. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    Svendsen, J.; Jespersen, J.; Skjoedt, T.

    1986-01-01

    Our present-day knowledge concerning the clinico-chemical and radiological findings in adult respiratory distress syndrome are described. Three typical case histories have been selected to illustrate this condition; they were due to multiple trauma or sepsis. It is stressed that radiology is in a key position for making the diagnosis and for observing the course of the illness. (orig) [de

  6. What is a biomarker? Research investments and lack of clinical integration necessitate a review of biomarker terminology and validation schema.

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Rifai, Nader

    2010-01-01

    A continual trend of annual growth can be seen within research devoted to the discovery and validation of disease biomarkers within both the natural and clinical sciences. This expansion of intellectual endeavours was quantified through database searches of (a) research grant awards provided by the various branches of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and (b) academic publications. A search of awards presented between 1986 and 2009 revealed a total of 28,856 grants awarded by the NIH containing the term "biomarker". The total funds for these awards in 2008 and 2009 alone were over $2.5 billion. During the same respective time frames, searches of "biomarker" and either "discovery", "genomics", "proteomics" or "metabolomics" yielded a total of 4,928 NIH grants whose combined funding exceeded $1.2 billion. The derived trend in NIH awards paralleled the annual expansion in "biomarker" literature. A PubMed search for the term, between 1990 and 2009, revealed a total of 441,510 published articles, with 38,457 published in 2008. These enormous investments and academic outputs however have not translated into the expected integration of new biomarkers for patient care. For example no proteomics derived biomarkers are currently being utilized in routine clinical management. This translational chasm necessitates a review of the previously proposed biomarker definitions and evaluation schema. A subsequent discussion of both the analytical and pre-analytical considerations for such research is also presented within. This required knowledge should aid scientists in their pursuit and validation of new biological markers of disease.

  7. Acetazolamide: a second wind for a respiratory stimulant in the intensive care unit?

    Heming, Nicholas; Urien, Saïk; Faisy, Christophe

    2012-08-07

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are affected by episodes of respiratory exacerbations, some of which can be severe and may necessitate respiratory support. Prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation is associated with increased mortality rates. Persistent failure to discontinue invasive mechanical ventilation is a major issue in patients with COPD. Pure or mixed metabolic alkalosis is a common finding in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with a worse outcome. In patients with COPD, the condition is called post-hypercapnic alkalosis and is a complication of mechanical ventilation. Reversal of metabolic alkalosis may facilitate weaning from mechanical ventilation of patients with COPD. Acetazolamide, a non-specific carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, is one of the drugs employed in the ICU to reverse metabolic alkalosis. The drug is relatively safe, undesirable effects being rare. The compartmentalization of the different isoforms of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme may, in part, explain the lack of evidence of the efficacy of acetazolamide as a respiratory stimulant. Recent findings suggest that the usually employed doses of acetazolamide in the ICU may be insufficient to significantly improve respiratory parameters in mechanically ventilated patients with COPD. Randomized controlled trials using adequate doses of acetazolamide are required to address this issue.

  8. Analysis of the clinical backgrounds of patients who developed respiratory acidosis under high-flow oxygen therapy during emergency transport.

    Ogino, Hirokazu; Nishimura, Naoki; Yamano, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Genta; Tomishima, Yutaka; Jinta, Torahiko; Takahashi, Osamu; Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    High-flow oxygen is often administered to patients during emergency transport and can sometimes cause respiratory acidosis with disturbed consciousness, thereby necessitating mechanical ventilation. Although oxygen titration in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during emergency transport reduces mortality rates, the clinical risk factors for respiratory acidosis in emergency settings are not fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed the clinical backgrounds of patients who developed respiratory acidosis during pre-hospital transport. This was a retrospective study of patients who arrived at our hospital by emergency transport in 2010 who received high-flow oxygen while in transit. Respiratory acidosis was defined by the following arterial blood gas readings: pH, ≤7.35; PaCO 2 , ≥45 mmHg; and HCO 3 - , ≥24 mmol/L. The risk factors were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. In 765 study patients, 66 patients showed respiratory acidosis. The following risk factors for respiratory acidosis were identified: age, ≥65 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-2.8); transportation time, ≥10 min (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7); three digits on the Japan Coma Scale (OR 3.1; 95% CI, 1.7-5.8); percutaneous oxygen saturation, ≤90% (OR 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-3.0); tuberculosis (OR 4.5; 95% CI, 1.4-15.1); asthma (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 0.6-5.3); pneumonia (OR 1.5; 95% CI, 0.7-3.1); and lung cancer (OR 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5-10.1). These underlying diseases as risk factors included both comorbid diseases and past medical conditions. The factors identified may contribute to the development of respiratory acidosis. Further studies on preventing respiratory acidosis will improve the quality of emergency medical care.

  9. [Characteristics of the sympathoadrenal system response to psychoemotional stress under hypoxic conditions in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of the respiratory system].

    Asanov, E O; Os'mak, Ie D; Kuz'mins'ka, L A

    2013-01-01

    The peculiarities of the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional and hypoxic stress in healthy young people and in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of respiratory system were studied. It was shown that in aging a more pronounced response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. At the same time, elderly people with different types of aging of the respiratory system did not demonstrate a difference in the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. Unlike in young people, in aged people, combination of psychoemotional and hypoxic stresses resulted in further activation of the sympathoadrenal system. The reaction of the sympathoadrenal system was more expressed in elderly people with accelerated ageing of the respiratory system.

  10. Respiratory Home Health Care

    ... Us Home > Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at ...

  11. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  12. Is recurrent respiratory infection associated with allergic respiratory disease?

    de Oliveira, Tiago Bittencourt; Klering, Everton Andrei; da Veiga, Ana Beatriz Gorini

    2018-03-13

    Respiratory infections cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aims to estimate the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases with the occurrence of recurrent respiratory infection (RRI) in children and adolescents. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and a questionnaire that provides data on the history of respiratory infections and the use of antibiotics were used to obtain data from patients. The relationship between the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis and the occurrence of respiratory infections in childhood was analyzed. We interviewed the caregivers of 531 children aged 0 to 15 years. The average age of participants was 7.43 years, with females accounting for 52.2%. This study found significant relationship between: presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis with RRI, with prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.47 (1.51-4.02) and 1.61 (1.34-1.93), respectively; respiratory allergies with use of antibiotics for respiratory problems, with PR of 5.32 (2.17-13.0) for asthma and of 1.64 (1.29-2.09) for allergic rhinitis; asthma and allergic rhinitis with diseases of the lower respiratory airways, with PR of 7.82 (4.63-13.21) and 1.65 (1.38-1.96), respectively. In contrast, no relationship between upper respiratory airway diseases and asthma and allergic rhinitis was observed, with PR of 0.71 (0.35-1.48) and 1.30 (0.87-1.95), respectively. RRI is associated with previous atopic diseases, and these conditions should be considered when treating children.

  13. Effecting change in primary care management of respiratory conditions: a global scoping exercise and literature review of educational interventions to inform the IPCRG's E-Quality initiative.

    McDonnell, Juliet; Williams, Siân; Chavannes, Niels H; Correia de Sousa, Jaime; Fardy, H John; Fletcher, Monica; Stout, James; Tomlins, Ron; Yusuf, Osman M; Pinnock, Hilary

    2012-12-01

    This discussion paper describes a scoping exercise and literature review commissioned by the International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) to inform their E-Quality programme which seeks to support small-scale educational projects to improve respiratory management in primary care. Our narrative review synthesises information from three sources: publications concerning the global context and health systems development; a literature search of Medline, CINAHL and Cochrane databases; and a series of eight interviews conducted with members of the IPCRG faculty. Educational interventions sit within complex healthcare, economic, and policy contexts. It is essential that any development project considers the local circumstances in terms of economic resources, political circumstances, organisation and administrative capacities, as well as the specific quality issue to be addressed. There is limited evidence (in terms of changed clinician behaviour and/or improved health outcomes) regarding the merits of different educational and quality improvement approaches. Features of educational interventions that were most likely to show some evidence of effectiveness included being carefully designed, multifaceted, engaged health professionals in their learning, provided ongoing support, were sensitive to local circumstances, and delivered in combination with other quality improvement strategies. To be effective, educational interventions must consider the complex healthcare systems within which they operate. The criteria for the IPCRG E-Quality awards thus require applicants not only to describe their proposed educational initiative but also to consider the practical and local barriers to successful implementation, and to propose a robust evaluation in terms of changed clinician behaviour or improved health outcomes.

  14. Lungs and Respiratory System

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  15. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  16. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  17. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    Murphy, C.H.; Colvin, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Due to improved emergency resuscitation procedures, and with advancing medical technology in the field of critical care, an increasing number of patients survive the acute phase of shock and catastrophic trauma. Patients who previously died of massive sepsis, hypovolemic or hypotensive shock, multiple fractures, aspiration, toxic inhalation, and massive embolism are now surviving long enough to develop previously unsuspected and unrecognized secondary effects. With increasing frequency, clinicians are recognizing the clinical and radiographic manifestations of pathologic changes in the lungs occurring secondary to various types of massive insult. This paper gives a list of diseases that have been shown to precipitate or predispose to diffuse lung damage. Various terms have been used to describe the lung damage and respiratory failure secondary to these conditions. The term adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is applied to several cases of sudden respiratory failure in patients with previously healthy lungs following various types of trauma or shock. Numerous investigations and experiments have studied the pathologic changes in ARDS, and, while there is still no clear indication of why it develops, there is now some correlation of the sequential pathologic developments with the clinical and radiographic changes

  18. Aortic mass in a newborn infant with respiratory distress

    Michelle J. Vaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic disease is rare in neonates. Many of the cases reported in literature are attributed to the placement of central catheters. We report on a case of aortic thrombosis in a newborn infant with significant respiratory distress due to meconium aspiration, necessitating intubation and placement of central catheters. Due to the location and size of the thrombus in our case, various subspecialties were involved, which ultimately guided therapy to anti-coagulate the patient.

  19. An improvement of the child acute respiratory infection treatment program

    E. N. Simovan'yan; E. E. Badalyants; L. P. Sizyakina; A. A. Lebedenko; V. B. Denisenko; M. A. Kim

    2013-01-01

    High morbidity rate, frequent development of severe complication forms, unfavorable remote effects for children’s health, insufficient efficacy of the used acute respiratory infection therapy schemes necessitate a treatment program improvement for this group of diseases. A complex clinical-laboratory examination of 72 3-6-year-old children with acute nasopharyngites and bronchites was conducted. Dependence of the disease’s clinical form and course peculiarities from the premorbid setting stat...

  20. Neonatal respiratory distress secondary to nasal fibrous histiocytoma.

    Koopmann, C F; Nagle, R B; Crone, R

    1987-08-01

    A full term one-day-old neonate developed respiratory distress secondary to a right intranasal mass. After exploratory craniotomy revealed no intracranial lesions, the child was observed for 6 months. At that time he experienced severe apnea with cyanosis necessitating removal of the mass, which was diagnosed histologically as a fibrous histiocytoma. Seven year follow-up reveals no further problems. A discussion of fibrous histiocytoma of the nose and paranasal sinuses is briefly given.

  1. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  2. Housing and respiratory health at older ages.

    Webb, E; Blane, D; de Vries, Robert

    2013-03-01

    A large proportion of the population of England live in substandard housing. Previous research has suggested that poor-quality housing, particularly in terms of cold temperatures, mould, and damp, poses a health risk, particularly for older people. The present study aimed to examine the association between housing conditions and objectively measured respiratory health in a large general population sample of older people in England. Data on housing conditions, respiratory health and relevant covariates were obtained from the second wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Multivariate regression methods were used to test the association between contemporary housing conditions and respiratory health while accounting for the potential effect of other factors; including social class, previous life-course housing conditions and childhood respiratory health. Older people who were in fuel poverty or who did not live in a home they owned had significantly worse respiratory health as measured by peak expiratory flow rates. After accounting for covariates, these factors had no effect on any other measures of respiratory health. Self-reported housing problems were not consistently associated with respiratory health. The housing conditions of older people in England, particularly those associated with fuel poverty and living in rented accommodation, may be harmful to some aspects of respiratory health. This has implications for upcoming UK government housing and energy policy decisions.

  3. Ventilation conditions and atmospheric characteristics of a laboratory uranium mine. Application to the distribution of radioactive particles in the respiratory tract

    Duport, Philippe.

    1978-09-01

    The CEA laboratory uranium mine and the characteristics of its ventilation are described. A method of measuring air flows based on the determination of a tracer gas was developed. Variations of radon concentrations and of its daughter products concentrations and radioactive equilibrium were observed as a function of the various ventilation rates. Particle size distribution of radioactive aerosols was studied in the laboratory mine when unoperated. Several methods of evaluation of the free fraction were compared, and the application of the laws of aerosol physics to the production of radioactive aerosols in a mine was investigated. A study of radioactive ions showed that the usual equations of atmospheric electricity could be applied to charged radioactive aerosols in a mine. Finally an experimental method was developed in order to directly examine the deposit of an aerosol labelled by radon daughter products in the respiratory tract of animals. The experimental results obtained with aerosols in the particle size range 5.10 -8 - 5.10 -6 were compared to the theoretical data derived from models published in the literature [fr

  4. Antibiotic Use in Children with Acute Respiratory or Ear Infections: Prospective Observational Comparison of Anthroposophic and Conventional Treatment under Routine Primary Care Conditions

    Harald J. Hamre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with acute respiratory or ear infections (RTI/OM are often unnecessarily prescribed antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is a major public health problem and antibiotic prescription for RTI/OM should be reduced. Anthroposophic treatment of RTI/OM includes anthroposophic medications, nonmedication therapy and if necessary also antibiotics. This secondary analysis from an observational study comprised 529 children <18 years from Europe (AT, DE, NL, and UK or USA, whose caregivers had chosen to consult physicians offering anthroposophic (A- or conventional (C- treatment for RTI/OM. During the 28-day follow-up antibiotics were prescribed to 5.5% of A-patients and 25.6% of C-patients (P<0.001; unadjusted odds ratio for nonprescription in A- versus C-patients 6.58 (95%-CI 3.45–12.56; after adjustment for demographics and morbidity 6.33 (3.17–12.64. Antibiotic prescription rates in recent observational studies with similar patients in similar settings, ranged from 31.0% to 84.1%. Compared to C-patients, A-patients also had much lower use of analgesics, somewhat quicker symptom resolution, and higher caregiver satisfaction. Adverse drug reactions were infrequent (2.3% in both groups and not serious. Limitation was that results apply to children of caregivers who consult A-physicians. One cannot infer to what extent antibiotics might be avoided in children who usually receive C-treatment, if they were offered A-treatment.

  5. Experimental study of movements respiratory conditions acceptable in radiotherapy techniques advanced; Estudio experimental de las condiciones de movimiento respiratorio aceptables en tecnicas de radioterapia avanzada

    Carrasco de Fez, P.; Ruiz Martinez, A.; Ruiz Martinez, A.; Jornet Sala, N.; Latorre Musoll, A.; Eudaldo Puell, T.; Ribas Morales, M.

    2015-07-01

    The aim is Determine experimentally in what conditions the movement of the PTV produces uncertainties unacceptable in the various stages of the treatment radiotherapy, from the acquisition of imagens 4D to the irradiation. (Author)

  6. [Disturbed respiratory cycle accompanying hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy].

    Saito, Yoshiaki; Masuko, Kaori; Kaneko, Kaori; Saito, Kazuyo; Chikumaru, Yuri; Iwamoto, Hiroko; Matsui, Akira; Kimura, Seiji

    2005-09-01

    We report the case of a 2-year-old boy who experienced total asphyxia at 4 months of age, and suffered abnormalities at specific phases of the respiratory cycle. The patient was bedridden due to severe tetraplegia and showed little response to external stimuli. He has been tube-fed since the initial asphyxia and a tracheotomy was performed after recurrent hypoxic episodes as a result of the respiratory dysfunction. Upon examination, his respiratory pattern was characterized by arrest during the inspiratory phase with a possible over-riding secondary inspiration. The respiratory pause at the inspiratory phase was markedly prolonged during an episode of pulmonary infection, resulting in recurrent cyanosis that necessitated artificial ventilation. The "second" inspiration typically occurred during the mid- or late-inspiratory phases, with this pattern often shown to be variable after epileptic seizures. The characteristic breathing of this patient suggested that difficulty in forming a normal respiratory cycle, other than during periods of hypoventilation or apnoea, could be a significant respiratory dysfunction following asphyxiation. Strategies for the management of such patients should be carefully designed after close observation of breathing patterns within the respiratory cycle, and with consideration for the influence of epileptic seizures and other inputs from somatic afferents.

  7. The respiratory microbiome and respiratory infections

    Unger, Stefan A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances over the past ten years lower respiratory tract infections still comprise around a fifth of all deaths worldwide in children under five years of age with the majority in low- and middle-income countries. Known risk factors for severe respiratory infections and poor chronic

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Credit: CDC This is the ... the United States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In ...

  9. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  10. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Respiratory Issues in Osteogenesis Imperfecta \\ Introduction The respiratory system’s job is to bring oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide, the waste product of breathing. Because oxygen is the fuel ...

  11. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  12. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  13. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  14. Assessing the impact of a respiratory diagnosis on smoking cessation.

    Jones, Alexandra

    2017-07-27

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of respiratory diagnoses on smoking cessation. A total of 229 current and former smokers, with and without respiratory diagnoses completed an anonymous online questionnaire assessing how their smoking habit changed when diagnosed with various respiratory conditions. Among all participants the most common reason for quitting smoking was to reduce the risk of health problems in general. In those with a chronic respiratory diagnosis, this was their most common reason for quitting. Motivation to quit smoking, scored by participants on a scale of 0-10, increased at the time of diagnosis then further increased after diagnosis of a chronic respiratory condition but declined after diagnosis of an acute respiratory condition. The research had a small sample size so further research is required. However, important themes are highlighted with the potential to influence clinical practice. All clinicians should receive training to promote cessation at the time of diagnosing respiratory conditions.

  15. Analysis of the clinical backgrounds of patients who developed respiratory acidosis under high‐flow oxygen therapy during emergency transport

    Ogino, Hirokazu; Yamano, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Genta; Tomishima, Yutaka; Jinta, Torahiko; Takahashi, Osamu; Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2015-01-01

    Aim High‐flow oxygen is often administered to patients during emergency transport and can sometimes cause respiratory acidosis with disturbed consciousness, thereby necessitating mechanical ventilation. Although oxygen titration in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during emergency transport reduces mortality rates, the clinical risk factors for respiratory acidosis in emergency settings are not fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed the clinical backgrounds of patients who developed respiratory acidosis during pre‐hospital transport. Methods This was a retrospective study of patients who arrived at our hospital by emergency transport in 2010 who received high‐flow oxygen while in transit. Respiratory acidosis was defined by the following arterial blood gas readings: pH, ≤7.35; PaCO 2, ≥45 mmHg; and HCO 3 −, ≥24 mmol/L. The risk factors were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results In 765 study patients, 66 patients showed respiratory acidosis. The following risk factors for respiratory acidosis were identified: age, ≥65 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7–2.8); transportation time, ≥10 min (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1–3.7); three digits on the Japan Coma Scale (OR 3.1; 95% CI, 1.7–5.8); percutaneous oxygen saturation, ≤90% (OR 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8–3.0); tuberculosis (OR 4.5; 95% CI, 1.4–15.1); asthma (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 0.6–5.3); pneumonia (OR 1.5; 95% CI, 0.7–3.1); and lung cancer (OR 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5–10.1). These underlying diseases as risk factors included both comorbid diseases and past medical conditions. Conclusions The factors identified may contribute to the development of respiratory acidosis. Further studies on preventing respiratory acidosis will improve the quality of emergency medical care. PMID:29123744

  16. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    SARS; Respiratory failure - SARS ... Complications may include: Respiratory failure Liver failure Heart failure ... 366. McIntosh K, Perlman S. Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). ...

  17. Increased iron supplied through Fet3p results in replicative life span extension of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under conditions requiring respiratory metabolism.

    Botta, Gabriela; Turn, Christina S; Quintyne, Nicholas J; Kirchman, Paul A

    2011-10-01

    We have previously shown that copper supplementation extends the replicative life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae when grown under conditions forcing cells to respire. We now show that copper's effect on life span is through Fet3p, a copper containing enzyme responsible for high affinity transport of iron into yeast cells. Life span extensions can also be obtained by supplementing the growth medium with 1mM ferric chloride. Extension by high iron levels is still dependent on the presence of Fet3p. Life span extension by iron or copper requires growth on media containing glycerol as the sole carbon source, which forces yeast to respire. Yeast grown on glucose containing media supplemented with iron show no extension of life span. The iron associated with cells grown in media supplemented with copper or iron is 1.4-1.8 times that of cells grown without copper or iron supplementation. As with copper supplementation, iron supplementation partially rescues the life span of superoxide dismutase mutants. Cells grown with copper supplementation display decreased production of superoxide as measured by dihydroethidium staining. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanism and Clinical Importance of Respiratory Failure Induced by Anticholinesterases

    Ivosevic Anita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory failure is the predominant cause of death in humans and animals poisoned with anticholinesterases. Organophosphorus and carbamate anticholinesterases inhibit acetylcholinesterase irreversibly and reversibly, respectively. Some of them contain a quaternary atom that makes them lipophobic, limiting their action at the periphery, i.e. outside the central nervous system. They impair respiratory function primarily by inducing a desensitization block of nicotinic receptors in the neuromuscular synapse. Lipophilic anticholinesterases inhibit the acetylcholinesterase both in the brain and in other tissues, including respiratory muscles. Their doses needed for cessation of central respiratory drive are significantly less than doses needed for paralysis of the neuromuscular transmission. Antagonist of muscarinic receptors atropine blocks both the central and peripheral muscarinic receptors and effectively antagonizes the central respiratory depression produced by anticholinesterases. To manage the peripheral nicotinic receptor hyperstimulation phenomena, oximes as acetylcholinesterase reactivators are used. Addition of diazepam is useful for treatment of seizures, since they are cholinergic only in their initial phase and can contribute to the occurrence of central respiratory depression. Possible involvement of central nicotinic receptors as well as the other neurotransmitter systems – glutamatergic, opioidergic – necessitates further research of additional antidotes.

  19. Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia.

    Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  1. Acute respiratory failure in asthma

    Soubra Said; Guntupalli Kalapalatha

    2005-01-01

    Although asthma is a condition that is managed in the outpatient setting in most patients, the poorly controlled and severe cases pose a major challenge to the health-care team. Recognition of the more common insidious and the less common rapid onset "acute asphyxic" asthma are important. The intensivist needs to be familiar with the factors that denote severity of the exacerbation. The management of respiratory failure in asthma, including pharmacologic and mechanical ventilation, are discus...

  2. Zonography in acute respiratory diseases

    Druzhinina, V.S.; Fetisova, V.M.; Kozorez, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiography was performed in 94 patients whose initial condition was assessed as acute respiratory disease. Radioscopy with x-ray image amplifier, roentgenography and zonography were used. Pulmonary changes were found in 61 persons. In 45 of them acute pneumonia was revealed, in 16 changes in the pulmonary pattern assessed as residual manifestations of pneumonia. Changes in 30 patients with pneumonia and 16 patients with residual manifestations were detected by zonography only

  3. Neurological Respiratory Failure

    Mohan Rudrappa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic nerve palsy. Our case reiterates the rare, but lethal, consequences of West Nile virus infection, and the increase of its awareness among physicians.

  4. Obesity and common respiratory diseases in children.

    Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Tapia, Ignacio E

    2017-06-01

    Obesity has become an important public health problem worldwide that disproportionally affects the underserved. Obesity has been associated with many diseases and unfortunately has not spared the respiratory system. Specifically, the prevalence of common respiratory problems, such as asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea, is higher in obese children. Further, the treatment outcomes of these frequent conditions is also worse in obese children compared to lean controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Practical approach to management of respiratory complications in neurological disorders

    Mangera Z

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Zaheer Mangera, Kirat Panesar, Himender MakkerRespiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Patients with certain neurological diseases are at increased risk of developing chest infections as well as respiratory failure due to muscular weakness. In particular, patients with certain neuromuscular disorders are at higher risk. These conditions are often associated with sleep disordered breathing. It is important to identify patients at risk of respiratory complications early in the course of their disease, although patients with neuromuscular disorders often present in the acute setting with respiratory involvement. This review of the respiratory complications of neurological disorders, with a particular focus on neuromuscular disorders, explores why this happens and looks at how to recognize, investigate, and manage these patients effectively.Keywords: respiratory failure, respiratory muscle weakness

  6. Investigations of respiratory control systems simulation

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The Grodins' respiratory control model was investigated and it was determined that the following modifications were necessary before the model would be adaptable for current research efforts: (1) the controller equation must be modified to allow for integration of the respiratory system model with other physiological systems; (2) the system must be more closely correlated to the salient physiological functionings; (3) the respiratory frequency and the heart rate should be expanded to illustrate other physiological relationships and dependencies; and (4) the model should be adapted to particular individuals through a better defined set of initial parameter values in addition to relating these parameter values to the desired environmental conditions. Several of Milhorn's respiratory control models were also investigated in hopes of using some of their features as modifications for Grodins' model.

  7. Automated respiratory support in newborn infants.

    Claure, Nelson; Bancalari, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    A considerable proportion of premature infants requires mechanical ventilatory support and supplemental oxygen. Due to their immaturity, exposure to these forms of respiratory support contributes to the development of lung injury, oxidative stress and abnormal retinal development. These conditions are associated with poor long-term respiratory and neurological outcome. Mechanically ventilated preterm infants present with frequent fluctuations in ventilation and gas exchange. Currently available ventilatory modes and manual adjustment to the ventilator or supplemental oxygen cannot effectively adapt to these recurrent fluctuations. Moreover, the respiratory support often exceeds the infant's real needs. Techniques that adapt the mechanical ventilatory support and supplemental oxygen to the changing needs of preterm infants are being developed in order to improve stability of gas exchange, to minimise respiratory support and to reduce personnel workload. This article describes the preliminary evidence on the application of these new techniques in preterm infants and animal models.

  8. Respiratory medicine of reptiles.

    Schumacher, Juergen

    2011-05-01

    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines

    Ga??zka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szo?tys, Edyta; Sm??ka, Wojciech; Gawlik, Rados?aw

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardle...

  10. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  11. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

  12. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Confalonieri, Marco; Salton, Francesco; Fabiano, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foste...

  13. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  14. [Measurement of the passive compliance of the total respiratory system in newborn after respiratory insufficiency for risk assessment of respiratory disorders during the first 6 month of life].

    Olechowski, Wiesław; Majorek-Olechowska, Bernadetta

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the relationships between postnatal passive respiratory compliance (Crs) and development of respiratory disorders during the first 6 month of life in preterm and full-term infants after respiratory insufficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether other relevant neonatal factors, like degree of prematurity, birth weigh, ventilatory conditions, sepsis, and respiratory disease severity affected this relationship. The passive respiratory compliance was measured by the single occlusion technique in 73 preterm infants after respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 19 full-term infants after congenital pneumonia and 33 healthy full-term infants. Respiratory function measurements were performed by single occlusion technique, during natural sleep, after acute phase of illness, before discharge from neonatal department. Crs was significantly lower in premature newborns newborns who have suffered from a congenital pneumonia (p = 0.0411), than in healthy full-term newborn infants. Premature infants who have undergone sepsis have significantly decreased Crs in relationship with those who did not have this complication (p = 0.0334). Preterm newborns who have suffered pneumonia during treatment of RDS have significantly frequent respiratory problems during the first 6 month of age (p = 0.043). Full-term infants after congenital pneumonia have more but not significantly frequent respiratory problems than healthy term newborns (p = 0.055) in this period. Decreased neonatal Crs wasn't significantly related to respiratory disorders in age of 6 month of life. Prematurity under 36 week of gestational age, low birth weight and suffering from sepsis in premature infants significantly decreased Crs in newborn. Decreased neonatal Crs in premature and full term infants after respiratory insufficiency wasn't significantly related to respiratory disorders during first 6 month of life. This study has showed significantly increase of respiratory problems in this

  15. Human torso phantom for imaging of heart with realistic modes of cardiac and respiratory motion

    Boutchko, Rostyslav; Balakrishnan, Karthikayan; Gullberg, Grant T; O& #x27; Neil, James P

    2013-09-17

    A human torso phantom and its construction, wherein the phantom mimics respiratory and cardiac cycles in a human allowing acquisition of medical imaging data under conditions simulating patient cardiac and respiratory motion.

  16. The effect of aging on respiratory synergy.

    Kweon, Migyoung; Son, Sung Min; Kwon, Yong Hyun

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on respiratory synergy, through the comparison of an elderly group and a young group, to help further understanding of postural control in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Ten community-dwelling elderly subjects and ten young subjects performed standing under two different respiratory conditions: quiet breathing and apnea. Center of foot pressure displacement and joint angular movements of the head, trunk, pelvis, hips, knees and ankles were measured. [Results] The results of this study showed that the elderly group had a respiratory synergy different from that of the young group. The elderly group in quiet stance used significantly more hip and pelvis movements when compensating for respiratory disturbance than standing with apnea, while the young group used significantly more whole body segments. There were no differences in angular displacements in the quiet stance between the elderly and the young groups. [Conclusion] The elderly group demonstrated a respiratory synergy pattern different from that of the young group. The findings indicate that aging changes the respiratory synergy pattern and this change is not due to decreased functioning of the ankle joint alone.

  17. Respiratory processes in non-photosynthetic plastids

    Renato, Marta; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Chlororespiration is a respiratory process located in chloroplast thylakoids which consists in an electron transport chain from NAD(P)H to oxygen. This respiratory chain involves the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, the plastoquinone pool and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX), and it probably acts as a safety valve to prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic machinery in stress conditions. The existence of a similar respiratory activity in non-photosynthetic plastids has been less studied. Recently, it has been reported that tomato fruit chromoplasts present an oxygen consumption activity linked to ATP synthesis. Etioplasts and amyloplasts contain several electron carriers and some subunits of the ATP synthase, so they could harbor a similar respiratory process. This review provides an update on the study about respiratory processes in chromoplasts, identifying the major gaps that need to be addressed in future research. It also reviews the proteomic data of etioplasts and amyloplasts, which suggest the presence of a respiratory electron transport chain in these plastids. PMID:26236317

  18. Respiratory processes in non-photosynthetic plastids

    Marta eRenato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlororespiration is a respiratory process located in chloroplast thylakoids which consists in an electron transport chain from NAD(PH to oxygen. This respiratory chain involves the NAD(PH dehydrogenase complex, the plastoquinone pool and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX, and it probably acts as a safety valve to prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic machinery in stress conditions. The existence of a similar respiratory activity in non-photosynthetic plastids has been less studied. Recently, it has been reported that tomato fruit chromoplasts present an oxygen consumption activity linked to ATP synthesis. Etioplasts and amyloplasts contain several electron carriers and some subunits of the ATP synthase, so they could harbor a similar respiratory process. This review provides an update on the study about respiratory processes in chromoplasts, identifying the major gaps that need to be addressed in future research. It also reviews the proteomic data of etioplasts and amyloplasts, which suggest the presence of a respiratory electron transport chain in these plastids.

  19. Inhaled Antibiotic Therapy in Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    Diego J. Maselli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of patients with chronic respiratory diseases affected by difficult to treat infections has become a challenge in clinical practice. Conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF and non-CF bronchiectasis require extensive treatment strategies to deal with multidrug resistant pathogens that include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia species and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM. These challenges prompted scientists to deliver antimicrobial agents through the pulmonary system by using inhaled, aerosolized or nebulized antibiotics. Subsequent research advances focused on the development of antibiotic agents able to achieve high tissue concentrations capable of reducing the bacterial load of difficult-to-treat organisms in hosts with chronic respiratory conditions. In this review, we focus on the evidence regarding the use of antibiotic therapies administered through the respiratory system via inhalation, nebulization or aerosolization, specifically in patients with chronic respiratory diseases that include CF, non-CF bronchiectasis and NTM. However, further research is required to address the potential benefits, mechanisms of action and applications of inhaled antibiotics for the management of difficult-to-treat infections in patients with chronic respiratory diseases.

  20. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  1. Respiratory Management in the Patient with Spinal Cord Injury

    Rita Galeiras Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injuries (SCIs often lead to impairment of the respiratory system and, consequently, restrictive respiratory changes. Paresis or paralysis of the respiratory muscles can lead to respiratory insufficiency, which is dependent on the level and completeness of the injury. Respiratory complications include hypoventilation, a reduction in surfactant production, mucus plugging, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Vital capacity (VC is an indicator of overall pulmonary function; patients with severely impaired VC may require assisted ventilation. It is best to proceed with intubation under controlled circumstances rather than waiting until the condition becomes an emergency. Mechanical ventilation can adversely affect the structure and function of the diaphragm. Early tracheostomy following short orotracheal intubation is probably beneficial in selected patients. Weaning should start as soon as possible, and the best modality is progressive ventilator-free breathing (PVFB. Appropriate candidates can sometimes be freed from mechanical ventilation by electrical stimulation. Respiratory muscle training regimens may improve patients’ inspiratory function following a SCI.

  2. Respiratory system. Part 2: Gaseous exchange.

    McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair

    This article, which isthe last in the life sciences series and the second of two articles on the respiratory system, describes gaseous exchange in the lungs, transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and internal and external respiration. The article concludes with a brief consideration of two conditions that affect gas exchange and transport: carbon monoxide poisoning and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  3. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function impairment among ...

    Both upper and lower respiratory tract diseaes have been noticed and described. Several publications are found in the literature on these but no such report has come from the Savannah belt with its peculiar climatic conditions. Methods: One hundred and forty (140) workers in a wood furniture factory in Kaduna, a city within ...

  4. Respiratory manifestations of hypothyroidism

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. We conducted a systematic review to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were...... searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; Adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; Intervention, observational or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. We followed the PRISMA statement...... and used the Cochrane's risk of bias tool. RESULTS: A total of 1699 papers were screened by two independent authors for relevant titles. Of 109 relevant abstracts, 28 papers underwent full text analyses, of which 22 were included in the review. We identified possible mechanisms explaining respiratory...

  5. Respiratory care manpower issues.

    Mathews, Paul; Drumheller, Lois; Carlow, John J

    2006-03-01

    Although respiratory care is a relatively new profession, its practitioners are deeply involved in providing patient care in the critical care. In preparation for writing this article, we sought to explore the respiratory therapy manpower needs and activities designed to fulfill those needs in critical care practice. We began by delineating the historical development of respiratory care as a profession, the development of its education, and the professional credentialing system. We then conducted several literature reviews with few articles generated. We requested and received data from the American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC), The National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC), and the Committee on Accreditation of Respiratory Care education (CoARC) relative to their membership, number of credentialed individuals, and educational program student and graduate data for 2000 through 2004. We then conducted two electronic surveys. Survey 1 was a six-item survey that examined the use of mandatory overtime in respiratory care departments. We used a convenience sample of 30 hospitals stratified by size (or=500 beds). Survey 2 was a five-item instrument distributed by blast E-mail to the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Respiratory Care Section members and members of the RC_World list serve. This survey elicited 51 usable and non-duplicative responses from geographically and size-varied institutions. We analyzed these data in several ways from distribution analysis to one-way analysis of variance procedure and appropriate post hoc analysis techniques. Where appropriate, a matched-pairs analysis was performed and these were compared across the variables intensive care unit (ICU) beds per actual number of respiratory care practitioners (RCPs) and ICU beds per preferred number of RCPs. The data gathered from the professional organizations indicated a relatively stable attrition rate (35.2%+/-1.7-3.1%), even in the face of varying enrollments (6,231 in 2004 vs. 4

  6. Management of methylergonovine induced respiratory depression in a newborn with naloxone.

    Sullivan, R; Nelsen, J; Duggineni, S; Holland, M

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a female neonate who developed respiratory depression following the unintentional administration of methylergonovine. The respiratory depression appeared to improve after the administration of bag mask ventilation, stimulation, and naloxone; and the baby was able to be managed without endotracheal intubation and prolonged positive-pressure ventilation. A full-term female neonate was delivered vaginally without issue. Approximately 10 min after delivery, the infant was inadvertently administered 0.1 mg of methylergonovine intramuscularly instead of vitamin K. Thirty minutes later the child developed cyanotic extremities and respiratory depression with an oxygen saturation of 75%. Naloxone, 0.4 mg IM, was recommended to mitigate respiratory depression. Within 5 min the patient's respirations improved to 40 breaths per minute, cyanosis improved, and she began resisting ventilations and crying loudly. The child continued to improve and was back to baseline that evening. Methylergonovine toxicity in neonates has been commonly associated with respiratory depression necessitating ventilatory support. In consideration of chemical structural similarity between methylergonovine and morphine, as well as signs/symptoms consistent with opioid-induced respiratory depression, naloxone was suggested. It appears that naloxone may reverse methylergonovine toxicity in neonates. The identification of a safe and potentially useful antidote to mitigate respiratory depression, potentially avoiding the need for intubation and more invasive interventions in this patient population is important.

  7. Airway Reflux, Cough and Respiratory Disease

    Molyneux, Ian D.; Morice, Alyn H.

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly accepted that the effects of gastro-oesophageal reflux are not limited to the gastrointestinal tract. The adjacent respiratory structures are also at risk from material ejected from the proximal oesophagus as a result of the failure of anatomical and physiological barriers. There is evidence of the influence of reflux on several respiratory and otorhinological conditions and although in many cases the precise mechanism has yet to be elucidated, the association alone opens potential novel avenues of therapy to clinicians struggling to treat patients with apparently intractable respiratory complaints. This review provides a description of the airway reflux syndrome, its effects on the lung and current and future therapeutic options. PMID:23251752

  8. The microbiota of the respiratory tract : Gatekeeper to respiratory health

    Man, Wing Ho; De Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A.A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts

  9. European Respiratory Society statement

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...

  10. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.

  11. Respiratory problems in foals.

    Beech, J

    1985-04-01

    Despite major advances in our knowledge and ability to treat respiratory diseases in neonatal foals, neonatal respiratory medicine is still in its infancy. It is hoped that this article may serve as a guideline for diagnosis and treatment. Specific antibiotic regimens and emergency procedures are covered in other articles in this symposium. Because management factors play a critical role in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease, education of clients as to their importance would help both prophylactically and therapeutically. The necessity of very careful monitoring of neonates, which is critical to early detection of disease, should be stressed. As respiratory diseases can be fulminant and rapidly fatal, it is imperative not to delay diagnosis and therapy. Thorough examination and implementation of appropriate diagnostic techniques, as well as prompt early referral to a more sophisticated facility when indicated, would prevent many deaths. Although sophisticated support systems are vital for survival of some of these foals, good basic intensive nursing care combined with selection of appropriate drug therapy very early in the course of the disease is all that many foals require and can significantly improve survival rates.

  12. Respiratory Symptoms in Firefighters

    Greven, Frans E.; Rooyackers, Jos M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Heederik, Dick J.

    Background The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with respiratory symptoms in common firefighters in the Netherlands. Methods A total of 1,330 firefighters from the municipal fire brigades of three provinces of the Netherlands were included in the

  13. Textbook of respiratory medicine

    Murray, J.F.; Nadel, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a clinical reference of respiratory medicine. It also details basic science aspects of pulmonary physiology and describes recently developed, sophisticated diagnostic tools and therapeutic methods. It also covers anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology; microbiologic, radiologic, nuclear medicine, and biopsy methods for diagnosis

  14. Dynamics of human respiratory system mycoflora

    Anna Biedunkiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determing the prevalence of individual species of fungi in the respiratory systems of women and men, analysis of the dynamics of the fungi in individual sections of the respiratory system as concerns their quantity and identification of phenology of the isolated fungi coupled with an attempt at identifying their possible preferences for appearing during specific seasons of thc year. During 10 years of studies (1989- 1998. 29 species of fungi belonging: Candida, Geolrichum, Saccharomyces, Saccharomycopsis, Schizosaccharomyces, Torulopsis, Trichosporon and Aspergillus were isolated from the ontocenoses of the respiratory systems of patients at the Independent Public Center for Pulmonology and Oncology in Olsztyn. Candida albicans was a clearly dominating fungus. Individual species appeared individually, in twos or threes in a single patient, they were isolated more frequently in the spring and autumn, less frequently during the winter and summer. The largest number of fungi species were isolated from sputum (29 species, bronchoscopic material (23 species and pharyngeal swabs (15 species. Sacchoromycopsis capsularis and Trichosporon beigelii should be treated as new for the respiratory system. Biodiversity of fungi, their numbers and continous fluctuations in frequency indicate that the respiratory system ontocenose offers the optimum conditions for growth and development of the majority of the majority of yeasts - like fungi.

  15. Spinal Metaplasticity in Respiratory Motor Control

    Gordon S Mitchell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark feature of the neural system controlling breathing is its ability to exhibit plasticity. Less appreciated is the ability to exhibit metaplasticity, a change in the capacity to express plasticity (ie. plastic plasticity. Recent advances in our understanding of cellular mechanisms giving rise to respiratory motor plasticity lay the groundwork for (ongoing investigations of metaplasticity. This detailed understanding of respiratory metaplasticity will be essential as we harness metaplasticity to restore breathing capacity in clinical disorders that compromise breathing, such as cervical spinal injury, motor neuron disease and other neuromuscular diseases. In this brief review, we discuss key examples of metaplasticity in respiratory motor control, and our current understanding of mechanisms giving rise to spinal plasticity and metaplasticity in phrenic motor output; particularly after pre-conditioning with intermittent hypoxia. Progress in this area has led to the realization that similar mechanisms are operative in other spinal motor networks, including those governing limb movement. Further, these mechanisms can be harnessed to restore respiratory and non-respiratory motor function after spinal injury.

  16. Recent advances in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    Turnbull, Andrew; Balfour-Lynn, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    This review highlights important advances in paediatric respiratory medicine since 2014, excluding cystic fibrosis. It focuses mainly on the more common conditions, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, bronchiolitis and preschool wheezing, asthma, pneumonia and sleep, and highlights some of the rarer conditions such as primary ciliary dyskinesia and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... of our study was to compare the resulting imaging quality by the use of a time-based respiratory gating system in two groups administered either adenosine or dipyridamole as the pharmacological stress agent. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were randomized to adenosine or dipyridamole cardiac...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4...

  18. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... for Disease Control and Prevention website. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently asked questions and answers. www. ...

  19. Acute respiratory infections at children

    Delyagin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.

  20. An approach to the child in respiratory distress

    ... global under-five mortality rates between 1990 and 2015), only about one in five health caregivers knows the danger ... The principle features of the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are: ... These conditions include primary or secondary.

  1. treatment of common respiratory infections: the antibiotic dilemma

    Enrique

    HIV infection. Chronic cardiovascular disease. Leukaemia/lymphoma. Chronic respiratory disease. Myeloma. Other chronic medical conditions. Other malignancies. Diabetes mellitus. Chronic renal failure. Cirrhosis. Nephrotic syndrome. Alcoholism. Organ transplants. Special environments. Immunosuppressive medication.

  2. Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement.

    Ayres, J G; Forsberg, B; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dey, R; Ebi, K L; Helms, P J; Medina-Ramón, M; Windt, M; Forastiere, F

    2009-08-01

    Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. The statement was developed following a 2-day workshop held in Leuven (Belgium) in March 2008. Key areas of concern for the respiratory community arising from climate change are discussed and recommendations made to address gaps in knowledge. The most important recommendation was the development of more accurate predictive models for predicting the impact of climate change on respiratory health. Respiratory healthcare workers also have an advocatory role in persuading governments and the European Union to maintain awareness and appropriate actions with respect to climate change, and these areas are also discussed in the position statement.

  3. Respiratory guiding system for respiratory motion management in respiratory gated radiotherapy

    Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Kim, Tae Ho; Suh, Tae Suk

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory guiding systems have been shown to improve the respiratory regularity. This, in turn, improves the efficiency of synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy, and it reduces the artifacts caused by irregular breathing in imaging techniques such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT), which is used for treatment planning in RGRT. We have previously developed a respiratory guiding system that incorporates an individual-specific guiding waveform, which is easy to follow for each volunteer, to improve the respiratory regularity. The present study evaluates the application of this system to improve the respiratory regularity for respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an in-house-developed respiratory guiding system incorporating an individual specific guiding waveform to improve the respiratory regularity for RGRT. Most volunteers showed significantly less residual motion at each phase during guided breathing owing to the improvement in respiratory regularity. Therefore, the respiratory guiding system can clearly reduce the residual, or respiratory, motion in each phase. From the result, the CTV and the PTV margins during RGRT can be reduced by using the respiratory guiding system, which reduces the residual motions, thus improving the accuracy of RGRT

  4. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  5. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    Kneijber, M.C.J.; van Heerde, M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Plotz, F.; Markhorst, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  6. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  7. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  8. High prevalence of common respiratory viruses and no evidence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Hajj pilgrims returning to Ghana, 2013.

    Annan, Augustina; Owusu, Michael; Marfo, Kwadwo Sarfo; Larbi, Richard; Sarpong, Francisca Naana; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Amankwa, Joseph; Fiafemetsi, Samuel; Drosten, Christian; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Eckerle, Isabella

    2015-06-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 on the Arabian Peninsula and has caused severe respiratory disease with more than 800 laboratory-confirmed cases. The return of infected pilgrims to their home countries with a putative spread of MERS-CoV necessitates further surveillance. A cross sectional study of 839 adult African Hajj pilgrims returning to Accra in Ghana, West Africa, was conducted in 2013 to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms as well as of MERS-CoV, human rhinovirus (HRV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A virus (FLU A) infection. Six hundred and fifty-one (77.6%) pilgrims had respiratory symptoms. Tests were positive for at least one of the viruses other than MERS-CoV in 179 (21.3%) of all pilgrims, with 22.4% detection in symptomatic vs. 17.6% detection in asymptomatic pilgrims. No MERS-CoV was detected, although common respiratory viruses were prevalent, with positive findings for HRV in 141 individuals (16.8%), RSV in 43 individuals (5.1%) and FLU A in 11 individuals (1.3%). Results were positive for more than one virus in 16 (1.9%) individuals, including 14 (1.7%) RSV/HRV co-infections and 2 (0.2%) FLU A/HRV co-infections. A total 146 (22.4%) of the symptomatic returnees tested positive for at least one respiratory virus compared with 33 (17.6%) of the asymptomatic pilgrims who had at least one detectable virus in their sample. The prevalence of viral respiratory infections among Hajj pilgrims in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects was high. Although it is reassuring that MERS-CoV was not detected in the tested population, there is a need for active surveillance of Hajj pilgrims. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines.

    Gałązka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szołtys, Edyta; Smółka, Wojciech; Gawlik, Radosław

    2016-12-01

    Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardless of the cause they can exclude athletes from the training program and significantly impair their performance. In the present work, the most common upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes taking into account the disciplines in which they most often occur were presented. The focus was laid on symptoms, diagnostic methods and pharmacotherapy. Moreover, preventive procedures which can help reduce the occurrence of upper respiratory tract disease in athletes were presented. Management according to anti-doping rules, criteria for return to training and competition as an important issues of athlete's health were discussed.

  10. Self-Reported Mental Health Predicts Acute Respiratory Infection.

    Maxwell, Lizzie; Barrett, Bruce; Chase, Joseph; Brown, Roger; Ewers, Tola

    2015-06-01

    Poor mental health conditions, including stress and depression, have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory infection. Very few studies have considered the role of general mental health in acute respiratory infection occurrence. The aim of this analysis is to determine if overall mental health, as assessed by the mental component of the Short Form 12 Health Survey, predicts incidence, duration, or severity of acute respiratory infection. Data utilized for this analysis came from the National Institute of Health-funded Meditation or Exercise for Preventing Acute Respiratory Infection (MEPARI) and MEPARI-2 randomized controlled trials examining the effects of meditation or exercise on acute respiratory infection among adults aged > 30 years in Madison, Wisconsin. A Kendall tau rank correlation compared the Short Form 12 mental component, completed by participants at baseline, with acute respiratory infection incidence, duration, and area-under-the-curve (global) severity, as assessed by the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey. Participants were recruited from Madison, Wis, using advertisements in local media. Short Form 12 mental health scores significantly predicted incidence (P = 0.037) of acute respiratory infection, but not duration (P = 0.077) or severity (P = 0.073). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) negative emotion measure significantly predicted global severity (P = 0.036), but not incidence (P = 0.081) or duration (P = 0.125). Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores significantly predicted incidence of acute respiratory infection (P = 0.040), but not duration (P = 0.053) or severity (P = 0.70). The PHQ-9, PSS-10, and PANAS positive measures did not show significant predictive associations with any of the acute respiratory infection outcomes. Self-reported overall mental health, as measured by the mental component of Short Form 12, predicts acute respiratory infection incidence.

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of an antimicrobial air filter to avoid porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) aerosol transmission, after 16 months of exposure to a commercial swine environmental conditions

    Batista, L. [Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO (United States); Pouliot, F.; Urizar, L. [Centre de developpement du porc du Quebec Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The effectiveness of Noveko's antimicrobial filter was evaluated after 16 months of exposure to commercial swine production. The experiment involved the use of a scaled model of a commercial swine facility consisting of 2 small chambers connected by a duct containing the filters. A 5 kg naive pig was placed in the reception chamber for a period of 6 hours after aerosolization with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Blood samples from pigs were collected before and after aerosolization to test for the presence of PRRSV RNA. Only blood samples were tested for PRRSV antibodies by IDEXX 2XR ELISA. None of the 9 pigs tested were found to be infected. The study showed that the technology used to integrate the antimicrobial agent into the filter fibers allows the filter combination to withstand extreme weather and endure commercial swine production for at least 16 months, and can maintain its effectiveness to avoid airborne transmission of PRRSV.

  12. Decidual cell polyploidization necessitates mitochondrial activity.

    Xinghong Ma

    Full Text Available Cellular polyploidy has been widely reported in nature, yet its developmental mechanism and function remain poorly understood. In the present study, to better define the aspects of decidual cell polyploidy, we isolated pure polyploid and non-polyploid decidual cell populations from the in vivo decidual bed. Three independent RNA pools prepared for each population were then subjected to the Affymetrix gene chip analysis for the whole mouse genome transcripts. Our data revealed up-regulation of 1015 genes and down-regulation of 1207 genes in the polyploid populations, as compared to the non-polyploid group. Comparative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization results indeed confirmed differential expressional regulation of several genes between the two populations. Based on functional enrichment analyses, up-regulated polyploidy genes appeared to implicate several functions, which primarily include cell/nuclear division, ATP binding, metabolic process, and mitochondrial activity, whereas that of down-regulated genes primarily included apoptosis and immune processes. Further analyses of genes that are related to mitochondria and bi-nucleation showed differential and regional expression within the decidual bed, consistent with the pattern of polyploidy. Consistently, studies revealed a marked induction of mitochondrial mass and ATP production in polyploid cells. The inhibition of mitochondrial activity by various pharmacological inhibitors, as well as by gene-specific targeting using siRNA-mediated technology showed a dramatic attenuation of polyploidy and bi-nucleation development during in vitro stromal cell decidualization, suggesting mitochondria play a major role in positive regulation of decidual cell polyploidization. Collectively, analyses of unique polyploidy markers and molecular signaling networks may be useful to further characterize functional aspects of decidual cell polyploidy at the site of implantation.

  13. Computational Models and Emergent Properties of Respiratory Neural Networks

    Lindsey, Bruce G.; Rybak, Ilya A.; Smith, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Computational models of the neural control system for breathing in mammals provide a theoretical and computational framework bringing together experimental data obtained from different animal preparations under various experimental conditions. Many of these models were developed in parallel and iteratively with experimental studies and provided predictions guiding new experiments. This data-driven modeling approach has advanced our understanding of respiratory network architecture and neural mechanisms underlying generation of the respiratory rhythm and pattern, including their functional reorganization under different physiological conditions. Models reviewed here vary in neurobiological details and computational complexity and span multiple spatiotemporal scales of respiratory control mechanisms. Recent models describe interacting populations of respiratory neurons spatially distributed within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes and rostral ventrolateral medulla that contain core circuits of the respiratory central pattern generator (CPG). Network interactions within these circuits along with intrinsic rhythmogenic properties of neurons form a hierarchy of multiple rhythm generation mechanisms. The functional expression of these mechanisms is controlled by input drives from other brainstem components, including the retrotrapezoid nucleus and pons, which regulate the dynamic behavior of the core circuitry. The emerging view is that the brainstem respiratory network has rhythmogenic capabilities at multiple levels of circuit organization. This allows flexible, state-dependent expression of different neural pattern-generation mechanisms under various physiological conditions, enabling a wide repertoire of respiratory behaviors. Some models consider control of the respiratory CPG by pulmonary feedback and network reconfiguration during defensive behaviors such as cough. Future directions in modeling of the respiratory CPG are considered. PMID:23687564

  14. Medical condition and care of undocumented migrants in ambulatory clinics in Tel Aviv, Israel: assessing unmet needs.

    Mor, Zohar; Raveh, Yuval; Lurie, Ido; Leventhal, Alex; Gamzu, Roni; Davidovitch, Nadav; Benari, Orel; Grotto, Itamar

    2017-07-14

    Approximately 150,000 undocumented migrants (UM) who are medically uninsured reside in Israel, including ~50,000 originating from the horn of Africa (MHA). Free medical-care is provided by two walk-in clinics in Tel-Aviv. This study aims to compare the medical complaints of UM from different origins, define their community health needs and assess gaps between medical needs and available services. This cross-sectional study included a random sample of 610 UM aged 18-64 years, who were treated in these community clinics between 2008 and 2011. The study compared UM who had complex medical conditions which necessitated referral to more equipped medical settings with UM having mild/simple medical conditions, who were treated at the clinics. MHA were younger, unemployed and more commonly males compared with UM originating from other countries. MHA also had longer referral-delays and visited the clinics less frequently. UM with complex medical conditions were more commonly females, had chronic diseases and demonstrated longer referral-delays than those who had mild/simple medical conditions. The latter more commonly presented with complained of respiratory, muscular and skeletal discomfort. In multivariate analysis, the variables which predicted complex medical conditions included female gender, chronic illnes and self-referral to the clinics. The ambulatory clinics were capable of responding to mild/simple medical conditions. Yet, the health needs of women and migrants suffering from complex medical conditions and chronic diseases necessitated referrals to secondary/tertiary medical settings, while jeopardizing the continuity of care. The health gaps can be addressed by a more holistic social approach, which includes integration of UM in universal health insurance.

  15. [Respiratory infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus in the adult population: description of 16 cases].

    Reina, Jordi; López, Carla

    2013-08-17

    Respiratory infections of viral etiology are frequent in the adult population. Those caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are a little known entity. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of adult patients with respiratory infection due to RSV. We performed a prospective study from October 2012 to March 2013 on respiratory infections caused by RSV. Viral detection was performed using a technique of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction genomic amplification in real time. We diagnosed 16 patients, 12 (75%) requiring hospitalization. Patients were grouped into immunocompromised (7 [43.7%]) and immunocompetent cases (9 cases 56.3%]). The first group included 3 patients with HIV infection (42.8%) and 4 hematologic patients (57.2%). The second group included those who had a baseline disease, 5 cases (55.5%), and those who lacked it, 4 cases (44.4%), and did not require hospitalization. The main clinical manifestations of patients prompting them to attend the Emergency Department were cough (50%), dyspnea (43.5%), fever (25%), expectoration (25%) and flu symptoms (25%). The most frequent diagnoses at discharge were pneumonia (37.5%) and flu syndrome (31.2%). Respiratory infections caused by RSV represent a rare condition that mainly affects immunocompromised patients. The underlying pathology determines the evolution of the process, which is favorable except in cases of severe immunosuppression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Submersion and acute respiratory failure

    Yu-Jang Su

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Submersion patients who are hypothermic on arrival of emergency department (ED are risky to respiratory failure and older, more hypothermic, longer hospital stay in suicidal submersion patients.

  17. Management of Postoperative Respiratory Failure.

    Mulligan, Michael S; Berfield, Kathleen S; Abbaszadeh, Ryan V

    2015-11-01

    Despite best efforts, postoperative complications such as postoperative respiratory failure may occur and prompt recognition of the process and management is required. Postoperative respiratory failure, such as postoperative pneumonia, postpneumonectomy pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress-like syndromes, and pulmonary embolism, are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The causes of these complications are multifactorial and depend on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, some of which are modifiable. The article identifies some of the risk factors, causes, and treatment strategies for successful management of the patient with postoperative respiratory failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Respiratory mass spectrometer

    Mostert, J.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    1983-06-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M/sup 2/ body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O/sub 2/ consumption of less than 50 ml O/sub 2//min/M/sup 2/) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery.

  19. The respiratory mass spectrometer

    Mostert, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M 2 body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O 2 consumption of less than 50 ml O 2 /min/M 2 ) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery

  20. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, biomarkers and response to infection therapy allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality.

  1. Respiratory symptoms of megaesophagus

    Fabio Di Stefano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Megaesophagus as the end result of achalasia is the consequence of disordered peristalsis and the slow decompensation of the esophageal muscular layer. The main symptoms of achalasia are dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain and weight loss, but respiratory symptoms, such as coughing, particularly when patients lie in a horizontal position, may also be common due to microaspiration. A 70-year old woman suffered from a nocturnal cough and shortness of breath with stridor. She reported difficulty in swallowing food over the past ten years, but had adapted by eating a semi-liquid diet. Chest X-ray showed right hemithorax patchy opacities projecting from the posterior mediastinum. Chest computed tomography scan showed a marked dilatation of the esophagus with abundant food residues. Endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of megaesophagus due to esophageal achalasia, excluding other causes of obstruction, such as secondary esophagitis, polyps, leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. In the elderly population, swallowing difficulties due to esophageal achalasia are often underestimated and less troublesome than the respiratory symptoms that are caused by microaspiration. The diagnosis of esophageal achalasia, although uncommon, should be considered in patients with nocturnal chronic coughs and shortness of breath with stridor when concomitant swallowing difficulties are present.

  2. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Marco Confalonieri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foster geographic variability and contrasting outcome data. A large international multicentre prospective cohort study including 50 countries across five continents reported that ARDS is underdiagnosed, and there is potential for improvement in its management. Furthermore, epidemiological data from low-income countries suggest that a revision of the current definition of ARDS is needed in order to improve its recognition and global clinical outcome. In addition to the well-known risk-factors for ARDS, exposure to high ozone levels and low vitamin D plasma concentrations were found to be predisposing circumstances. Drug-based preventive strategies remain a major challenge, since two recent trials on aspirin and statins failed to reduce the incidence in at-risk patients. A new disease-modifying therapy is awaited: some recent studies promised to improve the prognosis of ARDS, but mortality and disabling complications are still high in survivors in intensive care.

  3. Kernel density estimation-based real-time prediction for respiratory motion

    Ruan, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Effective delivery of adaptive radiotherapy requires locating the target with high precision in real time. System latency caused by data acquisition, streaming, processing and delivery control necessitates prediction. Prediction is particularly challenging for highly mobile targets such as thoracic and abdominal tumors undergoing respiration-induced motion. The complexity of the respiratory motion makes it difficult to build and justify explicit models. In this study, we honor the intrinsic uncertainties in respiratory motion and propose a statistical treatment of the prediction problem. Instead of asking for a deterministic covariate-response map and a unique estimate value for future target position, we aim to obtain a distribution of the future target position (response variable) conditioned on the observed historical sample values (covariate variable). The key idea is to estimate the joint probability distribution (pdf) of the covariate and response variables using an efficient kernel density estimation method. Then, the problem of identifying the distribution of the future target position reduces to identifying the section in the joint pdf based on the observed covariate. Subsequently, estimators are derived based on this estimated conditional distribution. This probabilistic perspective has some distinctive advantages over existing deterministic schemes: (1) it is compatible with potentially inconsistent training samples, i.e., when close covariate variables correspond to dramatically different response values; (2) it is not restricted by any prior structural assumption on the map between the covariate and the response; (3) the two-stage setup allows much freedom in choosing statistical estimates and provides a full nonparametric description of the uncertainty for the resulting estimate. We evaluated the prediction performance on ten patient RPM traces, using the root mean squared difference between the prediction and the observed value normalized by the

  4. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Respiratory protection. 850.28 Section 850.28 Energy... Respiratory protection. (a) The responsible employer must establish a respiratory protection program that complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection...

  5. Neonatal respiratory depression associated with epidural analgesia

    Alberto Gálvez Toro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidural analgesia is the most effective analgesics used during childbirth but is not without its problems.In the Hospital San Juan de la Cruz of Ubeda from November 2011 we have detected 3 cases of newborn infants with signs of respiratory depression. Appeared in them: normal cardiotocographic records during childbirth, use of epidural associated with fentanyl, termination by vacuum and elevated temperature in one case.ObjectivesKnow if the neonatal adaptation to extrauterine life may be influenced by the use of epidural analgesia in childbirth. Review what role can have the rise in maternal temperature and the use of epidural fentanyl with the appearance of newborn respiratory distress.MethodsLiterature Review conducted in February of 2012 in Pubmed and the Cochrane Library, using the key words: childbirth, epidural analgesia, neonatal respiratory depression.ResultsOn the respiratory depression associated with fentanyl, a Cochrane review found indicating that newborns of mothers with an epidural, had a lower pH and were less need for administration of naloxone.On PubMed we find a review study that indicates that the respiratory depression caused by the administration of opioids via neuroaxial is rare, placing it below 1 per 1000, and a clinical case that concluded that doses of fentanyl exceeding 300 µg (approx. 5 µg/kg for 4 hours previous to childbirth, have a high risk of neonatal respiratory depression at birth.The same Cochrane review indicates that the women with epidural analgesia had increased risk of maternal fever of at least 38 ° C and a recent cohort study relates this increase in temperature with a greater likelihood of neonatal adverse events (from 37.5 ° C.ConclusionsThe studies found considered safe epidurals to the neonate and the mother, except when certain conditions are met. The literature and our clinical experience have been reports linking neonatal respiratory depression with increasing temperature (37

  6. Doping and respiratory system.

    Casali, L; Pinchi, G; Puxeddu, E

    2007-03-01

    Historically many different drugs have been used to enhance sporting performances. The magic elixir is still elusive and the drugs are still used despite the heavy adverse effects. The respiratory system is regularly involved in this research probably because of its central location in the body with several connections to the cardiovascular system. Moreover people are aware that O2 consumption and its delivery to mitochondria firstly depend on ventilation and on the respiratory exchanges. The second step consists in the tendency to increase V'O2 max and to prolong its availability with the aim of improving the endurance time and to relieve the fatigue. Many methods and substances had been used in order to gain an artificial success. Additional oxygen, autologous and homologous transfusion and erythropoietin, mainly the synthetic type, have been administered with the aim of increasing the amount of oxygen being delivered to the tissues. Some compounds like stimulants and caffeine are endowed of excitatory activity on the CNS and stimulate pulmonary ventilation. They did not prove to have any real activity in supporting the athletic performances. Beta-adrenergic drugs, particularly clenbuterol, when administered orally or parenterally develop a clear illicit activity on the myosin fibres and on the muscles as a whole. Salbutamol, terbutaline, salmeterol and formoterol are legally admitted when administrated by MDI in the treatment of asthma. The prevalence of asthma and bronchial hyperactivity is higher in athletes than amongst the general population. This implies that clear rules must be provided to set a correct diagnosis of asthma in the athletes and a correct therapy to align with the actual guidelines according to the same rights of the "other" asthmatic patients.

  7. Economics and ethics of paediatric respiratory extra corporeal life support.

    Callaghan, M; Doyle, Y; O'Hare, B; Healy, M; Nölke, L

    2013-09-01

    Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of life support, which facilitates gas exchange outside the body via an oxygenator and a centrifugal pumping system. A paediatric cardiac ECMO programme was established in 2005 at Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin (OLCHC) and to date 75 patients have received ECMO, the majority being post operative cardiac patients. The outcome data compares favourably with international figures. ECMO has been most successful in the treatment of newborn infants with life threatening respiratory failure from conditions such as meconium aspiration, respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory infections. There is no formal paediatric respiratory ECMO programme at OLCHC, or anywhere else in Ireland. Currently, neonates requiring respiratory ECMO are transferred to centres in Sweden or the UK at an average cost of 133,000 Euros/infant, funded by the Health Service Executive E112 treatment abroad scheme. There is considerable morbidity associated with the transfer of critically ill infants, as well as significant psycho-social impact on families. OLCHC is not funded to provide respiratory ECMO, although the equipment and expertise required are similar to cardiac ECMO and are currently in place. The average cost of an ECMO run at OLCHC is 65,000 Euros. There is now a strong argument for a fully funded single national cardiac and respiratory paediatric ECMO centre, similar to that for adult patients.

  8. Respiratory diseases and their effects on respiratory function and exercise capacity.

    Van Erck-Westergren, E; Franklin, S H; Bayly, W M

    2013-05-01

    Given that aerobic metabolism is the predominant energy pathway for most sports, the respiratory system can be a rate-limiting factor in the exercise capacity of fit and healthy horses. Consequently, respiratory diseases, even in mild forms, are potentially deleterious to any athletic performance. The functional impairment associated with a respiratory condition depends on the degree of severity of the disease and the equestrian discipline involved. Respiratory abnormalities generally result in an increase in respiratory impedance and work of breathing and a reduced level of ventilation that can be detected objectively by deterioration in breathing mechanics and arterial blood gas tensions and/or lactataemia. The overall prevalence of airway diseases is comparatively high in equine athletes and may affect the upper airways, lower airways or both. Diseases of the airways have been associated with a wide variety of anatomical and/or inflammatory conditions. In some instances, the diagnosis is challenging because conditions can be subclinical in horses at rest and become clinically relevant only during exercise. In such cases, an exercise test may be warranted in the evaluation of the patient. The design of the exercise test is critical to inducing the clinical signs of the problem and establishing an accurate diagnosis. Additional diagnostic techniques, such as airway sampling, can be valuable in the diagnosis of subclinical lower airway problems that have the capacity to impair performance. As all these techniques become more widely used in practice, they should inevitably enhance veterinarians' diagnostic capabilities and improve their assessment of treatment effectiveness and the long-term management of equine athletes. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children and adults

    Gebistorf, Fabienne; Karam, Oliver; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF) and mostly acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions. AHRF results from several systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in individuals of all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has been...

  10. Noninvasive ventilation in hypoxemic respiratory failure

    Raja Dhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive ventilation (NIV refers to positive pressure ventilation delivered through a noninvasive interface (nasal mask, facemask, or nasal plugs etc. Over the past decade its use has become more common as its benefits are increasingly recognized. This review will focus on the evidence supporting the use of NIV in various conditions resulting in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF, that is, non-hypercapnic patients having acute respiratory failure in the absence of a cardiac origin or underlying chronic pulmonary disease. Outcomes depend on the patient's diagnosis and clinical characteristics. Patients should be monitored closely for signs of noninvasive ventilation failure and promptly intubated before a crisis develops. The application of noninvasive ventilation by a trained and experienced team, with careful patient selection, should optimize patient outcomes.

  11. Pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome: definition, incidence, and epidemiology: proceedings from the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference.

    Khemani, Robinder G; Smith, Lincoln S; Zimmerman, Jerry J; Erickson, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Although there are similarities in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults and children, pediatric-specific practice patterns, comorbidities, and differences in outcome necessitate a pediatric-specific definition. We sought to create such a definition. A subgroup of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome investigators who drafted a pediatric-specific definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome based on consensus opinion and supported by detailed literature review tested elements of the definition with patient data from previously published investigations. International PICUs. Children enrolled in published investigations of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. None. Several aspects of the proposed pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome definition align with the Berlin Definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults: timing of acute respiratory distress syndrome after a known risk factor, the potential for acute respiratory distress syndrome to coexist with left ventricular dysfunction, and the importance of identifying a group of patients at risk to develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. There are insufficient data to support any specific age for "adult" acute respiratory distress syndrome compared with "pediatric" acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, children with perinatal-related respiratory failure should be excluded from the definition of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Larger departures from the Berlin Definition surround 1) simplification of chest imaging criteria to eliminate bilateral infiltrates; 2) use of pulse oximetry-based criteria when PaO2 is unavailable; 3) inclusion of oxygenation index and oxygen saturation index instead of PaO2/FIO2 ratio with a minimum positive end-expiratory pressure level for invasively ventilated patients; 4) and specific inclusion of children with preexisting chronic lung disease or cyanotic congenital heart disease. This

  12. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis or Laryngeal Papillomatosis

    ... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis or Laryngeal Papillomatosis On this page: What ... find additional information about RRP? What is recurrent respiratory papillomatosis? Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a disease ...

  13. Respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, and mixed acute lower respiratory infections in children in a developing country.

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Rodríguez, Diego Andrés; Nino, Gustavo

    2015-05-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting greater severity and worse outcomes in children with mixed as compared to single respiratory virus infections. However, studies that assess the risk factors that may predispose a child to a mixture of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenoviral infections, are scarce. In a retrospective cohort study, the study investigated the epidemiology of RSV and adenovirus infections and predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in young children hospitalized with acute lower respiratory infection in Bogota, Colombia, South America, over a 2-year period 2009-2011. Of a total of 5,539 children admitted with a diagnosis of acute lower respiratory infection, 2,267 (40.9%) who were positive for RSV and/or adenovirus were selected. Out the total number of cases, 1,416 (62.5%) infections occurred during the 3-month period from March to May, the first rainy season of Bogota, Colombia. After controlling for gender, month when the nasopharyngeal sample was taken, and other pre-existing conditions, it was found that an age greater than 6 months (OR:1.74; CI 95%:1.05-2.89; P = 0.030) and malnutrition as a comorbidity (OR:9.92; CI 95%:1.01-100.9; P = 0.049) were independent predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in the sample of patients. In conclusion, RSV and adenovirus are significant causes of acute lower respiratory infection in infants and young children in Bogota, Colombia, especially during the first rainy season. The identified predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections should be taken into account when planning intervention, in order to reduce the burden of acute lower respiratory infection in young children living in the country. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Acute respiratory failure following ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    Antonello Nicolini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is a serious and potentially life-threatening physiological complication that may be encountered in patients who undergo controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles. The syndrome is typically associated with regimes of exogenous gonadotropins, but it can be seen, albeit rarely, when clomiphene is administered during the induction phase. Although this syndrome is widely described in scientific literature and is well known by obstetricians, the knowledge of this pathological and potentially life-threatening condition is generally less than satisfactory among physicians. The dramatic increase in therapeutic strategies to treat infertility has pushed this condition into the realm of acute care therapy. The potential complications of this syndrome, including pulmonary involvement, should be considered and identified so as to allow a more appropriate diagnosis and management. We describe a case of a woman with an extremely severe (Stage 6 ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome who presented ascites, bilateral pleural effusion and severe respiratory failure treated with non-invasive ventilation. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit because of severe respiratory failure, ascites, and bilateral pleural effusion due to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Treatment included non-invasive ventilation and three thoracentesis procedures, plus the administration of albumin, colloid solutions and high-dose furosemid. Severe form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is observed in 0.5-5% of the women treated, and intensive care may be required for management of thromboembolic complications, renal failure and severe respiratory failure. Pulmonary intensive care may involve thoracentesis, oxygen supplementation and, in more severe cases, assisted ventilation. To our knowledge, there have been only two studies in English language medical literature that describe severe respiratory failure treated with non

  15. Respiratory lung motion analysis using a nonlinear motion correction technique for respiratory-gated lung perfusion SPECT images

    Ue, Hidenori; Haneishi, Hideaki; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Suga, Kazuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the respiratory motion of lungs using a nonlinear motion correction technique for respiratory-gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. The motion correction technique corrects the respiratory motion of the lungs nonlinearly between two-phase images obtained by respiratory-gated SPECT. The displacement vectors resulting from respiration can be computed at every location of the lungs. Respiratory lung motion analysis is carried out by calculating the mean value of the body axis component of the displacement vector in each of the 12 small regions into which the lungs were divided. In order to enable inter-patient comparison, the 12 mean values were normalized by the length of the lung region along the direction of the body axis. This method was applied to 25 Technetium (Tc)-99m-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) perfusion SPECT images, and motion analysis results were compared with the diagnostic results. It was confirmed that the respiratory lung motion reflects the ventilation function. A statistically significant difference in the amount of the respiratory lung motion was observed between the obstructive pulmonary diseases and other conditions, based on an unpaired Student's t test (P<0.0001). A difference in the motion between normal lungs and lungs with a ventilation obstruction was detected by the proposed method. This method is effective for evaluating obstructive pulmonary diseases such as pulmonary emphysema and diffuse panbronchiolitis. (author)

  16. Respiratory inflammation and infections in high-performance athletes.

    Gleeson, Maree; Pyne, David B

    2016-02-01

    Upper respiratory illness is the most common reason for non-injury-related presentation to a sports medicine clinic, accounting for 35-65% of illness presentations. Recurrent or persistent respiratory illness can have a negative impact on health and performance of athletes undertaking high levels of strenuous exercise. The cause of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in athletes can be uncertain but the majority of cases are related to common respiratory viruses, viral reactivation, allergic responses to aeroallergens and exercise-related trauma to the integrity of respiratory epithelial membranes. Bacterial respiratory infections are uncommon in athletes. Undiagnosed or inappropriately treated asthma and/or allergy are common findings in clinical assessments of elite athletes experiencing recurrent URS. High-performance athletes with recurrent episodes of URS should undergo a thorough clinical assessment to exclude underlying treatable conditions of respiratory inflammation. Identifying athletes at risk of recurrent URS is important in order to prescribe preventative clinical, training and lifestyle strategies. Monitoring secretion rates and falling concentrations of salivary IgA can identify athletes at risk of URS. Therapeutic interventions are limited by the uncertainty of the underlying cause of inflammation. Topical anti-inflammatory sprays can be beneficial for some athletes. Dietary supplementation with bovine colostrum, probiotics and selected antioxidants can reduce the incidence or severity of URS in some athletes. Preliminary studies on athletes prone to URS indicate a genetic predisposition to a pro-inflammatory response and a dysregulated anti-inflammatory cytokine response to intense exercise as a possible mechanism of respiratory inflammation. This review focuses on respiratory infections and inflammation in elite/professional athletes.

  17. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    Kubota, Yoshihisa

    1991-01-01

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169 Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198 Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  18. Activity of respiratory system during laser irradiation of brain structures

    Merkulova, N. A.; Sergeyeva, L. I.

    1984-06-01

    The performance of one of the principal links of the respiratory system, the respiratory center, was studied as a function of the exposure of the medulla oblongata and the sensomotor zone of the cerebral hemisphere cortex to low level laser irradiation in the red wavelength of the spectrum. Experiments were done on white rats under barbital anesthesia. Under such conditions a substantial effect was observed on the activity of the respiratory center. Laser light may display activating or inhibitory influences, in some cases the bilateral symmetry of the activity of the respiratory center is affected indicating deep changes in the integrative mechanism of the functioning of the right and left sides of the hemispheres. The laser beam effect depends on many factors: specific light properties, duration of the exposure, repetition of exposures, initial functional state of the CNS, etc.

  19. Cardiac and Respiratory Patterns Synchronize between Persons during Choir Singing

    Müller, Viktor; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    Dyadic and collective activities requiring temporally coordinated action are likely to be associated with cardiac and respiratory patterns that synchronize within and between people. However, the extent and functional significance of cardiac and respiratory between-person couplings have not been investigated thus far. Here, we report interpersonal oscillatory couplings among eleven singers and one conductor engaged in choir singing. We find that: (a) phase synchronization both in respiration and heart rate variability increase significantly during singing relative to a rest condition; (b) phase synchronization is higher when singing in unison than when singing pieces with multiple voice parts; (c) directed coupling measures are consistent with the presence of causal effects of the conductor on the singers at high modulation frequencies; (d) the different voices of the choir are reflected in network analyses of cardiac and respiratory activity based on graph theory. Our results suggest that oscillatory coupling of cardiac and respiratory patterns provide a physiological basis for interpersonal action coordination. PMID:21957466

  20. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity: Protecting the drive to breathe in disorders that reduce respiratory neural activity☆

    Strey, K.A.; Baertsch, N.A.; Baker-Herman, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple forms of plasticity are activated following reduced respiratory neural activity. For example, in ventilated rats, a central neural apnea elicits a rebound increase in phrenic and hypoglossal burst amplitude upon resumption of respiratory neural activity, forms of plasticity called inactivity-induced phrenic and hypoglossal motor facilitation (iPMF and iHMF), respectively. Here, we provide a conceptual framework for plasticity following reduced respiratory neural activity to guide future investigations. We review mechanisms giving rise to iPMF and iHMF, present new data suggesting that inactivity-induced plasticity is observed in inspiratory intercostals (iIMF) and point out gaps in our knowledge. We then survey conditions relevant to human health characterized by reduced respiratory neural activity and discuss evidence that inactivity-induced plasticity is elicited during these conditions. Understanding the physiological impact and circumstances in which inactivity-induced respiratory plasticity is elicited may yield novel insights into the treatment of disorders characterized by reductions in respiratory neural activity. PMID:23816599

  2. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    Sarkar, Malay; Madabhavi, Irappa; Niranjan, Narasimhalu; Dogra, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion. PMID:26229557

  3. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    Malay Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion.

  4. Assessing the effects of pharmacological agents on respiratory dynamics using time-series modeling.

    Wong, Kin Foon Kevin; Gong, Jen J; Cotten, Joseph F; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N

    2013-04-01

    Developing quantitative descriptions of how stimulant and depressant drugs affect the respiratory system is an important focus in medical research. Respiratory variables-respiratory rate, tidal volume, and end tidal carbon dioxide-have prominent temporal dynamics that make it inappropriate to use standard hypothesis-testing methods that assume independent observations to assess the effects of these pharmacological agents. We present a polynomial signal plus autoregressive noise model for analysis of continuously recorded respiratory variables. We use a cyclic descent algorithm to maximize the conditional log likelihood of the parameters and the corrected Akaike's information criterion to choose simultaneously the orders of the polynomial and the autoregressive models. In an analysis of respiratory rates recorded from anesthetized rats before and after administration of the respiratory stimulant methylphenidate, we use the model to construct within-animal z-tests of the drug effect that take account of the time-varying nature of the mean respiratory rate and the serial dependence in rate measurements. We correct for the effect of model lack-of-fit on our inferences by also computing bootstrap confidence intervals for the average difference in respiratory rate pre- and postmethylphenidate treatment. Our time-series modeling quantifies within each animal the substantial increase in mean respiratory rate and respiratory dynamics following methylphenidate administration. This paradigm can be readily adapted to analyze the dynamics of other respiratory variables before and after pharmacologic treatments.

  5. Respiratory Viruses in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

    Mohsen Meidani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h, upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Sampling was performed from the throat of the patient by the sterile swab. All materials were analyzed by quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction covering the following viruses; influenza, parainfluenza virus (PIV, rhinovirus (RV, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Results: RV was the most frequently detected virus and then RSV was the most. PIV was not present in any of the tested samples. Furthermore, no substantial differences in the distribution of specific viral species were observed based on age, sex, neutropenia duration, hematological disorder, and respiratory tract symptoms and signs (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Our prospective study supports the hypothesis that respiratory viruses play an important role in the development of neutropenic fever, and thus has the potential to individualize infection treatment and to reduce the extensive use of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients with neutropenia.

  6. Respiratory diagnostic possibilities during closed circuit anesthesia.

    Verkaaik, A P; Erdmann, W

    1990-01-01

    An automatic feed back controlled totally closed circuit system (Physioflex) has been developed for quantitative practice of inhalation anesthesia and ventilation. In the circuit system the gas is moved unidirectionally around by a blower at 70 l/min. In the system four membrane chambers are integrated for ventilation. Besides end-expiratory feed back control of inhalation anesthetics, and inspiratory closed loop control of oxygen, the system offers on-line registration of flow, volume and respiratory pressures as well as a capnogram and oxygen consumption. Alveolar ventilation and static compliance can easily be derived. On-line registration of oxygen consumption has proven to be of value for determination of any impairment of tissue oxygen supply when the oxygen delivery has dropped to critical values. Obstruction of the upper or lower airways are immediately detected and differentiated. Disregulations of metabolism, e.g. in malignant hyperthermia, are seen in a pre-crisis phase (increase of oxygen consumption and of CO2 production), and therapy can be started extremely early and before a disastrous condition has developed. Registration of compliance is only one of the continuously available parameters that guarantee a better and adequate control of lung function (e.g. atalectasis is early detected). The newly developed sophisticated anesthesia device enlarges tremendously the monitoring and respiratory diagnostic possibilities of artificial ventilation, gives new insights in the (patho)physiology and detects disturbances of respiratory parameters and metabolism in an early stage.

  7. [Pneumococcal vaccine recommendations in chronic respiratory diseases].

    Casas Maldonado, F; Alfageme Michavila, I; Barchilón Cohen, V S; Peis Redondo, J I; Vargas Ortega, D A

    2014-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is an acute respiratory infectious disease which has an incidence of 3-8 cases/1,000 inhabitants, and increases with age and comorbidities. The pneumococcus is the organism most frequently involved in community-acquired pneumonia in the adult (30-35%). Around 40% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia require hospital admission, and around 10% need to be admitted to an intensive care unit. The most serious forms of pneumococcal infection include invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), which covers cases of bacteremia (associated or not to pneumonia), meningitis, pleuritis, arthritis, primary peritonitis and pericarditis. Currently, the biggest problem with the pneumococcus is the emergence of resistance to antimicrobial agents, and its high morbimortality, despite the use of appropriate antibiotics and proper medical treatment. Certain underlying medical conditions increase the risk of IPD and its complications, especially, from the respiratory diseases point of view, smoking and chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumococcal disease, according to the WHO, is the first preventable cause of death worldwide in children and adults. Among the strategies to prevent IPD is vaccination. WHO considers that its universal introduction and implementation against pneumococcus is essential and a priority in all countries. There are currently 2 pneumococcal vaccines for adults: the 23 serotypes polysaccharide and conjugate 13 serotypes. The scientific societies represented here have worked to develop some recommendations, based on the current scientific evidence, regarding the pneumococcal vaccination in the immunocompetent adult with chronic respiratory disease and smokers at risk of suffering from IPD. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e......Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence...... not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease...... and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice....

  9. Employee guide to respiratory protection

    Wright, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    This employee guide discusses use of respiratory protective equipment for particulates, gases, vapors, supplied air, and self-contained breathing apparatus. It also covers equipment selection medical factors, fitting criteria; care; and employee responsibilities

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF MICROBIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    George Cosmin Nadas; Flore Chirila; Cosmina Bouari; Nicodim Fit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory disease in calves is an actual problem, a major cause of economic losses due to mortality, growth delay and improper development. These conditions are frequent in calves due to the weaning stress, transport and environmental changes. Aims: The aim of this study was the isolation of bacteria from 30 calves with respiratory disorders and their antibiotic susceptibility testing. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from calves with respiratory disorders...

  11. Fatal respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus infection in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency

    Szczawinska‐Poplonyk, Aleksandra; Jonczyk‐Potoczna, Katarzyna; Breborowicz, Anna; Bartkowska‐Sniatkowska, Alicja; Figlerowicz, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Szczawinska‐Poplonyk et al. (2012) Fatal respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus infection in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12059. Coronaviruses have been demonstrated to contribute substantially to respiratory tract infections among the child population. Though infected children commonly present mild upper airway symptoms, in high‐risk patients with underlying conditions, particularl...

  12. Photodynamic therapy for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Lieder, Anja; Khan, Muhammad K; Lippert, Burkard M

    2014-06-05

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a benign condition of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. It is characterised by recurrent papillomatous lesions and is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Frequent recurrence and rapid papilloma growth are common and in part responsible for the onset of potentially life-threatening symptoms. Most patients afflicted by the condition will require repeated surgical treatments to maintain their airway, and these may result in scarring and voice problems. Photodynamic therapy introduces a light-sensitising agent, which is administered either orally or by injection. This substance (called a photo-sensitiser) is selectively retained in hyperplastic and neoplastic tissue, including papilloma. It is then activated by light of a specific wavelength and may be used as a sole or adjuvant treatment for RRP. To assess the effects of photodynamic therapy in the management of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in children and adults. We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 27 January 2014. Randomised controlled trials utilising photodynamic therapy as sole or adjuvant therapy in participants of any age with proven RRP versus control intervention. Primary outcome measures were symptom improvement (respiratory distress/dyspnoea and voice quality), quality of life improvement and recurrence-free interval. Secondary outcomes included reduction in the frequency of surgical intervention, reduction in disease volume and adverse effects of treatment.   We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Meta-analysis was not possible and results are presented descriptively. We included one trial with a total of 23

  13. Climate Change and Respiratory Infections.

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Motahari, Hooman; Taghizadeh Khamesi, Mojdeh; Sharifi, Arash; Campos, Michael; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2016-08-01

    The rate of global warming has accelerated over the past 50 years. Increasing surface temperature is melting glaciers and raising the sea level. More flooding, droughts, hurricanes, and heat waves are being reported. Accelerated changes in climate are already affecting human health, in part by altering the epidemiology of climate-sensitive pathogens. In particular, climate change may alter the incidence and severity of respiratory infections by affecting vectors and host immune responses. Certain respiratory infections, such as avian influenza and coccidioidomycosis, are occurring in locations previously unaffected, apparently because of global warming. Young children and older adults appear to be particularly vulnerable to rapid fluctuations in ambient temperature. For example, an increase in the incidence in childhood pneumonia in Australia has been associated with sharp temperature drops from one day to the next. Extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, major storms, drought, and wildfires, are also believed to change the incidence of respiratory infections. An outbreak of aspergillosis among Japanese survivors of the 2011 tsunami is one such well-documented example. Changes in temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and air pollution influence viral activity and transmission. For example, in early 2000, an outbreak of Hantavirus respiratory disease was linked to a local increase in the rodent population, which in turn was attributed to a two- to threefold increase in rainfall before the outbreak. Climate-sensitive respiratory pathogens present challenges to respiratory health that may be far greater in the foreseeable future.

  14. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 142.39... Respiratory protection. (a) Personnel in an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2, requiring the use of respiratory protection equipment shall wear the type of respiratory protection equipment specified in ANSI Z88...

  15. Comparison of respiratory-induced variations in photoplethysmographic signals

    Li, Jin; Jin, Jie; Chen, Xiang; Sun, Weixin; Guo, Ping

    2010-01-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is an optical method for detecting blood volume changes in tissue. Respiratory-induced intensity, frequency and amplitude variations are contained in the PPG signal; thus, an understanding of the relationships between all of these variations and respiration is essential to advancing respiration monitoring based on PPG. This study investigated correlations between respiratory-induced variations extracted from PPG and simultaneous respiratory signals. PPG signals were recorded from 28 healthy subjects under eight different conditions. Six respiratory-induced variations, i.e. the period of the systole, diastole and pulse, the amplitude of the systole and diastole, and the intensity variation, were determined from the PPG signal. The results indicate that, compared with the period of the pulse, the period of the systole and diastole correlates weakly with respiration; the amplitude of the diastole has a stronger correlation with respiration than the amplitude of the systole. For men, when the respiratory rate is less than 10 breaths min −1 , the period of the pulse has the strongest correlation with respiration, whereas up to or above 15 breaths min −1 , the intensity variation becomes strongest in the sitting posture, while the amplitude of the diastole is strongest in the supine posture. For women, compared with the other variations, the period of the pulse has nearly the strongest correlation with respiration, independent of respiratory rate or posture

  16. Respiratory mechanics and fluid dynamics after lung resection surgery.

    Miserocchi, Giuseppe; Beretta, Egidio; Rivolta, Ilaria

    2010-08-01

    Thoracic surgery that requires resection of a portion of lung or of a whole lung profoundly alters the mechanical and fluid dynamic setting of the lung-chest wall coupling, as well as the water balance in the pleural space and in the remaining lung. The most frequent postoperative complications are of a respiratory nature, and their incidence increases the more the preoperative respiratory condition seems compromised. There is an obvious need to identify risk factors concerning mainly the respiratory function, without neglecting the importance of other comorbidities, such as coronary disease. At present, however, a satisfactory predictor of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications is lacking; postoperative morbidity and mortality have remained unchanged in the last 10 years. The aim of this review is to provide a pathophysiologic interpretation of the main respiratory complications of a respiratory nature by relying on new concepts relating to lung fluid dynamics and mechanics. New parameters are proposed to improve evaluation of respiratory function from pre- to the early postoperative period when most of the complications occur. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of respiratory failure during pregnancy.

    Hung, Chen-Yiu; Hu, Han-Chung; Chiu, Li-Chung; Chang, Chih-Hao; Li, Li-Fu; Huang, Chung-Chi; Kao, Chuan-Chi; Cheng, Po-Jen; Kao, Kuo-Chin

    2018-05-01

    Obstetric patients comprise a limited portion of intensive care unit patients, but they often present with unfamiliar conditions and exhibit the potential for catastrophic deterioration. This study evaluated the maternal and neonatal outcomes of respiratory failure during pregnancy. Information on 71 patients at >25 weeks gestation in the ICU with respiratory failure was recorded between 2009 and 2013. The characteristics and outcomes of mothers and fetuses were determined through a retrospective chart review and evaluated using Student's t test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. The leading causes of respiratory failure were postpartum hemorrhage and severe preeclampsia in the obstetric causes group and pneumonia in the nonobstetric causes group during pregnancy and the peripartum period. The non-obstetric causes group exhibited a higher incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome and renal replacement therapy as well as requiring more ventilator days. The patients in the obstetric causes group showed significant improvement after delivery in the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen and peak inspiratory pressure decrease. Both groups exhibited high incidences of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Neonatal complications resulting from meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and sepsis were more common in the non-obstetric causes group; however, neurological development impairment was more common in the obstetric causes group. Obstetric cause was associated with longer ventilator free days and fewer episodes of ARDS after delivery. Neonatal complications resulting from different etiologies of respiratory failure were found to differ. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Global Considerations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Respiratory Disease.

    Rylance, Jamie; Meghji, Jamilah; Miller, Robert F; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory tract infection, particularly tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in a dramatic increase in survival, although coverage of HIV treatment remains low in many parts of the world. There is a concurrent growing burden of chronic noninfectious respiratory disease as a result of increased survival. Many risk factors associated with the development of respiratory disease, such as cigarette smoking and intravenous drug use, are overrepresented among people living with HIV. In addition, there is emerging evidence that HIV infection may directly cause or accelerate the course of chronic lung disease. This review summarizes the clinical spectrum and epidemiology of respiratory tract infections and noninfectious pulmonary pathologies, and factors that explain the global variation in HIV-associated respiratory disease. The potential for enhancing diagnoses of noninfective chronic conditions through the use of clinical algorithms is discussed. We also consider issues in assessment and management of HIV-related respiratory disease in view of the increasing global scale up of ART. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Activation of respiratory muscles during weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Gückler, Julia; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim; Dreher, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Respiratory muscle dysfunction is a key component of weaning failure. Balancing respiratory muscle loading and unloading by applying different ventilation modes along with spontaneous breathing episodes are established weaning strategies. However, the effects of body positioning on the respiratory muscles during weaning remains unclear. This study aimed at assessing respiratory drive by surface electromyography (EMG) of the diaphragm (EMG dia ) and parasternal muscles (EMG para ) in tracheotomized patients during prolonged weaning in 3 randomized body positions-supine, 30° semirecumbent, and 80° sitting-during mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing. Nine patients were included for analysis. Cardiorespiratory parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, dyspnea) did not change under each condition (all P>.05). EMG para and EMG dia did not change under mechanical ventilation (both P>.05). EMG dia changed under spontaneous breathing from supine to sitting (0.45±0.26 vs 0.32±0.19; P=.012) and between semirecumbent to sitting (0.41±0.23 vs 0.32±0.19; P=.039), whereas EMG para did not change. This is the first study to show that body positioning influences respiratory drive to the diaphragm in tracheotomized patients with prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation during unassisted breathing. Sitting position reduces respiratory drive compared with semirecumbent and supine positioning and might therefore be favored during spontaneous breathing trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A respiratory monitoring device based on clavicular motion

    Pitts, D G; Aspinall, R; Patel, M K; Lang, P-O; Sinclair, A J

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory rate is one of the key vital signs yet unlike temperature, heart rate or blood pressure, there is no simple and low cost measurement device for medical use. Here we discuss the development of a respiratory sensor based upon clavicular motion and the findings of a pilot study comparing respiratory rate readings derived from clavicular and thoracic motion with an expiratory breath flow reference sensor. Simultaneously sampled data from resting volunteers (n = 8) was analysed to determine the location of individual breaths in the data set and from these, breath periods and frequency were calculated. Clavicular sensor waveforms were found to be more consistent and of greater amplitude than those from the thoracic device, demonstrating good alignment with the reference waveform. On comparing breath by breath periods a close agreement was observed with the reference, with mean clavicular respiratory rate R 2 values of 0.89 (lateral) and 0.98 (longitudinal-axis). This pilot study demonstrates the viability of clavicular respiratory sensing. The sensor is unobtrusive, unaffected by bioelectrical or electrode problems and easier to determine and more consistent than thoracic motion sensing. With relatively basic signal conditioning and processing requirements, it could provide an ideal platform for a low-cost respiratory monitor. (note)

  1. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in bauxite miners.

    Beach, J R; de Klerk, N H; Fritschi, L; Sim, M R; Musk, A W; Benke, G; Abramson, M J; McNeil, J J

    2001-09-01

    To determine whether cumulative bauxite exposure is associated with respiratory symptoms or changes in lung function in a group of bauxite miners. Current employees at three bauxite mines in Australia were invited to participate in a survey comprising: questionnaire on demographic details, respiratory symptoms, and work history; skin prick tests for four common aeroallergens; and spirometry. A task exposure matrix was constructed for bauxite exposure in all tasks in all jobs based on monitoring data. Data were examined for associations between cumulative bauxite exposure, and respiratory symptoms and lung function, by regression analyses. The participation rate was 86%. Self-reported work-related respiratory symptoms were reported by relatively few subjects (1.5%-11.8%). After adjustment for age and smoking no significant differences in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms were identified between subjects, in the quartiles of cumulative bauxite exposure distribution. The forced expiratory volume in I s (FEV1) of the exposed group was found to be significantly lower than that for the unexposed group. After adjustment for age, height, and smoking there were no statistically significant differences between quartiles in FEVI, forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEVl/FVC ratio. These data provide little evidence of a serious adverse effect on respiratory health associated with exposure to bauxite in an open-cut bauxite mine in present day conditions.

  2. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of respiratory failure during pregnancy

    Chen-Yiu Hung

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstetric patients comprise a limited portion of intensive care unit patients, but they often present with unfamiliar conditions and exhibit the potential for catastrophic deterioration. This study evaluated the maternal and neonatal outcomes of respiratory failure during pregnancy. Methods: Information on 71 patients at >25 weeks gestation in the ICU with respiratory failure was recorded between 2009 and 2013. The characteristics and outcomes of mothers and fetuses were determined through a retrospective chart review and evaluated using Student's t test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. Results: The leading causes of respiratory failure were postpartum hemorrhage and severe preeclampsia in the obstetric causes group and pneumonia in the nonobstetric causes group during pregnancy and the peripartum period. The non-obstetric causes group exhibited a higher incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome and renal replacement therapy as well as requiring more ventilator days. The patients in the obstetric causes group showed significant improvement after delivery in the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen and peak inspiratory pressure decrease. Both groups exhibited high incidences of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Neonatal complications resulting from meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS and sepsis were more common in the non-obstetric causes group; however, neurological development impairment was more common in the obstetric causes group. Conclusion: Obstetric cause was associated with longer ventilator free days and fewer episodes of ARDS after delivery. Neonatal complications resulting from different etiologies of respiratory failure were found to differ. Keywords: Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Neonatal, Obstetric, Outcome, Respiratory failure

  3. The pressure gradient in the human respiratory tract

    Chovancová Michaela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory airways cause resistance to air flow during inhalation and exhalation. The pressure gradient is necessary to transport the air from the mount (or nose to pulmonary alveoli. The knowledge of pressure gradient (i.e. respiratory airways resistance is also needed to solve the question of aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract. The obtained data will be used as boundary conditions for CFD simulations of aerosol transport. Understanding of aerosol transport in the human lungs can help us to determine the health hazard of harmful particles. On the other hand it can be used to set the conditions for transport of medication to the desirable place. This article deals with the description of the mathematical equations defining the pressure gradient and resistance in the bronchial three and describes the geometry used in the calculation.

  4. Disclosing respiratory co-infections: a broad-range panel assay for avian respiratory pathogens on a nanofluidic PCR platform.

    Croville, Guillaume; Foret, Charlotte; Heuillard, Pauline; Senet, Alexis; Delpont, Mattias; Mouahid, Mohammed; Ducatez, Mariette F; Kichou, Faouzi; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2018-06-01

    Respiratory syndromes (RS) are among the most significant pathological conditions in edible birds and are caused by complex coactions of pathogens and environmental factors. In poultry, low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, metapneumoviruses, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Mycoplasma spp. Escherichia coli and/or Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in turkeys are considered as key co-infectious agents of RS. Aspergillus sp., Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum or Chlamydia psittaci may also be involved in respiratory outbreaks. An innovative quantitative PCR method, based on a nanofluidic technology, has the ability to screen up to 96 samples with 96 pathogen-specific PCR primers, at the same time, in one run of real-time quantitative PCR. This platform was used for the screening of avian respiratory pathogens: 15 respiratory agents, including viruses, bacteria and fungi potentially associated with respiratory infections of poultry, were targeted. Primers were designed and validated for SYBR green real-time quantitative PCR and subsequently validated on the Biomark high throughput PCR nanofluidic platform (Fluidigm©, San Francisco, CA, USA). As a clinical assessment, tracheal swabs were sampled from turkeys showing RS and submitted to this panel assay. Beside systematic detection of E. coli, avian metapneumovirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae were frequently detected, with distinctive co-infection patterns between French and Moroccan flocks. This proof-of-concept study illustrates the potential of such panel assays for unveiling respiratory co-infection profiles in poultry.

  5. Respiratory care management information systems.

    Ford, Richard M

    2004-04-01

    Hospital-wide computerized information systems evolved from the need to capture patient information and perform billing and other financial functions. These systems, however, have fallen short of meeting the needs of respiratory care departments regarding work load assessment, productivity management, and the level of outcome reporting required to support programs such as patient-driven protocols. The respiratory care management information systems (RCMIS) of today offer many advantages over paper-based systems and hospital-wide computer systems. RCMIS are designed to facilitate functions specific to respiratory care, including assessing work demand, assigning and tracking resources, charting, billing, and reporting results. RCMIS incorporate mobile, point-of-care charting and are highly configurable to meet the specific needs of individual respiratory care departments. Important and substantial benefits can be realized with an RCMIS and mobile, wireless charting devices. The initial and ongoing costs of an RCMIS are justified by increased charge capture and reduced costs, by way of improved productivity and efficiency. It is not unusual to recover the total cost of an RCMIS within the first year of its operation. In addition, such systems can facilitate and monitor patient-care protocols and help to efficiently manage the vast amounts of information encountered during the practitioner's workday. Respiratory care departments that invest in RCMIS have an advantage in the provision of quality care and in reducing expenses. A centralized respiratory therapy department with an RCMIS is the most efficient and cost-effective way to monitor work demand and manage the hospital-wide allocation of respiratory care services.

  6. Respiratory alkalosis in children with febrile seizures.

    Schuchmann, Sebastian; Hauck, Sarah; Henning, Stephan; Grüters-Kieslich, Annette; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Schmitz, Dietmar; Kaila, Kai

    2011-11-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common type of convulsive events in children. FS are suggested to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying FS remain unclear. Using an animal model of experimental FS, it was demonstrated that hyperthermia causes respiratory alkalosis with consequent brain alkalosis and seizures. Here we examine the acid-base status of children who were admitted to the hospital for FS. Children who were admitted because of gastroenteritis (GE), a condition known to promote acidosis, were examined to investigate a possible protective effect of acidosis against FS. We enrolled 433 age-matched children with similar levels of fever from two groups presented to the emergency department. One group was admitted for FS (n = 213) and the other for GE (n = 220). In the FS group, the etiology of fever was respiratory tract infection (74.2%), otitis media (7%), GE (7%), tonsillitis (4.2%), scarlet fever (2.3%) chickenpox (1.4%), urinary tract infection (1.4%), postvaccination reaction (0.9%), or unidentified (1.4%). In all patients, capillary pH and blood Pco(2) were measured immediately on admission to the hospital. Respiratory alkalosis was found in children with FS (pH 7.46 ± 0.04, [mean ± standard deviation] Pco(2) 29.5 ± 5.5 mmHg), whereas a metabolic acidosis was seen in all children admitted for GE (pH 7.31 ± 0.03, Pco(2) 37.7 ± 4.3 mmHg; p respiratory alkalosis, irrespective of the severity of the underlying infection as indicated by the level of fever. The lack of FS in GE patients is attributable to low pH, which also explains the fact that children with a susceptibility to FS do not have seizures when they have GE-induced fever that is associated with acidosis. The present demonstration of a close link between FS and respiratory alkalosis may pave the way for further clinical studies and attempts to design novel therapies for the treatment of FS by controlling the

  7. Protective roles of free avian respiratory macrophages in captive birds

    Mbuvi P. Mutua

    Full Text Available In the mammalian lung, respiratory macrophages provide front line defense against invading pathogens and particulate matter. In birds, respiratory macrophages are known as free avian respiratory macrophages (FARM and a dearth of the cells in the avian lung has been purported to foreordain a weak first line of pulmonary defense, a condition associated with high mortality of domestic birds occasioned by respiratory inflictions. Avian pulmonary mechanisms including a three tiered aerodynamic filtration system, tight epithelial junctions and an efficient mucociliary escalator system have been known to supplement FARM protective roles. Current studies, however, report FARM to exhibit an exceptionally efficient phagocytic capacity and are effective in elimination of invading pathogens. In this review, we also report on effects of selective synthetic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ agonists on non phlogistic phagocytic properties in the FARM. To develop effective therapeutic interventions targeting FARM in treatment and management of respiratory disease conditions in the poultry, further studies are required to fully understand the role of FARM in innate and adaptive immune responses.

  8. Upper respiratory tract infection, heterologous immunisation and meningococcal disease

    Scholten, R. J.; Bijlmer, H. A.; Tobi, H.; Dankert, J.; Bouter, L. M.

    1999-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that an episode of upper respiratory tract infection or heterologous immunisation is a predisposing factor for the occurrence of meningococcal disease, data from 377 cases of meningococcal disease and their household contacts (n = 1124) were analysed by conditional logistic

  9. [Respiratory treatments in neuromuscular disease].

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Cols Roig, M; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sardon Prado, O; Asensio de la Cruz, O; Torrent Vernetta, A

    2014-10-01

    In a previous article, a review was presented of the respiratory pathophysiology of the patient with neuromuscular disease, as well as their clinical evaluation and the major complications causing pulmonary deterioration. This article presents the respiratory treatments required to preserve lung function in neuromuscular disease as long as possible, as well as in special situations (respiratory infections, spinal curvature surgery, etc.). Special emphasis is made on the use of non-invasive ventilation, which is changing the natural history of many of these diseases. The increase in survival and life expectancy of these children means that they can continue their clinical care in adult units. The transition from pediatric care must be an active, timely and progressive process. It may be slightly stressful for the patient before the adaptation to this new environment, with multidisciplinary care always being maintained. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  11. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  12. Respiratory correlated cone beam CT

    Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Zijp, Lambert; Remeijer, Peter; Herk, Marcel van

    2005-01-01

    A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanner integrated with a linear accelerator is a powerful tool for image guided radiotherapy. Respiratory motion, however, induces artifacts in CBCT, while the respiratory correlated procedures, developed to reduce motion artifacts in axial and helical CT are not suitable for such CBCT scanners. We have developed an alternative respiratory correlated procedure for CBCT and evaluated its performance. This respiratory correlated CBCT procedure consists of retrospective sorting in projection space, yielding subsets of projections that each corresponds to a certain breathing phase. Subsequently, these subsets are reconstructed into a four-dimensional (4D) CBCT dataset. The breathing signal, required for respiratory correlation, was directly extracted from the 2D projection data, removing the need for an additional respiratory monitor system. Due to the reduced number of projections per phase, the contrast-to-noise ratio in a 4D scan reduced by a factor 2.6-3.7 compared to a 3D scan based on all projections. Projection data of a spherical phantom moving with a 3 and 5 s period with and without simulated breathing irregularities were acquired and reconstructed into 3D and 4D CBCT datasets. The positional deviations of the phantoms center of gravity between 4D CBCT and fluoroscopy were small: 0.13±0.09 mm for the regular motion and 0.39±0.24 mm for the irregular motion. Motion artifacts, clearly present in the 3D CBCT datasets, were substantially reduced in the 4D datasets, even in the presence of breathing irregularities, such that the shape of the moving structures could be identified more accurately. Moreover, the 4D CBCT dataset provided information on the 3D trajectory of the moving structures, absent in the 3D data. Considerable breathing irregularities, however, substantially reduces the image quality. Data presented for three different lung cancer patients were in line with the results obtained from the phantom study. In

  13. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-03

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  14. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  15. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  16. Activation of respiratory muscles during respiratory muscle training.

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Röcker, Kai; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown which respiratory muscles are mainly activated by respiratory muscle training. This study evaluated Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading (IPTL), Inspiratory Flow Resistive Loading (IFRL) and Voluntary Isocapnic Hyperpnea (VIH) with regard to electromyographic (EMG) activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), parasternal muscles (PARA) and the diaphragm (DIA) in randomized order. Surface EMG were analyzed at the end of each training session and normalized using the peak EMG recorded during maximum inspiratory maneuvers (Sniff nasal pressure: SnPna, maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure: PImax). 41 healthy participants were included. Maximal activation was achieved for SCM by SnPna; the PImax activated predominantly PARA and DIA. Activations of SCM and PARA were higher in IPTL and VIH than for IFRL (p<0.05). DIA was higher applying IPTL compared to IFRL or VIH (p<0.05). IPTL, IFRL and VIH differ in activation of inspiratory respiratory muscles. Whereas all methods mainly stimulate accessory respiratory muscles, diaphragm activation was predominant in IPTL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: evaluation and management.

    Cortés, I; Peñuelas, O; Esteban, A

    2012-03-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition that affects patients admitted in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) under mechanical ventilation. ARDS is a process of non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema and hypoxemia associated with a variety of conditions, resulting in a direct (e.g., pneumonia) or indirect (e.g., sepsis) lung injury and is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. A large body of clinical and basic research has focused in ventilatory strategies and novel pharmacological therapies but, nowadays, treatment is mainly supportive. Mechanical ventilation is the hallmark of the management of these patients. In the last decades, the recognition that mechanical ventilation can contribute to harming the lung has changed the goals of this therapy and has driven research to focus in ventilatory strategies that mitigate lung injury. This review emphasizes clinical aspects in the evaluation and management of ARDS in the ICUs and updates the latest advances in these therapies.

  18. Wearable technology: role in respiratory health and disease.

    Aliverti, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    In the future, diagnostic devices will be able to monitor a patient's physiological or biochemical parameters continuously, under natural physiological conditions and in any environment through wearable biomedical sensors. Together with apps that capture and interpret data, and integrated enterprise and cloud data repositories, the networks of wearable devices and body area networks will constitute the healthcare's Internet of Things. In this review, four main areas of interest for respiratory healthcare are described: pulse oximetry, pulmonary ventilation, activity tracking and air quality assessment. Although several issues still need to be solved, smart wearable technologies will provide unique opportunities for the future or personalised respiratory medicine.

  19. Household reporting of childhood respiratory health and air pollution in rural Alaska Native communities

    Desirae N. Ware

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution is an important contributor to respiratory disease in children. Objective: To examine associations between household reporting of childhood respiratory conditions and household characteristics related to air pollution in Alaska Native communities. Design: In-home surveys were administered in 2 rural regions of Alaska. The 12-month prevalence of respiratory conditions was summarized by region and age. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated to describe associations between respiratory health and household and air quality characteristics. Results: Household-reported respiratory health data were collected for 561 children in 328 households. In 1 region, 33.6% of children aged <5 years had a recent history of pneumonia and/or bronchitis. Children with these conditions were 2 times more likely to live in a wood-heated home, but these findings were imprecise. Resident concern with mould was associated with elevated prevalence of respiratory infections in children (ORs 1.6–2.5, while reported wheezing was associated with 1 or more smokers living in the household. Reported asthma in 1 region (7.6% was lower than national prevalence estimates. Conclusions: Findings suggest that there may be preventable exposures, including wood smoke and mould that affect childhood respiratory disease in these rural areas. Additional research is needed to quantify particulate matter 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter or less and mould exposures in these communities, and to objectively evaluate childhood respiratory health.

  20. Inhaled nitric oxide for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury in children and adults

    Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF), defined as acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are critical conditions. AHRF results from a number of systemic conditions and is associated with high mortality and morbidity in all ages. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has...

  1. Climate change and respiratory health.

    Gerardi, Daniel A; Kellerman, Roy A

    2014-10-01

    To discuss the nature of climate change and both its immediate and long-term effects on human respiratory health. This review is based on information from a presentation of the American College of Chest Physicians course on Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease held in Toronto, Canada, June 2013. It is supplemented by a PubMed search for climate change, global warming, respiratory tract diseases, and respiratory health. It is also supplemented by a search of Web sites including the Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, World Meteorological Association, National Snow and Ice Data Center, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change, and the World Health Organization. Health effects of climate change include an increase in the prevalence of certain respiratory diseases, exacerbations of chronic lung disease, premature mortality, allergic responses, and declines in lung function. Climate change, mediated by greenhouse gases, causes adverse health effects to the most vulnerable patient populations-the elderly, children, and those in distressed socioeconomic strata.

  2. [Undernutrition in chronic respiratory diseases].

    Zielonka, Tadeusz M; Hadzik-Błaszczyk, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, lung cancer, infections, including also tuberculosis constitute the most frequent diseases in the word. Undernutrition frequently accompanies these diseases. Early diagnosis of malnutrition and implementation of appropriate treatment is very important. A nutritional interview and anthropometric examinations, such as body mass index, fat free mass and fat mass are used to diagnose it. Nutritional therapy affects the course and prognosis of these diseases. Diet should be individually adjusted to the calculated caloric intake that increases during exacerbation of disease, because of increased respiratory effort. Too large supply of energy can cause increase metabolism, higher oxygen consumption and PaCO2 increase each dangerous for patients with respiratory insufficiency. Main source of carbohydrates for these patients should be products with low glycemic index and with high dietary fiber contents. Large meals should be avoided since they cause rapid satiety, abdominal discomfort and have negative impact on the work of the respiratory muscles, especially of the diaphragm. Dietary supplements can be used in case of ineffectiveness of diet or for the patients with severe undernutrition.

  3. Respiratory effects of borax dust.

    Garabrant, D H; Bernstein, L; Peters, J M; Smith, T J; Wright, W E

    1985-12-01

    The relation of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, and abnormalities of chest radiographs to estimated exposures of borax dust has been investigated in a cross sectional study of 629 actively employed borax workers. Ninety three per cent of the eligible workers participated in the study and exposures ranged from 1.1 mg/m3 to 14.6 mg/m3. Symptoms of acute respiratory irritation such as dryness of the mouth, nose, or throat, dry cough, nose bleeds, sore throat, productive cough, shortness of breath, and chest tightness were related to exposures of 4.0 mg/m3 or more, and were infrequent at exposures of 1.1 mg/m3. Symptoms of persistent respiratory irritation meeting the definition of chronic simple bronchitis were related to exposure among non-smokers. Decrements in the FEV1 as a percentage of predicted were seen among smokers who had heavy cumulative borax exposures (greater than or equal to 80 mg/m3 years) but were not seen among less exposed smokers or among non-smokers. Radiographic abnormalities were uncommon and were not related to dust exposure. Borax dust appears to act as a simple respiratory irritant and perhaps causes small changes in the FEV1 among smokers who are heavily exposed.

  4. Guide to industrial respiratory protection

    Pritchard, J.A.

    1977-03-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 has increased the emphasis on proper selection and use of respirators in situations where engineering controls are not feasible or are being implemented. Although a great deal of information on respiratory protection has been published, most of it is more technical than necessary for the average user faced with day-to-day problems of respiratory protection in industrial environments. This Guide is to provide the industrial user a single reference source containing enough information for establishing and maintaining a respirator program that meets the OSHA requirements outlined in 29 CFR Part 1910.134. It includes chapters on respirator selection, use, maintenance, and inspection, a complete description of all types of respirators and their advantages and limitations, and chapters on respirator fitting and wearer training, respiratory physiology, respiratory hazards, and physiological and psychological limitations. Also included are samples of the decision logic used in respirator selection, guidance on setting up an adequate respirator program through formulation of written standard operating procedures, and discussion of the meaning of the approved respirator

  5. [Respiratory diseases in metallurgy production workers].

    Shliapnikov, D M; Vlasova, E M; Ponomareva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The authors identified features of respiratory diseases in workers of various metallurgy workshops. Cause-effect relationships are defined between occupational risk factors and respiratory diseases, with determining the affection level.

  6. Assessment of respiratory involvement in children with ...

    Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are classified into seven clinical types based on eleven known lysosomal enzyme deficiencies of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) metabolism. Respiratory involvement seen in most MPS types includes recurrent respiratory infections, upper and lower airway obstruction, tracheomalacia ...

  7. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  8. Respiratory physiology during early life.

    Stocks, J

    1999-08-01

    Despite the rapid adaptation to extrauterine life, the respiratory system of an infant is not simply a miniaturized version of that of an adult, since the rapid somatic growth that occurs during the first year of life is accompanied by major developmental changes in respiratory physiology. The highly compliant chest wall of the infant results in relatively low transpulmonary pressures at end expiration with increased tendency of the small peripheral airways to close during tidal breathing. This not only impairs gas exchange and ventilation-perfusion balance, particularly in dependent parts of the lung, but, together with the small absolute size of the airways, renders the infant and young child particularly susceptible to airway obstruction. Premature airways are highly compliant structures compared with those of mature newborns or adults. This increased compliance can cause airway collapse, resulting in increased airways resistance, flow limitation, poor gas exchange and increased work of breathing. Although there is clear evidence that airway reactivity is present from birth, its role in wheezing lower respiratory tract illnesses in young infants may be overshadowed by pre-existing abnormalities of airway geometry and lung mechanics, or by pathological changes such as airway oedema and mucus hypersecretion. Attempts to assess age-related changes in airway reactivity or response to aerosol therapy in the very young is confounded by changes in breathing patterns and the fact that infants are preferential nose breathers. There is increasing evidence that pre-existing abnormalities of respiratory function, associated with adverse events during foetal life (including maternal smoking during pregnancy), and familial predisposition to wheezing are important determinants of wheezing illnesses during the first years of life. This emphasizes the need to identify and minimize any factors that threaten the normal development of the lung during this critical period if

  9. Respiratory symptoms in insect breeders.

    Harris-Roberts, J; Fishwick, D; Tate, P; Rawbone, R; Stagg, S; Barber, C M; Adisesh, A

    2011-08-01

    A number of specialist food suppliers in the UK breed and distribute insects and insect larvae as food for exotic pets, such as reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. To investigate the extent of work-related (WR) symptoms and workplace-specific serum IgE in workers potentially exposed to a variety of biological contaminants, including insect and insect larvae allergens, endotoxin and cereal allergens at a UK specialist insect breeding facility. We undertook a study of respiratory symptoms and exposures at the facility, with subsequent detailed clinical assessment of one worker. All 32 workers were assessed clinically using a respiratory questionnaire and lung function. Eighteen workers consented to provide serum for determination of specific IgE to workplace allergens. Thirty-four per cent (11/32) of insect workers reported WR respiratory symptoms. Sensitization, as judged by specific IgE, was found in 29% (4/14) of currently exposed workers. Total inhalable dust levels ranged from 1.2 to 17.9 mg/m(3) [mean 4.3 mg/m(3) (SD 4.4 mg/m(3)), median 2.0 mg/m(3)] and endotoxin levels of up to 29435 EU/m(3) were recorded. Exposure to organic dusts below the levels for which there are UK workplace exposure limits can result in respiratory symptoms and sensitization. The results should alert those responsible for the health of similarly exposed workers to the potential for respiratory ill-health and the need to provide a suitable health surveillance programme.

  10. Dosimetry of the respiratory tract

    Roy, M.

    1996-01-01

    A new dosimetric model of the human respiratory tract has been recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, in ICRP Publication 66. This model was intended to update the previous lung model of the Task Group on Lung Dynamics that was adopted by ICRP in Publication 30. With this aim, extensive reviews of the available knowledge were made for anatomy and physiology of the respiratory tract and for deposition, clearance and biological effects of inhaled radionuclides. Finally, expanded dosimetry requirements resulted in a widely different approach from the former model. The main features of the new model are the followings: instead of calculating the average dose to the total mass of blood filled lung, the model takes account of differences in radiosensitivity of the venous respiratory tract tissues. It applies not only to adult workers but also to all members of the population, and provides reference values for children aged 3 months, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, and adults. Deposition modelling of airborne gases and aerosols associates age dependent breathing rates, airway dimensions and physical activity, to particle size, density and chemical form of inhaled material. Clearance results of competition between mechanical transport clearance and absorption to blood. At each step of the calculation, adjustment guidance is provided to account for use of exact values of particle sizes and specific dissolution rates of inhaled material in order to calculate their own parameter of retention in the airways, and to assess accurately doses to the respiratory tract. Possible influence of smoking, of respiratory tract diseases and of eventual exposure to airborne toxicants is also addressed. (author)

  11. Respiratory Phenotypes for Preterm Infants, Children, and Adults: Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and More.

    Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2018-05-01

    Ongoing advancements in neonatal care since the late 1980s have led to increased numbers of premature infants surviving well beyond the neonatal period. As a result of increased survival, many individuals born preterm manifest chronic respiratory symptoms throughout infancy, childhood, and adult life. The archetypical respiratory disease of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, is the second most common chronic pediatric respiratory disease after asthma. However, there are several commonly held misconceptions. These misconceptions include that bronchopulmonary dysplasia is rare, that bronchopulmonary dysplasia resolves within the first few years of life, and that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not impact respiratory health in adult life. This focused review describes a spectrum of respiratory conditions that individuals born prematurely may experience throughout their lifespan. Specifically, this review provides quantitative estimates of the number of individuals with alveolar, airway, and vascular phenotypes associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well as non-bronchopulmonary dysplasia respiratory phenotypes such as airway malacia, obstructive sleep apnea, and control of breathing issues. Furthermore, this review illustrates what is known about the potential for progression and/or lack of resolution of these respiratory phenotypes in childhood and adult life. Recognizing the spectrum of respiratory phenotypes associated with individuals born preterm and providing comprehensive and personalized care to these individuals may help to modulate adverse respiratory outcomes in later life.

  12. Daytime napping and increased risk of incident respiratory diseases: symptom, marker, or risk factor?

    Leng, Yue; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2016-07-01

    We have identified a strong association between daytime napping and increased mortality risk from respiratory diseases, but little is known about the relationship between daytime napping and respiratory morbidity. Data were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort. Participants reported napping habits during 1998-2000 and were followed up for respiratory disease hospital admissions until March 2009. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between daytime napping and respiratory disease incidence risk. The study sample included 10,978 men and women with a mean age of 61.9 years, and a total of 946 incident respiratory disease cases were recorded. After adjustment for age, sex, social class, education, marital status, employment status, nightshift work, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, self-reported general health, hypnotic drug use, habitual sleep duration, and preexisting health conditions, daytime napping was associated with an increase in the overall respiratory disease incidence risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15, 1.52 for napping respiratory diseases, especially for the risk of chronic lower respiratory diseases (HR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.96 for napping respiratory disease incidence risk. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and help understand potential mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention of Respiratory Distress After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    O. A. Dolina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a comparative study of different methods for preventing respiratory distress after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It shows the advantages of use of noninvasive assisted ventilation that ensures excessive positive pressure in the respiratory contour, its impact on external respiratory function, arterial blood gases, oxygen transport and uptake. A scheme for the prevention of respiratory diseases applying noninvasive assisted ventilation is given.

  14. Mortality from respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associations with environmental quality.

    Respiratory infections (RI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been identified by the World Health Organization as conditions which may be strongly influenced by environmental factors. We examined the associations between environmental quality and U.S. county m...

  15. Respiratory function after lesions in medulla oblongata.

    Woischneck, Dieter; Kapapa, Thomas; Heissler, Hans E; Reissberg, Steffen; Skalej, Martin; Firsching, Raimund

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the correlation of lesions of the brain as visualized in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the ability of spontaneous respiration. In a prospective concept, cranial MRI after traumatic brain injury or spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage was performed in 250 subjects at an early stage. All MRI findings were correlated with respiratory conditions on the day of examination. Sedation was performed only to facilitate toleration of the artificial ventilation, as and when necessary. Spontaneous respiration could hence be registered clinically. Thirteen subjects (5.2%) had no spontaneous respiration. In these cases, a bilateral lesion of the distal medulla oblongata could be displayed. In four of these cases, no additional injuries of the brainstem were detected. These subjects awoke 2 days after the impact with tetraparesis and apnea. Combined lesions of the medulla oblongata and other brainstem regions were found in nine subjects. All these patients died without awakening. In the absence of a bilateral lesion of the caudal medulla oblongata, spontaneous respiration was always possible. A unilateral lesion of the caudal medulla oblongata was visualized in one patient who had the ability of spontaneous respiration. This work confirms the presence of autonomous respiratory centers within the caudal medulla oblongata that allows sufficient adequate respiration in coma. Respiration ceases in the presence of a bilateral lesion of this area.

  16. Respiratory metabolism in Oreochromis mossambicus, Peters under different environmentl conditions

    Thampi, R.; Rattan, P; Chatterji, A.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Pak_J_Mar_Sci_3_9.pdf.txt stream_source_info Pak_J_Mar_Sci_3_9.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  17. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  18. 46 CFR 154.1405 - Respiratory protection.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 154.1405 Section 154.1405... Equipment § 154.1405 Respiratory protection. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have: (a) Respiratory protection equipment for each person on board that protects the...

  19. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 197.550 Section 197.550 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... section that is appropriate for the exposure. Table 197.550(b)—Respiratory Protection for Benzene Airborne...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by...

  1. 33 CFR 127.1209 - Respiratory protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 127.1209... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1209 Respiratory protection. Each waterfront facility handling LHG must provide equipment for respiratory protection for each employee of the...

  2. Household reporting of childhood respiratory health and air pollution in rural Alaska Native communities.

    Ware, Desirae N; Lewis, Johnnye; Hopkins, Scarlett; Boyer, Bert; Montrose, Luke; Noonan, Curtis W; Semmens, Erin O; Ward, Tony J

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution is an important contributor to respiratory disease in children. To examine associations between household reporting of childhood respiratory conditions and household characteristics related to air pollution in Alaska Native communities. In-home surveys were administered in 2 rural regions of Alaska. The 12-month prevalence of respiratory conditions was summarized by region and age. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to describe associations between respiratory health and household and air quality characteristics. Household-reported respiratory health data were collected for 561 children in 328 households. In 1 region, 33.6% of children aged respiratory infections in children (ORs 1.6-2.5), while reported wheezing was associated with 1 or more smokers living in the household. Reported asthma in 1 region (7.6%) was lower than national prevalence estimates. Findings suggest that there may be preventable exposures, including wood smoke and mould that affect childhood respiratory disease in these rural areas. Additional research is needed to quantify particulate matter 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter or less and mould exposures in these communities, and to objectively evaluate childhood respiratory health.

  3. Aerosolized prostacyclin for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    Afshari, Arash; Brok, Jesper; Møller, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions that are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Aerosolized prostacyclin has been used to improve oxygenation despite the limited evidence available so far.......Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical conditions that are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Aerosolized prostacyclin has been used to improve oxygenation despite the limited evidence available so far....

  4. Partnering for optimal respiratory home care: physicians working with respiratory therapists to optimally meet respiratory home care needs.

    Spratt, G; Petty, T L

    2001-05-01

    The need for respiratory care services continues to increase, reimbursement for those services has decreased, and cost-containment measures have increased the frequency of home health care. Respiratory therapists are well qualified to provide home respiratory care, reduce misallocation of respiratory services, assess patient respiratory status, identify problems and needs, evaluate the effect of the home setting, educate the patient on proper equipment use, monitor patient response to and complications of therapy, monitor equipment functioning, monitor for appropriate infection control procedures, make recommendations for changes to therapy regimen, and adjust therapy under the direction of the physician. Teamwork benefits all parties and offers cost and time savings, improved data collection and communication, higher job satisfaction, and better patient monitoring, education, and quality of life. Respiratory therapists are positioned to optimize treatment efficacy, maximize patient compliance, and minimize hospitalizations among patients receiving respiratory home care.

  5. Respiratory rate greater than 50 per minute as a clinical indicator of pneumonia in Filipino children with cough.

    Lucero, M G; Tupasi, T E; Gomez, M L; Beltran, G L; Crisostomo, A U; Romano, V V; Rivera, L M

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis and epidemiology of acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in 199 children less than 5 years old were investigated in Manila. As part of this study, children who were treated at one of two outpatient clinics for cough of less than 3 weeks' duration were studied to test the validity of the use of a respiratory rate (RR) of greater than 50/minute for identifying ARI of a severity necessitating treatment with antibiotics. In the first population, in which 69% of the children had radiologically confirmed pneumonia, the sensitivity of a RR of greater than 50/minute was 54%, the specificity was 84%, the false-positive rate was 16%, and the false-negative rate was 46%. In the second population, in which 29% of the children had pneumonia, the sensitivity and positive predictive values were low. The validity of a RR of greater than 50/minute may vary in populations with different prevalences of ARI.

  6. Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans: Mental Health Diagnoses are Associated with Respiratory Disease Diagnoses.

    Slatore, Christopher G; Falvo, Michael J; Nugent, Shannon; Carlson, Kathleen

    2018-05-01

    Many veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have concomitant respiratory conditions and mental health conditions. We wanted to evaluate the association of mental health diagnoses with respiratory disease diagnoses among post-deployment veterans. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans who were discharged from the military or otherwise became eligible to receive Veterans Health Administration services. The primary exposure was receipt of a mental health diagnosis and the primary outcome was receipt of a respiratory diagnosis as recorded in the electronic health record. We used multivariable adjusted logistic regression to measure the associations of mental health diagnoses with respiratory diagnoses and conducted several analyses exploring the timing of the diagnoses. Among 182,338 post-deployment veterans, 14% were diagnosed with a respiratory condition, 77% of whom had a concomitant mental health diagnosis. The incidence rates were 5,363/100,000 person-years (p-y), 587/100,000 p-y, 1,450/100,000 p-y, and 233/100,000 p-y for any respiratory disease diagnosis, bronchitis, asthma, and chronic obstructive lung disease diagnoses, respectively, after the date of first Veterans Health Administration utilization. Any mental health diagnosis was associated with increased odds for any respiratory diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.37-1.46). The association of mental health diagnoses and subsequent respiratory disease diagnoses was stronger and more consistent than the converse. Many Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans are diagnosed with both respiratory and mental illnesses. Comprehensive plans that include care coordination with mental health professionals and treatments for mental illnesses may be important for many veterans with respiratory diseases.

  7. Acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Gadre, Shruti K; Duggal, Abhijit; Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo; Krishnan, Sudhir; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zell, Katrina; Guzman, Jorge

    2018-04-01

    There are limited data on the epidemiology of acute respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The prognosis of acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation is believed to be grim in this population. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of patients with underlying severe COPD requiring mechanical ventilation.A retrospective study of patients admitted to a quaternary referral medical intensive care unit (ICU) between January 2008 and December 2012 with a diagnosis of severe COPD and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure.We evaluated 670 patients with an established diagnosis of severe COPD requiring mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure of whom 47% were male with a mean age of 63.7 ± 12.4 years and Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score of 76.3 ± 27.2. Only seventy-nine (12%) were admitted with a COPD exacerbation, 27(4%) had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 78 (12%) had pneumonia, 78 (12%) had sepsis, and 312 (47%) had other causes of respiratory failure, including pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, etc. Eighteen percent of the patients received a trial of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 3 days (interquartile range IQR 2-7); the median duration for ICU length of stay (LOS) was 5 (IQR 2-9) days and the median duration of hospital LOS was 12 (IQR 7-22) days. The overall ICU mortality was 25%. Patients with COPD exacerbation had a shorter median duration of mechanical ventilation (2 vs 4 days; P = .04), ICU (3 vs 5 days; P = .01), and hospital stay (10 vs 13 days; P = .01). The ICU mortality (9% vs 27%; P respiratory failure. A 1-unit increase in the APACHE III score was associated with a 1% decrease and having an active cancer was associated

  8. Statistical Study on Respiratory Stability Through RPM Signal Analysis according to Patient Position Under Radiation Therapy and Device

    Park, Myung Hwan; Seo, Jeong Min; Choi, Byeong Gi; Shin, Eun Hyeok; Song, Gi Won

    2011-01-01

    This study statistically analyzed the difference of the stability of maintaining a respiratory period shown according to position and use of a device to search the tendency and usefulness of a device. The study obtained respiratory signals which maintained a respiratory period for 20 minutes each supine and prone position for 11 subjects. The study obtained respiratory signals in a state of using a belly board for 7 patients in a bad condition of a respiratory period in a prone position to analyze a change in respiration and the stability before and after the use of a device. The supine part showed 54.5%, better than the prone part of 36.4% in a case that the stability for maintaining a respiratory period was in a good condition as a fixed respiratory period was well maintained according to the position. 6 patients (85%) showed a maintenance pattern of a respiratory period significantly different before the use and 4 patients showed a significantly good change in the stability for maintaining a respiratory period as a result that belly boards were used for 7 patients that the maintenance of a respiratory period was not in a good condition on a prone position. It seemed that this study could contribute to the maintenance of respiratory period and of respiratory stability as the optimal position for maintenance of respiration and the use of a device such as a belly board were decided through statistic analysis of respiratory signals and its application even if patient position and use of device were decided by the beam arrangement a treatment part of a patient, location of a target, and an expected plan.

  9. A Quick Reference on Respiratory Acidosis.

    Johnson, Rebecca A

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory acidosis, or primary hypercapnia, occurs when carbon dioxide production exceeds elimination via the lung and is mainly owing to alveolar hypoventilation. Concurrent increases in Paco 2 , decreases in pH and compensatory increases in blood HCO 3 - concentration are associated with respiratory acidosis. Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic, with initial metabolic compensation to increase HCO 3 - concentrations by intracellular buffering. Chronic respiratory acidosis results in longer lasting increases in renal reabsorption of HCO 3 - . Alveolar hypoventilation and resulting respiratory acidosis may also be associated with hypoxemia, especially evident when patients are inspiring room air (20.9% O 2 ). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative meta-analysis of maximal aerobic metabolism of vertebrates: implications for respiratory and cardiovascular limits to gas exchange.

    Hillman, Stanley S; Hancock, Thomas V; Hedrick, Michael S

    2013-02-01

    Maximal aerobic metabolic rates (MMR) in vertebrates are supported by increased conductive and diffusive fluxes of O(2) from the environment to the mitochondria necessitating concomitant increases in CO(2) efflux. A question that has received much attention has been which step, respiratory or cardiovascular, provides the principal rate limitation to gas flux at MMR? Limitation analyses have principally focused on O(2) fluxes, though the excess capacity of the lung for O(2) ventilation and diffusion remains unexplained except as a safety factor. Analyses of MMR normally rely upon allometry and temperature to define these factors, but cannot account for much of the variation and often have narrow phylogenetic breadth. The unique aspect of our comparative approach was to use an interclass meta-analysis to examine cardio-respiratory variables during the increase from resting metabolic rate to MMR among vertebrates from fish to mammals, independent of allometry and phylogeny. Common patterns at MMR indicate universal principles governing O(2) and CO(2) transport in vertebrate cardiovascular and respiratory systems, despite the varied modes of activities (swimming, running, flying), different cardio-respiratory architecture, and vastly different rates of metabolism (endothermy vs. ectothermy). Our meta-analysis supports previous studies indicating a cardiovascular limit to maximal O(2) transport and also implicates a respiratory system limit to maximal CO(2) efflux, especially in ectotherms. Thus, natural selection would operate on the respiratory system to enhance maximal CO(2) excretion and the cardiovascular system to enhance maximal O(2) uptake. This provides a possible evolutionary explanation for the conundrum of why the respiratory system appears functionally over-designed from an O(2) perspective, a unique insight from previous work focused solely on O(2) fluxes. The results suggest a common gas transport blueprint, or Bauplan, in the vertebrate clade.

  11. Respiratory challenge MRI: Practical aspects

    Fiona C. Moreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory challenge MRI is the modification of arterial oxygen (PaO2 and/or carbon dioxide (PaCO2 concentration to induce a change in cerebral function or metabolism which is then measured by MRI. Alterations in arterial gas concentrations can lead to profound changes in cerebral haemodynamics which can be studied using a variety of MRI sequences. Whilst such experiments may provide a wealth of information, conducting them can be complex and challenging. In this paper we review the rationale for respiratory challenge MRI including the effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the cerebral circulation. We also discuss the planning, equipment, monitoring and techniques that have been used to undertake these experiments. We finally propose some recommendations in this evolving area for conducting these experiments to enhance data quality and comparison between techniques.

  12. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vitamin D and respiratory disorder

    Mahnaz Hushmand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D is synthesized in some body organs following sun exposure and dietary intake. Vitamin D exhibits its major and critical effects not only through regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism but also by influencing on respiratory and immune system. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D below the optimum limit lead to vitamin D insufficiency or maybe deficiency. These inappropriate concentrations of vitamin D lead to different types of pulmonary diseases such as viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. In this review we described the association between vitamin D deficiency and severe therapy resistant asthma. We also reviewed the underlying molecular mechanism of vitamin D deficiency in children with severe- therapy resistant asthma. Based on current information, future clinical trial are needed to study the role of vitamin D supplementation on different groups of patients with severe asthma including infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities.

  14. Recurrent Respiratory Infections in Children

    F. Yurochko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers a problem of recurrent respiratory infections (RRI in children. Their description, risk factors, diagnostic algorithm have been dwelt. A special attention is paid to the treatment. An optimal antibiotic in RRI of bacterial genesis is a high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanate (registered as Augmentin™ ES in Ukraine, the efficacy of which is 94.6–96.3 % according to different data.

  15. Respiratory failure due to tracheobronchomalacia.

    Collard, P.; Freitag, L.; Reynaert, M. S.; Rodenstein, D. O.; Francis, C.

    1996-01-01

    A case is described of tracheobronchomegaly progressing to extensive tracheomalacia, complicated by episodic choking, recurrent pulmonary infections, and irreversible hypercapnic respiratory failure. A Y-shaped tracheobronchial stent was placed endoscopically to splint the trachea open, with excellent clinical and physiological improvement. New stent designs may provide long term palliation in selected cases of diffuse tracheal collapse or stenosis, and offer an alternative to surgical repair. PMID:8711665

  16. Respiratory failure due to tracheobronchomalacia.

    Collard, P.; Freitag, L.; Reynaert, M. S.; Rodenstein, D. O.; Francis, C.

    1996-01-01

    A case is described of tracheobronchomegaly progressing to extensive tracheomalacia, complicated by episodic choking, recurrent pulmonary infections, and irreversible hypercapnic respiratory failure. A Y-shaped tracheobronchial stent was placed endoscopically to splint the trachea open, with excellent clinical and physiological improvement. New stent designs may provide long term palliation in selected cases of diffuse tracheal collapse or stenosis, and offer an alternative to surgical repair.

  17. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    LENCU, CODRU?A; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary ? cortical, and involuntary ? metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthy...

  18. Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme

    Richey, C.; Chovanec, P.; Hoeft, S.E.; Oremland, R.S.; Basu, P.; Stolz, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe–S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

  19. A Review on Human Respiratory Modeling.

    Ghafarian, Pardis; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Input impedance of the respiratory system is measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT). Multiple prior studies have attempted to match the electromechanical models of the respiratory system to impedance data. Since the mechanical behavior of airways and the respiratory system as a whole are similar to an electrical circuit in a combination of series and parallel formats some theories were introduced according to this issue. It should be noted that, the number of elements used in these models might be less than those required due to the complexity of the pulmonary-chest wall anatomy. Various respiratory models have been proposed based on this idea in order to demonstrate and assess the different parts of respiratory system related to children and adults data. With regard to our knowledge, some of famous respiratory models in related to obstructive, restrictive diseases and also Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are reviewed in this article.

  20. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed.

  1. Respiratory analysis system and method

    Liu, F. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the respiratory process in which the gas flow rate and the frequency of respiration and expiration cycles can be determined on a real time basis. A face mask is provided with one-way inlet and outlet valves where the gas flow is through independent flowmeters and through a mass spectrometer. The opening and closing of a valve operates an electrical switch, and the combination of the two switches produces a low frequency electrical signal of the respiratory inhalation and exhalation cycles. During the time a switch is operated, the corresponsing flowmeter produces electric pulses representative of the flow rate; the electrical pulses being at a higher frequency than that of the breathing cycle and combined with the low frequency signal. The high frequency pulses are supplied to conventional analyzer computer which also receives temperature and pressure inputs and computes mass flow rate and totalized mass flow of gas. From the mass spectrometer, components of the gas are separately computed as to flow rate. The electrical switches cause operation of up-down inputs of a reversible counter. The respective up and down cycles can be individually monitored and combined for various respiratory measurements.

  2. Synchrony - Cyberknife Respiratory Compensation Technology

    Ozhasoglu, Cihat; Saw, Cheng B.; Chen Hungcheng; Burton, Steven; Komanduri, Krishna; Yue, Ning J.; Huq, Saiful M.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of organs in the thorax and abdomen have shown that these organs can move as much as 40 mm due to respiratory motion. Without compensation for this motion during the course of external beam radiation therapy, the dose coverage to target may be compromised. On the other hand, if compensation of this motion is by expansion of the margin around the target, a significant volume of normal tissue may be unnecessarily irradiated. In hypofractionated regimens, the issue of respiratory compensation becomes an important factor and is critical in single-fraction extracranial radiosurgery applications. CyberKnife is an image-guided radiosurgery system that consists of a 6-MV LINAC mounted to a robotic arm coupled through a control loop to a digital diagnostic x-ray imaging system. The robotic arm can point the beam anywhere in space with 6 degrees of freedom, without being constrained to a conventional isocenter. The CyberKnife has been recently upgraded with a real-time respiratory tracking and compensation system called Synchrony. Using external markers in conjunction with diagnostic x-ray images, Synchrony helps guide the robotic arm to move the radiation beam in real time such that the beam always remains aligned with the target. With the aid of Synchrony, the tumor motion can be tracked in three-dimensional space, and the motion-induced dosimetric change to target can be minimized with a limited margin. The working principles, advantages, limitations, and our clinical experience with this new technology will be discussed

  3. Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases

    I.B. Ershova

    2016-11-01

    symptoms (nausea, vomiting, itching, altered defecation after receiving medicinal plant its use should be discontinued; pediatricians should not recommend using herbs with potential toxic effects (for example, high concentrations or prolonged use of shoots of wild rosemary, tansy and other. The dosage is a very important question, which depends on the age of a child. The scheme proposed by N.P. Menshikova et al. is convenient for practice. The daily dose in terms of dry plant material is: for сhildren under 1 year old — 1/2 teaspoon, from 1 to 3 years — 1 teaspoon, 3 to 6 years — 1 dessert spoon, 6 to 10 years — 1 tablespoon, 10 and older — 1–2 tablespoons. In case of the appointment of herbal me­dicine pediatrician should take into account the characteristics of the therapeutic effects of medicinal plants, their dosing and possible side effects; it is necessary to monitor treatment to assess its efficacy and safety. In the treatment of respiratory diseases inhalation is effective, using inhalation devices. Aerosol inhalation for treatment of respiratory disease may have different effects: antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, a bronchodilator, and may promote the liquefaction of sputum evacuation, improve the function of the ciliated epithelium. For the purpose of inhalations medicinal plants containing essential oils are used: Calendula, Peppermint, Chamomile, Salvia, Eucalyptus, Thyme, birch, Plantain. The first inhalation lasts for 1–2 minu­tes and later 5–10 minutes. Also ready officinal herbal drugs can be used in pediatric practice: essential oils, teas, juices. A good effect of essential oil of Peppermint, Eucalyptus, Salvia and others, tincture of Calendula, Eucalyptus, Salvia, Peppermint. Relative contraindications are considered: a allergic conditions in children, b acute, life-threatening conditions and diseases, c pregnancy — for medicinal plants causing changes in hormonal balance. In pediatric practice, taking into account the characteristics

  4. Overview of respiratory syncytial virus disease in young children

    Hoopes JM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available J Michael Hoopes1, Veena R Kumar21Medical Information, 2Medical and Scientific Affairs, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Respiratory tract illnesses associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were first reported more than 160 years ago and gained acceptance as a major respiratory pathogen in the late 1950s. Annual epidemics show a seasonal pattern typically beginning in the late fall and ending in early spring, averaging 5 months in length, and varying in time of onset, offset, and duration depending on geographic location. Manifestations of RSV illness primarily involve the upper respiratory tract but can spread to the lower airways and lead to bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia. Initial infection occurs in approximately two-thirds of children during the first year of life; nearly all children are infected at least once by 2 years of age. Reinfection is common throughout life, but initial illness during infancy generally presents with the most severe symptoms. Medical risk conditions that consistently predispose young children to serious lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI include congenital heart disease, chronic lung disease, and premature birth. Serious LRTI due to RSV is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide and annual mean hospital expenses have been estimated to exceed 1 billion dollars in the United States. Young children incur more inpatient and outpatient visits for RSV LRTI than for influenza. RSV has a greater impact than influenza on hospitalization in infants with respect to length of stay, severity/course of disease, and resultant needs for ancillary treatments. Unlike many other childhood illnesses, a vaccine is not currently available for preventing RSV disease.Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants, hospitalization, prematurity, respiratory syncytial virus

  5. Physical activity and respiratory muscle strength in elderly: a systematic review

    Fabio Dutra Pereira

    Full Text Available Introduction The aging will inevitably bring some kind of functional decline in elderly, sarcopenia in this sense stands out because it damages the muscle function and extend also to the respiratory muscles. Objective Systematically review studies that have sought to compare the strength of respiratory muscles between sedentary and physically active elderly in training programs nonspecific respiratory musculature. Materials and methods From the descriptors motor activity, respiratory muscles and elderly, the databases LILACS, MedLine, Cochrane, PEDro, Scirus and Redalyc were consulted. Results Of 1.263 experiments available in said databases, 12 were recovered and 6 were selected due they meet all the inclusion criteria and selection requirements. Conclusion Physical activity programs offered by the selected studies led physically active elderly to have respiratory muscle strength statistically higher than the sedentary. However, this condition did not expressed itself as security to these elderly to present strength levels above of the minimum predictive of normality.

  6. An association between Helicobacter pylori and upper respiratory tract disease: Fact or fiction?

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major cause of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers and considerable evidence supports the notion that infection with this bacterium is also associated with gastric malignancy in addition to various other conditions including pulmonary, vascular and autoimmune disorders. Gastric juice infected with H. pylori might play an important role in upper respiratory tract infection. Although direct and/or indirect mechanisms might be involved in the association between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the etiological role of H. pylori in upper respiratory tract disorders has not yet been fully elucidated. Although various studies over the past two decades have suggested a relationship between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the findings are inconsistent. The present overview describes the outcomes of recent investigations into the impact of H. pylori on upper respiratory tract and adjacent lesions. PMID:24587622

  7. Entropy Stability and the No-Slip Wall Boundary Condition

    Svä rd, Magnus; Carpenter, Mark H.; Parsani, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    We present an entropy stable numerical scheme subject to no-slip wall boundary conditions. To enforce entropy stability only the no-penetration boundary condition and a temperature condition are needed at a wall, and this leads to an L bound on the conservative variables. In this article, we take the next step and design a finite difference scheme that also bounds the velocity gradients. This necessitates the use of the full no-slip conditions.

  8. Entropy Stability and the No-Slip Wall Boundary Condition

    Svärd, Magnus

    2018-01-18

    We present an entropy stable numerical scheme subject to no-slip wall boundary conditions. To enforce entropy stability only the no-penetration boundary condition and a temperature condition are needed at a wall, and this leads to an L bound on the conservative variables. In this article, we take the next step and design a finite difference scheme that also bounds the velocity gradients. This necessitates the use of the full no-slip conditions.

  9. Surfactant Protein D in Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Diseases

    Sorensen, Grith L.

    2018-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a multimeric collectin that is involved in innate immune defense and expressed in pulmonary, as well as non-pulmonary, epithelia. SP-D exerts antimicrobial effects and dampens inflammation through direct microbial interactions and modulation of host cell responses via a series of cellular receptors. However, low protein concentrations, genetic variation, biochemical modification, and proteolytic breakdown can induce decomposition of multimeric SP-D into low-molecular weight forms, which may induce pro-inflammatory SP-D signaling. Multimeric SP-D can decompose into trimeric SP-D, and this process, and total SP-D levels, are partly determined by variation within the SP-D gene, SFTPD. SP-D has been implicated in the development of respiratory diseases including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, allergic asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Disease-induced breakdown or modifications of SP-D facilitate its systemic leakage from the lung, and circulatory SP-D is a promising biomarker for lung injury. Moreover, studies in preclinical animal models have demonstrated that local pulmonary treatment with recombinant SP-D is beneficial in these diseases. In recent years, SP-D has been shown to exert antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects in various non-pulmonary organs and to have effects on lipid metabolism and pro-inflammatory effects in vessel walls, which enhance the risk of atherosclerosis. A common SFTPD polymorphism is associated with atherosclerosis and diabetes, and SP-D has been associated with metabolic disorders because of its effects in the endothelium and adipocytes and its obesity-dampening properties. This review summarizes and discusses the reported genetic associations of SP-D with disease and the clinical utility of circulating SP-D for respiratory disease prognosis. Moreover, basic research on the mechanistic links between SP-D and respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases

  10. Evaluation of Respiratory Protection Program in Petrochemical Industries: Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Hadi Kolahi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory protection equipment (RPE is the last resort to control exposure to workplace air pollutants. A comprehensive respiratory protection program (RPP ensures that RPE is selected, used, and cared properly. Therefore, RPP must be well integrated into the occupational health and safety requirements. In this study, we evaluated the implementation of RPP in Iranian petrochemical industries to identify the required solutions to improve the current status of respiratory protection. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 24 petrochemical industries in Iran. The survey instrument was a checklist extracted from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration respiratory protection standard. An index, Respiratory Protection Program Index (RPPI, was developed and weighted by analytic hierarchy process to determine the compliance rate (CR of provided respiratory protection measures with the RPP standard. Data analysis was performed using Excel 2010. Results: The most important element of RPP, according to experts, was respiratory hazard evaluation. The average value of RPPI in the petrochemical plants was 49 ± 15%. The highest and lowest of CR among RPP elements were RPE selection and medical evaluation, respectively. Conclusion: None of studied petrochemical industries implemented RPP completely. This can lead to employees' overexposure to hazardous workplace air contaminants. Increasing awareness of employees and employers through training is suggested by this study to improve such conditions. Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, petrochemical industries, respiratory protection program

  11. Asthma and respiratory symptoms in hospital workers related to dampness and biological contaminants.

    Cox-Ganser, J M; Rao, C Y; Park, J-H; Schumpert, J C; Kreiss, K

    2009-08-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health investigated respiratory symptoms and asthma in relation to damp indoor environments in employees of two hospitals. A cluster of six work-related asthma cases from one hospital department, whose symptoms arose during a time of significant water incursions, led us to conduct a survey of respiratory health in 1171/1834 employees working in the sentinel cases hospital and a nearby hospital without known indoor environmental concerns. We carried out observational assessment of dampness, air, chair, and floor dust sampling for biological contaminants, and investigation of exposure-response associations for about 500 participants. Many participants with post-hire onset asthma reported diagnosis dates in a period of water incursions and renovations. Post-hire asthma and work-related lower respiratory symptoms were positively associated with the dampness score. Work-related lower respiratory symptoms showed monotonically increasing odds ratios with ergosterol, a marker of fungal biomass. Other fungal and bacterial indices, particle counts, cat allergen and latex allergen were associated with respiratory symptoms. Our data imply new-onset of asthma in relation to water damage, and indicate that work-related respiratory symptoms in hospital workers may be associated with diverse biological contaminants. In healthcare facilities with indoor dampness and microbial contamination, possible associations between such conditions and respiratory health effects should be considered. Good building maintenance and housekeeping procedures should lead to improvements in employee respiratory health.

  12. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  13. Occupational lung disease survey of respiratory physicians in Northern Ireland.

    McKeagney, T F P; Addley, K; Asanati, K

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory physicians are likely to encounter occupational lung disease (OLD) in their daily practice. To assess the profile of cases being encountered by general respiratory physicians in Northern Ireland (NI) and determine satisfaction with training, confidence in diagnosis and management of OLD. An online survey of all consultant respiratory physicians currently practising in NI. Questions assessed the numbers of new cases seen over the preceding year, case type, satisfaction with specialist registrar training in OLD and degree of confidence in the diagnosis and management of these conditions. Of the 40 consultants identified, the response rate was 80% (n = 32) with 94% of respondents (n = 30) indicating they had dealt with patients suspected of having occupation-related respiratory symptoms. The most commonly encountered OLDs were pleural plaques (91% of respondents), occupational asthma (88%), asbestosis (84%), non-asbestosis pulmonary fibrosis (76%), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (67%) and mesothelioma (66%). Just over one third of consultants (36%, n = 10) indicated a lack of confidence in diagnosis and management of OLD with almost half (48%) dissatisfied with OLD training as a registrar and a further 78% (n = 25) indicating they would value additional training in OLD as a consultant. The majority of respiratory consultants in NI encountered OLD in their day to day practice and half were dissatisfied with their specialist registrar training in OLD and express a lack of confidence in the diagnosis and management of these conditions. This highlights the need for additional training at both registrar and consultant level. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Afferent Neural Feedback Overrides the Modulating Effects of Arousal, Hypercapnia and Hypoxemia on Neonatal Cardio-respiratory Control.

    Lumb, Kathleen J; Schneider, Jennifer M; Ibrahim, Thowfique; Rigaux, Anita; Hasan, Shabih U

    2018-04-20

    Evidence at whole animal, organ-system, and cellular and molecular levels suggests that afferent volume feedback is critical for establishment of adequate ventilation at birth. Due to the irreversible nature of vagal ablation studies to date, it was difficult to quantify the roles of afferent volume input, arousal and changes in blood gas tensions on neonatal respiratory control. During reversible perineural vagal block, profound apneas, and hypoxemia and hypercarbia were observed necessitating termination of perineural blockade. Respiratory depression and apneas were independent of the sleep states. We demonstrate that profound apneas and life-threatening respiratory failure in vagally denervated animals do not result from lack of arousal or hypoxemia. Change in sleep state and concomitant respiratory depression result from lack of afferent volume feedback, which appears to be critical for the maintenance of normal breathing patterns and adequate gas exchange during the early postnatal period. Afferent volume feedback plays a vital role in neonatal respiratory control. Mechanisms for the profound respiratory depression and life-threatening apneas observed in vagally denervated neonatal animals remain unclear. We investigated the roles of sleep states, hypoxic-hypercapnia and afferent volume feedback on respiratory depression using reversible perineural vagal block during early postnatal period. Seven lambs were instrumented during the first 48h of life to record/analyze sleep states, diaphragmatic electromyograph, arterial blood gas tensions, systemic arterial blood pressure and rectal temperature. Perineural cuffs were placed around the vagi to attain reversible blockade. Post-operatively, during the awake state, both vagi were blocked using 2% xylocaine for up to 30 minutes. Compared with baseline values, pHa, PaO 2 and SaO 2 decreased and PaCO 2 increased during perineural blockade (P Respiratory depression and apneas were independent of sleep states. This

  15. Carbon dioxide induces erratic respiratory responses in bipolar disorder.

    Mackinnon, Dean F; Craighead, Brandie; Lorenz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    CO(2) respiration stimulates both anxiety and dyspnea ("air hunger") and has long been used to study panic vulnerability and respiratory control. High comorbidity with panic attacks suggests individuals with bipolar disorder may also mount a heightened anxiety response to CO(2). Moreover, problems in the arousal and modulation of appetites are central to the clinical syndromes of mania and depression; hence CO(2) may arouse an abnormal respiratory response to "air hunger". 72 individuals (34 bipolar I, 25 depressive and bipolar spectrum, 13 with no major affective diagnosis) breathed air and air with 5% CO(2) via facemask for up to 15 min each; subjective and respiratory responses were recorded. Nearly half the subjects diverged from the typical response to a fixed, mildly hypercapneic environment, which is to increase breathing acutely, and then maintain a hyperpneic plateau. The best predictors of an abnormal pattern were bipolar diagnosis and anxiety from air alone. 25 individuals had a panic response; panic responses from CO(2) were more likely in subjects with bipolar I compared to other subjects, however the best predictors of a panic response overall were anxiety from air alone and prior history of panic attacks. Heterogeneous sample, liberal definition of panic attack. Carbon dioxide produces abnormal respiratory and heightened anxiety responses among individuals with bipolar and depressive disorders. These may be due to deficits in emotional conditioning related to fear and appetite. Although preliminary, this work suggests a potentially useful test of a specific functional deficit in bipolar disorder.

  16. Climate Change Effects on Respiratory Health: Implications for Nursing.

    George, Maureen; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Matura, Lea Ann

    2017-11-01

    Greenhouse gases are driving climate change. This article explores the adverse health effects of climate change on a particularly vulnerable population: children and adults with respiratory conditions. This review provides a general overview of the effects of increasing temperatures, extreme weather, desertification, and flooding on asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and respiratory infections. We offer suggestions for future research to better understand climate change hazards, policies to support prevention and mitigation efforts targeting climate change, and clinical actions to reduce individual risk. Climate change produces a number of changes to the natural and built environments that may potentially increase respiratory disease prevalence, morbidity, and mortality. Nurses might consider focusing their research efforts on reducing the effects of greenhouse gases and in directing policy to mitigate the harmful effects of climate change. Nurses can also continue to direct educational and clinical actions to reduce risks for all populations, but most importantly, for our most vulnerable groups. While advancements have been made in understanding the impact of climate change on respiratory health, nurses can play an important role in reducing the deleterious effects of climate change. This will require a multipronged approach of research, policy, and clinical action. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Coccidioidomycosis: an unusual cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Veras, Kelson Nobre; Figueirêdo, Bruno C. de Souza; Martins, Liline Maria Soares; Vasconcelos, Jayro T. Paiva; Wanke, Bodo

    2003-01-01

    A male farmer, 20 years old, from the countryside of the State of Piauí, developed acute respiratory infection. Despite adequate antimicrobial therapy, his conditions worsened, requiring mechanical ventilation. His X-rays showed diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. His PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 58. Direct microscopy and culture of tracheal aspirates showed the presence of Coccidioides immitis. Autochthonous cases of coccidioidomycosis have only recently been described in Brazil, most of them from the Sta...

  18. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    Rambaudi, L R [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Rossi, E [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Mantaras, M C [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Perrone, M S [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Siri, L Nicola [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display.

  19. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    Rambaudi, L R; Rossi, E; Mantaras, M C; Perrone, M S; Siri, L Nicola

    2007-01-01

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display

  20. Neonatal respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) referrals.

    El-Khuffash, A

    2011-03-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a complex technique for providing life support in neonatal respiratory failure. T UK Collaborative ECMO trial demonstrated cost-effectiveness and substantial improvements in neurological morbidity and mortality. Currently, infants requiring ECMO in Ireland are referred to one of various centres in the UK and Scandinavia. We aimed to review the number of infants referred from Ireland for respiratory ECMO. All infants with a non-cardiac condition referred from Ireland for ECMO were reviewed for diagnosis and outcomes. Eleven infants required ECMO between June 2006 and January 2009 and were referred to the Scandinavian team for ECMO transport although one infant improved and did not require ECMO following the arrival of the team. Four infants died: one infant died prior to arrival of the ECMO team, 3 infants had fatal diagnoses and one infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia received pre-op ECMO. The median (inter-quartile range) gestational age was 39.7 (38.3-40.7) weeks and birth weight of 3.7 (3.2-4.0) kg. The median age at the decision to transfer for ECMO was 13h (4-123) and the team arrived at 23 h (12-132). All infants had a normal cranial ultrasound and echo prior to ECMO and 2 infants had an abnormal MRI post-ECMO. The time on ECMO was 9 days (3-17) and total length of hospital stay was 32 d (23-36). There were no pre-ECMO clinical or biochemical

  1. Leukocytes respiratory burst activity as indicator of innate immunity of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus

    JD Biller-Takahashi

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the assay to quantify the respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes of pacu as an indicator of the innate immune system, using the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT to formazan as a measure of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In order to assess the accuracy of the assay, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and sampled one week after challenge. The A. hydrophila infection increased the leukocyte respiratory burst activity. The protocol showed a reliable and easy assay, appropriate to determine the respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes of pacu, a neotropical fish, in the present experimental conditions.

  2. Year in Review 2015: Neonatal Respiratory Care.

    Courtney, Sherry E

    2016-04-01

    Neonatal respiratory care practices have changed with breathtaking speed in the past few years. It is critical for the respiratory therapist and others caring for neonates to be up to date with current recommendations and evolving care practices. The purpose of this article is to review papers of particular note that were published in 2015 and address important aspects of newborn respiratory care. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters.

    White, M C; Baker, E L

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross sectional study of current male members of two local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive eff...

  4. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; Wagoner, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    A mortality analysis of a group of white and Indian uranium miners was done by a life-table method. A significant excess of respiratory cancer among both whites and Indians was found. Nonmalignant respiratory disease deaths among the whites are approaching cancer in importance as a cause of death, probably as a result of diffuse parenchymal radiation damage. Exposure-response curves for nonsmokers are linear for both respiratory cancer and ''other respiratory disease''. Cigaret smoking elevates and distorts that curve. Light cigaret smokers appear to be most vulnerable to lung parenchymal damage. The predominant histologic cancer among nonsmokers is small-cell undifferentiated, just as it is among cigaret smokers

  5. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  6. Respiratory monitoring with an acceleration sensor

    Ono, Tomohiro; Takegawa, Hideki; Ageishi, Tatsuya; Takashina, Masaaki; Numasaki, Hodaka; Matsumoto, Masao; Teshima, Teruki

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory gating radiotherapy is used to irradiate a local area and to reduce normal tissue toxicity. There are certain methods for the detection of tumor motions, for example, using internal markers or an external respiration signal. However, because some of these respiratory monitoring systems require special or expensive equipment, respiratory monitoring can usually be performed only in limited facilities. In this study, the feasibility of using an acceleration sensor for respiratory monitoring was evaluated. The respiratory motion was represented by means of a platform and measured five times with the iPod touch (registered) at 3, 4 and 5 s periods of five breathing cycles. For these three periods of the reference waveform, the absolute means ± standard deviation (SD) of displacement were 0.45 ± 0.34 mm, 0.33 ± 0.24 mm and 0.31 ± 0.23 mm, respectively. On the other hand, the corresponding absolute means ± SD for the periods were 0.04 ± 0.09 s, 0.04 ± 0.02 s and 0.06 ± 0.04 s. The accuracy of respiratory monitoring using the acceleration sensor was satisfactory in terms of the absolute means ± SD. Using the iPod touch (registered) for respiratory monitoring does not need special equipment and makes respiratory monitoring easier. For these reasons, this system is a viable alternative to other respiratory monitoring systems.

  7. A Quick Reference on Respiratory Alkalosis.

    Johnson, Rebecca A

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory alkalosis, or primary hypocapnia, occurs when alveolar ventilation exceeds that required to eliminate the carbon dioxide produced by tissues. Concurrent decreases in Paco 2 , increases in pH, and compensatory decreases in blood HCO 3 - levels are associated with respiratory alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis can be acute or chronic, with metabolic compensation initially consisting of cellular uptake of HCO 3 - and buffering by intracellular phosphates and proteins. Chronic respiratory alkalosis results in longer-lasting decreases in renal reabsorption of HCO 3 - ; the arterial pH can approach near-normal values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto; Emilio Elias Baracat; Clarice Weis Arns

    2009-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV) are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in...

  9. Review of supplemental oxygen and respiratory support for paediatric emergency care in sub-Saharan Africa

    Andreas Hansmann

    Full Text Available Introduction: In African countries, respiratory infections and severe sepsis are common causes of respiratory failure and mortality in children under five years of age. Mortality and morbidity in these children could be reduced with adequate respiratory support in the emergency care setting. The purpose of this review is to describe management priorities in the emergency care of critically ill children presenting with respiratory problems. Basic and advanced respiratory support measures are described for implementation according to available resources, work load and skill-levels. Methods: We did a focused search of respiratory support for critically ill children in resource-limited settings over the past ten years, using the search tools PubMed and Google Scholar, the latest WHO guidelines, international ‘Advanced Paediatric Life Support’ guidelines and paediatric critical care textbooks. Results: The implementation of triage and rapid recognition of respiratory distress and hypoxia with pulse oximetry is important to correctly identify critically ill children with increased risk of mortality in all health facilities in resource constrained settings. Basic, effective airway management and respiratory support are essential elements of emergency care. Correct provision of supplemental oxygen is safe and its application alone can significantly improve the outcome of critically ill children. Non-invasive ventilatory support is cost-effective and feasible, with the potential to improve emergency care packages for children with respiratory failure and other organ dysfunctions. Non-invasive ventilation is particularly important in severely under-resourced regions unable to provide intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation support. Malnutrition and HIV-infection are important co-morbid conditions, associated with increased mortality in children with respiratory dysfunction. Discussion: A multi-disciplinary approach is required to optimise

  10. ERS/ATS workshop report on respiratory health effects of household air pollution.

    Sood, Akshay; Assad, Nour A; Barnes, Peter J; Churg, Andrew; Gordon, Stephen; Harrod, Kevin S; Irshad, Hammad; Kurmi, Om P; Martin, William J; Meek, Paula; Mortimer, Kevin; Noonan, Curtis W; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Smith, Kirk R; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion affects almost half of the world population. Adverse respiratory outcomes such as respiratory infections, impaired lung growth and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been linked to HAP exposure. Solid fuel smoke is a heterogeneous mixture of various gases and particulates. Cell culture and animal studies with controlled exposure conditions and genetic homogeneity provide important insights into HAP mechanisms. Impair...

  11. Current possibilities of anti-inflammatory therapy in children with acute respiratory diseases

    E. E. Lokshina; O. V. Zaytseva

    2017-01-01

    The paper gives an update on the pathogenesis of acute respiratory diseases, the basis for which is inflammation of the airway mucosal lining. It reflects the results of a comparative clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of the anti-inflammatory drug fenspiride used in the combination therapy for respiratory diseases in children. The findings allow one to recommend the use of fenspiride to treat this condition in children.

  12. Current possibilities of anti-inflammatory therapy in children with acute respiratory diseases

    E. E. Lokshina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an update on the pathogenesis of acute respiratory diseases, the basis for which is inflammation of the airway mucosal lining. It reflects the results of a comparative clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of the anti-inflammatory drug fenspiride used in the combination therapy for respiratory diseases in children. The findings allow one to recommend the use of fenspiride to treat this condition in children.

  13. Effects of air pollution on general practitioner consultations for upper respiratory diseases in London

    Hajat, S; Anderson, H; Atkinson, R; Haines, A; Seaton, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Few published studies have examined the effect of air pollution on upper respiratory conditions. Furthermore, most epidemiological studies on air pollution focus on mortality or hospital admissions as the main health outcomes, but very rarely consider the effect in primary care. If pollution effects do exist then the public health impact could be considerable because of the many patient contacts involved. We investigated the relation between air pollution and upper respiratory dis...

  14. Postperfusion lung syndrome: Respiratory mechanics, respiratory indices and biomarkers

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postperfusion lung syndrome is rare but lethal. Secondary inflammatory response was the popularly accepted theory for the underlying etiology. Respiratory index (RI and arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen can be reliable indices for the diagnosis of this syndrome as X-ray appearance is always insignificant at the early stage of the onset. Evaluations of extravascular lung water content and pulmonary compliance are also helpful in the definite diagnosis. Multiorgan failure and triple acid-base disturbances that might develop secondary to postperfusion lung syndrome are responsible for the poor prognosis and increased mortality rather than postperfusion lung syndrome itself. Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume (TV and proper positive end-expiratory pressure can be an effective treatment strategy. Use of ulinastatin and propofol may benefit the patients through different mechanisms.

  15. Emergency respiratory protection with common materials

    Cooper, D.W.; Hinds, W.C.; Price, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Certain unexpected accidents, such as fires, explosions, chemical spills, or nuclear reactor malfunctions, can lead to the exposure of workers and the public to toxic gases, vapors, and aerosols. The efficacy of readily available materials, such as cotton fabric, toweling, and a single-use respirator, for providing emergency respiratory protection was evaluated by determining the filtration efficiency as a function of particle size over the range of 0.4 to 5 μm diameter and performance against a reactive water soluble (I 2 ) and unreactive vapor (CH 3 I). At a reasonable design face velocity (1.5 cm/s), the respirator mask used at double thickness could reduce particle concentrations a factor of 30 or more throughout the particle range tested, and a wetted towel four layers thick could provide a factor of five. Dry fabrics were ineffective in removing iodine vapor, but wetted sheeting or toweling reduced concentration by a factor of ten or more under design conditions, 1.5 cm/s face velocity and 50 Pa pressure drop (0.2 inches of water). The fabrics provided a statistically insignificant reduction in methyliodide. In practice, any leaks around the seal to the face would lessen the protection offered by such materials. The effectiveness factor approach proved useful in comparing filter performance under different conditions

  16. Respiratory innate immune proteins differentially modulate the neutrophil respiratory burst response to influenza A virus

    White, Mitchell R; Crouch, Erika; Vesona, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    of IAV with SP-D in vitro strongly increases neutrophil respiratory burst responses to the virus. Several factors are shown to modify this apparent proinflammatory effect of SP-D. Although multimeric forms of SP-D show dose-dependent augmentation of respiratory burst responses, trimeric, single-arm forms...... of IAV while reducing the respiratory burst response to virus....

  17. Quantitation of respiratory viruses in relation to clinical course in children with acute respiratory tract infections

    Jansen, Rogier R.; Schinkel, Janke; dek, Irene; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Visser, Caroline E.; de Jong, Menno D.; Molenkamp, Richard; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2010-01-01

    Quantitation of respiratory viruses by PCR could potentially aid in clinical interpretation of PCR results. We conducted a study in children admitted with acute respiratory tract infections to study correlations between the clinical course of illness and semiquantitative detection of 14 respiratory

  18. Oligonucleotide Therapy for Obstructive and Restrictive Respiratory Diseases

    Wupeng Liao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled oligonucleotide is an emerging therapeutic modality for various common respiratory diseases, including obstructive airway diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and restrictive airway diseases like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. The advantage of direct accessibility for oligonucleotide molecules to the lung target sites, bypassing systemic administration, makes this therapeutic approach promising with minimized potential systemic side effects. Asthma, COPD, and IPF are common chronic respiratory diseases, characterized by persistent airway inflammation and dysregulated tissue repair and remodeling, although each individual disease has its unique etiology. Corticosteroids have been widely prescribed for the treatment of asthma, COPD, and IPF. However, the effectiveness of corticosteroids as an anti-inflammatory drug is limited by steroid resistance in severe asthma, the majority of COPD cases, and pulmonary fibrosis. There is an urgent medical need to develop target-specific drugs for the treatment of these respiratory conditions. Oligonucleotide therapies, including antisense oligonucleotide (ASO, small interfering RNA (siRNA, and microRNA (miRNA are now being evaluated both pre-clinically and clinically as potential therapeutics. The mechanisms of action of ASO and siRNA are highly target mRNA specific, ultimately leading to target protein knockdown. miRNA has both biomarker and therapeutic values, and its knockdown by a miRNA antagonist (antagomir has a broader but potentially more non-specific biological outcome. This review will compile the current findings of oligonucleotide therapeutic targets, verified in various respiratory disease models and in clinical trials, and evaluate different chemical modification approaches to improve the stability and potency of oligonucleotides for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

  19. Retrospective evaluation of the prevalence, risk factors, management, outcome, and necropsy findings of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in dogs and cats: 29 cases (2011-2013).

    Balakrishnan, Anusha; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Silverstein, Deborah C

    2017-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors for veterinary acute lung injury (VetALI) and veterinary acute respiratory distress syndrome (VetARDS), assess mechanical ventilation settings and patient outcomes, and to evaluate the relationship of clinical diagnoses with necropsy findings. Retrospective study. University teaching hospital. Twenty-four dogs and 5 cats with a clinical diagnosis of VetALI or VetARDS. Control population includes 24 dogs and 5 cats with a clinical diagnosis of respiratory disease other than VetALI or VetARDS. None. VetALI and VetARDS were diagnosed in 3.2% of dogs and 1.3% of cats presenting to the ICU. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome was the most common inciting condition (16/24 dogs, 2/5 cats), followed by vomiting and subsequent aspiration of gastric contents (9/24 dogs), sepsis (5/24 dogs, 3/5 cats), multiple transfusions (4/24 dogs), trauma (3/24 dogs), and adverse drug reactions (1/24 dogs, 1/5 cats).  None of these conditions were found to be significantly associated with a risk of development of VetALI or VetARDS when compared to controls. Twelve dogs (50%) and 4 cats (80%) underwent mechanical ventilation for a median duration of 18 hours in dogs (range: 6-174 h) and 15.5 hours in cats (range: 6-91 h). Overall, 3/29 patients survived to discharge including 2/24 dogs and 1/5 cats. Necropsy results were available for 8/22 dogs and 3/4 cats. A total of 6/8 dogs (75%) dogs and 3/3 (100%) cats met the histopathologic criteria for diagnosis of VetALI or VetARDS. VetALI and VetARDS can cause life-threatening respiratory distress in dogs and cats necessitating mechanical ventilation in 50% of dogs and 80% of cats in this study. These diseases are associated with a poor clinical outcome and a high rate of humane euthanasia. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  20. Respiratory muscle training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Rodillo, E; Noble-Jamieson, C M; Aber, V; Heckmatt, J Z; Muntoni, F; Dubowitz, V

    1989-01-01

    Twenty two boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were entered into a randomised double blind crossover trial to compare respiratory muscle training with a Triflow II inspirometer and 'placebo' training with a mini peak flow meter. Supine posture was associated with significantly impaired lung function, but respiratory muscle training showed no benefit.

  1. Nanotechnology: Advancing the translational respiratory research

    Dua, Kamal; Shukla, Shakti Dhar; de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha; Hansbro, Philip Michael

    2017-01-01

    Considering the various limitations associated with the conventional dosage forms, nanotechnology is gaining increased attention in drug delivery particularly in respiratory medicine and research because of its advantages like targeting effects, improved pharmacotherapy, and patient compliance. This paper provides a quick snapshot about the recent trends and applications of nanotechnology to various translational and formulation scientists working on various respiratory diseases, which can he...

  2. Fabry disease, respiratory symptoms, and airway limitation

    Svensson, Camilla Kara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    . The remaining 27 articles were relevant for this review. RESULTS: The current literature concerning lung manifestations describes various respiratory symptoms such as dyspnoea or shortness of breath, wheezing, and dry cough. These symptoms are often related to cardiac involvement in Fabry disease as respiratory...

  3. Respiratory bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis

    Ciofu, Oana; Hansen, Christine R; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bacterial respiratory infections are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains the main pathogen in adults, but other Gram-negative bacteria such as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia...... respiratory tract (nasal sampling) should be investigated and both infection sites should be treated....

  4. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...

  5. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.103 - Respiratory protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1926.103 Section 1926.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.103 Respiratory protection. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this...

  7. 29 CFR 1918.102 - Respiratory protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1918.102 Section 1918.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Respiratory protection. (See § 1918.1(b)(8)). [65 FR 40946, June 30, 2000] ...

  8. Perceived Competence and Comfort in Respiratory Protection

    Burgel, Barbara J.; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M.; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses’ educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  9. Air pollution and respiratory illness

    Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Perioperative modifications of respiratory function.

    Duggan, Michelle

    2012-01-31

    Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality, especially after major thoracic or abdominal surgery. Clinically relevant pulmonary complications include the exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications include patient-related risk factors (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking and increasing age) as well as procedure-related risk factors (e.g., site of surgery, duration of surgery and general vs. regional anaesthesia). Careful history taking and a thorough physical examination may be the most sensitive ways to identify at-risk patients. Pulmonary function tests are not suitable as a general screen to assess risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include smoking cessation, inspiratory muscle training, optimising nutritional status and intra-operative strategies. Postoperative care should include lung expansion manoeuvres and adequate pain control.

  11. The respiratory system in equations

    Maury, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The book proposes an introduction to the mathematical modeling of the respiratory system. A detailed introduction on the physiological aspects makes it accessible to a large audience without any prior knowledge on the lung. Different levels of description are proposed, from the lumped models with a small number of parameters (Ordinary Differential Equations), up to infinite dimensional models based on Partial Differential Equations. Besides these two types of differential equations, two chapters are dedicated to resistive networks, and to the way they can be used to investigate the dependence of the resistance of the lung upon geometrical characteristics. The theoretical analysis of the various models is provided, together with state-of-the-art techniques to compute approximate solutions, allowing comparisons with experimental measurements. The book contains several exercises, most of which are accessible to advanced undergraduate students.

  12. Prevention of Nosocomial Respiratory Infections

    N. A. Karpun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of an extended package of preventive measures on the incidence of nosocomial respiratory infections in surgical patients at an intensive care unit (ICU. Subjects and methods. The study included 809 patients aged 35 to 80 years. A study group comprised 494 patients in whom an extended package of preventive measures was implemented during 7 months (March-September. A control group consisted of 315 patients treated in 2004 in the same period of time (March-September. The groups were stratified by age, gender, underlying diseases, and APACHE-2 and SOFA scores. The extended package of anti-infectious measures involved a high air purification in ICUs («Flow-M» technology, routine use of ventilatory filters, closed aspiration systems with a built-in antibacterial filter under artificial ventilation for over 2 days. Results. The proposed technologies could reduce the frequency of tracheobronchitis and ventilator-associated pneumonias in the groups of patients at high risk for nosocomial infections substantially (by more than twice. Conclusion. The findings have led to the conclusion that the extended package of preventive measures is effective in preventing respiratory infections in ICU patients. Of special note is the proper prevention of upper airway contamination with pathogenic microorganisms, by employing the closed aspiration systems with a built-in antibacterial filter. The routine use of high-tech consumables in the intensive care of surgical patients causes a considerable decrease in the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and purulent tracheobronchitis and a reduction in the number of microbiological studies. Key words: ventilator-associated pneumonia, prevention of nosocomial infections, closed aspiration system.

  13. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Soraia Carvalho Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases.As células-tronco têm uma infinidade de implicações clínicas no pulmão. Este artigo é uma revisão crítica que inclui estudos clínicos e experimentais advindos do banco de dados do MEDLINE e SciElo nos últimos 10 anos, onde foram destacados os efeitos da terapia celular na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo ou doenças mais crônicas, como fibrose pulmonar e enfisema. Apesar de muitos estudos demonstrarem os efeitos benéficos das células-tronco no desenvolvimento, reparo e remodelamento pulmonar; algumas questões ainda precisam ser respondidas para um melhor entendimento dos mecanismos que controlam a divisão celular e diferenciação, permitindo o uso da terapia celular nas doenças respiratórias.

  14. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions.

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Association between indoor air pollution and respiratory disease in companion dogs and cats.

    Lin, Chung-Hui; Lo, Pei-Ying; Wu, Huey-Dong; Chang, Chinhao; Wang, Lih-Chiann

    2018-05-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) leads to important respiratory morbidity and mortality in humans. Companion dogs and cats share the same household environment with their owners and are exposed to IAP. Pets with respiratory disease are more commonly exposed to indoor air pollutants in their homes and to worse air quality than pets without respiratory disease. Three hundred and forty-eight animals (230 dogs and 118 cats) were recruited. Dogs and cats attending the National Taiwan University Veterinary Hospital were prospectively enrolled over a 12-month period. Questionnaires were collected from pet owners regarding the status of signs of respiratory problem of animals and air pollutants in their homes. Clinical assessment was performed by veterinarians on all animals included in the case-control study and the presence/absence of respiratory disease and diagnoses were recorded. Individual exposure to particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) was estimated in the domestic microenvironment of the animals. Dogs with respiratory disease were more commonly exposed to incense burning than control dogs (30 versus 13%, P = .045), but household PM2.5 level was not different between dogs with and without respiratory disease [median 30.8 μg/m 3 , range 10.8-214.2 versus median 38.2 μg/m 3 , range 5.4-69.4, P = .57]. Signalment factors (age, body weight, and body condition score) instead of IAP factors were associated with respiratory disease in dogs using multivariable logistic regression. In contrast, household PM2.5 level was significantly higher in cats with respiratory disease than in control cats [median 38.6 μg/m 3 , range 17.8-131.2 versus median 27.4 μg/m 3 , range 15.4-70.0, P = .017]. Cats living in households with PM2.5 > 35 μg/m 3 were more likely to have respiratory disease than those living in households with acceptable levels of PM2.5 (OR = 4.13, 95% CI 1.12-15.27, P = .03). The link between IAP and respiratory disease in dogs is

  16. Chronic diseases, chromosomal abnormalities, and congenital malformations as risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization

    Kristensen, Kim; Hjuler, Thomas; Ravn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how chronic conditions other than prematurity, heart disease, and Down syndrome affect the risk and severity of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We assess the risk and severity of RSV hospitalization in children with chronic conditions in this register...

  17. [The response of the upper respiratory tract to the impact of atmospheric pollution].

    Mukhamadiev, R A; Ismagilov, Sh M

    2015-01-01

    The present literature review characterizes the environmental conditions in the Russian Federation in general and the Republic of Tatarstan in particular with special reference to the influence of atmospheric pollution on the development and the clinical picture of the diseases of the respiratory organs including pathology of the upper respiratory tract in the populations of the industrial centres and other environmentally unfriendly areas. The views of the domestic and foreign authors concerning the role of the environmental factors in the clinical picture of the upper respiratory tract disorders are described in detail. The authors emphasize the necessity of the further investigationsinto this problem and the development of the methods for the prevention of diseases of the upper respiratory react.

  18. Noncontact Detection and Analysis of Respiratory Function Using Microwave Doppler Radar

    Yee Siong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time respiratory measurement with Doppler Radar has an important advantage in the monitoring of certain conditions such as sleep apnoea, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS, and many other general clinical uses requiring fast nonwearable and non-contact measurement of the respiratory function. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using Doppler Radar in measuring the basic respiratory frequencies (via fast Fourier transform for four different types of breathing scenarios: normal breathing, rapid breathing, slow inhalation-fast exhalation, and fast inhalation-slow exhalation conducted in a laboratory environment. A high correlation factor was achieved between the Doppler Radar-based measurements and the conventional measurement device, a respiration strap. We also extended this work from basic signal acquisition to extracting detailed features of breathing function (I : E ratio. This facilitated additional insights into breathing activity and is likely to trigger a number of new applications in respiratory medicine.

  19. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    Hardiman, Orla

    2012-02-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  20. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    Hardiman, Orla

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  1. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    Gleeson, L

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  2. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI. The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in lower respiratory tract. Recently, a new human pathogen belonging to the subfamily Pneumovirinae was identified, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV, which is structurally similar to the hRSV, in genomic organization, viral structure, antigenicity and clinical symptoms.  The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains two genera: genus Pneumovirus contains hRSV, the bovine (bRSV, as well as the ovine and caprine respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonia virus of mice, the second genus Metapneumovirus, consists of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV. In this work, we present a brief narrative review of the literature on important aspects of the biology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of infections by two respiratory viruses.

  3. Respiratory Depression Caused by Heroin Use

    Kadir Hakan Cansiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Heroin is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic and heroin abuse is common due to its pleasure-inducing effect. For the last 30 years heroin abuse has become an important worldwide public health problem. Heroin can be administered in many different ways as preferred. Heroin affects many systems including respiratory system, cardiovascular system and particulary the central nervous system. Overdose use of heroin intravenously can be fatal due to respiratory depression. In this letter, we wanted to engage attention to respiratory depression caused by heroin abuse and potential benefits of using naloxone. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 248-250

  4. Evaluation and treatment of respiratory alkalosis.

    Palmer, Biff F

    2012-11-01

    Respiratory alkalosis is the most frequent acid-base disturbance encountered in clinical practice. This is particularly true in critically ill patients, for whom the degree of hypocapnia directly correlates with adverse outcomes. Although this acid-base disturbance often is considered benign, evidence suggests that the alkalemia of primary hypocapnia can cause clinically significant decreases in tissue oxygen delivery. Mild respiratory alkalosis often serves as a marker of an underlying disease and may not require therapeutic intervention. In contrast, severe respiratory alkalosis should be approached with a sense of urgency and be aggressively corrected. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    Ahlstrom, C.; Johansson, A.; Hult, P.; Ask, P.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D 2 ) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D KY ) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data

  6. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    Ahlstrom, C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)]. E-mail: christer@imt.liu.se; Johansson, A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hult, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden); Ask, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D {sub 2}) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D {sub KY}) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data.

  7. Metformin-associated respiratory alkalosis.

    Bryant, Sean M; Cumpston, Kirk; Lipsky, Martin S; Patel, Nirali; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2004-01-01

    We present an 84-year-old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, glaucoma, and bladder cancer who presented to the emergency department after the police found him disoriented and confused. Metformin therapy began 3 days before, and he denied any overdose or suicidal ideation. Other daily medications included glipizide, fluticasone, prednisone, aspirin, furosemide, insulin, and potassium supplements. In the emergency department, his vital signs were significant for hypertension (168/90), tachycardia (120 bpm), and Kussmaul respirations at 24 breaths per minute. Oxygen saturation was 99% on room air, and a fingerstick glucose was 307 mg/dL. He was disoriented to time and answered questions slowly. Metformin was discontinued, and by day 3, the patient's vital signs and laboratory test results normalized. He has been asymptomatic at subsequent follow-up visits. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is a well-known phenomenon. Respiratory alkalosis may be an early adverse event induced by metformin prior to the development of lactic acidosis.

  8. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  9. Respiratory signal analysis of liver cancer patients with respiratory-gated radiation therapy

    Kang, Dong Im; Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chul Jong; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Byung Ki

    2015-01-01

    External markers respiratory movement measuring device (RPM; Real-time Position Management, Varian Medical System, USA) Liver Cancer Radiation Therapy Respiratory gated with respiratory signal with irradiation time and the actual research by analyzing the respiratory phase with the breathing motion measurement device respiratory tuning evaluate the accuracy of radiation therapy May-September 2014 Novalis Tx. (Varian Medical System, USA) and liver cancer radiotherapy using respiratory gated RPM (Duty Cycle 20%, Gating window 40%-60%) of 16 patients who underwent total when recording the analyzed respiratory movement. After the breathing motion of the external markers recorded on the RPM was reconstructed by breathing through the acts phase analysis, for Beam-on Time and Duty Cycle recorded by using the reconstructed phase breathing breathing with RPM gated the prediction accuracy of the radiation treatment analysis and analyzed the correlation between prediction accuracy and Duty Cycle in accordance with the reproducibility of the respiratory movement. Treatment of 16 patients with respiratory cycle during the actual treatment plan was analyzed with an average difference -0.03 seconds (range -0.50 seconds to 0.09 seconds) could not be confirmed statistically significant difference between the two breathing (p = 0.472). The average respiratory period when treatment is 4.02 sec (0.71 sec), the average value of the respiratory cycle of the treatment was characterized by a standard deviation 7.43% (range 2.57 to 19.20%). Duty Cycle is that the actual average 16.05% (range 13.78 to 17.41%), average 56.05 got through the acts of the show and then analyzed% (range 39.23 to 75.10%) is planned in respiratory research phase (40% to 60%) in was confirmed. The investigation on the correlation between the ratio Duty Cycle and planned respiratory phase and the standard deviation of the respiratory cycle was analyzed in each -0.156 (p = 0.282) and -0.385 (p = 0.070). This study is

  10. Evaluation of respiratory conditions in early phase of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Avaliação das condições respiratórias na fase inicial do transplante de células tronco hematopoiéticas

    Eliane Aparecida Bom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of respiratory physiotherapy based on clinical evidence and analyze the improvement in respiratory parameters. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out in the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP. Two different previously established respiratory physiotherapy protocols were applied from days D-1 to D+7 that aimed to improve airway clearance, pulmonary re-expansion and the strengthening of respiratory muscles. Group A were subjected to diaphragmatic proprioceptive stimulation, breathing exercises, incentive spirometry with Respiron®, inspiratory muscle training with the Threshold® Inspiratory Muscle Training device, bronchial hygienization with Shaker® and cough stimulation. Group B performed a protocol that only used incentive spirometry. The parameters analyzed were: tidal volume, minute volume, maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure, oxygen saturation, heart rate and respiratory frequency. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients submitted to myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were included in this study. Among these, thirty-nine were evaluated and randomized in the two groups. There were significant differences between the groups for tidal volume at D+2 (p-value = 0.007 and maximal inspiratory pressure (p-value = 0.03, maximal expiratory pressure (p-value = 0.03 and tidal volume (p-value = 0.004 at D+7. CONCLUSION: On comparing Group A with Group B, the authors concluded that the protocol of respiratory physiotherapy applied in this study resulted in an improvement in ventilation and in respiratory muscle strength of patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.OBJETIVO: investigar a eficácia da fisioterapia respiratória (FR baseada em evidência clínica e nos parâmetros respiratórios. Estudo prospectivo realizado na Unidade de Transplante de Medula Óssea da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Dois

  11. Exhaled nitric oxide in diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases

    Abba Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of biomarkers in exhaled breath constituents has recently become of great interest in the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of many respiratory conditions. Of particular interest is the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO in breath. Its measurement is noninvasive, easy and reproducible. The technique has recently been standardized by both American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. The availability of cheap, portable and reliable equipment has made the assay possible in clinics by general physicians and, in the near future, at home by patients. The concentration of exhaled nitric oxide is markedly elevated in bronchial asthma and is positively related to the degree of esinophilic inflammation. Its measurement can be used in the diagnosis of bronchial asthma and titration of dose of steroids as well as to identify steroid responsive patients in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In primary ciliary dyskinesia, nasal NO is diagnostically low and of considerable value in diagnosis. Among lung transplant recipients, FENO can be of great value in the early detection of infection, bronchioloitis obliterans syndrome and rejection. This review discusses the biology, factors affecting measurement, and clinical application of FENO in the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases.

  12. REM sleep respiratory behaviours mental content in narcoleptic lucid dreamers.

    Oudiette, Delphine; Dodet, Pauline; Ledard, Nahema; Artru, Emilie; Rachidi, Inès; Similowski, Thomas; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2018-02-08

    Breathing is irregular during rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, whereas it is stable during non-REM sleep. Why this is so remains a mystery. We propose that irregular breathing has a cortical origin and reflects the mental content of dreams, which often accompany REM sleep. We tested 21 patients with narcolepsy who had the exceptional ability to lucid dream in REM sleep, a condition in which one is conscious of dreaming during the dream and can signal lucidity with an ocular code. Sleep and respiration were monitored during multiple naps. Participants were instructed to modify their dream scenario so that it involved vocalizations or an apnoea, -two behaviours that require a cortical control of ventilation when executed during wakefulness. Most participants (86%) were able to signal lucidity in at least one nap. In 50% of the lucid naps, we found a clear congruence between the dream report (e.g., diving under water) and the observed respiratory behaviour (e.g., central apnoea) and, in several cases, a preparatory breath before the respiratory behaviour. This suggests that the cortico-subcortical networks involved in voluntary respiratory movements are preserved during REM sleep and that breathing irregularities during this stage have a cortical/subcortical origin that reflects dream content.

  13. Food insecurity, vitamin D insufficiency and respiratory infections among Inuit children

    Sze Man Tse

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food insecurity, vitamin D deficiency and lower respiratory tract infections are highly prevalent conditions among Inuit children. However, the relationship between these conditions has not been examined in this population. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between food insecurity and severe respiratory infections before age 2 years and health centre visits for a respiratory problem in the past year. We also explored the relationship between serum vitamin D status and respiratory outcomes in this population. Design: We included children aged 3–5 years who participated in a cross-sectional survey of the health of preschool Inuit children in Nunavut, Canada, from 2007 to 2008 (n=388. Parental reports of severe respiratory infections in the first 2 years of life and health care visits in the past 12 months were assessed through a questionnaire. Child and adult food security were assessed separately and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were measured in a subgroup of participants (n=279. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the association between food security, vitamin D and each of the 2 respiratory outcomes. Results: Child and adult food insecurity measures were not significantly associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. Household crowding [odds ratio (OR=1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.09–2.09, p=0.01 for the child food security model] and higher birth weight (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.02–1.43, p=0.03 were associated with reported severe chest infections before age 2 years while increasing age was associated with decreased odds of reported health care visits for a respiratory problem (OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.48–0.91, p=0.02. Neither vitamin D insufficiency nor deficiency was associated with these respiratory outcomes. Conclusions: Using a large cross-sectional survey of Inuit children, we found that household crowding, but not food security or vitamin D levels, was

  14. Food insecurity, vitamin D insufficiency and respiratory infections among Inuit children.

    Tse, Sze Man; Weiler, Hope; Kovesi, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity, vitamin D deficiency and lower respiratory tract infections are highly prevalent conditions among Inuit children. However, the relationship between these conditions has not been examined in this population. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between food insecurity and severe respiratory infections before age 2 years and health centre visits for a respiratory problem in the past year. We also explored the relationship between serum vitamin D status and respiratory outcomes in this population. We included children aged 3-5 years who participated in a cross-sectional survey of the health of preschool Inuit children in Nunavut, Canada, from 2007 to 2008 (n=388). Parental reports of severe respiratory infections in the first 2 years of life and health care visits in the past 12 months were assessed through a questionnaire. Child and adult food security were assessed separately and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were measured in a subgroup of participants (n=279). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the association between food security, vitamin D and each of the 2 respiratory outcomes. Child and adult food insecurity measures were not significantly associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. Household crowding [odds ratio (OR)=1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.09, p=0.01 for the child food security model] and higher birth weight (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.43, p=0.03) were associated with reported severe chest infections before age 2 years while increasing age was associated with decreased odds of reported health care visits for a respiratory problem (OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.48-0.91, p=0.02). Neither vitamin D insufficiency nor deficiency was associated with these respiratory outcomes. Using a large cross-sectional survey of Inuit children, we found that household crowding, but not food security or vitamin D levels, was associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. Further studies are warranted to

  15. Effect of transoral tracheal wash on respiratory mechanics in dogs with respiratory disease.

    Vaught, Meghan E; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; deLaforcade, Armelle M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a transoral tracheal wash (TOTW) on respiratory mechanics in dogs and to describe the use of a critical care ventilator (CCV) to determine respiratory mechanics. Fourteen client-owned dogs with respiratory diseases were enrolled. Respiratory mechanics, including static compliance (C stat ) and static resistance (R stat ), were determined before and after TOTW. Pre- and post-wash results were compared, with a P -value of mechanics, as observed by a reduction in C stat , presumably due to airway flooding and collapse. While no long-lasting effects were noted in these clinical patients, this effect should be considered when performing TOTW on dogs with respiratory diseases. Respiratory mechanics testing using a CCV was feasible and may be a useful clinical testing approach.

  16. Is public transport a risk factor for acute respiratory infection?

    Packham Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between public transport use and acquisition of acute respiratory infection (ARI is not well understood but potentially important during epidemics and pandemics. Methods A case-control study performed during the 2008/09 influenza season. Cases (n = 72 consulted a General Practitioner with ARI, and controls with another non-respiratory acute condition (n = 66. Data were obtained on bus or tram usage in the five days preceding illness onset (cases or the five days before consultation (controls alongside demographic details. Multiple logistic regression modelling was used to investigate the association between bus or tram use and ARI, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Recent bus or tram use within five days of symptom onset was associated with an almost six-fold increased risk of consulting for ARI (adjusted OR = 5.94 95% CI 1.33-26.5. The risk of ARI appeared to be modified according to the degree of habitual bus and tram use, but this was not statistically significant (1-3 times/week: adjusted OR = 0.54 (95% CI 0.15-1.95; >3 times/week: 0.37 (95% CI 0.13-1.06. Conclusions We found a statistically significant association between ARI and bus or tram use in the five days before symptom onset. The risk appeared greatest among occasional bus or tram users, but this trend was not statistically significant. However, these data are plausible in relation to the greater likelihood of developing protective antibodies to common respiratory viruses if repeatedly exposed. The findings have differing implications for the control of seasonal acute respiratory infections and for pandemic influenza.

  17. Effects of global warming on respiratory diseases

    Abe Olugbenga

    and tuberculosis), parasitic lung diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... Methods: A literature search on global warming and respiratory diseases was carried out through the internet .... (COPD) The main factor to consider here is.

  18. Respiratory muscle training for multiple sclerosis

    Rietberg, Marc B.; Veerbeek, Janne M.; Gosselink, Rik; Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system, affecting approximately 2.5 million people worldwide. People with MS may experience limitations in muscular strength and endurance - including the respiratory muscles, affecting functional performance and

  19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome: lessons and uncertainties.

    Kullberg, B.J.; Voss, A.

    2003-01-01

    The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has produced scientific and epidemiological discoveries with unprecedented speed, and this information has been spread instantaneously to the global health community through the internet. Within a few weeks, the coronavirus associated with

  20. Respiratory function in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 1

    Wohlgemuth, M.; Horlings, G.C.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Gilhuis, H.J.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Maarel, S.M. van der; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Heijdra, Y.F.; Padberg, G.W.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that wheelchair dependency and (kypho-)scoliosis are risk factors for developing respiratory insufficiency in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, we examined 81 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 1 of varying degrees of severity ranging from ambulatory

  1. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking

    This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.

  2. Respiratory Disorders Among Workers in Slaughterhouses

    Abbasali Kasaeinasab

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of respiratory disorders was significantly higher among workers in slaughterhouses. Thus, the significant reduction in the percentage predicted lung function among workers in slaughterhouses might be associated with exposure to bioaerosols in their work environment.

  3. CAUSES OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS IN CHILDREN

    M M Karambin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nThere is a lack of large, prospective epidemiologic studies concerning acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in pediatric population. To determine the different causes of respiratory distress in children, we prepared a retrospective study and included the whole 567 children with respiratory distress referred to 17-Shahrivar Hospital, Rasht, Guilan. Using their medical files, data including age, sex, and causes of respiratory distress were collected. SPSS 13.0 (statistical software applied for statistical analysis. Pneumonia, asthma, and croup were the major causes of ARDS in children with a rate of 38.4, 19.04, and 16.5 percent, respectively. It seems that infectious factors are at the top of the list of ARDS causing factors which can be helpful to approach and manage such patients. We suggest vaccinating these at risk groups against common infectious factors such as H. Influenza and RSV which can cause either pneumonia or inducing asthma.

  4. Learn about Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    ... the Planet and Lung Health by Reducing Air Pollution Blog: JUUL: A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing '; } else { ... while processing XML file."); } }); } } --> Blank Section Header Lung Disease Lookup RSV Learn About Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) RSV Symptoms, Causes & Risk Factors ...

  5. Effects of air pollution on respiratory health

    Hasan Bayram

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion, air pollutants can induce respiratory mortality and morbidity by leading to airway and lung inflammation and impairing the airway defence system against noxious agents and microorganisms such as mycobacteria TB.

  6. The short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China: comparison of time-series and case-crossover analyses

    Meng Ren; Na Li; Zhan Wang; Yisi Liu; Xi Chen; Yuanyuan Chu; Xiangyu Li; Zhongmin Zhu; Liqiao Tian; Hao Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have compared different methods when exploring the short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China. This study assesses the association between air pollutants and respiratory disease mortality with both time-series and time-stratified?case-crossover designs. The generalized additive model (GAM) and the conditional logistic regression model were used to assess the short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality. Stratified...

  7. Treatment of respiratory failure in COPD

    Stephan Budweiser

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Budweiser1, Rudolf A Jörres2, Michael Pfeifer1,31Center for Pneumology, Hospital Donaustauf, Donaustauf, Germany; 2Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Respirology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, GermanyAbstract: Patients with advanced COPD and acute or chronic respiratory failure are at high risk for death. Beyond pharmacological treatment, supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation are major treatment options. This review describes the physiological concepts underlying respiratory failure and its therapy, as well as important treatment outcomes. The rationale for the controlled supply of oxygen in acute hypoxic respiratory failure is undisputed. There is also a clear survival benefit from long-term oxygen therapy in patients with chronic hypoxia, while in mild, nocturnal, or exercise-induced hypoxemia such long-term benefits appear questionable. Furthermore, much evidence supports the use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. It application reduces intubation and mortality rates, and the duration of intensive care unit or hospital stays, particularly in the presence of mild to moderate respiratory acidosis. COPD with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure became a major indication for domiciliary mechanical ventilation, based on pathophysiological reasoning and on data regarding symptoms and quality of life. Still, however, its relevance for long-term survival has to be substantiated in prospective controlled studies. Such studies might preferentially recruit patients with repeated hypercapnic decompensation or a high risk for death, while ensuring effective ventilation and the patients’ adherence to therapy.Keywords: respiratory failure, COPD, mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation long-term oxygen therapy, chronic

  8. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in immunocompromised patients

    Azoulay, Elie; Pickkers, Peter; Soares, Marcio

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In immunocompromised patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (ARF), initial management aims primarily to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). METHODS: To assess the impact of initial management on IMV and mortality rates, we performed a multinational observational.......54-0.87), day-1 SOFA excluding respiratory score (1.12/point, 1.08-1.16), PaO2/FiO2

  9. [Immunomodulators in Therapy of Respiratory Infections].

    Isakov, V A; Isakov, D V

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections provoke dysbalance in the interferon system and inhibition of the cellular and phagocytic responses of the host. Long-term persistence of pathogenic viruses and bacteria induce atopy and could aggravate chronic respiratory diseases. The up-to-date classification of immunomodulators is described. High efficacy of interferon inductors, such as cycloferon and some others as auxiliary means in therapy or prophylaxis (immunorehabilitation) of viral respiratory infections in adults and children was shown.

  10. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...

  11. Incidence of respiratory viruses in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections.

    del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Weilg, Pablo; Verne, Eduardo; Nazario-Fuertes, Ronald; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J; Pumarola, Tomás

    2015-06-01

    Acute respiratory infections are responsible for high morbi-mortality in Peruvian children. However, the etiological agents are poorly identified. This study, conducted during the pandemic outbreak of H1N1 influenza in 2009, aims to determine the main etiological agents responsible for acute respiratory infections in children from Lima, Peru. Nasopharyngeal swabs collected from 717 children with acute respiratory infections between January 2009 and December 2010 were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR for 13 respiratory viruses: influenza A, B, and C virus; parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4; and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A and B, among others. Samples were also tested with direct fluorescent-antibodies (DFA) for six respiratory viruses. RT-PCR and DFA detected respiratory viruses in 240 (33.5%) and 85 (11.9%) cases, respectively. The most common etiological agents were RSV-A (15.3%), followed by influenza A (4.6%), PIV-1 (3.6%), and PIV-2 (1.8%). The viruses identified by DFA corresponded to RSV (5.9%) and influenza A (1.8%). Therefore, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) were found to be the most common etiology of acute respiratory infections. The authors suggest that active surveillance be conducted to identify the causative agents and improve clinical management, especially in the context of possible circulation of pandemic viruses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cardiorespiratory Coupling: Common Rhythms in Cardiac, Sympathetic, and Respiratory Activities

    Dick, Thomas E.; Hsieh, Yee-Hsee; Dhingra, Rishi R.; Baekey, David M.; Galán, Roberto F.; Wehrwein, Erica; Morris, Kendall F.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory coupling is an encompassing term describing more than the well-recognized influences of respiration on heart rate and blood pressure. Our data indicate that cardiorespiratory coupling reflects a reciprocal interaction between autonomic and respiratory control systems, and the cardiovascular system modulates the ventilatory pattern as well. For example, cardioventilatory coupling refers to the influence of heart beats and arterial pulse pressure on respiration and is the tendency for the next inspiration to start at a preferred latency after the last heart beat in expiration. Multiple complementary, well-described mechanisms mediate respiration’s influence on cardiovascular function, whereas mechanisms mediating the cardiovascular system’s influence on respiration may only be through the baroreceptors but are just being identified. Our review will describe a differential effect of conditioning rats with either chronic intermittent or sustained hypoxia on sympathetic nerve activity but also on ventilatory pattern variability. Both intermittent and sustained hypoxia increase sympathetic nerve activity after 2 weeks but affect sympatho-respiratory coupling differentially. Intermittent hypoxia enhances sympatho-respiratory coupling, which is associated with low variability in the ventilatory pattern. In contrast, after constant hypobaric hypoxia, 1-to-1 coupling between bursts of sympathetic and phrenic nerve activity is replaced by 2-to-3 coupling. This change in coupling pattern is associated with increased variability of the ventilatory pattern. After baro-denervating hypobaric hypoxic-conditioned rats, splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity becomes tonic (distinct bursts are absent) with decreases during phrenic nerve bursts and ventilatory pattern becomes regular. Thus, conditioning rats to either intermittent or sustained hypoxia accentuates the reciprocal nature of cardiorespiratory coupling. Finally, identifying a compelling physiologic

  13. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect the respiratory neuronal network in the ventral medulla of neonatal rats.

    Okada, Yasumasa; Masumiya, Haruko; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Oku, Yoshitaka

    2007-11-01

    Two respiratory-related areas, the para-facial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN) and the pre-Bötzinger complex/ventral respiratory group (preBötC/VRG), are thought to play key roles in respiratory rhythm. Because respiratory output patterns in response to respiratory and metabolic acidosis differ, we hypothesized that the responses of the medullary respiratory neuronal network to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are different. To test these hypotheses, we analysed respiratory-related activity in the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG of the neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord in vitro by optical imaging using a voltage-sensitive dye, and compared the effects of respiratory and metabolic acidosis on these two populations. We found that the spatiotemporal responses of respiratory-related regional activities to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are fundamentally different, although both acidosis similarly augmented respiratory output by increasing respiratory frequency. PreBötC/VRG activity, which is mainly inspiratory, was augmented by respiratory acidosis. Respiratory-modulated pixels increased in the preBötC/VRG area in response to respiratory acidosis. Metabolic acidosis shifted the respiratory phase in the pFRG/RTN; the pre-inspiratory dominant pattern shifted to inspiratory dominant. The responses of the pFRG/RTN activity to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are complex, and involve either augmentation or reduction in the size of respiratory-related areas. Furthermore, the activation pattern in the pFRG/RTN switched bi-directionally between pre-inspiratory/inspiratory and post-inspiratory. Electrophysiological study supported the results of our optical imaging study. We conclude that respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect activities of the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG, inducing switching and shifts of the respiratory phase. We suggest that they differently influence the coupling states between the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG.

  14. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  15. Biology of human respiratory syncytial virus: a review | Aliyu | Bayero ...

    Acute lower respiratory tract infection is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in young children worldwide. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important viral cause of lower respiratory tract infection during infancy and early childhood worldwide. Respiratory syncytial virus belongs to the ...

  16. Antiviral therapy and prophylaxis of acute respiratory infections

    L. V. Osidak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thearticle presents the results of years of studies (including biochemical and immunological of the effectiveness of application and prophylaxis (in relation to nosocomial infections and the safety of antiviral chemical preparation Arbidol in 694 children with influenza and influenza-like illness, including the coronavirus infection (43 children and combined lesions of respiratory tract (150, indicating the possible inclusion of the drug in the complex therapy for children with the listed diseases, regardless of the severity and nature of their course. The studies were conducted according to the regulated standard of test conditions and randomized clinical trials.

  17. Performing Aspirin Desensitization in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Waldram, Jeremy D; Simon, Ronald A

    2016-11-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma, and reactions to cyclooxygenase-1-inhibiting drugs. This condition is often refractory to standard medical treatments and results in aggressive nasal polyposis that often requires multiple sinus surgeries. Aspirin desensitization followed by daily aspirin therapy is an important treatment option, and its efficacy has been validated in multiple research studies. Aspirin desensitization is not without risk, but specific protocols and recommendations exist to mitigate the risk. Most patients with AERD can undergo aspirin desensitization in an outpatient setting under the supervision of an allergist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Consideration of the accuracy by variation of respiration in real-time position management respiratory gating system

    Na, Jun Young; Kang, Tae Young; Beak, Geum Mun; Kwon, Gyeong Tae

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy (RGRT) has been carried out using RPM (Real-time Position Management) Respiratory Gating System (version 1.7.5, varian, USA) in Asan Medical Center. This study was to analyze and evaluate the accuracy of Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy (RGRT) according to variation of respiration. Making variation of respiration using Motion Phantom:QUASAR Programmable Respiratory Motion Phantom (Moudus Medical Device Inc. CANADA) able to adjust respiration pattern randomly was varying period, amplitude and baseline by analyze 50 patient's respiration of lung and liver cancer. One of the variations of respiration is baseline shift gradually downward per 0.01 cm, 0.03 cm, 0.05 cm. The other variation of respiration is baseline shift accidently downward per 0.2 cm, 0.4 cm, 0.6 cm, 0.8 cm. Experiments were performed in the same way that is used RPM Respiratory Gating System (phase gating, usually 30-70% gating) in Asan Medical Center. It was all exposed radiation under one of the conditions of baseline shift gradually downward per 0.01 cm, 0.03 cm, 0.05 cm. Under the other condition of baseline shift accidently downward per 0.2 cm, 0.4 cm, 0.6 cm, 0.8 cm equally radiation was exposed. The variations of baseline shifts didn't accurately reflect on phase gating in RPM Respiratory Gating System. This inexactitude makes serious uncertainty in Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy. So, Must be stabilized breathing of patient before conducting Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy. also must be monitored breathing of patient in the middle of treatment. If you observe considerable changes of breathing when conducting Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy. Stopping treatment immediately and then must be need to recheck treatment site using fluoroscopy. If patient's respiration rechecked using fluoroscopy restabilize, it is possible to restart Respiratory Gated Radiation Therapy

  19. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: an audit of incidence and outcome in Scottish intensive care units.

    Hughes, M; MacKirdy, F N; Ross, J; Norrie, J; Grant, I S

    2003-09-01

    This prospective audit of incidence and outcome of the acute respiratory distress syndrome was conducted as part of the national audit of intensive care practice in Scotland. All patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome in 23 adult intensive care units were identified using the diagnostic criteria defined by the American-European Consensus Conference. Daily data collection was continued until death or intensive care unit discharge. Three hundred and sixty-nine patients were diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome over the 8-month study period. The frequency of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the intensive care unit population was 8.1%; the incidence in the Scottish population was estimated at 16.0 cases.100,000(-1).year(-1). Intensive care unit mortality for acute respiratory distress syndrome was 53.1%, with a hospital mortality of 60.9%. In our national unselected population of critically ill patients, the overall outcome is comparable with published series (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II standardised mortality ratio = 0.99). However, mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome in Scotland is substantially higher than in recent other series suggesting an improvement in outcome in this condition.

  20. Modified chemically defined medium for enhanced respiratory growth of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum groups.

    Ricciardi, A; Ianniello, R G; Parente, E; Zotta, T

    2015-09-01

    Members of the Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum groups are capable of aerobic and respiratory growth. However, they grow poorly in aerobiosis in the currently available chemically defined media, suggesting that aerobic and respiratory growth require further supplementation. The effect of Tween 80, L-alanine, L-asparagine, L-aspartate, L-proline and L-serine on anaerobic and respiratory growth of Lact. casei N87 was investigated using a 2(5) factorial design. The effectiveness of modified CDM (mCDM) was validated on 21 strains of Lact. casei and Lact. plantarum groups. Tween 80 supplementation did not affect anaerobic growth, but improved respiratory growth. L-asparagine, L-proline and L-serine were stimulatory for respiring cells, while the presence of L-aspartate, generally, impaired biomass production. mCDM promoted the growth of Lact. casei and Lact. plantarum, with best results for strains showing a respiratory phenotype. The nutritional requirements of anaerobic and respiratory cultures of members of the Lact. casei and Lact. plantarum groups differ. Tween 80 and selected amino acids derived from pathways related to TCA cycle, pyruvate conversion and NADH recycling are required for respiration. The availability of mCDM will facilitate the study of aerobic metabolism of lactobacilli under controlled conditions. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Organ motion study and dosimetric impact of respiratory gating radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    Lorchel, F.

    2007-04-01

    Chemoradiotherapy is now the standard treatment for locally advanced or inoperable esophageal carcinoma. In this indication, conformal radiotherapy is generally used. However, prognosis remains poor for these patients. Respiratory gating radiotherapy can decrease healthy tissues irradiation and allows escalation dose in lung, liver and breast cancer. In order to improve radiotherapy technique, we propose to study the feasibility of respiratory gating for esophageal cancer. We will study the respiratory motions of esophageal cancer to optimize target volume delineation, especially the internal margin (I.M.). We will test the correlation between tumour and chest wall displacements to prove that esophageal cancer motions are induced by respiration. This is essential before using free breathing respiratory gating systems. We will work out the dosimetric impact of respiratory gating using various dosimetric analysis parameters. We will compare dosimetric plans at end expiration, end inspiration and deep inspiration with dosimetric plan in free-breathing condition. This will allow us to establish the best respiratory phase to irradiate for each gating system. This dosimetric study will be completed with linear quadratic equivalent uniform dose (E.U.D.) calculation for each volume of interest. Previously, we will do a theoretical study of histogram dose volume gradation to point up its use. (author)

  2. Spontaneous group synchronization of movements and respiratory rhythms.

    Erwan Codrons

    Full Text Available We tested whether pre-assigned arm movements performed in a group setting spontaneously synchronized and whether synchronization extended to heart and respiratory rhythms. We monitored arm movements, respiration and electrocardiogram at rest and during spontaneous, music and metronome-associated arm-swinging. No directions were given on whether or how the arm swinging were to be synchronized between participants or with the external cues. Synchronization within 3 groups of 10 participants studied collectively was compared with pseudo-synchronization of 3 groups of 10 participants that underwent an identical protocol but in an individual setting. Motor synchronization was found to be higher in the collective groups than in the individuals for the metronome-associated condition. On a repetition of the protocol on the following day, motor synchronization in the collective groups extended to the spontaneous, un-cued condition. Breathing was also more synchronized in the collective groups than in the individuals, particularly at rest and in the music-associated condition. Group synchronization occurs without explicit instructions, and involves both movements and respiratory control rhythms.

  3. Effect of training and rest on respiratory mechanical properties in racing sled dogs.

    Davis, Michael; Williamson, Katherine; McKenzie, Erica; Royer, Christopher; Payton, Mark; Nelson, Stuart

    2005-02-01

    Racing Alaskan sled dogs develop exercise-induced airway inflammation, similar to that reported for elite human athletes participating in cold-weather sports. These human athletes also have airway hyperresponsiveness, but airway function in sled dogs has not been measured. To compare respiratory mechanical properties in trained, rested Alaskan sled dogs with typical laboratory hounds, and to determine whether subsequent training alters respiratory mechanical properties. Nineteen healthy adult Alaskan sled dogs were compared with five healthy adult mixed-breed laboratory hounds. All dogs were rested for at least 4 months before examination. Respiratory mechanical properties were measured while the dogs were anesthetized and ventilated with a piston ventilator. The mean respiratory resistance and compliance measurements for 20 consecutive breaths were used as baseline values immediately before measurement of respiratory reactivity. Respiratory reactivity was the mean of 20 consecutive breaths immediately after the administration of aerosol histamine, expressed as the percentage change in prehistamine measurements. After the initial examinations, the sled dogs were divided into exercised and controls. Exercised dogs were trained for competitive endurance racing. Both groups were examined after 2 and 4 months of training. Alaskan sled dogs had greater respiratory compliance reactivity to histamine (77.47 +/- 8.58% baseline) compared with laboratory dogs (87.60 +/- 9.22% baseline). There was no effect of training on respiratory mechanical properties detected in racing sled dogs. Racing Alaskan sled dogs have airway dysfunction similar to "ski asthma" that persists despite having 4 months of rest. These findings suggest that repeated exercise in cold conditions can lead to airway disease that does not readily resolve with cessation of exercise.

  4. Randomized Comparison of Helmet CPAP Versus High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Pediatric Respiratory Distress.

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Vitaliti, Maria Concetta; Finocchiaro, Maria Carla; Di Stefano, Vita Antonella; Pavone, Piero; Matin, Nassim; Motamed-Gorji, Nazgol; Lubrano, Riccardo; Falsaperla, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of 2 noninvasive respiratory support methods, which included helmet CPAP and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in children with respiratory distress admitted to a pediatric intermediate care unit. This study was a prospective observational study conducted on children with respiratory distress (age 1-24 months) who were admitted to our acute and emergency operative unit. All included subjects were randomly treated with helmet CPAP or HFNC in a 1:1 fashion until their clinical picture, oxygen saturation, and arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters resolved. The efficiencies of helmet CPAP and HFNC were evaluated by breathing frequency, S pO 2 , ABG pH, ABG P aCO 2 , ABG P aO 2 , and P aO 2 /F IO 2 , recorded once at baseline and then after 1 and 6 h of treatment. Both noninvasive respiratory support modalities were compared with a control group of subjects with respiratory distress under standard therapeutic pharmaceutical protocols. We found that both helmet CPAP and HFNC were efficient in improving the clinical conditions of subjects with mild-to-moderate respiratory distress, although clinical response to helmet CPAP was more efficient and rapid compared with HFNC. Children who received respiratory support had a better clinical course in terms of hospitalization, days of intravenous rehydration therapy, and days of drug administration compared with the control group ( P CPAP and HFNC in respiratory distress resolution in a pediatric intermediate care setting. It aims to identify the most efficient treatment to avoid pediatric ICU admissions and endotracheal intubation and reduce the administration of drugs and days of hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Respiratory potential in sapwood of old versus young ponderosa pine trees in the Pacific Northwest.

    Pruyn, Michele L; Gartner, Barbara L; Harmon, Mark E

    2002-02-01

    Our primary objective was to present and test a new technique for in vitro estimation of respiration of cores taken from old trees to determine respiratory trends in sapwood. Our secondary objective was to quantify effects of tree age and stem position on respiratory potential (rate of CO2 production of woody tissue under standardized laboratory conditions). We extracted cores from one to four vertical positions in boles of +200-, +50- and +15-year-old Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. trees. Cores were divided into five segments corresponding to radial depths of inner bark; outer, middle and inner sapwood; and heartwood. Data suggested that core segment CO2 production was an indicator of its respiratory activity, and that potential artifacts caused by wounding and extraction were minimal. On a dry mass basis, respiratory potential of inner bark was 3-15 times greater than that of sapwood at all heights for all ages (P sapwood at all heights and in all ages of trees, outer sapwood had a 30-60% higher respiratory potential than middle or inner sapwood (P sapwood. For all ages of trees, sapwood rings produced in the same calendar year released over 50% more CO2 at treetops than at bases (P sapwood volume basis, sapwood of younger trees had higher respiratory potential than sapwood of older trees. In contrast, the trend was reversed when using the outer-bark surface area of stems as a basis for comparing respiratory potential. The differences observed in respiratory potential calculated on a core dry mass, sapwood volume, or outer-bark surface area basis clearly demonstrate that the resulting trends within and among trees are determined by the way in which the data are expressed. Although these data are based on core segments rather than in vivo measurements, we conclude that the relative differences are probably valid even if the absolute differences are not.

  6. Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Respiratory Guidance System in the Respiratory Gating Radiation Therapy

    Lee, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Sun Myung; Do, Gyeong Min; Park, Geun Yong; Kim, Gun Oh; Kim, Young Bum [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Guro Hospital, Korea Univeristy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The respiration is one of the most important factors in respiratory gating radiation therapy (RGRT). We have developed an unique respiratory guidance system using an audio-visual system in order to support and stabilize individual patient's respiration and evaluated the usefulness of this system. Seven patients received the RGRT at our clinic from June 2011 to April 2012. After breathing exercise standard deviations by the superficial contents of respiratory cycles and functions, and analyzed them to examine changes in their breathing before and with the audio-visual system, we measured their spontaneous respiration and their respiration with the audio-visual system respectively. With the measured data, we yielded after the therapy. The PTP (peak to peak) of the standard deviations of the free breathing, the audio guidance system, and the respiratory guidance system were 0.343, 0.148, and 0.078 respectively. The respiratory cycles were 0.645, 0.345, and 0.171 respectively and the superficial contents of the respiratory functions were 2.591, 1.008, and 0.877 respectively. The average values of the differences in the standard deviations among the whole patients at the CT room and therapy room were 0.425 for the PTP, 1.566 for the respiratory cycles, and 3.671 for the respiratory superficial contents. As for the standard deviations before and after the application of the PTP respiratory guidance system, that of the PTP was 0.265, that of the respiratory cycles was 0.474, and that of the respiratory superficial contents. The results of t-test of the values before and after free breathing and the audio-visual guidance system showed that the P-value of the PTP was 0.035, that of the cycles 0.009, and that of the respiratory superficial contents 0.010. The respiratory control could be one of the most important factors in the RGRT which determines the success or failure of a treatment. We were able to get more stable breathing with the audio-visual respiratory

  7. Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Respiratory Guidance System in the Respiratory Gating Radiation Therapy

    Lee, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Sun Myung; Do, Gyeong Min; Park, Geun Yong; Kim, Gun Oh; Kim, Young Bum

    2012-01-01

    The respiration is one of the most important factors in respiratory gating radiation therapy (RGRT). We have developed an unique respiratory guidance system using an audio-visual system in order to support and stabilize individual patient's respiration and evaluated the usefulness of this system. Seven patients received the RGRT at our clinic from June 2011 to April 2012. After breathing exercise standard deviations by the superficial contents of respiratory cycles and functions, and analyzed them to examine changes in their breathing before and with the audio-visual system, we measured their spontaneous respiration and their respiration with the audio-visual system respectively. With the measured data, we yielded after the therapy. The PTP (peak to peak) of the standard deviations of the free breathing, the audio guidance system, and the respiratory guidance system were 0.343, 0.148, and 0.078 respectively. The respiratory cycles were 0.645, 0.345, and 0.171 respectively and the superficial contents of the respiratory functions were 2.591, 1.008, and 0.877 respectively. The average values of the differences in the standard deviations among the whole patients at the CT room and therapy room were 0.425 for the PTP, 1.566 for the respiratory cycles, and 3.671 for the respiratory superficial contents. As for the standard deviations before and after the application of the PTP respiratory guidance system, that of the PTP was 0.265, that of the respiratory cycles was 0.474, and that of the respiratory superficial contents. The results of t-test of the values before and after free breathing and the audio-visual guidance system showed that the P-value of the PTP was 0.035, that of the cycles 0.009, and that of the respiratory superficial contents 0.010. The respiratory control could be one of the most important factors in the RGRT which determines the success or failure of a treatment. We were able to get more stable breathing with the audio-visual respiratory guidance

  8. Acute Respiratory Failure Induced by Magnesium Replacement in a 62-Year-Old Woman with Myasthenia Gravis.

    Singh, Paramveer; Idowu, Olakunle; Malik, Imrana; Nates, Joseph L

    2015-10-01

    Magnesium is known to act at the neuromuscular junction by inhibiting the presynaptic release of acetylcholine and desensitizing the postsynaptic membrane. Because of these effects, magnesium has been postulated to potentiate neuromuscular weakness. We describe the case of a 62-year-old woman with myasthenia gravis and a metastatic thymoma who was admitted to our intensive care unit for management of a myasthenic crisis. The patient's neuromuscular weakness worsened in association with standard intravenous magnesium replacement, and the exacerbated respiratory failure necessitated intubation, mechanical ventilation, and an extended stay in the intensive care unit. The effect of magnesium replacement on myasthenia gravis patients has not been well documented, and we present this case to increase awareness and stimulate research. In addition, we discuss the relevant medical literature.

  9. Multidisciplinary approach to the management of a case of classical respiratory diphtheria requiring percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding.

    Haywood, Matthew James; Vijendren, Ananth; Acharya, Vikas; Mulla, Rohinton; Panesar, Miss Jaan

    2017-03-06

    We present a case of a Caucasian woman aged 67 years referred with a 4-day history of sore throat, dysphagia, fever and nasal blockage. Examination revealed a swollen neck and pharyngeal pseudomembrane. A throat swab was positive on culture for Corynebacterium ulcerans , with toxin expression confirmed on PCR and Elek testing. A diagnosis of classical respiratory diphtheria was made, with subsequent confirmation of the patient's domesticated dog as the source of infection. The dog had recently been attacked by a wild badger and was being treated for an ear infection. The patient made a good recovery with intravenous antimicrobial and supportive therapy; however, she subsequently developed a diphtheritic polyneuropathy in the form of a severe bulbar palsy with frank aspiration necessitating percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. A mild sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy was also diagnosed. The patient eventually made an almost complete recovery. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Respiratory Protection Behavior and Respiratory Indices among Poultry House Workers on Small, Family-Owned Farms in North Carolina: A Pilot Project.

    Kearney, Gregory D; Gallagher, Barbara; Shaw, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate respiratory behavior and respiratory indices of poultry workers on family-owned, poultry farms with 10 or less employees in North Carolina. A field study was conducted to collect data on participants (N = 24) using spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), and an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The majority of workers (76%) ranked respiratory protection as being important, yet 48% reported never or rarely wearing respiratory protection when working in dusty conditions. A large percent of workers reported eye (55%) and nasal (50%) irritation and dry cough (50%). On average, pulmonary lung function and Feno tests were normal among nonsmokers. In bivariate analysis, significant associations were identified between working 7 days on the farm (P = .01), with eye irritation, and working 5 or fewer years in poultry farming (P = .01). Poultry workers on family-owned farms spend a considerable amount of work time in poultry houses and report acute respiratory-related health symptoms. Administrative controls among small, family-owned poultry farms are necessary to improve and promote safety and health to its employees.

  11. Pacemaker dislocation - Truly ectopic activation necessitating surgical treatment

    de Kroon, TL; Witsenburg, M; Bogerts, AJJC

    Intra-abdominal migration of a generator from an epicardial pacemaker system is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. We report on a case of a 2-year-old child in whom the generator silently migrated from the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle in the upper abdominal wall down into

  12. Mineral supply constraints necessitate a global policy response

    Nickless, Edmund

    2016-04-01

    Adoption on 12 December 2015 of The Paris Agreement, the first universal climate agreement, suggests that nations will invest in infrastructures for renewable energy sources paving the way to a global low-carbon society. These large-scale changes will require vast amounts of metals and minerals. Regardless of whether known supplies are enough to meet demand in the near future, efforts must be made now to forestall unpredictable yet inevitable supply shortages in the decades to come, shortages that would dramatically impact the building of additional generation and distribution capacity, and deployment of low-carbon technology. But in response to the current downturn in commodity prices, the global mining industry is downsizing and reducing investment in the new exploration, putting at risk future security of supply. Mining and climate change are inextricably linked; the new adaptive technologies needed to tackle climate change depend on extraction of minerals and metals. An interdisciplinary group supported by the International Union of Geological Sciences, the International Council for Science Unions and UNESCO proposes measures to avert the looming minerals crisis that is developing in the context of current recycling capacity and exploration trends. Our immediate goal is to stimulate discussion of supply constraints using available data on mineral reserves. We build on recent discussions of supply risk and criticality with a focus on the source of primary resources over the next two to three decades when the availability of metals for recycling will remain low. Current massive production of iron ore and other such commodities despite record low prices indicates a failure of the traditional supply and demand constraints. Broader discussions of metal and mineral supply beyond current criticality are needed given the pace of technological and demographic change as well as rapid development spurts. Furthermore, accessible mineral deposits are irregularly distributed and often occur in areas of conflict. We advocate the establishment of an international panel (under the auspices of the United Nations) to monitor consumption and production of mineral resources for future generations. Edmund Nickless, Chair, IUGS Resourcing Future Generations initiative

  13. Treatment of congestion in upper respiratory diseases

    Eli O Meltzer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eli O Meltzer1, Fernan Caballero2, Leonard M Fromer3, John H Krouse4, Glenis Scadding51Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USA; 2Allergy and Clinical Immunology Service, Centro Medico-Docente La Trinidad, Caracas, Venezuela; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA; 4Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA; 5Department of Allergy and Rhinology, Royal National TNE Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Congestion, as a symptom of upper respiratory tract diseases including seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis, is principally caused by mucosal inflammation. Though effective pharmacotherapy options exist, no agent is universally efficacious; therapeutic decisions must account for individual patient preferences. Oral H1-antihistamines, though effective for the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, have modest decongestant action, as do leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intranasal antihistamines appear to improve congestion better than oral forms. Topical decongestants reduce congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, but local adverse effects make them unsuitable for long-term use. Oral decongestants show some efficacy against congestion in allergic rhinitis and the common cold, and can be combined with oral antihistamines. Intranasal corticosteroids have broad anti-inflammatory activities, are the most potent long-term pharmacologic treatment of congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, and show some congestion relief in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Immunotherapy and surgery may be used in some cases refractory to pharmacotherapy. Steps in congestion management include (1 diagnosis of the cause(s, (2 patient education and monitoring, (3 avoidance of environmental triggers where possible, (4 pharmacotherapy, and (5 immunotherapy

  14. Sleep Bruxism in Respiratory Medicine Practice.

    Mayer, Pierre; Heinzer, Raphael; Lavigne, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) consists of involuntary episodic and repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by occasional tooth grinding or jaw clenching during sleep. Prevalence decreases from 20% to 14% in childhood to 8% to 3% in adulthood. Although the causes and mechanisms of idiopathic primary SB are unknown, putative candidates include psychologic risk factors (eg, anxiety, stress due to life events, hypervigilance) and sleep physiologic reactivity (eg, sleep arousals with autonomic activity, breathing events). Although certain neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, noradrenalin, histamine) have been proposed to play an indirect role in SB, their exact contribution to rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) (the electromyography marker of SB) genesis remains undetermined. No specific gene is associated with SB; familial environmental influence plays a significant role. To date, no single explanation can account for the SB mechanism. Secondary SB with sleep comorbidities that should be clinically assessed are insomnia, periodic limb movements during sleep, sleep-disordered breathing (eg, apnea-hypopnea), gastroesophageal reflux disease, and neurologic disorders (eg, sleep epilepsy, rapid eye movement behavior disorder). SB is currently quantified by scoring RMMA recordings in parallel with brain, respiratory, and heart activity recordings in a sleep laboratory or home setting. RMMA confirmation with audio-video recordings is recommended for better diagnostic accuracy in the presence of neurologic conditions. Management strategies (diagnostic tests, treatment) should be tailored to the patient's phenotype and comorbidities. In the presence of sleep-disordered breathing, a mandibular advancement appliance or CPAP treatment is preferred over single occlusal splint therapy on the upper jaw. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal and fetal recovery after severe respiratory failure due to influenza: a case report

    Madsen Kristine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During pregnancy women are at increased risk of severe complications to influenza infection, including death of mother or fetus, especially if chronic comorbid medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus are present. Case presentation A 36 years old Caucasian pregnant woman with type 1 diabetes underwent mechanical ventilation in gestation week 27 for severe respiratory failure due to influenza and pneumonia. For three weeks during and following her most severe illness, fetal growth could not be detected and the umbilical flows and amniotic fluid volumes were affected too. The possibility of preterm delivery and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO treatment were considered, however the patient and her fetus recovered gradually on conservative treatment. Under close surveillance the pregnancy continued until term, with delivery of an infant with appropriate weight for gestational age. Conclusion Preterm delivery and decreased birth weight were reported for women with antepartum pneumonia. Mechanical ventilation and ECMO treatment for severe respiratory failure in pregnancy are life threatening conditions and have been associated with preterm delivery. It remains uncertain if delivery improves the respiratory status of a critically ill woman, and the fetal condition is likely to improve, if the maternal condition is stabilized. Severe respiratory insufficiency requiring mechanical ventilation in a diabetic pregnant woman with influenza was successfully treated conservatively. Despite clear signs of impaired fetal condition in the acute phase, watchful waiting resulted in delivery of a normal weight infant at term.

  16. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Children.

    Smith, Dustin K; Seales, Sajeewane; Budzik, Carol

    2017-01-15

    Bronchiolitis is a common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of this infection. RSV is transmitted through contact with respiratory droplets either directly from an infected person or self-inoculation by contaminated secretions on surfaces. Patients with RSV bronchiolitis usually present with two to four days of upper respiratory tract symptoms such as fever, rhinorrhea, and congestion, followed by lower respiratory tract symptoms such as increasing cough, wheezing, and increased respiratory effort. In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics updated its clinical practice guideline for diagnosis and management of RSV bronchiolitis to minimize unnecessary diagnostic testing and interventions. Bronchiolitis remains a clinical diagnosis, and diagnostic testing is not routinely recommended. Treatment of RSV infection is mainly supportive, and modalities such as bronchodilators, epinephrine, corticosteroids, hypertonic saline, and antibiotics are generally not useful. Evidence supports using supplemental oxygen to maintain adequate oxygen saturation; however, continuous pulse oximetry is no longer required. The other mainstay of therapy is intravenous or nasogastric administration of fluids for infants who cannot maintain their hydration status with oral fluid intake. Educating parents on reducing the risk of infection is one of the most important things a physician can do to help prevent RSV infection, especially early in life. Children at risk of severe lower respiratory tract infection should receive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, in up to five monthly doses. Prophylaxis guidelines are restricted to infants born before 29 weeks' gestation, infants with chronic lung disease of prematurity, and infants and children with hemodynamically significant heart disease.

  17. Oestrogen influences on mitochondrial gene expression and respiratory chain activity in cortical and mesencephalic astrocytes.

    Araújo, G W; Beyer, C; Arnold, S

    2008-07-01

    The regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism plays an essential role in the central nervous system (CNS). Abnormalities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain often accompany neurodegenerative diseases. This makes mitochondria a perfect target for strategies of cellular protection against toxic compounds and pathological conditions. Steroid hormones, such as oestrogen, are well-known to fulfil a protective role in the brain during ischaemic and degenerative processes. Because astrocytes function as the major energy supplier in the CNS, we have analysed oestrogen effects on the mitochondrial respiratory chain of this cell type. In our studies, we applied semi- and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of gene expression and polarographic measurements of the respiratory chain activity of mitochondria. We observed that structural and functional properties were regulated dependent on the oestrogen exposure time and the brain region, but independent of the nuclear oestrogen receptors. We could demonstrate that long-term oestrogen exposure increases the subunit gene expression of respiratory chain complexes and the mitochondrial DNA content, thereby indicating an up-regulation of the amount of mitochondria per cell together with an increase of mitochondrial energy production. This could represent an important indirect mechanism by which long-term oestrogen exposure protects neurones from cell death under neurotoxic conditions. On the other hand, we observed short-term effects of oestrogen on the activity of mitochondrial, proton-pumping respiratory chain complexes. In astrocytes from the cortex, respiratory chain activity was decreased, whereas it was increased in astrocytes from the mesencephalon. An increased production of reactive oxygen species would be the consequence of an increased respiratory chain activity in mesencephalic astrocytes. This could explain the different efficiencies of oestrogen-mediated short-term protection in distinct brain

  18. Seasonality of long term wheezing following respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection

    Bont, L.; Steijn, M.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.; Brus, F.; Th Draaisma, J. M.; van Diemen-Steenvoorde, R. A. A. M.; Pekelharing-Berghuis, M.; Kimpen, J. L. L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is well known that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is associated with subsequent wheezing episodes, but the precise natural course of wheezing following RSV LRTI is not known. This study aimed to determine the continuous development of

  19. Seasonality of long term wheezing following respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection

    Bont, L; Steijn, M; van Aalderen, WMC; Brus, F; Draaisma, JMT; Van Diemen-Steenvoorde, RAAM; Pekelharing-Berghuis, M; Kimpen, JLL

    Background: It is well known that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is associated with subsequent wheezing episodes, but the precise natural course of wheezing following RSV LRTI is not known. This study aimed to determine the continuous development of

  20. Prediction of tonic parasympathetic cardiac control using respiratory sinus arrhythmia: the need for respiratory control

    GROSSMAN, P.; Karemaker, J.; Wieling, W.

    1991-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has received much attention in recent years due to the large body of evidence indicating that variations in this phenomenon represent alterations in parasympathetic cardiac control. Although it appears that respiratory sinus arrhythmia is mediated by vagal

  1. Human herpesviruses respiratory infections in patients with acute respiratory distress (ARDS).

    Bonizzoli, Manuela; Arvia, Rosaria; di Valvasone, Simona; Liotta, Francesco; Zakrzewska, Krystyna; Azzi, Alberta; Peris, Adriano

    2016-08-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is today a leading cause of hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU). ARDS and pneumonia are closely related to critically ill patients; however, the etiologic agent is not always identified. The presence of human herpes simplex virus 1, human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in respiratory samples of critically ill patients is increasingly reported even without canonical immunosuppression. The main aim of this study was to better understand the significance of herpesviruses finding in lower respiratory tract of ARDS patients hospitalized in ICU. The presence of this group of herpesviruses, in addition to the research of influenza viruses and other common respiratory viruses, was investigated in respiratory samples from 54 patients hospitalized in ICU, without a known microbiological causative agent. Moreover, the immunophenotype of each patient was analyzed. Herpesviruses DNA presence in the lower respiratory tract seemed not attributable to an impaired immunophenotype, whereas a significant correlation was observed between herpesviruses positivity and influenza virus infection. A higher ICU mortality was significantly related to the presence of herpesvirus infection in the lower respiratory tract as well as to impaired immunophenotype, as patients with poor outcome showed severe lymphopenia, affecting in particular T (CD3+) cells, since the first days of ICU hospitalization. In conclusion, these results indicate that herpesviruses lower respiratory tract infection, which occurs more frequently following influenza virus infection, can be a negative prognostic marker. An independent risk factor for ICU patients with ARDS is an impaired immunophenotype.

  2. Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and preliminary respiratory-circulatory system integration scheme

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The respiratory control system, functioning as an independent system, is presented with modifications of the exercise subroutine. These modifications illustrate an improved control of ventilation rates and arterial and compartmental gas tensions. A very elementary approach to describing the interactions of the respiratory and circulatory system is presented.

  3. Lower respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus : current management and new therapeutics

    Mazur, Natalie; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Baraldi, Eugenio; Fauroux, Brigitte; Greenough, Anne; Heikkinen, Terho; Manzoni, Paolo; Mejias, Asuncion; Nair, Harish; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Polack, Fernando P.; Ramilo, Octavio; Sharland, Mike; Stein, Renato; Madhi, Shabir A.; Bont, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Evidence-based management guidelines suggest that there is no effective treatment for RSV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and that supportive care, ie, hydration and

  4. Dynamic upper respiratory abnormalities in Thoroughbred racehorses in South Africa

    Javier E. Mirazo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper airway endoscopy at rest has been the diagnostic method of choice for equine upper respiratory tract (URT conditions. Development of high-speed treadmill endoscopy improved the sensitivity of URT endoscopy by allowing observation of the horse’s nasopharynx and larynx during exercise. However, treadmill exercise may not always accurately represent the horse’s normal exercise as track surface, rider, tack and environmental variables are altered. Recently, the development of dynamic overground endoscopy (DOE has addressed some of these shortcomings. A retrospective study was undertaken to describe the URT abnormalities detected during DOE in racehorses presenting with poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. Patient records of Thoroughbred racehorses undergoing DOE from November 2011 to August 2012 were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, primary complaint, distance exercised, maximum speed and dynamic airway abnormalities detected. Fifty-two horses underwent DOE for investigation of poor performance and/or abnormal respiratory noise. The main abnormalities detected included axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds (40%, vocal cord collapse (35%, abnormal arytenoid function (33% and dorsal displacement of the soft palate (25%. A total of 40 horses were diagnosed with one or more abnormalities of the URT (77%. Fifteen horses (29% had a single abnormality and 25 horses (48% had multiple abnormalities. This study showed that DOE is a useful technique for investigating dynamic disorders of the URT in racehorses in South Africa. The total number and type of dynamic pathological conditions were comparable with those identified in similar populations in other geographical locations.

  5. [Respiratory symptoms and atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms in the general population].

    Simon, I; Charpin, D

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiological studies on air pollution have mainly been interested in the effects of short- or long-term exposure on patients suffering from respiratory illnesses. Fewer studies have addressed the acute effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population. We conducted a review of the literature over the last 16years that has addressed the impact of atmospheric pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population to estimate the magnitude of effect. The majority of studies demonstrated a significant association between exposure to air pollutants and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms, without any threshold. Although a link between atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms has been demonstrated, knowledge of the effects of specific air pollutants and the effect of pollution on particular vulnerable groups (infants, young children, the elderly) is still limited. There is a need for further studies in this area. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Respiratory muscle training for cystic fibrosis.

    Hilton, Nathan; Solis-Moya, Arturo

    2018-05-24

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive disease in white populations, and causes respiratory dysfunction in the majority of individuals. Numerous types of respiratory muscle training to improve respiratory function and health-related quality of life in people with cystic fibrosis have been reported in the literature. Hence a systematic review of the literature is needed to establish the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training (either inspiratory or expiratory muscle training) on clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To determine the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training on clinical outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials register comprising of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of most recent search: 17 April 2018.A hand search of the Journal of Cystic Fibrosis and Pediatric Pulmonology was performed, along with an electronic search of online trial databases up until 07 May 2018. Randomised controlled studies comparing respiratory muscle training with a control group in people with cystic fibrosis. Review authors independently selected articles for inclusion, evaluated the methodological quality of the studies, and extracted data. Additional information was sought from trial authors where necessary. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system MAIN RESULTS: Authors identified 19 studies, of which nine studies with 202 participants met the review's inclusion criteria. There was wide variation in the methodological and written quality of the included studies. Four of the nine included studies were published as abstracts only and lacking concise details, thus limiting the information available. Seven studies were parallel studies and two of a cross-over design. Respiratory

  7. Evaluating humidity recovery efficiency of currently available heat and moisture exchangers: a respiratory system model study

    Jeanette Janaina Jaber Lucato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the efficiency of humidification in available heat and moisture exchanger models under conditions of varying tidal volume, respiratory rate, and flow rate. INTRODUCTION: Inspired gases are routinely preconditioned by heat and moisture exchangers to provide a heat and water content similar to that provided normally by the nose and upper airways. The absolute humidity of air retrieved from and returned to the ventilated patient is an important measurable outcome of the heat and moisture exchangers' humidifying performance. METHODS: Eight different heat and moisture exchangers were studied using a respiratory system analog. The system included a heated chamber (acrylic glass, maintained at 37°C, a preserved swine lung, a hygrometer, circuitry and a ventilator. Humidity and temperature levels were measured using eight distinct interposed heat and moisture exchangers given different tidal volumes, respiratory frequencies and flow-rate conditions. Recovery of absolute humidity (%RAH was calculated for each setting. RESULTS: Increasing tidal volumes led to a reduction in %RAH for all heat and moisture exchangers while no significant effect was demonstrated in the context of varying respiratory rate or inspiratory flow. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that heat and moisture exchangers are more efficient when used with low tidal volume ventilation. The roles of flow and respiratory rate were of lesser importance, suggesting that their adjustment has a less significant effect on the performance of heat and moisture exchangers.

  8. A 15-Month-Old Boy With Respiratory Distress and Parapharyngeal Abscess: A Case Report

    Behdad Gharib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parapharyngeal abscess is a life-threatening disease. Upper respiratory tract infection is the main cause in children. We present a 15-month-old boy admitted to the emergency ward with the chief complaint of difficulty in breathing caused by parapharyngealabscess. His condition deteriorated gradually, and he transferred to the operation theater quickly for abscess drainage and because of the difficulty in orotracheal intubation; a tracheostomy was performed. His respiratory condition deteriorated 2 days after PICU admission, and the medical team noticed an unexplainable respiratory distress. A chest x ray obtained and showed a right side pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema around theneck area. The case presented here, had not been diagnosed at the first examination; however, there were enough clinical clues (such as respiratory distress, drooling, torticollis, bulging of theneck, previous viral respiratory infection, possible pharyngeal trauma. The story of this case reminds us the importance of the precise physical exam and history taking which could be life-saving.

  9. Lipid-storage myopathy and respiratory insufficiency due to ETFQO mutations in a patient with late-onset multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency

    Olsen, Rikke Katrine Jentoft; Pourfarzam, M; Morris, A A M

    2004-01-01

    response to treatment, she developed respiratory insufficiency at age 14 years and has required long-term overnight ventilation. Thus, MADD is one of the few conditions that can cause a myopathy with weakness of the respiratory muscles out of proportion to the limb muscles. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-null...

  10. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  11. [Late respiratory function complications following burns].

    Ernesto, S; Marduel, Y; Freymond, N; Pacheco, Y; Devouassoux, G

    2008-03-01

    Twenty five per cent of thermal injuries are associated with secondary respiratory events linked to several mechanisms. In the acute phase of the accident oedema of the airways, the fume inhalation syndrome and ARDS are the most common causes responsible for death in 60% of cases. Late respiratory complications are little known and neglected. They comprise obstructive ventilatory defects due to the inhalation syndrome and restrictive defects secondary to ARDS or to dermal injury. We report the case of a female patient, extensively burnt 2 years previously, admitted to hospital with severe acute respiratory failure complicating COPD. The presence of both restrictive and obstructive defects led to the suggestion of alternative underlying mechanisms such as the pulmonary consequences of ARDS and extensive dermal scars. The latter were responsible for an armour like thickening of the skin of the thorax compatible with the restrictive defect. These functional abnormalities and the potential severity of acute respiratory failure are indications for regular pulmonary follow-up of patients with severe circumferential scarring of the thorax who are at high risk for respiratory complications.

  12. Respiratory adaptations in different types of sport.

    Lazovic, B; Mazic, S; Suzic-Lazic, J; Djelic, M; Djordjevic-Saranovic, S; Durmic, T; Zikic, D; Zugic, V

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that current European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society spirometric reference equations, used in general population, may not be applicable in population of elite athletes. Althought it is well known that physical activity may affect lung volumes, the effect of sporting activity on pulmonary function testing indices was never examined. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in functional respiratory parameters in various types of sports by measuring lung volumes and to extend the existing factors as well as sport disciplines which affect respiratory function the most. A total of 1639 elite male athletes, aged 18-35 years were divided in 4 groups according to the predominant characteristics of training: skill, power, mixed and endurance athletes. They performed basic anthropometric measurements and spirometry. Groups were compared, and Pearson's simple correlation was performed to test the relation between anthropometric and spirometric characteristics of athletes. All anthropometric characteristics significantly differed among groups and correlate with respiratory parameters. The highest correlation was found for body height and weight. Sports participation is associated with respiratory adaptation, and the extent of adaptation depends on type of activity. Endurance sports athletes have higher lung volumes in comparison with skill, mixed and power group of sport.

  13. Respiratory exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Pinto, Susana; Swash, Michael; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the potential role of respiratory exercise by implementing specific inspiratory muscle training in a selected population of early-affected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We studied 26 patients with ALS with normal respiratory function using two groups of patients in a parallel, control-group, randomized, delayed-start design. Patients in the first group (G1) started the active inspiratory exercise programme at entry and were followed for eight months, while the second group (G2) of patients followed a placebo exercise programme for the first four months and then active exercise for the second four-month period. The primary outcome measure was the ALSFRS. Respiratory tests, neurophysiological measurements, fatigue and quality of life scales were secondary outcomes. Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes between and within groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two patient groups. Within-group analysis suggested that inspiratory exercise promotes a transient improvement in the respiratory subscore and in the maximal voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow, and sniff inspiratory pressure. In conclusion, there was no clear positive or negative outcome of the respiratory exercise protocol we have proposed, but we cannot rule out a minor positive effect. Exercise regimes merit more detailed clinical evaluation in ALS.

  14. Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals.

    Lennette, E H

    1981-01-01

    Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations.

  15. Metagenomic analysis of viral diversity in respiratory samples from patients with respiratory tract infections in Kuwait.

    Madi, Nada; Al-Nakib, Widad; Mustafa, Abu Salim; Habibi, Nazima

    2018-03-01

    A metagenomic approach based on target independent next-generation sequencing has become a known method for the detection of both known and novel viruses in clinical samples. This study aimed to use the metagenomic sequencing approach to characterize the viral diversity in respiratory samples from patients with respiratory tract infections. We have investigated 86 respiratory samples received from various hospitals in Kuwait between 2015 and 2016 for the diagnosis of respiratory tract infections. A metagenomic approach using the next-generation sequencer to characterize viruses was used. According to the metagenomic analysis, an average of 145, 019 reads were identified, and 2% of these reads were of viral origin. Also, metagenomic analysis of the viral sequences revealed many known respiratory viruses, which were detected in 30.2% of the clinical samples. Also, sequences of non-respiratory viruses were detected in 14% of the clinical samples, while sequences of non-human viruses were detected in 55.8% of the clinical samples. The average genome coverage of the viruses was 12% with the highest genome coverage of 99.2% for respiratory syncytial virus, and the lowest was 1% for torque teno midi virus 2. Our results showed 47.7% agreement between multiplex Real-Time PCR and metagenomics sequencing in the detection of respiratory viruses in the clinical samples. Though there are some difficulties in using this method to clinical samples such as specimen quality, these observations are indicative of the promising utility of the metagenomic sequencing approach for the identification of respiratory viruses in patients with respiratory tract infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Respiratory trace feature analysis for the prediction of respiratory-gated PET quantification

    Wang, Shouyi; Bowen, Stephen R.; Chaovalitwongse, W. Art; Sandison, George A.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2014-02-01

    The benefits of respiratory gating in quantitative PET/CT vary tremendously between individual patients. Respiratory pattern is among many patient-specific characteristics that are thought to play an important role in gating-induced imaging improvements. However, the quantitative relationship between patient-specific characteristics of respiratory pattern and improvements in quantitative accuracy from respiratory-gated PET/CT has not been well established. If such a relationship could be estimated, then patient-specific respiratory patterns could be used to prospectively select appropriate motion compensation during image acquisition on a per-patient basis. This study was undertaken to develop a novel statistical model that predicts quantitative changes in PET/CT imaging due to respiratory gating. Free-breathing static FDG-PET images without gating and respiratory-gated FDG-PET images were collected from 22 lung and liver cancer patients on a PET/CT scanner. PET imaging quality was quantified with peak standardized uptake value (SUVpeak) over lesions of interest. Relative differences in SUVpeak between static and gated PET images were calculated to indicate quantitative imaging changes due to gating. A comprehensive multidimensional extraction of the morphological and statistical characteristics of respiratory patterns was conducted, resulting in 16 features that characterize representative patterns of a single respiratory trace. The six most informative features were subsequently extracted using a stepwise feature selection approach. The multiple-regression model was trained and tested based on a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. The predicted quantitative improvements in PET imaging achieved an accuracy higher than 90% using a criterion with a dynamic error-tolerance range for SUVpeak values. The results of this study suggest that our prediction framework could be applied to determine which patients would likely benefit from respiratory motion compensation

  17. Respiratory trace feature analysis for the prediction of respiratory-gated PET quantification

    Wang, Shouyi; Chaovalitwongse, W Art; Bowen, Stephen R; Kinahan, Paul E; Sandison, George A; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of respiratory gating in quantitative PET/CT vary tremendously between individual patients. Respiratory pattern is among many patient-specific characteristics that are thought to play an important role in gating-induced imaging improvements. However, the quantitative relationship between patient-specific characteristics of respiratory pattern and improvements in quantitative accuracy from respiratory-gated PET/CT has not been well established. If such a relationship could be estimated, then patient-specific respiratory patterns could be used to prospectively select appropriate motion compensation during image acquisition on a per-patient basis. This study was undertaken to develop a novel statistical model that predicts quantitative changes in PET/CT imaging due to respiratory gating. Free-breathing static FDG-PET images without gating and respiratory-gated FDG-PET images were collected from 22 lung and liver cancer patients on a PET/CT scanner. PET imaging quality was quantified with peak standardized uptake value (SUV peak ) over lesions of interest. Relative differences in SUV peak between static and gated PET images were calculated to indicate quantitative imaging changes due to gating. A comprehensive multidimensional extraction of the morphological and statistical characteristics of respiratory patterns was conducted, resulting in 16 features that characterize representative patterns of a single respiratory trace. The six most informative features were subsequently extracted using a stepwise feature selection approach. The multiple-regression model was trained and tested based on a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. The predicted quantitative improvements in PET imaging achieved an accuracy higher than 90% using a criterion with a dynamic error-tolerance range for SUV peak values. The results of this study suggest that our prediction framework could be applied to determine which patients would likely benefit from respiratory motion

  18. Deterministic and stochastic models for middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS)

    Suryani, Dessy Rizki; Zevika, Mona; Nuraini, Nuning

    2018-03-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) data stated that since September 2012, there were 1,733 cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) with 628 death cases that occurred in 27 countries. MERS was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and the largest cases of MERS outside Saudi Arabia occurred in South Korea in 2015. MERS is a disease that attacks the respiratory system caused by infection of MERS-CoV. MERS-CoV transmission occurs directly through direct contact between infected individual with non-infected individual or indirectly through contaminated object by the free virus. Suspected, MERS can spread quickly because of the free virus in environment. Mathematical modeling is used to illustrate the transmission of MERS disease using deterministic model and stochastic model. Deterministic model is used to investigate the temporal dynamic from the system to analyze the steady state condition. Stochastic model approach using Continuous Time Markov Chain (CTMC) is used to predict the future states by using random variables. From the models that were built, the threshold value for deterministic models and stochastic models obtained in the same form and the probability of disease extinction can be computed by stochastic model. Simulations for both models using several of different parameters are shown, and the probability of disease extinction will be compared with several initial conditions.

  19. How best to capture the respiratory consequences of prematurity?

    Ciuffini, Francesca; Robertson, Colin F; Tingay, David G

    2018-03-31

    Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions. The changing nature of preterm lung disease suggests that a multimodal approach using dynamic lung function assessment will be needed to assess the efficacy of a neonatal respiratory therapy and predict the long-term respiratory consequences of premature birth. Our aim is to review the literature regarding the long-term respiratory outcomes of neonatal respiratory strategies, the difficulties of assessing dynamic lung function in infants, and potential new solutions. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  20. Assessment of aerobic and respiratory growth in the Lactobacillus casei group.

    Teresa Zotta

    Full Text Available One hundred eighty four strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus were screened for their ability to grow under aerobic conditions, in media containing heme and menaquinone and/or compounds generating reactive oxygen species (ROS, in order to identify respiratory and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes. Most strains were able to cope with aerobic conditions and for many strains aerobic growth and heme or heme/menaquinone supplementation increased biomass production compared to anaerobic cultivation. Only four L. casei strains showed a catalase-like activity under anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory conditions and were able to survive in presence of H2O2 (1 mM. Almost all L. casei and L. paracasei strains tolerated menadione (0.2 mM and most tolerated pyrogallol (50 mM, while L. rhamnosus was usually resistant only to the latter compound. This is the first study in which an extensive screening of oxygen and oxidative stress tolerance of members of the L. casei group has been carried out. Results allowed the selection of strains showing the typical traits of aerobic and respiratory metabolism (increased pH and biomass under aerobic or respiratory conditions and unique oxidative stress response properties. Aerobic growth and respiration may confer technological and physiological advantages in the L. casei group and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes could be exploited in several food industry applications.

  1. Assessment of Aerobic and Respiratory Growth in the Lactobacillus casei Group

    Zotta, Teresa; Ricciardi, Annamaria; Ianniello, Rocco G.; Parente, Eugenio; Reale, Anna; Rossi, Franca; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Coppola, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    One hundred eighty four strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus were screened for their ability to grow under aerobic conditions, in media containing heme and menaquinone and/or compounds generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), in order to identify respiratory and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes. Most strains were able to cope with aerobic conditions and for many strains aerobic growth and heme or heme/menaquinone supplementation increased biomass production compared to anaerobic cultivation. Only four L. casei strains showed a catalase-like activity under anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory conditions and were able to survive in presence of H2O2 (1 mM). Almost all L. casei and L. paracasei strains tolerated menadione (0.2 mM) and most tolerated pyrogallol (50 mM), while L. rhamnosus was usually resistant only to the latter compound. This is the first study in which an extensive screening of oxygen and oxidative stress tolerance of members of the L. casei group has been carried out. Results allowed the selection of strains showing the typical traits of aerobic and respiratory metabolism (increased pH and biomass under aerobic or respiratory conditions) and unique oxidative stress response properties. Aerobic growth and respiration may confer technological and physiological advantages in the L. casei group and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes could be exploited in several food industry applications. PMID:24918811

  2. Canadian Practice Assessment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Respiratory Specialist Physician Perception Versus Patient Reality

    Paul Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common respiratory condition and the fourth leading cause of death in Canada. Optimal COPD management requires patients to participate in their care and physician knowledge of patients’ perceptions of their disease.

  3. Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters.

    White, M C; Baker, E L

    1988-08-01

    The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross sectional study of current male members of two local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive effect was observed for smoking and duration of employment as a painter. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between years worked as a painter and a decrement in FEV1 equal to about 11 ml for each year worked. This association was larger among painters who had smoked. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was significantly associated with increased use of spray application methods.

  4. Extracorporeal respiratory support in adult patients

    Thiago Gomes Romano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In patients with severe respiratory failure, either hypoxemic or hypercapnic, life support with mechanical ventilation alone can be insufficient to meet their needs, especially if one tries to avoid ventilator settings that can cause injury to the lungs. In those patients, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, which is also very effective in removing carbon dioxide from the blood, can provide life support, allowing the application of protective lung ventilation. In this review article, we aim to explore some of the most relevant aspects of using ECMO for respiratory support. We discuss the history of respiratory support using ECMO in adults, as well as the clinical evidence; costs; indications; installation of the equipment; ventilator settings; daily care of the patient and the system; common troubleshooting; weaning; and discontinuation.

  5. New ICRP human respiratory tract model

    Bailey, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The new ICRP dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract is based on the premise that the large differences in radiation sensitivity of respiratory tract tissues, and the wide range of doses they receive argue for calculating specific tissue doses rather than average lung doses. The model is also directly applicable to the worldwide population of both workers and the public. The requirement to describe intake, and deposition, clearance and dosimetry in each respiratory tract region, for a wide range of subjects at various levels of exercise necessarily means that the model is more complex than that of ICRP Publication 30. The widespread use of powerful personal computers, and the availability of user-friendly software to implement the model, however, will make it widely and readily accessible when the report is published. (Author)

  6. Respiratory hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs in Europe

    Makowska, J S; Burney, P; Jarvis, D

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most prevalent drugs inducing hypersensitivity reactions. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of NSAID-induced respiratory symptoms in population across Europe and to assess its association with upper...... and lower respiratory tract disorders. METHODS: The GA(2) LEN survey was conducted in 22 centers in 15 European countries. Each of 19 centers selected random samples of 5000 adults aged 15-74 from their general population, and in three centers (Athens, Munich, Oslo), a younger population was sampled...... prevalence of NSAID-induced dyspnea was 1.9% and was highest in the three Polish centers [Katowice (4.9%), Krakow (4.8%), and Lodz (4.4%)] and lowest in Skopje, (0.9%), Amsterdam (1.1%), and Umea (1.2%). In multivariate analysis, the prevalence of respiratory reactions to NSAIDs was higher in participants...

  7. AIR POLLUTION FROM TRAFFIC AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH

    Maja Nikolić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has very important influence on human health. Earlier investigations were not employed with estimation of influence of air pollution, which spring from traffic, on people health who live near busy cross – road.The aim of this paper was to determine how living near busy cross – road influences on appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness.400 adult people between 18-76 age who live five year least on this location at took a part in investigation. One group (200 live in Nis near the busiest cross-road, another group live in Niska Banja near cross-road with the smallest concentration of pollutants in last five years.We have determined that examines, who live near busy cross – road had statistical signify greater prevalence of all respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.Our investigation showed that living near busy cross road present risk factor for appearance of respiratory symptoms and pneumonia.

  8. Endocan and the respiratory system: a review

    Kechagia M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maria Kechagia,1,2 Ioannis Papassotiriou,2 Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis1 1Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Thessaly Medical School, Larissa, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aghia Sophia Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece Abstract: Endocan, formerly called endothelial cell-specific molecule 1, is an endothelial cell-associated proteoglycan that is preferentially expressed by renal and pulmonary endothelium. It is upregulated by proangiogenic molecules as well as by pro-inflammatory cytokines, and since it reflects endothelial activation and dysfunction, it is regarded as a novel tissue and blood-based relevant biomarker. As such, it is increasingly being researched and evaluated in a wide spectrum of healthy and disease pathophysiological processes. Here, we review the present scientific knowledge on endocan, with emphasis on the evidence that underlines its possible clinical value as a prognostic marker in several malignant, inflammatory and obstructive disorders of the respiratory system. Keywords: endocan, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, respiratory disorders

  9. The relationship of different respiratory virus infection with pediatric asthma attack as well as cytokine and lymphocyte subset levels

    Hua Miao; Xiao-Rong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship of different respiratory virus infection with pediatric asthma attack as well as cytokine and lymphocyte subset levels. Methods: A total of 85 children who were diagnosed with bronchial asthma in our hospital between May 2013 and March 2016 were selected as asthma group and further divided into asthma-RSV group, asthma-AV group, asthma-PIV group, asthma-IFV group and pure asthma group according to the condition of respiratory virus infection...

  10. Effects of Increased Respiratory Resistance on Maximal O2 Uptake and Anaerobic Threshold during Incremental Exercise Tests

    ÖZÇELİK, Oğuz

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess whether maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) can be used as an index of measuring aerobic capacity under the condition of increased respiratory resistance. Seven male subjects performed two incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer on different days: one control (C) and one breathing through an 8 mm bore diameter respiratory resistance (R). Ventilatory and gas exchange responses were measured with a turbine volume transducer and mass spectrometry, and processed...

  11. The effect of stable bedding materials on dust levels, microbial air contamination and equine respiratory health.

    Kwiatkowska-Stenzel, Agnieszka; Witkowska, Dorota; Sowińska, Janina; Stopyra, Artur

    2017-12-01

    The choice of bedding material affects the quality of air in a stable and, consequently, the respiratory health of horses and humans. The risk of respiratory problems can be mitigated by improving the quality of air in the stable. The choice of bedding material is particularly important in cold climate conditions where horses are kept indoors throughout the year. This study examined the impact of three bedding materials: straw (S), peat with shavings (PS), and crushed wood pellets (CWP). The investigated factors were air contamination, including dust contamination and microbial (bacterial and fungal) contamination, and the condition of the equine respiratory tract. The condition of the respiratory tract was evaluated based on the results of arterial blood biochemistry tests and endoscopic evaluations of the upper respiratory tract. Mechanical dust contamination was lowest for PS (1.09mg/m 3 ) and highest for CWP (4.07mg/m 3 ). Bacterial contamination (in CFU - colony forming units) was highest for PS (5.14log 10 CFU/m 3 ) and lowest for CWP (4.81log 10 CFU/m 3 ). Fungal air contamination was lowest for CWP (4.54log 10 CFU/m 3 ) and highest for S (4.82log 10 CFU/m 3 ) and PS (4.88log 10 CFU/m 3 ). An analysis of physiological indicators revealed that all horses were clinically healthy regardless of the type of applied bedding. The type of bedding material did not exert a clear influence on arterial blood biochemistry or the results of endoscopic evaluations of the respiratory tract; however, the use of alternative for straw bedding materials improved endoscopy results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An interactive videogame designed to improve respiratory navigator efficiency in children undergoing cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Hamlet, Sean M; Haggerty, Christopher M; Suever, Jonathan D; Wehner, Gregory J; Grabau, Jonathan D; Andres, Kristin N; Vandsburger, Moriel H; Powell, David K; Sorrell, Vincent L; Fornwalt, Brandon K

    2016-09-06

    Advanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) acquisitions often require long scan durations that necessitate respiratory navigator gating. The tradeoff of navigator gating is reduced scan efficiency, particularly when the patient's breathing patterns are inconsistent, as is commonly seen in children. We hypothesized that engaging pediatric participants with a navigator-controlled videogame to help control breathing patterns would improve navigator efficiency and maintain image quality. We developed custom software that processed the Siemens respiratory navigator image in real-time during CMR and represented diaphragm position using a cartoon avatar, which was projected to the participant in the scanner as visual feedback. The game incentivized children to breathe such that the avatar was positioned within the navigator acceptance window (±3 mm) throughout image acquisition. Using a 3T Siemens Tim Trio, 50 children (Age: 14 ± 3 years, 48 % female) with no significant past medical history underwent a respiratory navigator-gated 2D spiral cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) CMR acquisition first with no feedback (NF) and then with the feedback game (FG). Thirty of the 50 children were randomized to undergo extensive off-scanner training with the FG using a MRI simulator, or no off-scanner training. Navigator efficiency, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and global left-ventricular strains were determined for each participant and compared. Using the FG improved average navigator efficiency from 33 ± 15 to 58 ± 13 % (p < 0.001) and improved SNR by 5 % (p = 0.01) compared to acquisitions with NF. There was no difference in navigator efficiency (p = 0.90) or SNR (p = 0.77) between untrained and trained participants for FG acquisitions. Circumferential and radial strains derived from FG acquisitions were slightly reduced compared to NF acquisitions (-16 ± 2 % vs -17 ± 2 %, p < 0.001; 40 ± 10

  13. Lessons learned at TMI: cleanup for respiratory protection

    Parfitt, B.A.; Gee, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    The March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) presented GPU Nuclear with technical challenges unprecedented in the nuclear power industry. Among these challenges were a myriad of health physics problems that had to be solved to ensure a radiologically safe environment for workers performing cleanup activities. The application of the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) philosophy has been a fundamental aspects in protecting cleanup workers. The unique conditions produced by the accident, however, have necessitated novel and innovative approaches in making this philosophy effective. The option to use respirators is based on which method will result in the lowest radiation dose to the worker. Inherent to this program has been the training of workers to overcome the perception that any internal contamination is of foremost concern and is orders of magnitude greater in biological effect than an identical external dose. It is, of course, the total dose (internal dose plus external dose) that must be minimized to implement a true ALARA philosophy. The need for considering the total radiation dose when making decisions to use respirators has been clear during the TMI-2 cleanup. Prescribing respirators is not always good for the ALARA concept

  14. [Respiratory handicap. Recognition, evaluation and social benefits].

    Marsac, J; Pujet, J C

    1983-01-01

    The medico-social aspects of respiratory handicap pose some perplexing problems, notably in their recognition, rigorous evaluation and in the granting of social security benefits. The clinical and respiratory function data should be standardised and classified according to type and significance of respiratory disease and also according to the degree of co-operation and understanding of the patient. The respiratory handicap should be evaluated after considering the functional disability engendered by the disorder and their socio-professional repercussions. The abnormality in the lungs should be measured by resting tests; the degree of disability by exercise studies; the socio-professional handicap by ergonometric tests to assess the scale of the demands and requirements of family and social and professional life, indeed the cultural and economic style of the individual concerned. Such combined studies would enable recognition of severe chronic respiratory handicap leading to decisions for exemption certificates, such as cases of severe respiratory failure in patients requiring supplementary treatment for oxygen therapy or assisted ventilation. The benefits and grants offered to those with respiratory handicaps would involve a number of rights relating to: care, work, costs of replacement of workers in the event of prolonged sick leave or the benefits of an invalidity pension. There will be other allowances such as invalidity cards, lodging special studies and other rights particularly relating to lodging and special equipment. The present scale is difficult to use both because of its lack of specificity and its ill-chosen terminology. For better balance between the handicap and the benefits offered, a common and more flexible system, with a printed table should be at hand for the doctor to use for certain decisions: long term illness, period of invalidity or early retirement because of medical incapacity. Within each table a sub-section should exist to allow for

  15. Quality verification for respiratory gated proton therapy

    Kim, Eun Sook; Jang, Yo Jong; Park, Ji Yeon; Kang, Dong Yun; Yeom, Doo Seok

    2013-01-01

    To verify accuracy of respiratory gated proton therapy by measuring and analyzing proton beam delivered when respiratory gated proton therapy is being performed in our institute. The plan data of 3 patients who took respiratory gated proton therapy were used to deliver proton beam from proton therapy system. The manufactured moving phantom was used to apply respiratory gating system to reproduce proton beam which was partially irradiated. The key characteristics of proton beam, range, spreat-out Bragg peak (SOBP) and output factor were measured 5 times and the same categories were measured in the continuous proton beam which was not performed with respiratory gating system. Multi-layer ionization chamber was used to measure range and SOBP, and Scanditronix Wellhofer and farmer chamber was used to measure output factor. The average ranges of 3 patients (A, B, C), who had taken respiratory gated proton therapy or not, were (A) 7.226, 7.230, (B) 12.216, 12.220 and (C) 19.918, 19.920 g/cm 2 and average SOBP were (A) 4.950, 4.940, (B) 6.496, 6.512 and (C) 8.486, 8.490 g/cm 2 . And average output factor were (A) 0.985, 0.984 (B) 1.026, 1.027 and (C) 1.138, 1.136 cGy/MU. The differences of average range were -0.004, -0.004, -0.002 g/cm 2 , that of SOBP were 0.010, -0.016, -0.004 g/cm 2 and that of output factor were 0.001, -0.001, 0.002 cGy/MU. It is observed that the range, SOBP and output factor of proton beam delivered when respiratory gated proton therapy is being performed have the same beam quality with no significant difference compared to the proton beam which was continuously irradiated. Therefore, this study verified the quality of proton beam delivered when respiratory gated proton therapy and confirmed the accuracy of proton therapy using this

  16. Human respiratory syncytial virus load normalized by cell quantification as predictor of acute respiratory tract infection.

    Gómez-Novo, Miriam; Boga, José A; Álvarez-Argüelles, Marta E; Rojo-Alba, Susana; Fernández, Ana; Menéndez, María J; de Oña, María; Melón, Santiago

    2018-05-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a common cause of respiratory infections. The main objective is to analyze the prediction ability of viral load of HRSV normalized by cell number in respiratory symptoms. A prospective, descriptive, and analytical study was performed. From 7307 respiratory samples processed between December 2014 to April 2016, 1019 HRSV-positive samples, were included in this study. Low respiratory tract infection was present in 729 patients (71.54%). Normalized HRSV load was calculated by quantification of HRSV genome and human β-globin gene and expressed as log10 copies/1000 cells. HRSV mean loads were 4.09 ± 2.08 and 4.82 ± 2.09 log10 copies/1000 cells in the 549 pharyngeal and 470 nasopharyngeal samples, respectively (P respiratory tract infection and 4.22 ± 2.28 log10 copies/1000 cells with upper respiratory tract infection or febrile syndrome (P < 0.05). A possible cut off value to predict LRTI evolution was tentatively established. Normalization of viral load by cell number in the samples is essential to ensure an optimal virological molecular diagnosis avoiding that the quality of samples affects the results. A high viral load can be a useful marker to predict disease progression. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. RESPIRATORY GYMNASTICS AS A REHABILITATION MEANS FOR THE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN WITH THE RESPIRATORY PATHOLOGY

    T.A. Shemyakina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The researchers analyzed the efficacy of the new medical technology aimed at rehabilitation of the preschool children with the respiratory pathology. 177 children aged between 2 and 7 with recurrent respiratory diseases, bronchial asthma or chronic pathology of the end organs have been examined for 9 months. It was uncovered that among children (n = 90, who performed the sets of the therapeutic physical training and respiratory gymnastics according to the methods developed by the authors, the recurrence of the acute respiratory diseases and exacerbations of bronchial asthma was lower by 1,83 and 1,86 timers respectively. Besides, among children of this group the researchers noted the significant improvement of the physical qualities, spirometric indices and cytological picture of the substance removed from the nasal cavity if compared with the children from the screening group (n = 87, who performed the sets of the conventional gymnastics at the physical training lessons. Thus, the researchers proved the high efficacy of the proposed technology for the rehabilitation of the children, suffering from the chronic respiratory pathology.Key words: acute respiratory diseases, asthma, therapeutic physical training, respiratory gymnastics, children.

  18. Radiological features of lower respiratory infection by respiratory syncytial virus in infants and young children

    Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Jang, Seong Hee; Lee, Hoan Jong

    1992-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common cause of lower respiratory infection (bronchiolitis and pneumonia) of infancy and early childhood. We analyzed clinical and radiological features of 76 patients with lower respiratory infections by respiratory syncytial virus, which were diagnosed by indirect immunofluorescent test or culture of nasal aspirate in Hep-2-cell monolayer, during the period of January- December, 1991. There were peaks of incidences in March-May and November- December, accounting for 87% of eases. Sixty-two cases (82%) were under 1 year of age. Fifty cases (66%) had underlying diseases. Major radiographical findings were overaeration (83%), parahilar peribronchial infiltrates (67%), segmental or subsegmental atelectasis (32%), and segmental or lobar consolidation (16%). In 15 cases (20%), overaeration was the only radiological findings. There was no evidence of pleural effusion or lymph node enlargement in all cases. By considering clinical features (symptoms, age, underlying diseases, epidemic seasons) in addition to the radiological findings, radiologists would be familiar with lower respiratory infection by respiratory syncytial virus. Air space consolidation, which is generally thought to represent bacterial pneumonia, is also observed not infrequently in respiratory syncytial virus infection

  19. Respiratory Diseases in University Students Associated with Exposure to Residential Dampness or Mold

    Mathieu Lanthier-Veilleux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available University students are frequently exposed to residential dampness or mold (i.e., visible mold, mold odor, dampness, or water leaks, a well-known contributor to asthma, allergic rhinitis, and respiratory infections. This study aims to: (a describe the prevalence of these respiratory diseases among university students; and (b examine the independent contribution of residential dampness or mold to these diseases. An online survey was conducted in March 2014 among the 26,676 students registered at the Université de Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada. Validated questions and scores were used to assess self-reported respiratory diseases (i.e., asthma-like symptoms, allergic rhinitis, and respiratory infections, residential dampness or mold, and covariates (e.g., student characteristics. Using logistic regressions, the crude and adjusted odd ratios between residential dampness or mold and self-reported respiratory diseases were examined. Results from the participating students (n = 2097; response rate: 8.1% showed high prevalence of allergic rhinitis (32.6%; 95% CI: 30.6–34.7, asthma-like symptoms (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1–25.8 and respiratory infections (19.4%; 95% CI: 17.7–21.2. After adjustment, exposure to residential dampness or mold was associated with allergic rhinitis (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01–1.55 and asthma-like symptoms (OR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.37–2.11, but not with respiratory infections (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.85–1.36. Among symptomatic students, this exposure was also associated with uncontrolled and burdensome respiratory symptoms (p < 0.01. University students report a high prevalence of allergic rhinitis, asthma-like symptoms and respiratory infections. A common indoor hazard, residential dampness or mold, may play a role in increasing atopic respiratory diseases and their suboptimal control in young adults. These results emphasize the importance for public health organizations to tackle poor housing conditions, especially amongst university

  20. Respiratory viral infections in infancy and school age respiratory outcomes and healthcare costs.

    MacBean, Victoria; Drysdale, Simon B; Yarzi, Muska N; Peacock, Janet L; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Greenough, Anne

    2018-03-01

    To determine the impact of viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infancy including rhinovirus (RV) and infancy respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), on school age pulmonary function and healthcare utilization in prematurely born children. School age respiratory outcomes would be worse and healthcare utilization greater in children who had viral LRTIs in infancy. Prospective study. A cohort of prematurely born children who had symptomatic LRTIs during infancy documented, was recalled. Pulmonary function was assessed at 5 to 7 years of age and health related costs of care from aged one to follow-up determined. Fifty-one children, median gestational age 33 +6 weeks, were assessed at a median (IQR) age 7.03 (6.37-7.26) years. Twenty-one children had no LRTI, 14 RV LRTI, 10 RSV LRTI, and 6 another viral LRTI (other LRTI). Compared to the no LRTI group, the RV group had a lower FEV 1 (P = 0.033) and the other LRTI group a lower FVC (P = 0.006). Non-respiratory medication costs were higher in the RV (P = 0.018) and RSV (P = 0.013) groups. Overall respiratory healthcare costs in the RV (£153/year) and RSV (£27/year) groups did not differ significantly from the no LRTI group (£56/year); the other LRTI group (£431/year) had higher respiratory healthcare costs (P = 0.042). In moderately prematurely born children, RV and RSV LRTIs in infancy were not associated with higher respiratory healthcare costs after infancy. Children who experienced LRTIs caused by other respiratory viruses (including RV) had higher respiratory healthcare costs and greater pulmonary function impairment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana.

    Kwofie, Theophilus B; Anane, Yaw A; Nkrumah, Bernard; Annan, Augustina; Nguah, Samuel B; Owusu, Michael

    2012-04-10

    Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  2. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    Kwofie Theophilus B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  3. Effect of respiratory function training on respiratory function of patients with severe cerebrovascular disease

    Ming GUO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of respiratory function training on respiratory function and conscious state of patients with severe cerebrovascular disease (SCVD.  Methods A total of 27 patients with SCVD were divided into control group (N = 17 and observation group (N = 10. Control group received routine drug and rehabilitation treatment, and observation group was added respiratory function training based on routine treatment. The respiratory rate, tidal volume (TV, heart rate, blood pressure and artery oxygen saturation (SaO2 of patients were monitored by breathing machine before and after 4-week treatment. Meanwhile, arterial blood gas analysis was used to detect arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, oxygenation index, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 and pH value. At the same time, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS was used to evaluate the conscious state of patients.  Results All patients successfully completed 4-week rehabilitation training, without asphyxia, arrhythmia or other adverse events. Compared with before training, the respiratory rate (P = 0.006 and pH value (P = 0.010 were significantly decreased, while SaO2 (P = 0.001, oxygenation index (P = 0.000 and GCS scores (P = 0.004, 0.017 were significantly increased in both groups of patients after training. There was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups on respiratory function indexes and GCS scores after training (P > 0.05, for all. Conclusions Respiratory function training did not significantly improve the respiratory function and conscious state of patients with SCVD, yet to be further studied. Randomized controlled clinical trials with larger, layered samples and long-term prognosis observation are needed. Examination method of respiratory function of SCVD patients is also a topic to be explored.  DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.04.007

  4. Immunoadjuvant Therapy and Noninvasive Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure in Lung Tuberculosis: A Case Study

    René Agustín Flores-Franco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory failure caused by pulmonary tuberculosis is a rare event but with a high mortality even while receiving mechanical ventilatory support. We report the case of a young man with severe pulmonary tuberculosis refractory to conventional therapy who successfully overcame the critical period of his condition using noninvasive ventilation and immunoadjuvant therapy that included three doses of etanercept 25 mg subcutaneously. We conclude that the use of etanercept along with antituberculosis treatment appears to be safe and effective in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis presenting with acute respiratory failure.

  5. [Risk factors for acute respiratory syncytial virus infection of lower respiratory tract in hospitalized infants].

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Liu, Lijuan; Shi, Peng; Jiang, Gaoli; Jia, Pin; Wang, Chuankai; Wang, Libo; Qian, Liling

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the clinical epidemiologic characteristics and analyze risk factors for acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in hospitalized infants with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI). ALRI infants admitted to Children's Hospital of Fudan University from March 1st, 2011 to February 29th, 2012, were enrolled in this study. Patient information included demographic characteristics, feeding history, family status, clinical presentation, accessory examination, treatment and prognosis. According to the etiology of ALRI infants, we compared the seasonal distribution, demographic characteristics, household characteristics and underlying diseases between RSV-positive patients and RSV-negative patients. Univariate and multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors that were associated with risk of RSV infection. Among 1 726 ALRI infants, there were 913 RSV-positive infants (52.9%). The occurrence of RSV infection had a seasonal variation, with a peak in winter (59.1%). The median (P25, P75) age of RSV infants was 64 (21-155) days. The gestational age (GA) and body weight (BW) was (37.5 ± 2.4) weeks and (3.07 ± 0.66) kg, respectively. The male/female ratio among these was 1.9: 1. RSV infection was more popular among infants in the families with smoking members, crowded living conditions, history of atopic mother. Differences of the proportion of patients with underlying disease between RSV-positive and negative groups were statistically significant (59.4% vs. 54.2%, P infection were: GAinfection (OR = 1.351, 95%CI: 1.024-1.783; OR = 1.713, 95%CI: 1.332-2.204). Multivariate logistic regression determined the factors increasing the risk of RSV infection were: underlying CHD (OR = 1.298, 95%CI: 1.002-1.681), mother with atopic diseases (OR = 1.766, 95%CI: 1.237-2.520), autumn or winter infection (OR = 1.481, 95%CI: 1.105-1.985; OR = 1.766, 95%CI: 1.358-2.296). The prevalence of RSV infection was the highest in winter, while

  6. SU-E-J-159: Analysis of Total Imaging Uncertainty in Respiratory-Gated Radiotherapy

    Suzuki, J; Okuda, T; Sakaino, S; Yokota, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In respiratory-gated radiotherapy, the gating phase during treatment delivery needs to coincide with the corresponding phase determined during the treatment plan. However, because radiotherapy is performed based on the image obtained for the treatment plan, the time delay, motion artifact, volume effect, and resolution in the images are uncertain. Thus, imaging uncertainty is the most basic factor that affects the localization accuracy. Therefore, these uncertainties should be analyzed. This study aims to analyze the total imaging uncertainty in respiratory-gated radiotherapy. Methods: Two factors of imaging uncertainties related to respiratory-gated radiotherapy were analyzed. First, CT image was used to determine the target volume and 4D treatment planning for the Varian Realtime Position Management (RPM) system. Second, an X-ray image was acquired for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for the BrainLAB ExacTrac system. These factors were measured using a respiratory gating phantom. The conditions applied during phantom operation were as follows: respiratory wave form, sine curve; respiratory cycle, 4 s; phantom target motion amplitude, 10, 20, and 29 mm (which is maximum phantom longitudinal motion). The target and cylindrical marker implanted in the phantom coverage of the CT images was measured and compared with the theoretically calculated coverage from the phantom motion. The theoretical position of the cylindrical marker implanted in the phantom was compared with that acquired from the X-ray image. The total imaging uncertainty was analyzed from these two factors. Results: In the CT image, the uncertainty between the target and cylindrical marker’s actual coverage and the coverage of CT images was 1.19 mm and 2.50mm, respectively. In the Xray image, the uncertainty was 0.39 mm. The total imaging uncertainty from the two factors was 1.62mm. Conclusion: The total imaging uncertainty in respiratory-gated radiotherapy was clinically acceptable. However

  7. SU-E-J-159: Analysis of Total Imaging Uncertainty in Respiratory-Gated Radiotherapy

    Suzuki, J; Okuda, T [Toyota memorial hospital, Toyota, Aichi (Japan); Sakaino, S; Yokota, N [Suzukake central hospital, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In respiratory-gated radiotherapy, the gating phase during treatment delivery needs to coincide with the corresponding phase determined during the treatment plan. However, because radiotherapy is performed based on the image obtained for the treatment plan, the time delay, motion artifact, volume effect, and resolution in the images are uncertain. Thus, imaging uncertainty is the most basic factor that affects the localization accuracy. Therefore, these uncertainties should be analyzed. This study aims to analyze the total imaging uncertainty in respiratory-gated radiotherapy. Methods: Two factors of imaging uncertainties related to respiratory-gated radiotherapy were analyzed. First, CT image was used to determine the target volume and 4D treatment planning for the Varian Realtime Position Management (RPM) system. Second, an X-ray image was acquired for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for the BrainLAB ExacTrac system. These factors were measured using a respiratory gating phantom. The conditions applied during phantom operation were as follows: respiratory wave form, sine curve; respiratory cycle, 4 s; phantom target motion amplitude, 10, 20, and 29 mm (which is maximum phantom longitudinal motion). The target and cylindrical marker implanted in the phantom coverage of the CT images was measured and compared with the theoretically calculated coverage from the phantom motion. The theoretical position of the cylindrical marker implanted in the phantom was compared with that acquired from the X-ray image. The total imaging uncertainty was analyzed from these two factors. Results: In the CT image, the uncertainty between the target and cylindrical marker’s actual coverage and the coverage of CT images was 1.19 mm and 2.50mm, respectively. In the Xray image, the uncertainty was 0.39 mm. The total imaging uncertainty from the two factors was 1.62mm. Conclusion: The total imaging uncertainty in respiratory-gated radiotherapy was clinically acceptable. However

  8. A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.

    Yaroslav I Molkov

    ventilation. The model can be used for simulation of closed-loop control of breathing under different conditions including respiratory disorders.

  9. [Effect of high blood levels of bile acid on respiratory functions of New Zealand rabbits].

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Cong; Tian, Yinghong; Yin, Yanru

    2013-08-01

    To compare the patterns of respiratory function variations resulting from the classical reflex of blood pressure fall and high blood levels of bile acid, so as to provide evidence for the regulation of respiratory function via bile acids. Seventy New Zealand male Rabbits, under general anesthesia with 20% urethane, were subjected to tracheal intubations and carotid artery cannulations via median incisions of the neck. Using a biological signal acquisition system, the changes in the breathing and blood pressure were observed in response to stimulation of the pneumogastric nerves or to ear vein injections of diluted bile acids or the water solutions of 5 dissociated bile acids. Stimulation of the pneumogastric nerves and injections of diluted bile acids both lowered the blood pressure without significant differences in the total reaction time (T). However, the total respiratory reaction time of bile acids, RT(bile acids), was 9-10 times longer than the total reaction time of blood pressure T(bile acids) (Pacids) were higher than that RR(pneumogastric nerves)resulting from the classical reflex (Pacids), the values of RR(bile acids) were significantly higher than those of RR(bile acids) in RT2(bile acids) interval. UDCA produced no significant influence on blood pressure or respiratory function (Pacid reagents did (Pacids not only act through reflex factors but also have direct effects on respiratory function regulation. Under our experimental conditions, UDCA has no effect on blood pressure or respiratory function, but the other 4 dissociated bile acid reagents can all dose-dependently lower blood pressure and significantly affect respiratory function.

  10. Pan-Canadian Respiratory Standards Initiative for Electronic Health Records (PRESTINE: 2011 National Forum Proceedings

    M Diane Lougheed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a novel knowledge translation initiative, the Government of Ontario’s Asthma Plan of Action funded the development of an Asthma Care Map to enable adherence with the Canadian Asthma Consensus Guidelines developed under the auspices of the Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS. Following its successful evaluation within the Primary Care Asthma Pilot Project, respiratory clinicians from the Asthma Research Unit, Queen’s University (Kingston, Ontario are leading an initiative to incorporate standardized Asthma Care Map data elements into electronic health records in primary care in Ontario. Acknowledging that the issue of data standards affects all respiratory conditions, and all provinces and territories, the Government of Ontario approached the CTS Respiratory Guidelines Committee. At its meeting in September 2010, the CTS Respiratory Guidelines Committee agreed that developing and standardizing respiratory data elements for electronic health records are strategically important. In follow-up to that commitment, representatives from the CTS, the Lung Association, the Government of Ontario, the National Lung Health Framework and Canada Health Infoway came together to form a planning committee. The planning committee proposed a phased approach to inform stakeholders about the issue, and engage them in the development, implementation and evaluation of a standardized dataset. An environmental scan was completed in July 2011, which identified data definitions and standards currently available for clinical variables that are likely to be included in electronic medical records in primary care for diagnosis, management and patient education related to asthma and COPD. The scan, sponsored by the Government of Ontario, includes compliance with clinical nomenclatures such as SNOMED-CT® and LOINC®. To help launch and create momentum for this initiative, a national forum was convened on October 2 and 3, 2011, in Toronto, Ontario. The forum was designed to

  11. An examination of interventions to reduce respiratory health and injury hazards in homes of low-income families

    Dixon, Sherry L.; Fowler, Cecile; Harris, Judy; Moffat, Sally; Martinez, Yolanda; Walton, Heather; Ruiz, Bernice; Jacobs, David E.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether combining asthma trigger reduction with housing structural repairs, device disbursement and education in low-income households with children would improve self-reported respiratory health and reduce housing-related respiratory health and injury hazards (convenience sample of n=67 homes with 63 asthmatic and 121 non-asthmatic children). At baseline, a visual assessment of the home environment and a structured occupant interview were used to examine 29 potential injury hazards and 7 potential respiratory health hazards. A home-specific intervention was designed to provide the children's parents or caretakers with the knowledge, skills, motivation, supplies, equipment, and minimum housing conditions necessary for a healthy and safe home. The enrolled households were primarily Hispanic and owned their homes. On average, 8 injury hazards were observed in the homes at baseline. Four months following intervention, the average declined to 2.2 hazards per home (p<0.001), with 97% of the parents reporting that their homes were safer following the interventions. An average of 3.3 respiratory health hazards were observed in the homes at baseline. Four months following intervention, the average declined to 0.9 hazards per home (p<0.001), with 96% of parents reporting that the respiratory health of their asthmatic children improved. A tailored healthy homes improvement package significantly improves self-reported respiratory health and safety, reduces respiratory health and injury hazards, and can be implemented in concert with a mobile clinical setting

  12. Increased vocal intensity due to the Lombard effect in speakers with Parkinson's disease: simultaneous laryngeal and respiratory strategies.

    Stathopoulos, Elaine T; Huber, Jessica E; Richardson, Kelly; Kamphaus, Jennifer; DeCicco, Devan; Darling, Meghan; Fulcher, Katrina; Sussman, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether speakers with hypophonia, secondary to Parkinson's disease (PD), would increases their vocal intensity when speaking in a noisy environment (Lombard effect). The other objective was to examine the underlying laryngeal and respiratory strategies used to increase vocal intensity. Thirty-three participants with PD were included for study. Each participant was fitted with the SpeechVive™ device that played multi-talker babble noise into one ear during speech. Using acoustic, aerodynamic and respiratory kinematic techniques, the simultaneous laryngeal and respiratory mechanisms used to regulate vocal intensity were examined. Significant group results showed that most speakers with PD (26/33) were successful at increasing their vocal intensity when speaking in the condition of multi-talker babble noise. They were able to support their increased vocal intensity and subglottal pressure with combined strategies from both the laryngeal and respiratory mechanisms. Individual speaker analysis indicated that the particular laryngeal and respiratory interactions differed among speakers. The SpeechVive™ device elicited higher vocal intensities from patients with PD. Speakers used different combinations of laryngeal and respiratory physiologic mechanisms to increase vocal intensity, thus suggesting that disease process does not uniformly affect the speech subsystems. Readers will be able to: (1) identify speech characteristics of people with Parkinson's disease (PD), (2) identify typical respiratory strategies for increasing sound pressure level (SPL), (3) identify typical laryngeal strategies for increasing SPL, (4) define the Lombard effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Respiratory health in Latin America: number of specialists and human resources training.

    Vázquez-García, Juan-Carlos; Salas-Hernández, Jorge; Pérez Padilla, Rogelio; Montes de Oca, María

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is made up of a number of developing countries. Demographic changes are occurring in the close to 600 million inhabitants, in whom a significant growth in population is combined with the progressive ageing of the population. This part of the world poses great challenges for general and respiratory health. Most of the countries have significant, or even greater, rates of chronic respiratory diseases or exposure to risk. Human resources in healthcare are not readily available, particularly in the area of respiratory disease specialists. Academic training centers are few and even non-existent in the majority of the countries. The detailed analysis of these conditions provides a basis for reflection on the main challenges and proposals for the management and training of better human resources in this specialist area. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. TRPM8 mechanism of autonomic nerve response to cold in respiratory airway

    Wang Cong-Yi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breathing cold air without proper temperature exchange can induce strong respiratory autonomic responses including cough, airway constriction and mucosal secretion, and can exacerbate existing asthma conditions and even directly trigger an asthma attack. Vagal afferent fiber is thought to be involved in the cold-induced respiratory responses through autonomic nerve reflex. However, molecular mechanisms by which vagal afferent fibers are excited by cold remain unknown. Using retrograde labeling, immunostaining, calcium imaging, and electrophysiological recordings, here we show that a subpopulation of airway vagal afferent nerves express TRPM8 receptors and that activation of TRPM8 receptors by cold excites these airway autonomic nerves. Thus activation of TRPM8 receptors may provoke autonomic nerve reflex to increase airway resistance. This putative autonomic response may be associated with cold-induced exacerbation of asthma and other pulmonary disorders, making TRPM8 receptors a possible target for prevention of cold-associated respiratory disorders.

  15. Severe acute respiratory syndrome in a doctor working at the Prince of Wales Hospital.

    Wong, R S M

    2003-06-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome is a new disease that is highly contagious and is spreading in the local community and worldwide. This report is of a hospital medical officer with severe acute respiratory syndrome. He presented with sudden onset of fever, chills, myalgia, headache, and dizziness in early March 2003. He developed progressive respiratory symptoms and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates during the second week of his illness. Blood tests showed lymphopenia, mild thrombocytopenia, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time with normal d-dimer level. His chest condition gradually responded to ribavirin and corticosteroids, and serial chest X-ray showed resolving pulmonary infiltrates. The importance of early diagnosis lies in the potential for early treatment, leading to better response.

  16. Association between outdoor ozone and compensated acute respiratory diseases among workers in Quebec (Canada).

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Labrèche, France; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Brand, Allan; Duguay, Patrice; Fournier, Michel; Zayed, Joseph; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory effects of ozone in the workplace have not been extensively studied. Our aim was to explore the relationship between daily average ozone levels and compensated acute respiratory problems among workers in Quebec between 2003 and 2010 using a time-stratified case-crossover design. Health data came from the Workers' Compensation Board. Daily concentrations of ozone were estimated using a spatiotemporal model. Conditional logistic regressions, with and without adjustment for temperature, were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs, per 1 ppb increase of ozone), and lag effects were assessed. Relationships with respiratory compensations in all industrial sectors were essentially null. Positive non-statistically significant associations were observed for outdoor sectors, and decreased after controlling for temperature (ORs of 0.98; 1.01 and 1.05 at Lags 0, 1 and 2 respectively). Considering the predicted increase of air pollutant concentrations in the context of climate change, closer investigation should be carried out on outdoor workers.

  17. F-18 FDG uptake in respiratory muscle mimicking metastasis in patients with gastric cancer

    Choi, Seung Jin; Hyun, In Young; Kim, Jeong Ho

    2006-01-01

    A 67-year-old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for staging of gastric cancer. The projection images of F-18 FDG PET/CT showed intensely increased F-18 FDG uptake in the anterior neck, chest wall, and upper abdomen. We suspected distant metastases of cervical lymph nodes, ribs, and peritoneum in gastric cancer. However, the transaxial images of F-18 FDG PET/CT showed abnormal F-18 FDG uptake in scalene muscles of anterior neck, intercostal muscles of chest wall, and diaphragm of upper abdomen. Patients with COPD use respiratory muscles extensively on the resting condition. These excessive physiologic use of respiratory muscles causes increased F-18 FDG uptake as a result of increased glucose metabolism. The F-18 FDG uptake in respiratory muscles of gastric cancer patient with COPD mimicked distant metastases in cervical lymph nodes, ribs, and peritoneum

  18. Respiratory pattern changes during costovertebral joint movement.

    Shannon, R

    1980-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine if costovertebral joint manipulation (CVJM) could influence the respiratory pattern. Phrenic efferent activity (PA) was monitored in dogs that were anesthetized with Dial-urethane, vagotomized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated. Ribs 6-10 (bilaterally) were cut and separated from ribs 5-11. Branches of thoracic nerves 5-11 were cut, leaving only the joint nerve supply intact. Manual joint movement in an inspiratory or expiratory direction had an inhibitory effect on PA. Sustained displacement of the ribs could inhibit PA for a duration equal to numerous respiratory cycles. CVJM in synchrony with PA resulted in an increased respiratory rate. The inspiratory inhibitory effect of joint receptor stimulation was elicited with manual chest compression in vagotomized spontaneously breathing dogs, but not with artificial lung inflation or deflation. It is concluded that the effect of CVJM on the respiratory pattern is due to stimulation of joint mechanoreceptors, and that they exert their influence in part via the medullary-pontine rhythm generator.

  19. An interdisciplinary approach to occupational respiratory disorders

    van Rooy, G.B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that worldwide about 50 million new cases of occupational respiratory diseases emerge every year. Without preventative action, the burden of occupational diseases is expected to increase. In this thesis an alternative approach to deliver occupational health

  20. Childhood respiratory morbidity and cooking practices among ...

    Background: Household air pollution is a leading risk factor for respiratory morbidity and mortality in developing countries where biomass fuel is mainly used for cooking. Materials and Method: A household cross-sectional survey was conducted in a predominantly rural area of Ghana in 2007 to determine the prevalence of ...

  1. Attentional Demands on Motor-Respiratory Coordination

    Hessler, Eric E.; Amazeen, Polemnia G.

    2009-01-01

    Athletic performance requires the pacing of breathing with exercise, known as motor-respiratory coordination (MRC). In this study, we added cognitive and physical constraints while participants intentionally controlled their breathing locations during rhythmic arm movement. This is the first study to examine a cognitive constraint on MRC.…

  2. Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Function Impairment among ...

    Background: The industrial process of detergent production could be deleterious to lung function. This study describes respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function impairment among detergent workers in Jos, Northern Nigeria. Methods: Two hundred detergent plant workers and controls were studied for the presence of ...

  3. Transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus ...

    ... hand hygiene, and cough etiquette, would minimize the infection rate among HCPs. The required consumables for maintaining hand hygiene should be readily available to all HCPs. Keywords: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Systematic review, healthcareassociated infections, Coronaviruses ...

  4. Respiratory risks in broiler production workers

    M do CB de Alencar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many situations that involve health risks to the Brazilian rural worker, and animal production is just one of them. Inhalation of organic dust, which has many microorganisms, leads in general to respiratory allergic reactions in some individuals, "asthma-like syndrome", and mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, that is a complex of nasal, eye, and throat complaints. Furthermore, workers might have farmer's hypersensitivity pneumonia, that is a respiratory health risk along the years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential pulmonary health risks in poultry production workers in the region of Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Interviews using a pre-elaborated questionnaire with 40 questions were made with 37 broiler production workers, which were submitted to a pulmonary function test. Results of restrictive function with lower FEV1 (the maximum respiratory potential, the forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation and FVC (forced vital capacity represented 24.32% of the total of workers, and severe obstruction represented 2.70%. Other symptoms were found in 67.57% of the workers as well. The results showed that those who work more than 4 years and within more than one poultry house, exceeding 5 hours per day of work, presented higher pulmonary health risks. It is concluded that the activities within broiler houses may induce allergic respiratory reaction in workers. The use of IPE (individual protection equipment besides special attention to the air quality inside the housing may be advised in a preventive way.

  5. The European Respiratory Society spirometry tent

    Maio, Sara; Sherrill, Duane L; MacNee, William

    2012-01-01

    In order to raise public awareness of the importance of early detection of airway obstruction and to enable many people who had not been tested previously to have their lung function measured, the European Lung Foundation and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) organised a spirometry testing...

  6. Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites

    Calderón, Moisés A; Linneberg, Allan; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    consequences in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We investigate the epidemiology of HDM allergy to explore the interaction between mites and human subjects at the population, individual, and molecular levels. Core and recent publications were identified by using "house dust mite" as a key search...

  7. Cellular immune responses to respiratory viruses

    van Helden, M.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    When a respiratory virus successfully infects the lungs, cascades of immune responses are initiated aimed to remove the pathogen. Immediate non-specific protection is provided by the innate immune system and this reduces the viral load during the first days of infection. The adaptive immune response

  8. Imaging in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Antonio, G.E.; Wong, K.T.; Chu, W.C.W.; Hui, D.S.C.; Cheng, F.W.T.; Yuen, E.H.Y.; Chung, S.S.C.; Fok, T.F.; Sung, J.J.Y.; Ahuja, A.T.

    2003-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus, and has become pandemic within a short period of time. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis, management and follow-up of patients with SARS. The current status of imaging in SARS is presented in this review

  9. State of the art. Neonatal respiratory failure.

    Parker, L A

    1999-12-01

    Advances in ventilatory management of respiratory distress in the newborn have made dramatic strides during the last decade. Innovative treatments such as PTV, HFV, liquid ventilation, and NO therapy are just beginning to have an impact on the care of neonates in the NICU. These treatment modalities should continue to have an effect on the care of the newborn infant well into the future.

  10. Sarcopenia and frailty in chronic respiratory disease

    Bone, Anna E; Hepgul, Nilay; Kon, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Sarcopenia and frailty are geriatric syndromes characterized by multisystem decline, which are related to and reflected by markers of skeletal muscle dysfunction. In older people, sarcopenia and frailty have been used for risk stratification, to predict adverse outcomes and to prompt intervention aimed at preventing decline in those at greatest risk. In this review, we examine sarcopenia and frailty in the context of chronic respiratory disease, providing an overview of the common assessments tools and studies to date in the field. We contrast assessments of sarcopenia, which consider muscle mass and function, with assessments of frailty, which often additionally consider social, cognitive and psychological domains. Frailty is emerging as an important syndrome in respiratory disease, being strongly associated with poor outcome. We also unpick the relationship between sarcopenia, frailty and skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic respiratory disease and reveal these as interlinked but distinct clinical phenotypes. Suggested areas for future work include the application of sarcopenia and frailty models to restrictive diseases and population-based samples, prospective prognostic assessments of sarcopenia and frailty in relation to common multidimensional indices, plus the investigation of exercise, nutritional and pharmacological strategies to prevent or treat sarcopenia and frailty in chronic respiratory disease. PMID:27923981

  11. Lung Surfactant - The Indispensable Component of Respiratory ...

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 8. Lung Surfactant - The Indispensable Component of Respiratory Mechanics. Shweta Saxena. Research News Volume 10 Issue 8 August 2005 pp 91-96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Diagnostic approaches to respiratory sleep disorders

    Riha, Renata L.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) comprises a number of breathing disturbances occurring during sleep including snoring, the obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), central sleep apnoea (CSA) and hypoventilation syndromes. This review focuses on sleep disordered breathing and diagnostic approaches in adults, in particular clinical assessment and overnight assessment during sleep. Although diagnostic approaches to respiratory sleep disorders are reasonably straightforward, they do r...

  13. Potential impact of fireworks on respiratory health

    Gouder, Caroline; Montefort, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The world-wide use of fireworks with their consequent detrimental effect on the air quality is widely recognized with elevated ambient air levels of particulate matter and its several metallic components and gases identified in several studies carried out during such events. Exposed individuals may be at risk following inhalation of such produced pollutants. This review focuses on the impact of fireworks on air quality and the potential effect of fireworks on the respiratory system of healthy individuals as well as those suffering from underlying respiratory diseases, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This applies not only to spectators including children but also to pyrotechnicians themselves. An extensive Medline search revealed that a strong evidence of the impact of fireworks on respiratory health is lacking in susceptible as well as healthy individuals with no formal studies on COPD or asthma, other than a few case reports in the latter. The implementation of global strategies to control the use of fireworks and hence improve air quality could possibly reduce their likely detrimental effect on human respiratory health in exposed individuals, but clearly a more targeted research is needed. PMID:25378846

  14. BIOLOGY OF HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS: A ...

    DR. AMINU

    membrane of the eyes, mouth, or nose and possibly through the ... transmembrane anchor near the C terminus. It is cleaved into two ... immunity induced by previous strains (Hall, 2001). Fluctuations in the .... isolation, and other serological techniques. Antigen .... Respiratory syncytial virus in B.N. fields, D.M. Knipe and.

  15. Student's Research Work as the Condition of Continuity of General and Professional Education

    Vedishenkova, Marina V.; Efimova, Elena V.; Ryabova, Ekaterina V.

    2015-01-01

    The problem in question is necessitated by the contradictions between requirements of successive educational process of general and professional education and the absence of new mechanisms of providing the continuity of education which is effective under modern conditions. The aim of the article in question is to provide the potential of the…

  16. Relationship between respiratory and food allergy and evaluation of preventive measures.

    Vega, F; Panizo, C; Dordal, M T; González, M L; Velázquez, E; Valero, A; Sánchez, M C; Rondón, C; Montoro, J; Matheu, V; Lluch-Bernal, M; González, R; Fernández-Parra, B; Del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Colás, C; Campo, P; Antón, E; Navarro, A M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy and respiratory allergy are two frequently associated diseases and with an increasing prevalence. Several reports show the presence of respiratory symptoms in patients with food allergy, while certain foods may be related to the development or exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The present update focuses on this relationship, revealing a pathogenic and clinical association between food and respiratory allergy. This association is even more intense when the food hypersensitivity is persistent or starts in the early years of life. Food allergy usually precedes respiratory allergy and may be a risk factor for allergic rhinitis and asthma, becoming a relevant clinical marker for severe atopic asthma. Furthermore, the presence of co-existing asthma may enhance life-threatening symptoms occurring during a food allergic reaction. Recommendations for dietary restrictions during pregnancy and breastfeeding to prevent the development of respiratory allergy are controversial and not supported by consistent scientific data. Current recommendations from medical societies propose exclusive breastfeeding during the first four months of life, with the introduction of solid food in the fourth to the seventh month period of life. A delayed introduction of solid food after this period may increase the risk of developing subsequent allergic conditions. Further studies are encouraged to avoid unjustified recommendations involving useless dietary restrictions. Copyright © 2015 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Promising approaches for the treatment and prevention of viral respiratory illnesses.

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Megremis, Spyridon; Kitsioulis, Nikolaos A; Vangelatou, Olympia; West, Peter; Xepapadaki, Paraskevi

    2017-10-01

    Viral respiratory tract infections are the most common human ailments, leading to enormous health and economic burden. Hundreds of viral species and subtypes have been associated with these conditions, with influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and rhinoviruses being the most frequent and with the highest burden. When considering prevention or treatment of viral respiratory tract infections, potential targets include the causative pathogens themselves but also the immune response, disease transmission, or even just the symptoms. Strategies targeting all these aspects are developing concurrently, and several novel and promising approaches are emerging. In this perspective we overview the entire range of options and highlight some of the most promising approaches, including new antiviral agents, symptomatic or immunomodulatory drugs, the re-emergence of natural remedies, and vaccines and public health policies toward prevention. Wide-scale prevention through immunization appears to be within reach for respiratory syncytial virus and promising for influenza virus, whereas additional effort is needed in regard to rhinovirus, as well as other respiratory tract viruses. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Respiratory hospital admissions and weather changes: a retrospective study in Charlottesville, Virginia, USA

    Davis, Robert E.; Enfield, Kyle B.

    2018-06-01

    In most midlatitude locations, human morbidity and mortality are highly seasonal, with winter peaks driven by respiratory disease and associated comorbidities. But the transition between high and low mortality/morbidity months varies spatially. We use a measure of the thermal biophysical strain imposed on the respiratory system—the Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI)—to examine respiratory hospital admissions in Charlottesville, VA. Daily respiratory admissions to the University of Virginia over a 19-year period are compared to ATSI values derived from hourly surface weather data acquired from the Charlottesville airport. Negative ATSI values (associated with transitions from warm (and humid) to cold (and dry) conditions) are related to admission peaks at seasonal and weekly timescales, whereas positive ATSI values (cold to warm) exhibit weaker relationships. This research marks the first application of the ATSI to human morbidity, and results suggest that respiratory strain may account for how people who are acclimated to different climates respond to short-term weather changes.

  19. Respiratory hospital admissions and weather changes: a retrospective study in Charlottesville, Virginia, USA

    Davis, Robert E.; Enfield, Kyle B.

    2018-02-01

    In most midlatitude locations, human morbidity and mortality are highly seasonal, with winter peaks driven by respiratory disease and associated comorbidities. But the transition between high and low mortality/morbidity months varies spatially. We use a measure of the thermal biophysical strain imposed on the respiratory system—the Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI)—to examine respiratory hospital admissions in Charlottesville, VA. Daily respiratory admissions to the University of Virginia over a 19-year period are compared to ATSI values derived from hourly surface weather data acquired from the Charlottesville airport. Negative ATSI values (associated with transitions from warm (and humid) to cold (and dry) conditions) are related to admission peaks at seasonal and weekly timescales, whereas positive ATSI values (cold to warm) exhibit weaker relationships. This research marks the first application of the ATSI to human morbidity, and results suggest that respiratory strain may account for how people who are acclimated to different climates respond to short-term weather changes.

  20. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV): Transmission and Prevention

    ... of Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV) Note: Javascript is disabled ... 2018 Content source: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) , Division of Viral Diseases Email Recommend ...

  1. Face mask spirometry and respiratory pressures in normal subjects.

    Wohlgemuth, M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Padberg, G.W.A.M.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Spirometry and maximal respiratory pressures are pulmonary function parameters commonly used to evaluate respiratory function. Prediction values are available for conventional lung function devices using a standard tube or flanged type of mouthpiece connection. This equipment is not suitable for

  2. Postoperative respiratory muscle dysfunction: pathophysiology and preventive strategies.

    Sasaki, Nobuo; Meyer, Matthew J; Eikermann, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are responsible for significant increases in hospital cost as well as patient morbidity and mortality; respiratory muscle dysfunction represents a contributing factor. Upper airway dilator muscles functionally resist the upper airway collapsing forces created by the respiratory pump muscles. Standard perioperative medications (anesthetics, sedatives, opioids, and neuromuscular blocking agents), interventions (patient positioning, mechanical ventilation, and surgical trauma), and diseases (lung hyperinflation, obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea) have differential effects on the respiratory muscle subgroups. These effects on the upper airway dilators and respiratory pump muscles impair their coordination and function and can result in respiratory failure. Perioperative management strategies can help decrease the incidence of postoperative respiratory muscle dysfunction. Such strategies include minimally invasive procedures rather than open surgery, early and optimal mobilizing of respiratory muscles while on mechanical ventilation, judicious use of respiratory depressant anesthetics and neuromuscular blocking agents, and noninvasive ventilation when possible.

  3. Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections

    ... Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z ... to a recent study, exercising or practicing meditation may be effective in reducing acute respiratory infections. Acute respiratory infections, ...

  4. History of mechanical ventilation may affect respiratory mechanics evolution in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Koutsoukou, Antonia; Perraki, Helen; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Tromaropoulos, Andreas; Sotiropoulou, Christina; Roussos, Charis

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanical ventilation (MV) before acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on subsequent evolution of respiratory mechanics and blood gases in protectively ventilated patients with ARDS. Nineteen patients with ARDS were stratified into 2 groups according to ARDS onset relative to the onset of MV: In group A (n = 11), MV was applied at the onset of ARDS; in group B (n = 8), MV had been initiated before ARDS. Respiratory mechanics and arterial blood gas were assessed in early (protectively ventilated patients with ARDS, late alteration of respiratory mechanics occurs more commonly in patients who have been ventilated before ARDS onset, suggesting that the history of MV affects the subsequent progress of ARDS even when using protective ventilation.

  5. Respiratory gated beam delivery cannot facilitate margin reduction, unless combined with respiratory correlated image guidance

    Korreman, S.S.; Boyer, A.L.; Juhler-Nøttrup, Trine

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: In radiotherapy of targets moving with respiration, beam gating is offered as a means of reducing the target motion. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safe magnitude of margin reduction for respiratory gated beam delivery. MATERIALS/METHODS: The study is based on data...... for 17 lung cancer patients in separate protocols at Rigshospitalet and Stanford Cancer Center. Respiratory curves for external optical markers and implanted fiducials were collected using equipment based on the RPM system (Varian Medical Systems). A total of 861 respiratory curves represented external...... measurements over 30 fraction treatment courses for 10 patients, and synchronous external/internal measurements in single sessions for seven patients. Variations in respiratory amplitude (simulated coaching) and external/internal phase shifts were simulated by perturbation with realistic values. Variations...

  6. Respiratory syncytial virus neutralizing antibodies in cord blood, respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization, and recurrent wheeze

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Ravn, Henrik; Kristensen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization is associated with wheeze. OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of maternally derived RSV neutralizing antibodies in cord blood on RSV hospitalization and recurrent wheeze in infancy. METHODS: Among children from the Danish National Birth...

  7. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p infected children required respiratory support. hMPV is present in young.......6%) ARTI episodes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using primers targeting the hMPV N gene and the RSV L gene. Two children were co-infected with hMPV and RSV. They were excluded from statistical analysis. Hospitalization for ARTI caused by hMPV was restricted to very young...

  8. Patient training in respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    Kini, Vijay R.; Vedam, Subrahmanya S.; Keall, Paul J.; Patil, Sumukh; Chen, Clayton; Mohan, Radhe

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory gating is used to counter the effects of organ motion during radiotherapy for chest tumors. The effects of variations in patient breathing patterns during a single treatment and from day to day are unknown. We evaluated the feasibility of using patient training tools and their effect on the breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility during respiratory-gated radiotherapy. To monitor respiratory patterns, we used a component of a commercially available respiratory-gated radiotherapy system (Real Time Position Management (RPM) System, Varian Oncology Systems, Palo Alto, CA 94304). This passive marker video tracking system consists of reflective markers placed on the patient's chest or abdomen, which are detected by a wall-mounted video camera. Software installed on a PC interfaced to this camera detects the marker motion digitally and records it. The marker position as a function of time serves as the motion signal that may be used to trigger imaging or treatment. The training tools used were audio prompting and visual feedback, with free breathing as a control. The audio prompting method used instructions to 'breathe in' or 'breathe out' at periodic intervals deduced from patients' own breathing patterns. In the visual feedback method, patients were shown a real-time trace of their abdominal wall motion due to breathing. Using this, they were asked to maintain a constant amplitude of motion. Motion traces of the abdominal wall were recorded for each patient for various maneuvers. Free breathing showed a variable amplitude and frequency. Audio prompting resulted in a reproducible frequency; however, the variability and the magnitude of amplitude increased. Visual feedback gave a better control over the amplitude but showed minor variations in frequency. We concluded that training improves the reproducibility of amplitude and frequency of patient breathing cycles. This may increase the accuracy of respiratory-gated radiation therapy

  9. SU-G-JeP3-13: Use of Volumetric Indices to Study the Viability of Respiratory Gating in Conjunction with Abdominal Compression in the Management of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Tumors Using Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Under the Conditions of Controlled Breathing

    Malhotra, H; Gomez, J [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM TG-76 report advises lung patients experiencing tumor motion >5mm to use some form of motion management with even smaller limit for complex/special procedures like SBRT. Generally, either respiratory gating or abdominal compression is used for motion management. In this retrospective study, we are using an innovative index, Volumetric Indices (VI) = (GTVnn AND GTV{sub 50+}Xmm)/(GTVnn) to quantify how much of the tumor remains within 1, 2, and 3mm margins throughout the breathing cycle using GTV{sub 50+}Xmm margin on GTV{sub 50}[nn=0,10,20,…90]. Using appropriate limits, VI can provide tumor motion information and to check if RPM gates could have been used in conjunction with abdominal compression to better manage tumor motion. Methods: 64 SBRT patients with a total of 67 lung tumors were studied. 4DCT scans were taken, fully capturing tumor motion throughout the 10 phases of the breathing cycle. For each phase, Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) was segmented and appropriates structures were defined to determine VI values. For the 2mm margin, VI values less than 0.95 for peripheral lesions and 0.97 for central lesions indicate tumor movement greater than 4mm. VI values for 1mm and 3mm margins were also analyzed signifying tumor motion of 2mm & 6mm, respectively. Results: Of the 64 patients, 35 (55%) had motion greater than 4mm & could have benefited from respiratory gating. For 5/8 (63%) middle lobe lesions, 21/27 (78%) lower lobe lesions, and 10/32 (31%) upper lobe lesions, gating could have resulted in smaller ITV. 32/55 (58%) peripheral lesions and 4/12 (33%) central lesions could have had gating. Average ITV decreased by 1.25cc (11.43%) and average VI increased by 0.11. Conclusion: Out of 64 patients, 55% exhibited motion greater than 4mm even with abdominal compression. Even with abdominalcompression, lung tumors can move >4mm as the degree of pressure which a patient can tolerate, is patient specific.

  10. Clinical definition of respiratory viral infections in young children and potential bronchiolitis misclassification.

    Megalaa, Rosemary; Perez, Geovanny F; Kilaikode-Cheruveettara, Sasikumar; Kotwal, Nidhi; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    Viral respiratory infections are often grouped as a single respiratory syndrome named 'viral bronchiolitis', independently of the viral etiology or individual risk factors. Clinical trials and guidelines have used a more stringent definition of viral bronchiolitis, including only the first episode of wheezing in children less than 12 months of age without concomitant respiratory comorbidities. There is increasing evidence suggesting that this definition is not being followed by pediatric care providers, but it is unclear to what extent viral respiratory infections are currently misclassified as viral bronchiolitis using standard definitions. We conducted a retrospective analysis of hospitalized young children (≤3 years) due to viral respiratory infections. Bronchiolitis was defined as the first wheezing episode less than 12 months of age. Demographic variables and comorbidities were obtained by electronic medical record review. The study comprised a total of 513 hospitalizations (n=453). Viral bronchiolitis was diagnosed in 144 admissions (28.1%). Notably, we identified that the majority of children diagnosed with bronchiolitis (63%) were misclassified as they had prior episodes of wheezing. Many children with bronchiolitis misclassification had significant comorbidities, including prematurity (51%), neuromuscular conditions (9.8%), and congenital heart disease (9.8%). Misclassification of bronchiolitis is a common problem that may lead to inappropriate management of viral respiratory infections in young children. A comprehensive approach that takes into consideration viral etiology and individual risk factors may lead to a more accurate clinical assessment of this condition and would potentially prevent bronchiolitis misclassification. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Respiratory cancer database: An open access database of respiratory cancer gene and miRNA

    Jyotsna Choubey

    2017-01-01

    Results and Conclusions: RespCanDB is expected to contribute to the understanding of scientific community regarding respiratory cancer biology as well as developments of new way of diagnosing and treating respiratory cancer. Currently, the database consist the oncogenomic information of lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, and nasopharyngeal cancer. Data for other cancers, such as oral and tracheal cancers, will be added in the near future. The URL of RespCanDB is http://ridb.subdic-bioinformatics-nitrr.in/.

  12. 75 FR 28023 - Solicitation of Written Comments on Draft HHS Strategic Framework on Multiple Chronic Conditions

    2010-05-19

    ..., heart disease, arthritis, diabetes, mental health conditions, and chronic respiratory infections. As the number of chronic conditions in an individual increases, the risks of the following outcomes also increase: Mortality, poor functional status, unnecessary hospitalizations, adverse drug events, duplicative...

  13. Respiratory manifestations of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children.

    de Benedictis, Fernando Maria; Bush, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a complex problem in children. Suspected respiratory manifestations of GORD, such as asthma, chronic cough and laryngitis, are commonly encountered in the paediatric practice, but continue to be entities with more questions than answers. The accuracy of diagnostic tests (ie, pH or pH-impedance monitoring, laryngoscopy, endoscopy) for patients with suspected extraoesophageal manifestations of GORD is suboptimal and therefore whether there is a causal relationship between these conditions remains largely undetermined. An empiric trial of proton pump inhibitors can help individual children with undiagnosed respiratory symptoms and suspicion of GORD, but the response to therapy is unpredictable, and in any case what may be being observed is spontaneous improvement. Furthermore, the safety of these agents has been called into question. Poor response to antireflux therapy is an important trigger to search for non-gastro-oesophageal reflux causes for patients' symptoms. Evidence for the assessment of children with suspected extraoesophageal manifestations of GORD is scanty and longitudinal studies with long-term follow-up are urgently required. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. The biennial cycle of respiratory syncytial virus outbreaks in Croatia

    Drazenovic Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper analyses the epidemic pattern of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV outbreaks in children in Croatia. Over a period of 11 consecutive winter seasons (1994–2005 3,435 inpatients from Zagreb County aged from infancy to 10 years who were hospitalised with acute respiratory tract infections were tested for RSV-infection. RSV was identified in nasopharyngeal secretions of patients by virus isolation in cell culture and by detection of viral antigen with monoclonal antibodies. In the Zagreb area, RSV outbreaks were proven to vary in a two-year cycle, which was repeated every 23–25 months. This biennial cycle comprised one larger and one smaller season. Climate factors correlated significantly with the number of RSV cases identified only in the large seasons, which suggests that the biennial cycle is likely to continue regardless of meteorological conditions. Knowledge of this biennial pattern should be useful in predicting the onset of RSV outbreaks in Croatia, and would facilitate planning for the prevention and control of RSV infections in the region.

  15. Estimation of respiratory rate from thermal videos of preterm infants.

    Pereira, Carina Barbosa; Heimann, Konrad; Venema, Boudewijn; Blazek, Vladimir; Czaplik, Michael; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-07-01

    Studies have demonstrated that respiratory rate (RR) is a good predictor of the patient condition as well as an early marker of patient deterioration and physiological distress. However, it is also referred as "the neglected vital parameter". This is mainly due to shortcoming of current monitoring techniques. Moreover, in preterm infants, the removal of adhesive electrodes cause epidermal stripping, skin disruption, and with it pain. This paper proposes a new algorithm for estimation of RR in thermal videos of moderate preterm infants. It uses the temperature modulation around the nostrils over the respiratory cycle to extract this vital parameter. To compensate movement artifacts the approach incorporates a tracking algorithm. In addition, a new reliable and accurate algorithm for robust estimation of local (breath-to-breath) intervals was included. To evaluate the performance of this approach, thermal recordings of four moderate preterm infants were acquired. Results were compared with RR derived from body surface electrocardiography. The results showed an excellent agreement between thermal imaging and gold standard. On average, the relative error between both monitoring techniques was 3.42%. In summary, infrared thermography may be a clinically relevant alternative to conventional sensors, due to its high thermal resolution and outstanding characteristics.

  16. Clinical requirements in the treatment of today's respiratory tract infections.

    Höffken, G

    1993-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are among the most frequent infections in man and lower tract infections account substantially for the overall mortality in hospitals. Regarding the etiology of pneumonias, one has to consider different pathogenic mechanisms, age of the patients, underlying diseases, concomitant medications, symptomatologies, seasonal influences, and clinical conditions, e.g. intensive care environment and mechanical ventilation. To optimize the rational management of respiratory infections, identification of the etiologic agent would be desirable. The decision of how to treat is often based on epidemiologic, clinical, and radiological assessments. Epidemiologic studies have shown a pronounced difference in the etiologic spectrum between community- and hospital-acquired RTIs. In community-acquired pneumonias, pneumococci, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella, Mycoplasma and viruses predominate, whereas in nosocomially acquired pneumonias, Enterobacteriaceae, e.g. Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterobacter as well as Pseudomonas and staphylococci comprise the most frequent isolates. Empirical therapy has to cover all possible etiologic pathogens which most likely cause the infection. In addition, an adequate kinetic profile, e.g. once or twice daily dosing, sufficient pulmonary tissue or fluid penetration, and acceptable tolerance and costs are prerequisites for optimal therapy. Drugs of choice for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia are aminobenzylpenicillins or macrolides. Oral cephalosporins exhibit excellent activity against many bacterial pathogens of typical community-acquired pneumonia, and are active against beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae.

  17. Respiratory cancer database: An open access database of respiratory cancer gene and miRNA.

    Choubey, Jyotsna; Choudhari, Jyoti Kant; Patel, Ashish; Verma, Mukesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory cancer database (RespCanDB) is a genomic and proteomic database of cancer of respiratory organ. It also includes the information of medicinal plants used for the treatment of various respiratory cancers with structure of its active constituents as well as pharmacological and chemical information of drug associated with various respiratory cancers. Data in RespCanDB has been manually collected from published research article and from other databases. Data has been integrated using MySQL an object-relational database management system. MySQL manages all data in the back-end and provides commands to retrieve and store the data into the database. The web interface of database has been built in ASP. RespCanDB is expected to contribute to the understanding of scientific community regarding respiratory cancer biology as well as developments of new way of diagnosing and treating respiratory cancer. Currently, the database consist the oncogenomic information of lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, and nasopharyngeal cancer. Data for other cancers, such as oral and tracheal cancers, will be added in the near future. The URL of RespCanDB is http://ridb.subdic-bioinformatics-nitrr.in/.

  18. Do current sports brassiere designs impede respiratory function?

    Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Steele, Julie R; Chaunchaiyakul, Rungchai

    2005-09-01

    Although sports brassieres are more effective in limiting breast motion and related breast pain when compared with standard fashion brassieres, some females do not wear sports brassieres during physical activity, as they perceive them to be too tight around the torso, possibly impeding their performance during physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether breast hypertrophy, breast momentum, and/or wearing a sports brassiere impeded respiratory function at rest and during physical activity. Twenty-two active women completed standard resting spirometry maneuvers while not wearing a brassiere. All subjects then completed maximal cycle ergometer testing in two breast support conditions (sports brassiere and no brassiere (NB)), followed by submaximal treadmill exercise tests under three breast support conditions (sports brassiere, no brassiere and fashion brassiere) while standard spirometry, brassiere pressure and comfort were measured. The sports brassiere imparted significantly more pressure on smaller breasted females' torsos when compared with the fashion brassiere (0.861 +/- 0.247 and 0.672 +/- 0.254 N.cm(-2), respectively), although this increased pressure did not appear to significantly affect measured lung volumes or brassiere comfort scores. Brassiere size affected maximal exercise ability (relative VO(2peak): smaller breasted NB: 49.84 +/- 6.15 mL.kg(-1).min(-1); larger breasted NB: 40.76 +/- 4.47 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) as well as some temporal measures of resting and submaximal respiration. However, no significant difference was found between the no brassiere and brassiere conditions in regards to measured lung volumes. As no significant restriction to exercise performance or respiratory mechanics was found when subjects wore sports brassieres, it was concluded that active females should wear a sports brassiere during physical activity to reduce breast motion and related breast pain.

  19. A cross-sectional survey to study the relationship of periodontal disease with cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus.

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Harish, Yashoda; Hiremath, Shivalingaswamy; Puranik, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal deterioration has been reported to be associated with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, liver cirrhosis, bacterial pneumonia, nutritional deficiencies, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The present study assessed the periodontal disease among patients with systemic conditions such as diabetes, CVD, and respiratory disease. The study population consisted of 220 patients each of CVD, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus, making a total of 660 patients in the systemic disease group. A control group of 340 subjects were also included in the study for comparison purpose. The periodontal status of the patients with these confirmed medical conditions was assessed using the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITNs) index. The prevalence of CPITN code 4 was found to be greater among the patients with respiratory disease whereas the mean number of sextants with score 4 was found to be greater among the patients with diabetes mellitus and CVD. The treatment need 0 was found to be more among the controls (1.18%) whereas the treatment need 1, 2, and 3 were more among the patients with respiratory disease (100%, 97.73%, and 54.8%), diabetes mellitus (100%, 100% and 46.4%), and CVD (100%, 97.73%, and 38.1%), in comparison to the controls (6.18%). From the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that diabetes mellitus, CVD, and respiratory disease are associated with a higher severity of periodontal disease.

  20. A cross-sectional survey to study the relationship of periodontal disease with cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus

    Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal deterioration has been reported to be associated with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, liver cirrhosis, bacterial pneumonia, nutritional deficiencies, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Aim: The present study assessed the periodontal disease among patients with systemic conditions such as diabetes, CVD, and respiratory disease. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 220 patients each of CVD, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus, making a total of 660 patients in the systemic disease group. A control group of 340 subjects were also included in the study for comparison purpose. The periodontal status of the patients with these confirmed medical conditions was assessed using the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITNs index. Results: The prevalence of CPITN code 4 was found to be greater among the patients with respiratory disease whereas the mean number of sextants with score 4 was found to be greater among the patients with diabetes mellitus and CVD. The treatment need 0 was found to be more among the controls (1.18% whereas the treatment need 1, 2, and 3 were more among the patients with respiratory disease (100%, 97.73%, and 54.8%, diabetes mellitus (100%, 100% and 46.4%, and CVD (100%, 97.73%, and 38.1%, in comparison to the controls (6.18%. Conclusion: From the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that diabetes mellitus, CVD, and respiratory disease are associated with a higher severity of periodontal disease.

  1. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Classification of Approved Respirators; Scope of Approval; Atmospheric Hazards; Service Time § 84.52 Respiratory...

  2. Respiratory mechanics in ventilated preterm infants : early determinants and outcome

    Snepvangers, Dimphn Adriana Cornelia Maria

    2003-01-01

    The studies in this thesis show that in the current surfactant era, the majority of ventilated preterm infants are still suffering from respiratory morbidity and substantial respiratory function abnormalities throughout the early years of life. Since respiratory function testing during mechanical

  3. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  4. A measure for quantifying the impact of housing quality on respiratory health: a cross-sectional study

    Keall Michael D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Damp and mould in homes have been established as risk factors for respiratory health. There is a need for a relatively straightforward assessment of the home that quantifies this risk. Methods Using data from 891 New Zealand houses, the utility of a Respiratory Hazard Index quantifying key attributes related to damp and mould was tested by studying its associations with self-reported respiratory symptoms. Results A dose–response relationship was found whereby each unit increase in the Respiratory Hazard Index was associated with an 11% increase in the odds of at least one episode of wheezing/whistling in the chest over the last 12 months (relative odds of 1.11 with a 95% CI 1.04%–1.20%. An 11% increase in the odds of an asthma attack over the last 12 months was estimated (relative odds of 1.11 with a 95% CI 1.01%–1.22%. These estimates were adjusted for household crowding levels, age, sex and smoking status. There was suggestive evidence of more steeply increasing odds of respiratory symptoms with increasing levels of the Respiratory Hazard Index for children aged under 7. In the worst performing houses according to the Index, a 33% reduction in the number of people experiencing respiratory symptoms (relative risk 0.67 with 95% CI 0.53 to 0.85 could be expected if people were housed in the best performing houses. Conclusions This study showed that increased evidence of housing conditions supporting dampness and mould was associated with increased odds of respiratory symptoms. A valid housing assessment tool can provide a rational basis for investment in improved housing quality to improve respiratory health.

  5. Respiratory syncytial virus, pneumonia virus of mice, and influenza A virus differently affect respiratory allergy in mice

    Barends, M.; de Rond, L. G. H.; Dormans, J.; van Oosten, M.; Boelen, A.; Neijens, H. J.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kimman, T. G.

    2004-01-01

    Respiratory viral infections in early childhood may interact with the immune system and modify allergen sensitization and/or allergic manifestations. In mice, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during allergic provocation aggravates the allergic T helper (Th) 2 immune response,

  6. Management of respiratory motion in radiation oncology

    Vedam, Subrahmanya Sastry

    2003-01-01

    Respiration affects the instantaneous position of almost all thoracic and abdominal structures (lung, breast, liver, pancreas, etc.), posing significant problems in the radiotherapy of tumors located at these sites. The diaphragm, for example, has been shown to move approximately 1.5 cm in the superior-inferior direction during normal breathing. During radiotherapy, margin expansion around the tumor, based on an estimate of the expected range of tumor motion, is commonly employed to ensure adequate dose coverage. Such a margin estimate may or may not encompass the 'current' extent of motion exhibited by the tumor, resulting in either a higher dose to the surrounding normal tissue or a cold spot in the tumor volume, leading to poor prognosis. Accounting for respiratory motion by active management during radiotherapy can, however, potentiate a reduction in the amount of high dose to normal tissue. Active management of respiratory motion forms the primary theme of this dissertation. Among the various techniques available to manage respiratory motion, our research focused on respiratory gated and respiration synchronized radiotherapy, with an external marker to monitor respiratory motion. Multiple session recordings of diaphragm and external marker motion revealed a consistent linear relationship, validating the use of external marker motion as a 'surrogate' for diaphragm motion. The predictability of diaphragm motion based on such external marker motion both within and between treatment sessions was also determined to be of the order of 0.1 cm. Gating during exhalation was found to be more reproducible than gating during inhalation. Although, a reduction in the 'gate' width achieved a modest reduction in the margins added around the tumor further reduction was limited by setup error. A motion phantom study of the potential gains from respiratory gating indicated margin reduction of 0.2-1.1 cm while employing gating. In addition, gating also improved the quality of

  7. Respiratory muscle strength and muscle endurance are not affected by acute metabolic acidemia.

    Nizet, T.A.C.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Bosch, F.H.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) contributes to respiratory failure with hypercapnia, and subsequent respiratory acidosis. Therapeutic induction of acute metabolic acidosis further increases the respiratory drive and, therefore, may diminish

  8. Longitudinal modelling of respiratory symptoms in children

    Schlink, Uwe; Fritz, Gisela; Herbarth, Olf; Richter, Matthias

    2002-08-01

    A panel of 277 children, aged 3-7 years, was used to study the association between air pollution (O3, SO2, NO2, and total suspended particles), meteorological factors (global radiation, maximum daytime temperature, daily averages of vapour pressure and air humidity) and respiratory symptoms. For 759 days the symptoms were recorded in a diary and modelling was based on a modification of the method proposed by Korn and Whittemore (Biometrics 35: 795-798, 1979). This approach (1) comprises an extension using environmental parameters at different time scales, (2) addresses the suitability of using the daily fraction of symptomatic individuals to account for inter-individual interactions and (3) enables the most significant weather effects to be identified. The resulting model consisted of (1) an individual specific intercept that takes account of the population's heterogeneity, (2) the individual's health status the day before, (3) a long-term meteorological effect, which may be either the squared temperature or global radiation in interaction with temperature, (4) the short-term effect of sulfur dioxide, and (5) the short-term effect of an 8-h ozone concentration above 60 µg/m3. Using the estimated parameters as input to a simulation study, we checked the quality of the model and demonstrate that the annual cycle of the prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated to atmospheric covariates. Individuals suffering from allergy have been identified as a group of a particular susceptibility to ozone. The duration of respiratory symptoms appears to be free of scale and follows an exponential distribution function, which confirms that the symptom record of each individual follows a Poisson point-process. This supports the assumption that not only respiratory diseases, but also respiratory symptoms can be considered an independent measure for the health status of a population sample. Since a point process is described by only one parameter (namely the intensity of the

  9. Respiratory Disorders in Complicated Cervical Spine Injury

    S. A. Pervukhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluating the results of respiratory therapy in patients with complicated traumatic injury of the cervical spine.Materials and methods. A retrospective comparative analysis of the clinical course was carried out in 52 patients with complicated traumatic injury of the cervical spine: group A: complete spinal cord injury (ASIA A, 37 patients and group B: incomplete injury (ASIA B, 15 patients. The severity of patients' status on integral scales, parameters of the respiratory pattern and thoracopulmonary compliance, gas composition, and acidbase status of the blood were assessed. Data on patients who required prolonged mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, duration of stay in the ICU, time of hospital treatment, and mortality were included in the analysis. Results. The average APACHE II and SOFA scores were higher in group A patients. The development of the acute respiratory failure required longterm mechanical ventilation (more than 48 hours in 91.4% of group A patients and in 53.3% of group B patients. Ventilatorassociated pneumonia complicated the disease in 81.3% of group A patients and 62.5% of group B patients and was accompanied by sepsis in 25% and 12.5% of cases, respectively. Statistically significant deterioration of biomechanical properties and gas exchange function of the lungs was observed in patients complicated with septic pneumonia.Conclusion. Patients with complicated ASIA A and ASIA B cervical spine injuries demonstrate the presence of respiratory failure of neurogenic origin. In addition, the infectious bronchopulmonary complications aggravated respiratory failure in patients with ASIA A injury in 70.3% versus 33.3% in patients with ASIA B. Developmentof pulmonogenic sepsis led to deterioration of the biomechanical and gas exchange functions of the lungs and increased the likelihood of unfavorable outcome of the disease in 77.8% of cases. The high

  10. Cellular defense of the avian respiratory system: effects of Pasteurella multocida on respiratory burst activity of avian respiratory tract phagocytes.

    Ochs, D L; Toth, T E; Pyle, R H; Siegel, P B

    1988-12-01

    The respiratory tract of healthy chickens contain few free-residing phagocytic cells. Intratracheal inoculation with Pasteurella multocida stimulated a significant (P less than 0.05) migration of cells to the lungs and air sacs of White Rock chickens within 2 hours after inoculation. We found the maximal number of avian respiratory tract phagocytes (22.9 +/- 14.0 x 10(6] at 8 hours after inoculation. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells revealed 2 populations on the basis of cell-size and cellular granularity. One of these was similar in size and granularity to those of blood heterophils. Only this population was capable of generating oxidative metabolites in response to phorbol myristate acetate. The ability of the heterophils to produce hydrogen peroxide, measured as the oxidation of intracellularly loaded 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, decreased with time after inoculation. These results suggest that the migration of heterophils, which are capable of high levels of oxidative metabolism, to the lungs and air sacs may be an important defense mechanism of poultry against bacterial infections of the respiratory tract.

  11. Intensity cut-points for the Respiratory Distress Observation Scale

    Campbell, Margaret L; Templin, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    Background The Respiratory Distress Observation Scale© is an innovative solution to assessment when a dyspnea report cannot be elicited. The Respiratory Distress Observation Scale has acceptable reliability and validity psychometrics. Aim To identify distress-intensity cut-points of the Respiratory Distress Observation Scale. Design Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted with inpatients stratified by four levels of respiratory distress—none, mild, moderate, or severe. Patients provided three self-report measures of dyspnea: dichotomous (yes/no); a ranking of none, mild, moderate, or severe; and a numerical rating scale. Respiratory distress was assessed using the Respiratory Distress Observation Scale instrument. Setting/participants Participants were 136 adult inpatients, mean age 61.8 years (standard deviation = 13.18 years), 89.7% African American, and 56.6% female, who were recruited from an urban, tertiary care hospital in the Midwest of the United States. Results In all, 47% (n = 64) self-reported dyspnea (yes/no). Ranking was distributed as follows: none = 36, mild = 35, moderate = 40, and severe = 25. Numerical rating scale scores ranged from 0 to 10, mean = 4.99 (standard deviation = 2.9). Respiratory Distress Observation Scale scores ranged from 0 to 7, median (interquartile range) = 2 (1–3). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis–determined Respiratory Distress Observation Scale score of 0–2 suggests little or no respiratory distress; score ≥3 signified moderate to severe distress. Conclusion A Respiratory Distress Observation Scale score ≥3 signifies a patient’s need for palliation of respiratory distress. An end-point for identifying responsiveness to treatment, in other words, respiratory comfort, is Respiratory Distress Observation Scale <3. Because patients with imminent respiratory failure, as typified by dying patients, were not represented yielding lower than expected Respiratory Distress

  12. Study of montelukast for the treatment of respiratory symptoms of post-respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in children

    Bisgaard, H.; Flores-Nunez, A.; Goh, A.

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: A pilot study (Bisgaard H; Study Group on Montelukast and Respiratory Syncytial Virus. A randomized trial of montelukast in respiratory syncytial virus postbronchiolitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:379-383) reported the efficacy of montelukast in post-respiratory syncytial viru...

  13. Chromosomal Conditions

    ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Chromosomal conditions Chromosomal conditions ... Disorders See also: Genetic counseling , Your family health history Last reviewed: February, 2013 ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & ...

  14. Reduction of motion artifacts for PET imaging by respiratory correlated dynamic scanning

    Chuang, K.-S.; Chen, T.-J.; Chang, C.-C.; Wu, J.; Chen, S.; Wu, L.-C.; Liu, R.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Organ motion caused by respiration is a major challenge in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. This work proposes a technique to reduce smearing in PET imaging caused by respiratory motion. Dynamic scanning at 1 frame/s is used. A point source, used as a marker, is attached to the object's abdomen during the scan. The source position in the projection view moves with respiratory motion and can be used to represent the respiratory phase within the time interval in which each frame data are acquired. One hundred and twenty frames are obtained for each study. The range of the positions of the marker is divided into four groups, representing different respiratory phases. The frames in which the organ positions (phases) are the same summed to produce a static sub-sinogram. Each sub-sinogram then undergoes regular image reconstruction to yield a motion-free image. The technique is applied to one volunteer under both free and coached breathing conditions. A parameter called the volume reduction factor is adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of this motion-reduction technique. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed technique effectively reduces motion artifacts in the image. Coached breathing yields better results than free breathing condition. The advantages of this method are that (1) the scanning time remains the same; (2) free breathing is allowed during the acquisition of the image; and (3) no user intervention is required

  15. Serotonin(2) receptors mediate respiratory recovery after cervical spinal cord hemisection in adult rats.

    Zhou, S Y; Basura, G J; Goshgarian, H G

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to specifically investigate the involvement of serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT(2))] receptors in 5-HT-mediated respiratory recovery after cervical hemisection. Experiments were conducted on C(2) spinal cord-hemisected, anesthetized (chloral hydrate, 400 mg/kg ip), vagotomized, pancuronium- paralyzed, and artificially ventilated female Sprague-Dawley rats in which CO(2) levels were monitored and maintained. Twenty-four hours after spinal hemisection, the ipsilateral phrenic nerve displayed no respiratory-related activity indicative of a functionally complete hemisection. Intravenous administration of the 5-HT(2A/2C)-receptor agonist (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI) induced respiratory-related activity in the phrenic nerve ipsilateral to hemisection under conditions in which CO(2) was maintained at constant levels and augmented the activity induced under conditions of hypercapnia. The effects of DOI were found to be dose dependent, and the recovery of activity could be maintained for up to 2 h after a single injection. DOI-induced recovery was attenuated by the 5-HT(2)-receptor antagonist ketanserin but not with the 5-HT(2C)-receptor antagonist RS-102221, suggesting that 5-HT(2A) and not necessarily 5-HT(2C) receptors may be involved in the induction of respiratory recovery after cervical spinal cord injury.

  16. Respiratory health of two cohorts of terminal grain elevator workers studied 30 years apart.

    Dimich-Ward, Helen; Beking, Kris J; Dybuncio, Anne; Bartlett, Karen H; Karlen, Barbara J; Chow, Yat; Chan-Yeung, Moira

    2011-04-01

    We evaluated the respiratory health of two cohorts of grain terminal elevator workers who participated in one of either respiratory health surveys undertaken in 1978 and 2008. Questionnaire and spirometry data from 584 workers from the 1978 survey and 215 workers from the 2008 survey were compared using logistic regression and general linear modeling. The geometric means of area samples of grain dust averaged 8.28 mg/m(3) in 1978 and 2.06 mg/m(3) in 2008. Workers in the 1978 survey had a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms (with the largest adjusted odds ratio of 3.78, 95% CI 2.07-7.25, for shortness of breath), a lower prevalence of atopic conditions and lower mean lung function. Current grain workers had a lower risk of respiratory health consequences and a greater prevalence of atopic conditions than workers surveyed 30 years prior, most likely associated with reduced exposure to grain dust in the terminal elevator environment. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF RESPIRATORY DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA DURING FOLLOW-UP

    I. V. Davydova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Capabilities of assessing functional condition of the respiratory system in young children, including patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are extremely limited, as little children do not cooperate with doctors in the course of diagnostic procedures. Results of use of a modern instrumental diagnostic method in this group of patients is of doubtless interest. The study was aimed at tracking changes in functional condition of the respiratory system in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia during follow-up. Methods. Quite breathing flowmetry during natural sleep. Results. The article presents the authors’ data obtained by means of analyzing external respiratory function in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia using a modern method of quiet breathing flowmetry; it is also reasonable to use relative parameters of the external respiratory function as diagnostic criteria of bronchoobstructive syndrome at bronchopulmonary dysplasia and criteria of effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine mucolytic therapy. Conclusion. Quiet breathing flowmetry may be used to diagnose bronchoobstructive syndrome and assess effectiveness of the treatment thereof in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. 

  18. Selection of mutants tolerant of oxidative stress from respiratory cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum C17.

    Zotta, T; Ianniello, R G; Guidone, A; Parente, E; Ricciardi, A

    2014-03-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium involved in the production of many fermented foods. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that aerobic or respiratory metabolism in this species leads to improved technological and stress response properties. We investigated respiratory growth, metabolite production and stress resistance of Lact. plantarum C17 during batch, fed-batch and chemostat cultivations under respiratory conditions. Sixty mutants were selected for their ability to tolerate oxidative stress using H2 O2 and menadione as selective agents and further screened for their capability to growth under anaerobic, respiratory and oxidative stress conditions. Dilution rate clearly affected the physiological state of cells and, generally, slow-growing cultures had improved survival to stresses, catalase production and oxygen uptake. Most mutants were more competitive in terms of biomass production and ROS degradation compared with wild-type strain (wt) C17 and two of these (C17-m19 and C17-m58) were selected for further experiments. This work confirms that, in Lact. plantarum, respiration and low growth rates confer physiological and metabolic advantages compared with anaerobic cultivation. Our strategy of natural selection successfully provides a rapid and inexpensive screening for a large number of strains and represents a food-grade approach of practical relevance in the production of starter and probiotic cultures. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Instrumentation for the analysis of respiratory system disorders during sleep: Design and application

    de Melo, Pedro Lopes; de Andrade Lemes, Lucas Neves

    2002-11-01

    Sleep breathing disorders are estimated to be present in 2%-4% of middle-aged adults. Serious adverse consequences, such as systemic arterial hypertension, myocardial infraction, and cerebrovascular disease, can be related to these conditions. Intellectual deficits associated with attention, memory, and problem-solving have also been associated with a poor quality of sleep. The main causes of these disorders are obstructions resulting from repetitive narrowing and closure of the pharyngeal airway, which have been monitored by indirect measurements of temperature, displacement, and other highly invasive procedures. The measurement of mechanical impedance of the respiratory system by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) has recently been suggested to quantify the respiratory obstruction during sleep. It is claimed that the noninvasive and dynamic characteristics of this technique would allow a noninvasive and accurate analysis of these events. In spite of this high scientific and clinical potential, there is no detailed description of a complete instrumentation system to implement this promising technique in sleep studies. In this context, the purpose of this study was twofold: (1) describe the development of a new computer-based system for identification of the mechanical impedance of the respiratory system during sleep by the FOT and (2) evaluate the performance of this device in the description of respiratory events in conditions including no, mild, serious disease, and therapeutic procedures. These evaluations confirmed the desirable features achieved in laboratory tests and the high scientific and clinical potential of this system.

  20. Servo-controlled pneumatic pressure oscillator for respiratory impedance measurements and high-frequency ventilation.

    Kaczka, David W; Lutchen, Kenneth R

    2004-04-01

    The ability to provide forced oscillatory excitation of the respiratory system can be useful in mechanical impedance measurements as well as high frequency ventilation (HFV). Experimental systems currently used for generating forced oscillations are limited in their ability to provide high amplitude flows or maintain the respiratory system at a constant mean pressure during excitation. This paper presents the design and implementation of a pneumatic pressure oscillator based on a proportional solenoid valve. The device is capable of providing forced oscillatory excitations to the respiratory system over a bandwidth suitable for mechanical impedance measurements and HVF. It delivers high amplitude flows (> 1.4 l/s) and utilizes a servo-control mechanism to maintain a load at a fixed mean pressure during simultaneous oscillation. Under open-loop conditions, the device exhibited a static hysteresis of approximately 7%, while its dynamic magnitude and phase responses were flat out to 10 Hz. Broad-band measurement of total harmonic distortion was approximately 19%. Under closed-loop conditions, the oscillator was able to maintain a mechanical test load at both positive and negative mean pressures during oscillatory excitations from 0.1 to 10.0 Hz. Impedance of the test load agreed closely with theoretical predictions. We conclude that this servo-controlled oscillator can be a useful tool for respiratory impedance measurements as well as HFV.